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by many leadership and management writers such as James Autry, Ken Blanchard, Stephen Covey, Peter Block, Peter Senge, Max DePree, Scott Greenberg, Larry Spears, Margaret Wheatley, James C. Hunter, Kent Keith, Ken Jennings, Don Frick and others. In servant leadership, the leader takes care of the needs of his followers first before they take care of their own. Instead of acting like a king to their subordinates, leaders act as servants. The leader feels that they need to serve their followers rather than force upon them what they want. Famous examples of servant leaders include George Washington, Gandhi and Cesar Chavez. Robert K. Greenleaf (1904-1990) - born in Terre Haute, Indiana in 1904 - was the founder of the modern Servant leadership movement “grandfather of servant leadership,” - a pioneer, prophet, pathfinder, teacher, and a practitioner of its precepts - coined the phrases “servant leadership” and “the servant as leader” - As a Quaker, Greenleaf also made a life-long discipline of reflection on and contribution to The Religious Society of Friends. An emphasis on HISTORY OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP - The general concept is ancient. Chanakya wrote, in the 4th century B.C., in his book Arthashastra: “the king [leader] shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects [followers]” “the king [leader] is a paid servant and enjoys the resources of the state together with the people.” - There are passages that relate to servant leadership in the Tao Te
the “human spirit” was greatly influenced by this Quaker alliance. Many of his lasting contributions were to churches and nonprofit organizations. SERVANT LEADERSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES - Servant Leadership can be most likely associated with the participative management style. - The highest priority of a servant leader is to encourage, support and enable subordinates to unfold their full potential and abilities. This leads to an obligation to delegate responsibility and participative decision-making. - In the managerial grid model of Blake and Mouton, the participative style of leadership is presented as the approach with the greatest possible performance and employee satisfaction. It is here, however, the question whether a management style can be declared as universal and universally applicable. - The servant leadership approach goes beyond employee-related behavior and calls for a rethinking of the hierarchical characterized relationship between leader and subordinates. This does not mean that the ideal of a participative style in any situation is to be enforced, but that a focus of management responsibilities to the promotion of performance and satisfaction of employees is set. Ching, attributed to Lao-Tzu, who is believed to have lived in China sometime between 570 B.C. and 490 B.C.: - The highest type of ruler is one of whose existence the people are barely aware. Next comes one whom they love and praise. Next comes one whom they fear. Next comes one whom they despise and defy. When you are lacking in faith, Others will be unfaithful to you. The Sage is self-effacing and scanty of words. When his task is
Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature. It is happening all the time. direct contact to the customers. It is not so much what leaders do. • • • • • CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING A SERVANT LEADER Larry C. Therefore it is questionable whether such a principle is also applicable in other non-Christian cultures or even in different kinds of Christian cultures. Spears. • Servant Leadership is deeply influenced by Christian values and used especially by American managers and companies. • The exemplary treatment of employees leads to an excellent DISADVANTAGES • Servant Leadership should not be applied in companies outside of the service sector. to serve first. Shared Leadership Theory Leadership can be explored as a social process . because employees pass the way they are treated to them.first to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served. • Servant Leadership is seen as a longterm application and therefore needs time for applying. All the people say. As such it does not depend on one person. ‘We ourselves have achieved it! Greenleaf. as something that arises out of social relationships. There is a high employee identification with the enterprise An excellent corporate culture is developed Leaders of a company define themselves by their significance to the people. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership since 1990. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first. Michele Erina Doyle and Mark K. • • • treatment of customers by employees of the company and a high loyalty of the customers. • The characteristics of a servant leader seem too excessive and partly too grotesque. who has served as President and CEO of the Robert K. But this concept does not work if employees are not in constant. but on how people act together to make sense of the situations that face them. There are only a few leaders who can fulfill these attributes. The main concept of the idea consists of the following idea: Being exemplary in treating employees have excellent effects on the treatment of the customers.something that happens between people. has extracted a set of 10 characteristics that are central to the development of a servant leader: • LISTENING • EMPATHY • HEALING • AWARENESS • PERSUASION CONCEPTUALIZATION FORESIGHT STEWARDSHIP COMMITMENT TO PEOPLE’S GROWTH BUILDING COMMUNITY ADVANTAGES • This concept is seen as a long-term concept to live and work and therefore has the potential to influence the society in a positive way. Smith explore the theory and practice of shared leadership and the significance of ethical practice. . perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions…The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. The Servant as Leader (1970). in his classic essay. The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant. described the servant-leader in this manner: The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve.- accomplished and things have been completed. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.
the situations and groups we are involved in . Youth Work Practice (2010. Through listening and contributing. tasks. for them to discover the self-resources that they have within themselves and then look for anything that needs developing… For young people. In one situation an individual may be influential because of their expertise or position. such leadership often does not reside in a person. families negotiating over housework – each involve influence and decision. Friends deciding how they are going to spend an evening. 2005 with Tony Jeffs). From this we can see that it is not our position that is necessarily important. Everyday leadership If we look at everyday life . Amongst her published work is Born and Bred? (1999) (with Mark K. What these people may be able to do is to offer an idea or an action that helps to focus or restructure the situation – and the way in which others see things. withHeather Smith). It may be shared and can move. we follow the conversation. Informal Education (1996. He writes for. Other factors may also operate. ourselves. Among his books are Creators not Consumers (1982). Smith) And Mark K. The world is not neatly divided in this respect. Such self-motivation and self-direction can impact on others. and lecturer in informal and community education. Nor are there always obvious followers. Developing Youth Work (1988). We play our part in relationships and groups where it is always around. There was a whole group leadership thing. We may also recognize the power of selfleadership. as one worker put it: ‘me trying to get the most out of my own resources’. to realise their own potential.everyone has the qualities of being a leader or taking some form of responsibility in their lives. The group took over. and sometimes that's a whole group ethos. However. youth and community worker. I don't think leadership's necessarily about one person sometimes . She is currently researching and writing a book on Christian youth work. Some people have talked of this as the influence we exert on ourselves ‘to achieve the self-motivation and self-direction we need to perform’ (Mans and Sims 1989). The worker continued: [It] then moves onto staff. He is the Rank Research Fellow and Tutor at YMCA George Williams College. Many writers especially those looking at management tend to talk about leadership as a person having a clear vision and the ability to make it real. infed. often there isn’t. Local Education(1994). 1999. thoughts and feelings emerge and develop. University of Strathclyde. Smith specializes in the field of informal education and community learning. As long as I can assist in this. Glasgow. London and has been a Visiting Professor in Community Education. edited with Tony Jeffs) and Journeying Together (2010. then that's what I'm aiming for. Sometimes there may not even be one person we can readily label as leader – just a group working together to achieve what is wanted. it's about getting them to realise their selfleadership. or be led. as we have begun to discover. Part of our responsibility as . The question is whether or not our actions help groups and relationships to work and achieve.Michele Erina Doyle has worked as a sports worker. I want to work in a situation where people can take on roles and responsibilities. rather than being the forerunning force taking it over. leadership lies not so much in one person having a clear vision as in our capacity to work with others in creating one. edited with Alan Rogers). It is not the force of personality that leads us on. Rather than people leading. but the rightness of what is said. We may lead others. and edits.then we soon find leadership. it is ideals and ideas. We don’t follow an individual. whatever they want to do. The Art of Helping Others (2008. but our behaviour. Actions that do this could be called leadership – and can come from any group member. Sometimes there is an obvious ‘leader’. in another it can be someone completely different. However. The leadership process is part of our daily experience.
Poincaré explained. the point is made. Elevating . internal scapegoats and false images of community while avoiding facing a deeper analysis of the country’s ills. Classical leadership Displayed by a person’s position in a group or hierarchy. deception and payoffs. etc. or getting. He played to people’s basest needs and fears. was able to energize a large number of people around it. Hitler’s failings weren’t just moral. Hitler wielded power. If he inspired people toward the common good of Germany. if we stay with a simple. skill. It should enrich the lives we all lead. Leadership evaluated by how people are working together. We want to include these ethical qualities so that we can make proper judgements about leadership. Communication is crucial with a stress on conversation. as soon as we ask whether his actions were inclusive and elevating we come to a very different judgement. (Heifetz 1994: 24) We could go on. Prediction becomes impossible. For example. too. As individuals we are part of the leadership process and. Seeks a common good. people to realise their own resources. technical definition such as that offered by Bass (1990) (leadership as the exercise of influence in a group context) then we can look at a figure like Hitler and say he was. Distinct differences between leaders and followers: character. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. but he did not lead. in many respects.partners in the process is to work so that those who may label themselves as followers come to see that they. Shared leadership Identified by the quality of people’s interactions rather than their position. All are active participants in the process of leadership. a great leader. CHAOS/QUANTUM THEORY What is Chaos? refers to a state lacking order or predictability Origins of Chaos Theory Ethics We also want to take things a stage further. Leadership involves making ethical as well as technical judgements. People are interdependent. Hopefully." . it was the good of a truncated and exclusive society feeding off others. at times. Can often rely on secrecy. He had a vision. Communication is often formal. However. Leadership must be: Inclusive – we all share in the process. He focused people’s attention on the actions of external enemies. For something to qualify as ‘leadership’ we must also make judgements about the quality of what happens. "It may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. a latenineteenth century French mathematician who extensively studied topology and dynamic systems. honesty and shared ethics. and develop the effectiveness of the organizations he was responsible for. What I understand of leadership is encouraging. receive the gift of being the leader from others. what they've got within them. All work to enhance the process and to make it more fulfilling. Here we want to highlight two aspects. Values democratic processes. Leadership evaluated by whether the leader solves problems. Leaders provide solutions and answers. are leaders.we become wiser and better people by being involved (Heifetz 1993). Henri Poincaré(1854–1912). He was partly responsible for the death and exclusion of millions of people.
swinging back and forth between order and chaos Steps in Chaos Theory." When a system does reach that point. is dynamic systems theory.Edward Lorenz. what is needed is: A target. the system or process of chaos has to be controlled. flexibility Help others deal with changes Plan for error Notice changes through interacting with others Anticipate the next step Help others understand Assumptions/Conclusion: Small actions produce rather than large consequences. its premise is that systems sometimes reside in chaos.g. Process To control chaos. Leadership is about the journey and helping other deals with changes. . Leaders should plan for error.. To control system. Activities of a Quantum Leaders: Ask questions Discover the process Have creativity. creating a chaotic atmosphere. That the universe is not orderly and that things do not progress in a linear fashion. generating energy but without any predictability or direction. In the process of his experimentation he discovered one of chaos theory's fundamental principles—the Butterfly Effect the Butterfly Effect means that what may appear to be insignificant changes to small parts of a system can have exponentially larger effects on that system. Chaos is the final state in a system's movement away from order. Leaders should notice changes through interacting with others. the parts of a system are manifest as turbulence. decisions rules or initial states) Quantum Leadership Is about using curiosity to ask questions and discover the process. A system capable of reaching the target or goal. For a system with predictable behavior this may be particular state of the system. Some means of influencing the system behavior. objective or goal which the system should reach. These are the control inputs (decisions. a meteorologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). 2. Most fully explored and recognized during the midto-late 1980s. which is used to describe processes that constantly change over time (e. and managing risk and relationships. 3. they go through a period of oscillation. the ups and downs of the stock market). What is Chaos Theory? is a scientific principle describing the unpredictability of systems. When systems become dislodged from a stable state. Every system has the potential to fall into chaos. totally lacking in direction or meaning.
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