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Num. Processors

SX-4

19

71

19

SX-2

Star-100

75

H S820
Cray-C90

Cray-1

19

400

TI-ASC

SX-4
T932
J932
Cray T3E
DEC8400
Origin2000
SPP-1600

Cray-T90

80

10

Alpha
Mips
Intel x86

19

100

Clock Frequency (Mhz)

STREAM TRIAD Performance (GB/s)

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98

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5000

Alpha
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30
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S820/80

3000

SX-4
Cray-T90

TI-ASC
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SX-2

SX-4

Cray-C90
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95

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90
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85
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80
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75

19

71
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S820/80

S810/20

20

10

Cray-C90
VP200
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TI-ASC
Star-100

2000

1000

Peak Gbytes/s

Peak MFLOPS

4000

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S\+NJ\pN<p6SLuSNp\(NS%mLSNp+N+Su6NSSN+NN<JpNLSVp6J/
Kiut/SNJN6pmJV3N_N /
Nm
pNJiNVm6Sp" 6uNuNNLS/=JpN+6uL
J6=="L//S6N6=) *O,/6upNu) *O,/NJp/S
u+<6NNJNpV8/JA\=5pAV=LSu6 t/mNm~ SpJN' 
*

:

Instructions executed (x 10^6)

2fJW+VpVN/J/BTJTJ6
JNNJ+SmN6=LSJ|/6x<L|+m+pN?=JxN/mNNp
N<m8mNN/"NJ<NN6=+SmNp"mSmN6=LSJ=S|=Nu
66UJN?3S/VS<mLipN6mS+JN6p/N \pJNJU
SNumNSNuLT6TpNJ6 t/mLSufuT/S/ upS<3=Vf=J
JNUiNVSJNJ<NN6=SNuJp\% up" US/JN=
NJUS+pN/SV6NU/S\J+3S?N6=NuipN/S"p+m
iNuNJSJN/LS%NmSLSu+/JUAJ+S6=VJ
JU
LSpJ JJp_SJSNuu/(iNu NJ6 t/+SuU
S
NJ
+pNSmV=NV/pSS\u+ u/J=\%JNJ\_8A=V__
<"mmu
Jp zT66iNS\S
Jp3 {U pN6pm<SSpmN
JSuN"+N+A=u8NiJuUSN J&A<NNNNS6mpU=53=V=V/8S3=5"N<\pNNN/VLS+_S+NJJ Ui_/Sp_JA= !J!T
,pSS/6V
w6NNpNSNNNJLSu6N t/SNu+JV=LSu
=JNNJ/Jp<J<JJVS+6NmNpJNmpJNNV3S/NJNU
pm/
"++uNpAV=LSuiNu <VS=JVmuN/USp
*L+u/NV=NJNJuNuNTpS
=6NLSJ++pN"<6N
iN6J_+S=NS/JmxN=NJpu=S/"V6=pNA#3_S?SNNN+u\NJAN=VSJSN S+N/; _/SUS4mNNziNpx/U
LS+\\6NN {JNUimNU/SJN"66UJ
_Sm ,/pJ<SiuL
6LSp 6<pJ++uN=mN+<6NNNSu/pu/SNLS
N+NJ<6N=N"NNuuNNNLSJuSp\S\SiuN=LSu
66(AN+S u=LSmL=\/NSN6p+pNN/NN
<LBpN6u
JS\p+m
N++m+pN+=NmupmNp\++uN(S/
NNNJLSp%6= =+uNL Su++pN+6NVS\=u6/U_
+m/N ,/pV5NN/S' %/B 5
/B 5 ph !7 <p"NJ=\NA=/
JNpLS6NSp+u<JN<Nm)NN%6
36L/WU_ Su/m
=NmUJS1 /J+++mpuJNS=xNmSN?6(6pm<U
N=Sm(V=mN/=N/SJSN:+u+NuNNA3=_5JJ<mLSiJpNN6muJNppV6<66LUSp/S 3=
S% JupN6pSJV +u/N_S" 
NL<SumNN63V66p
J6N\/\<NN6pN\pNm;//<S6N\J6t/SNVN
xSLS
NJLSuN=JJ/JA=NJ\=N"N+6 t//S=S"+uN<pNNN+N
&ANN
SpU66UJp(uNu
6U/S66N /NNmpVA=V
SN+%SN LSJ=S++uN 6JNN p6 tJ6+/Sp
\J
J=SJxNNLSJU3 uNp++uNx=mNuNpN/mNNp
J,pS+|SJ%pNJNJSJ|uuNN LSJN=%S=J6JJNNNN"N<6NJJ+SN+u=N  N/NNpNJ
<\/VS66<"=V/Sp
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mNN/5NJ<NN6=\<LiuN=J+NJ/Vp
5
+SNNNJLSu+A/USp =SuNSA=N =+u/6
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+NJSuU=?S(pN66\U/ SJ/A=6JNV+=LpSm3N3_Sp+S/NxS6 t<N"J\/"\< uu6?=/JNLSNU
N=NJ=SJ=Nu 5

56NLJ"*WSJNJN=m#/NJNJ<+NpNN6"/=N+J/NS =STN(SJ/_SS|NAN=NVV
Sp6S%=JA=NUSNJNV3S?pJSNNNJLSuA
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NA=5NJNV3SJ+ 5
p<V6LSpJ<5/US6<3=N
S/i6=LS/Sp
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J=SJ+66<3=L_SN63S
N="JS=uJSJSuUSSJ\=8AA==NVJ3_SiVN_pN N/+pLS+N/uS%N=6JSNSNJN5pNNNuJ/iJS<JU
LSpA3/SN_NS"SNuSJN6=LSJ|NJ+u+SK tpSL|u
NJ(JNNNJNu|NJ/JJS\J(Nm=/LS%p/N/"=
NpJAVu=LSNupS JNNNJLSpJSN6=JSUSJJNJJpLSu+=JA=V_SU
4p  5< /5J  u  OS 5</BTJTJ6
u=/+iJNN"6/_S6=LSu<S=<66N6_TLS+AL
iuN=J\__<\6 Np8T=mNpN8J=5/J=8S3Nm
pmNp=NV/SNNJN<uLSp/ &<66/+6u6/V=pm
ipApN
7mNpSJNNNJLSpJAp5N5JNp<NT= LS/63_ UJ
"p
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SJ5p/S|NJiJLSu</S=J|N6SNN"JNNimSJS


10000

8000
C34
R10000

6000

4000

2000

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jd
dl

e
av
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ca
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a7

2
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SuN  yJ"<"=\SNNNJLSu6t/mN?p|NJ(!


6u/p6t  " x=VSJ x
Nr(F!

JN NJ
A=NJ\6NpJ/NNNf=NJN%/"<6pV6A=NmS
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|NJ0 p/u6 t|6U/SJN
NJ)  tpS(NV6USJN/=  !7!5N/6NSJNNNLSuxNV="6
mpJ/
NpV/"<=56 t/mNSJNNNJLSpJ

Ratio of operations

2.0

1.5
1.0
0.5

0.0
m

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jd
dl
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SuNr
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u<V6LSpJ\JNJpN"N636=V/SNA=JN
uNJuNu=VSJp

SpJN N6\Bp_JNppV6+J+up\NJuU
NupmNLSp66=VNupV= 6 t/JN=/im5p<V6LSpJ
NA=%NN33=\uNLSp\JpJ
6 t/mLSu 

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N"\p"/S<6LSp6J6p_S(JNN *OuNNNJN8S(NJS
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mN_<S6u"<SV=VL6pSuLSpNJu NJ6 *-t/U, =J6Nt/NJJN 8 N, N\
6Sp?NupV= S6/(im
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S_SUSSuNuSJNNNJLSpJ\/_SNJ"N\<6 t//_SUSLS
m/S"N636F *O,/




Vector
Supercomputers

ding
ultithrea
cution+M
e
x
stem
E
O
OO
Mem Sy
terleaved
In
ly
h
ig
H
OOO Execution+
Short Vectors +
Specialized Caches

Simultaneous
Multithreaded
Vector
Supercomputers

High End
Mid-Range
Servers

MicroVector

SS

Pentium+MMX
Alpha+VIS

Media
Extensions

Extension of
media types
beyond 64 bits

SpJN y pNLS/S+u=SJLSp=5pmNp=NV/SNNJN

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\u+m+<//pSLNmpJ+NV<=/uLm/N=J<u=/pV=uuN6=i\u<uiJNN/NL3p8BJp\VN=LS
u+BNJuNp
JNN/NNm++
NVJ=Sup|JNpuNNN=JJN/NNu+6L


_


L2 Cache

V-Cache
(unit stride
vectors)
(64Kb,
128B/line)

M
Co ulti
pr me
oc di
es a
so
r

S-Cache
(scalars &
non-unit
stride)
(8Kb, 32B/line)

Coherency

4 or 16 words

FP Regs
Vector
Registers
Int. Regs

SuN~
7 y|<pNLS/SBNJN SS/V=LSu(6ASN=TuNp
JN/NNu

V/SNN\6NT6+SN+NJ
V<_SJp=6t/NV6LSJ++pN\A=L
_SSNU_SNNJUiSNu#6/N(upSJV=Nm/"=JApU6_S/Vp="uNA"==JuNNpSV6=N_V_LSNimuNNi/
NJN"75=JN/p_"S6=SLSN/NNJJLSp__Np+N"JN"N=NpSJip<N6uN V\xNK t/NN
AmV=3V8iS3p/U6 y5AN=VS3_SV_N6Np"<\L/iSuN<6=VJ3_S"U_/SN( K t/6=JL<S"%Np<VS6LSNpJp
SA=V_SUiN=upNNLSuUSUS/3 uJLSp/mS%SAU_S
SJS\u+N|NJm<6+uNJ+JLSp/|NJNSJx-
3_
J/SNJpJJ:JLSJN|K t/JLSp#= Su6LNJJSJ
uNuSNNNJLSp uN6p"uNpSNNNJLSu|K t/NN
JN/uJp|V6A=JS|SJ+Np?N"=Nu++<u6N \
pLS\uUSSVL__6 =mJ
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J6NUi/NLS<J6V+S\+Nu; N/JNLNSJJpN<6NLu3N\S</663_ST=/6%6=J<u=/6 t/V=uS6S6 Nyu/S
NNNL/SJ
NLS/SJipxN6/LSSLpS/S|6=<%6V<
SJNN+%/(SNNJ
A=LNSJJ\=S6 N=JNNuNLS6 m
+pN =mNN
SJ6_ipN"JNJN(BJ6=6t/NJNNuJux/=\SJ/Spx<% upLBppNN6uS%JNNNSNLuSuN/NmNL
NuN \J3= JN=pSJ|/Sp<LiuN=Jx6S6 mp
/S6 tpST6%6NuN+V_NSNmBp5Np+uNN= 6/_S66LSp<6 y
A=JJSJN|/JuN"/SLS+/JNpuV=+"6NNJ+<LB &A
Bp\pmNp=NVSNmNNm
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=TfW//6p
8

 
f3Uhf3:h;%A6CES6LEA6S f 
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X6WOA6LEL%k AKCIMO> G3S  l MOS60 = MO?.m f  ]6Z f

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N +f cf :VG3LIM6f `bA6S6LECEANGLYGFX6:.e Bo Z6Z+J CEA%WOMO>E>EA6C
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f 23! 64+5@A7BC23D0 +[ KJ LOf E \K6\ \6\3+p 23] 6\ f
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3URVX Y%; VJG 6MO>3ZK\( 3Z6_2X%GS)k CYGS%WO= >IWOA0 jX6e"Vk%MOP%CEHGCEQ4\3qoE\-
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