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Dlrls ion of Eaglneertng Brown Unlreralty
1. What is ABAQUS?
ABAQUS is a highly sophisticated, general purpose finite element program, designed primarily to model the behavior ofsolids and structures under externally applied loading. ABAQUS includes the following features: '. '. '.
Capabilities for both static anrl dynamic problems The ability to model very large shape changes in solids, in both two and three dimensions A very extensive element library, including a full set of continuum elements, beam elements, shell and plate elements, among others.
An advanced material library, including the usual elastic and elastic - plastic solids; models for foams, concrete, soils, piezoelectric materials, and many others. Capabilities to model a number of phenomena of interest, including vibrations, coupled fluid/structnre interactions, acoustics, buckling problems, and so on.
The main strength of ABAQUS, however, is that it is. based on a very sound theoretical framework As. an practicing engineer, you may be called upon to mike crucial decisions. based on the results of computer simulations, While no computer program can ever be guaranteed free of bugs, ABAQUS is among the more trustworthy codes. Furthermore, as you will see if you consult the ABAQUS theory manual, HKS developers really understand continuum mechanics (since many of them ore Brown Ph.Ds, this goes without saying). For this reason, ABAQUS is used by a wide range of industries, including aircraft manufacturers, automobile companies, oil companies and microelectronics industries, as well as national laboratories and research universities, ABAQUS is written and maintained by Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen, Inc (HKS), which has headqnarers in Pawtucket, RI. The company was founded in 1978 (by graduates of Brown's Ph.D. program in solid mechanics), and today has several hundred employees. with offices. around the woder.
2. Tutorial Overview
In this tutorial, you will learn how to run ABAQUSIStandord, and also how to use ABAQUS/Post to plot the results of a finite element computation. 10 em, contains a hole of radius lcm at its center. The plate is made from steel, which is First, you will use ABAQUS to solve the following problem. A thin plate, dimensions 10 em idealized as an elastic-strain line segments, as shown below.
hardening plastic solid, with Young's modulus E= 21 OGPa and Poisson's ratio v = 03. The uniaxial stress=-stran curve for :steel is idealized as a series of straight
00 00 N N
The plate is loaded in the horizontal direction by applying tractions to its boundary.
The magnitude of the loading increases linearly with time, as shown,
12 3 time, sec
You may recall that a circular hole in a plate has a stress concentration factor of about 3. At time t = l , therefore, the stress at point A should just reach yield (the initial yield stress of the plate is
and can apply symmetry boundary conditions. this doe. Opeu tutorial. find the directory called ABAQUS\. This is painful. and to control output from the program. to see the development of plasticity in the plate. Double dick the ABAQUS icon on your desktop. then look in more detail at how to set up an input file.. In addition. change directories to ABAQUS\. We will continue using ABAQUS to solve various problem. The keyword. Run the program. on the the bottom and side boundaries. Post processing. without theInpextension The user routine file will alway. t= 2 and t= 3. to start ABAQUS and to open the ABAQUS desktop. A window with a black background should appear. You will see the input file appear in the frame. problem" 5.t to look at the results of your analysis Next. Download the example ABAQUS file. Aller completing this tutorial. you will create your own ABAQUS input file. you should be in a position to do quite complex two and three dimensional finite element computation. ABAQUS work> by reading and responding to a set of command. You will run ABAQUS. click here. witl. the properties of the material. correctly. 2. are applied to the rightmost boundary. The elements are plane stress. '0. and start setting up input file. you can use a program called ABAQUSlPost which can be used to plot various quantities that may be of interest. Note that the program runs in the background so although the prompt come. right back in the ABAQUS window. through the center of the plate. by typing in appropriate keyword. Within your ABAQUS directory. throughout the rest of this course. and then use ABAQUSlPo. then select Save Frame A. a directory called ABAQUS>!:tould be created in your home directory. 'The finite element mesh you will use for your computations. lfthe command execute. We will specifically request ABAQUS to print the state of the solid at time t= I. Downloading the sample ABAQUS input file.. of the plate.inp 3. To see the ABAQUS input file for the plate problem.lUUNWa)_At orne t=s.. which you can look at with a text editor. therefore. and distributed traction. contain the information to define the mesh. ill the Abaqus Command window. are applied asshown. of your own. is. Observe that the plate and the loading is symmetrical about horizontal and vertical axe. documentationshould appear on your 4. 4 noded quadrilaterials. using the 'SThlliffiTRIC to ask: you some more questions during execution. ABAQUS 5 em 11 2 Symmetry The ABAQUS input file that sets up this problem will be provided for you. <t. To do click here. . There are two ways to look at the results of an ABAQUS simulation. We will begin this tutorial by running through iill these stage. and save the file as tutorial.tutorial . 3. text editor. ABAQUS will generate a vast number of output files. with a text editor The easiest thing to do will be to copy an existing file.rines to run within ABAQUS). ill the Abaqus Command window. Take a quick look at the file and make sure that it downloaded correctly. MODEL GE:t\1ERATlON key) will cause ABAQUS . and modify it for other In future. type Your Prompt> abaqus [return] Identifier: tutorial [return] User routine file: [return] (The identifiershould always be the name of theinp file. Alternatively. Thisstarts the ABAQUS program running. from the File menu 011 the top left hand comer of your browser. not mean the program has finished. icon. Type mk_ABAQUS in the MSmOS window. it is convenient to keep all the files c associated with a particular problem in one directory. 1. Note also that some special computation> (e. 2. Steps in running ABAQUS Create au input file.g.oao snonm be enougn to cause a signmcant portion or the plate to yreio.tutorial 3. the . BEFORE RUNNING ABAQUS FOR TIlE FIRST TIME: I.inp with. Exit the teed editor. We only need to model V. be blank in anything we run in this course It is needed only when you start to write your ownsubro. the boundary condition. with a pre-existing input file.. Click anywhere on the frame. If you completed the preceding step correctly a directory called ABAQUS should have been created in your home directory. shown below. You can ask the program to print results to a file. Open an Msmos window on your workstation (the command to open the window is located in the Start menu on your toolbar). ill the popup window. ABAQUS is controlled by typing commands into a DOS type window. Running ABAQUS 1. and to keep track of them. 2. create a subdirectory called tutorial to store your input file s a ud result s. Symmetry boundary condition. you will take a detailed look at the ABAQUS input file. On Windows NT. (called KEYWORDS) in an input file. and will know how to view the results. ABAQUS.
sta.log with a text editor.inp with a text editor. tutorial.sy. The warning message is a bit scary: but is actually nothing to worry about.dat tutorial.dat. lOTAL STEP INC OF DOF IF DIS CON ITERS ITERS TIMEI TThIEILPF TIl\IEILPF ITERSIREQ MO!'urOR RIKS This file is continuously updated by ABAQUS as it run" and tells you how much of the computation has been completed. 7.sTEMTIME(SEC)~ TODli CPU IThffi (SEC) ~ 2J.lLCl. or by opening a directory window. You should see the following files: tutorial. Open the file called tutorial. tutorial. that ABAQUS has done. 3. we will deliberately introduce an error into the ABAQUS input file tutorial. 'Ibis time.sUMMAR¥ OF JOB INFOR. in the directory ABAQUS\'tutorial again. Check the file.msg tutorialfil Fortunately.log with a text editor. You will see columns of numbers. 6. You should first check the end of the file to see if the computation was successful. You will see some inforrnatior. FREQ=l FREQ= 1 again. to see what an unsuccessful run look.!\-l'\.log tutorial.<t.inp tutorial.res tntorial. Open the file called tutorial. Next.bat tutorial. Open the file called tutorial. Open the file called tutorial.TION: STEP INC ATTSEYERE EQUIL TOTAL.res and 5. Using explorer.000 . In particular. and change the line near the top that says "'RESTART. We will discuss the meaning of data in this file in more detail later. because the run was unsuccessful. Note the error message there. you can happily ignore most of these files. Open the file called tutorial dat with a text editor You will see that the end of the file contain. if ABAQUS encounters any problems during the computation. Now. tutorial.sta with a text editor. repeat step 3 in Running ABAQUS to run ABAQUS Old job files exist. WOT\'iK. 6.oooo The times listed above may differ on your computer: depending on the speed of the processor and the memory available. Ovemrite (yIn)? : y [return] 2. about the time it took to for ABAQUS to complete execution.OCK TIME (SEC) ~ )6 l. The only ones you need to look at are tutorial. to 'RESTART. the following statements . We will aha use tutorial. ABAQUS ERRORS 1. like. WRITE.O~~ WA. you should see a message saying _'u'lALYSIS OOMPUTE "WIIH J WARi'lING MESSAGES ON TIlE MSG FILE JOB TIME SUMMARY USER TIME (SEC) ~ 20. You will get an additional prompt as follows.log. Save the file in Text Only format. If the program ran successfully.fil later. not all the files will be there. <t. We'll see why it appears later You can explore the rest of this file to see what else is there. examine the files in the directory tutorial.dat. that ABAQUS is done and you can safely look at the results.inp. all kinds of information about the computation. You should also see that the file ends with ABAQUS JOB tutorial COl\1J'LETED This mean. (Click here if you don't know how to do this). This file contain. error and warning messages will be written to this file. You can monitor this file while ABAQUS is running. l\1AKE SD'RE YOU CLOSE THE FILE BY EXITING THE TEXT EDITOR BEFORE PROCEEDING.sta tutorial. headed by . Open the file tutorial.msg and tutorial.
FREQ=! This will tell yon what part of the input file is causing problem" ABAQUS is coded in FORTRAN.sPECIFIED CARD IMAGE: ·REST. FREQ=I This time. -5. you will need to start a program called Exceed first Find Exceed on the Start menu of your desktop.inp file first).>cRI. 7. just type the command name .TIlE PROGRAM H_>. which will be used to display results of the ABAQUS run.sUMMARY USER TIME iSEC) ~ 0. with a list of ABAQUSlPo. In the ABAQUS command window. type 3. 6. than tills. briefly and an iconshould '0. WONK. Make sure yon have an ABAQUS abaqus post 4. type help [rerum 1 A black window will open. Try another error. correct the input file. command window open. by inserting a single character in the input file. A window should appear.t window. If you have no life. you will understand the error message. Notice that ABAQUS programmers still seem to be using punch cards. Change the line and if yon are lucky. and re-run ABAQUS.E-02. Search the file backwards for the occurrence of ERROR to find the line. too (for real). Running ABAQUSlPost 1. To run ABAQUSlPo.E-02 Re-run ABAQUS (don't forget to save the . FREQ=! ALSO SPECIFIED CARD IMAGE: 'REST_>cRI.dat file and Jog file to make sure that the job ran properly. WONK.dat again.O~~~ TOTAL CPU TIME iSEC) ~ O. WRITE.UClOCK TIME (SEC) ~ 2 This again shows that ABAQUS ran into trouble during execution. To get help with any command. A window will be displayed appear on your toolbar if the program started properly. set to the appropriate directory. out with this problem.E-02.E-02 you might like to try and see if you can produce more errors. back to FREQ=l "RESTART. Yon can download an error free copy of the tutorial £Ie by clicking here if yon need to. 5. Yon should see 96 fatal errors.FREQ=! "'NOTE: DUE TO .t.0000 .inp. 5. If you have not already done 2. Before proceeding. Check the . and select it to start it running. "'RESTART. WONK."-''1 INPUT ERROR THE _"-''1AHSIS PRE-PROCESSOR H_"S BEEN UNABlE TO INTERPRET SOME DATA .O~~~ W_'. Online help with ABAQUS/Post In the ABAQUSlPo. We will try a few useful commands in the next section 8.SDISCOVERED 3 FATM ERRORS END OF USER INPUT PROCESSING JOB TIME . then check the file tutorial. 5. ABAQUS really freak. change the line 1031. 5. to 1031. you type commands in the bottom left hand comer of the window. "'"'"'"'"'"!ERROR: UN~OWN PARAMETER WONK CARD IMAGE: 'RESTART. WONK.sYSTEM TIME (SEC) ~ O.t command. run ABAQUS with a correct input file tutorial.sUBSEQUENT ERRORS M"'-Y BE CAUSED BY TIllS OMIS SION "'ERROR: EITHER THE PARAMETER READ OR WRITE MUST BE . To do so.
Now.0 display the boundary condition. and/or left click with the shift key held down while dragging the mouse. applied to the mesh.fil extension). left click and drag the mouse. This file contain. Ignore the useful information and type [return] anywhere in the window. res is called a 'restart file' (the file always has . with lot. fill=nn [return] draw [return] report elements [return] Now. (This is not too helpful with a lD mesh. This will plot the undeformed finite element mesh. all [return] draw [return] n. or contours of stress. The £Ie named tutorial. you about nodes. To exit this option. Another useful option for checking a mesh is . To get back to the original view of the mesh. This file contain. define opposite comers of a box. iii is called a 'results file' (the £Ie always has a . type set. by typing set. all quantities displayed will represent the s tate or the solid at the very end or the analysis. and information concerning the element will be displayed at the bottom of the window. The first step is to read the results of an analysis into ABAQUSlPo. while continuing to hold the mouse button down. etc.res extension). . To display element numbers with the mesh.". lower down.fil The file named tutorial. el numbers=on draw [return] [return] 5. The two point.res tatorial. Another useful way to room in on a small region is. fall information about the analysis. The restart file is most useful if you want to plot the finite element mesh. be display=on draw If you have superb eyesight. 3. To turn off element numbers and node numbers again. of interesting information in it. To display node numbers with the mesh. type reset. that can be read into ABAQUSlPo. Zoom in. file=tutorial [return] liIe with this A black window will pop up. click on the little X at the bottom left hand comer of the black window. of stress. ABAQUSlPost Mesh and Boundary Condition Display Our example simulation created two file.t. draw [return] u numbers=off [return] HI. 2. tutorial.t window. zoom.v-time.9. stress-v-strain. 7. The key report nodes [return] tells.t: I. 12. type restart. 6. displacement. type set. When you read the restart syntax. To worn in and out of the mesh. click on any element in the mesh. Type draw [return] in the ABAQUSlPo. and you will see arrows representing the constraints applied to the bottom of the mesh. The results file is most useful when you want to create x-y plot. data that were specifically requested in the ABAQUS input file. You can 01. We will see how to display data at other time.u numbers=on draw [return] [return] . cursor [return] Now. type set. To rotate the FEM mesh. we can start plotting things. When you type draw [return] the region within the box will be scaled to fit the fall window. 8. 9.et. el numbers=off. To move the mesh around on the window. you will see some little dots on the left and bottom edges of the mesh. click on the mesh at two points. To read the restart file. center click on the mesh and drag the mouse. or similar. right click on the mesh and drag the mouse left or right. but is very useful in 3D).
click on any node to see the horizontal component of displacement there.. ~ . Examples include 11=:522. is.. v=s l. you: can only do a vector plot of a vector valued function . v=s Ll [return] Then.-=. and which increment... Values ofstress at each element integration point will be printed at the bottom of the screen. v=mis e:s plots. type set. v=u l [return] Then. by default. undeformed=o ff [return] draw. type Report values. type set. is somewhat mysterious. To exit till. displaced [return] You can use the mouse to drag the mesh away from the text message that appears on the . time during an analysis next.. type set. JVlPa ?OOt. type set. displaced [return] ".... To show the contours as solid colors instead of lines.. grossly exaggerated to show it clearly: the scale factor is. v=u [return] shows arrows whose length ana orientation correspond to the vector displacement at each node.:533~ etc plot various stress components. Recoil that. In tills case. an [return] 10.. type reset.. outline=off [return] 9. click on the little cross at the bottom left hand comer of the black window. To see the results at other time" you can 5. "-=. click with the mouse on any element. 3. To plot a contour of the horizonta. ABAQUS STEPS AND INCREMENTS You may have noticed when reading the restart file that ABAQUS was telling you which step was being read. 2.. To remove the mesh to see the contours.. 11. option. type 6.l [return] 8. To turn the mesh back on again.. the deformed mesh doesn't look very different at the end of the first step.. vindow. Before proceeding to the next section.. more clearly: type set.. For example vector plot. ABAQUSlPo.. You can also display numerical values of van ables (stress..t type restart. You can do vector plots too.. type draw. step=I [return] draw.. ABAQUS/Post Field Plots If you have not already done so. You can plot all field quantities the same way. outline=element [return] or set. d magnificatiou=Lrl draw. Note that the deforrnatior. To see the actual displacements (without magnification). so we will explore how ABAQUS control.13. To remove the undeformed mesh.. 10. n.t and read in tutorial.. outline=perimeterlretnrn] contour. Obviously.. von Mises stress. displacements. TIll. component ofstress contour. etc) at nodes or integration points (whichever applies) by typing report values.5 12 ~. displaced [return] [return] will display the state of the solid at the very end of whatever load history was specified in the input file. v=s l l [return] 7. fiU=on [return] contour. displaced [return] This will display the deformed mesh at the end of the first load step.. displayed on the text message... v=s Ll [return] aII..res 1. To see displacements. but you should see a message in the bottom left hand comer of the screen telling you that the current step is 1. stress.. To view the deformed shape of the solid after loading. start up ABAQUSlPo.
19 2.2S. at the end. 0).sTEP INC ATI SE\IERE [QUIL TOTAL TOTAL 1 I I 0 4 4 1.00 O.83 . we applied load to the solid in three step" from t=t) to t= 1 (step 1). window.. while the minimum specifies.7. but don't try that now or else you .9j l.. because the plate is deforming plastically. and the tolerances..m o. of the upper right hand comer of the . :t .. sec 2 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 When you set up an ABAQUSIStandard input file. 2.2jO 0. name=first [return] sat. 1= 1. Type step=Z [return] v=pemag [return] name=third [return] step=S [return] v=pemag [return] should see three contour plots.2jOO DOF IF DISCON lTERS ITERS TIME TIME TIME MONITOR RIKS o. by looking at some of the output files.] window. from t= J to t= 2 (step 2) and finally from t= 2 to t=3. 1=2 and 1=3 1. villi vindow. . maximum=f. . we will plot contour...(037) 0.. Let'. you will see the state of the solid at the end of step "2 .06 211 2. This mean..1 2 ~ increments ~======~fu~cr~~~~~en~t~~. You can find out. maximl1m=(O.42 2..Oj(l)8 This file is continually updated and can be monitored during and ABAQUS computation.1l.OO . ABAQUS automatically subdivides a large time step into several smaller 'increment" if it find. To get around this problem. step=Z in ABAQUSlPo. If you have not already done 'a. that ABAQUS needs to iterate to find the correct solution (a Newton-Raphson iteration is used to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations).. on the some picture. that ABAQUS has. have an extra . When you type restart. we will open up three windows to display all three time. vill vindow open that you don 't want. at time t= 2.2109 0.6.1=2 and t=B in the three windows.12jO 0. contour. much more information concerning the increments. ABAQUS will always print out the state of the solid at the end of each step. the lower left hand corner.Lllj. In the first window.1jOO 0. cursor and then click on the screen . You can look at tutorial.O. The second step was completed in four increments. that the solution is nonlinear.. what's the deal with the increments? Well. name=second [returnj restart. The first column shows which step ABAQUS is currently analyzing.500 O.. start up ABAQUSlPo. if ABAQUS tries to take a very large time step.t and then plot something.t.. name=secoud. This process is completely automatic.lIM 1.062jO O. For the hole in a plate problem. You can see this in the other two windows. showing areas.. Type window.0625 0. "..mo 1. convergent solution. and read in tutorial. name= .7). and ABAQUS will always take the largest possible time increments that will reach the end of the step and still give an accurate.. maximum=fll... that have not yet yielded The red color has the highest plastic strains. there will only be a small plastic zone at the edge of the hole.sta. 2. this is a nonlinear problem .949 O. ======-LI_h_'_rn~~e. contour..sTEP INC OF 1. vindo . showing plastic strain contours. :. Now. the mouse to define the comers of the .3. YOIl t= 1. used. could be taken)...the contour level for zero plastic strain.1l. So. The deep blue color is. 'The file named tutoriaLmsg contains... check this ant We will compare the plastic zone size in the solid at time. From this information..422 O. and the third step was completed in 8 increments.lIl. step= 1 [return] contour. however. miniml1m=(1l. the coordinates. The second column shows which time increment ABAQUS has reached.12345678.. of plastic strain at window.res. .·63 2. ABAQUS will take..\88 0. Indeed.00 1.00 1.in this case. You can also use v: window.3) [return] window.6) [return] Here: the maximum= _. fill=on [return] restart.1...·6)) 0. You don't know a priori how many increment. it may not be able to find a solution at all.00 0. 3. forexample whicb shows the following information: SUJMJMARYOF JOB IT\IFORlVlATION: .. 2.O. miniml1m=(1l.062jO 0_125 0062jO 0. the iterative process. specifies. but not quite all.U(l6 0. started to deform plastically. restart. of the plate has.00 2. v=pemag [return] window.000 O.O.. and also mean. On the third window: most. you tell ABAQUS to apply load to a solid in a series of steps.6) [ return.. The seventh column shows the current time. . Now.. tuinituom=(O.1j UO 1.&S. name=third. we learn that the first step was completed in one increment (this is because the plate did not reach yield until the end of the increment so very large time step. that ABAQUS cannot accurately compute the plastic strain that results from a large change in loads. This plastic zone grows as the load is increased.the stress is a nonlinear function of the nodal displacements.2S[ 0. name=first. applied to determine whether a .
however . converged You need a Ph. display curve [rerum] »syy [rerum] » [rerum] x grid=solid.OI. 5. etc with position within the solid. Unfortunately. we define a set of data known as a ~ClJ!Ve. distance.solution has. generate.age is. variable=s22. you can use to change the appearance of the x -y plot. increment 5). [rerum] [rerum] [rerum] name=syy. There are various commands. not work in 2D.fil files at the end of each increment ".Y Plots strains etc as a function of time at a point in the ABAQUSlPost can also be persuaded to plot variations ofstress. absolute [rerum] '0 you are stuck entering node lists. First.O. type window.O). we can plot these (x. by using the path keyword ' path. we would enter path. v=pemag [rerum] [return] 12. F or example graph axes. 'The procedure to do this is rather weird. x-y plot> output from ABAQUSlPost look pretty shitty. a weming mes.msg file.05. !f you have not already done so. Tills.everything is. your best bet is to print the data and plot it with something else.is. We can define and plot other data on the same graph. We will begin by plotting x-y graphs of field quantities with position in the solid. displacement. ABAQUS/Post X. for that matter).ages.I.working pefectly. at each node entered in the list. >119 >1211 >121 node List. absolute [return] >119. __ Continue typing in numbers in increasing order until you get to >131 [rerum] »[retam] This procedure defines a set of (x. this doe. 42 (step 3. it is simplest to plot the mesh with node numbers. Dr print out a postscript file and then edit it with another graphics package. Instead of typing in a list of node. you need for the path of interest.nothing to worry about .y) data pair. we will plot the variation of 0"22 with distance along the base.datfile. remove=all [rerum] ".O).s. !fyou want publication quality output. First. We can see the meaning of the weming mes. To produce the results we want here. To look at the plastic LOneat time t=Z. uame=syy. you can ask for curves to be generated along a straight line. . eod=(O.s. name=sxx. increment=5 contour. instead of entering a list of node numbers. this time. y grid=solid [rerum] Unfortunately. ABAQLJS print> information concerning the state of the solid to the .every time ABAQUS has.res and .t and read in tutorial. To go back to a single window. distance. absolute [return] . y title=normalstress.D to be able to figure most of that steff out. we will use the 'generate' key to generate the list automatically path.that were referred to in the . variable=s22. distance. to reduce the time increment due to convergence problems. The gronp of all the data pairs generated by this command has been given the name 'syy". To find the list of node. or can display stresses solid. start=(O. F or a 3D analysis. 2.res 1. The x coordinate is zero at the first node. type restartcstep=J.O.printed to the .1 [rerum] »[retnrn] display curve [rerum] > syy [rerum] >s= [rerum] > [rerum] Do you see anything wrong with the value of= at x=Il? Why? What could cause thiserror? ". and is incremented by the distance between nodes for each subsequent node in the list The y coordinate is s22. no matter how hard yo" try. Dr can even plot stress as a function of strain (or anything else. Now. x title=x.y) data point> display curve [rerum] > syy [rerum] > [rerum] 3. start np ABAQUSlPo. variable=s l. node list.131.
For example. The path defined by the node list need not be a straight line. We are plotting results from a restart file (remember that we read in the restart file right at the beginning of this section). name=newmises. type Now. now that you typed results file. integration point=L.t YOlJ[ numerical solutions. you can plot variable. History plots are best done using data in a results file (that's the one . To plot it type display curve [return] > result [return] > [return] The curve should theoretically em» zero at x=O. as a function of position. we see that the element closest to om point of interest has number 19. Let's go bock to reading curve. to plot the variation of Mises stress around the perimeter of the hole. y=())from results file. the load is applied to the solid. because Mises stresses. if yon try read curve. but as you see.100 [return] > [return] graph axesvx title=s. and are not available at the nodes. file=tutorial [return] read curve. For example.0 do another lcind of x·y plot Instead of plotting variable. x=O. For example.Y curve. Variable. elemeut=19. To do . from an integration point: type set. display curve [return] > nm [return] > [return] 12. >S)'-y [return] This generate. a new curve. We will plot the stress at integration point number I. Note that the time scale start..6. and so has 4 integration points. Note Mises stress. By drawing the mesh with element numbers. 01. at t= 1 instead of zero. named result. y title=mises display curve [return] >sm [return] > [return] stress [return] "7.. will a1. like this. history=restart file [return] read curve. which is the integral ofsyy. 9. name=nm. va riable=mis es .fil) rather than a restart (res) vith file: because you can access. from the results file.s22 [return] This displays the variation ofstress with time.0) (this is on the edge of the hole). variable=:s:22 [return] display curve [return] e-ncwstrcs >[retmn] [return] the results file. there is a slight error in the finite element computation. Type set.0. variable=. ()4. extension .01. It is. history=results integration point=I. since there is a nice big plastic strain there). which is closest to the point of interest. variable=mises [return] me [return] 13. This error could be reduced by using a finer finite element mesh. always worth doing checks. To read the variation of 0'22 at node 119 (this node has coordinate.. will be read from the results file nntil you specify otherwise. the state at (=0 is not available. we could compute the resultant vertical force acting on a section of the bottom boundary by integrating the normal stress distribntion lj (X) = ja22ds o To do this with ABAQUSlPo. a. name=newstres. to test the accuracy of 8. For example. stresses and other element variables at the node" and you can include data at i=o. so the stresses are defined only at the integration points within each element. If you plot results from a restart file. display curve [return] > uewmises > [return] [return] node=119. 1(). absolute [return] >119. ABAQUSlPo. read curve. all curve. distance. We can also plot the variation ofstress with strain at a node (we'll try 1919 this time. To go back to reading from the restart file. node list. generate. This is a 4 noded element. Yon can also manipulate the data in an X. weren't stored. uame=sm. use path. instead of plotting stress as a function of time. are available in the results file only if they were specifically requested in the input file.1919. a. and then read the n.. that. a function of time. variable=mises [return] you 'will get an error message.t use operatinn=integrate [return] define curve.. file= . name=result.. we will plot the time variation of 0'22 at the point near (0. the stress at t = 0 is included. name=stress. node=119. display curve [return] »stress [return] »[retnm] elemeut=19.
The ABAQUS plot. Finally. (If yon asked ABAQUSlPlot to print each page to a separate file. on this web site were read into Micrografx Designer. ABAQUSlPlot will produce a postscript file. the displaced mesh.h.read! the stress-v-tirne curve at node 1 ~l.131. There is also some software that will read in postscript files and allow you to edit them and print them out in another formal. Now. If you have not already done so. read the strain -v. while they axis of the second curve (stress) becomes they axis of the new curve.quslahaqus plot device=cps [ob=tutorial job=tutorial command window. we 'will create a stress-v-stram variable=e. so the . distance. edited. bard copy=on in the ABAQUSlPost window. First. we will draw the mesh.time curve read curve. On the 1\11' workstations in Prince Lab. u()de=1919 [return] node=1919.. Finally. curve should (if the numerical match the uniaxial stress-c-stran 13. you can print a ps file by dragging it onto the icon labelled PSPrint on your desktop. uame=strsstrn. display curve . For example.gif files.1 [return] >[retom] display curve [return] > splot [return] > [return] display. v=mises [return] the contour plot will not be printed . A detailed look at an ABAQUS input file We are ready to start learning how to use ABAQUS itself. if you now type contour. The material point at node 1919 is subjected to uniaxial stress. postscript file that can be sent to the printer.t. that changes the ABAQUSlPost also output to a device neutral file called tutorial. we will exit ABAQUSlPost end [return] 5. you should accept the default. you make will not be output to the .strain curve for the material. To print our graphs.mpl file into. named tutorial.ge_l.l l . we now need to turn the tutorial. As an example.rnpl. !Jrrs. variable=s l l [return] graph operation=combine [return] Define curve. type set. Check the initial the stress=-strain analysis. To do this. node list. Once you are done plotting all the graphs you want. name=newstras.mplfile. Printing output from ABAQUSlPost It takes three steps to print out result. Now. the new display is and read in tutorial.this. displaced [return] path.. draw [return] draw. . when you have answered all the questions.". 2. we will look at the input file for the hole-in-a-plate problem. tutorial_p. accurate) Clive to make sure that it is correct. concerning the format you wish to adopt for the printed file. With this option set. You can view the file using Ghostview.l (well replace the old curve named newstres) read curve. every time you enter • command such as draw. we nrst read stress-v-tnne and stram-v-tune as two separate curves.s22. it will produce three files.ps and tutorial page jLps).stress-. > Ovenvrite [return] Now. and then combine them to create stress-v-strain. . The appropriate responses should be obvious . is.ps. and type The program will ask you a number of questions. absolute [return] 3. First. This file will later be converted to • form that can be printed. generate. and an x-y plot of stress. and then start doing some simple exercises to learn how to set up new problems. or convert it into a pdf file using Adobe Distiller. hard copy=off [return] Any further plot. and then view the file with Adobe Acrobat Reader or Adobe Acrobat Exchange. yon can print the postscript file on any postscript printer. and then printed out as .res variable=. contour. from ABAQUSlPosl. uame=splot. > 119. start ABAQUSlPost 1. type set. 14. go the the ABAQUS abaqus plot device=cps If this doesn't work you should try p:l. named tutorial pageLps. name=strain.in most cases. > strain [return] > stre ss [return] > [return] display curve [return] > str ss trn [return] > [return] They axis of the first curve (strain) becomes the x axis of the new curve (strsstm).
Other lines begin with a single " This denotes an ABAQUS keyword. before the loads are applied.U 2 119 131 *NODE 101. General ABAQUS instructions The file starts with a set of general instructions to ABAQUS *HEADING STRESS ANALYSIS FOR A PU.0. You will see that many lines in the. which will be used by ABAQUSlPost during post processing. Here.0. *RESTART. General ABAQUS commands.E-02 131.fil file. 0. HISTORY=YES. to Nato reduce thesize of the file. and naming the analysis Melli generation commands.0. The input file is divided into the following general sections I.E-02 1931.TE WITH A HOLE The "HEADING key allows you to define a title for your analysis. The key FREQ=l tells ABAQUS to print out The "RESTART key tells ABAQUSIStandard information about every increment in L oad *FILE FORMAT.res file.0. there follow a set of lines defining the mesh. or in the online documentation.0.E-02. 5. we have asked ABAQUS to print The "FILE FORl\VU key tells ABAQUSIStandard to print certain information to the tntorial. l\'[ODEL=l'ES The "PREPRINT key controls what information is printed to the file named tutorial.e.Before looking at the input file. 5. as required by ABAQUS keywords. Nodes are generated first. TIlls will be printed in output files to allow you to identify them later. TIlls is a comment marker (like I" in C) and everything following a "" is ignored by ABAQUS.dat file is rather large as. or read below to see an explanation ofeach command in the file. Scm . ZERO INCREMENT Here. l. and controlling ABAQlJS time steps and increments.0. a consequence. with detailed comments. Some lines begin with numbers or text These are data lines. 5. correct: you can set all the options. F. values at the start of the analysis (i. 5.0 1031.0 119. You can either click here to see the full input file.dat. controlling printing. 5. 0. The tntorial. Material property definition Time independent Boundar}' condition specifications Commands specfying time varying loads. ECHO=YES. You can find detailed documentation about each keyword in volume II[ of the ABAQlJSIStandMd user manual. Mesh Generation Next. 4.0E-02. you may find it helpful to review the problem being solved. Tills file is 1I1so used later by ABAQUSlPoSI.0 1919.inp file begin with a "". 3. *PREPRINT. then the element type and element connectivity are specified. WRITE.0. 2.REQ=l to print out a tutorial. we have asked ABAQUS to print out absolutely everything. l. Once the input file is.E-02.E-02 .
--r-"A 1930 1031 H------f---+-+++~.L. The . 1919. Again. and! the node number at the center of the circular MC. we defined it using the ONODE command) __ 331 --.-.t node. around the perimeter of the hole The Llli'iE=C option ofNGEN tell. we generate node.. .... NUlJ. we specify the fir. on the right hand boundary. and x.. First.. adjacent nodes.L.. 1931.L. 101 Now. These node. which will be used to generate further nodes later.trve key nodes. you generate mould be on a circular arc. 100 The next key define. NSET=HOLE 119. keyword starts. The node. !J:trs. enter the node number. on this boundary are assigned to a set named OlITER. 1031. NSET=OUTER 1031.t.... 100 Now. node.L. the increment in node numbers betweer.e dehne w *NGEN. "the positrons ot these nodes are shown 111 the picture above.here.---r-r-.---. but is not mea in the finite element cornputetion. It is used when generating the mesh.. the last node and the increment between neighboring node.231 131 L. we generate aline of node./ 1928 t-+-H'-I-----I-I-c. Note that the first node (number 101) is not actuelly in the solid at ell. LlNE=C.L. NSET=OUTER 131._. on the top boundary.H:_.L.. On the line. on this boundary. The following line specifies the first node on the arc.. (this must already be defined . mllJ/h~ 1831 1331 *NGEN. 100. node definition.(' 1929 t-+-++-. are also added to the set named OUTER 1131 1031 1931 r-r-.. The NSET=HOLE option ofNGEN gives a name (HOLE) to all the node. ABAQUS that the node.J.h./ r .____J *NGEN. below.. the last node on the arc. we use the NGEN command to generate further nodes.. on this boundary We will use this name later.y (and z for 3D) coordinates.
plastic strain with the 'PLAST[C keyword. HOLE. The option TYPE=CPS4 tell. 'lQJI 1"\"11"1"\"'. The data pair. for as many 119 227 128 129 130 131 *ELGEN. 1 BIAS=0. 18. 119. ELSET=PLATE SECTION key. The "ELGEN key generates • block of element" one row at • time. The first number elements as you is. one line at a time: following the *ELEJNfENT keyword. TYPE=CPS4 19. we define an isotropic elastic -. 12. consult the ABAQUSIStandard manual All the node. 210 GPA and Poisson's ratio 031.0235 1"\ I"\JI. To do this we use the "ELEMENT key. 220. *ELASTIC 210. ELSET=PLATE 19. and. The third number is the increment in element numbers from one row to the next The final number is the increment in node numbers from one row to the next All the element' have been assigned to a set named PLATE *SOLID SECTION. 4 noded element. The fifth number is the number of rows to be defined (including the first one). are (true stress. between neighboring elements.31 Specify yield stress -v. 0. strain -v. element must already have it.8 Finally. 'The first number specfies the first element in the first row. We begin by defining the first element. connectivity defined.E09. The third number is the increment between neighboring element numbers in the row. we need to tell ABAQUS what each element is made of. 100.stress curve approximated! by a set of piecewise linear segments. The next four numbers are the node numbers: entered in order going counterclockwise around the element. ABAQUS that we want the element to be a plane stress.JI . plastic *MATERIAL. 12. 246. Till. OUTER. within the solid are assigned to a set named PLATE_ 120 *ELEMENT. NSET=PLATE.0 0. 100 Now. NAME=STEEL and Poisson'.*NFILL.plastic material. 1. we fill in the remaining node" by connecting the node. MATERIAL=STEEL. (For a list of available element type" consult Sect 14_L3 of the ABAQUS user manual).2E06. The Finally. The second number is the number of element' ineech row. using the 'SOLID properties of STEEL are defined below. with Young's mom. ratio with the 'ELAST[C keyword Specify the Young's mom. If you wanted to: you could enter connectivities for each element by hand. To learn about how this keyword works. On the next line.. You can enter connectivity wish. on the boundary HOLE and the boundary OUTER in a set of radial lines. To do this we assign a material named STEEL to the element' named PLATE. we define the element connectivity. 120. 1. the element number. we define the element connectivity. 219 Next. The fourth number is the change in node numbers of corresponding node. we generate element connectivity for all the remaining elements. true strain) for a uniaxial tension test *PLASTIC 200. Material Property Definition We need to specify the behavior of the material we called STEEL_ Here.0E06.: 0.
GENERATE 119. We need to define the element. The step start.IVV. GE1'\1ERATEkey. the load is applied smoothly.1. *STATIC 1. AMPLITUDE=HIST EDGE. If you specify AlVIPLrTIIDE=RAlVIP.3. the load is applied at once. GENERATE 1919. TIME=TOTAL TIME 0. The whole plate should begin to yield towards the end of this load step.0.. 431. load magnitude) with four pair.from time t= 1 to t=2. of the data pair.0 We define this time vi11 variation in an object known as an AlVIPLrTIIDE Here. The syntax for the line following is first node number in the set: last node number in the set increment between node numbers in the set *BOUNDARY BOTTOM. we need to specify how the plate is loaded. and the last number specifies a maximum value. ramp the loads steadily from zero at time t=O to a maximum at time t=3. This is done in two stage« Any boundary condition. -82. but tell. at time t=D and ends at time t= 1. 30. 314.0. on this boundary. This works just like the "NSET.0.. Since we expect the plate to deform elastically in this step.. Information defining time varying loads Next.1.0. the AlVIPLIT1JDE doe. from time t=D to time t= l . we define the boundary condition" The node set BOTTOM is has symmetry about the Y=Q axis imposed. ELSET=EDGE. ABAQlJS how to apply the load during this time step.0 Load Step Definition In doing the analysis we will apply the load in a series of STEPS. Here: we .that show the plate just starting to yield at the edge of the hole at time t= 1. described above. The first number on the following line suggest' an initial value for the time increment that ABAQlJS should take while calculating the deformation in this step. we have named the AlVIPLrTIJDE HIST and have told ABAQlJS that the x coordinate. The last load step last. print out the <tate of the plate at the end of a load step: ao we will have some results. 830. GENERAI'E key. We generate and element set named EDGE using the "ELSET. GENERATE key. all the node.0. we define a node set which contain. 100 GENERATE We proceed to define some information about the time variation of the loads. and the node set LEFT has symmetry about the X=O plane imposed.L:.AMPLITUDE=RAMP Load Step To start the analysis we use the "STEP key.0 We tell ABAQUS that this is a quasi-vstatic analysis The stress fields are in steticequilibrium throughout the history of load. First *STEP. to get there. we enter pairs of numbers (time. 4BO.1311 0. 2. ABAQUS should be able to go straight to the solution at the end of the step.I!. 1 *NSET. 131.. To load the plate. YSYMM LEFT.. following represent total time. NAME=HIST. XSYMM Now. not refer to a predefined history of load a.0E06. The second number specifies the time Interval for this load step. The plastic zone should grow significantly during this step. without taking little step.~"'Z_V. Then.The AlVIPLrTIIDE=RAlVIP key is rather confusing here . these parameters here. which do not vary with time are defined before we start the analysis In this case. sense to take a time increment equal to the step me . The first load step last. the left hand boundary and the bottom boundary are symmetry boundaries §NSET. NSET~BOTTOM.. are also available· the third number specifies a minimum value for the time increment.0.OE06. so the time interval is L Two additional optional parameter..in the STEP key. on the last line) *AMPLITUDE. P2. To choose a static analysis use the 'STATIC key word.18 Time independent boundary conditions Next. 1931.0.0E06. while if you say AlVIPLrTIIDE=STEP. using the oNSET. 3. 1. We have not used *DLOAD. *ELSET. from time t=2 to t= 3. NSET=LEFT. on the top and bottom boundary.0.E06 .0. The second load Step fasts. we define some information about the loading. 1 F irst.2. we will apply a distributed load right hand boundary.0935 0. ABAQUS will alway. to each line (you can have fewer than four pair. 0. it make.
etc).1. are described in the ABAQUS Example Problems Manuals (two vols). S. AMPLITUDE=HIST EDGE. listing 1. Note that. Setting up your own ABAQUS input file To. we are really interested in value. 5. The name of the job corresponds to the number of the listing of each example file: for example.1. see it: and use your browser download it: following the same procedure that you used to. compressive normal stress) to be positive.1. Do Dot remove the manuals from tbe balcony. *EL FILE. 110204 .inp. ofstress and strain at the node. ABAQUS come. the prof.0 Load Step The second step lasts from time t= 1 to t= 2.. You can type ABAQUS commands directly into file if you . download tatorial. is not always consistent so you usually have to try putting zeros in random places to find the correct name (for example. 'The template file reminds you of the general layout for the input file. and then supply a keyword name.. using au increment time of 1 sec. The example. so ABAQUS will actually end up taking several load increments. (HIST=2 at time 2 sec. in this case. 4. P2. or use it as a quick reference list of keywords. There are several hard copies of the ABAQUS manual. The following sources of information are available: I. to see a list of example problems that use the keyword. so the step time is 1 sec again. Or call your Mom. .AMPLITUDE=RAMP *STATIC 1. Click here to. instructions for using the documentation . POSITION=AVERAGED S.E *END STEP POSITION=AVERAGED AT NODES Third 10ad step You should get the idea by now I *STEP. The documentation include. 3. in the Prince Lab Computer Balcony. To learn how to use each keyword. help you set the template up YOIJ[ O\W input files: a template file has been provided for you. by definition. select ABAQUS and then ABAQUS documentation. One word of warning . a list of useful keywords in each section. so that when it is scaled by HIST.1. However. You can type abaqus findkeyword. We take the load magnitude to be 821V[PA.0. -82_E06 *EL FILE. AMPLITUDE=HIST EDGE. Unfortunately most of the list scrolls off the top of the window and there doesn't seem to be much you can do about it but if you can read really fast you will find this feature helpful.make sure you only refer to the ABAQUSIStandard manual. S. so we set the POSmON=AVERAGED AT NODES flag to have ABAQUS calculate the varibles at nodes. vish. since it gets scaled by the load factor in HIST to bring it to the correct magnitude. -82_E06 The distributed load magnitude is 82MPa again.AMPLITUDE=RAMP *STATIC 1. so we apply tensile loading by making the pressure negative. Online documentation: select Start on the toolbar. We are going to print all stress components (S) and strain components (E). We ask ABAQUS to try to get to the end of the step in 1 increment.0 *DLOAD. so HIST·82=166MPa). We will not be using ABAQUSlExpicit 2. *DLOAD.2-4 on page 1. P2. you will need to refer to the ABAQUS documentation. Seoond *STEP. if 10 10204 didn't work the next guess would be 10 1024.E POSITION=AVERAGED AT NODES Next we specify what variables we'd like printed to the history file for post processing. *END STEP This keyword ends the step definition. Consclt TAs. We select distributed loadstpressore) acting on face 2 (P2) of all the elements in set EDGE. These variables are normally only computed at element integration points. There is a lot of plasticity in this step. Unfortunately the numbering scheme used for the input file. *EL FILE. other students.. You c-an download copies of the examples by typing abaqus fetch in ABAQUS command window and then typing theexample job name on the next line. the stress reaches 821V[PAat time t= J.0. with an extensive set of example problems. This is a bit optimistic.E *END STEP AT NODES 15.. so we me the "Ei FILE keyword to ask ABAQUS to print them to a file.Now we specify the loading applied to the plate. "DiOAD defines pressure (Le. select Programs on the popup menu. and contain.2-17 of Example Problems Vol 1 is job 1010204.
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