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Cloud Computing

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Mahavir's Education Trust
Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Engineering College






A Seminar Report On

CLOUD COMPUTÌNG




Submitted By:

TE-4(A-Batch)

03:- Akshay Badjate
06:- Ankit Joshi
12:- Dhaval Shah











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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We are grateful to our seminar teacher Mrs. Manimala and Mrs. Sindhu, for supporting us at every
stage of this project with her expertise and knowledge of the subject.
Also, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our H.O.D., Prof. Uday Bhave for giving us
the opportunity to enhance our knowledge in the present and futuristic subject like CLOUD
COMPUTING.
We would also like to thank our peers for their valuable inputs and time that helped us in the making
of this project.


Thanking you,

03:- Akshay Badjate
06:- Ankit Joshi
12:- Dhaval Shah




























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TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. Ìntroduction 4

2. Literature Survey 5

3. Brief Theory 6

4. Summary 8

4.1 Cloud Computing and SOA 8

4.1.1 Layered Architecture of SOCCA

12 Cloud Ontology Mapping Layer

4.2 Multi-tenancy Architecture (MTA) 10

4.3 SaaS and Some Problems with SaaS Ìmplementation 12

4.3.1 Benefits Of The vSaaS Approach

4.3.2 Highlights of A vSaaS System

4.3.3 Streaming Delivery of Software

4.3.4 Desktop Merging

4.3.5 Mobile Device

5. Proposed Ìmplementation 16

6. Conclusion 17

7. Future Work 18

8. References 19








Cloud Computing


. INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient on demand network access to a
shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, application and
services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service
provider interaction. Cloud Computing is an emerging style of computing in applications, data, and
ÌT resources are provided as services to users. Cloud computing drives cost reduction and
simplification by consolidation and more efficient utilization of existing resources.

Cloud computing consists of various applications that include Software as a service (SaaS),
Platform as a service(PaaS) and Ìnfrastructure as a service(ÌaaS).Cloud Application services or
"Software as a Service(SaaS)¨ deliver 'software' as a service over the Ìnternet, eliminating the need
to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and
support. Cloud platform services or "Plat form as a service (PaaS)¨ deliver a computing platform
and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud
applications. Ìt facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and
managing the underlying hardware and software layers.

Cloud infrastructure services or "Ìnfrastructure as a Service (ÌaaS)¨ delivers computer
infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service. Rather than purchasing
servers, software, data center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as
an outsourced service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of
resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. Ìt is an
evolution of virtual private server offerings.
























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. LITERATURE SURVEY

Topic: Characteristics of CIoud Computing.

Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Cloud
computing is based on several other computing research areas such as HPC, virtualization, utility
computing and grid computing. Ìn order to make clear the essential of cloud computing, we propose
the characteristics of this area which make cloud computing being cloud computing and distinguish
it from other research areas. The cloud computing has its own conceptional, technical, economic
and user experience characteristics. The service oriented, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant,
business model and ease use are main characteristics of cloud computing. Clear insights into cloud
computing will help the development and adoption of this evolving technology both for academe and
industry.

Reasons for Selection of the Paper:
1. The paper lays a base to the introduction of the concept of Cloud Computing.
2. This paper describes the key characteristics of cloud computing and gives an insight into its
architecture.

Topic: Service Oriented CIoud Computing Architecture.
This topic discusses about the relationship between the Service Oriented Architecture and
Cloud Computing. Ìt explains that SOA is all about defining an ÌT solution or architecture, while
cloud computing is an architectural alternative. Cloud Computing offers a platform to deliver the
services needed as a part of Service Oriented Architecture.

Reason for Selection of the Paper:
1. This paper gives a comprehensive study of the Service Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture.
2. Ìt also gives an insight into the business models of Cloud Computing.

Topic: A VirtuaIization-based SaaS EnabIing Architecture of CIoud Computing.

This Paper Draws Attention towards How to Provide Software as a Service through the Ìnternet. Ìt Ìs
An Ìmportant Service Provided Through Cloud Computing. By SaaS Users Can Access Any
Software Transparently with No Limitation on the Client OS or Device Capability. Ìn This Paper an
Approach Named vSaaS is discussed. The iVÌC platform, in which vSaaS Approach Ìs Proposed is
a virtual computing environment for HaaS and SaaS applications.

Reason for Selection of the Paper:
1. This Paper Basically Describes SaaS which is a major feature of cloud computing.
2. Moreover Ìt Gives an Ìn depth Ìnsight into a New Approach named vSaaS for Providing This
Ìmportant Feature of Cloud Computing.








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. BRIEF THEORY

Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer
network, such as applications, databases, file services, email, etc. Ìn the traditional model of
computing, both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer; in cloud computing,
the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating
system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring
on a network of computers far away. Common shorthand for a provided cloud computing service (or
even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud".
The most common analogy to explain cloud computing is that of public utilities such as electricity,
gas, and water. Just as centralized and standardized utilities free individuals from the difficulties of
generating electricity or pumping water, cloud computing frees users from certain hardware and
software installation and maintenance tasks through the use of simpler hardware that accesses a
vast network of computing resources (processors, hard drives, etc.). The sharing of resources
reduces the cost to individuals.
The phrase "cloud computing¨ originated from the cloud symbol that is usually used by flow charts
and diagrams to symbolize the internet. The principle behind the cloud is that any computer
connected to the internet is connected to the same pool of computing power, applications, and files.
Users can store and access personal files such as music, pictures, videos, and bookmarks or play
games or use productivity applications on a remote server rather than physically carrying around a
storage medium such as a DVD or thumb drive. Almost all users of the internet may be using a form
of cloud computing though few realize it. Those who use web-based email such
as Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo, a Company owned email, or even an e-mail client program such
as Outlook, Evolution, Mozilla Thunderbird or Entourage that connects to a cloud email server.
Hence, utilizing desktop applications to connect to your cloud email is still considered a cloud
application.
CIoud computing shares characteristics with:
1. Autonomic computing ÷ computer systems capable of self-management.
2. Client÷server model ÷ client÷server computing refers broadly to any distributed
application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters
(clients).
3. Grid computing ÷ "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super
and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers
acting in concert to perform very large tasks."
4. Mainframe computer ÷ powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical
applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer
statistics, enterprise, and financial transaction processing.
5. Utility computing ÷ the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and
storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity.¨
6. Peer-to-peer ÷ distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with
participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast
to the traditional client÷server model).
7. Service-oriented computing ÷ Cloud computing provides services related to computing while,
in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques
that operate on software-as-a-service.



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Key Characteristics:
Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological
infrastructure resources.
Application Programming Ìnterface (APÌ) accessibility to software that enables machines to
interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between
humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APÌs.
Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital
expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as
infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-
time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained
with usage-based options and fewer ÌT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser
regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As
infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Ìnternet, users
can connect from anywhere.
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus
allowing for:
Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate,
electricity, etc.)
Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-
levels)
Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10÷20%
utilized.
Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well designed cloud
computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-
service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads.
Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed
using web services as the system interface.
Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources,
etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of
security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems,
in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many
customers cannot afford. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is
distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems which
are being shared by unrelated users. Ìn addition, user access to security audit logs may be
difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain
control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be
installed on each user's computer. They are easier to support and to improve, as the changes
reach the clients instantly.







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. SUMMARY

. CIoud Computing and SOA:
Cloud computing and SOA are related, specifically, SOA is an architectural pattern that
guides business solutions to create, organize and reuse its computing components. On the other
hand cloud computing is a set of enabling technology that services bigger, more flexible platforms
for enterprise to build their SOA solutions. Several initiatives has been made in bridging SOA and
cloud computing.





.. Layered Architecture of SOCCA:
SOCCA is a layered architecture .Ìndividual Cloud Provider Layer this layer resembles the
current cloud implementations. Each cloud provider builds its own data centers that power the cloud
services it provides. Each cloud may have its own proprietary virtualization technology or utilize
open source virtualization technology, such as Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus is an open-source cloud
computing framework that uses computational and storage infrastructure commonly available to
academic research groups to provide a platform that is modular and open to experimental
instrumentation and study.
Eucalyptus is composed of several components that interact with one another through well-defined
interfaces, inviting researchers to replace our implementations with their own or to modify existing
modules. This is similar to Market Oriented Cloud Architecture in which a request dispatcher works
with Virtual Machine Monitor and Service /App Governance Service to allocate the request to the
available resources. The distinction from current cloud
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Ìmplementations is that the cloud computing resources in SOCCA are componentized into
independent services such as Storage Service, Computing Service and Communication
Service, with one-standardized interfaces, so they can be combined with services from other cloud
providers to build cross platform virtual computer on the cloud.

.. CIoud OntoIogy Mapping Layer:
Cloud providers might not conform to the standards rigidly; they might also have
implemented extra features that are not included in the standards. Cloud Ontology Mapping Layer
exists to mask the differences among the different individual cloud providers and it help the
migration of cloud application from one cloud provider and it can help the migration from one cloud
to another.
Several important ontology systems are needed:

1. Storage Ontology: Ìt defines the concepts and terms related to data manipulation on the clouds
2. Computing Ontology: Ìt defines the concept and terms related to distribute computing on the
clouds.
3. Communication Ontology: Ìt defines and terms related Communication schema among cloud the
cloud, such as data encoding schema, message routing.

Cloud Broker Layer: Cloud brokers serve as the agents between individual cloud providers and
SOA layer. Each major cloud service has an associated service broker type. Generally, cloud
brokers need to fulfil the following tasks:

1. Cloud Provider Ìnformation Publishing: Ìndividual cloud providers publish specifications and
pricing info to the cloud brokers.

2. Ranking: Like the service brokers in SOA, cloud brokers also rank the cloud resources published.
Services can be ranked in several categories such as price, reliability, availability, and security, etc.

3. Dynamic SLA Negotiation: Business is often dynamic, and the ÌT infrastructure has to be adaptive
to accommodate the business needs, therefore to achieve the optimal ROÌ (Return of Ìnvestment).
Ìt's often the case that the ÌT resources a business demands can be predicted.

4. On-Demand Provision Model: Most services experience seasonal or other periodic demand
variation as well as some unexpected demand bursts due to external events. The only way to
provide "on-demand¨ services, is to provision for them in advance. Accurate demand prediction and
provision become critical for the successful of the cloud computing, which reduces the waste of
utility purchase and can therefore save money using utility computing. We are investigating a
demand prediction model and model the evolution of multi-tenant as a discrete time stochastic
process.












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. MuIti-tenancy Architecture (MTA):
SOCCA allows 3 different main multi-tenancy patterns. Authors discussed the left
two multitenancy patterns: Multiple Application Ìnstance (MAÌ) and Single Application Ìnstance
(SAÌ). The authors pointed out, the former does not scale as well as the latter, but it provides better
isolation among different tenants. Within SOCCA, a new multitenant pattern becomes possible:
Single Application Ìnstance and Multiple Service Ìnstances (SAÌMSÌ).The motivation behind this
pattern is that the workloads are often not distributed evenly among application components, and
the performance of the single application instance is limited by the application components having
lower throughput. Moreover, to enhance scalability, we want to reduce unnecessary duplications as
much as possible as opposed to Multiple Application Ìnstances pattern. The example application is
composed by A, B, C, three services with C being the computing intensive component. With C being
the bottleneck to support multiple tenants, 3 instances of C are created to balance the workloads.
Note that the 3 instances of the services can also reside on different clouds.
.










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Better scalability is not only benefit from the SAÌMSÌ pattern, easy customizability is another gain.
Suppose in the sample application, C is a payment service. Different tenants might have different
payment method requirements, such as credit card, PayPal, or check. The application runtime
environment (not described in this paper) will direct users of each tenant to the correct service
instance according to tenants' individual configuration. Ìn the case that a future tenant has a
payment requirement that cannot be met by the existing service instances, say money order, an
according service instance can be easily plugged into the existing service instances group. The
upcoming papers on multi-tenancy from our research group will provide more details on this topic.









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. SaaS and Some ProbIems with SaaS ImpIementation:
Ìn recent years, the Software as a Service (SaaS), largely enabled by the Ìnternet, has become an
innovative software delivery model for enterprise and individuals to complete some business related
tasks or personal tasks. Using the SaaS delivery model, software access has been simplified.
However, there still exist three kinds of problems: First, the various legacy software is designed and
developed for the desktop computer environment. Ìf we want to make software web-accessible by
multiple users, the redevelopment, even the redesign work, could turn out to be a massive work.
Second, most current SaaS systems provide the software in the form of Web-based applications.
The user experience and interaction is generally limited due to the presentation capability of Web-
based software. Ìn order to improve the interaction capability, extensions have been made to the
HTTP and web protocols by some browsers. However these extensions will bring other compatibility
problems between Web -based applications and browsers. Third, user data are stored and
processed on the Ìnternet even on the same server. Moreover, the security of the user data as well
as the user's privacy comes to be a new challenge.

.. Benefits Of The vSaaS Approach:
Cloud computing is a newly developed computing model, which could use resources over Ìnternet
to finish the task by enterprise and personal. Compared with existing approaches, vSaaS can be
beneficial in several ways. With the introduction of the virtual execution layer, the existing legacy
software can be adopted without redevelopment or redesign work. The deployment work in the
backend resource pool is dynamically conducted in an on-demand way without pre-installation.
Moreover, we have a virtual display layer to separate the execution from the presentation of the
software. Users can use different clients to access the software without consider the compatibility
and performance problems.

.. HighIights of A vSaaS System:
Software Dynamic Deployment:-Ìn vSaaS system, software is provided as a service through the
Ìnternet. The software are deployed and executed on the back-end resource pool. Since different
users will have different software usage requirement, it will be a big cost to maintain the dedicate
environment for each user. Besides, the software may be conflict in the same environment due to
libraries lack or version conflict. Benefiting from the OS-level virtualization, the software can be
dynamically deployed and executed without installing them on the running environment.

.. Streaming DeIivery of Software:
Another benefit bring by the OS-level virtualization technology can be seen when the software is
executed on the back-end resource pool, virtualized software can be launched without a fully
download process. During the launch and execution processes, the needed part of the software can
be delivered to the execution environment in a streaming manner.

.. Desktop Merging:
Each user will have a virtual display instance. Virtual display instance is a virtual desktop, which can
be used to merge all the presentation windows of software instances. After installing the client on
the device, it will merge the virtual desktop together with the local desktop. Therefore, any remote
running virtual software will just act like it is running locally.

..5 MobiIe Device:
Access The software in our system is executed in the back-end resource pool, so there would not
be any capability and version dependency on the client device system. Users can use their mobile
devices easily to access the virtual display instance through the agent. Although a mobile client may
sometime lose connection to the virtual display instance due to network problem, it will keep the
status to wait until the client reconnects.

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To evaIuate the functionaIity and performance of the vSaaS, we conduct experiments with
four aspects in the reaI iVIC environment to expIain the system behaviors. These
experiments cover the major features of the vSaaS System. Besides, a comprehensive
anaIysis based on the experiment resuIts is presented.

Our experiment environment is based on an iVÌC resource pool consisting of thirty-two blade server
boxes, each with 2 Ìntel Xeon E5405(quad -core) 2.00GHz CPU, 4GB RAM, 73GB SATA hard disk,
Debian Lenny(Linux kernel 2.6.26) operation system installed. All these nodes are interconnected
with a gigabit Ethernet. We have also used a laptop with Ìntel Duo2 Core 2.4GB, 2GB RAM as a
user client to access the software.

To evaluate the functions of software dynamic deployment and launch, we select 10 typical software
for this experiment. All 10 software cover fields on daily-used software, such as, ÌM, network
download tool, graphic editor, office suite and games. Ìn this experiment, each software is
dynamically deployed in a streaming way in the environment.

Ìnitial Launch Bytes:-Here the initial launch bytes percentage of all software is collected. As shown
in Figure Below, the software does not need the whole package to startup. Part of the package
would be enough to launch the software. The average launch size percentage of the whole package
bytes is about 10% to 20%, so our approaches have highly reduced the software deployment time
to accelerate the launch of the software.
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We also perform a further experiment on the software loading process analysis. Ìn this part,
system log recorder is used to record all the file streaming related activities during the
software launch. From the Figure 4, X axis is the logarithm of elapsed time(seconds), we can
see that the 4 sample software, filezilla, medit ,skype and gpaint, have different launch
curved shapes, because the dynamic libraries struts and sizes of the two samples are not
the instinct. We also notice that there is still certain time-span before the launch finish during
this idle time-span; the percentage of the package byes do not increase. So further, we can
apply software prefetch feature to the software streaming in this idle time-span to accelerate
the following execution of the software.
Shows that the network delay has a highly effect on software launch time
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The third experiment is about the overhead of the OS-level virtualization in our system. The
introducing of virtualization of core operation system components will increase the software
launch time and execution latency. We use the launch time as the metric of the overhead. As
shown in Table Ì: the delta of virtualized launch time and original launch time are at 0.1s
level. This latency time caused by the overhead is acceptable in the real user scenarios. Ìf
the package download time and installation time of original launch method is considered, the
vSaaS launch method is faster than the original launch method.

TABLE Ì. OVERHEAD OF OS-LEVEL VÌRTUALÌZATÌON

Softwar
e
Original
Launch Virtualized
Delta(s)

Time (s)
Launch Time
(s)


skype 0.461 0.653 0.192

gpaint 0.191 0.358 0.167

medit 0.286 0.600 0.314

filezilla 1.139 1.535 0.396

scite 1.139 0.096 0.017

dvd95 0.181 0.356 0.175


Figure 5 shows the experiment about the effect of network delay on the software
launch time. Ìn this experiment, we have varied the network delay condition in through
our network device and measured the impact on the software launch. The network
round-trip delay time is set from 1ms to 10ms. The result





















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5. PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION

InstaII the GoogIe App Engine NetBeans PIugin.

Follow the instructions given below:
1. Start NetBeans.
2. Note the NetBeans version number.
3. Click Tools ->Plugin
4. Select the Settings tab.
5. Click the add button.
6. Type "App Engine¨ (w/o quotes) into the Name field.
7. Ìf using NetBeans 6.7 paste
http://kenai.com/projects/nbappengine/downloads/download/1.0_NetBeans671/updat
es.xml into the URL field.
8. Click the OK button.
9. Click on available Plugins.
10. Select the Google App Engine plugins.
11 Click Ìnstall button.




























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. CONCLUSION

Understanding a technical area as complex as cloud computing is not easy and requires
identifying its fundamental characteristics. Clear concepts and terminology into cloud
computing help but do not entirely solve the problem of how to design, develop and adopt a
cloud computing system. Although based on previous research in HPC, virtualization, utility
computing and grid computing, cloud computing still has its own characteristics which make
cloud computing be cloud computing not anything else. This paper discusses the
characteristics of cloud computing. The conceptional service oriented characteristic
abstracts the details of cloud computing implementation. The loose coupling and strong fault
tolerant stand for the main technical characteristics. Owning the business model is the key
differentiation compared with other academic researches and helps cloud computing
flourishing. The ease use user experience characteristic helps cloud computing being widely
accepted by non-computer experts. We believe that these characteristics expose the
essential of cloud computing and the development and adoption of this evolving technology
will benefit from our work.

This paper proposed a service-oriented cloud computing architecture SOCCA that allows an
application to run on different clouds and interoperate with each other. The SOCCA is a 4
layer architecture that supports both SOA and cloud computing. SOCCA supports easy
application migration from one cloud to another and service redeployment to different clouds
by separating the roles of service logic provider and service hosting/cloud providers. Ìt
promotes an open platform on which open standards, ontology are embraced. The paper
also introduced related topics for future research, such as service demand prediction and
SLA negotiation, and service request dispatching algorithms.

Ìn this paper, we present the vSaaS, a platform of a virtual personal desktop environment
base on OS-level virtualization and remote display technologies. The design principle and
the highlight features of the vSaaS are detailed and a prototype solution is introduced. We
have deployed the system in the real iVÌC environment and performed a set of experiments.
The result shows the feasibility and effectiveness of our solution.


















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. FUTURE SCOPES


As a part of the future work, first, we'd like to get detail of each characteristic especially the
inner technologies. Second, we have more than ten years' experience in HPC area and wish
to syncretize the HPC into cloud computing. Third, the evaluation of cloud services is an
interesting and valuable research subject.

The on-going work in This Field is focusing on the following three aspects: First, high-
availability and fault-tolerance of the vProcess instance execution. Second, addition of
prediction functions to the virtual software execution, thus accelerating the startup and
execution of software. Third, Support for Ì/O device virtualization in the system. Ìt is also very
important for the software execution. Local devices can be virtualized and easily been
accessed from the virtual software instances.








































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Services Computing (SCC07), Chicago, July, 2007

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