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# Mathematics MATH 1111

UNIT 1

## FURTHER DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION

Unit Structure 1.0 1.1 1.2 Overview Learning Objectives Further Differentiation 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3 Review Logarithmic Differentiation Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions Parametric Differentiation Taylor and Maclaurin Series

Further Integration 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 Integrals Involving Trigonometric Functions Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions Integrals with a Quadratic in the Denominator Integration by Parts

Unit 1

## Mathematics MATH 1111

1.0

OVERVIEW

The objective of this Unit is to introduce further methods of differentiation and integration. The main contents are as follows:

Logarithmic differentiation. Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions. Parametric differentiation. Taylor and Maclaurin series. Integrals involving trigonometric functions. Integrals involving inverse trigonometric functions. Integration by parts. General properties of the definite integral.

1.1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. Logarithmic differentiation.

2.

## Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions.

3.

Parametric differentiation.

4.

5.

## Integration of and involving inverse trigonometric functions.

6.

Integration by parts.

Unit 1

## 1.2 FURTHER DIFFERENTIATION 1.2.1 Review

Let n be a constant, u and v be functions of x.
Table 1.1: 1 Differentiation

y = xn

dy = nx n 1 dx
dy = n( f ( x)) n 1 f ( x) dx f ( x) = df ( x) df = dx dx

y = ( f ( x)) n
y = uv

dy dv du =u +v dx dx dx d2y d 2v du dv d 2u =u 2 +2 +v 2 dx dx dx 2 dx dx

## Product rule for

dy dx

y=

u v

dy = dx

du dv u dx dx 2 v

Quotient Rule

dy dx dx dy =1 , =1 dx dy dy dx
dy dy dz dy = dz = dx dz dx dx dz
1 d ln x 1 d ln f ( x) = , = f ( x) dx x dx f ( x)

y is a function of x only
Chain Rule given that y and x are functions of z Natural log Exponential functions and a > 0 of

7 8

d (e x ) de f ( x ) d (a x ) = ex , = a x ln a = e f ( x ) f ( x) , dx dx dx d sin( x) d cos( x) d tan( x) = cos( x) , = sin( x) , = sec 2 ( x) dx dx dx d sin( f ( x)) d cos( f ( x)) = cos( f ( x)) f ( x) , = sin( f ( x)) f ( x) , dx dx d tan( f ( x)) = sec 2 ( f ( x)) f ( x) dx

9 10

Trigonometric functions

11

d dg ( y ) dy dy g ( y) = = g ( y ) dx dy dx dx

Implicit functions

Unit 1

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Integration 1
x n +1 + c, n 1 n x dx = n + 1 ln x + c, n = 1

x dx = ln x + c
2
(ax + b) n +1 + c, n 1 (n + 1)a n (ax + b) dx = 1 ln ax + b + c, n = 1 a Can be applied to power of a linear expression in x only

v dx dx = uv u dx dx
f ' ( x) df ( x) = ln f ( x) + c dx f ( x) f ( x) f ' ( x) f ( x) dx = 2 f ( x) + C

du

dv

Integration by parts

Function

derivative

## in numerator Function derivative in numerator

x x ax + b e dx = e + c , e dx =

ax 1 ax +b e + c , a x dx = +c a ln a

Exponentials

2

Table 1.2

## cos(ax + b)dx = sec

2

Trigonometry

(ax + b)dx =

Tables 1.1-1.3 summarises all the basic formulae and rules that students need to know before going deep through advanced differentiation and integration.

Unit 1

## d2y d 2v d 2u u 2 +v 2 . dx 2 dx dx d 2x = sin y ; dy 2 d2y 1 sin y dx 2 but,

4 5

2 x dx

2 x +1 +C x +1 cos x 2 +C. 2x
2

2 sin x dx

x2

ex dx +c 2x
Table 1.3

## 1.2.2 Logarithmic Differentiation

When a function consists of a number of factors it is often convenient to take logarithms before differentiating. This will transform the problem of differentiating a product into that of

differentiating a sum. A similar method can be applied to find the derivative of the function y = u v , where u and v are functions of x.

Unit 1

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 1
( x 2 + 1)1 / 2 ( x 1) Find the derivative w.r.t. x of . ( x + 1) 3 / 2
2

Step 1: Let

( x 2 + 1)1 / 2 ( x 1) y= . ( x + 1) 3 / 2

Then

## Step 2: Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

1 dy 1 2 x 2 3 = + 2 y dx 2 x + 1 x 1 2( x 1) 3x 3 + 7 x 2 x + 7 2( x 2 + 1)( x 1)( x + 1)

Step 3: Make

dy subject of formula dx
2

## ( x 2 + 1)1 / 2 ( x 1) 3x 3 + 7 x 2 x + 7 dy = . dx 2( x 2 + 1)( x 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1) 3 / 2

(3x 3 + 7 x 2 x + 7) ( x 1) . 2( x 2 + 1)1 / 2 ( x + 1) 5 / 2

Example 2

Find

d x (a ), a > 0 . dx Let y = a x .

Step 1:

Unit 1

Step 2:

1 dy = ln a y dx

dy = a x ln a dx

## Note: (i) (ii)

d x 2 = 2 x ln 2 dx d t 19 = 19 t ln 19 . dt

Example 3

## Differentiate x sin x + (ln x) x w.r.t. x.

Note: We cant take logs directly since ln[ x sin x + (ln x) x ] ln x sin x + ln [(ln x) x ] .

Step 1: Step 2:

## Let y1 = x sin x , y 2 = (ln x) x , so that

dy dy d sin x [x + (ln x) x ] = 1 + 2 . dx dx dx

Unit 1

## dy1 1 = x sin x sin x + ln x cos x dx x

1 dy 2 1 1 = x. . + ln (ln x) y 2 dx ln x x

Also,

Step 3:

dy 2 1 = (ln x) x + ln (ln x) dx ln x

Activity 1

1.

## Differentiate w.r.t. x each of the following: ( x + 2) 2 ( x + 3) 3 ( x + 4) 4 ;

(i)

(ii)

x 1 ; x +1

(iii)

x 1 ( x + 1) ; x2 +1

(iv)

ax

+9

, a > 0;

(v)

2.

Unit 1

## Differentiation 1 d [cot( x)] = cos ec 2 ( x) dx

Proof
1 d tan( x) d [cot( x)] = dx dx 2 1 sec x = = 2 = cos ec 2 ( x) 2 tan x sin x

## d [cos ec ( x)] = cos ec ( x) cot( x) dx

1 d d [cos ec( x)] sin( x) = dx dx 1 cos x cos x = = = cos ec( x) cot( x) 2 sin x sin x sin x d [sec ( x)] = sec ( x) tan( x) . dx

Exercise:

Prove that

Table 1.4 Principal values of inverse trigonometric functions sin 1 ( x) , cos 1 ( x) and tan 1 ( x) .

Remark: Inverse trigonometric functions are not the reciprocals of the trig functions, i.e.,

sin 1 x

## 1 1 , etc. , tan 1 x sin x tan x

The principal values of sin 1 x are values of = sin 1 x for which the trigonometric function

x = sin( ) is a one to one function such that it inverse exists. Similar interpretation can be made
for the other trigonometric inverse functions.

Unit 1

Principle values

1 2 3

1 x 1

= sin 1 x

1 x 1
< x <

0 = cos 1 x

## < = tan 1 x <

Table 1.5

Figure 1.1-1.3 demonstrate relationship between trigonometry and inverse trigonometry for sin 1 ( x) , cos 1 ( x) and tan 1 ( x) .

Figure 1.1

Unit 1

10

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

Unit 1

11

## Mathematics MATH 1111

We next consider the differentiation of some important inverse trigonometry functions: Let a be a positive constant such that x a (i) (ii) (iii ) (iv) (v) (vi)
d x sin 1 = dx a d x cos 1 = dx a

1
a x 1
2 2 2

, ,

x <a
x <a

a x d 1 1 1 x tan = 2 dx a a a + x2 d 1 cot 1 x = dx 1+ x2 d 1 se 1 x = , d x x2 1
2

x >1 x >1

d cose d

x=

1
2

x x 1 Table 1.6

Example 4: Proof:

Prove that

d x sin 1 = dx a

1 a2 x2

## x , then x = a sin y a Step 2: Differentiating x w.r.t to y, we have

Step 1: Let y = sin 1

dx x = a cos y = a 1 sin 2 y = a 1 dy a
Step 3: Using

dy dx =1 , we have dx dy 1 1 dy =a =a = 2 dx a2 x2 x 1 a2 a

1 a2 x2

Unit 1

12

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 5: Proof:

Prove that

d x a tan 1 = 2 . dx a a x2

## x , then x = a tan y a Step 2: Differentiating x w.r.t to y, we have

Step 1: Let y = tan 1

dx x = a sec 2 y = a (1 tan 2 y ) = a (1 ) dy a
Step 3: Using

dy dx =1 , we have dx dy 1 1 a dy = = 2 = . 2 2 2 dx a x2 a x x ) a(1 ) a ( a2 a
d 1 cos ec 1 x = , x > 1. dx x x2 1

Example 6: Proof:

Prove that

## Step 1: Let y = cos ec 1 x , then x = cos ec y Step 2: Differentiating x w.r.t to y, we have

dx = cos ec y cot y = cos ec y cos ec 2 y 1 = x x 2 1 dy dy dx Step 3: Using =1 , we have dx dy dy 1 where x = cos ec y > 1 = dx x x 2 1

Unit 1

13

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 7
4 x2 ) 4 dy If y = sin 1 4 + x 2 , show that dx = 4 + x 2 . Solution: Note: The function is quite complicate and its preferable to use a substitution which allows us to apply the chain rule. 4 x2 ) 1 Step 1: Let u = 4 + x 2 , so that y = sin u , or u = sin y .

Then,
du = cos y = 1 sin 2 x = 1 u 2 dy 4 x2 = 1 4 + x2
Step 2:

4x = 4 + x2

Also,
Step 3:

du (4 + x 2 )(2 x) (4 x 2 )(2 x) 16 x = = 2 2 dx (4 + x ) (4 + x 2 ) 2

## Now, using the chain rule

dy dy du du du = = 1 dx du dx dy dx dy 16 x = dx (4 + x 2 ) 2

4x 4 = 2 4+ x 4 + x2

Unit 1

14

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 8
1 x2 If y = cos 1 1+ x2 2 dy , show that . = dx 1 + x 2

Since the function is rather complicated, well use a substitution and the chain rule. 1 x2 , so that y = cos 1 u , or u = cos y . Let, u = 2 1+ x Then,
du = sin y = 1 cos 2 y = 1 u 2 dy
1 x2 = 1 1+ x2 2x = . 1+ x2
2

Also,

du d 1 x 2 = dx dx 1 + x 2

(1 + x 2 ) (2 x) (1 x 2 ) (2 x) = (1 + x 2 ) 2
= 4x . (1 + x 2 ) 2

## Now, using the chain rule

dy dy du du du = = 1 dx du dx dy dx

(1 + x 2 ) 4x 2x (1 + x 2 ) 2

2 . 1+ x2

Unit 1

15

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 9
cx cos 1 b , x < 1 , c, b are constants, then (b 2 c 2 x 2 ) y 3c 2 y x c 2 y = 0 . Show that if y = b2 c2 x2

Note: Its preferable to rearrange the function in order to avoid a complex quotient rule.
Step 1:

cx y (b 2 c 2 x 2 ) = cos 1 . b

## Step 2: Differentiate both sides w.r.t. x:

2c 2 x 2 (b 2 c 2 x 2 )

+ y (b 2 c 2 x 2 ) =

c cx b 1 b c b2 c2 x2
2

Step 3: We now clear square roots before differentiating again. So, multiplying by

b2 c2 x2

throughout, we have
c 2 yx + y (b 2 c 2 x 2 ) = c y (b 2 c 2 x 2 ) c 2 yx = c

i.e.,

(b 2 c 2 x 2 ) y c 2 xy = c

## Step 4: Differentiating w.r.t. x,

(b 2 c 2 x 2 ) y + y (2c 2 x) c 2 xy c 2 y = 0 ,

or,

(b 2 c 2 x 2 ) y 3c 2 y x c 2 y = 0 .

Unit 1

16

Example 10

Show that if y =

sin 1 x 1 x
2

## , x < 1 , then (1 x 2 ) y ' ' 3 x y ' y = 0 .

Here its better to rearrange the function to avoid using the quotient rule.

Thus, we write

y 1 x 2 = sin 1 x .

## Now differentiate both sides w.r.t. x:

1 2 1 x2

(2 x) + 1 x 2 y ' =

1 1 x2

We now clear square roots before differentiating again. So, multiplying by we have xy + (1 x 2 ) y ' = 1

1 x 2 throughout,

i.e.,

(1 x 2 ) y ' xy = 1

or,

Unit 1

17

Activity 2

1.

(ii)

1 x2 sin 1 1+ x2

(iii)

2.

## If y = x tan 1 x show that

( x + x 3 ) y ' = y (1 + x 2 ) + x 2 ,

Unit 1

18

## 1.2.4 Parametric Differentiation

Suppose that if x and y are given in terms of a parameter t, then the chain rule gives the derivative of y w.r.t. x as shown in the table below:

## Derivative of y w.r.t x First (1st )

Chain Rule dy dy dy dt = = dt dx dx dt dx dt
d [K] d [K] d [K] dt = = dt dx dx dt dx dt

Second (2nd)

dy d d y d dy dt dx == = = 2 dx dx dt dx dx
2

dy d dx dt

dx dt

Third (3rd)

d 2 y d 2 dx dt d3y d d2y = 2 = == 3 dx dx dt dx dx

d 2 y d 2 dx dt

dx dt

M
d n 1 y d n 1 dx dt d n y d d n 1 y = n 1 = == n dx dx dt dx dx d n 1 y d n 1 dx dt dx dt

nth

## Table 1.7 Example 11: Let x = cos 5t , y = sin 5t . Then, since

dy = 5 cos 5t , dt

dx = 5 sin 5t , dt

Unit 1

19

## d2y . We use the chain rule again: dx 2

d 2 y d dy = dx 2 dx dx

d dy dt dt dx dx d dy dx . dt dx dt

## Similarly, for the 3rd derivative we have

d3y d d2y = dx 3 dx dx 2 d d 2 y dt dt dx 2 dx

d d2y dt dx 2

dx . dt

Unit 1

20

## d2y d = ( cot 5t ) (5 sin 5t ) dx 2 dt

5 cosec 2 5t = 5 sin 5t
= cosec 3 5t ;

## d3y d = ( cosec 3 5t ) (5 sin 5t ) dx 3 dt = 3 cot 5t cosec 4 5t .

Activity 3

Find

d2y if dx 2

(i) (ii)

x = sec 2t , y = tan 2t ;
x = 3 cos t cos 3t , y = 3 sin t sin 3t .

Unit 1

21

## 1.2.5 Taylor and Maclaurin Series

We shall now briefly look at the representation or expansion of certain functions in power series. A power series in x is simply an infinite series of the form
a 0 + a1 x + a 2 x 2 + a3 x 3 + a 4 x 4 + L + a r x r + L ,

## where the ai s are constants not all zero.

We assume that our functions are continuous, single-valued and have continuous derivatives up to the nth order in a given interval.

Taylor Series
This is a representation of a function f ( x) by a power series in ( x a) ; i.e., we are expanding

f ( x) = f (a) +

( )

## An equivalent form of the series is obtained by putting x = a + h in ( )

f ( a + h) = f ( a ) +

Unit 1

22

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Maclaurin Series
This is a special case of Taylors series obtained by putting a = 0 in ( )

f ( x) = f (0) +

## i.e., we are now expanding the function about the origin.

It is clear that not all functions can have series expansions as they or their derivatives may not exist (i.e., they are infinite) at x = a or at x = 0 . Thus 1 / x, ln x, cot x do not have Maclaurin series as they are all infinite at the origin. However, they can be expanded about some other point.

Finally, we note that both Taylor and Maclaurin series do not generally converge for all values of x, but only within a restricted range of values of x.

## Let us first consider a few examples of Maclaurin series.

Example 12

f ( x) = e x

We have

f ( x) = e x f ' ( x) = e x

f (0) = 1
f ' (0) = 1

M
f ( n ) ( x) = e x

M
f ( n ) (0) = 1

Unit 1

23

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Hence,
ex = 1+ x + x2 x3 x4 xn + + +K+ +K 2! 3! 4! n!

This is known as the Exponential series and is valid for all values of x.
Example 13

f ( x) = sin x
We have

f ( x) = sin x f ' ( x) = cos x f ' ' ( x) = sin x f ' ' ' ( x) = cos x

f (0) = 0 f ' (0) = 1 f ' ' (0) = 0 f ' ' ' (0) = 1

The values of the derivatives at x = 0 form cycles of 0, 1, 0, 1 . Hence (1) n 1 x 2 n 1 x3 x5 x7 +K + +K+ 3! 5! 7 ! (2n 1)!

sin x = x

This is the sine series and is valid for all values of x (in radians). Similarly, (1) n 1 x 2 n 2 x2 x4 x6 + K. + +K+ 2! 4! 6! (2n 2) !

cos x = 1

This is the cosine series and is valid for all values of x (in radians). Likewise we have

Unit 1

24

tan x = x +

## x 3 2 x 5 17 x 7 + + + K, < x < ; 3 15 315 2 2

(1) n 1 x n x2 x3 x4 ln(1 + x) = x + +K+ + K, 1 < x 1 . 2 3 4 n We shall now expand about some other point. Thus, we shall be finding the Taylor series of the function about the given point.
Example 14

Find e x / 5 in powers of ( x 5) .

Here we are expanding the function e x / 5 about the point x = 5 , i.e., finding its Taylor expansion about x = 5 . Well use ( ).
f ( x) = e x / 5 f (5) = e

So,

## f ' (5) = 1 e 5 f ' ' (5) =

1 25

ex/5

1 25

e.

1 1 ( x 5) 2 1 ( x 5) n 1 + K + n 1 + K . e x / 5 = e 1 + ( x 5) + 25 2! (n 1) ! 5 5

Unit 1

25

Example 15

## Find the Taylor expansion of ln x about x = 3 up to and including the term in x 4 .

f ( x) = ln x
f ' ( x) = 1 / x

f (3) = ln 3
f ' (3) = 1 / 3

f ' ' ( x) = 1 / x 2

## f ' ' ' (3) = 2 / 27

f iv ( x) = 6 / x 4

f iv (3) = 2 / 27 .

## Hence, using ( ), we obtain 1 1 ( x 3) 2 2 ( x 3) 3 2 ( x 3) 4 ln x = ln 3 + ( x 3) + +K 3 9 2! 27 3! 27 4 ! = ln 3 +

Example 16

( x 3) ( x 3) 2 ( x 3) 3 ( x 3) 4 + + K. 3 18 81 324

## If y = (sin 1 x) 2 , prove that

(1 x 2 ) d2y dx
2

dy 2 = 0. dx

Hence using Maclaurins expansion, prove that the first two non-zero terms in the expansion of
(sin 1 x) 2 are

x2 +

1 4 x . 3

Unit 1

26

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Solution: y = (sin 1 x) 2

## Differentiating y w.r.t x dy 1 = 2(sin 1 x) or dx 1 x2 Again, differentiating w.r.t x

1 x2 (1 x 2 ) (1 x 2 ) d2y dx
2

1 x2

dy =2 y dx

dy 1 dy (1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 (2 x) = y 1 / 2 or dx 2 dx dy dy = y 1 / 2 1 x 2 dx dx dy = 2 [Proven] dx

d2y dx
2

x x

d2y dx
2

## Again, differentiating w.r.t x, we have

3 3 d 2 y dy d2y d 2 y dy 2 d y 2 d y =0 (1 x ) 3 + 2 (2 x) x 2 + = 0 or (1 x ) 3 3x 2 dx dx dx dx dx dx dx

## Again, differentiating w.r.t x, we have

4 d2y d3y d3y d 2 y 2 d y 2 x 3 + (1 x ) 4 3 2 + 3x 3 2 = 0 or dx dx dx dx dx

5x

d3y dx 3

+ (1 x 2 )

d4y dx 4

d2y dx 2

=0

Evaluation of y and its derivatives: d2y d3y d4y dy = 2, 3 = 0, =8 When x = 0, then y = 0, = 0, dx dx 2 dx dx 4 Using Maclaurins Expansion, x2 x3 x4 y = (sin 1 x) 2 = y (0) + xy (0) + y + y + y + L 2! 3! 4! x2 x3 x4 =0 + 0 + (2) + (0) + (8) + L 2 6 24 x4 = x2 + + L [Proven] 3

Unit 1

27

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 17

By using the Maclaurins expansion or otherwise show that the first three terms in the expansion of ln(sec(2 x) + tan(2 x)) in powers of x are 2x +
Solution: y = ln(sec(2 x) + tan(2 x)) , y x =0 = 0

4 3 4 x5 x + . 3 3

=2
x =0

y = x 3
3

=0
x =0

[2

## dy tan 2 x] d2y y dy 3 y dy 2 2 dx = [2 2 tan 2 x] + [4 sec 2 x] = 8 tan 2 x + 4 , x x dx dx x 3 dx

=8
x =0

4 y 2 y y d2y = [8 2 tan 2 2 x] + [32 tan 2 x sec 2 2 x] + 4 2 x x 4 x dx 2 y y y d2y = [8 2 tan 2 2 x] + [32 tan 2 x] + [32 tan 3 2 x] + 4 2 x x x dx 2 y 2 y y d2y = [8 2 tan 2 2 x] + [16 2 ] + [32 tan 3 2 x] + 4 2 x x x dx 4 y x 4 =0
x =0

5 y 3 y 2 y 3 y = [8 3 tan 2 2 x] + [32 2 tan 2 x sec 2 2 x] + 16 3 + x 5 x x x 2 y y d3y [192 tan 2 2 x sec 2 2 x] + [32 2 tan 3 2 x] + 4 3 x dx x 5 y x 5 = 160
x =0

Unit 1

28

## x2 x3 x4 x5 y + y + y + y + L 2! 3! 4! 5! x3 x5 +L = 0 + 2 x + 0 + 8 + 0 + 160 3! 5! 4x3 4x5 = 2x + + + L [Proven] 3 3

= y (0) + xy (0) +

Activity 4

1.

## Show that (i) sec x = 1 + 1 2 5 4 61 6 x + x + x + K, / 2 < x < / 2 ; 2 24 720

(ii) sin 1 x = x +

1

2.

Unit 1

29

## Mathematics MATH 1111

1.3

FURTHER INTEGRATION

1

## sin x dx = cos x + C; cos x dx = sin x + C;

tan x dx = cos xdx = ln cos x + C = ln sec x + C cot x dx = sin x dx = ln sin x + C cosec x dx = ln tan( x / 2) + C = ln [cosec x cot x] + C
cos x sin x

2 3 4

Table 1.8

Prove:

## Method: Use of the method of substitution to prove the first part

Step 1: Let

2 tan A x x t = tan . Then using the identity tan 2 A = and putting A = , we get 2 2 2 1 tan A
x 2 = 2t . tan x = x 1 t 2 1 tan 2 2

2 tan

## 2t 1 t2 1+ t2 1 t2 . sin x = , cos x = , cosec x = , sec x = 2t 1+ t2 1+ t2 1+ t 2

Step 3: Also, dt =

Unit 1

30

## Mathematics MATH 1111

cosec x dx =

1+ t2 dt dt 2 = = ln t + C 2 2t t 1+ t

cosec x dx = ln tan( x / 2) + C .

Method: To be able to prove the second part we need another form for this integral which is

## deduced by trigonometrical manipulation.

x x 2 sin 2 x 2 = ln 2 [on multiplying top & bottom by 2 sin x / 2 ] ln tan = ln x x x 2 cos 2 sin cos 2 2 2

sin

## cosec x dx = ln tan( x / 2) + C = ln [cosec x cot x] + C

Prove: sec x dx = ln tan + 4 x + C = ln[sec x + tan x] + C 2

Hint: This can be found by the same substitution as above, but it is perhaps more instructive to deduce it from

## cosec x dx = ln tan 2 = ln [cosec x cot x] ,

by the substitution x =
+. 2

x

or,

Unit 1

31

## Integrals of Products of Sines and/or Cosines of Multiple Angles

Products of sines and/or cosines of multiple angles may be integrated by parts. It is however, easier to use the following trig identities, known as the Factor Formulae, to simplify the integrand before integrating.

Factor Formulae

cos ax cos bx = 1 [cos(a + b) x + cos(a b) x] 2 sin ax cos bx = 1 [sin(a + b) x + sin(a b) x] 2 sin ax sin bx = 1 [cos(a b) x cos(a + b) x] 2
Table 1.9 Example 18

(i)

1 2

(ii)

## sin 5x cos 2 x dx = (sin 7 x + sin 3x) dx

1 2

cos 7 x cos 3x +C 14 6

(iii)

## sin 3x cos 7 x dx = [sin 10 x + sin(4 x)] dx

1 2

cos10 x cos 4 x + +C 20 8

(iv)

1 2

## [Recall cos() = cos ]

= 1 [sin x 1 sin 7 x] + C . 2 7

Unit 1

32

## Integrals of the form

cos

x sin n x dx .

Well consider those integrals where m and n are integers and at least one of them is odd. The case where m and n are both even will be dealt with later in Unit 4. m odd n even Substitution to be used
u = sin x

Example 19

odd

Table 1.10

(a)

sin

x dx

Here Now,

du = sin x dx .

sin

(b)

cos

x dx

Here Now,

du = cos x dx .

cos

Unit 1

33

Example 20

sin

x cos 6 x dx

Here

du = sin x dx .

sin

Example 21

cos

x sin 4 x dx

cos

Unit 1

34

Activity 5

## Find the following integrals: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

sin 3x sin 2 x dx ;
cos 4 x cos 2 x dx ; sin 3x cos 5 x dx ; sin
2

x cos 3 x dx ; 3 x cos 5 3 x dx .

sin

## 1.3.2 Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Consider the following standard integrals:

Integration

Substitution used
x = a sin

standard integrals

1 a2 x2

dx = sin 1

x +C a

1 a2 x2

dx = cos 1

x +C a

x = a cos

a
Hint

1 1 x dx = tan 1 + C 2 a a +x
a2 X 2 a2 + X 2

x = a tan

## Presence of integrand Presence of integrand.

in in

the the

X = a sin X = a tan

Table 1.11

Unit 1

35

## We now apply these standard integrals in the following examples:

Example 22: [Direct use of the standard integrals for easier problems] (a)

dx 9 x2
dx 5 x2

dx (3) 2 x 2
dx ( 5)2 x 2

= sin 1
= sin 1

x +C ; 3
x 5 +C.

(b)

(c)

4+ x
dx

dx

1 dx x = tan 1 + C ; 2 2 2 (2) + x
2

(d)

7+x

dx ( 7) + x
2 2

1 7

tan 1

x 7

+C.

Find

dx 9 4x 2

## Solution: Step 1: We write 9 4 x 2 = 4 ( 9 x 2 ) and thus 4

9 4x 2 = 4 ( 9 x 2 ) = 2 4
9 4

x2 .

Step 2: Then,

dx 9 4x 2

dx 2
9 4

x2

1 2

dx
9 4

x2

dx 9 4x
2

==

1 2

dx
9 4

Example 24:
Unit 1

36

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Evaluate
Solution:

1/ 3 0

dx 5 7x2

Step 1:

1/ 3 0

dx 5 7x2

1/ 3 0

dx 7(5 / 7 x 2 )

1/ 3 0

dx 7 (5 / 7 x 2 )

1/ 3 0

dx (5 / 7 x 2 )

## Thus, if we consider a 2 = 5 / 7 , then a = 5 / 7 .

Step 2: Hence,

1/ 3 0

1 1 x = sin 2 7 5 / 7 0 5 7x dx
=

1/ 3

Example 25:
11 / 2

## Evaluate the following integral:

Solution:
11 / 2

1 4 x 2 + 32 x 55

dx

Step 1:

1 4 x 2 + 32 x 55 Let u =

11 / 2

dx =

1 9 4( x 4) 2

dx

Step 2:

## 2 3 ( x 4) , then dx = du and thus 3 2 1 11 / 2 1 3 1 1 9 4( x 4) 2 = 3 . 2 1 u 2 du 0 4

11 / 2

Step 3:

Hence,

1 1 dx = sin 1 (u ) 0 = 4 2 4 x 2 + 32 x 55

Unit 1

37

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 26:

Find
Solution: Step 1:

4 + 9x

dx

4 + 9 x = 9(4 / 9 + x
2

dx

dx

1 dx (4 / 9 + x 2 ) , 9

Step 2:

Hence

4 + 9x

dx

Example 27:

Find
Solution:

## 3x 2 12 x + 17 , giving your answer to 4 decimal places.

0
2 2

dx

dx 1 dx Step 1: 2 = = 2 30 0 3[ x 4 x + 17 / 3] 0 3 x 12 x + 17

dx 5 [( x 2) + 3 ]
2 2

Unit 1

38

Activity 6

(i)

1 0

dx 4 5x 2

(ii)

dt 7 6t 2

(iii)

8 + 3x
2

dx

(iv)

dz . 4z 2 + 5

Example 28:

Find

4 x 2 dx .

Solution:

## Step 1: This contains a term of the form

a 2 X 2 , with a = 2, X = x

## Let x = 2 sin such that dx = 2 cos d .

Step 2: Thus,

4 x 2 dx = 4 4 sin 2 2 cos d 39

Unit 1

## = 2 cos 2 cos d = 4 cos 2 d = 2 (1 + cos 2) d

= 2 + sin 2 + C .

Step 3:

We need to revert back to terms of x. From our substitution x = 2 sin , it follows that sin = so that = sin 1 x , and cos = 1 x 2 / 4 , and therefore 2

x , 2

## sin 2 = 2 sin cos = 2 ( x / 2) 1 x 2 / 4 = x 1 x 2 / 4 . Hence,

4 x 2 dx = 2 sin 1

x + x 1 x2 / 4 + C . 2

Unit 1

40

Example 29:

Find

3 3

dx x 9 + x2

## Solution: Step 1: Here the presence of the form

a 2 + X 2 suggests that we put x = 3 tan .

## Step 2: Then dx = 3 sec 2 d and limits becomes

x 3 3
Step 3:

= tan 1 ( x / 3)
/6 /4
sec 2 d tan 3 sec

3 3

dx x 9 + x2

/4

## 3 sec 2 d 3 tan 9 + 9 tan 2

/6

/4

/6

1 / 4 sec d 3 / 6 tan

1 /4 cosec d 3 / 6

1 4 = ln[tan( / 2)] // 6 3

Unit 1

41

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Example 30:

Find

9 4x 2 dx . x

Solution: Step 1:
9 4 x 2 = 4(9 / 4 x 2 ) = 2 ( 3 ) 2 x 2 , which now involves the form 2 a 2 X 2 ; so

we let x = 3 sin . 2
Step 2:

= 3

## = 3 ln [cosec cot ] + 3 cos + C

3 9 4x 2 = 3 ln x

+ 9 4x 2 + C .

## 1.3.3 Integrals with a Quadratic in the Denominator

In this unit we shall consider only integrals of the form
Type Procedures

(i)

ax

dx + bx + c

## If the quadratic is factorisable, then use partial fractions.

If not,

complete the square and use the appropriate standard integral result or the relevant substitution

(ii)

dx ax + bx + c
2

Whether the quadratic is factorisable or not, complete the square and use the appropriate standard integral result or the relevant substitution.

Table 1.12

Unit 1

42

Find

6x

dx . 7 x 20

## Quadratic is factorisable; so we use partial fractions:

3 2 1 1 = = 23 23 . 6 x 2 7 x 20 (2 x 5)(3 x + 4) 2 x 5 3 x + 4

3 2 dx = 23 23 dx = 6 x 2 7 x 20 2 x 5 3x + 4

1 23

(b)

Find

dx dx 4 x + 13

dx ,] +X2

Unit 1

43

(c)

Find

dx 2 + x 3x 2

dx 2 + x 3x
2

dx 3 [ (x ) ]
25 36 1 2 6

dx
25 36

(x 1 )2 6

## which is of the form

dx a2 X 2

. Hence,

dx 2 + x 3x
2

1 3

sin 1

x 1/ 6 +C 5/6

1 3

sin 1

6x 1 +C. 5

Alternatively, we could have used the substitution ( x 1 ) = 5 sin . 6 6 We shall now consider some integrals which, though not of types (i) and (ii) above, can still be worked out by an appropriate trig substitution because they contain the standard integrals.

Unit 1

44

Example 32:

x 5x 6 x 2

dx

## On completing the square we have

x 5x 6 x 2 dx = x
1 4

(x 5 )2 2

dx ,

## in which we have the form

a2 X 2 , a = 1 , 2

X = x 5 . 2

## So, here we make the substitution x 5 = 1 sin 2 2 x = 5 + 1 sin , dx = 1 cos d 2 2 2

1 4

(x 5 )2 = 2

1 4

1 sin 2 = 1 cos . 4 2

x 5x 6 x 2

dx =

5 2

## sin = 2 x 5 , so that = sin 1 (2 x 5) , and cos = 1 (2 x 5) 2 . The final answer is then

1 dx = [5 sin 1 (2 x 5) 1 (2 x 5) 2 ] + C . 2 5x 6 x 2

Unit 1

45

Example 33:

Find

dx x 4 x + 13
2

dx x 4 x + 13
2

dx =

dx 9 + ( x 2) 2

## a 2 + X 2 , a = 3, X = x 2 . So, let x 2 = 3 tan . The answer is

ln[ x 2 + x 2 4 x + 13 ] + C .

However, well see a neater way of doing this integral when we study Hyperbolic Functions!

Unit 1

46

Activity 7

## Find the following integrals: (i)

dx ; 2x + x 6
2

(ii)

5x

dx ; + 7x + 8
dx

(iii)

2 x x2

(iv)

dx (2 x)(4 + 3x)
1/ 2

(v)

dy y (1 y )
du

(vi)

1/ 2

3 + 4u 4u 2

(vii)

1 / 4

dz ; 2z + z + 1
2

(viii)

a
4

x a x dx
4

dx , [Let u = x 2 ] ;

(ix)

2 3

x x2 3

, [Let u = 1 / x ] ;

(x)

ds [Watch Out !] 3s 2s 1
2

Unit 1

47

## Integrals of the Form

dx and a sin mx + b

dx a cos mx + b

## Here we use the substitution t = tan(half angle) , i.e., t = tan

mx . 2

Refer to the method for integrating cosec x. Then dt = 2t m 1 t2 (1 + t 2 ) dx ; sin mx = , and cos mx = . 2 1+ t2 1+ t2

Example 34:

Find

5 + 4 cos 3x .
3x 3 1 t2 . Then dt = (1 + t 2 ) dx , and cos 3 x = . 2 2 1+ t2

dx

## Here, m = 3 . Let t = tan

2 dt 3 (1 + t 2 ) 2 dx dt = = 5 + 4 cos 3 x 1 t 2 3 9 + t 2 5 + 4 1+ t 2

## 2 tan 1 (t / 3) + C 9 2 3x 1 tan 1 tan + C . 9 2 3

Note: If the integrand involves sin 2 x, cos 2 x or tan 2 x , we may use the simpler substitution

## u = tan x , in which case

dx = du /(1 + u 2 ), sin 2 x = u 2 /(1 + u 2 ), cos 2 x = 1 /(1 + u 2 ) .

Unit 1

48

Example 35:

Activity 8

## Find the following integrals: (i) (ii)

3 + 2 cos 5x ; 3 + 5 cos
d d
1 2

dx

## (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)

1 + sin 3 ; 2 + 3 sin
dx dx
2

x x

; ;

3 + 4 cos
0 0

sin 2 x dx ; 4 + 3 cos 2 x
/4

## 3 cos 2 x + 2 sin 2 x dx ; 5 cos 2 x + 4 sin 2 x

tan 2 x dx ; 2 + 3 cos 2 x
/2

dx ; 3 cos x + 4 sin 2 x
2

/3

sin 2 x dx . 1 + 2 sin 2 x

Unit 1

49

## 1.3.4 Integration by Parts

Recall the product rule of differentiation d dV dU (U V ) = U +V . dx dx dx Now integrate both sides w.r.t. x

dx (UV ) dx = U

dV dU dx + V dx , dx dx

i.e.,

UV = U

dV dU dx + V dx dx dx

or,

dV dU dx = U V V dx , dx dx

or,

U dV = U V V dU

which is the well known formula used to integrate products of functions. Well now illustrate the method by a few examples.
Example 36:

Find

e 3 x dx

Unit 1

50

## Mathematics MATH 1111

2 3x

dx = x 2 1 e 3 x 3

1 3

e 3 x 2 x dx

xe

3x

dx .

## This time we choose U = x and dV = e 3 x dx , so that dU = dx and V = 1 e 3 x . 3

xe

3x

dx = x 1 e 3 x 1 e 3 x dx 3 3 = 1 xe 3 x 1 e 3 x . 3 9

Hence,

e 3 x dx = 1 x 2 e 3 x 2 ( 1 xe 3 x 1 e 3 x ) + C 3 3 3 9 =
1 27

e 3 x [9 x 2 6 x + 2] + C .

The above example shows that we sometimes have to use the method more than once to reach the result. In the next example we shall see that the integral we start out with appears again in the process.

Example 37:

Find e 2 x cos 3 x dx . Let I = e 2 x cos 3 x dx . Choose U = cos 3 x and dV = e 2 x dx , so that dU = 3 sin 3 x dx and V = 1 e 2 x . 2

Unit 1

51

3 2

2x

sin 3x dx

V = 1 e 2 x ], 2

2x

## sin 3 x dx = sin 3x 1 e 2 x 1 e 2 x 3 cos 3x dx 2 2 = 1 e 2 x sin 3x 3 e 2 x cos 3x dx [See, it appears again!] 2 2 = 1 e 2 x sin 3 x 3 I 2 2

I = 1 e 2 x cos 3 x + 3 [ 1 e 2 x sin 3 x 3 I ] 2 2 2 2

## We now collect all the I on the left I = 1 e 2 x cos 3x + 3 e 2 x sin 3 x 2 4

1 I = 13 e 2 x [2 cos 3x + 3 sin 3x] + C .

13 4

or,

Hence,

2x

Unit 1

52

## Integrals of the Inverse Trigonometry

We shall integrate by parts.
Example 38:

sin

x dx = sin 1 x 1 dx

## Here we choose U = sin 1 x and dV = 1 dx , so that dU =

1 1 x2 2x 1 x2

dx, V = x .

sin

x dx = x sin 1 x

x 1 x2

dx = x sin 1 x + 1 2

dx

= x sin 1 x + 1 x 2 + C .

Example 39:

tan

x dx

## Choose U = tan 1 x and dV = 1 dx , so that dU =

1 dx, V = x . 1+ x2

tan

x dx = x tan 1 x

x dx 1+ x2

= x tan 1 x 1 ln(1 + x 2 ) + C . 2

Activity 9
Unit 1

53

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Find the following integrals: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

3x

sin 2 x dx ;
1

x sin x e

x 2 dx ;

3 2x

## dx ; x dx ; [Hint: Let z = ln x , then integrate by parts.] ;

x tan

sin (ln x) dx
ln x x
1

dx .

1.4

SUMMARY

Having studied carefully this unit and done all the activities therein, you should now be familiar with all the techniques of differentiation and integration presented. Integration is an art and only lots of practice will enable you to be good at it. You should at a glance decide which method of integration is the most appropriate. The following supplementary exercises will help you consolidate what you have learnt so far.

Unit 1

54

## Mathematics MATH 1111

1.5
1.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
Differentiate the following functions: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (3 x + 1) 5 /( 2 x)10 ; [ x + 1 + x 2 ]n ; a x tan x + ln(1 cos 3 x) ; sin 1 [(1 + 2 sin x) /(2 + sin x)] ;
tan 1 (1 x) /(1 + x) ;

2.

## If x = 2 y tan 1 y , find the value of d 2 y / dx 2 when y = 1 .

3.

Find dy / dx if y = sin[( x + y ) 2 ] .

4.

Find d 2 y / dx 2 when (i) (ii) x = a cos 3 , y = a sin 3 ; x = a [ln cot 1 cos ], y = a sin . 2

5.

If y = sin 1 [ 1 cos x] , prove that 2 y ' ' = tan y [ y ' 2 1] If / 2 < y < / 2 , obtain the expansion of y in ascending powers of x as far as and including the term in x 2 , and show that the coefficient of x 3 is zero.

6.
Unit 1

## Mathematics MATH 1111

sec 2 ( + x) = 2 + 4 x + ax 2 + bx 3 + cx 4 + K , 4

7.

## Find the following integrals: 4x + 7

(i)

4 + ( x + 1) 1 + sin ;
1 0

dx ;

(ii)

(iii)

x sin 1 x 1 x2 dx

dx ;

(iv)

( x + 1) x 2 + 1 x dx (a x)( x b)
dx 3x + 2 x 1
2

(v)

a b

## , (a > x > b) [Let a x = (a b) cos 2 ] ;

(vi)

[Let x = 1 / u ] ;

(vii)

e 1 / x e 1 / x 1 e 1 / x dx , [Hint: = 2 2 ]; x4 x4 x x
/ 2
0

(viii)

Unit 1

56

1.6

## ANSWERS TO ACTIVITIES AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES

Activity 1

(i)

( x + 2)( x + 3) 2 ( x + 4) 3 (9 x 2 + 52 x + 72) ;

(ii)

1 ; ( x 1) ( x + 1) 3 / 2
1/ 2

(iii)

x3 x2 + 7x 1 2 x 1 ( x 2 + 1) 2

(iv)

2x a x

+9

ln a ;

(v)

(cot x) sin x [cos x ln cot x sec x] + (tan x) cos x [cosec x sin x ln tan x] .

Activity 2

1.

(i)

3 1 x2

(ii)

2 ; 1+ x2

(iii)

Unit 1

57

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Activity 3
cot 2t ;

(i)

(ii)

1 3

sec 3 2t cosec t .

Activity 4

## r cos + r 1 3 1 3 3 2 x +K. cos x = x +K+ x + x 2 2 3 2.2 ! 3 2.3! 3 r! 3

2 3

Activity 5
1 sin x 10 sin 5 x + C ;

(i)

1 2

(ii)

1 4

1 sin 2 x + 12 sin 6 x + C ;

(iii)

1 4

1 cos 2 x 16 cos 8 x + C ;

(iv)

1 3

sin 3 x 1 sin 5 x + C ; 5

(v)

1 18 cos 6 3x +

1 24

cos 8 3x + C .

Unit 1

58

## Mathematics MATH 1111

Activity 6

(i)

5 sin 1 2 x + C ; 5

(ii)

0.483039 ;

(iii)

1 2 6

tan 1 3 / 8 x + C ;

(iv)

0.0740874.

Activity 7

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

/2 ; / 12 ;

(vi)

(vii)

2 7

tan 1 7 ;

Unit 1

59

## Mathematics MATH 1111

(viii) (x)

/ 4 ; (ix)

6 3

1 ln(7 / 5) . 4

Activity 8

(i)

1 5x tan + C ; tan 1 2 5 5 5 2

(ii)

ln

C 2 + tan 1 x 4 2 tan 1 x 4

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

Unit 1

60

## Mathematics MATH 1111

(x)

1 1 tan 1 3 . 3 2 3

Activity 9

(i)

1 13

e 3 x (3 sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x) + C ;

(ii)

1 2

[ x 2 sin 1 x 2 + 1 x 4 ] + C ;

(iii)

1 8

e 2 x [4 x 3 6 x 2 + 6 x 3] + C ;

(iv)

1 2

[(1 + x 2 ) tan 1 x x] + C ;

(v)

1 2

x [sin ln x cos ln x] + C ;

(vi)

2 2 ln 2 4 2 + 4 .

Supplementary Exercises
1. (i) 5 (3 x + 1) 4 (8 + 3 x) /(2 x)11 ;

(ii)

n [ x + 1 + x 2 ]n / 1 + x 2 ;

(iii)

(iv)

3 /(2 + sin x) ;

(v)

1/ 2 1 x 2 ;

Unit 1

61

## Mathematics MATH 1111

(vi)

0;

(vii)

( x + 1 / x) x [ln( x + 1 / x) + ( x 2 1) /( x 2 + 1)] .

2.

4 / 27 .

3.

2( x + y ) cos[( x + y ) 2 ] . 1 2( x + y ) cos[( x + y ) 2 ]

4.

(i)

y' ' =

1 3a

sec 4 cosec ;

(ii)

## y ' ' = 1 sec 4 sin . a

5.

y = 1 ( 3 x 2 ) . 6

6.

a = 8, b = 40 / 3, c = 64 / 3 ; 2 + x + 7 x 2 + 4

59 24

x3 .

7.

(i)

2 ln( x 2 + 2 x + 5) + 3 tan 1 [( x + 1) / 2] + C ; 2

(ii)

2 +C; 1 + tan / 2

(iii)

x 1 x 2 sin 1 x + C ;

(iv)

2 1 / 2 ln(1 + 2 ) ; (v) (a + b) / 2 ;

(vi)

Unit 1

62