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Form 4

Chapter 3 Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane

Objective Questions

1 Figure 1(a) shows a plant cell at the start of the experiment and Figure 1(b) shows the
cell after it was immersed in a concentrated sugar solution.

(a) (b)
Figure 1
Which of the following fills up the cell area labelled X?
A Water
B Air
C Sugar solution
D Cell sap

2 Which of the following processes can occur in the hair root cell when oxygen cannot be
obtained by the cell?
A Active transport only
B Diffusion only
C Transport and osmosis
D Diffusion and osmosis

3 Plants obtain mineral ions from the soil. Which of the following is the plant’s intake
method for the mineral ions?
A Diffusion
B Osmosis
C Absorption
D Active transportation

4 Figure 2 shows the apparatus set-up that was prepared for an experiment. The solution in
beaker X and beaker Y are tested for starch and reducing sugar, at the beginning of the
experiment and after 30 minutes.

Figure 2
Table 1 shows the results obtained.
Type of test
Iodine test Benedict test
Beaker Beginning of the experiment Negative Negative
X After 30 minutes Negative Negative
Beaker Beginning of the experiment Negative Negative
Y After 30 minutes Negative Positive

Table 1
Which of the following about the experiment is not true?
A The reducing sugar molecules can move through the Visking tube
B The saliva has changed the starch into reducing sugar
C Dialysis occurs in both the beakers
D The Visking tube is a partially permeable membrane

5 In the experiment that is shown in Figure 4, the solution level in the capillary tube rises
and a white precipitate is formed. This is caused by process X and process Y

Figure 3

State process X and process Y.
Process X Process Y
A Diffusion Osmosis
B Osmosis Diffusion
C Active transport Diffusion
D Active transport Osmosis

6 What is meant by active transport?

A The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration by using energy
B The movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high
concentration by using energy
C The movement of mineral ions from the water in the soil to the hair root cell by using
D The movement of glucose form the ileum lumen into the villus blood capillaries by
using energy

7 Figure 4 shows a water filled sac that is made of partially permeable materials and a
boiling tube that is filled with sugar solution.

Figure 4
At the beginning of the experiment, the water filled sac and the boiling tube that is filled
with sugar solution is weighed separately. Then, the sac is put into the boiling tube. After
30 minutes, the sac is removed from the boiling tube and both are weighed again. Which
of the following results is the most likely to be obtained?
Mass of the sac Mass of the boiling tube and contents
A Decreases Decreases
B Decreases Increases
C Decreases No change
D Increases Decreases

8 Figure 5 shows a plant cell after it is put into a type of solution.

Figure 5
What is the conclusion that can be made about the cell?
A The plant cell is turgid
B The plant cell sap is hypertonic
C The plant cell sap loses mineral ions through osmosis
D The plant cell sap has a lower osmotic pressure

9 Which of the following processes does not involve active transport?

A The elimination of sodium chloride salt through the gills of a sea fish
B The absorption of sodium ions from the uriniferous tubule into the blood capillary
C The absorption of water from the uriniferous tubule into the blood capillary
D The absorption of mineral salts by the plant hair roots

10 Figure 6 shows four mustard stem cuttings that are immersed respectively into solutions
R, S, T and U, which have different osmotic concentrations, for 30 minutes.

Figure 6
Which of the following arrangements shows an increasing order in the solutions’ osmotic
pressure compared with the mustard stem cell sap?
A R, S, T, U C S, T, R, U
B U, R, T, S D S, U, R, T

Structure Question

The graph in Figure 1 shows the percentage of red blood cells that burst at different slat
solution concentrations.

Figure 1

According to the graph above, answer the following questions.

(a) (i) What is the percentage of salt solution concentration when the number of red blood
cells that burst is the same as the number of red blood cells that do not burst?
(ii) Why doesn’t the red blood cell burst at a salt solution concentration of 0.48g/100 cm3?
(iii) State two methods that the body uses to maintain the blood concentration so that it is
not more dilute than 0.48 g/ 100 cm3.
(b) Explain why the red blood cells burst at a salt solution concentration that is lower than
0.48 g/ 100 cm3.
(c) If the onion cells are immersed in distilled water, the cells do not burst. Why?
(d) Explain why a plant will wilt and die if it is supplied with too much fertiliser.

Essay Question

(a) Explain why

(i) the intake of a few types of mineral salts is stopped by the presence of oxygen or
the presence of respiration poison.
(ii) when a small plant is transferred to a new place, it is better if some of its leaves
is thrown away.
(b) Draw a cross-sectional diagram of a green leaf to show its cells. Label the structures that
are important for the leaf to carry out its function.


Objective Questions
1 C
2 D
3 D
4 C
5 B
6 B
7 B
8 D
9 C
10 B

Structured Question
(a) (i) 0.4 g/100 cm3
(ii) The solution is isotonic. The rate of water moving in and out of the cell is the same.
As such, the red blood cell does not burst.
(iii) 1 Sweating
2 Urinating a lot and urine is dilute

(b) The salt solution is hypotonic towards the liquid in the red blood cell. As such, the water
enters the red blood cell by osmosis and causes the volume of the cytoplasm to increase.
The plasma membrane is stretched beyond its elastic limit causing the red blood cell to

(c) This is because the onion cell has a hard cell wall and can prevent excess water from

(d) Excess fertilisers causes the soil solution to become a hypertonic solution compared with
the hair root cell sap. The water moves out from the root hair cell by osmosis causing the
plant cell to suffer from a lack of water until the enzyme in the cell can no longer

Essay Question
(a) (i) The intake of mineral salts occurs through active transportation, which requires energy
from cell respiration. A condition with a lack of oxygen or the presence of respiration
poison stops/slows down the rate of cell respiration to produce biological energy. When
the plant is transferred to a new location, part of its main root system is cut off/injured. As
such, the rate of water absorption from the soil by the small plant decreases. Cutting parts
of the leaf helps to reduce the loss of water through transpiration.