Step-by-step guide to critiquing research.

Part 2: quaiitative researcii
Frances Ryan, Michael Coughlan, Patricia Cronin
explore individuals' experiences (Vishnevsky and Beanlands. 2004) and in sonic instances the development of new theory.

As with a quantitative study, critical analysis of a qualitative study involves an in-depth review of how each step of the research was undertaken. Qualitative and quantitative studies are, however, fundamentally different approaches to research and therefore need to be considered differently with regard to critiquing. The different philosophical underpinnings of the various qualitative research methods generate discrete ways of reasoning and distinct terminology; however, there are also many similarities within these methods. Because of this and its subjective nature, qualitative research it is often regarded as more difficult to critique. Nevertheless, an evidenced-based profession such as nursing cannot accept research at face value, and nurses need to be able to determine the strengths and limitations of qualitative as well as quantitative research studies when reviewing the available literature on a topic. Key words: Critical appraisal • Qualitative research

Elements Influencing beltevabillty of the study
The elements mtlucncmg bclicvability can help the reader to focus on what to expect from a piece of research by asking questions regarding the researcher's academic and professional qualifications and the skills demonstrated in presenting the study (Ryan-Wenger, 1992).These questions are similar to those asked when critiquing a quantitative study and were discussed in part I of this article (Coughlan et al, 2007). Questions relating to these elements are presented in Tcihic I.

Elements influencing robustness of the study Statement of the phenomenon of interest
Many ot the topics examined in research studies are of an abstract nature in that the particular experience may be interpreted differently by another individual, or by the same individual under different circumstances, e.g. when in pain. In qualitative research these abstract encounters or experiences are known as phenomena (Polit and Beck, 2006).The topic being studied should be clearly identified by the researcher (Connell Meehan, 1999). Purpose/significance of the study The researcher should explain next why the study needs to be undertaken and what he/she expects to glean from it. The researcher should also state why the study will be of significance and how it will add to the general body of information on the phenomenon (Connell Meehan, 1999). At this stage the researcher should also justify the use of a qualitative approach and the qualitative methodology to be used (Connell Meehan, 1999). Literature review The function of a literature review in research smdies is to provide an objective account of what has been written on a given subject.This in turn should reflect prominent emerging themes and inform the conceptual framework of the study. Qualitative research follows the naturalistic paradigm based on the assumption that multiple realities exist and such realities are constructed by the research participants. It aims to explore the phenomenon in question by focusing on the individuals who experience it (Vishnevsky and Beanlands, 2004). Qualitative methods are concerned with experiences, feelings and attitudes, as opposed to precise measurement and statistical analysis. Qualitative methodologies vary

and quantitative studies are flnidanientally (difFercnc approaches to research and therefore need to be approached differently with regard to g. Qualitative research is essentially an assortment of various approaches that have commonalities as well as differences (Parahoo, 2006).The difierent philosophical underpinnings of the various qualitative research methods generate discrete ways of reasoning and distinct terminology; however, there are many similarities within these methods (Burns and Grove, 1999) that can be categorized together. Qualitative research docs not regard truth as objective, but as a subjective reality that is experienced differently by each individual (Vishnevsky and Beanlands, 2004), Nor do proponents of qualitative research believe that a phenomenon can be isolated into multiple variables that can be studied independently. Qualitative research asserts that a phenomenon is more than the sum of its parts, and must therefore be studied in a holistic manner. As a result, the purpose of this paradigm is not to attempt to generalize data to the population but to

Frances [lyan, Michael Coughlan, Patricia Cronin are Lecturers, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dublin,Trinity Coilege, Dublin
Accepted for publication: March 2007


British Journal of Nursing. 20(17.Vol Ui. No 12

No 13 739 . journals and other media alluded to in the study accurately referenced? Theoretical framework Method and philosophical underpinnings Sample Ethical considerations Data col lection/data analysis Rigour Fi ndi ngs/discussion Conclusions/implications and recommendations References regarding the inclusion of a literature review before the data collection period. 2002). methodology. for example. avoids the use of jargon? Is it well laid out and organized? Do the researcher's qualifications/position indicate a degree of knowledge in this field? Is the title clear. sample. The literature review is therefore carried out after the data have been collected. is that data are collected in isolation from any predetermined theory or conceptual framework. grammatically correct. thereby allowing theory to be generated from the data rather than vice versa (Robinson.concise. Similarly. Research questions: guidelines for critiquing a qualitative research study Elements Influencing believabllity of the research E. 2(HI7. A major premise of grounded theory. findings and recommendations? Author Report title Abstract Elements Infiuencing robustness of the research Eiements Statement of the phenomenon of interest Purpose/significance ofthe study Literature review Questions Is the phenomenon to be studied dearly identified? Are the phenomenon of interest and the research question consistent? Is the purpose ofthe study/research question deariy identified? Has a literature review been undertaken? Does it meet the philosophical underpinnings of the study? Does the review of the literature fuifli its objectives? Ha5 a conceptual or theoretical Framework been identified? Is the framework adequately described? Is the framework appropriate? Has the phiiosophical approach been identified? Why was this approach chosen? Have the philosophical underpinnings of the approach been explained? Is the sampling method and sample size identified? Is the sampling method appropriate? Were the participants suitable for informing research? Were the participants fully informed about the nature of the research? Was the autonomy/confidentiality of the participants guaranteed? Were the participants protected from harm? Was ethicai permission granted for the study? Are the data collection strategies described? Are the strategies used to analyse the data described? Did the researcher tbilow the steps of the data analysis method identitied? Was data saturation achieved? Does the researcher dtscuss how rigour was assured? Were credibility. including the research problem. in phenomenological investigations the literature review may be delayed until the data analysis is complete. This ensures that the fmdings reflect participants' experiences Uririshjiiunijl fit'Nursing. When critiquing qualitative studies.RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES Table 1. dependability. the reviewer must decide whether the researcher has rationalized his/her chosen approach.Viil Hi. The aim of this approach is to explore concepts embedded in the data. transferability and goodness discussed? Are the findings presented appropriateiy? Hcis the report been placed in the context of what was already known of the phenomenon? Has the original purpose of the study been adequately addressed? Are the importance and implications of the findings identified? Are recommendations made to suggest how the research findings can be developed? Were all the books. there is debate over whether the conceptual framework should precede the period of data collection and data analysis. accurate and unambiguous? Does the abstract offer a dear overview of the study. Similarly.lement5 Writing style Questions Is the report well written .

then it is required to provide a comprehensive and balanced account of previous work. existing literature provides both the basis for research and the context for interpreting findings. i. 1999).e. interpretive or constructivist world view. For example. dependability. identifying. if the literature review is carried out before data collection and analysis. where appropriate. Such modifications should be explained and justified by the researcher when they occur. conceptual models and theoretical frameworks that provide a sound background to the research. Theoretical framework Many qualitative studies are described as inductive/atheoretical or theory-generating research. 2004). including the literature review. if the researcher wished to study an aspect of patients' postoperative pain it would be critical to establish how the particular focus was determined. which is heavily based on the work of Glaser and Strauss (1967). This is sometimes done by exploring the literature and identifying the main themes or concepts.g. A research hypothesis is never used in qualitative research. Methodology: research design Design in qualitative researcii incorporates a range of approaches within what is often referred to as the naturalistic. An important point for quahtative descriptive/exploratory research is that there are some limits or boundaries to what is being studied.generalization is not sought Concerned with discovery and description aithough verification is aiso possible There is attention to the social context in which events occur and have meaning There is an emphasis on understanding the social world from the point oF view of the participants in the study . Vol !6. Therefore. 2001). as well as frameworks used in the analysis of data. Conversely.interaction is valued Usually small in number but consists of those who are able and willing to describe the experience Elicits 'soft data'. which are then used to focus data collection and/or data analysis and presentation of the findings. goodness Context Emphasis Approach Relationship between researcher and participant Sample Data Data coiiection Rigour 740 British Journa] of Nursing. When critiquing qualitative research studies it is necessary to appraise the literature review in the context of the particular methodology used. e. if the literature review is appropriate only after the period of data collection. which views the subjective experience of participants as central to the methodology (Burns and Grove. Depending on the qualitative approach adopted. a research question that reflects the identified phenomenon of interest is used to direct the course of the research. it is also important to note that the main qualitative approaches do differ in their disciplinary or philosophical origins.This approach. is known as grounded theory.g. analysis and presentation of tlndings (Parahoo. The conceptual frameworks or themes that emerge from the study may then be supported by evidence gleaned from a subsequent examination of the literature. The literature review in ethnographic studies is used to demonstrate knowledge of previous work in the area. words The major data collection techniques include interviewing. It is important that the researcher indicates this in the study and justifies the adoption of such a stance. Some qualitative studies use known theories to 'frame' their studies {McKenna. This means that the purpose of the study is to develop theory not test it. grounded theory. 2t) emic perspective The approach is primarily inductive There is integration between researcher and participant .and are truly grounded in the data. examination of personal documents and other printed materials Procedures and tools ibr data gathering are subject to ongoing revision in the field situation Analysis Analysis is presented for the most part in a narrative rather than numericai Form. Research question In qualitative research. hence the focus and manner in which they undertake sampHng. but the inclusion of some quantitative measures and numerical expressions Is not precluded in qualitative research Credibility. Qualitative research therefore comprises a set of characteristics that reflect this world view {Table 2). This provides boundaries or parameters for the study and guides all stages. the researcher does not use an existing or known theory to direct the study. transferabiiity (fittingness). 1997). For the reviewer it is essential that the researcher outlines and justifies the chosen approach in order to establish coherence and congruence. confirmability. According to Meadows (2003). Ethnography and phenomenology are also classed as theory generating. the research question may be modified as new data bring new direction to the phenomenon of interest. The important point here is that such a view of the world incorporates a set of beliefs about knowledge and how this knowledge is developed. data collection and analysis will vary (Table 3). then the researcher needs to identify how this process is to be achieved and in what way the literature is going to be used to determine similarities with or differences from the research findings. the relevant themes. 2006). participant observation. The ethnographic approach attempts to examine the experiences of the person in the context of his/her natural world and explores the topic of study through the perceptions of the subjects of study. However. No 12 . unlike quantitative research (Connell Meehan. Characteristics of qualitative research Truth Purpose TTiere are multiple truths . data collection. Table 2. This is congruent with the philosophical orientation of phenoi-nenology. e. where little is known about the phenomenon under study or where existing theories do not seem to provide the answer (Cronin and Rawlings-Anderson.

Data gathered from participants build on the information from previous subjects and tbe accumulated data can offer a significant depth of information on tbe phenomenon. or that may rekindle tragic or uncomfortable experiences related to the topic being studied. Tbe role of etbical committees and institutional review boards is to determine Brimh Journal ofNursiri(. multiple interviews.Vol 16. comparative analysis . No 12 741 . e. In doing this. Miles and Huberman (1994) Findings Description of the phenomenon under study Sampling 1 1 qiiiilitLitive research. Qualitative samples are often small (Fossey et al. This type of sample tends to ensure richness in the data gathered and is known as purposive or purposeful sampling (Fossey et al. 2002) but this is not usually a problem as the researcher is not attempting to generalize the findings. researcher's own experience Constant.The researcher must therefore assure participants that their identities will not be revealed to tbe reader and the raw data collected will not be released to any third party (Parahoo. incorporating the culturai processes and meanings Purposive. diaries and other documents. participants are usually recruited to 1 a study because of their exposure to or their experience of the phenoriienon in question.g. criterion-based Interviews often semi-structured collection Unstructured. 2002) and is frequently used in grounded theory.2IHI7. Participants should always have tbe rigbt to give informed consent regarding tbeir participation in any researcb study. 2001). at tbis point. Approaches In qualitative research Generic qualitative research Origin Grounded theory Phenomenology/ hermeneutks Various schools of phiiosophy Ethnography Cuiturai anthropoiogy Symbolic interactionism Broad term for all qualitative research and may have its origins and sociai sciences in any of the other disciplines Description of the issue under study Generation of theory from the data Modification/extension of existing theory Aims Description/interpretation/ understanding/meaning of the lived experience/ phenomenon under study Purposive Direct description of a group. it also implies that participants have the right to withdraw from the research at any time. formal.g.ilitative researcb tbe most common tools used for data collection are interview and participant observation. so psychological support sbould be in place to manage any emotional distress that may result from tbe interview (Smith. e. Ethical considerations In qu.RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES Table 3. Ethical committee or institutional review board approval has to be sougbt before the researcb can be collection and analysis are linked from the beginning of the research Description of the emergent theory. In order to do tbis. discontinuing participation alone can be insufficient to meet tbe principle of nonmaleficence. analysis and interpretation of the culture The culture as experienced by its members is presented Data analysis Generic data analysis tools. it is important to ensure tbat tbeir rights are protected. However.. interviews and examination of documents in the field Description. written texts. participants can inadvertently discuss personal information that they had not planned to reveal. what sort of information is being sougbt. participants should be fully aware of the purpose of the study. As a result the researcher may discover that no new material is emerging. 2006) and can be a useful tool in tbese situations. The researcher can then explore these themes in more depth and/or develop a theory from these data. 2006). participant observation. Process consent involves continually negotiating witb participants to ascertain wbetber tbey are comfortable continuing with the interview or would prefer to discontinue participation (Polit and Beck. diaries Data analysis tools vary depending on school of philosophy adopted Description/interpretation of the phenomenon under study Observation. if vulnerable groups are being asked to contribute to the study. 1992). This moral principle is known as autonomy (Beauchamp and Childress. In qualitative research. 2006). non-probability. data gatbering usually stops (Paraboo. culture or community Sample Purposive/convenience Initial sampling of people abie to give information on the topic. 2002). Tbis type of sampling is known as theoretical sampling (Fossey et al. In qualitative interviews tbe role of the interviewer is to encourage participants to 'open up' and discuss their experiences of the phenomenon. This is foliowed by theoreticai sampiing where further sampling is guided by the analysis and emerging theory Interviews. bow it will be used and tbe implications for tbem as contributors to the research. Samples can also be selected as a result of themes that emerge from the data analysis. Both interviews and obser\'ations in qualitative research can give rise to ethical dilemmas. The participants are therefore known to the researcher and anonymity is not possible.

Tbere are inberent advantages to tbese packages in terms of bandling large amounts of data and assisting witb coding and organizing tbe material. with the result that readers are asked to 'accept' what tbey see. Altbougb traditionally associated with grounded theory. e. participant observation. Data collection In :i qualitative study any number of strategies can be adopted wben collecting data. robust researcb and to demonstrate rigour. No 12 . NUD*1ST (Non-nutnerical Unstructured Data Indexing. ethical issues often arise at different stages in tbe study and may be discussed when they occur ratber than under a specific beading. but online or telephone interviews are also used. 1998. 1999). 2003). anecdotal and subject to researcber bias (Koch and Harrington. Examples include use of an expert panel or member cbecking (verifying witb participants).The challenge to alternative paradigms or qualitative approaches is to produce plausible. Tbe rigour. and can be one-off or multiple. a commonly heard criticism is that qualitative research is subjective. The researcher sbould demonstrate understanding of concurrent data collection and analysis. it is often poorly delineated in research publications. the obligation to show the data that led to tbe fmdings is a reasonable one. Vol 16. it should be evident from the discussion that the researcher has adhered to the processes inherent in tbe methodology (7tj/j/f 3). There is considerable variation in how tbis is undertaken. or themes and categories. 2006). commencing with the phenomenon of interest and following through to the recommendations and implications for practice. 1998). such as grounded theory. Tbere is much discussion about tbe applicability of validity and reliability to qualitative researcb (Kocb and Harrington. What is important is that the process is described in sufficient detail to enable the reader to judge whether the final outcome is rooted in the data generated (Holloway and Wheeler. particularly if it is a small-scale descriptive study. Some researcbers use generic data analysis tools whereas others use less structured and more creative approaches. alternative criteria are required for ensuring the scientific merit of qualitative research studies. the concepts of reUability and validity are seen as appropriate criteria to use when evaluating tbe adequacy or robustness of quantitative researcb. Pilkington (2002) suggests that because qualitative methods are aimed at primarily understanding human experiences and ultimately theory development. and it may be pertinent to assess wbether the study being evaluated. sucb as focus groups. measurable data and causal relationsliips between variables. Interviews are by far the most common method of data collection and are mainly either semi-structured or unstructured (Holloway and Wheeler. In addition. 2004). Very few offer sufficient detail to determine the emergence of the findings from tbe raw data.tbat ethical principles are being adhered to and that participants are protected from potential sources of harm (Burns and Grove. and ethical rigour: • Rigour in documniuttioti ensures there is a correlation between tbe steps of tbe research process and the study in question. Tbe researcher should outline the rationale for the chosen method of data collection and offer sufficient information of the process. if used. procedural rigour. qualitative researcb or naturalistic inquiry concerns itself with processes and meanings that cannot always be experimentally examined. Thorne and Darbysbire (2005) suggest tbat some researcbers use the concept of data saturation as a convenient stopping point. 2004. However. of a study may be established if the reader is able to audit the actions and developments of the researcher (Koch.g. Rigour is the means of demonstrating tbe plausibility. If a semistructured interview format is selected it sbould be evident how tbe themes or questions were derived. and historical or contemporary documents. Interviews are more frequently conducted face to face. Tbe rationale for each of these decisions should be clearly presented. 2002). Although data analysis is central to qualitative research. depending on the research question and the approach taken (Visbnevsky and Beanlands. written texts sucb as diaries or emails. It is important to note that within qualitative researcb. Several computer-assisted packages are available to assist tbe qualitative researcher during analysis. as well as the steps in coding and thematic analysis. the processes of organizing and retrieving data. the rationale for bow and wby a particular tool was chosen sbould be evident. Searching and Theorising). 2002). As quantitative studies are concerned with the generalizability and reproducibility of findings. Etbnograph and NVivo (Robson. Essentially it involves tbe transformation of raw data into a final description.They can be undertaken witb individuals or groups. should be presented. If using a particular approach. interviews (semi-structured and unstructured). could have achieved this. Rigour (trustworthiness) Unlike the quantitative (positivist) paradigm tbat seeks to examine objective. credibility and integrity of the qualitative research process. narrative. Socially constructed realities and relationsbips between the researcher and wbat is being studied are essential components of qualitative inquiry (Denzin and Lincoln. According to Burns and Grove (2001). verification strategies. including tion-numerical questionnaires with open-ended questions. 742 Britishjounial of Nursing. 21MJ7. Data analysis In qualitative research tbe process by wbich data analysis is undertaken is fundamental to determining the credibility of tbe findings. or trustwortbiness. 2002). According to Thorne and Darbyshire (2005). Proponents of qualitative approaches emphasize the value-laden nature of naturalistic inquiry. Tobin and Begley. Hoye and Severinsson. tbe critique of qualitative researcb requires an appraisal of the rigour in documentation. 'data saturation' is often referred to by some qualitative researcbers as a point where tbey claim no new information will arise from further samphng. In unstructured interviews the initial opening question should be presented and clearly linked to the purpose of the study. 2007).

Transferabiiity study involves an in-deptb review of how each step of the is also enhanced when the results are meaningful to research was undertaken. It Regardless of how the final outcome is presented.R>VC S (2001) Hie Practke of Nursing Research: Condutt. observation and audit trails. Oxford studies the issue of goodness may be seen as an integral Burns N. Philadelphia robustness of the study. 1998). 2004).Vol 16. implications and recommendations auditable wben another researcher can clearly follow the The researcher sbould conclude by placing tbe findings trail used by the investigator and potentially arrive at tbe in a context tbat indicates bow tbis new information is of same or comparable conclusions. phenomenon in question (Koch and Harrington. critical analysis of a qualitative apply the findings to their own experiences. a study can be deemed to have met the criterion of transferabiiity wben Conclusion the findings can 'fit' into other contexts and readers can As witb a quantitative study. Goodness. reading. tberefore. and illustrate whether or not it has been rigour and involves the researcber giving the reader adequately addressed (Thorne and Darbysbire. Goodness collection techniques and incorporates a reflective/critical needs to be evident in the philosophical background and component in order to reduce bias and misinterpretations. • Goodness is another criterion against which the trustworthiness and authenticity of qualitative research Beauchamp T.V/Xi Sauiidcrs. Because of tbe subjective nature of individuals not involved in tbe research study. findings from qualitative studies can be reader sbould be able to clearly follow each step of tbe represented as a narrative (story). is a principle that sbould be present during all stages of the research study and explicit in tbe final The most common criteria used to evaluate qualitative written report. It is accept any researcb at face value and needs to be able to concerned with establishing tbat findings are clearly derived determine the strengths and limitations of studies when from tbe data (Tobin and Begley. transferabilit^' and confirmability (Table 2). W B Saundcrs. tbis provides the reader witb evidence of the decisions and choices made regarding theoretical and References methodological issues throughout the study and entails An accurate list of all the books. qualitative research it is often regarded as more difficult to • Confirmability requires the researcber to demonstrate how critique. the reviewer should beware his/her experiences as researcber. It is also otber media referred to in the study sbould be included in a necessary for each stage of the research to be traceable and reference list at the end of tbe study (Polit and Beck. Fhihdi'lphia component of the research process and an indicator of the burns N.RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES • Proceduralrigourrefers to appropriate and precise data inquiry and must be reflected in the entire study. 2007. 2006).uioii. Oxford can be measured. research studies are credibility. and its impHcations for nursing. dependability. Findings and discussion rbe researcber needs to identify tbe criteria used and tbe As stated above. data collection and management and rigbts of participants are dealt with during the researcb tbe interpretation and presentation process. 5&t edn. themes. transferabiiity and dependability are achieved. of tbem. CImvfS (1999) UndeKtufiding Nursing Research. Dublin: 57-74 Britishjournal of Nursing. U C D Press. A research study may interest. 2nd edn. sbould relate the findings of the study back to the original • DcpaulabiUt)' (auditability) is an integral component of research purpose.According recommendations as to how tbey may be developed. and further researcb sbould researcb findings. DH usually establisbed when credibility. tbe researcber prolonged engagement. C. the reference list can be a good source of furtber can be applied outside tbe context of the study situation. For tbe reader who has an interest in the topic that was • Transferabiiity (fittingness) refers to wbetber or not findings studied. Koch (2006). Credibility may also be demonstrated by be located in tbe study's findings. 2005). Childress J (2001) Prindples of Biomedical Ethia. These conclusions be shown to be dependable by producing evidence of a sbould reflect tbe study's fmdings and ideally sbould offer decision trail at eacb stage of the research process. No 12 743 . 1985). When critiquing qualitative research. study design. Tobin and Begley (2004) suggest Coimeli Meehan T (1999) The research critique. Critique mid (:(ilis. In: Treaty I^ Hyde A (eds) tbat goodness is an overarching principle of qualitative Nursing Research and Design. sufficient information to determine how dependable tbe study and the researcher are. Moreover. description of research process: tbe phenomenon under study or an interpretive account • Crcdiliillty refers to the fiiithflilness to the description of tbe of the understanding or meaning of an experience. clearly documented. A study may be deemed Conclusions. When critiquing tbe rigour of qualitative Univeniry Press. reports and discussing explicitly tbe reasons for such decisions. Other terms such as goodness . providing explicit explanations regarding • Ethical rigour describes bow confidentiality issues and tbe tbe study context. Confirmability is reviewijig the available literature on a topic. However. journal articles. the addresses the issue of whether there is consistency between researcber sbould discuss tbe findings in the context of the participants' views and the researcher's representation what is already known. and also by consulting of exaggerated claims as to the significance of the research witb participants and allowing them to read and discuss tbe and implications for practice. an evidenced-based profession cannot conclusions and interpretations have been reacbed. asserts tbat credibility may be For many this will involve further literature review related enhanced by the researcher describing and interpreting to the final fruitflilness may also be used (Lincoln and Guba. However. to Koch (2006). process.

Davidson L (2002} Understanding and evaluating qualitative ri'scarch. McDermott F. Process and Issues.. In. Blackwdl. Nun Sd Q 15(3): 196-200 Polit D. Part 1: quantitative research. Sage. Canada. No 12 . ISBN-W: I Web: www. Liiitolii Y (eds) (2003) Strategies of QtuiUiaiiiv /ii. John Cutcliffe and Martin Ward To order your copy please contact us using the details below or visit our website www. Cronin P. 2nd edn. Atisi . It focuses specifically on critiquing nursing research. Darbyshire 1' (2005) Land inini-s in the field: a modi^st proposal for iinptoving the craft of qualitative health research. it is vital for nurses to have the ability to critique research in order to benefit Sage. CA Fossey E. Oxfod Hoye S. BlackweU. BrJ Commtitiity Nurs 8(8): 369-75 Miles M. Ba. 2iid edn. I Qualitative studies are perceived as being more difficult to critically evaluate than quantitative studies: nevertheless.ser B. Nurs Hccilth . I Despite differences in philosophies and BrJ Nun 16(11): 658-63 Cronin i* Rawlin^-Anderson K (2004) Knowledge Joi Contemporary Ntii'siii^ l^iictia: Mosby. Thousand Oaks. Edinburgh: 64—81 Robson C (2(. QUAY BOOKS Quay Books Division I MA Healthcare Limited Jesses Farm i Snow Hill I Dinton I Salisbury I Wiltshire I SP3 5HN I UK Tel: 01722 716998 I Fax: 01722 716887 I E-mail: info@quaybooks. Wheeler S (2002) QmliUiInv Rcseiinli in Nursing. Strauss A (1967) Cuba E (1985) Nainrnlisik /nijiiir)'. Nepbrol \hirs j 31(2): 234-8 KEY POINTS [Qualitative and quantitative studies are fundamentally different approaches to research and therefore need to be approached differently with regard to critiquing. Deck C (2006) Essttitiah oJ NuTsing Care: Mfthods. 2nd edn.icive nursing reseaa^h on families involved in intensive care units: i literature review. Matin Ward is an Independent Mental Health Nurse Consultant and Director of MW Professional Development MA NUUHGUa LJMirCD X\ AH 744 lirimlijournalof NursiiiB. I Phenomena are not simply a number of different variables that can be studied independently: they are more complex than the sum of their parts and should be studied holistically. the authors have added two further examples of approaches to crtitique along with examples and an additonal chapter on how to critique research as part of the work of preparing a dissertation. Harvey C. CA Parahoo K (2006) Nuning Research: Priiidples.London Meadows K (2( '03) So you want to do research 1: an overview of the research process. J Adi' Wm 28(4).VHR 17(1): 98-103 Thorne S. Balliere TinAJl. Vancouver. 2nd edn. teachers and academics. the various qualitative methods have many similarities that can be categorized together. J Koch T.of Gnmntkd Iheory: StraTcgies for Qtialitiiliiv tiescarcb. 6th edn. The fundamentals of the book however remain the same.Coiighlaii M.8 Koch T (2l)0d) Establishing rigour in qualitative research: the decision trail. Beanlands H (21)04) QualiDtivc research. This book is the perfect tool for those seeking to gain or develop precisely that skill and is a must-have for all students nurses. C'rofts L (fds) Vie E^sciuial Researcher's Hatidbook for Nurses and Health CaK Jhojasiionah. Heart Smith L (1992) Ethical issues in interviewing. Appnii. Aldine. Lippiiicott Williams and Wilkins. Palgrave Macniillan.VoI U. CA McKeinia H (1997) NursingTIwories ami Modeh.J/lt/i'. Severinsson E (2007) Methodological aspects of rigor in qu. the increasing requirement for nurses to become conversant with research./. nurses need to be able to critique qualitative research in order to identify best practice. Thousand where you will also find details of other Quay Books offers and titles. Harrington A (1998) Reconceptualising rigour: the case for rcflcxivity.99 Critiquing Nursing Research 2nd edition By John R Cutcliffe and Martin Ward This 2nd edition of Critiquing Nursing Research retains the features which made the original a 'best seller' whilst incorporating new material in order to expand the book's applicability. SaZ-W Liiicolii Y.quaybooks. Ryaii F (20<)7) Sccp-by-scop guide Co criciquing mascarch. understand its link with the use of evidence to underpin practice.Disioivr).HI2) RciJ Worhi Reseanh.Sd 9(t): 6 1 . Hiibcrnun A (1994) Qualilaliif Data Aiiiilyih. Chicago Holloway I. In addition to reviewing and subsequently updating the material of the original text. Oxford Ryan-Wcngcr N (1992) Guidelines for critique of a research R'port. E d i n b u i ^ Denzin N.\' ZJ Psychiairy i6(6): 7\7-?i2 ('ila. Braithwaite' Protessor ot Nursing Endowed Chair at the University of Texas (Tyler): tie is also an Adjunct Professor of Psychiatric Nursing at Stenberg College International School of Nursihg. Qii.2(MJ7.quaybooks. Philadelphia Robinson J (2002) Choosing your methods. Houndniills. John Cutcliffe rto/ds the 'David G.85642-316-6: tSBN-13: 978-1-85642-316-8: 234 x 156 mm:p/back: 224 pages: publication November 2006: £25. and the movement towards becoming an evidence-based discipline.sii)^toke Pilkington F (2002) Scientific mtrrit and research ethics.wl <iiid Ihili2:ation.4 Ji' Nurs 48(4): 388-96 Vishuevsk) T. 2nd fdii. 2nd edn.i/ Health Res 15(8): 1105-13 Tobin G.-ilic. TarUng M. Tiiousand Oak-s. Begley C (2004) Methodological rigour within a qualitative framework. Roudedge. As nurse education around the world increasingly moves towards an all-graduate discipline. Sage.

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