numan kesource Managementť Scope

1he scope of P8M ls very wldeť
1Ŧ Þersonnel aspecLŴ1hls ls concerned wlLh manpower plannlngţ recrulLmenLţ selecLlonţ placemenLţ
Lransferţ promoLlonţ Lralnlng and developmenLţ layoff and reLrenchmenLţ remuneraLlonţ lncenLlvesţ
producLlvlLy eLcŦ
2Ŧ Welfare aspecLŴlL deals wlLh worklng condlLlons and amenlLles such as canLeensţ crechesţ resL and
lunch roomsţ houslngţ LransporLţ medlcal asslsLanceţ educaLlonţ healLh and safeLyţ recreaLlon faclllLlesţ
3Ŧ lndusLrlal relaLlons aspecLŴ1hls covers unlonŴmanagemenL relaLlonsţ [olnL consulLaLlonţ collecLlve
bargalnlngţ grlevance and dlsclpllnary proceduresţ seLLlemenL of dlspuLesţ eLcŦ

Human Resource Management: Objectives
· To help the organization reach its goals.
· To ensure eIIective utilization and maximum development oI human resources.
· To ensure respect Ior human beings. To identiIy and satisIy the needs oI individuals.
· To ensure reconciliation oI individual goals with those oI the organization.
· To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.
· To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.
· To increase to the Iullest the employee's job satisIaction and selI-actualization.
· To develop and maintain a quality oI work liIe.
· To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs oI society.
· To develop overall personality oI each employee in its multidimensional aspect.
· To enhance employee's capabilities to perIorm the present job.
· To equip the employees with precision and clarity in trans¬action oI business.
· To inculcate the sense oI team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.
Human resources may be deIined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and
aptitudes oI an organization's workIorce, as well as the values, attitudes, approaches and belieIs
oI the individuals involved in the aIIairs oI the organization. It is the sum total or aggregate oI
inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and aptitudes oI the
persons employed in the organization.
The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From the national point oI view, human
resources may be deIined as the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes
obtained in the population; whereas Irom the viewpoint oI the individual enterprise, they
represent the total oI the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exempliIied in the
talents and aptitudes oI its employees.
Human Resource Management: Defined
Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part oI management,
which is concerned with the human resources oI an organization. Its objective is the maintenance
oI better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation oI
policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to optimize their contribution
towards the realization oI organizational objectives.
In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the collaboration oI people. It
is an integral but distinctive part oI management, concerned with people at work and their
relationships within the enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development,
desirable working relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees,
and eIIective modeling oI human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the
recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation oI human
resources by the organization.
Human Resource Management: Evolution
The early part oI the century saw a concern Ior improved eIIiciency through careIul design oI
work. During the middle part oI the century emphasis shiIted to the employee's productivity.
Recent decades have Iocused on increased concern Ior the quality oI working liIe, total quality
management and worker's participation in management. These three phases may be termed as
welIare, development and empowerment.
Human Resource Management: Nature
Human Resource Management is a process oI bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals oI each are met. The various Ieatures oI HRM include:
· It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
· Its Iocus is on results rather than on rules.
· It tries to help employees develop their potential Iully.
· It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
· It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
· It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
· It helps an organization meet its goals in the Iuture by providing Ior competent and well-
motivated employees.
· It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the
· It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn Irom psychology,
economics, etc.
numan kesource Managementť 8e||efs
1he Puman 8esource ManagemenL phllosophy ls based on Lhe followlng bellefsť
- Puman resource ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL asseL ln Lhe organlzaLlon and can be developed and lncreased
Lo an unllmlLed exLenLŦ
- A healLhy cllmaLe wlLh values of opennessţ enLhuslasmţ LrusLţ muLuallLy and collaboraLlon ls essenLlal
for developlng human resourceŦ
- P8M can be planned and monlLored ln ways LhaL are beneflclal boLh Lo Lhe lndlvlduals and Lhe
- Lmployees feel commlLLed Lo Lhelr work and Lhe organlzaLlonţ lf Lhe organlzaLlon perpeLuaLes a feellng
of belonglngnessŦ
- Lmployees feel hlghly moLlvaLed lf Lhe organlzaLlon provldes for saLlsfacLlon of Lhelr baslc and hlgher
level needsŦ
- Lmployee commlLmenL ls lncreased wlLh Lhe opporLunlLy Lo dlsǁcover and use oneƌs capablllLles and
poLenLlal ln oneƌs workŦ
- lL ls every managerƌs responslblllLy Lo ensure Lhe developmenL and uLlllsaLlon of Lhe capablllLles of
Human Resource Management: Functions
In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes the
Iollowing activities:
1. Human resource or manpower planning.
2. Recruitment, selection and placement oI personnel.
3. Training and development oI employees.
4. Appraisal oI perIormance oI employees.
5. Taking corrective steps such as transIer Irom one job to another.
6. Remuneration oI employees.
7. Social security and welIare oI employees.
8. Setting general and speciIic management policy Ior organizational relationship.
9. Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling.
10. StaIIing the organization.
11. Aiding in the selI-development oI employees at all levels.
12. Developing and maintaining motivation Ior workers by providing incentives.
13. Reviewing and auditing man¬power management in the organization
14. Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling.
15. Role Analysis Ior job occupants.
16. Job Rotation.
17. Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality oI Working LiIe.
Human Resource Management: Major Influencing Factors
In the 21st century HRM will be inIluenced by Iollowing Iactors, which will work as various
issues aIIecting its strategy:
· Size oI the workIorce.
· Rising employees' expectations
· Drastic changes in the technology as well as LiIe-style changes.
· Composition oI workIorce. New skills required.
· Environmental challenges.
· Lean and mean organizations.
· Impact oI new economic policy. Political ideology oI the Govern¬ment.
· Downsizing and rightsizing oI the organizations.
· Culture prevailing in the organization etc.
Human Resource Management: Futuristic Vision
On the basis oI the various issues and challenges the Iollowing suggestions will be oI much help
to the philosophy oI HRM with regard to its Iuturistic vision:
1. There should be a properly deIined recruitment policy in the organization that should give its
Iocus on proIessional aspect and merit based selection.
2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper weightage to the aspect that
employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense oI team spirit, team-
work and inter-team collaboration.
3. Opportunity and comprehensive Iramework should be provided Ior Iull expression oI
employees' talents and maniIest potentialities.
4. Networking skills oI the organizations should be developed internally and externally as well as
horizontally and vertically.
5. For perIormance appraisal oI the employee`s emphasis should be given to 360 degree
Ieedback which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as selI-review.
6. 360 degree Ieedback will Iurther lead to increased Iocus on customer services, creating oI
highly involved workIorce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases and
identiIying perIormance threshold.
7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all employees
at all levels; it will conIorm to customer's needs and expectations; it will ensure eIIective
utilization oI resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres and
activities oI the organization.
8. There should be Iocus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge oI the employees are
broadened as well as potentialities oI the employees are increased Ior Iuture job prospects.
9. For proper utilization oI manpower in the organization the concept oI six sigma oI improving
productivity should be intermingled in the HRM strategy.
10. The capacities oI the employees should be assessed through potential appraisal Ior
perIorming new roles and responsibilities. It should not be conIined to organizational aspects
only but the environmental changes oI political, economic and social considerations should also
be taken into account.
11. The career oI the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing process
and socializing process come together Ior Iusion process and career planning should constitute
the part oI human resource planning.
To conclude Human Resource Management should be linked with strategic goals and objectives
in order to improve business perIormance and develop organizational cultures that Ioster
innovation and Ilexibility. All the above Iuturistic visions coupled with strategic goals and
objectives should be based on 3 H's oI Heart, Head and Hand i.e., we should Ieel by Heart, think
by Head and implement by Hand.

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