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Abhishek Verma[175/06] Pankaj Singh [195/06] B.Tech. Electronics Engineering, III Yr.

With the ongoing revolution in electronics where innovations are taking place at the blink of an eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the students get the real, first hand experience for working in the actual environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this, the students get an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which immensely helps them in building their career. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to a great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many new instruments. And all the credit goes to organization Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Contents Preface Table Of Content Certificate Companys Profile Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 1.1 Evolution And Growth Of The Company 1.2 Mission Of The Company 1.3 Values Of The Company 1.4 Citizen's Charter 1.5 Research And Devlopment 2.1 Financial Highlights 3.1 Divison and Services Lucknow Division 4.1 Accessories Division Lucknow 4.2 Services 4.3 Products Manufactured In HAL Lucknow SU 30 MKI 5.1 Su-30MKI Air Dominance Fighter 5.2 Evolution of the Flanker 5.3 Acquisition/Production Plans 5.4 Su-30MKI in the IAF 5.5 Airframe and Aerodynamics 5.6 Cockpit 5.7 Avionics 5.7.1 Laser-optical locator system 5.7.2 LITENING targeting pod 5.8 Radar 5.9 Electronic countermeasures 5.10 Propulsion 5.11 Indian Contribution 5.12 Engines and Fuel System 5.13 Tactics 5.14 Operational history 5.15 Specifications Advanced Light Helicopter 6.1 HAL Dhruv:Advanced Light Helicopter 6.2 Development 6.3 Specifications (Dhruv) Light Combat Helicopter 7.1 HAL Light Combat Helicopter 7.2 Development 7.2.1 Costs 7.2.2 Present Status 7.3 Specifications Hinustan Jet Trainer 8.1 HAL HJT-36 8.2 Development 8.3 Design

2 3 5 7 8 10 10 11 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 21 22 25 32 33 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 40 40 41 43 43 44 45 45 45 45 47 47 47

8.3.1 Cockpit 8.3.2 Weapons 8.3.3 Engine 8.4 Specifications (HJT-36, prototypes)

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This is to certify that Ramesh Chand Gupta students of IIIrd year, B.Tech. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, from IIMT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, MEERUT has undergone four weeks industrial training on STUDY OF SU-30MKI at INSTRUMENTATION FACTORY OF Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, LUCKNOW w.e.f 25th JULY 20011 TO 25th AUGUST 20011. They worked diligently and made valuable contribution during this period. All his works are genuine and original.

Senior Manager HR (TM-Training)


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942. Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centres in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record - 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft , 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defence and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects :

Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) Various military and civil upgrades.

Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of its production, a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like

PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) INSAT (Indian National Satellite)

HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs) :

BAeHAL Software Limited Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd

HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd INFOTECH HAL Ltd

Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities.

HAL was awarded the INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre (IIMC). HAL was presented the International - ARCH OF EUROPE Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and Innovation. At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE).

The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2006-07 with a turnover of Rs.7,783.61 Crores

1.1 Evolution And Growth Of The Company

The Company's steady organisational growth over the years with consolidation and enlargement of its operational base by creating sophisticated facilities for manufacture of aircraft / helicopters, aeroengines, accessories and avionics is illustrated below.

1.2 Mission Of The Company

" To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving self-reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defence equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence ".

1.3 Values Of The Company


We are dedicated to building a relationship with our customers where we become partners in fulfilling their mission. We strive to understand our customers ' needs and to deliver products and services that fulfill and exceed all their requirements.


We are committed to continuous improvement of all our activities. We will supply products and services that conform to highest standards of design, manufacture, reliability, maintainability and fitness for use as desired by our customers.


We believe that our success depends on our ability to continually reduce the cost and shorten the delivery period of our products and services. We will achieve this by eliminating waste in all activities and continuously improving all processes in every area of our work.


We believe in striving for improvement in every activity involved in our business by pursuing and encouraging risk-taking ,experimentation and learning at all levels within the company with a view to achieving excellence and competitiveness.


We believe in achieving harmony in work life through mutual trust, transparency, co-operation, and a sense of belonging. We will strive for building empowered teams to work towards achieving organisational goals.


We value our people. We will treat each other with dignity and respect and strive for individual growth and realisation of everyone's full potential.


We believe in a commitment to be honest, trustworthy,and fair in all our dealings. We commit to be loyal and devoted to our organisation. We will practise self discipline and own responsibility for our actions. We will comply with all requirements so as to ensure that our organisation is always worthy of trust.

1.4 Citizen's Charter

This Charter is a declaration of our commitment, expectations and highest standards with Total Quality, to achieve excellence in Design, Manufacture and Maintenance of Aerospace defence equipment, Software development for Aerospace application and Design Consultancy by managing the business on commercial lines in the most fair, honest and transparent manner, with corruption-free service for the benefit of the Customers who are our partners in progress to ensure safe custody of public money. COMMITMENT We shall accomplish our mission with

Absolute integrity and dedication Total customer satisfaction Honesty and transparency Courtesy and promptness Fairness Total quality Innovation and creativity Trust and team spirit Respect for the individual Humility Compassion

We commit ourselves to do our duty to the best of our ability, integrity and efficiency with the prime motto of fulfilling the customers, shareholders' and individuals requirements and to rise to their expectations and beyond. OUR EXPECTATIONS We expect you to

Be prompt and reasonable Be fair, honest and transparent in dealings.


Adhere to time and delivery schedules Extend your cooperation in all our endeavor Provide us detailed specifications Acquaint us with the systems and maintenance procedures and product performances criterion Indicate realistic schedule and make prompt payment Comply with the service instructions and timely maintenance procedures.


Strictly adhere to the standards, specifications stipulated in ISO-9001 Ensure that our products reflect the state-of-the-art technology and competitive prices Deliver our products as per the agreed delivery Schedules Produce goods and services of the highest standards to fulfill all your requirements Declare that our products have gone through the strictest quality control norms and guarantee the total technical life of the product. Assure you of the highest standard of service and are ever willing to share our knowledge and expertise with you Acknowledge all correspondence from you within ten working days of its receipt Respond to all your communications within twenty working days of its receipt Clear your financial dues within thirty working days from receipt of genuine and bonafide claims Strictly adhere to the delivery schedules committed by us to you Work as an instrument of self-reliance in aerospace defence equipment Strive to attain international standards to become globally competitive. Our R&D efforts should enable us to be a strong force to reckon with in the global scenario Make sincere efforts in meeting all our social obligations towards the community in general Always strive to maintain cordial relations with the community.



Always be sensitive to our social obligations and maintain the highest ethical standards in all our endeavors, business and economic activities. Always strive to achieve economy in all our products and services without compromising the quality standards. Always remain competitive in the market through continuous improvement in our technology Always strive to reduce the cost and shorten the delivery schedules of our product and services. We shall eliminate wasteful practices and continuously improve in all areas of our work. We shall hold our capital assets in public money in absolute trust and shall commit ourselves to achieve our economic progress competently and in socially acceptable way.


Shall adopt systems and procedures which leave no scope for any corrupt practice Maintain absolute confidentiality of the information/complaints Believe that means and ends cannot be separated. Good end calls for good means. Good means cannot but lead to good ends. There shall be no need for anyone at any time to offer bribe or any other inducement for doing business with us. We shall promptly and expeditiously enquire into all genuine and legitimate complaints of corruption against any employee of our organisation Shall always be honest and transparent and would like to be seen as honest. We shall not claim any judicial privilege for our documents and records except in rare cases and that too in the interest of national security. Shall implement all the policies and directives of Central Vigilance Commission.


Keep our complaint and grievance redressal Machinery open and receptive to you. Acknowledge your complaints and commit ourselves to redress them within a period of thirty working days on receipt of the complaints. Should you still have any complaint or grievance you may also take up the matter with the designated officer heading the public grievance committee at our corporate and divisional offices. Acknowledgment of grievances and disposal thereof within 30 days. In case of any complaint or grievance, please take up the matter with the officer

nominated by the division for redressal of public grievance in the division which is headed by an officer of the grade of a DGM

Promptly take action against the complaints by going into the genuineness and roots of the complaints and within a time frame attend to the grievances.


All our Divisions, Service Stations and Corporate office are ever willing to provide you the help and assistance required in the selection, design, manufacture and maintenance of any of our products and services. We shall equip our public relations department suitably to render you all general information, which is of common interest. You are also welcome to visit us at our website: for immediate help and assistance to meet your product and services requirement. A network of help line personnel will be identified in each division/complex, which will provide immediate assistance in various matters.

1.5 Research And Devlopment

In the year 1951, when HT-2 the first indigenously designed primary trainer made its first flight, it heralded the era of Research & Design at HAL This aircraft served as the back bone of IAF's training fleet for more than three decades. Subsequently, HAL's R&D capabilities have grown from strength to strength and have been harnessed to achieve greater heights of self reliance. The Advanced Light Helicopter - ALH (DHRUV) is the latest new generation helicopter designed and developed by HAL. It is under production since 2002. The test flights on Technology Demonstrators (TD-I and II) and Prototype Vehicles (PV-1 and 2) of Light Combat Aircraft - LCA (Tejas) are progressing satisfactorily. The Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) is undergoing test flights. In addition, HAL has successfully completed many systems updates and integration tasks. HAL has 9 Research & Design Centres engaged in the design and development of combat aircraft, helicopters, aeroengines, gas turbines, engine test beds, aircraft communication and navigation systems and mechanical system accessories. The indigenously upgraded MiG-27M aircraft has received Initial Operation Clearance (IOC) and the first batch of aircraft has been delivered. First flight test on Jaguar Nav WASS upgraded aircraft with indigenously developed mission computer with weapon delivery capabilities has been carried out and retromod of fleet has been taken up. Equipped with the latest facilities, the company is backed by high profile, highly skilled manpower with an impressive track record of more than five decades of rich experience in all disciplines of aeronautics.

2.1 Financial Highlights

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has cruised past the Rs.10,000 crore mark for the first time with a sales turnover of Rs.10,373 crores during the Financial Year 2008-09. The profit of the Company (Profit Before Tax) soared to Rs.2,335 crores.

The highlights are given below :

Rupees in Crores

Particulars Sales VOP Profit tax before

2007-08 2008-09 8625 8791 2164 10373 11811 2335 1740 2638

Growth over Previous Year 20.27% 34.35% 7.90% 6.62% 16.98%

Profit after tax 1632 Gross Block 2255


3.1 Divison and Services

1. Accessories Division Lucknow 2. Aircraft Division Nasik 3. Aircraft Division Bangalore 4. Avionics Division Hyderabad 5. Avionics Division Korwa 6. Engine division Bangalore 7. Foundry and Forge Division Bangalore 8. Engine Division Koraput 9. Helicopter Division Bangalore 10. Overhaul Division Bangalore 11. Transport Aircraft Division Kanpur 12. Industrial And Marine Gas Turbine Division Banglore

4.1 Accessories Division Lucknow

Accessories Division of HAL was established in 1970 with the primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft and engines and attain self sufficiency in this area. Its facilities are spread over 94,000 sqm of built area set in sylvan surroundings. At present it is turning out over 1100 different types of accessories. The Division started with manufacturing various Systems and Accessories viz, Hydraulics, Engine Fuel System, Air-conditioning and Pressurization, Gyro & Barometric Instruments, Electrical System items, Undercarriages, Electronic items all under one roof to meet the requirements of the aircraft, helicopters and engines being produced by HAL. This was followed up with manufacturing the same range of accessories for MiG series of aircraft, International Jaguar and repair / overhaul of Mirage-2000 & Sea-Harrier accessories. In addition the Division manufactures systems for Civil Aircraft i.e. Avro, Dornier and AN-32 & cheetah, chetak & Advanced Light Helicopters. The Division, right from the beginning, laid a lot of emphasis on developing indigenous capability for Design and Development of various System and Accessories. This capability has culminated in indigenous design and development of

a variety of systems and accessories for the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) and Advanced Light Helicopter (all versions i.e. Army, Airforce, Navy & Civil) - two prestigious aircraft programs in the country and IJT (Intermediate Jet Trainer). The Division has also developed and has made successful strides into the area of Microprocessor based control systems for the LCA Engine as well as other systems. The Division diversified not only in other defence applications like tanks and armoured vehicles for Army, it look commercial applications of hydraulic items. Gyroscopic Equipment, Special Purpose Test Equipment & Group Support Equipment and successfully supplied in the market. The Division has been in the forefront of accessories development and supply not only to Indian Force but to Army, Navy and various Defence Laboratories as well as for Space applications. The Division today has a prime name in the Aviation market and various international companies are interested to join hands with it for future projects. The Division has also made steady progress in the area of Export.

4.2 Services
REPAIRS, MAJOR SERVICING AND SUPPLY OF SPARES The Division carries out Repair and Overhaul of Accessories, with minimum turnaround-time. Site Repair facilities are offered by the Division by deputing team of expert Engineers / Technicians. Services provided for: Military Aircraft

MiG Series Jaguar Mirage-2000 Sea - Harrier AN-32 Kiran MK- I / MK- II HPT - 32 SU-30 MKI

Civil Aircraft

Dornier-22B AVRO HS-748


Chetak (Alouette)


Sub-contract Capabilities

The Division has comprehensive manufacturing capabilities for various Hitech components, Equipment and Systems to customer's specifications and ensures high quality, reliability and cost effectiveness. The Division has over 25 years of experience in producing aeronautical accessories making it an ideal partner for the International Aero Engineering Industry.

The Division also manufactures and supplies complete range of components of Cheetah (Lama) & Chetak (Alouette) Helicopters, Jaguar and MiG series Aircraft to Domestic and International Customers to support their fleet.

4.3 Products Manufactured In HAL Lucknow

INSTRUMENTS, SENSORS, GYROS Flight instruments, Electrical Indicators, Fuel Gauging Probes, Gyros, Sensors and Switches

ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION AND CONTROL AC/DC Generator, Control and Protection Units, Inverters, Transformer Rectifier Unit, AC/DC Electrical Systems, Actuators

LAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER UNDERCARRIAGE, WHEELS AND BRAKES HYDRAULIC SYSTEM AND POWER CONTROL Pumps, Accumulators, Actuators, Electro-selectors, Bootstrap Reservoirs and various types of valves



Pneumatics and Oxygen System, Cold Air Unit, Water Extractors, Valve various types

EJECTION SYSTEM Ejection Seats, Release Units etc.

ENGINE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM Booster Pumps, Main and Reheat Fuel Systems, Nozzle Actuators

GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT AND TEST RIGS Ground Power Unit, Hydraulic Trolley and {Power Packs, Dedicated Test Rigs, custom-built Fuel/Hydraulic Test Rigs

Export Products

Supply of Rotables and Spares of Jaguar International and Cheetah (Lama) / Chetak (Alouette) Helicopters Repair / Overhaul of aircraft accessories of MiG series Aircraft, Jaguar International Aircraft, Cheetah (Lama) / Chetak (Alouette) Helicopters and Dornier Multi-role Aircraft Supply of Ground Support Equipment for Aircraft such as MiG-23 / 27 / 29, Mirage-2000, Jaguar, Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Su-30 MKI, Sea Harrier, Dornier DO-228, Avro HS-748 (Specific Version), Cheetah (Lama) / Chetak (Alouette lll), Ml - 17, Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH).

5.1 Su-30MKI Air Dominance Fighter

The Sukhoi Su-30 MKI (NATO reporting name Flanker-H) is a variant of the Sukhoi Su-30 jointly-developed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). It is an air superiority fighter which can also act as a multirole, strike fighter jet. The development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets. The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was integrated into the IAF in 2002,while the first indigenous Su-30MKI entered service with the IAF in 2004.In 2007, the IAF ordered 40 additional MKIs. As of July 2009, the IAF has 98 MKIs under active service and it plans to have an operational fleet of 230 MKIs by 2015. Capable of carrying nuclear weapons and tailor-made for Indian specifications, the fighter jet integrates Indian systems and avionics.It also contains French and Israeli subsystems. The MKI variant features several improvements over the basic K and

MK variants and is classified as a 4.5 generation fighter. Due to similar features and components, the MKI variant is often considered to be a customized Indian variant of the Sukhoi Su-27. Su-30MKI is a long-range, high-endurance, heavy-class Air Dominance Fighter with multi mission capabilities. It is currently the most advanced version of Su-27 Flanker flying anywhere in the world. The Su-27, which was first produced in the Former Soviet Union starting 1982 is counted among the world's best fighter aircraft even without any upgardes; but some of the the technology and capability that the Su30MKI boasts has absolutely no parallels across the world's air forces. The Su-30MKI gives its operator, the Indian Air Force, a capability that will remain unmatched by all rivals for the forseeable future. This document has been divided into the following sections:

Evolution of the Flanker Acquisition/Production Plans The Su-30MKI in the IAF Airframe and Aerodynamics Cockpit Avionics Radar Electronic countermeasures Propulsion Indian Contribution Engines and Fuel System Tactics Operational history Dimensions and Weights

5.2 Evolution of the Flanker

World aviation today cannot be conceived of without the Su-27, a legendary aircraft. The Su-27 which formed the basic platform that has spawned countless derivatives has became the core of Russias combat aviation and Russian arms exports today. The Su-27 is seen as a befitting response by Sukhoi to the challenge of the West - the U.S. F-15 air superiority fighter.


In the fall of 1969, Pavel Sukhoi, head of the Sukhoi Experimental Design Bureau, launched the T-10 project at his own initiative. The designers faced a most challenging task of developing an aircraft that would surpass the U.S. fighter which had overall technological superiority. On 20-May-1977, famous test pilot Vladimir Ilyushin took the Sukhoi T-10-1 for its first flight from the test center Zhukovski. However, before the aircraft could be put into series production it had to be drastically redesigned. There were very serious reasons for that - the designers of onboard equipment and missiles exceeded weight limits. The redesign work was headed by a design team woven around Mikhail Simonov. The Design Bureau and cooperating enterprises were set the task to find bold, unorthodox solutions in the project, and to improve every component of the plane, its onboard equipment and armament. The Su-27 for the first time incorporated solutions proposed for integrated supersonic designs in the 1950s by brilliant aircraft designer and scientist Robert Bartini (18971974). Pavel Sukhoi used Bartinis ideas in the T-10 design. This is why the Su-27s load-bearing airframe features high lift, low drag, air flow down-suction throughout the wingspan, and shock-free air flow in the area blending wing and it is leading-edge root extensions. The Su-27 is the worlds only fighter in which leading-edge root extensions reduce, rather than increase, drag. These solutions, combined with perfect design and minimal structural weight, provided much space for fuel and equipment, ensuring an exceptional flight range on internal fuel. The Su-27 markedly enhanced the Soviet Air Forces combat potential. NATO immediately saw the difference. In the previous years, the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft often flew into Soviet airspace over the Kola Peninsula to check readiness of the Soviet Air Defense. The Su-27, with its high flight performance and perfect multichannel avionics system, sharply changed the situation, intercepting SR-71 aircraft in Soviet airspace. The F-16 fighter is considered by many as an american aerodynamic standard. However, this effort was clearly eclipsed by the remarkable qualities of the Su-27. The real triumph for the Su-27 came in 1989 when it made its first public appearance at the worlds largest air show Le Bourget near Paris. It was here that the now famous 'Cobra' maneuver was premiered in the West. The pilot at the controls was Victor Pugachev - hence the Cobra is often called the 'Pugachev Cobra'. A note on the designation 'Su-30MKI': 'Su' stands for a production fighter designed by the USSR/Russia's famed Sukhoi Experimental Designed Bureau. Su-30 derived from the Su-27UB, which is the twin-seat trainer-combat version of the Su-27. Therefore all Su-30 versions are twin seat (except for Su-30KI). 'MK' is a Russian acronym for Mordernised-Commercial (not 'Multirole') while 'I' stands for Indiski(India) in the Su-30MKI, while 'K' stands for Kitei(China) in the Su-30MKK. Names apart, there are many central differences between the Su-30MKK and Su30MKI * The sheer number of Su-27 variants is bewildering to say the least. Many developments have been made in 'parallel' over the decades, and hence there is no

single timeline for the MKI. This space is not enough for discussing the many variants, and hence only some are discussed here. The first Su-27 variant with TVC was a Su-27UB designated "T-10-16" or the "LLPS" (flying testbed - flat nozzle), built by by Sukhoi in 1989. The Chief Designer for the export Su-30MK is Alexcy Knyshev. According to Knyshev, the Su-30MK is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and 2.5 times the combat effectiveness (Sukhoi numbers). Russia vigourously promoted the Su-30. It has made regular airshow appearances after its debut at Paris AirShow 1999. However, initially the displayed aircrat was a Su-27UB which only carried a wide variety of air to ground misles (which it could not launch). The weapons were KAB-500KR TV guided bomb, Kh-29T and Kh-59M. At that moment there was no Su-30M nor Su-30MK, only the Su-27PUs were renamed as Su-30 (probably for marketing purposes). The real prototype of Su-30MK was converted from a Su-27PU in 1996. The modification included enlarged fins, the addtion of 2 underwing pylons (now to 8) and the carnard foreplanes similar to those of the Su-35 (or Su-27M). The Unstable Longitudal Triplane configuration in a Flanker was seen in the Su-35 or Su-27M. It is in limited service with the VVS-PVO and lacks TVC. TVC was added to the Su-35 and hence the Su-37 (#711) was born. On its debut at Farnborough in 1996, it stunned the world just like the Su-27 did in 1989. So great was its influence, that it stole the show from the Eurofighter, which also made its debut there. The Pilot was Yevgeny Frolov, Hero Of Russia. The first twin-seat flanker with TVC and canards took off for the first time on July 1, 1997 at the hands V.J. Aver'janov. This prototype '#56' was later re-numbered to T10MK-1, which was officially the first Su-30MKI prototype. The versions that were ultimately delievered to the IAF (SB019 onwards) bear the designation T10-PMK-01.

5.3 Acquisition/Production Plans

The SU-30MKI is the first Russian aircraft designed in collaboration with a foreign customer. It was born when the IAF decided to acquire the Su-30MK and include modifications according to its needs. Its competitor was the Mirage-2000-5, an excellent multirole aircraft in its own right. It had the advantage over the Su-30 given that the IAF was extremely satisfied with the results from the Mirage-2000H. However, the SU-30MKI was found to be a lot cheaper than the Mirage-2000-5, which ultimately proved to be the deciding factor. The induction of the Su-30 into the IAF is a bit confusing for some. This is due to the fact that three different deals where signed, delays in the program and also due the fact that IAF has been operating Su-30s (since 1997) which are not Su-30MKIs but Su-30MKs. However, since they are being operated by the IAF, they are referred to as Su-30MKIs by some. Here Su-30MKI refers to the final version of the aircraft, and not those which saw service with the IAF since 1997.


On July 24, 1994 an Indian delegation headed by the CAS of the IAF arrived in Russia to evaluate the aircraft. Deal I (30 Nov 1996) : The IAF signed a US $1462 million (equivalent to Rs 5122 crore) deal with Sukhoi on 30 November 1996 for the delivery of 40 Su-30 aircraft and the associated equipment from the Irkutsk plant in phased manner, spread out over four years - from 1997 to 2000. The contract provided for setting up of a Service Support Centre in India which was to undertake extended second line repair tasks of aircraft, avionics, aero-engines and aggregates to avoid the need to despatch them to the manufacturer. Under this original contract, Su-30s would be delivered to the IAF in four batches:

The first batch (Su-30MK-I) of 8 aircraft would be delivered in 1997. These were 'standard' Su-30s (a development of the Su-27UB) and contained 100% (probably) Russian components and are primarily sir-superiority aircraft only. These fighters were first delivered to India at Lohegaon AFS in March 1997. They were inducted into the IAF on 11 June 1997 by the then Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral. These planes are currently in service with IAF with serial nos SB001 to SB008 in the No. 24 Hawks squadron based at Lohegaon AFS. The second batch (Su-30MK-IIs) of another 8 aircraft would be delivered in 1998 and would be fitted with Sextant Avionique's avionics from France, liquid crystal multi-function displays (MFDs), a new flight data recorder, a dual ring laser gyro INS (inertial navigation system) with embedded GPS (Global Positioning Satellite), EW (Electronic Warfare) equipment procured from Israel's IAI (Israeli Aircraft Industries), a new electro-optical targeting system and a RWR (Radar Warning Receiver). The third batch (Su-30MK-IIIs) of 12 aircraft would be delivered in 1999 and would feature canard foreplanes

The first 32 aircraft already delivered would then be upgraded to the Su-30MKI variant, in a phased manner. This plan was thought of because Su-30MKI would be the world's first of its kind, and not all technologies were completely developed in other Russian designs like the Su-35 and Su-37. Deal II (September 1998) : The IAF decided to buy 10 additional Su-30Ks for US $277.01 million (equivalent to Rs.1187 crore) and thus bring the total number of IAF Su-30s on order to 50. These 10 were originally destined for Indonesia, but due to the financial crisis there Indonesia was unable to take delivery. The first 4 units were delivered in June 1999. These have updated electronic warfare suites, PGM (Precision Guided Munitions) capability and possibly updated radar. These planes are currently in service with IAF with serial nos SB009 to SB018 in the No. 24 Hawks squadron based at Lohegaon AFS. IAF was to take delivery the 2nd batch of aircraft(Su-30MK-IIs) in 1998. However this was postponed due to delay specifying the requirements for the advanced avionics (French,Israeli and Indian). In March 1998 the agreements were signed with the concerned firms. The crash of the first Su-30MKI prototype T-10PMK-1 ("blue 01") at the Paris airshow did not help matters.


Later it was decided to take delivery of full-standard Su-30MKIs directly and hence doing away with the upgradation and to avoid different grades of one aircraft in service at the same time. Also, the development of the Su-30MKI was nearing completion and first buying some airframes and then upgrading them is an avoidable hassle. Hence, all future deliveries would be Su-30MKIs. The first 4 Su-30MKI arrived in India, again at Lohegaon AFS in semi-knocked-down (SKD) form on June 22, 2002. After assembly,they were test flown initially by Russian test pilots on 25July-2002. The first flight by an Indian pilot in India happened on 14-Aug-2002. The first 18 aircraft (8 Su-30MK-I and 10 Su- 30K) will be upgraded locally by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The upgrade is to be completed by 2004-2005. Deal III (October-December 2000) : A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed allowing the license production of 140 Su-30MKIs and in December 2000, the deal was sealed in Russia at the IAPO factory. The deal combines license production with full technology transfer and hence called a 'Deep License'. For instance, HAL Koraput will also produce 920 AL-31FP engines, while the mainframe and other accessories will be manufactured at HAL's Lucknow and Hyderabad Divisions. Final integration of the aircraft and its test flight would be carried out at HAL's Ozhar (Nasik) Division. The original plans called for the first Su-30MKIs from Nasik to be delivered to the IAF in 2004-05, with production increasing to a peak of 10 aircraft per year from 2007-08 onward at this rate the production would have stretched to 2017-18. At Air Force Commander's Conference held in Oct-2002, the Air Chief Marshal Krishnaswamy, asked the HAL to complete the project in 10 years. This was confirmed by N.R.Mohanty on 12-Nov-2002 while speaking to the press [6]. Therefore, the new schedule would mean that a maximum of 14 planes per year will be churned out by HAL and hence finishing in 2013. The original costs of Rs. 20,000 Cr remained as it is, even though such an action is expected to raise costs. According to Mohanty, HAL planned to counter the inflation by "outsourcing in low and medium type jobs while the critical items will be HAL's own." Deal IV (May 2005?) : It was originally planned that the 24 Sqn aircraft will be upgraded to the Su-30MKI Phase-III standard once the delivery is complete. However, the latest Russian offer is to replace these aircraft with newly built airframes at $270 Million in 2007. The reasoning being that some of the aircraft have already aged quite a bit - the first ones entered service in 1997. More importantly, the upgraded airframes would not have the same capability as the new airframes. The offer has reportedly cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council, but the exact status is not known at the moment. Deal V: Another 40 Su-30MKI were contracted from Russia. End Result : IAF will eventually acquire a total of 230 Su-30MKI. Out of these 90 will be made in Russia by Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (IAPO) while the rest will be produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Production might be increased if necessary. HAL chairman Nalini Ranjan Mohanty has said that the Indian-built Su-30s will cost only about $22.5 million a unit against the current import price of about $37.5 million [5]. The first Su-30MKI were delivered by IAPO on June 22, 2002 aboard an An-124. 2 more followed in the same month. The first batch of 10 Su-30MKIs were inducted into the Indian Air Force on 27-Sep-2002 at Lohegaon AFS where the No. 20

Lightnings was constituted. The Phase-III aircraft deliveries were completed by Dec 2004, when around the same time the first HAL assembled Su-30MKIs rolled out. By 2006 it is expected that Phase I and II aircraft will be up to the latest standard. India's Defence Minister George Fernandes laid the foundation stone of a new HAL factory at Sunabeda (20 kms from Koraput, Orissa) on Dec 15, 2002. This brand new facility is licenced to produce 1200 AL-31FPs. It is said that the manufacture of the AL-31FP engine "involved 31 new technologies required to be adopted and mastered" ( Is the development of the Su-30MKI complete? The originally envisaged goals for the program have been achieved with the delivery of the Phase-III aircraft. However, the development is not being frozen. Future updates are planned - including the airframe and radar (read below).

5.4 Su-30MKI in the IAF

The induction of the Su-30 was'nt without its share of problems. The average servicibility of the 10 Su-30MKs fell to 69% during 1997-1998 and further reduced to 62% 1998-1999. Similarly, the average availability of SU-30K aircraft for operations also declined from six aircraft in 1997-98 to four aircraft in 1998-99, out of total strength of eight aircraft. This happened because the MoD did not order spares for the aircraft and the IAF was using spares supplied at the time of induction - supplied back in 1997. The MoD finally signed the general spares contract in January 1999. Problems were multiplied due to the poor poduct support from the manufacturers. Apart from delivery of eight SU-30K aircraft during 1997 the manufacturer was required to supply 72 associated equipment like tyres, brake parachutes, specialist vehicles etc. valuing US $ 347.85 million, equivalent to Rs 1252.25 crore during 1997-2000 in a phased manner. The contract explicitly stipulated that equipment to be delivered by the manufacturer would be new, unused, of current production and serviceable. However, the a large percentage of the equipment delivered by the manufacturer between 1997 and 1998 was old, used, corroded, defective and unserviceable, though full payment had been made. For example, the specialist vehicles supplied were old, corroded and inoperable and others items like parachutes were torn and damaged. Aircraft tyres were found to have cut marks during initial inspection. The IAF made 48 claims from sukhoi but only 15 were cleared as of July 1999. Today the IAF operates at least 4 Su-30MKI squadrons. The pioneer No 24 Sqn has retired its 'vanilla' Su-30MK/K and replaced with MKIs. The No. 20 Sqn's pilots and crews were initially drawn from the first Sukhoi unit i.e. No.24 Hawks with which it shared Lohegaon AFS. It was considered to shift 24 Sqn to Chandigarh or Halwara to make space for 30 Sqn. Both Chandigarh and Halwara airbases have experience in handling the Su-30 - it is here that they are based when required to make a flypast on India's annual Republic Day (Jan 26), Air Force Day (Oct 08) and other such occasions. Ultimately 24 Sqn was housed at Bareilly. Being the first in the service to operate the type, the No 20's task was to develop the doctrine for the MKIs capabilities and hence was scheduled with a lot of training flights.

A sign of increasing confidence of the IAF in the Su-30MKI is the wider range of tasks being assigned to them - recently it has come to light that the 20 Sqn is also training for the maritime role. This often entails flying for long hours over the sea, which is considered difficult due to lack of navigation aids on the 'ground'. Even though the vanilla Su-30K aircraft were meant to be upgraded to MKI standard the significant differences meant that the only viable option was to replace the aircraft completely. New build MKIs were supplied to replace them to 24 Sqn.


Location AFS

Airframes 10 Su-30K (Retired) ??? Su-30MKI

Serial No.s SB009 to SB018 ???

08 Su-30MK (Retired) SB001 to SB008 No. 24 Sqn AF Bareilly Hawks (Bareilly)

No. 20 Sqn AF ? AFS 10 Su-30MKI Phase-I SB019 to SB028 Lightnings (Bareilly or Jodhpur?) ?? Su-30MKI Phase-II SB029 to ??? No. 30 Sqn AF ? AFS ??? Su-30MKI Rhinos (Jamnagar or Tezpur?) No. 8 Sqn AF Lohegaon Pursoots (Pune) No. 31 Sqn AF ??? AFS Lions # Serial Su-30MK (Retired) Ex 24 Sqn AFS ??? Su-30MKI ???


??? Su-30MKI

??? Remarks > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for RDay Parade. > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005)



02 03 04

SB002 SB003 SB004


05 06

SB005 SB006 > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for RDay Parade > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for RDay Parade. > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for RDay Parade.





Su-30K (Retired) Ex 24 Sqn 09 SB009 > Deployed to AFB, France Grauda II, Jun > Ex Cope India Kalaikunda AFS 2005) Istres (Ex 2005) 2006, (Nov



11 12

SB011 SB012 > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Static display @ Chennai Air Show, Old Meenambakkam Airport (31.Aug.2003)










> Deployed to AFB, France Grauda II, Jun > Ex Cope India Kalaikunda AFS 2005)

Istres (Ex 2005) 2006, (Nov



> Static Display @ Vayu Sena Diwas, Palam AFS (08.Oct.2002) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) > Static Display @ Su30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Radome was seen in ealier photographs with a light grey colour covering two-thirds of the length > Static Display; Open Day at AFS Lohegaon > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005)



Su-30MKI Phase-I 19 SB019 20 SB020 > Static Display @ Begumpet Air Port, Hyderabad (07.May.2003) > Flying Display @ Aeroindia 2003, Yelahanka AFS, Piloted by 20 Sqn CO Jamwal (05-09.Feb.2003) >









Mumbai Airshow Chatrapathi Shivaji International Air Port (14.Oct.2004) > Confirmed 20 Sqn > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon, Piloted by 20 Sqn CO Jamwal (27.Sep.2002) >Static display at Nagpur Air Show




SB025 > Static Display @ Aeroindia 2003, Yelahanka AFS (0509.Feb.2003)



27 28 Su-30MKI Phase-II 29 30 31 32 33 34

SB027 SB028 SB029 SB030 SB031 SB032 SB033 SB034 > Aeroindia 2005 Yelahanka AFS reserve for flying display > Confirmed 30 Sqn > Static Display @ Aeroindia 2005 Yelahanka AFS > Confirmed 30 Sqn





37 38 39 40

SB037 SB038 SB039 SB040

> Flying Aeroindia


Display @ 2005

Yelahanka AFS > Confirmed 30 Sqn It is unclear how these aircraft have been distributed between the No.20 and No.30 Squadrons. Su-30MKI Phase-III (Irkut) 41 SB041 > Confirmed 30 Sqn > Confirmed 30 Sqn > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB (trf to 20 Sqn?)



43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

SB043 SB044 SB045 SB046 SB047 SB048 SB049 SB050 > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB

Last delivery Dec 2004. It is unclear how these aircraft have been distributed between the No.20 and No.30 Squadrons. Su-30MKI Phase-III (HAL) > First flight Oct 01, 2004. > Commisioned into IAF 28.Nov.2004 > Ceremonial first flight piloted by P.M.Sergei and Wg Cdr T.R. Ajit Kumar > > > > Ex Red Flag 2008,



52 53

SB102 SB103 SB107 SB110


Nellis AFB SB115 SB124 SB127 > > Air Force Day 2007 >

HAL has targetted FY 2014-15 for delivering the last Su-30MKI. Rate of production is reported to be 13 aircraft per annum [2], which would mean that atleast 20-25 aircraft have already been produced by HAL by the current financial year. However only SB101/2/3 have been sighted so far.

Camouflage Scheme The 24 Sqn airframes (both K and MK series) are all painted in a very pretty blue sky pattern. Some of these these fighters have their numeric serial applied below the cockpit, which is not the practice in the other current aircraft of the Indian Air Force, and generally has never been. Only the Gnat/Ajeet and Vampire fighter aircraft ever carried the serial printed in a large size, but near to the exhaust, nowhere near the nose. The stylized Hawks insignia was also seen in the Su-30MKs at least initially, but it seems that some no longer sport it and it was never painted on the Su-30Ks anyway. Also unusual was the word Hawks in bright red beside the Hawk logo. Only few squadrons have their nicknames written on their aircraft. Such aircraft include MiG-21s of the Ankush sqn. Some 20 Sqn aircraft have a stylized Lightnings insignia, a very welcome change on IAF aircraft in the post-matt-grey era. At least four airframes of the Su-30MK series were temprarily dressed up in a ceremonial tri-colour scheme. The Dharma Chakra was also painted on the aircrafts' 'backs'. Originally the Su-30MK/Ks had a light grey radome, but over the years some machines have been noticed with a darker shade of grey, though not black. Untill recently, the IAF never had any uniform camoflage scheme for its fleet, and it appears it was left to the units to decide how their machines looked. This is the reason for the inconsistent paint scheme throughout the IAF. However, since recent times all aircraft and even ground equipment like trucks and tractors also sport the Matt Grey livery. Some aircraft have been applied with a black coat of paint around the canopy area, to reduce reflection. Airframes identified with this paint are; SB023, SB024, SB035, SB040 and SB102.

5.5 Airframe and Aerodynamics

The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and the brake parachute container. The fuselage head is of semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments and the

avionics bay. Su-30MKIs also have a high percentage of composites used in the airframe - rumoured to be 6% by weight. The Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is an unstable longitudinal triplane. The canard increases the aircraft lifting effectiveness. It deflects automatically and allows high angle-of- attack flights. The integral aerodynamic configuration combined with thrust vectoring results in practically unlimited manoeuvrability and unique taking off and landing characteristics. Stability and control are assured by a digital FBW. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles of attack (AoA) and bringing it to a level flight condition. The aircraft has a newly developed wing with increased relative thickness, accommodating a larger amount of fuel. The wing will have high-lift devices featured as deflecting leading edges and flaperons acting the flaps and ailerons. At subsonic flights, the wing profile curvature is changed by a remote control system which deflects the leading edges and flaperons versus the AoA (Angles of Attack). The Su-30MKI will have a reinforced airframe in order to accommodate a weapons load of 17,650 lb (8,000 kg) compared with half that for the Su-30K, and the maximum takeoff weight is 38,800 kg versus 34,500 kg. The term "super-maneuverability" was coined by Dr. Wolfgang Herbst, initiator of the USA's X-31 prototype program, in defining controllability up to 60 to 70 Angleof-Attack with transients of 120 or more. The Su-30MKI has no AoA limitations: it can fly at even 180 degree AoA and still recover. This high super-agility allows rapid deployment of weapons in any direction as desired by the crew. The addition of another seat means that the pilot is free to concentrate on flying the aircraft while the second pilot can engage targets. Mikhail Simonov was stung by press criticism that this machine was appearing at airshows doing tailslides and Cobras without any underwing stores. So it was promptly fitted with a representative warload consisting of (from port wingtip) - AA11, AA-11, AA-10, Kh-31P, 6 x OFAB-100-120 bombs on a MER fitted to the port lower intake, KAB-500KR on centreline pylon, Kh-29T on lower Stbd intake, Kh59M, RVV-AE, AA-11, AA-11 and still did its full show routine! A similar performance was witnessed at an airshow where the Landing Gear could not retracted in a Su-37, but Yevgeny Frolov still went on do perform the show routine without any changes! Planned for incorporation into the Su-30MKI fuselage on a progressive basis from 2006 through to 2017 on 114 of the 140 HAL-built Su-30MKI Mk3s are allcomposite structures like wing spars and wing boxes, air intakes, fairing skins, fairing blocks, co-cured co-bonded fin and centre-fuselage components, elevators, rudder and its all-composite torque shaft, ailerons, belly fairings, landing gear doors, ceramic thermal barrier linings, and ceramic brake-pads. Interestingly, several such structures are currently being incorporated into the IAF's MiG-29B airframes as well.

5.6 Cockpit
The SU-30MKI employs extensive use of Sextant Avionique (now Thales Avionics) components in the cockpit. A total of 6 LCDs, 5 MFD-55s and 1 MFD-66 for displaying information and accepting commands are used. The six LCDs have a wide32

screen, offer image-superimposing and are shielded to make them readable even in bright sunlight. All the flight information is displayed on these four LCD displays which include one for piloting and navigation, a tactical situation indicator, and two for display systems information including operating modes and overall operation status. The cockpit also retains some traditional dial displays as standbys. There is some confusion regarding the HUD. While reports say MKI has VEH-3000 series Holographic HUD from Sextant Avionique, photographic evidence suggests Elbit Systems' SU 967. SU 967 has been designed for large cockpit fighter/attack aircraft and features a 28 degree FOV. The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weathers; day and night. The navigation complex comprises of Thales Totem Inertial Directional System (INS) and short and long range radio navigation systems. It also has a laser attitude and a heading reference system. An automatic flight control system makes all phases of its flight automatic, including the combat employment of its weapons. Once the automatic flight control system receives information from the navigation system, it solves the route flight tasks - involving a flight over the programmed waypoints, the return to the landing airfield, making a pre-landing maneuver and the approach for landing down to an altitude of 60 meters, as well as uses the data supplied from the weapons control and radio guidance command systems to direct the aircraft to the target and accomplish the attack. The communications equipment comprises secure VHF and HF radio sets, a secured digital telecommunications system, and antenna-feeder assembly. It mounts an automatic noise-proof target data exchange system, which provides for coordination of the actions of several fighter aircraft engaged in a group air combat. The voice radio communication with ground control stations and between aircraft is possible up to a range of 1,500 km in the Su-27SK, and the Su-30MKI should equal it if not better this. The Integrated Information System (IIS) allows the performance of a ground serviceability test of the entire equipment and the location of troubles to an individual plug-in unit. In case of an in-flight failure, the indicator of the integrated information system will provide the pilot with a text message about the failure and recommendations on how to correct it or will dictate further actions. The message is also duplicated by voice. A two-pilot crew provides higher work efficiency (thanks to distribution of the aircraft handling and armament control functions) as well as the engagement in close and long range combats and the air situation observation. Besides, the same dual control aircraft can be used as a combat and training aircraft. Additionally, the integrated air-borne equipment enables the aircraft to be used as an air command post to control the operation of other aircraft. In practice, the front seater is the pilot and the back seater is the "Wizzo", the WSO (Weapons Systems Operator). The pilot flies the aircraft and handles air-to-air and some ATG weapons, as well as countermeasures. The WSO takes care of the detailed aspects of navigation, ground radar mapping & target designation, setting up delivery solution for ATG weapons, designating for guided bombs/missiles, ECM, and so on. There are many tasks which overlap; either pilot or WSO can do the job depending on circumstances. The aircraft can be flown from either seat, however only the front

cockpit driver can operate the helmet mounted sight (Sura) as sensors are only in the front. The rear cockpit has a HUD repeater. The crew are provided zero-zero KD-36DM ejection seats which have a slightly modified comm/oxygen interface block compared to the Su-27. Rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit will be provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and increased amounts of oxygen. The KD-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat.

5.7 Avionics 5.7.1 Laser-optical locator system

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Detection range is up to 90 Km, whilst the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 Km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar.

5.7.2 LITENING targeting pod

Israeli LITENING targeting pod is used to target the laser guided munitions. Litening incorporates in a single pod all the targeting features required by a modern strike fighter. The original Litening pod includes a long range FLIR, a TV camera, a flashlamp powered laser designator, laser spot tracker for tracking target designated by other aircraft or from the ground, and an electro-optical point and inertial tracker, which enabled continuous engagement of the target even when the target is partly obscured by clouds or countermeasures. The pod integrates the necessary laser rangefinder and designator, required for the delivery of Laser Guided Bombs, cluster and general purpose bomb.

5.8 Radar
The forward facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated passive electronically scanned array radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar. The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as antijamming features. N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. The radar can track 20 air targets and engage the 8 most dangerous simultaneously. These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su-30MKI can function as a miniAWACS as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least 4 other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 4050 km. A modified Su-30MKI is being developed to carry BrahMos cruise missiles, with induction planned for 2012. The program is experiencing difficulties due to the enormous weight of the missile.


5.9 Electronic countermeasures

Sukhoi Su-30MKI has electronic counter-measure systems. The RWR system is an indigenously developed system by DRDO, called Tarang, (Wave in Sanskrit). It has direction finding capability and is known to have a programmable threat library. The RWR is derived from work done on an earlier system for India's MiG-23BNs known as the Tranquil, which is now superseded by the more advanced Tarang series. Elta EL/M-8222 a self-protection jammer developed by Israel Aircraft Industries is the MKI's standard EW pod, which the Israeli Air Force uses on its F-15s. The ELTA El/M-8222 Self Protection Pod is a power-managed jammer, air-cooled system with an ESM receiver integrated into the pod. The pod contains an antenna on the forward and aft ends, which receive the hostile RF signal and after processing deliver the appropriate response.

5.10 Propulsion
The Su-30MKI is powered by the two Al-31FP turbofans. Each Al-31FP is rated at 12,500 kgf (27,550 lbf) of full afterburning thrust. Two AL-31FP by-pass thrustvectoring turbojet reheated engines (25,000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The mean time between overhaul for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a mean time between overhaul of 500 hours. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes. The TVC nozzles of the MKI are mounted 32 degrees outward to longitudinal engine axis (i.e. in the horizontal plane) and can be deflected 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This produces a cork-screw effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft. There is no strain-gauge engine control stick to change the engine thrust in the cockpit, rather just a conventional engine throttle control lever. The pilot controls the aircraft with help of a standard control stick. On the pilot's right there is a switch which is turned on for performing difficult maneuvers. After the switch-over, the computer determines the level of use of aerodynamic surfaces and swiveling nozzles and their required deflection angles.

5.11 Indian Contribution

The Su-30MKI contains not only Russian, French, South African and Israeli Customer Furnished Equipment (CFE), but also a substantial percentage of Indian designed and manufactured avionics. They took six years to develop from start to MKI. Advanced avionics were developed by DRDO under a project code named "Vetrivale" (a Tamil name for the victorious lance carried by the youthful Lord Karthikeya or Murugan, a son of Parvati and Shiva) in close collaboration with the PSUs and the IAF. Indian avionics have been received and acknowledged enthusiastically by the Russian principals. The following are the components developed by Indian agencies:

Mission Computer cum Display Processor - MC-486 and DP-30MK (Defence Avionics Research Establishment - DARE) Radar Computer - RC1 and RC2 (DARE)

Tarang Mk2 Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) + High Accuracy Direction Finding Module (HADF) (DARE IFF-1410A - Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Integrated Communication suite INCOM 1210A (HAL) Radar Altimeter - RAM-1701 (HAL) Programmable Signal Processor (PSP) - (LRDE) Multi Function Displays (MFD) - Samtel/DARE

The 32-bit Mission Computer performs mission-oriented computations, flight management, reconfiguration-cum-redundancy management and in-flight systems self-tests. In compliance with MIL-STD-1521 and 2167A standards, Ada language has been adopted for the mission computer's software. The other DARE-developed product, the Tarang Mk2 (Tranquil) radar warning receiver, is manufactured by stateowned BEL at its Bangalore facility. These avionics equipment have also been certified for their airworthiness in meeting the demanding standards of Russian military aviation. The cumulative value of such indigenous avionic equipment is estimated to exceed Rs. 250 lakhs per aircraft. Since the core avionics were developed by a single agency (DRDO) - they have significant commonality of hardware and software amongst them using a modular approach to design. This obviously results in major cost and time savings in development; it also benefits the user in maintenance and spares inventories. The DRDO has gone a step further and come out with a new design of the Core Avionics Computer (CAC) which can be used with a single module adaptation across many other aircraft platforms. Thus the CAC which is derived from the computers designed for the Su-30MKI will now be the centre piece of the avionics upgrades for the MiG-27 and Jaguar aircraft as well. The CAC was demonstrated by DRDO at the Aero India exhibition at Yelahanka and attracted a good deal of international attention. Taken together with the systems already developed indigenously for the LCA (such as the Digital Flight Control Computer and HUD), clearly Indian avionics have a significant export potential in the burgeoning global market for avionics modernisation. The navigation/weapons systems from the various countries were integrated by Ramenskoye RPKB. HAL will supply components to Irkut for 300 Su-30s meant for export to Malaysia and Algeria apart from those meant for IAF

5.12 Engines and Fuel System

The Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (P for povorotnoye meaning "movable"), which is a development of the Al-37FU (seen in the Su-37 Terminator). AL-31FP which is designed by the Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn) is also different from Al-31F (by the same company). The Al-31F is the 'baseline' powerplant found in most Su-27 and its variants, and perhaps in the China's J-10 in the future and lacks TVC. The AL-31FP was only 110Kg heavier and 0.4 m longer

than the AL-31F, while the thrust remains the same. Planes equipped with AL-31F can be upgraded to AL-31FP later on without any changes in the airframe. It is being produced now at the Saturn manufacturing facility at Ufa, Russia. The Al-37FU (FU stands for forsazh-upravlaemoye-sopo or "afterburningarticulating/steerable-nozzle") basically added 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) Nozzles to the Al-31F. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/pointed in 2 axis or directions - up or down. TVC obviuosly makes an aircraft much more maneuverable. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes i.e. thrust can be directed side-ways also. The nozzles of the MKI are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This is done by angling them inwards by 15 degrees inwards, which produces a corkscrew effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft. The TVC nozzles will be made of titanium to reduce the nozzle's weight and can deflect together or differentially to achieve the desired thrust vector for a particular maneuver. The engine designers are also working to reduce the infrared signature for thrust settings below afterburner. Also, the 2-nozzles can be vectored un-symmetrically, i.e. each nozzle can point at different directions independent from the other nozzle and thus multiplying the effect.The aircraft is capable of near-zero speed airspeed at high angles of attack and super dynamic aerobatics in negative speeds up to 200 km/h. TVC allows the MKI for example, to rapidly loose speed and turn in any direction and fire its weapons. The complete range of maneuveres possible in the MKI are impossible on any other combat fighter in production. "We even made a corkscrew spin a controllable manoeuvre - the pilot can leave it at any moment by a single motion of the stick that engages thrust-vectoring and aerodynamic surfaces," says Sukhoi's earlier general designer Mikhail Simonov. Two AL-31FP by-pass thrust-vectoring turbojet reheated engines (25000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a MTBO of 500 Hrs. The Al-31FP improves upon the Al-37FU in two ways:

Firstly, the Al-37FU cannot vector thrust in 2 planes unlike the Al-31FP. Secondly, the nozzle drive connection is effected now from the aircraft fuel system and not from the aircraft's hydraulic system. The change-over to the fuel system, to control swiveling nozzles, enhances the dependability of the aircraft and its survivability in air combat.

There is no a strain-gauge engine control stick to change the engine thrust in the cockpit, rather just a conventional engine throttle control lever. The pilot controls the aircraft with help of a standard control stick which is positioned between his legs. On the pilot's right there is a switch which is turned on for performing difficult maneuvers. After the switch-over, the on-board computer determines the level of use of aerodynamic surfaces and swiveling nozzles and their required deflection angles.

Saturn/Lyulka General Designer Victor Chepkin confirmed to Piotr Butowski (Jane's) that work on a three-dimensional (axisymmetrical) TVC nozzle was underway but that it was not planned for the Su-37 in the immediate future. Other future engines from Saturn are Al-31FN and Al-41. The Su-30MKI has a large range of 3,000 km without refueling which allows for autonomous operations that require high endurance. Also, an inbuilt In-Flight Refueling (IFR) probe that is retracted beside the cockpit during normal operation. The IAF has placed an order for six IL-78MKI Midas refueling aircraft. As of June 2003, the first IL-78MKI had been delivered to the IAF under the newly raised 78 Sqn. Another one was delivered within the next few months. A normal fuel load of 5270 kg ensures a 4.5 hour combat mission, and the air refuelling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 8000 km at a cruise height of 11 to 13 km. Thus the endurance of the aircraft is limited solely by the human factor, hence the logic of going for a twin-seat fighter. Prior to the arrival of the IL-78MKI, the average duration of sorties was 1.54 hours varying from a maximum of 2.08 to a minimum of 1.45 hours*. Since the arrival of the IL-78MKI, IAF pilots have flown 10 Hr missions over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from Pune. Interestingly, the total time spent in air combat manoeuvre varied from a maximum of 22.04 minutes to a minimum of 4.01 minutes, with an average of 14.04 minutes. In percentage figures, in long duration sorties, the pilot spent 12.5 percent of the time on ACM as compared to the total duration of the sortie. These figures are from studies conducted in 1998 on the un-upgraded Su-30MK variants*. * See Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine 1998; 42(2): 6-9 The IAF in co-operation with the Defence Food Research Laboratories (DFRL) has designed "inflight meals" to provide nutrition to pilots flying long duration missions. IAF's Institute of Aerospace Medicine (IAM) personnel like Wg Cdr CK Ranjan and Wg Cdr AD Upadhyaya worked on these meals and their storage. The Mysore-based DFRL has developed nutritious coconut water and pineapple juice, besides ready to eat food like sooji halwa, ribbon and cheese sandwich and mince meat rice, packed specially for high endurance aircraft. The food is nutritiuos and is easy to eat in the cockpit environment, and the pilots can choose their meal. Engines manufactured were adapted under the grades of fuel used in India

5.13 Tactics
Many wrongly believe that the Su-27+ cannot perform all maneovres in combat load. To counter such talk designer Mikhail Simonov, at the 1994 Farnborough airshow, sanctioned a Su-30MK to perform the airshow routine with ordnance on all 12 pylons - a total of 7000 kg!! It did a complete fighter-like routine with this asymmetric load including a tail slide!!. In-Close, Stay-Close, and Kill-Close strategy is a way defeat the new generation of all-aspect, high-off-boresight missiles such as the R-73, Python 4, MICA-IR, and AIM-9X. Obviously one has to survive the transit from beyond visual range (BVR), to within visual range (WVR), to inside of minimum range. Once there however, both

Western and Russian gun systems are capable of all-aspect, high crossing angle kills at ranges inside of 1500 feet. Russian designers have stated that they believe that the key to dogfight supremacy rests in the pilot's ability to engage the enemy in any position relative to their own aircraft. While TVC permits post-stall maneuvering and pointing which are impossible in conventional aircraft, they are convinced that a rearward facing radar and missiles that can be fired in the aft-quadrant all join to make an unbeatable integrated weapons system.

5.14 Operational history

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s.]The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral air exercises. India exercised its Su-30MKIs against the Royal Air Force's Tornado ADVs in October 2006.This was the first large-scale bilateral aerial exercise with any foreign air force during which the IAF used its Su-30MKIs extensively. This exercise was also the first in 43 years with the RAF. During the exercise, RAF's Air Chief Marshall, Glenn Torpy, was given permission by the IAF to fly the MKI. RAF's Air-Vice Marshall, Christopher Harper, praised the MKI's dogfight ability, calling it "absolutely masterful". In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such a exercise.The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly-classified N011M Bars. During the exercise, the RAF pilots candidly admitted that the Su-30MKI displayed maneuvering superior to that of the Typhoon. An earlier variant of the Su-30MKI, the MK, took part in war games with the United States Air Force (USAF) during Cope-India 04, where USAF F-15 Eagles were pitted against Indian Air Force Su-30MKs, Mirage 2000s, MiG-29s and elderly MiG-21. The results have been widely publicized, with the Indians winning "90% of the mock combat missions".In July 2008, the IAF sent 6 Su-30MKIs and 2 aerial-refueling tankers, the Il-78MKI, to participate in the Red Flag exercise. In October 2008, a video surfaced on the internet which featured a USAF colonel, Corkey Fornoff, criticizing Su-30MKI's high friendly kill rate and serviceability issues during the Red Flag exercise. A Sukhoi 30 MKI aircraft crashed on 30 April 2009 in the Pokhran region of Rajasthan after it took off from Pune during its routine sortie, killing one of its two pilots. This has been the only crash of the MKI, ever since its induction.


5.15 Secifications

Dimensions and Weights Dimensions Length Span Height Take-off Weight Normal Maximum Fuel weight, (spec. weight 0.785 g p cu. sm) kg Normal Maximum Other Max takeoff run with a normal takeoff weight (afterburner) Max landing run with a normal landing weight, with a drag parachute Max operating overload

21.9 m 14.7 m 6.4 m 24900 kg 38800 kg 5270 kg 9640 kg 550 m 750 m 9g


Maximum speed: Mach 2.35 (2,500 km/h) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft) Range: 5,000 km (2,700 nmi) at altitude; (1,270 km, 690 nmi near ground level)(With Internal Fuel Tank) Service ceiling: 17,300 m (56,800 ft) Rate of climb: >355 m/s (70,000 ft/min) Wing loading: 401 kg/m (98 lb/ft) Thrust/weight: 1.07 (at loaded weight & 1.15 with 50% fuel)

built-in single-barrel GSh-301 gun (30 mm calibre, 150 rounds)

Air to Air Missiles:

6 R-27R/AA-10A/Astra[39] semi-active radar homing medium range AAM of range 80 km. 6 R-27T (AA-10B) infrared homing seeker, medium range AAM, 70 km 2 R-27P (AA-10C) passive radar seeker, long range AAM 10 R-77 (AA-12) active radar homing medium range AAM, 100 km 6 R-73 (AA-11) short range AAM, 30 km

Air to Surface Missiles:

2 Kh-59ME TV guided standoff Missile, 115 km 2 Kh-59MK Laser guided standoff Missile, 130 km 4 Kh-35 Anti-Ship Missile, 130 km 3 PJ-10 Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile,300 km 6 Kh-31P/A anti-radar missile, 70 km 6 Kh-29T/L laser guided missile, 30 km 4 S-8 rocket pods (80 unguided rockets) 4 S-13 rocket pods (20 unguided rockets)


6 KAB-500L laser guided bombs 3 KAB-1500L laser guided bombs 8 FAB-500T dumb bombs 28 OFAB-250-270 dumb bombs 32 OFAB-100-120 dumb bombs 8 RBK-500 cluster bombs

6.1 HAL Dhruv:Advanced Light Helicopter

The HAL Dhruv (Sanskrit: , "Pole Star") is a multi-role helicopter developed and manufactured by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It is being supplied to the Indian Armed Forces, and a civilian variant is also available. The

helicopter was first exported to Nepal and Israel, and is on order by several other countries for both military and commercial uses. Military versions in production are for transport, utility, reconnaissance and MedEvac roles. A specialized helicopter gunship version is in development. A naval version for anti-submarine operations was proposed, but has possibly been dropped.

6.2 Development
Hindustan's Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) program was first announced in November 1984,the ALHwas designed with assistance from MBB in Germany. The twin 1000 shp Turbomeca TM333-2B turboshafts are mounted above the cabin and drive a four-blade composite main rotor. The ALH makes use of an advanced integrated dynamic system which combines several rotor control features into an integrated module. The civil prototype ALH (Z-3182) first flew on 23 August 1992, at Bangalore, followed by a second civil aircraft (Z-3183), an Army version (Z-3268) and a navalised prototype (N.901) with Allied Signal CTS800 engines and a retractable tricycle undercarriage.Even after the first prototype flew in August 1992, problems arose due to the changing demands of the Indian military, funding, and contractual issues with Messerschmitt-Blkow-Blohm, which was the consultant for design. Further delay was caused by U.S. sanctions after Indian nuclear tests in 1998, which embargoed the engine originally intended to power the helicopter. Then the helicopter used Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turboshaft producing 746 kW (1000 shp) each and an agreement was signed with Turbomeca to develop a more powerful engine. A Weapon System Integrated (WSI) Dhruv is under development for the Indian Military services. It will have stub wings fitted to carry up to eight anti-armour missiles, four air-to-air missiles or four rocket pods for 70mm and 68mm rockets. The WSI variant will also have FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared), CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera and a target acquisition system with thermal sight and laser rangefinder. In December 2006, Nexter Systems (formerly Giat) was awarded a contract for the installation of the THL 20 20mm gun turret on the first 20 Indian forces Dhruv helicopters. The turret is armed with the M621 low-recoil cannon and is combined with a helmet-mounted sight. The helicopter was fitted with the more powerful Shakti engine developed jointly by HAL and Turbomeca, and now entering production. The first test flight of the Dhruv with the new engine and the weaponised version took place on 16 August 2007. The naval version of the helicopter is fitted with the Mihir dunking SONAR which is integrated with the Helicopter Fire Control System.

6.3 Specifications (Dhruv)

General characteristics

Crew: 1 or 2 pilots Capacity: 4-12 passengers Length: 15.87 m (52 ft 0.8 in)

Rotor diameter: 13.20 m (43 ft 3.7 in) Height: 4.05 m (12 ft 4 in) Disc area: 137 m (1,472 ft) Empty weight: 2,502 kg (5,515 lb) Max takeoff weight: 5,500 kg (12,125 lb) Powerplant: 2 Shakti turboshafts, 900 kW (1,200 shp) Alternate engine: 2x Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turboshafts of 746 kW (1,000 shp) each


Maximum speed: 280 km/h (175 mph, 150 kn) Combat radius: 320 km (200 mi, 175 nmi) Ferry range: 827 km (516 mi, 447 nmi) Service ceiling: 8382 m (27,500 ft) Rate of climb: 8.9 m/s (1,771 ft/min) Power/mass: 329.73 W/kg (0.20 hp/lb)


o o o o o

8 Anti-tank guided missiles 4 Air-to-air missiles 4 x 68 mm Rocket Pods (Air-Force & Army) 2 Torpedoes Depth charges or Anti-ship missiles

7.1 HAL Light Combat Helicopter

The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a combat helicopter currently being developed in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd for use by the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army.

7.2 Development
In 2006, it was announced that Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL) planned to build a Light Combat Helicopter. In October, 2006, the Government of India sanctioned funds for the design and development of Light Combat Helicopter to meet

the need of combat helicopter of Indian Air Force (IAF). HAL has since undertaken the design and development program of the project. The Initial Operational Clearance for service deployment by IAF is planned by November 2010.

7.2.1 Costs
The project development cost of LCH is currently pegged at only Rs 376.67 crore since it's basically a derivative of the HAL Dhruv already being inducted into the armed forces

7.2.2 Present Status

According to HAL LCH should be ready for the initial operational clearance (IOC) by December 2010 with the final operational clearance (FOC) a year or so after that, the newly revised timeframes hold that the 5.5-tonne LCH should be ready for induction into IAF by 2012-2013. On February 13, 2009, HAL announced that the first flight of the Light Combat Helicopter had been pushed back to August 2009, a six month delay from the original schedule.

7.3 Specifications
General characteristics

Crew: 2 Length: 15.8 m (51ft 8in) Rotor diameter: 13.3 m (43 ft 6 in) Height: 4.7 m (15 ft 4 in) Disc area: 138.9 m (1472 ft) Empty weight: 2550 kg (5621 lb) Loaded weight: 4000 kg (8818 lb) Useful load: 2950 kg (6503 lb) Max takeoff weight: 5,500 kg (12125 lb) Powerplant: 2 HAL/Turbomeca Shakti turboshafts, 900 kW (1200 hp) each


Never exceed speed: 330 km/h (178 knots, 207 mph) Maximum speed: 275 km/h (148 knots, 171 mph) Cruise speed: 260 km/h (140 knots, 161 mph) Range: 700km (297 nm, 342 mi) Service ceiling: 6400 m (21,300 ft)


Rate of climb: 12 m/s (2362 ft/min) Disc loading: kg/m (lb/ft) Power/mass: W/kg (hp/lb)


Guns: 20 mm gun Rockets: Unguided rockets Missiles:

o o o o

Air-to-surface missiles Air-to-air missiles Anti-radiation missiles Helina ATGM(8)

o o o

Iron bombs cluster bomb units grenade launcher

8.1 HAL HJT-36

The HAL Hindustan Jet Trainer-36 (HJT-36) Sitara (Hindi: , Sitr, "star") is an Intermediate Jet trainer aircraft (IJT) under development by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) ARDC (Aircraft Research and Design Center) for the Indian Air Force. The HJT-36 will replace the HJT-16 Kiran in its role as a trainer (Stage-2) in the Indian Air Force. It has a conventional jet trainer design, with a low, swept wing, staggered cockpits and small air intakes on either side of its fuselage.

8.2 Development
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) started design work on the intermediate jet trainer in 1997. The concept was initially developed as a successor for the Indian Air Force and Navy's HAL Kiran. HAL was awarded a contract in 1999 by the government of the Republic of India for the completion of development, testing and certification of two prototype IJT aircraft. In February 2003, the Indian Air Force placed placed an order for 16 aircraft. The order by the Indian Air Force could eventually grow to 250 aircraft. Two prototype aircraft have been built. These aircraft have undergone 280 test flights. The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in June, 2010. Initial prototypes have flown with the Snecma Larzac engine, while the production models will fly with the more powerful Saturn AL-55I engine with about 16.9 kN of

thrust (thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.59). There was delay in the program due to the new air staff requirements opted in 2005 by the Indian Air Force, which stipulated the new and more powerful engine. The AL-55I engine arrived from Russia on 28 December 2008. The first engine was fitted in PT-1, which has not been flown since the accident in Aero India 2007. One ground run has has been undertaken on PT-1 after fitting the new engine. The aircraft made its maiden flight with the Russian AL-55I engine on 9th May 2009.

8.3 Design
The aircraft is built from light alloy and composites, using a conventional low wing design with a sweptback wing of 9.8m span and 18 leading edge sweepback. About a quarter of the aircraft's line replaceable units are common with the HAL Tejas trainer aircraft. The aircraft features a hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear. The singlewheeled main units retract inward and the twin nose wheel unit retracts forward.[6]

8.3.1 Cockpit
The cockpit uses a conventional tandem two-seat configuration with the trainee pilot forward and the instructor in the raised seat to the rear. The single-piece canopy gives the pilots good, all-round vision. The seats are lightweight zero-zero ejection seats, model K-36LT manufactured by Zvesda. The pilots have both conventional and manual flight controls.

8.3.2 Weapons
The aircraft can also be used in light-attack role. It has five external hardpoints for carrying weapon systems. There is one centre-line hardpoint under the fuselage and two weapon pylons under each wing for carrying rocket and gun pods and bombs. The maximum external payload is 1,000kg.

8.3.3 Engine
The prototype aircraft are powered by a Snecma Larzac 04-H-20 turbofan nonafterburning engine developing 14.12kN. The production models will fly with the more powerful Saturn AL-55I engine with about 16.9 kN of thrust (thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.59) as the new air staff requirements opted in 2005 by the Indian Air Force, stipulated a new and more powerful engine. The AL-55I engine arrived from Russia on 28 December 2008. The aircraft made its maiden flight with Russian AL-55I engine on 9th May 2009.[7]

8.4 Specifications (HJT-36, prototypes)

General characteristics

Crew: two, student and instructor Length: 11.00 m (36 ft 1 in) Wingspan: 10.00 m (32 ft 10 in) Height: 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in)

Max takeoff weight: 4,600 kg (10,000 lb) Powerplant: 1 Snecma Larzac or Al-55I turbofan, 14.1 kN or 17kN (3,170 lbf or 4,500 lbf)


Maximum speed: Mach 0.80 (850 km/h, 540 mph) Service ceiling: 9,000 m (29,520 ft) Endurance: 3 hours Maximum Dive Speed: 950 km/h Maximum Load Factor: +7.0/-2.5 g


5 X hardpoints with up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of a variety of guns, bombs, rockets, and missiles 1 23 mm cannon (optional)