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Bhavik Patel

2010

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Society is facing many issues regarding the level of intelligence of young children in mathematics. A number of ancient civilisations have taken into consideration the strength of mental mathematics. However. The methods that will be shown will give an indication of how astonishing the minds of the past really were.Abstract (223 words) Many have forgotten the mathematicians who have spent the rest of their lives admiring the beauty of mathematics. I have discovered that the past is never too old in the present and may also influence the future. The mathematics of today has helped modern society to deal with financial. and have also considered whether these thoughts will stay intact in the future generation. Mathematics can be seen as the reason of Earths’ creation from the theory of relativity to the concept of quantum physics. Will the children of today as young as 11 years of age. I will also go on to show why it should not be introduced to the education system. 3 . These methods will strengthen the mental mathematical skills of young children and increase their confidence with the subject in the future. economical and mechanical problems. many sources have been studied during the completion of this project. As a result. be able to cope with mathematical problems in future of their life? I will show why the methods of ancient mathematics should be used in the education system of today.

5 http://www.3 billion are spent teaching the subject.secondary source information which the author obtained from a special report. the top 5 of the best taught subjects are Art.5 A study conducted by the KPMG foundation estimates around seven million adults within the United Kingdom at best.uk/education/educationnews/5285397/Fifth-of-11-year-olds-withpoor-maths-skills-say-MPs.telegraph. it can be said that their maths skills are limited to little more than arithmetic. or manipulate lessons to their own desire.secondary source information which the author obtained from financial consultants. Consequently.3 Part of the reason of this issue can be due to poor teaching skills and methods. a fifth of teenagers leave school so illiterate and innumerate they lack the ability to deal with the challenges of everyday life.html . Literature/Communication Arts and Philosophy.co.A secondary source information which the author obtained from a special report. Instead.co. Members of Parliament notify one in five children leave primary school with a poor grasp of maths.A secondary source information which the author obtained from Members of Parliament (MP’S) 3 http://www. Children tend to obtain boredom from such lessons. lessons are heavily relied on textbooks and monotonous lessons.com/article/231288/the_top_five_school_subjects_with_the.html .telegraph.ht ml?cat=9 2 http://www. Even the best of teachers are not fond of mathematics.html .associatedcontent. ICT.2 During 2008. 4 .uk/education/2010/may/07/poor-literacy-numeracy .000 children started secondary school with the maths skills of a seven-year-old. have the maths skills of a nine-year-old. In addition. As a result. from simple fraction skills.1 Let us be aware of the problems caused by mathematics within today’s society.uk/education/educationnews/5285397/Fifth-of-11-year-olds-withpoor-maths-skills-say-MPs. 4 http://www. Maths teachers do not improvise.4 billion a year.Introduction (829 words) Learning mathematics from an early age has not been pleasurable for the majority.uk/news/education/education-news/poor-maths-skills-costbritain-16324bn-a-year-says-study-1225807.co. Foreign languages.guardian. to long division. despite the fact that £2.4 Furthermore. 30.independent. According to a report by the Associated Content.co. the learning potential of the 1 http://www. deficient maths skills of an adult cost Britain’s taxpayer up to £2.

5 .co.7 Such outcome can be avoided through a technique that does not require costly research and development.com/vedas. or not. 7 http://www.secondary source information which the author obtained from a special report.html . the issues caused by deficient maths skills can influence a person’s future and capabilities. The Vedas are composed in Vedic Sanskrit which is the oldest language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.8 The phrase.uk/news/education/education-news/poor-maths-skills-costbritain-16324bn-a-year-says-study-1225807. and have a high chance of being unemployed. 8 http://www.people of the United Kingdom is lower.php – a secondary source.6 Subsequently. such as accuracy of the system. I will compare the modern mathematical techniques to the more ancient techniques of Vedic mathematics. reliable piece of information is required for the origin of the Vedas. Throughout this dissertation. whether the system is out of date or not. truancy.html .astrovalley. which has been discovered from the Vedas. exclusion from school or even health risks.co. Correct.independent. Various questions will arise from this topic. Introducing this unique mathematical system to the modern world will advance the mathematical skills of a young student. the complexity of Vedic Mathematics. Objectives and Rationale This project will give me the opportunity to expose the simplicity and yet at the same time. This technique can be referred to as Vedic Mathematics. and are adherents of the Hindu religion. identifying flaws within the system and whether the system will actually take effect on young children. Literature Review What are the Vedas? The Vedas are ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature which are related with the Vedic civilisation.uk/news/education/education-news/poor-maths-skills-costbritain-16324bn-a-year-says-study-1225807.secondary source information which the author obtained from a special report.independent. Lack of such skills relate to expensive educational needs provision. “Veda” when translated 6 http://www. I will go on to show whether Vedic mathematics should earn a place within the education system.

wikipedia. He is the twenty-eighth of the compiler of the Vedic knowledge.wikipedia. a Hindu Deity.14 Veda Vyasa is also known as Vyasa Krishna Dwaipayana. who was a Hindu scholar and 9 http://en. the Vedas were hardly understood hence. Witzel. Accessed 2007-08-09 12 http://en. 2939. Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Yajurveda.org/wiki/Vedas – A secondary source. as well as the Samaveda consist of ritual formulas. 6 . reliable piece of information is required for the origin of the Vedas.9 The Vedas consist of four accepted principles of Samhitas.wikipedia. in: Flood 2003. in: Flood 2003. reliable piece of information is required for the origin of the Vedas. Correct. "Vedas and Upaniṣads". 13 http://en. The compiler of the Vedas is known as Veda Vyasa (splitter of the Vedas). 68. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957.11 The Yajurveda. p. 29-39.org/wiki/Vedas – a secondary source.12 The Atharvaveda consist of a collection of spells that are considered to have magical effects to praise a deity.10 The four Samhitas are as followed: Rigveda. Witzel. 10 http://en. The Rigveda include hymns and prayers that are addressed to the pantheon of Gods and Goddesses.org/wiki/Vedas – A secondary source. 3. Krishna. 15 http://en. Correct. Correct.15 What is Vedic Mathematics? Vedic mathematics was rediscovered between the years of 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji (1884-1960).into English is “Knowledge”. this is due to his similarities with the great deity. p.com/vedas. reliable piece of information is required for the origin of the Vedas. MacDonell 2004. Michael. 13 Even at that time.php – a secondary source.wikipedia. around 3500 B. may come in useful to discuss the definition of it.http://en. Accessed 2007-08-09 11 http://en. p.wikipedia.astrovalley. 14 http://www. reliable piece of information is required for the origin of the Vedas. MacDonell 2004. The Vedas were compiled during the era of Krishna. they are considered to be very ancient.wikipedia. 68. Michael.C. Three of the Samhitas are performances of sacrifice.org/wiki/Vedas – a secondary source. p. Samaveda and Atharvaveda. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957.org/wiki/Vedas . 3.wikipedia. or Hymns. Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia.org/wiki/Vedas – a secondary source. Correct. and relevance to Vedic mathematics. p.A secondary source. The Samaveda is mostly a rearrangement of the Rigveda for musical rendering.org/wiki/Vedas . "Vedas and Upaniṣads". p.

17 Sūtra is a thread or a line that hold objects together. All from 9 and the last from 10. The sūtras will be in relevance in the discussion as they are to be demonstrated. 19 http://www. tirthaji.hinduism. and where it came from.co. 2. Vedic mathematics.co. 3.za/vedic.16 According to Tirthaji. Vertically and Cross-wise Transpose and Apply 5.htm#What%20is%20Vedic%20Mathematics? – Secondary source.co. If the Samuccaya (on both sides of the equation.19 The Vedic system is best known for its simplicity and coherence. Important to be aware of the purpose of the sūtras. and where it came from. The main list of sūtras is: 1.hinduism. 4. 7 .za/vedic.co. It’s important to provide correct information of who discovered Vedic mathematics. or written in a memorable form.htm#What%20is%20Vedic%20Mathematics? – Secondary source.wikipedia.za/vedic. 20 http://www.org/wiki/Sūtra – secondary source. Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji.hinduism.htm#What%20is%20Vedic%20Mathematics? – Secondary source. hence. the world of mathematics is based on sixteen sūtras. By one more than the one before. written by the researcher himself.18 An aphorism is an original thought spoken. then) is the Same it is equal to Zero 16 http://www.za/vedic. The sūtras were designed to match the way the mind naturally performs. the modern system appears to have unrelated techniques that baffle the mind.htm#What%20is%20Vedic%20Mathematics? – Secondary source. 18 http://en. this can be ideal for a student as they are guided to an appropriate method of solution. 17 http://www.mathematician. the laws of mathematics are easily remembered through the sūtras.hinduism. it’s important to be aware of the sūtras as they build up the Vedic system. The sūtras differ from the modern mathematical system. It’s important to provide correct information of who discovered Vedic mathematics. Vedic mathematics. When compared to the modern mathematical system. metaphorically it refers to an aphorism or method. The Vedic Mathematic sūtras20 The following list of sūtras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics. tirthaji.

By the Deficiency 11. The Sum of the Products 11. 6. Specific and General 12. Last Totalling 10 Only the Last Terms 10. By One Less than the One Before 15. By Mere Observation 13. 9. Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency 8. 2. 4. The Remainders by the Last Digit 13. 9.6. If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero By Addition and by Subtraction By the Completion or Non-Completion Differential Calculus 10. On the flag 8 . 5. By Alternative Elimination and Retention 12. Proportionately The Remainder Remains Constant The First by the First and the Last by the Last For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 By Osculation Lessen by the Deficiency 7. All the Multipliers In addition. 8. The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate 14. 3. 7. The Product of the Sum 16. The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products 14. the sūtras consist of sub-sūtras: 1.

I will now demonstrate two of the sūtras from the Vedic system. they used verse for lightening the burden and facilitating the work (by versifying scientific and even mathematical material in a readily assimilable form)!" A former High Commissioner of India in the UK. All that is needed are the simple skills of addition and subtraction.org. in his book.even for the children . A worked example of the second sūtra will now be presented. the Vedic system only requires you to be acquainted up to the five times tables. 9 . So from this standpoint.. they made it a general rule of practice to write even the most technical and abstruse textbooks in sutras or in verse (which is so much easier .. and immediately. mentioned the special use of sūtras/aphorisms during the Vedic period: "In order to help the pupil memorize the material assimilated. This will give a partial view of the Vedic system and will allow us to realise whether or not it should be used within the education system. and that is a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. Let us start with the multiplication of single-digit numbers. The Vedic system allows any child who is familiar with simple addition and subtraction skills to be able to manipulate any multiplication-table that involves large numbers. However. Note. This allows the child to attain the answer of any multiplication easily. Vedic mathematics.to memorize). that this can be achieved even with weak multiplication skills. the formulae of the Vedic system describes the way the mind naturally operates. Dr L M Singhvi. All students and teachers of the primary classes are expected to teach and learn the multiplication tables up to the number twelve. According to Clive Middleton of vedicmaths.Why the use of sūtras? Tirthaji. who approves the Vedic system states: "A single sutra would generally encompass a varied and wide range of particular applications and may be likened to a programmed chip of our computer age". The Second Sūtra (All from 9 and the last from 10) The second sūtra is applied to the all-known multiplication.

(C*P) and (A*R) are cross-multiplications. and very small numbers however. The unity is expressed as 1 or 10 or 100 or 1000. etc. for the numbers relating to 10: • • • • The The The The deficiency deficiency deficiency deficiency of of of of 9 8 7 6 is is is is 1. transpose and apply consists of a special-case formula. I. etc. or 1. Alternatively. The formula is as follows: (B*R) – (C*Q) (B*P) – (A*Q) X = Where (B*R) and (C*Q) are cross-multiplications. I will be using this formula to solve simultaneous equations. from the centre on the right. (B*P) and (A*Q) are also cross multiplications. 2. This is achieved by calculating what must be added to the number to make it up for the next base of 10 above. 3 4. from the centre on the left. A deficiency/complement is what relates a number to unity. deficiencies/complements will be used.e.In order to achieve an answer. Discussion (3904 Words) 10 . This formula can be used for the division of very large numbers. The sūtra (all from 9 and the last from 10) relates any number back to unity. that power of 10 which is closest to the numbers that are being multiplied. Y = (C*P) – (A*R) (B*P) – (A*Q) In the same way. The fourth sūtra (Transpose and apply) I have fourth sūtra. While the denominator is the same as before. Likewise.

The sūtras will be compared with the modern mathematical system/techniques. A range of sources have been analysed to investigate the mathematical techniques within the sūtras. The literature reviewed is known to be rediscovered from the Vedas. one on the left-handside and one on the right. 2) Subtract the sum of the complements from the base 10. 6 8 64 82 Complime nts 64 82 / Step 3: The answer will now have two parts. Place the two multipliers on top of each other on the left-hand-side. or (8-4=4). Step 4: The left-hand-side of the answer can be achieved through cross-subtraction. let us put them into context. 11 . the number 7 will be multiplied by the number 8. (6+8=14) therefore. Step 2: Subtract each of the multipliers from the base to obtain the complements. and therefore based on the Vedas itself. The left-hand-side can also be achieved through two other methods: Left-hand-side of the answer 64 82 4/ 1) Subtract the base 10 from the sum of the two numbers being multiplied. either of them give the same answer. Step 1: The base of this calculation will be 10 as it is the nearest unity to the numbers being multiplied. The Second Sūtra (All from 9 and the last from 10) Example (1) In this example. (14-10=4).As we are now aware of two sūtras. This shows that the complements are less than the number ten. Answer is the same. (4+2=6) therefore. (10-6=4). I will demonstrate the sūtras as mathematical examples and will express how straightforward it simply is. Note that you get the same answer. A line can be drawn between them to separate the two parts. Write the answer on the right-hand-side with a connecting minus sign (-) between them. (62=4).

and subtracted the remaining digit from 8. This method was used in example (1).Step 5: The right-hand-side of the answer can now be obtained through this step: Multiply the two compliments together. Therefore. For example. Subtract right-hand-side of the number from 10. I have subtracted the last digit of both numbers from 10. all from 9 and the last from 10. Here. Multiplication using a unity/base of 100 In this example. The allocation of the complements was achieved by using a method that is stated within the name of this sūtra itself. (4x2=8) 6Therefore. all from 9 and the last from 10. As we now know how to achieve a compliment. Subtract right-hand-side of the number from 10. This method is easier to understand when taking the base as 100. the answer to 6 multiplied by 8 is 48. This method is ideal for multiplying numbers close to 100. In this case. etc. I will now demonstrate multiplication using a unity/base of 100. the unity is expressed as 1 or 10 or 100 or 1000. (10-5=5). but it was best for it to be explained when using the base of 100. (9-9=0). I will demonstrate how to answer a question involving two-digit numbers. Both the left-hand-side and right have been formed into the actual answer of the question. Therefore. the compliment of 95 is 05. easily. there will be two complement digits for each number because a base of 10 is being used. in this case 4 and 2. in mathematics. (10-6=4). As mentioned earlier. the right-hand-side of the answer is 8 Left-hand-side of the answer 4 82 4/ 8 Right-hand-side of the answer As a result. Compliment of 96: subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. Hence. the compliment of 96 is 04. we will be multiplying two-digit numbers together. (9-9=0). the compliment of 95 is 05 and the compliment of 96 is 04. the name of this sūtra. Compliment of 95: subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. when multiplying 95 by 96. 12 .

Subtract right-handside of the number from 10. 13 . Subtract right-hand-side of the number from 10. or (93-03=90). 97-03 93-07 Compliments Subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. the compliment of 93 is 07. For example. Subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. As mentioned earlier. this is because a base of 1000 is being used. This can be achieved easily by using the all from 9 and the last from 10 technique. the right-hand-side of the answer is 21. the number 97 will be multiplied by the number 93 Step 1: The base of this calculation will be 100 as it is the nearest unity to the numbers being multiplied.Example (2) In this example. Step 3: The left-hand-side of the answer can be achieved through cross-subtraction. Therefore. the compliment of 97 is 03. (03x07=21) Therefore. Therefore. the compliment of the two numbers being multiplied will have three-digits. (10-3=7). The LHS and the RHS of the answer have been calculated therefore. either of them give the same answer. the answer for 97x93 is equal to 9021. (9-9=0). the allocation of the complements was achieved by using a method that is stated within the name of this sūtra itself. 9 7 9 Step 2: use the all from 9 and the last from 10 technique to calculate the compliment. (9-9=0). (10-7=3). 97-03 93-07 90/21 Multiplication using a unity/base of 1000 In this example. 97-03 93-07 90/ Step 4: Multiply the two compliments together. the base of 1000 will be used. (97-07=90). In this case. the compliment of 598 is 402 and the compliment of 991 is 009. when multiplying 598 by 991. we will be multiplying three-digit numbers. all from 9 and the last from 10. Therefore. in this case 03 and 07. Place the two multipliers on top of each other.

the compliment of 991 is 009. 697303 997003 694/ 697303 997003 694/90 9 14 Step 4: Multiply the two compliments together. Step 1: Place the two numbers being multiplied on top other. (9-9=0). Example (3) Let us multiply the numbers 697 and 997. either of them give the same answer. Therefore. (10-7=3). (10-8=2). (9-9=0) Subtract right-hand-side of the number from 10. Subtract lefthand-side of the number from 9. Subtract the digit in the middle also from 9. (9-9=0). Subtract the digit in the middle also from 9. I will demonstrate how to answer a question involving three-digit numbers. (10-37=3). the compliment of 697 is 303. As shown above. Therefore. (9-6=3).Compliment of 598: Subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. (9-9=0). Therefore. the right-hand-side of the . We now know how to achieve a compliment therefore. (9-9=0). Subtract right-handside of the number from 10. (9-5=4). Compliment of 991: Subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. (303x003=909) Therefore. (10-1=9). 697 997 of each Step 2: Use the all from 9 and the last from 10 technique to calculate the compliment. or (997303=694). (9-9=0) Subtract righthand-side of the number from 10. Therefore. Subtract right-handside of the number from 10. Subtract the digit in the middle also from 9. I have used the all from 9 but the last from 10 technique. in this case 303 and 007. Step 3: The left-hand-side of the answer can be achieved through cross-subtraction. the compliment of 997 is 003. 697303 997003 Compliments Subtract left-hand-side of the number from 9. Subtract the digit in the middle also from 9. the compliment of 598 is 402. (697-003=694).

not by calculating them. start with the y-coefficients and the independent terms and cross-multiply rightwards. This involves more brain activity which is beneficial for the child this is because. This gives us our numerator i. Consequently.answer is 909. it will cause the child to remember the all from 9 but the last from 10 technique and manipulate it on any number for any calculation. the child will perform well at school. Young children will be able to abide by the Vedic system easily. The fourth sūtra (Transpose and apply) Example (4) I will now solve this equation by using the transpose and apply formula: 2x + y = 5 3x – 4y =2 To solve for X. efficiently. an increase in the stimulation of the brain will improve the way the child manipulates any kind of information. the answer for 697x997 is equal to 694909. [(1x2) – (-4 x5)] = 22 15 . This is great for children as young as 11 or even younger to improve their mental maths. Frequent practice of this sūtra will improve the strength of mental mathematics in multiplication. easily and most importantly. Link the two cross-products with a minus (-) sign. start from the top row and multiply across by the lower one.e. and vice versa. I have demonstrated the second sūtra as clearly as possible. The LHS and the RHS of the answer have been calculated therefore. It will help them become confident in mathematics and may act as a base for their future study. Young children are familiar with their times-tables because they remember the answers. but not calculation. Comparison with the traditional (modern day) method The traditional (modern day) method of multiplication involves memory. This sūtra is ideal for calculating the multiplication of large numbers quickly. Hence. it can be done mentally. The Vedic system involves memory as well as calculation. This is because. In other words.

Many steps will need to be met to achieve the 16 . Y= [(5x3) – (2x2)] [(1x3) – (2 x -4)] 1 Y= 1 1 1 Y= 1 As a result. All that is needed is simple addition. leftwards. This method does require strong multiplication skills. This will give the numerator. the equation should look like this: X = [(1x2) – (-4 x5)] [(1x3) – (2 x -4)] 2 2 1 1 2 X = X = To solve for Y. subtraction and division skills. start with the independent terms on the top row and crossmultiply with the x-coefficients on the lower row.e.To calculate the denominator. [(1x3) – (2 x -4)] = 11 Therefore. Comparison with the traditional (modern day) method Using the traditional method will involve substitution and changing the subject of the equation. It is clearly a quick and easy method. the solution of this simultaneous equation is: X = 2 Y= 1 Consequently. Remember to link the two cross-products with a minus (-) sign. i. start with the x-coefficients instead and crossmultiply with the independent terms. [(5x3) – (2x2)] = 11 The denominator for Y is equal to the denominator of X therefore.e. the transpose and apply formula allows anybody to solve simultaneous equations. the denominator is 11. i.

Students will be able to devise their own methods as they are not limited to the one ‘correct’ method. there will be creative. Whereas. the chances of making a mistake are low." There are many advantages of using a flexible. Why Vedic mathematics SHOULD be introduced to the education system? The Effects of Vedic Mathematics on children Now that we have an indication of two of the sūtras. a school based in London. At the school in Skelmersdale. confident and intelligent children. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning Vedic Maths on children. "The sutras of Vedic Mathematics are the software for the cosmic computer that runs this universe. As a result. St James’ School. Lancashire. and other schools. began to teach the Vedic system to children which seems to achieve noteworthy success. mental system. A few years ago. a full course called "The Cosmic Computer" was written and tested on 11 to 14 year old children. According to Mahesh Yogi. there is a high chance of making a mistake. UK.answer and therefore. let us discuss the effects of its method on children. if the transpose and apply formula were to be used. Research has proved that Vedic Mathematics has many benefits: • • Is simple and flexible in nature Can perform calculations at a rapid speed Gives accurate results Saves valuable time in competitions and examinations Develops mental abilities Enhances intuition and logic Provides an extra competitive edge Increases confidence and intelligence levels Optimizes performance Encourages creativity and innovation 17 • • • • • • • • .

This is because. This is mainly because. while giving the student a lot of flexibility. Dr. Why Vedic mathematics SHOULD NOT be introduced to the education system? Issues arising from Vedic Mathematics There are numerous amounts of issues that arise from Vedic mathematics. the saint duo. Its Growing Popularity Interest in Vedic maths is growing in the field of education where maths teachers are looking for a new and better approach to the subject. while pointing out the important contributions of ancient Indian mathematicians. who laid the foundations of algebra. the Vedic system was rediscovered between the years of 1911 and 1918. The most commonly criticised aspect of Vedic mathematics is whether the system is Vedic or not. Murli Manohar Joshi. the language style does not seem Vedic. who formulated the basic framework for numerals. Let us first discuss the issue of the origin of the system.The followers of the Vedic system argue that Vedic maths is far more systematic. the great geometer. argued the significance of Vedic maths. it's direct and easy to implement in schools. has mentioned within the foreword to the book that the sūtras have nothing to do with the Vedas.S. it is claimed that none of the sūtras can be found within any Vedic literature. such as Aryabhatta. Consequently. Some propose that the sūtras have nothing to do with the Vedas at all and Tirthaji composed the sūtras himself. The General Editor of the book himself. it is discussed whether the system deserves the name ‘Vedic’ or ‘mathematics’. Students of the IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) are said to be using this ancient technique for quick calculations. It is a mental tool for calculation that encourages the development and use of intuition and innovation. According to Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji. Therefore. fun and satisfaction. according to critics. and Medhatithi and Madhyatithi. Indian Minister for Science & Technology. Dr. Baudhayan. A. He also mentions that the sūtras are not to be found within any Vedic literature. Agrawala. coherent and unified than the modern system. 18 .

On the other hand. the multiplication of 9 and 7. In addition. that is.It is also said whether the Vedic system is too old to be introduced at this stage in time. were considered to be “approached reverentially” by God almighty. –1 x –3 = 3 and the other digit 6 is just either of the diagonals added together. In the same way. Tirthaji’s methods are just rules that make mathematics seem like a bunch of tricks which are easy to put into action. the Word “Veda” is “knowledge”. For example. The compilers of the Vedas. Tirthaji has been described as having the same “reverential approach”. Let us discuss the flaws within the second sūtra. 19 . You obtain the answer in the following fashion: the unit’s digit is the two differences multiplied together. It is a neat trick. Line them along with their difference from the base 10. or an “intuitional visualisation” of fundamental mathematical truths. It is not clear whether the use of the word is to represent “all knowledge” of mathematics or the Vedic texts itself. This makes the system slightly irrelevant in the modern world. quite the contrary. When translated into English. there are several people who approve Vedic mathematics. 9–3 = 7–1 = 6. there is further confusion with the use of the word “Vedic”. all from 9 but the last form 10. 91 73 6/ 3 Flaws within the Vedic system I will now discuss the flaws that have been encountered from observing the sūtras. as well as a calculator. The arithmetic of the Vedic system can be performed on a computer. Some say that Tirthaji may not have found the sūtras within the Vedas. but instead he received them spiritually just as the rishis did. From this. It has been explained that textual references should not the basis for evaluating the ‘Vedicity’ of the mathematics. it is possible that the words “Vedic mathematics”. is referring to the fact that the sūtras represent all the knowledge of mathematics. the much respected Rishis. “Vedic mathematics”. hence the name. which should validate them as being Vedic. but difficult to understand. Some propose that Vedic mathematics is unique when compared with other scientific work as it is not pragmatically worked out. but is based on a direct revelation. but it does not make multiplication easier to fathom. This method can be extended too much larger numbers.

Step 2: I will now subtract the two numbers being multiplied from the nearest base. this sūtra only applies to numbers above the number 5. 37 / Step 4: I will now use the one of the other three methods to achieve the lefthand-side of the answer. A line can be drawn between 5them to separate the 5 two parts. This is because.e. 5 multiplied by 3. For example. the answer to 5 multiplied by 3. one on the left-handside and one on the right. or (3 – 5 = -2). is equal to -235. which is equal to 15. this answer is no where near the actual answer. to achieve the compliments. the 5nearest unity to the numbers being multiplied is 10. it is obvious that the final answer is wrong. I am still going to use the method of the sūtra. 5 37 Step 3: The answer will now have two parts. (5 – 7 = -2). 55 37 -2 / Step 5: Now. Step 1: I will place the number on top of 5 3 each other.The examples that were demonstrated for this sūtra involved multiplying numbers above the number 5. Evidently. by using the sūtra. (5 x 7 = 35) 5 37 -2 / 35 Consequently. from this point. either of them give the same answer. I am able to find the right-hand-side of the answer by 5multiplying the two compliments together. I. let us multiply together two numbers that are less than the number 5. The flaw is noticeable from step 4 where the left-hand-side of the answer is -2. 10. However. 20 . this can be achieved through cross-subtraction. from carrying out my own calculations.

the discussion has shown that the Vedic system is not perfect. children will be able to calculate multiplications easily. The Vedic system does not require a teacher to have any qualifications relating to maths in order to teach it. by following the Vedic system. The Vedic system will save the UK from wasting £2. In addition. However. The internet is overflowing with information more than we can ever imagine. I believe that Vedic mathematics should be part of the education system. one of the sūtras that were demonstrated included flaws. efficient and cheap way to teach mathematics to young children. conventional method. This raises an issue on whether the Vedic system is reliable. and whether it is even a mathematical system. just as demonstrated earlier. However. This would have provided me with more evidence as to why the Vedic system should be within the education system. the criticisms for the Vedic system do not out-weigh the approvals for it. The sūtras were designed to naturally work along with the brain. I have proved that the Vedic system is an unique system with sufficient evidence and step-by-sep demonstrations. Multiplication-tables seem to be a difficulty for young children. However. It is also not sure whether the name given to the system is correct and whether it deserves to include the word “Vedic”.3 billion pounds on the current. Other limitations include lack of resources. As a result. demonstrate and analyse more sūtras. I would have liked to explore. Also.Conclusion From the observation of the sūtras. it can be said that there are an equal number of arguments from both points of view. which will make it easier for young children to learn mathematics and even remember them. this is due to lack of time and the limitation of quantity. confident and intelligent children. and includes flaws. there have been a number of occasions where I was not able to present every aspect of my research. there will be creative. Also. locating ancient texts such as Vedic mathematics can be difficult due to its exclusivity. Limitations During the continuation of this project. However. Suppose I did have a sufficient amount time and quantity . It is a quick. the 21 .

1965.telegraph.independent. which will be very beneficial for me during my years in University.uk/education/2010/may/07/poor-literacynumeracy http://www.co. Documents: • • • Bharati Krishna Tirtha's Vedic mathematics. Those values will always stay intact and be known as the base of today’s values. 2004. The Power of Vedic Maths. It has given me the chance to look further into the world of Vedic mathematics and manipulate it into different aspects.language style is different from the language style of today therefore. Atul Gupta. One key aspect that I have learnt from this project.co. implanting it and understanding the context can be difficult.html http://www. Bibliography The source of information has been split into two parts: Documents and Websites.html 22 .uk/news/education/education-news/poormaths-and-literacy-results-2063062. James T.uk/education/educationnews/5285397/Fifth-of11-year-olds-with-poor-maths-skills-say-MPs. Development of skills I have learnt a number of new skills from the completion of this project.co. I have experienced a heap of independent learning and research.independent. is that the values of ancient civilisation are never too old to be reintroduced. Vedic Mathematics for Schools.co.uk/news/education/education-news/poormaths-skills-cost-britain-16324bn-a-year-says-study-1225807. Book 1.guardian. Glover.html http://www. English edition. Websites: • • • • http://www.

com/article/art-culture/the-fraud-ofvedic-maths http://www.co.co.com/vedas.uk/education/2010/apr/27/numeracy-skillsadults http://www.org/Themagicofvedicmath.• • • • • • • • http://www.wikipedia.html?cat=9 http://mastermindvedicmaths.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/school_leagu e_tables/article6738359.openthemagazine.guardian.php http://en.ece http://www.gayatrimata.org/wiki/Vedas 23 .associatedcontent.htm http://www.com/article/231288/the_top_five_school_ subjects_with_the.com/blog_vedic/?p=6 http://www.astrovalley.timesonline.

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