i,j=1
2
U
x
i
x
j
+
2
U
b
2
a
U
3
=
2
a
F(x),
1991 Mathematics Subject Classication. Primary 34C27, 35J20, 35J60.
c 1995 Juliusz Schauder Center for Nonlinear Studies
283
284 M. S. Berger L. Zhang
where f(t) = F(
1
t, . . . ,
m
t), < t < , both F(x) and U(x) are dened on
the torus T
m
and are periodic in each variable x
i
, i = 1, . . . , m, with period 2.
Many authors put very restrictive conditions on the frequencies
1
, . . . ,
m
,
namely innitely many Diophantine conditions: for all integers j
1
, . . . , j
m
satis
fying
m
=1
j
 > 0,
=1
j
+j
0
C
1
0
_
m
=1
j

_
,
where j
0
= 0, 1, 2, C
0
, are xed positive numbers. In this paper, we remove
the Diophantine conditions on these frequencies. In order to do this we need
an additional condition. Suppose f(t) is a quasiperiodic function and F(x) is
the generating function of f(t), i.e. f(t) = F(
1
t, . . . ,
m
t). We will assume
f(0) = F(x
0
), where x
0
= (x
1
0
, . . . , x
m
0
) can be anywhere on the torus T
m
except
on a set of measure zero; thus equation (1) will have a smooth solution u(t) =
U(x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) on the trajectory {x
0
+t = (x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) :
< t < } on the torus for almost every x
0
T
m
.
In our paper we construct a Hilbert space P
1,2
(T
m
) of functions U dened
on T
m
, periodic in each variable with period 2 and such that
U
2
=
_
T
m
_
U
2
+
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
_
< .
We use P
0
1,2
(T
m
) to denote the closed subspace of P
1,2
(T
m
) which is the
closure of C
0
(T
m
) under the norm .
By minimizing the functional F
2
(U) dened by
F
2
(U) =
_
T
m
_
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
2
U
2
2
+
b
2
4a
U
4
+
2
a
F(x)U
_
dx
on M, where
M = {U P
0
1,2
(T
m
) : U L
4
(T
m
)},
we get a family of weak solutions U(x) for equation (3).
Here a weak solution of (3) is dened as follows. If U P
0
1,2
(T
m
) satises
_
T
m
__
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
__
m
i=1
i
V
x
i
_
+
2
UV
b
2
a
U
3
V
b
2
a
FV
_
dx = 0
for all V C
0
(T
m
), we call U(x) a weak solution of equation (3) in P
0
1,2
(T
m
).
In our paper we rst prove the following theorem:
Theorem 1. There exists a weak solution for the following partial dieren
tial equation which corresponds to the second type Dung equation:
(4)
m
i,j=1
2
U
x
i
x
j
+
2
U
b
2
a
U
3
=
2
a
F(x)
Nondissipative Duffing Equations 285
in the space P
0
1,2
, provided that F L
2
(T
m
). Here a and b are arbitrary positive
real numbers and is any number satisfying 0 < < 2/I, where I is the
maximum length of a segment with direction (
1
, . . . ,
m
) bounded by the sides
of the torus.
In the second part of this paper we will prove our main theorem:
Theorem 2. For any a > 0, b > 0, and each as in Theorem 1, the second
type Dung equation
u +
2
u
b
2
a
u
3
=
2
a
f(t)
has a smooth solution u(t) with prescribed rationally independent frequencies
1
, . . . ,
m
on the trajectory {x
0
+t = (x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) : < t < }
on the torus for almost every x
0
= (x
1
0
, . . . , x
m
0
) T
m
provided F C
1
(T
m
)
and f(0) = F(x
0
).
Thus nally we will have
Theorem 3. For any a, b > 0, and each as in Theorem 1, the general
second type Dung equation (1) has a family of smooth solutions u(t) with
prescribed rationally independent frequencies
1
, . . . ,
m
on the trajectory
{x
0
+ t = (x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) : < t < } on the torus for almost
every x
0
= (x
1
0
, . . . , x
m
0
) T
m
provided F C
1
(T
m
) and f(0) = F(x
0
).
Proof. (1) can be solved in two steps. We rst solve
u +
2
u
b
2
a
u
3
=
2
a
f
for all as in the statement. Then by scaling t into
t, we get a solution u of
u +au bu
3
= f
with frequencies
_
1
, . . . ,
m
_
.
Previous work on quasiperiodic solutions of nondissipative Dung equations
includes the 1965 paper of Moser. He was the rst to use the K.A.M. theory to
nd quasiperiodic solutions of the forced Dung equations using Diophantine
restrictions. Thus his solutions are not valid for all parameters a, b. Mosers
solution is of small amplitude and Moser in fact requires a, b to satisfy certain
conditions.
On the other hand, Mosers quasiperiodic solutions are not shown to be the
minimizers of any functionals, so they dier substantially from our solutions.
Mosers solutions can be described for K.A.M. approximations. We will describe
the relationships between the solutions obtained here and his solutions in another
paper.
286 M. S. Berger L. Zhang
2. An analogue of the Poincare Inequality for the space P
0
1,2
In Section 1 we dened the space P
0
1,2
(T
m
) as the completion of C
0
(T
m
)
under the norm
U
2
P
1,2
=
_
T
m
_
U
2
+
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
_
< .
In this section rst we prove the following lemma:
Lemma 1 (An analogue of the Poincare Inequality for P
0
1,2
(T
m
)). For every
U P
0
1,2
,
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
2
_
T
m
U
2
,
where = 2/I, and I is the maximum length of a segment with direction
(
1
, . . . ,
m
) bounded by the sides of the torus.
Proof. If we make an orthogonal transformation of the coordinate sys
tem from {x
1
, . . . , x
m
} to {t, y
2
, . . . , y
m
} such that the direction of the t axis
is (
1
, . . . ,
m
), we can denote each point on the torus as (t, y
), where y
=
(y
2
, . . . , y
m
). Let A be the projection of T
m
to the hyperplane t = 0. Then for
each U P
0
1,2
,
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx =
_
A
_
l
y
_
dU(t, y
)
dt
_
2
dt dy
,
where l
y
denotes the line segment with direction (
1
, . . . ,
m
) passing through
y
A, U(t, y
) belongs to W
0
1,2
(l). In fact, since U P
0
1,2
, there is
a sequence
n
such that {
n
} C
0
(T
m
) and
lim
n
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
x
i
(U
n
)
_
2
dx = 0.
That is,
lim
n
_
A
_
l
_
dU
dt
d
n
dt
_
2
dtdy
= 0.
Hence
_
l
_
dU
dt
d
n
dt
_
2
dt converges to zero in measure on A. Therefore we can
nd a subsequence of
__
l
_
dU
dt
d
n
dt
_
2
dt
_
, still denoted by
__
l
_
dU
dt
d
n
dt
_
2
dt
_
,
which converges to zero almost everywhere on A. That means that for almost
every y
A,
lim
n
_
l
_
dU
dt
d
n
dt
_
2
dt = 0.
Therefore the claim is true.
Nondissipative Duffing Equations 287
Since for each C
0
(l) and t l,
2
=
_
t
t
0
2
,
where we suppose (t
0
) = 0, we nally get
L
2
(l)
2
l
L
2
(l)
.
This inequality holds for every function in W
0
1,2
(l), therefore for almost every
y
A,
_
_
_
_
dU(t, y
)
dt
_
_
_
_
L
2
(l)
2
l
U(t, y
)
L
2
(l)
.
If we denote by I the maximum length of the line segments l on the torus which
have the direction (
1
, . . . ,
m
), then
_
_
_
_
dU(t, y
)
dt
_
_
_
_
L
2
(l)
2
I
U(t, y
)
L
2
(l)
.
Squaring and integrating on A, we nally get
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
4
I
2
_
T
m
U
2
.
By setting
2
= 4/I
2
we have nished the proof of the lemma.
Lemma 2. For 0 < < , where is as in Lemma 1,
U
2
=
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx
2
_
T
m
U
2
dx
is an equivalent norm in P
0
1,2
(T
m
).
Proof. First we show that is a norm in P
0
1,2
. In fact, for any U, V P
0
1,2
,
(U, V ) =
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
__
m
i=1
i
V
x
i
_
dx
2
_
T
m
UV dx
is an inner product in P
0
1,2
. It is obvious that the product (, ) has the following
properties: (i) symmetry, (ii) linearity in the rst variable, (iii) (U, U) > 0 when
U = 0. We only need to prove that if (U, U) = 0, then U = 0 a.e. on the torus.
By Lemma 1,
(U, U) =
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx
2
_
T
m
U
2
dx (
2
2
)
_
T
m
U
2
dx,
so that (U, U) = 0 will force that U = 0 a.e. on the torus. Therefore U
2
=
(U, U) is a norm on P
0
1,2
.
288 M. S. Berger L. Zhang
It is obvious that
U
2
P
1,2
=
_
T
m
_
U
2
+
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
_
dx
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx
2
_
T
m
U
2
dx = U
2
.
On other hand, let r satisfy
2
/
2
< r < 1. Then
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx
2
_
T
m
U
2
dx
(1 r)
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx +r
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx
2
_
T
m
U
2
dx
(1 r)
_
T
m
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
dx + (
2
r
2
)
_
T
m
U
2
dx.
Therefore
U
2
min{1 r,
2
r
2
}U
2
P
1,2
.
So we conclude that the norms and
P
1,2
are equivalent.
3. A weak solution
In this section we will get a weak solution of the partial dierential equation
(5)
m
i,j=1
2
U
x
i
x
j
+
2
U
b
2
a
U
3
=
2
a
F(x).
This equation corresponds to the second Dung equation
(6) u +
2
u
b
2
a
u
3
=
2
a
f(t),
where 0 < < 2/I, I = max{l : l is the segment with direction (
1
, . . . ,
m
)
and l denotes the length of the segment l}. We have u(t) = U(x
0
+ t) =
U(x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t), f(t) = F(x
0
+t) = F(x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) for
almost every x
0
= (x
1
0
, . . . , x
m
0
) T
m
, also {x
0
+t = (x
1
0
+
1
t, . . . , x
m
0
+
m
t) :
< t < } is the trajectory on the torus.
We use the minimization method to get a minimum point of F
2
(U) in M
P
0
1,2
, where
M = {U P
0
1,2
(T
m
) : U L
4
(T
m
)}
and
F
2
(U) =
_
T
m
_
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
2
U
2
2
+
b
2
4a
U
4
+
2
a
FU
_
dx.
Our theorem is the following:
Nondissipative Duffing Equations 289
Theorem 4. There is a point U
0
M P
0
1,2
such that
F
2
(U
0
) = inf
UM
F
2
(U)
provided F L
2
(T
m
).
Proof. We divide the proof into 3 steps:
(i) F
2
(U) is coercive and bounded below.
(ii) The minimizing sequence has a weakly convergent subsequence.
(iii) The weak limit of this subsequence is a minimum point of F
2
(U) in M.
In the proof we will take the norm of the space as
U
2
=
_
T
m
__
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
2
U
2
_
dx.
(i) To prove that F
2
(U) is coercive and bounded below, it is sucient to
prove that there is a constant c such that
F
2
(U)
1
2
U
2
+
b
2
4a
_
T
m
_
U
2
1
b
_
2
c.
In fact, since
_
T
m
FU U
L
2F
L
2
_
F
2
+
_
U
2
2
it follows that
F
2
(U) =
_
T
m
_
_
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
_
2
2
U
2
2
+
b
2
a
_
U
4
4
+
FU
b
__
dx
1
2
U
2
+
b
2
4a
_
T
m
_
U
4
2
b
(U
2
+F
2
)
dx
=
1
2
U
2
+
b
2
4a
_
T
m
_
U
2
1
b
_
2
+c,
where c =
2
4ab
(2)
m
2
2a
_
T
m
F
2
dx. Thus F
2
(U) is coercive and bounded from
below.
(ii) Let {U
n
} be a minimizing sequence in M. Also, we assume F
2
(U
n
) C,
where C is some positive constant. Since F
2
(U) is coercive and bounded below,
{U
n
} is uniformly bounded in P
1,2
norm, i.e. there is a positive constant K > 0
such that
U
n
P
1,2
K.
Therefore if denotes the equivalent norm as before, we have
1
4
_
T
m
U
4
n
1
2
U
n
2
+
1
4
_
T
m
U
4
n
dx +
_
T
m
FU
n
dx +U
P
1,2
F
L
2
C +KF
L
2.
290 M. S. Berger L. Zhang
If we write B = 4(C +KF
L
2), then
_
T
m
U
4
n
dx B.
Since {U
n
} is a bounded sequence in P
0
1,2
(T
m
), {U
n
} has a weakly con
vergent subsequence {U
n
} with weak limit U in P
0
1,2
(T
m
); we still denote this
subsequence as {U
n
}. (Since the whole space P
0
1,2
is weakly closed, U P
0
1,2
.)
Now we prove that U belongs to L
4
(T
m
).
By the BanachSaks Theorem,
_
_
_
_
n
i=1
U
i
n
U
_
_
_
_
P
1,2
0,
hence
_
_
_
_
n
i=1
U
i
n
U
_
_
_
_
L
2
0.
There is a subsequence of
n
i=1
U
i
/n that we still denote by
n
i=1
U
i
/n such
that
n
i=1
U
i
/n 0 a.e. on T
m
. By Fatous Lemma we nd that
_
T
m
U
4
dx lim
n
_
T
m
_
n
i=1
U
i
n
_
4
dx lim
n
n
i=1
_
T
m
U
4
i
dx
n
B.
Therefore U L
4
and U M.
(iii) We can rewrite the functional F
2
(U) as
F
2
(U) =
1
2
U
2
+F
(U),
where U is the equivalent norm in P
0
1,2
, and
F
(U) =
_
T
m
_
b
2
4a
U
4
+
2
a
FU
_
dx.
Since F
2
+F
(U
n
)
1
2
lim
n
U
n
2
+ lim
n
F
(U
n
)
1
2
U
2
+F
(U) = F
2
(U).
That means U is a minimum point of F
2
(U) on M.
Thus we have the following theorem:
Theorem 5. If F L
2
(T
m
), then the equation
(8)
m
i,j=1
2
U
x
i
x
j
+
2
U
b
2
a
U
3
=
2
a
F(x)
has a weak solution U in P
0
1,2
for 0 < < 2/I, where I is as in Lemma 1.
Nondissipative Duffing Equations 291
Proof. For each C
0
(T
m
) M, we have
dF
2
dt
(U +t)
t=0
= 0.
That means that
_
T
m
__
m
i=1
i
U
x
i
__
m
i=1
x
i
_
+U U
3
F
_
= 0
for all C
0
(T
m
). We have nished the proof.
4. The regularity of u(x
0
+ t)
In this section we rst prove the smoothness of u(t) on the closed segment
l
y
for almost every y
A, u(t) = U(t, y
in
A, provided F C
1
(T
m
).
Proof. Suppose U(x) is the weak solution of Theorem 5 and U(x) satises
the equation
(10)
m
i,j=1
2
U
x
i
x
j
+
2
U
b
2
a
U
3
=
2
a
F(x)
almost everywhere on the torus. Then for almost every y
in A equation (10)
holds almost everywhere on l
y
. In fact, if not, (10) cannot hold almost every
where on T
m
. Also from the proof of Lemma 1 we know that for almost every
y
A, U(t, y
) W
0
1,2
(l
y
). Set
P = {l
y
: y
A, U(t, y
) W
0
1,2
(l
y
), U(t, y
) W
0
1,2
(l
y
). Therefore
u(t) C(l
y
), and we can assume that there is a positive constant e such that
u(t) e on l
y
for this xed y
A.
292 M. S. Berger L. Zhang
Since F C
1
(T
m
) we can assume that F(x) d on the torus for some
constant d > 0. By (10) we see that
__
l
y
u
2
dt
_
1/2
2
_ _
l
y
_
u +
b
a
u
3
+
1
a
f(t)
_
2
_
1/2
2
_ _
l
y
_
e +
b
a
e
3
+
1
a
d
_
2
_
1/2
< .
Therefore u(t) W
2,2
(l
y
). By the Sobolev theory the space W
2,2
(l
y
) is com
pactly embedded in C
1
(l
y
), and so u is bounded on l
y
. Thus by the condition
that F C
1
(T
m
) we nd that
_
l
y
2
u +
3b
2
a
uu
2
+
2
a
2
is bounded since
the integrand is. Therefore the weak derivative d
3
u/dt
3
exists and
_ _
l
y
_
d
3
u
dt
3
_
2
_
1/2
__
l
y
2
u +
3b
2
a
uu
2
+
2
a
f
_
2
_
1/2
< .
Then u C
2
(l
y
). We have thus nished the proof of Lemma 3.
Proof of Theorem 2. Let E be the set of all x T
m
such that there
is at least one segment bounded by the sides of the torus that does not belong
to P on {x + t : < t < }, where P is as dened in Lemma 2. If E
is a set of nonzero mdimensional measure, the projection of E to A will have
nonzero (m 1)dimensional measure. Let G denote this projection. There is
one and only one trajectory {y
G A. Partition R
m
into countably many cubes obtained by periodically
translating the cube of length 2, centered at the origin. Denote these cubes by
{T
i
}
i=1
and let A
i
be the image in T
i
of A under this periodic translating for
each i. Also let E
i
be the set of all points y
of A
i
such that l
y
does not belong
to P
i
, where
P
i
= {l
y
: y
A
i
, U(t, y
) W
0
1,2
(l
y
), U(t, y
i=1
E
i
to A is the set G. By assumption, (G) = 0, therefore
there is at least one i such that E
i
has nonzero (m 1)measure. This means
that there is a subset G
, then
l
y
does not belong to P, which is a contradiction to Lemma 3. We have nished
the proof of Theorem 2.
References
[B1] M. S. Berger, Nonlinearity and Functional Analysis, Academic Press, 1977.
[B2] , Mathematical Structures of Nonlinear Science, Kluwer Acad. Publ., 1990.
[BC1] M. S. Berger and Y. Y. Chen, Forced quasiperiodic and almost periodic oscillations
of nonlinear Dung equations, Nonlinear Anal. 19 (1992), 249257.
Nondissipative Duffing Equations 293
[BC2] , Forced quasiperiodic and almost periodic solution for nonlinear systems, Non
linear Anal. 21 (1993), 949965.
[H] H. L. F. Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone, Dover, 1863.
[M] J. Moser, Combination tones for Dungs equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 18
(1965), 167181.
[S] J. J. Stoker, Nonlinear Vibration in Mechanical and Electrical Systems, Interscience,
1950.
[T] F. Treves, Basic Linear Partial Dierential Equations, Academic Press, 1975.
[Z] W. P. Ziemer, Weakly Dierentiable Functions, SpringerVerlag, 1989.
Manuscript received September 10, 1995
Manuscript revised January 15, 1996
M. S. Berger
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Luping Zhang
Department of Mathematics
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92717, USA
TMNA : Volume 6 1995 N
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