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**Chapter 21 Homework: PHY180 (2111)
**

From Resnick & Halliday’s “Fundamentals of Physics” by Jearl Walker, 9th ed.

CQ21-2) Figure 21-13 shows three pairs of identical spheres that are to be touched together and then separated. The initial charges on them are indicated. Rank the pairs according to (a) the magnitude of the charge transferred during touching and (b) the charge left on the positively charged sphere, greatest first.

When they touch, they will balance out... that is they will end up with the same amount of charge on both spheres. So, we need to determine the total amount of charge present, and split that evenly. this will tell us how much ends up on the spheres. From these data, we can answer the questions. (1) There is a total of +2e, so each ends up with +e. Ergo, +5 was transferred. (2) There is a total of +2e, so each ends up with +e. Ergo, +1 was transferred. (3) There is a total of +2e, so each ends up with +e. Ergo, +13 was transferred. 3, 1, 2 1=2=3 CQ21- 4) Figure 21-15 shows two charged particles on an axis. The charges are free to move. However, a third charged particle can be placed at a certain point such that all three particles are then in equilibrium. (a) Is that point to the left of the first two particles, to their right, or between them? (b) Should the third particle be positively or negatively charged? (c) Is the equilibrium stable or unstable?

Since the two original charges are repelling each other, we need the third charge to PULL them both back in. Thus, we need to put it in the middle. Also, once placed, this third charge will feel pulls to both the right and left, thereby putting it in equilibrium as well. Oh, it needs to be positive to PULL the two existing charges inward. Stability has to do with whether or not a slight movement away from equilibrium will push things back into place or tend to move them further from equilibrium. In this case, slightly moving the new charge to the left or right will result in it being pulled further to the left or right... it is UNSTABLE.

mwaite@wcupa.edu

1

January 26, 2011

So. And their forces on 3 are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction: qq qq F13 + F23 = 0 ⇒ k 1 2 3 + k 2 2 3 = 0 r13 r23 ( 2L )2 q1 q q ( 2L ) = − 2 ⇒ 1 = − 2 = −4 2 L q2 L 2 mwaite@wcupa. we see that (a) and (d) have equal magnitudes (but opposite directions). the net result is just that the single +2q charge at 12:00 o’clock acts alone on the center charge. 21-22. three charged particles lie on an x axis. P21-7) In Fig. direction matters. If L23 = L12.ANSWERS CQ21. 21-16. and (b) and (c) have equal magnitudes. I’ve sketched little vector arrows in red indicating forces due to the e’s and p’s. then it is being pulled by either 1 or 2 and pushed by the other. Ergo. So (a)=(d)>(b)=(c). what is the ratio q1/q2? If the net force on 3 is zero.8) Figure 21-18 shows four arrangements of charged particles. a central particle of charge -q is surrounded by two circular rings of charged particles. Particle 3 is free to move. I have also sketched net forces in blue. 2011 .5) In Fig. by symmetry. Particles 1 and 2 are fixed in place.) Since the electrical force is a vector.edu 2 January 26. What are the magnitude and direction of the net electrostatic force on the central particle due to the other particles? (Hint: Consider symmetry. the force is an attractive force (pointing UP) of magnitude: k q ( 2q ) q2 = 2k 2 r2 r CQ21. Rank the arrangements according to the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on the particle with charge +Q. Thus. greatest first. Thus. the circled pairs cancel their net force on the center charge (by color coded pairs). this would be the vector sum of the two red ones in each case. Thus. 1 & 2 have opposite charges. but the net electrostatic force on it from particles 1 and 2 happens to be zero.

what must be the (a) x and (b) y coordinates of particle 3. four particles form a square. P21. 21-24. If particle 3 of charge q3 is to be located such that the three particles remain in place when released.19) In Fig.10) In Fig. and it needs to be on the axis. The charges are q1 = q4 = Q and q2 = q3 = q. 21-25. mwaite@wcupa. then the answer to (b) is NO. 2011 . so: k q1q2 q q4 ⎛ 2 ⎞ qQ QQ ⎛ 2 ⎞ = −k 1 2 ⎜ ⇒ k 2 = −k 2 ⎜ a2 2a ⎝ 2 ⎟ a 2a ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ q=− Q 2 Q 4 ⇒ =− = −2. Consider the net horizontal force on charge #1. (a) What is Q/q if the net electrostatic force on particles 1 and 4 is zero? 45° (b) Is there any value of q that makes the net electrostatic force on each of the four particles zero? Explain.edu 3 January 26. and (c) the ratio q3/q? q x q3 (L-x) +4q Similarly to the CQ above.ANSWERS P21.83 4 q 2 If we try to do the same thing with the net force on charge #2. they are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.00q are held at separation L = 9. F21 x = k q1q2 . we get a different ratio. So. a2 F23 x = k ( q2 q3 2a ) 2 cos 45° = k ( q2 q3 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2a ⎝ 2 ⎠ ) k q1q2 q q ⎛ 2⎞ Qq qq ⎛ 2 ⎞ = −k 2 3 2 ⎜ ⇒ k 2 = −k 2 ⎜ ⎟ a2 a 2a ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2a ⎝ 2 ⎠ ( ) Q=− q 2 Q 2 ⇒ =− = −0. Only charges #2 and #4 exert forces that have a horizontal component: qq qq qq ⎛ 2⎞ F12 x = k 1 2 2 . (b) is ZERO.00 cm on an x axis.35 4 q 4 Since we cannot have BOTH of these conditions met simultaneously. we need to place a negative charge between these two to prevent them from pushing away from each other. particle 1 of charge q and particle 2 of charge +4. F14 x = k 1 4 2 cos 45° = k 1 4 2 ⎜ ⎟ a 2a 2a ⎝ 2 ⎠ Q q Q q ( ) ( ) Since these have to cancel.

31) Earth's atmosphere is constantly bombarded by cosmic ray protons that originate somewhere in space. we have protons per time. So.82 × 10-10 m? 1. 2011 .00cm OK. and charge per proton. this is just the current on ONE square meter of the Earth’s surface. If the protons all passed through the atmosphere. now we also want the total force on q to be zero: qq qq qq 4qq F13 + F12 = 0 ⇒ k 1 2 3 + k 1 2 2 = 0 ⇒ k 23 + k 2 = 0 x L x L qq 4qq q3 4q q 4 k 23 = −k =− ⇒ 3 = − = −0.4444 2 ⇒ x 1 9 q 9 ( 3x ) P21. we need to balance the forces on third particle: 4x 2 = L2 − 2Lx + x 2 ⇒ 3x 2 + 2Lx − L2 = 0 x= −2L ± 4L2 + 12L2 −2L ± 4L = = −L. What would be the electric current intercepted by the total surface area of the planet? Current is defined as charge per time. of charge -e) in a salt crystal if their separation is 2.26) What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force between a singly charged sodium ion (Na+. qq q2 q3 F13 − F23 = 0 ⇒ k 1 2 3 − k =0 x ( L − x )2 k ANSWERS To get (a).122 C s ) mwaite@wcupa. each square meter of Earth's surface would intercept protons at the average rate of 1500 protons per second.4x10 −16 C s*m2 4π REarth = 2.38x10 6 ( ) ( ( ) 2 m 2 = 0. 2 2. L 3 6 6 qq3 4qq3 1 4 1 2 =k = 2 ⇒ 2 = 2 ⇒ 2 x x x ( L − x) ( L − x) ( L − x) 2x = ( L − x ) ⇒ L = 3x ⇒ x = L 3 = 3.edu 4 January 26.6x10 −19 C × = 2. We have to multiply by the Earth’s total surface area to get a plain current.897x10 −9 N ≈ 2. Thus. we can use some conversions (AKA “dimensional analysis”) to set ratios that will give us the desired result: 1500 protons s * m2 1. of charge +e) and an adjacent singly charged chlorine ion (Cl-.4x10 −16 C s*m2 4π 6.6x10 −19 q1q2 e2 9 F = k 2 = k 2 = 9x10 r r 2.82x10 −10 ( ( ) ( ) ) 2 2 = 2.90x10 −9 N P21.4x10 −16 C s*m2 proton But.

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