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Dynamics
A.S. Ramsey (1867-1954) was a distinguished Cambridge mathematician and President of Magdalene College. He wrote several textbooks ‘for the use of higher divisions in schools and for first-year students at university’. This book on dynamics, published in 1929, was based upon his lectures to students of the mathematical tripos, and reflects the way in which this branch of mathematics had expanded in the first three decades of the twentieth century. It assumes some knowledge of elementary dynamics, and contains an extensive collection of examples for solution, taken from scholarship and examination papers of the period. The subjects covered include vectors, rectilinear motion, harmonic motion, motion under constraint, impulsive motion, moments of inertia and motion of a rigid body. Ramsey published a companion volume, Statics, in 1934.

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Dynamics
A Text-Book for the use of the Higher Divisions in Schools and for First Year Students at the Universities
Arthur Stanley R amsey

C A M b R I D g E U n I v E R SI t y P R E S S Cambridge new york Melbourne Madrid Cape town Singapore São Paolo Delhi Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, new york www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781108003148 © in this compilation Cambridge University Press 2009 This edition first published 1929 This digitally printed version 2009 ISbn 978-1-108-00314-8 This book reproduces the text of the original edition. The content and language reflect the beliefs, practices and terminology of their time, and have not been updated.

DYNAMICS .

Madras Toronto Macmillan Tokyo Maruzen-Kabushiki-Kaisha All rights reserved . Calcutta.Cambridge University Press Fetter Lane. London New York Bombay.

President of Magdalene College. RAMSEY. Cambridge. and University Lecturer in Mathematics CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1929 .A. M. S.DYNAMICS A Text-Book for the use of the Higher Divisions in Schools and for First Year Students at the Universities by A.

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN .

This growth in the content of Elementary Dynamics has been a gradual process and undoubtedly beneficial to the study of the subject and stimulating to the average student. This restriction set well-defined and narrow bounds to the subject and the new regulations which gave teachers and students freedom to use any analytical methods in their work have been far reaching in their effect. It is based upon courses of lectures given during many years to first-year students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos. Though the schedule in Dynamics for Part I of the new Tripos has remained unaltered.PREFACE This book is intended primarily for the use of students in the higher divisions in schools. for there is probably no branch of elementary Mathematics the content of which has expanded so greatly in the last twenty years. Although the book contains chapters on Orbits and the dynamics of Rigid Bodies. none the less it may claim to be a text-book on Elementary Dynamics. It is inevitable that its effect will extend to the schools. and it is assumed that the majority of readers will already have acquired some knowledge of elementary dynamics. and it is not unreasonable to suppose that before many . To give one instance only—the phrase 'motion under gravity' is now understood to mean 'in a resisting medium'—and it would be easy to give other examples of the elasticity of interpretation to which the schedule lends itself. if it has not already done so. successive Examiners have added considerably to the interpretation of its contents. and also for University students preparing for a first Honours Examination. The result of this change is that a first-year course in Dynamics at the University now' includes all the easier problems of two-dimensional dynamics stopping short of the use of moving axes and Lagrange's Equations. particularly for those who intend to take an Honours Course of Mathematics at a University. One of the changes that accompanied the reform of the Mathematical Tripos was the removal of the restriction that Elementary Mechanics meant Mechan ics without the Calculus.

It is hoped that the presentation of the subject will prove sufficiently simple.VI PREFACE years have passed. and M. EAMSEY 30 Nov. The object of this book is to assist in this development. T. The examples are nearly all taken from Scholarship papers or Tripos papers and the source is indicated by the letters S. while others are of a more difficult kind for the assistance of readers who wish to learn how to work harder examples. An attempt has been made to preserve the conciseness of lecture notes and at the same time to give detailed explanations where experience has shewn that students find difficulties. No attempt is made to exhaust the subject and the later chapters are only intended to be suggestive of the kinds of problems that can be solved. as examples of the fundamental theorems. A. 1928 CAMBRIDGE . candidates for Scholarships in Mathematics will be expected to possess a wider knowledge of dynamics embracing such parts of the subject as 'motion under simple central forces' and the elements of uniplanar rigid dynamics. and also to say that if the book contains errors I shall be grateful to anyone who will point them out. some few of these may prove to be too difficult for weaker students and they are intended rather to introduce abler students to more advanced work. Besides examples for solution the book contains a large number of worked examples. S. some of these are of purpose very simple illustrations of the theory. In conclusion I desire to express my thanks to the printers and readers of the University Press for their excellent work in the setting up of the book and the elimination of mistakes. without elaborate analysis.

CONTENTS Chapter I: INTRODUCTION ART.12 12 13 13 14 14 16 16 18 19 21 . 3'2. 6 7 7 7 . KINEMATICS 3"1. Force. 3-42. . 8 8 9 10 Chapter I I I : RECTILINEAR MOTION. . Centroid Method of Compounding Vectors . 3-8. 3-3. 3-6. 3-41. PAGE l'l. 3'51. Multiplication and Division by Scalars . 3-7. KINETICS 4'1. Velocity. Velocity-time curve Acceleration represented as a space rate of change Velocity-space curve Units Change of Units Units in Graphical Work Uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration due to Gravity Applications Graphical Methods Worked Examples Examples 11 11 . 1-4. . 3-31. Chapter IV: RECTILINEAR MOTION. 3-4. Kinematics and Kinetics Frames of Eeference Unit of Time Rates of Change Differential Equations Equations of the First Order Equations of the Second Order Chapter I I : VECTORS 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2*1. 1"7. Orthogonal Projections 2-4. . Space-time curve Acceleration. 1*2. Newton's First Law 4-12. 2-6. . 1-6. Newtonian Mechanics 4-11. 3-5. Centroids or Mean Centres 2-7-2-9. Vectors and Scalars 2'2. 1-3. Examples . 1"5. Mass 24 24 25 . . Analytical Method of Composition 2'5. Composition of Vectors 2-3.

4-71. . 4'14. 4-3. 4-42. Relative Angular Velocity 5-4. 4-55. Worked Examples Examples 52 53 55 56 56 57 57 58 59 60 60 62 62 66 . 4"41. . 4*4. 25 25 . Velocity 5*11. 4-16. 4-32. U n i t s Impulse Force-time Curve Work Foot-pound Power. 4'5. Motion of a Chain Fall of a Chain on to a Table U n i t s and Dimensions Change of U n i t s Examples . . .40 41 41 42 42 43 Chapter V : K I N E M A T I C S I N T W O D I M E N S I O N S 5-1. 4 . 4-2. Centre of Rotation 5'41.G. Fall of a Heavy Body in a Resisting Medium . 4-31. . CONTENTS PAGE 4-13. Acceleration 5-2.VU1 ABT. Force as a Vector Weight C. 4-7. . Relative Velocity 5-3. E r g Energy.s. 4-18. . . 4-8. Angular Velocity of a Body 5-51-5-54. Examples 5-32. 4-54. . Resistance Depending on Velocity . . Examples 5-43. Kinetic and Potential Formula for Kinetic Energy Conservation of Energy Force-space-Curve Efficiency Examples Locomotive Engines and Motor Cars Effectiveness of Brakes Motion on an Inclined Plane .6. 4 . Motion in a Circle 5-33. Instantaneous Centre of Rotation 5-42. 4-44. Horse-power. Newton's Second Law . 4-81. Angular Velocity 5-31. 4-15.45. 4'21. 417. .25 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 36 38 38 . Pole Curves 5-5. 4-43. . Material Particle Momentum Measurement of Force. 4-62. . .

. 7'4. Phase Geometrical Representation Elastic Strings. 7'2. Amplitude. . One-sided and two-sided Constraints Motion on a Smooth Curve Motion on a Smooth Circle Heavy Particle tied by a Fine String Cycloidal Motion Examples 105 105 106 107 108 110 Chapter I X : T H E L A W O F R E A C T I O N . 8-3. Conservation of Momentum . Effective Forces 114 114 116 . PAGE 6'1.21. 6 . 6-3. . 6-31. 7-72. G E N E R A L P R I N C I P L E S 9-1.32. 8 . 6 . Heavy Particle suspended by an Elastic String Applications Simple Pendulum Equivalent Simple Pendulum Example of Finite Oscillations Disturbed Simple Harmonic Motion Forced Oscillation Example Damped Harmonic Oscillations . 8-31. 7'3. 69 69 71 72 74 75 76 77 78 7 l. Damped Forced Oscillations Examples . . . 7'8. 7"31. 771. 7'5. . 6-2. 7-61. Equivalence o f ' f o r c e ' a n d ' m a s s x acceleration' Motion of Projectiles Range on an Inclined Plane Geometrical Construction Resisting Media Example Resistance x Square of Velocity Principle of Work Examples Chapter V I I : H A R M O N I C MOTION . 7-62. Motion of a System of Particles.CONTENTS IX Chapter V I : DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS ART. . . 9 -21. 6-4.2. Newton's Third Law 9'2.7. 6'22. 83 84 85 86 87 88 90 93 93 94 96 96 97 98 99 100 Chapter V I I I : M O T I O N U N D E R C O N S T R A I N T 8-1. 7'6. . 7'9. 7"11. . 7 . . . Hooke's Law Work done in Stretching an Elastic String . - Simple Harmonic Motion Periodicity. 8-4.

10-2. . . . Elliptic Orbit. Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates . Elliptic Orbit. . 10-5. 123 123 124 . 118 9-6. 10-3. 10-8. 10-7. Pulleys Relative Motion Motion on a Wedge Examples of Conservation of Momentum and Energy Conical Pendulum Transmission of Energy by a Belt Further Problems on Strings and Chains . 11 "2. Circular Orbits 12-4. 10-6. 11-5. 12-41. Conservation of Energy . . 11-3. 11-4. . Impulse and Impulsive Force Equations of Motion for Impulsive Forces Impact of Smooth Spheres Direct Impact Poisson's Hypothesis Oblique Impact Kinetic Energy lost by Impact Generalization of Newton's Rule Examples of Impulsive Motion Kinetic Energy created by Impulses Elasticity and Impulses Examples . 11-32. Rigid Bodies 119 9"8. To determine the Law of Force 12-3. . . Find the Orbit 12-5. 11-34. Central Orbits 12-21. Applications. Kinetic Energy in reference to Centre of Gravity . 138 138 140 140 141 142 142 143 144 146 147 148 Chapter X I I : POLAR COORDINATES. 125 126 127 . . Law of Force fir. CONTENTS PAGE 9-3. 10-71. . 11-35. 10-4. 11-31. . Motion of the Centre of Gravity. 11-6. ORBITS 12-1. 11-33. Force directed to the Centre . 118 9-5. 12-2.X ART.155 156 156 158 .159 160 161 . Car rounding a Curve : 119 Examples 121 Chapter X : GENERAL PROBLEMS 10-1. Belt Running at Uniform Speed Problems on Changing Mass Examples Chapter X I : IMPULSIVE MOTION . Independence of Translation and Rotation 116 9"4.128 129 130 132 lri. External and Internal Forces 119 9-7. Force directed to Focus .

12-9. E N E R G Y A N D MOMENTUM 14-1. 12-52. 12-74. 14-2.163 163 164 165 166 167 169 171 172 173 175 177 178 179 181 to Central Chapter X I I I : MOMENTS OF I N E R T I A 13-1. Parabolic Orbit. . 208 208 213 214 . Moment of Inertia. . Find the Orbit Velocity Components Velocity from Infinity The Hodograph Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Modification of Kepler's Third Law Use of u. 15-3. 12-71. . The Equations of Motion Applications of the Equations of Motion Equations of Impulsive Motion Examples of Impulses . Hyperbolic Orbit. . . . 12-75. . . Radius of Gyration Theorem of Parallel Axes Plane Lamina Reference Table. 12-8. Law of Force ^/r2. . . 154. XI PAGE 12-51. . . 133. 12-61. Chapter X V : EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A R I G I D BODY 151. Rigid Body. 14-4. 6 Formulae .CONTENTS ART. 12-6. 134. 12-54. . Force directed to Focus . 13-51. 12-7. 12-53. Routh's Rule Momental Ellipse Principal Axes Equimomental Bodies Examples . 13-5. Fundamental Principles Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body Examples of Conservation of Energy Momentum of a Rigid Body Examples of Conservation of Momentum . . . 132. . 188 188 189 189 192 193 194 194 Chapter X I V : MOTION OF A R I G I D BODY. 13-6. . 14'31. Examples 197 199 200 201 202 204 206 . 12-56. 12-55. Force directed to Focus . . Examples of Conservation of Energy and Momentum . Inverse Cube Apses and Apsidal Distances Einstein's Law of Gravitation Principles of Energy and Momentum applied Orbits Repulsive Forces Motion of Two Particles Examples .162 . 15-2. 14-3. . . 12-72. . 14-21.

Chapter X V I : M I S C E L L A N E O U S PROBLEMS 16-1. 16 . . . 17'7.xii ABT. Small Oscillations . . 16-5. 17-6. . . 256 Examples 257 . . 17'5. 15-6. 250 Oscillations of a Particle Constrained to move on a Revolving Curve 251 Stability of Steady Motion 253 Oscillations about Steady Motion 254 Example 254 Steady Motion of a Particle on a Sphere .247 Application of the Principle of Energy 247 Examples 248 Use of the Instantaneous Centre of Rotation . Examples of Motion about an Axis Moment of Momentum Moments about a Moving Axis Examples . 15-53. 216 216 217 . . 17'2. 15'51. 15-8. Chapter X V I I : SMALL O S C I L L A T I O N S 17-1. . . . 17-9. CONTENTS Motion about a Fixed Axis . 17'4. 15-55. Examples 231 233 235 236 238 239 242 . 17'8. . 17-3. 15-7. . Rolling and Sliding Two Spheres in Contact Initial Motions and Stresses Bending Moments in Bodies in Motion Steady Motion in Three Dimensions U s e of t h e Instantaneous Centre of Rotation . 16'4. 16-2. Compound Pendulum Pressure on the Axis Examples Axis non-horizontal Centre of Percussion . 16'6.3.218 219 220 221 222 223 224 15'5. 15-54. . . 1552.

It is important to realize that there is no such thing as absolute time. is constant and therefore adequate for the purposes of ordinary dynamics. so far as it can be tested with other time measures. 12. mass or energy. 1"3. It is not possible to describe absolute motion. the second. and in more general cases systems of two or of three rectangular axes may be chosen as a frame of reference.' as the independent variable. it would be more convenient to take a frame of axes with an origin at the Sun's centre.' 't. Thus if the motion is rectilinear the distance from a fixed point on the line is a sufficient description of the position of the moving point. is concerned with the geometry of motion apart from all considerations of force. the sidereal day. but the period of rotation of the Earth relative to the fixed stars provides a unit of time.' 'velocity' is 'rate of displacement' and . for the description of the motion of the planets. The subject of Dynamics is generally divided into two branches: the first. For example. in the case of a body projected from the surface of the Earth a set of axes with the origin at the point of projection would be suitable for the description of motion relative to the Earth. In order to describe the motion of a body or of a point two things are needed. but only motion relative to surrounding objects. called Kinematics. and a suitable frame of reference depends on the kind of motion that it is desired to describe. But. 14. is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of bodies.DYNAMICS Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1-1. Thus 'motion' is 'change of position' or 'displacement. called Kinetics. which. (ii) a time-keeper. (i) a frame of reference. The functions involved in dynamical problems are for the most part differential coefficients with regard to 'time.

Such relations are called differential equations. d2r () + 0 is a differential equation of the second order. The order of a differential equation is that of the highest differential coefficient that it contains. dsc/dt denotes a velocity and d?a>/dt2 denotes an acceleration. Equations of the First Order. where C is an arbitrary constant. It has solutions x = aint and * = cos t. It will be found on substitution that x=e<u is a solution.' Hence. the number of such constants being equal to the order of the equation. and one or more of the differential coefficients of x with regard to t. a dependent variable x. The differential equations of dynamics are of either the first or second order. A solution of a differential equation is a relation between x and t that satisfies the equation. The formulation of a dynamical problem therefore in general consists of one or more relations between certain variables (coordinates of position) and their differential coefficients with regard to time. and the complete solution is x=Cen. and the complete solution is x = A sin t + B cos t. where A and B are arbitrary constants. t and one or more arbitrary constants of integration. We may have to deal with equations in which the variables can be separated. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with the elementary processes of differentiation and integration.2 INTRODUCTION [i 'acceleration' is 'rate of change of velocity. . 1*6. For example: (i) g-8. NOTE ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1*5. Such equations can be put in the form Mdxjdt=N (1). if $ denotes a distance.-0 is a differential equation of the first order. A differential equation is a relation between an independent variable t. and the complete solution of a differential equation is a relation between x.

We note that if M is a constant the solution is xem=\emNdt + C For example. can be integrated if both sides are multiplied by ew. The solution is effected by first multiplying both sides of the equation by e l and then integrating. giving on integration •-!(<-» 1*7. Tt+kx=gt (4). Thus the linear equation of the first order is where M.1*4—1-7] DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 3 where M is a function of x only (or a constant) and N is a function of t only (or a constant). (5). Another type of equation that sometimes occurs in dynamics is the linear equation of the first order. A differential equation is said to be linear when it does not contain powers or products of the dependent variable x and its differential coefficients. the equation dx . the equation dx _ . Equations of the Second Order. A common type of differential equation of the second order is (6). . 2 is solved by writing xdx . The complete solution is \Mdx=\Ndt+C (2). For example. where C is an arbitrary constant. g-^&=9dt' so that ~2k is the complete solution. where a and b are constants. because it can easily be verified that Hence xJM<u=\JMtUNdt+C where C is an arbitrary constant. N are functions of t or constants. 1*61.

D are the arbitrary constants. say. it is the complete solution. and there are three cases to be considered : (i) Real roots. the form z = e-"t(C1 + C2t) (11) satisfies equation (7). (iii) Imaginary roots. a -b — 0.4 INTRODUCTION mt [i It is easily seen by substitution that x=e is a solution of this equation. ai-b=ni. (a) The complete solution of (fir n 2 x 0 which again may be written in the more convenient form (12). (13> \ is or x = Aei»*+£e*t X = C cosh nt+Daxahnt> ' (/3) The complete solution of where A. and since it contains two arbitrary constants. and. since the differential equation is of the second order. The roots of (8) are —a + sj{cfi — b). 2 say. m? + 2am + b = 0 so that. if m-i. o' are the arbitrary constants (16). x-e-at(Gcosnt+Csinnt) Special cases of the foregoing. It is easily verified however that. B or G. (72 are two arbitrary constants. . where Ci. m2 are the roots of this quadratic.C2)ainnt}. (9) may now be written or x=e-at{(Ci + Cz)cossnt+iid. (ii) Equal roots. When a = 0. £ or C. The form e~ (C1 + C2) is inadequate for a complete solution. the complete solution of (7) is x=C1emit+C2enhfi (9). a or C". provided that (8). is x=Acosnt+Bsmnt\ or x = C cos (nt + a) I or x = C sin (nt + a!) J where A. the complete solution should contain two. a2 — b2— -n2. when a? = b. since C1 + C2 can only be regarded as one arbitrary constant. then (9) may be written A-=e-«(C1e"!+C2e-ll() at (10).

4 ^ + 13^=0.4 a . x=e2t{A cosZt + BsmZt). x (iii) ^ . (iv) ^ . Numerical Examples. x= A . (i) . (Ait « (v) ^2+4^=0.1-7-1-71] DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1*71.p-4^ (ii) J .4 j + 4*=0. = 0.

P. called Scalars. etc.g. such as displacement.g. we write BA=-AB and take vectors in opposite senses to have opposite signs. and further. which represents the vector. Since the displacement from B to A is the opposite of a displacement from A to B.+KL . called Vectors. C.movientum. we say that the vector A G is equal to the sum of the vectors AB. A vector may be denoted by a single letter.Chapter II VECTORS 21. The simplest conception of a vector is associated with the displacement of a point. temperature. BG and write (1). and to write them with a bar above the symbol. B. Such a displacement is called a vector (Latin veho. The physical quantities or measurable objects of reasoning in Applied Mathematics are of two classes. e.. P. such as mass. as when we speak of 'the force P. consists of all measurable objects of reasoning which possess directional properties. ~ = AB + B~C+. direction and sense {AB not BA) are all taken into account. Since two successive displacements of a point from A to B and from B to G produce the same result as a single displacement from A to C.. When it is desired to indicate that symbols denote vectors it is usual to print them in Clarendon type. energy. e... etc. The other class. I carry). velocity. acceleration.' or by naming the line. work. if A. L A are any set of points (2). The one class.g. force. where the length. such as AB.' or 'the acceleration /. Thus the displacement of a point from A to B may be represented by the line AB. AB. comprises measurable objects of reasoning which possess no directional properties. K. e.

G two lines are drawn in the assigned directions meetings in B. and through A. In such a case all equal and parallel lines in the same sense will represent the same vector. the resolved parts of P in the X direction Ox and in the perpendicular direction Oy are P cos a and P sin a.2-1-2-4] COMPOSITION OF VECTORS 7 Vectors in general are not localized. one in the direction Ox and the other in the perpendicular direction Oy. it follows that the orthogonal projection of the resultant of a number of vectors is equal to the algebraical sum of the projections of the component vectors. Composition of Vectors. as for example a force whose line of action (but not point of application) is specified. 24.g.. . e.. each component is called the resolved part of the vector in the direction specified. Let the vectors make angles oti. then AB. Since the algebraical sum of the orthogonal projections on any straight line of the sides of a closed polygon is zero. either at a point. Thus if a vector P makes an angle o with a given direction Ox. vectors may be localized.. + P n cos an = S (P cos a). a%. Vectors are compounded by geometrical addition as indicated in formulae (1) and (2) of the last Article. an with an axis Ox. When a vector is resolved into two components in directions at right angles to one another. To compound n vectors Pi. thus we may have a displacement of an assigned length in an assigned direction and sense but its locality not specified. A vector can be resolved into two components in assigned directions in the same plane. On the other hand. P n . BC are the components required. P 2 . 23. 2-2.. Each vector may be resolved into two components. The components in direction Ox are equivalent to a single vector X = Pi cos cti + P2 cos «2 + . and they are called the components of the resultant. the velocity of a particle. for if AG be the vector. or in a line... A single vector which is equivalent to two or more vectors is called their resultant. Analytical Method.

and. 25. + mr ArBr_1 — 0. C are in the same straight line. is called the centroid or mean centre. Thus if we take n equal vectors AB and compound them together we get a vector AC. Centroids or Mean Centres..B2— m3B2A3.B1A2. 2-61.e. Proceed in this way until all the points have been connected then the last point of division Bn_i. B.e. An are joined. ovpAB + qAC = 0 imply that the points A.. Vectors may be multiplied and divided by scalar numbers. that the point determined by the process is independent of the order in which the points Alt A^. we shall first prove that Assume that this formula is true for the first r points..... conversely.. the centroid or mean centre of the points for the given magnitudes is the point obtained by the following process: Divide the line A^A^aX £j so that m1A1B1 = m1. m2. divide B2Ai at B3 so that (mi + mi + ma)B2Bs = miBsAi. such that R cos 6 = X and R sin 0 = Y. mn be a set of scalar magnitudes associated with a set of points Aly A%. divide BjA3 at i?2 so that (m1 + m2) B-. Y can now be compounded into a single vector R making an angle 6 with Ox. As. such that AC = nAB.8 VECTORS [II and the components in direction Oy are equivalent to a single vector Y = Pi sin <*! + P2 sin a2 + . and therefore Ri = X2+ F a and tan 6 = Y/X (1). + P« sin an = 2 (P sin a). The two vectors X. 26. m3. i. An.. In order to shew that this process leads in general to a unique point. n Note that relations of the form AC = nAB. AB = -AC. usually denoted by the letter G.. If mx.. . that -i + . i.

... m2OA2.. 27. the resultant of n vectors m^OA-i. because the last step in the process of finding the centroid consists in dividing a line in the ratio mx + m2 + .e. +m n ) OG and by 2 61 (1) the sum of the terms in the last bracket is zero. in the ratio 1: — 1. t Br therefore by adding the last two lines mx AxBr + m2 A2Br + ...... with the notation of the last Article. where G is the centroid of the points Alt A2 ..2'4-2"7] CENTROIDS a 9 Now the next step in the process is to divide Br-.+ mn) GG' = 0.. but it is true for two points. therefore mx0Ax +m20A2+ . since. +mn_1:mn. m2 . 0A2 = 0G + GA2. Therefore the formula (1) is true for any number of points... i.... +mr ArBr + mr+1Ar+1Br = 0.. by hypothesis. mn0An is (m1 + m2+ . Centroid Method of Compounding Vectors.. - (2).. This follows at once by substituting OAX = 0G + GAX.xAr+x so that m2+ ... Now if by taking the points in a different order we arrive at a centroid G' we can shew similarly that . To shew. if 0 be any other point... + mn = 0.. + mn) 0G. An for the magnitudes m1.. mx AXBX + m2 A2Bi = 0. + mn) 0G. that. . etc. + mn0An = (mx + m2 + . In the latter case there is no centroid at a finite distance. + mnAnG'= 0 and by subtracting (1) from (2) we get m2+ .. Hence G' must coincide with G unless mx + m2 + . mn.. + <mr) Br_x Br = mr+1BrAr+1.. so that + .. It follows that if the formula (1) is true for r points it is also true for r + 1. + mn0An .

OB. R are vectors in the lines OA. EXAMPLES 1. C are collinear.n A +~BH tan B + OH tan G=0.G for the magnitude p P/OA. then 3. B. 4. if mOA+nOB~+pOC=0 a. Shewthat.Bn. 29. 2. if O is the middle point of AB and O' is the middle point of A'B'. thus the centroid of a triangle ABC is a point 0 such that A~G + BG + CG = 0. An. if O is the centroid of n points At. then thepoints A.. EIOC. A2.. then AA'+ BE'= 2GG'. It may be noticed that if P. Q. Prove that. When reference is made to the centroid of a set of points without mention of any associated magnitudes it is understood that the magnitudes are equal. then AMta. if H is the orthocentre and 0 is the ciroumcentre of a triangle ABC. and AOsin f2. for a vector P is the same as ^-r OA.10 VECTORS [II 2'8. Prove that. and G' is the centroid of n points Blt B2. .A + Wsin^B + COsin 2C=0. OC then the resultant vector is where G is the centroid of the points A...ndm + n+p = 0. Q/OB. Prove that. B.

P' denote the positions of the moving point at times t. KINEMATICS 31. its limiting value as f tends to t is defined to be the measure of the velocity of the moving point at time t. and let OP = x. the tangent of the angle that the tangent to the curve makes with the timeaxis. The displacement of the point in time t' — t is x' — x. v denote the velocities of the moving point at times t. gives the value of the velocity dx/dt. then 1/ —v is the change of velocity in time . i. if it has the same value for all intervals of time. the x curve is called the space-time curve. Acceleration is similarly defined as the rate of change of velocity. Let 5 P F ~x P. Also the gradient of the curve.e.Chapter III R E C T I L I N E A R MOTION. so that if we denote the velocity by v.e. t'. But this limiting value is the differential coefficient of x with regard to t. we have v = dx/dt. Thus. If. i. 3"2. OP' = x'. Whether the ratio (x —x)/(t' — t) be constant or not. then the velocity is constant or uniform. The curve gives a graphical representation of the motion. if v. and equal distances will be traversed in equal times. and (x' — #)/(£' — t) is the average rate of displacement or the average velocity during the interval t' — t. Consider the motion of a point along a straight line or axis Ox on which 0 is a fixed point. If this ratio be independent of the interval t' — t. because it exhibits graphically the relation between the time and the distance traversed in that time. If on squared paper we plot a curve in which abscissae represent time and ordinates represent distances traversed.

If on squared paper a curve be plotted in which abscissae denote spaces traversed and ordinates represent velocities. we have t&n NPQ = dv/dx. Also the area under the velocity-time curve = I vdt = I -jr dt = I dx = [x] taken between proper limits = the distance covered in the corresponding time. If this ratio is independent of the interval t' — t. 3"31. and (v' — v)j(t' — t) is the average rate of change of velocity during the interval t' — t. dv dx dv therefore / = -^—T. it is usual to denote differential coefficients with regard to time by dots. KINEMATICS [ill t' — t. Whether the ratio (V — v)/(t' — t) be constant or not. But this limiting value is the differential coefficient of v with regard to t. The gradient of the curve is dv/dx.. as it has to be used in all problems in which the velocity is given in different positions rather than at different times. its limiting value as t' tends to t is defined to be the measure of the acceleration of the moving point at time t. the curve is called the velocity-time curve. The gradient of the curve gives the acceleration dv/dt at any instant.12 RECTILINEAR MOTION. . the curve is called a velocity-space curve. in which PN is ordinate v and PO is normal at P. J dx dt dx This formula for acceleration is very important. „ . so that if we denote the acceleration by / . thus x means dx/dt. or equal increments of velocity take place in equal intervals. Since v = dxjdt and / = dv/dt. 3 3. .= v -y-. then the acceleration is constant or uniform. we have Following Newton. and x means d2x/dt\ If on squared paper we plot a curve in which abscissae represent time and ordinates represent velocity. Acceleration represented as a space rate of change. and in the figure.

if L. The units of velocity and acceleration are derived units in that they depend on the units of length and time. since this is the only curve for which the subnormal is constant. T' are the units of length and time. The unit of acceleration is a unit of velocity added in a unit of time. and that the unit of acceleration is of one dimension in length and minus two dimensions in time. Change of Units. Measurements of physical quantities must necessarily be expressed as multiples or submultiples of certain units. or. T denote the units of length and time. T are the units of length and time. The unit of velocity is a unit of length described in a unit of time. then it is clear that and . These facts may also be expressed by saying that the unit of velocity is of" one dimension in length and minus one dimension in time. e. and v'. If v denote the measure of a velocity and f the measure of an acceleration when L. watches and clocks. 34. which may be regarded as fundamental units. and the unit of acceleration therefore varies directly as the unit of length and inversely as the square of the unit of time. The choice of the units of length and time is arbitrary.3-2-3-41] so that t h e su b n ormal UNITS 13 NG = vdv/dx = the acceleration. thus the unit of length may be a foot or a centimetre. f denote the measures of the same velocity and the same acceleration when L'. Units. and the unit of time may be the mean solar second or it may be the sidereal day (1'3). a velocity measured in yards per second is onethird of the same velocity measured in feet per second. the former being the more convenient unit for purposes outside an observatory as it is mean solar time that is recorded by ordinary chronometers. 341. Note that if the acceleration is constant the velocity-space curve is a parabola.g. the unit of velocity is LT" 1 and the unit of acceleration is LT~2. The unit of velocity therefore varies directly as the unit of length and inversely as the unit of time. The measure of any given quantity varies inversely as the unit chosen.

then the measure of the velocity is .-rr ft. per sec.14 RECTILINEAR MOTION. the subnormal gives the acceleration on the scale 1 inch = b2/a ft. so that by integrating the relation dv/dt=f we get v =ft + G. Units in Graphical Work. where a at r r dvjdt is the actual gradient in the diagram. If one inch in the abscissa t represents a seconds and one inch in the ordinate v represents a velocity of b ft. For example. if L = 1 foot. per sec. 342. and the area under the curve represents distance covered on the scale one square inch = ab feet. If one inch in the abscissa x represents a feet and one inch in the ordinate v represents a velocity of b ft. per sec. per sec. where dxjdt is the actual gradient in the diagram. and T = 1 second and L' = 1 mile and T' = 1 hour. then the measure of the acceleration is r~ where vdvldx is the actual a dx ' subnormal in inches.3600 = 88 ft. If one inch in the abscissa t represents a seconds and one inch in the ordinate * represents b feet. v = 60x5280-f. then L' = 5280L and T' = 3600T.--=. i. Velocity-space curve.ft. per sec. then the measure of the acceleration is . Velocity-time curve. per sec. if v' is a velocity of 60 miles per hour. In using the graphical methods indicated in 31. KINEMATICS [ill since the expressions equated are equivalent representations of the same velocity and of the same acceleration.e. and. Space-time curve. In uniformly accelerated motion the acceleration / is constant. 32 and 3 3 attention must be paid to scales of measurement. 35. per sec. per sec. . Uniformly Accelerated Motion.

MQ=v. ° therefore v = u+ft. 0P=u. gives . u). therefore G" = u2 and „ „ OJ . The student will do well to note that the formulae of this article are only true when the acceleration is constant. where 0M=t. v). though it must be remarked that this relation is otherwise obvious. because. the velocity is increased by f in each unit of time. and if the velocity at time t = 0 be u (called the initial velocity). Again space described in time < = area under curve = 0MQP . If we now eliminate t between (1) and (2) we get V — U + LJX \ii). since dx/dt — v = u +ft. therefore by integration x = ut + ^ft2 + C. therefore the curve in this case is a straight line inclined at an angle tan" 1 / to the t axis. 3'51. so that C = 0 and as = ut + $ft* (2). where C is constant. when the acceleration f is constant. and therefore v = u+ft (1). and since v = u when x = 0. This last result can also be obtained by integrating the alternative expression for acceleration. vdvjdx =f. and if the origin from which x is measured is taken at the position of the moving point when t = 0. we must have G — u. P the point (0.O/')/Oi/=gradient =/.S'4il~S-51] UNIFORM ACCELERATION where G is constant. we have x = 0 when t = 0. Then M (MQ . „„ 2_ where G" is constant. when f is constant. which. Let PQ be this line and Q the point (t. Again. Formulae (1) and (2) of the last Article follow graphically from the velocity-time curve. Since the gradient of the curve represents the acceleration and this is constant.

there are two ways of proceeding: (o) "We use the form vdvjdx for acceleration and write so that. and from thence we proceed as in (a) above. say <f>(x). We have v — cj>(t) therefore. per sec. x = ± {^(x)+C}* Then. The value in the latitude of London is approximately 981 cm. KINEMATICS [ill. The problem of further investigating the motion can then be solved as follows : (i) Acceleration a given function of the time. The law of acceleration in a particular problem may be given by expressing the acceleration as a function of (i) the time t. increasing with the latitude of the place.. usually denoted by g. so that 2xx=2<t>(x)x. first observed by Galileo. The value of g varies slightly. per sec. . Applications. Acceleration due to Gravity. by integration. Then integrate with regard to t and we get x2 = 2$<t>(x)dx + C. if we put TJr(x) for %j<f>(x)dx and x for v. It is an experimental fact. v2=2$(j>(x)dx + C. or 32-2 ft. or (ii) the distance x. where i^(<) is the integral of <f>(t). but the difference between the values at the equator and the poles amounts only to about one-half per cent. say. per sec. say <j>(t). Then another integration gives where the constants C.' we write x = (f. or (iii) the velocity v. v=$<j>(t)dt + C. per sec.16 RECTILINEAR MOTION. In this case. 3'6. by integration. (ii) Acceleration a given function of the distance. we have and therefore (/3) Alternatively. that all bodies which are allowed to fall freely at a given place possess the same constant acceleration.(x) and multiply both sides of the equation by 2ir. 351. or x = f(t) + C. C" can be determined if the velocity and position at a given time are known.

= nt + C. in which. therefore <7'=0. x denotes distance from a fixed origin and suppose that at time £ = 0 we have x=a and £ = 0. since x = a when t=0. therefore cos ~x . where the solution is obtained in the form If we proceed in this way. is of frequent application and deserves special notice. As an example let the acceleration be — n2x where. These give a = 0 and C=a. In this case we may either connect velocity with time by writing and integrating in the form --t+C. then multiply by 2x and we get 2xx= which gives on integration x*=But x = 0 when x=a. so that x decreases as t increases. or we may connect velocity with distance by writing and integrating in the form 'vdv . Note that the choice of the minus sign on taking the square root is determined by the fact that the point starts from rest with an acceleration directed towards the origin. making x=a cos nt as before. we multiply both sides of the equation by 2x in order to make it integrable. and x2=n2(a2-x2). a ' and. dx . In this particular example we might also obtain the same solution by proceeding as in 1*7 (16). therefore C=n2a?. say <j>(v). we have to determine the constants C and a from the conditions that When i = 0 x=a or Ccosa = ffl. and x=aoosnt.« C s i n a = 0. or dx and dt have opposite signs.3-51-3-6] VARIABLE ACCELERATION 17 This method of procedure. as usual. and x =0 or . i. (iii) Acceleration a given function of velocity. We put x = -n2x.e. a point starts from rest at a distance a from the origin with acceleration n2x towards the origin.

suppose a table of corresponding values of v and / t o be given. dv c therefore 0. or — mvm C=kt. t.and therefore x = -? dv. but v = u when t=0. therefore C—ll{m-l)um~l and 31.. — C= kx. f= dv/dt = vdv/dx.. [dv . KINEMATICS [ill Whether it is then possible to proceed to a further integration after putting x for v will depend on the form of the functions. v. . based upon the relations v = dx/dt. Graphical Methods. then TO \Vm Um and find a corresponding formula for space in terms of v. we have x=0 when v = u. f is given. . A particle moves in a straight line under a retardation kvm + 1. Shew that. If a table of corresponding values of any two of the four magnitudes x. therefore C=l/mum and Again therefore fcv^-= -kvm ax \~fih^'^—~ { . it is in general possible to determine the other two by plotting suitable graphs. where v is the velocity at time t. if u is the velocity when t=Q. which gives dx = —j.18 RECTILINEAR MOTION. or t Hence if we plot a curve in which the abscissae denote v and the ordinates denote 1//. Example. Since/= dv/dt. if x be measured from the position in which v = u. The corresponding values of the distance x can then be found from vdv/dx = / . We have therefore v=-kvm +1 . then the area under the curve up to any point will represent the time t.1 — -^. and. For example.

OM. and the straight line QR along which the velocity is uniformly retarded to zero.e. where a and b are constants. Alternatively.3-6-3-81] GRAPHICAL METHODS 19 So that if we plot a curve in which the abscissae denote v and the ordinates denote vjf. Again. A second train starts from A the instant the first train passes and being uniformly accelerated for part of the journey and uniformly retarded for the rest stops at B at the same time as the first train. SR with the condition that the area OSR represents 8 miles. i. For the first train the velocity-time curve consists of the straight line PQ or v = 40. but 0R = ^. and the areas under the curve. The area under the curve up to any point will represent the distance x. E x a m p l e s . 1910] This example illustrates the utility of the velocity-time curve. Hence the greatest speed SN is given by %8N. Therefore 4 0 0 ^ = 7 and 201ffl = l. for the second train which is uniformly accelerated and then uniformly retarded. so can be found by using the formula v = dxjdt. and is then uniformly retarded. and an hour for t. In the graphical solution of examples it is sometimes useful to remember that if the acceleration increase or decrease steadily with the time then the velocity-time curve is a parabola. therefore S1T=7\$ miles per hour. OMQP and MRQ represent 7 miles and 1 mile respectively. starting from rest and ending at rest and covering the same distance in the same time. which gives x=Jvdt. What is its greatest speed on the journey ? [S. then which represents a parabola if v. the velocity-time curve consists of two straight lines OS. The units chosen are a mile per hour for v. 0R = 8 . 3*81. . if we first tabulate the values of t found above and then plot a velocity-time curve. MR are the times required for the first seven miles and the eighth mile respectively. then the area under the curve up to any point will represent the distance x. (i) A train passes a station A at 40 miles per hour and maintains this speed for 7 miles. t are used as coordinates. stopping at B which is 8 miles from A. 3*8. For if i>=at + b.

g.-secr2. 48). At four minutes there is a uniform retardation 3-5 f. making the total distance traversed 9929 ft. .-secr^ and bring the train to rest at B.s. or 13"7 sees. The velocity at any time during the first 2 minutes is measured by the corresponding area under the acceleration-time curve : e. The area under the curved portion can be estimated by counting squares or by dividing it into parallel strips and using mean ordinates. velocity at one minute = area of trapezium of base 60 and mean height •6=36 f. and this acceleration decreases uniformly for 2 minutes. and a triangle \ x 48 x 13-7 = 329. so that the area is § of the rectangle whose sides are 120 and 48 = 3840. more accurately from the fact that the curve is a parabola with axis vertical and vertex at (120.s. Find the maximum velocity and the distance AB. At two minutes the velocity-time curve becomes a straight line parallel to the time axis. In this way any number of points on the velocity-time curve during the first two minutes may be plotted.s which will destroy the velocity of 48 f. v\ 60 120 18Q 240 sees.20 RECTILINEAR MOTION. or. so that the last part of the velocity-time curve is another straight line meeting the time axis at 2 = 253'7 sees. in 48/3-5 sees. and velocity at two minutes = area of triangle of base 120 and height •8 = 48 f. The remaining area is a rectangle 48 x 120 = 5760.s.. Acceleration-time curve Velocity-time cufve The acceleration-time curve consists of portions of three straight lines as shewn in the first diagram. The total distance travelled is given by the area under the velocity-time curve. KINEMATICS [III (ii) A train starts from a station A with acceleration "8 ft. Draw an acceleration-time curve and a velocitytime curve. at the end of which the train has acquired full speed which is maintained for another two minutes.s. Then brakes are applied and produce a constant retardation 3'5 ft.

v3 denote the average velocities in three successive intervals of time tlt t2. Shew that in any interval the space-average of the velocity is 4/3 of the time-average. How long would one take to pass the other when going in the same direction at their original speeds ? 2. At what speed must an observer travel along the road so that whenever he meets a runner he also meets a cyclist 1 Uniform Acceleration 4. Prove that 6. Thus. A point moves with uniform acceleration and vly v2. t2 seconds. 3. A point moving with uniform acceleration describes distances *i. 1 2 and --8g- no constants of integration being required since x = 0 and # = 0 when t — 0. but only 2'5 seconds if the speed of one is increased by 50 per cent. EXAMPLES Uniform V e l o c i t y 1. since the acceleration falls steadily from 8 f.81] EXAMPLES 21 This problem may also be solved by direct analysis. A heavy particle is projected vertically upwards. «2 fee* i n successive intervals of tt." . Find the speed of the current and of the steamer relative to it.—t . Prove that the acceleration is 5. = 48 ft. t3.s to zero in 120 sees.s. and # = 3840 and the rest of the solution is as above. It follows that when « = 120 we have a.) ./sec. then t1t2=2h/g. Two trains take 3 seconds to pass one another when going in opposite directions. 7. . Shew that if i l5 t2 are the times at which it passes a point at a height h above the point of projection in ascending and descending. therefore acceleration after t sees. \ 120/ or *=-8fl-I ( « . = '8 ( 1 — r-g. A steamer takes m minutes to go a mile downstream and n minutes to go a mile upstream.j\ ft.-sec. A point moves from rest with uniform acceleration.3 . A line of cyclists are riding in the same direction at 15 miles an hour at equal intervals of 30 yards. A line of men are running along a road at 8 miles an hour behind one another at equal intervals of 20 yards.

h. [S.p. A body moving in a straight line travels distances AB. 1924] Variable A c c e l e r a t i o n 12. A train which starts from rest and accelerates in 1 mile to a full speed of 40 m. The maximum speed of the car is 20 miles per hour and it covers the distance between stops in 75 seconds. Two stopping points of an electric tramcar are 440 yards apart.h. CD of 153 feet. Shew that these facts are consistent with the hypothesis that the body is subjected to uniform retardation. prove that the first part has gone 4 miles before the second starts and that at full speed they run 6 miles apart. 1915] 10. has.. and stops in \ a mile./sec. find the value of each of them. Shew that in consequence it arrives at its destination 3 ^ mins.. 8 sees. 135 feet respectively in three successive intervals of 3 sees. and 5 sees. 11. for a distance of 2 miles. A body moving in a straight line describes the following distances in the given times : Time in seconds Distance in feet 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 13-75 60 176-25 400 768-75 1320 Deduce approximately the velocity-time and acceleration-time curves for the same period. to be slowed down to 20 m. T. late. 1911] 13. 320 feet. [M. assuming that acceleration is always at the same uniform rate and that retardation is also always at the same uniform rate. and also how far the car runs at its maximum speed. An express train is sent off in two parts at an interval of 5 minutes. [S. and the time occupied in describing this distance. If both acceleration and retardation are uniform and the latter is twice as great as the former. .22 RECTILINEAR MOTION. On this hypothesis find the distance from D to the point where the velocity vanishes. If both parts are uniformly accelerated and attain their maximum speed of 60 miles per hour in a mile. in ft. 9.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -•3 •5 1 1-2 •5 -•3 -•45 -•45 Draw the acceleration-time curve and deduce the velocity-time and distance-time curves.p. BC. The relation between acceleration and time for a car starting from rest is given by the table Time in seconds Accel. KINEMATICS [III 8. in the course of a journey.

15 sees. find the velocity v as a function of x. 6 m. 39-27 f.h. A particle moving in a straight line is subject to a resistance which produces the retardation kv3. t 0 •0(398 •1408 Assuming that the relation between x. 11 sees. 15. 440ft 3. where v is the velocity and h is a constant. [S. 1./sec. By proper choice of units the curve on a time base representing the acceleration of an electric train is a quadrant of a circle. 121 ft.p. calculate the time of traversing 1000 yds. in ft. The following observations were made on a rifle-bullet: X 0 150 300 ft. Calculate the velocity acquired and the distance described in that time. 1-38 sees. approximately. where u is the initial velocity. and that the velocity was reduced to 2350 ft.s. 9. and neglecting [M. and prove that the retardation of the particle is 2av3. find a. 452 ft. 30 (n + m)/mn miles per hour.EXAMPLES 23 14. Shew that v and t (the time) are given in terms of s (the distance) by the equations v = uj{\+ksu). sec. ft 16. 30 (n—m)/mn. it was estimated that the bullet left the muzzle with a velocity of 2400 ft... The initial acceleration is 2-5 ft. 17. per sec. 1912] 16. (3 and shew that the velocity at the instant of the second observation was 2131 ft. T. t = iks2+sju. .2 0 100 200 400 600 800 1000 0 2 1-7 1-4 •85 •2 -•2 Draw the acceleration-distance curve and deduce the velocity-distance curve. whose centre is the origin. t is that stated above. per sec. If the relation between x and t is of the form t=ax2 + Px. As a result of certain experiments with a rifle. per sec. per sec. [S. 1913] gravity. per sec. Assuming that the air-resistance varied as v3. ANSWERS 2. and the acceleration falls to zero in 20 seconds. 1917] 17. The relation between acceleration and distance for a car starting from rest is given by the table Distance in feet Accel. when 100 yards had been traversed.

so that nowadays no one questions whether the theory is adequate to furnish reliable results in common matters. We must now begin to study the branch of Dynamics called Kinetics. This dynamics. But it is no part of our purpose to discuss this aspect of the matter. the interior of an atom. In the last chapter we discussed the measurement of the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a straight line. Force. we intend to leave to the reader his primary conceptions of time and space and adopt a Newtonian basis for the development of the subject. or on the other hand when we leave the Earth and apply the Newtonian theory on a much wider scale that discrepancies can be detected. and even here it may be remarked that Newtonian Mechanics has proved adequate to enable astronomers to predict the time of eclipses with an accuracy that would hardly have been possible had the foundations of dynamics been radically at fault. KINETICS 4"1. The definitions and laws of motion enunciated by Newton in the seventeenth century form the foundation of a science of dynamics which has been developed by many other mathematicians.' is the basis of all the theoretical work in applied mechanics or engineering and the results of the theory have been and are still being confirmed every day by numerous appeals to experiment. It is a fact of everyday experience that bodies move more often in curved paths and with varying speed than in straight paths at uniform speed. We assume that it is the action of other bodies that cause the speed of a body to vary or . It is only when on the one hand we begin to investigate what is relatively very small. now commonly called 'Newtonian Mechanics. e.Chapter IV RECTILINEAR MOTION.g. which is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of bodies. particularly his assumptions of absolute time and space. 4'li. From a philosophical standpoint Newton's definitions and laws of motion offer much scope for criticism.

The measure of the inertia of a body is called its mass. in t h e sense of balancing. Newton's First Law of Motion that Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of moving uniformly in a straight line. A Material Particle is defined to be a body so small that. This property possessed by matter is called inertia. to some multiple or sub-multiple of the unit A. The mode by which t h e presence of matter is most easily perceived is through t h e effort required to produce in it a sudden change of motion. This law is also commonly called the Law of Inertia. . I n this way every body has associated with it a number called its mass. except in so far as it is made to change that state by external forces is implied in the foregoing assumption and definition of force. for the purposes of our investigation. * Clerk Maxwell. Newton's Second Law of Motion states that Change of motion is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction in which the force is impressed. 4'14. it cannot be defined satisfactorily. Measurement of Force. The Momentum of a material particle is the product of its mass and velocity. 415. Matter and Motion. vi. and we define force as that which changes or tends to change the state of motion of a body. Matter is one of the primary conceptions of the mind. The familiar process of'weighing' on a common balance is t h e process by which masses are compared. We describe this process by saying that the bodies are exerting forces on one another. A scale of comparison is instituted in which we fix upon a certain body A as a unit and determine t h a t another body B is equivalent. b u t it is clear that any definition of matter would have to embrace all things that can be perceived by the sense of touch and some things which are perceived by other senses.41-415] FORCE 25 its path to bend. In modern phraseology we substitute the words rate of change of momentum for change of motion. Art. Mass. 4 13. 4"12. the distances between its different parts may be neglected*.

26 RECTILINEAR MOTION. This implication of the law is usually called the Principle of the Physical Independence of Forces. either in the same or in different directions. Q. That is to say. which exert forces P. if such a particle be acted upon by several forces. etc. The structure of dynamical theory is built upon this axiom. at any instant its acceleration must possess a definite magnitude and direction and therefore be such as would be produced by a single force of the proper magnitude in the assigned direction. Hence in the rectilinear motion of a particle of mass m. The acceleration lasts so long as the force acts and ceases when the force ceases to act. are components of a single resultant force and the accelerations they severally produce are components of a single resultant acceleration. if the body A under observation be a material particle whose velocity is accelerated. P. . It is proportional to rate of change of momentum. then each force produces its own contribution to the acceleration of the body A. the separate forces P. Q. KINETICS [IV and we see that the law is an assertion of the mode of measurement of force. upon it. The second law of motion implies much more than is asserted in the last article. Force as a Vector. simultaneously. And if we Ctt take the unit of force to be the force which acting upon a particle of unit mass causes it to have unit acceleration we may write the force P = mf.. Further. It implies that if a body A is in motion in the presence of several other bodies B. and the justification for the hypothesis is not to be found in any attempts at formal proof but in the general agreement of the theory with practical applications as the results of everyday experience and observation. 4"16. and this contribution is the same in magnitude and direction as it would be if the force considered were the only force acting upon A. if v be its velocity and / its acceleration it is acted on by a force in the direction of motion proportional to -=. etc. It follows that. etc.(mv) or mf. the combined effect of these forces is the same as that of a single force. etc. C. And we assert as a fundamental axiom that forces are compounded by the vector law of addition. Q.

the unit of mass being the mass of g lb. and assert the exact equivalence of the force vector and the vector ' mass x acceleration/ so that. when resolved in any assigned directions. (ii) we assert the second law of motion with the implication that when a particle is acted upon by several forces simultaneously its rate of change of momentum is proportional to the resultant of the forces compounded vectorially. It is the force which when acting on a body of mass one pound gives it an acceleration of one foot per second per second. and the weight of a body of mass 1 lb.415-4-17] FORCE 27 4'161. second system. second units are employed the unit of force is called the poundal. This is the absolute unit of force in the pound. It has already been remarked (3"5i) that bodies fall to the Earth with a constant acceleration g. is g poundals. In the British absolute system of units the unit of mass is called a pound. is mg poundals. foot. 417. It follows that. the weight of a body of mass mlb. The argument at the foundation of this . Weight. (iii) we also ascribe the vector property to acceleration. in which the unit of force is the weight of one pound.. The unit of force to which reference was made in 4*15 is called the absolute unit of force. and the mass of Wlb. foot. We will now change the order of the steps in the line of argument and state it concisely as follows: (i) we assert the fact that forces obey the vector law of addition. There is another system of units. We observe that in accordance with the formula W = mg. in use among engineers. weight being Wjg units of mass. The weight of a body is the force with which the Earth attracts it. the corresponding components of the two vectors are also equal. if W is the weight of a body of mass m. so that a poundal is equal to a little less than the weight of half an ounce. It is the mass of a certain piece of platinum deposited in the office of the Exchequer and defined by Act of Parliament as 'the Imperial Standard Pound Avoirdupois.' When pound. then W= nig.

therefore the weight of one gramme is 981 dynes. It is a relation that holds good at every instant during motion and may be expressed in the form X = m'x.e. Thus if a force equal to the weight of P pounds produces an acceleration f ft. The impulse of a variable force during a given interval of time is defined to be the time integral of the force for that interval. where X is the force tending to increase x. c.~2 in a body of weight W pounds then gW P = —/ W It follows that where W is the weight of the body and P the force acting upon it both measured in terms of the same unit. In this c.s. is the unit of mass.G. KINETICS [IV system of units is that if different forces act in turn upon the same body the forces are proportional to the accelerations they produce in the body. The impulse of a constant force during a given interval of time is denned to be the product of the force and the time during which it acts. It is to be noted that the relation force = mass x acceleration does not require that the force and acceleration shall be constant. It is the force which acting on a mass of one gramme gives it an acceleration of one centimetre per second per second. 4-i8.-sec. or the weight of one ton or the weight of any other mass that may be found convenient.G. In France the standard of mass is a piece of platinum called a kilogramme. JPdt integrated through the given interval. 4-i9. i.s.~2.28 RECTILINEAR MOTION. Impulse. Pt if P is the constant force and t the interval.-sec.e. 4"2. . Since g = 981 cm. i. which may clearly be the weight of one pound. the centimetre being the unit of length and the second the unit of time. the thousandth part of which. system the absolute unit of force is called a dyne. or gramme. units.

Force-time curve. Thus. if a constant force P has its point of application advanced through a distance s in its line of action. 4-3. as before. * 2 are the velocities at the beginning and end of the interval. Again. and strikes a plane surface placed at right angles to the jet. and the mass of a cubic foot of water = 62-5 lb. the impulse of the force = Pt = mft = m(v — u) = change of momentum.4-17-4-3] IMPULSE 29 In every case the impulse of a force = the change of momentum produced by it. further. The number of cubic feet that strike the plane per second= T f ¥ x 60. But if P is the force exerted in poundals its impulse in one second = P absolute units. E x a m p l e . A force is said to do work when its point of application undergoes a displacement in the line of action of the force. using the formulae for constant force and acceleration. If we plot a curve in which abscissae represent time and ordinates represent force the area under the curve will represent the impulse of the force. this is the change of momentum produced. for a variable force X = mob. the impulse of the force = = Xdt m'xdt = mas2— mxlt where xi. Thus. 4-21. therefore P=3125 poundals = 97-65 lb. the force P remaining . Work. and. weight. If. A water jet issues from a nozzle of 2 square inches section "with velocity 60/. or the change of' momentum produced in the given interval of time. 4*22.s. Find the force exerted on the plane. Therefore the momentum destroyed per second = ih X 60 x 62-5 x 60 = 3125 absolute units. the force is said to do work Ps.

the unit of work is called the foot-pound. KINETICS [IV constant in magnitude and direction. the unit of work is .30 KECTILINEAE MOTION. 4'32. 4"31. Similarly.000 foot-pounds per minute. Taking one foot as the unit of length and the weight of one pound as the unit of force. and no work done when the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of the force P. when the point of application of a variable force is displaced along any curve. we therefore represent the work done in any finite displacement by an integral JPCOS0ds. the work done by the force is measured by the product of P M the force and the projection AM of the displacement upon the line of action of the force. In the absolute c. i.e. More generally. in either figure work done = P. It represents the work that would have to be done in order to lift one pound vertically through one foot. let A A' denote an element ds of the curve. the unit of work is called the foot-poundal. The practical unit of power is called the horse-power and represents the doing of 33. the work done in this displacement is P .G. Regarding the force as constant during the infinitesimal displacement AA'. taken along the curve of displacement from the initial to the final position. the displacement of the point of application A be in an arbitrary direction AA'. if one poundal be taken as the unit of force. Power is defined as the rate of doing work.AA' cos 6. giving a negative result when 6 is an obtuse angle.s. system of units. AA' cos 6 or P cos Ods. P the force at A and 6 its inclination to the tangent to the curve.

and therefore the arbitrariness of the choice of the zero of potential energy simplifies rather than complicates a problem. 4-4. The work done against the resistance = Poc = mfx. and represents the work done when a force of one dyne has its point of application advanced through one centimetre in the direction of the force. For example. we might choose the ceiling of the room as the level of zero potential energy. Suppose that the motion of a body of mass m moving with velocity u is opposed by a constant force P and brought to rest in a distance x. we may choose to consider bodies on the floor of the room as possessing zero potential energy and then all bodies at a higher level possess a positive amount of potential energy. and then all bodies below the ceiling would possess negative potential energy. In measuring potential energy it is necessary to choose a standard position in which a body may be considered to possess zero potential energy. measured in each case by the weight of the body multiplied by the height above the floor. when f is the constant retardation produced by P. Thus. . A body may also possess energy in virtue of its position. and this amount of work is called the Kinetic Energy of the body. when a body is in motion. This is called Potential Energy. work can be done in overcoming resistance before the body is brought to rest. Formula for Kinetic Energy. represented by the work that would be done by the forces acting on the body if it moved from its stated position to some standard position. if we consider the weights of bodies as forces capable of doing work as the bodies descend to a lower level. 441. On the other hand. In a particular problem it is not the absolute value of the potential energy that is important but the change of potential energy that takes place in a movement of the body under consideration.4-3-4-41] WORK AND ENERGY 31 called the erg. and the choice of this standard position is to some extent arbitrary. The unit of power in the same system is called the watt and represents the doing of 107 ergs per second. Energy is denned as capacity for doing work.

KINETICS [iV But since the body comes to rest in a distance x. therefore 0 = w2 . the area under the curve. if u. In any displacement of a body the change in the Kinetic Energy is equal to the work done by the forces. so the Kinetic Energy of a body of mass m moving with velocity u without rotation is defined to be \muz. Since 'work done' means an equivalent loss of Potential Energy.e. This is a general proposition of which a proof will be given in a later chapter. Hence we have Px — ^mv?. 443.32 RECTILINEAR MOTION.2fx. At present we confine ourselves to rectilinear motion. This is the Principle of Conservation of Energy. and abscissae represent distances traversed. e. but we observe that so far we have only proved it for the case of rectilinear motion of a single body. represents the work done or the increase in the Kinetic Energy in traversing the distance under consideration. which is the required result. Force-space Curve. v denote the velocities in the positions x = xy. the last result implies that in any displacement gain of Kinetic Energy = loss of Potential Energy. therefore jrnvdv=JXdx + C. we have ^mvi—^mu2=\ JXi Xdx. . x = x2. 442. The principle applies to dynamical systems of the most general kind. i. and write the connection between acceleration and force in the form mvdv/dx = X. |mw2 is the energy possessed by the body in virtue of its motion. so that the sum of the Kinetic and Potential Energies is constant throughout the motion.g. or. Conservation of Energy. If we plot a curve in which ordinates represent the force acting on a body in the direction of its motion. Principle of Work. JXdx.

and. In most machines some part of the work done is expended in overcoming friction. Find the velocity after 30 ft. therefore v= 18'3 f. 4*45. = 7050 ft.f. At what rate. For x = 30 this gives v = 18-3 f. flowing at the rate of 16 ft. at a speed of 100 revolutions per minute. Ib. of water=62'5lb. 1909] 16 c. through 30 ft. This problem may also be solved by the consideration that the upward pull after ascending x feet is (250 — x) pounds weight. The figure shows the force-space diaX[ gram. 1 square foot in section. neglecting the weight of the rope. and therefore. Hence 200vdv/dx=(50 . The weight is hauled up vertically from rest by winding up the rope. and if v Ol x is the velocity acquired 2 £ X 200 v = 1050g foot-poundals.. per sec. (i) A weight of 200 Ib. enters the turbine. as before. Ib.s. The kinetic energy of this mass = £ x 1000 x 162=128000 foot-poundals. is done in lifting 2001b.x)g. enters a turbine. have been wound up. the force decreasing from 250 to 220 pounds weight in a distance 30 ft. Ib. the constant of integration being zero because « = 0 when x=0. hangs freely from the end of a rope. RD 3 . and diminishes uniformly at the rate of 1 Ib. this portion of the work is regarded as 'wasted' and the remaining portion is described as ' useful work. does the water deliver energy ? {Ic. for every foot wound up.f. of water have a mass of 1000 Ib.s.s. or resistances of that nature. with a couple of which the moment is 140 with the pound weight and foot as units ? [M. by integrating. 30 is converted into kinetic energy. E x a m p l e s . The work done is therefore =4(250 + 220) x 30 ft.4-41-4-45] ENERGY 33 4-44. in horse-power. T. Ib. 100«2=(50:» — \x2)g . subtracting the weight of the body. Therefore the additional work 1050 ft.' The ratio of the useful work to the whole work done is called the efficiency of the machine. (ii) A stream of water. and in each second this mass of water with velocity 16 f. The pull starts at 250 Ib. the resultant upward force on the body is (bO — x)g poundals. 250 220 But an amount of work = 200x30 = 6000 ft.) What fraction of this energy is used when the water power drives a shaft. Efficiency.

If there were no friction between the wheels and the ground the car would remain stationary while the wheels slipped round. 45. by summation.ABd8=G.d6. so that B moves to B'. of moment O.P. KINETICS [IV This is the energy delivered per second. the propulsive force cannot exceed fiR. but the slipping of the wheels on the ground is Friction opposed by friction and this frictional force causes the forward motion of the car. The work done = P. the wheels which run freely without compelling cranks.P. the work done for any finite rotation 8 is 06. it is the friction . Let the couple. Applications. It follows that the fraction of the energy used is 7TT/60 or about JJ of the whole. and this fraction represents the efficiency of the machine.P. The propulsive force in the case of a locomotive engine or a motor car is the friction between the driving wheels and the ground. Hence in the particular case considered the work done on the shaft = 140 X 200n. = 28TT/33H. and this rate of working is equivalent to 128000/550^ horse-power = 'ftH.34 RECTILINEAR MOTION.BB' = P. Let the arm turn through a small angle d6 about the end A. In the case of the other wheels of the car or train. If R denote the pressure of the driving wheels on the ground and /x the coefficient of friction. The driving wheels are made to rotate by means of a crank attached to the axle.foot-pounds per minute and this is equivalent to 140 X 200TT/33000 H. And. The work done by a couple in any displacement is the product of the moment of the couple and the angle through which its arm is turned. be represented by equal forces P at the ends of an arm AB. Locomotive Engines and Motor Cars. For since all couples of the same moment in the same plane are equivalent it is immaterial about what point the arm turns.

per sec. the friction on them is therefore in the opposite direction to the motion of the car. we obtain 400#= "16 x 30g x 60 using 1 ton as unit of mass. In order to stop a car or train brakes are applied to the wheels. T. hence assuming the same coefficient of friction at all contacts the pressure of the brake shoes must not exceed w or the wheel will become locked and skidding will ensue. and this necessitates a larger frictional force F between the wheels and the ground if the same speed is maintained. the part of the weight of the engine carried by the driving wheels is 30 tons. be the velocity acquired when all frictional resistance to motion is neglected. This is effected by pressing brake shoes either on to the rims of the wheels or on to the rims of smaller concentric wheels rigidly attached to the actual running wheels. The maximum retarding force that brakes can produce is therefore /A times the weight of the car or train. > . and the coefficient of friction between the driving wheels and the rails is -16. Shew that at the end of a -minute after starting on the flat the velocity will be less than 15-8 miles per hour. This results in frictional forces f being set up opposing the rotation of the wheels.s. But the friction F opposes the motion of the car as a whole and the result is a reduction of the speed. The maximum value of F is fiw where w is the load carried by the wheel. 1909] The propulsive force is '16 x 30 tons weight. For if there were no friction the wheels would slide forward without revolving. so if v ft.Friction tion of the wheels. by equating the momentum set up to the impulse of the force in 1 minute. therefore z = 23"04 f. [M. but its amount is small compared to the frictional force on the driving wheels being no more than sufficient to cause the rota.4-45-4-51] FRICTION 35 between the wheels and the ground which causes the rotation. The loeight of a train is 400 tons. 4*51. E x a m p l e . = 15-7 miles per hour.

Problems on the running of trains with constant propulsive force. 1912] In this case road resistance is neglected and with the notation of the last Article we takeTO= 2240. Thus if m be the mass. iJ2 = 440# and . and Rx the road resistance. therefore J mv2 = (P^ + _R2) *'• 4*53. 4-54. apart. Consequently f$v 2 = 3850. without introducing the question of acceleration.36 RECTILINEAR MOTION. per ton weight. Let the centre of gravity G be at a height h above the road and at horizontal distances a from the rear axle and a' from the front axle. then since momentum destroyed = impulse of the retarding force. and equating the kinetic energy to the work done. E x a m p l e . P-hbg. Find the least time between stopping stations 3850_/i. P the propulsive force. KINETICS [iV 452. and the work done (P — R{) x = %mv2 the kinetic energy created. Neglecting the inertia of the wheels the friction forces . road resistance and brake resistance may conveniently be solved by equating the momentum to the impulse of the forces. Again * = l t " a Q d t'*=i!xvi therefore < + i'=ff« = 105 sees. the equations for getting up a speed v in a distance x and time t from rest are the impulse ( P — Rx) t — mv the momentum generated. [M. A train can be accelerated by a force of 55 Ib. therefore « = 1 ^-D 2 and xl=-gsv2. per ton weight and when steam is shut off can be braked by a force of 440 Ib. Effectiveness of Brakes. The effect of applying brakes to one pair of wheels of a four-wheeled car in motion is to alter the division of the weight between the wheels. giving « = 73Jf. T. and the equations are 55#C = 2240»> = 4405-1!' and bbgx=\ x 2240 v2 = 4 4 0 ^ . and since kinetic energy destroyed = work done by the retarding force.»-(-#'= 3850. Similarly.s. after steam is shut off and brakes are applied the total resistance to motion is _ X + R2 and if this brings the train R to rest in a distance x and time t'. The maximum horse-power per ton weight is P«/550g>=7J. therefore mv = (Rx + j?2) t'. the greatest velocity of the train and the horse-power per ton weight necessary for the engine.

a'g/(a + a' If on the other hand brakes are applied to all four wheels the friction force Wf/g will be divided between front and back wheels. Hence =W and SsmW g(a + a) whereas if the brakes were not in use we should have R:S = a':a. . Let W be the weight of the car and suppose that a retardation / is caused by applying brakes to the rear wheels. but the two equations for R and S will remain the same and the maximum retardation will be given by the condition or / $ fig.4-52-4-54] EFFECTIVENESS OF BRAKES 37 between them and the ground are negligible when they are running freely. The justification for this step will appear in Chapter ix. Neglecting the rotatory inertia of the wheels and taking moments about G* we get aR-a'S + hWf/g = O. Let R and S be the vertical reactions of the ground on the rear and front wheels. This means that friction to an amount Wf/g must act on the back wheels opposing the motion of the car. The maximum retardation that can be produced by applying brakes to the rear wheels without causing skidding is found from the condition or fie /J. By resolving vertically we have R + S-W=0.

Find the resistance to motion in pounds weight per ton of the train if at the speed of 15 miles per hour the horsepower developed is 360. = 22 f. weight per ton of the train. Therefore R = 9000c/ -M£<«"ty-224000 = 8000^-224000 = (8000 . If a body of mass m is placed on an inclined plane which makes an angle a with the horizontal. cause an acceleration g sin a down the plane. weight = 10 lb. at where P is the force in the direction of motion. since the normal pressure is mg cos a. .s.s. E x a m p l e . its weight mg can be resolved into com. Hence if the particle moves up the plane it has a retardation g (sin a + p cos a). The equation of motion is where R is the total resistance in poundals. therefore if P is the propulsive force in poundals. if there be no other force along the plane. a resistance kv2. 22P=rate of working=360 x 55O#. but if it moves down the plane it has an acceleration g (sin a — fi cos a). therefore there is a frictional force fxrng cos a opposing the motion. 46.s. Motion on an inclined plane. 4*56. The former component represents the pressure of the body on the plane and the latter component mg sin a will.g. When a body of mass m moves subject to a resistance proportional to some power of the velocity v.h. A train of 100 tons is ascending an incline of 1 in 224 with an acceleration of 1 f.7000) g = 1000 lb. KINETICS [iV 4*55. Since the speed of 15 m.38 RECTILINEAR MOTION. therefore P=9000#r. we have an equation of motion .p. Resistance depending on velocity..mo since ponents mg cos a at right angles to the plane and mg sin a down the plane. e. If however there is friction between the particle and the plane with coefficient /A. Consequently a particle freely projected up or down the plane has an acceleration g sin a down the plane.

log }L-n -pr = t + const. .= dt v ^2. and on integration — -j. dt This may be integrated by substituting . therefore P — kv2 =:—r-7r = 2dx. for in this case dv R . dv ax . mv T . we may connect v with distance x. ax v so that leading to Tndv3 -jg—=-r = 3dx. dP + v»Jk .=PD — lev2. this may be integrated by first writing it in the form mdv = dt.= ktr. by writing mv -j. Therefore or m T.log (P — kv2) =2x + const. but be working at a constant rate R. Alternatively. -r . we have Pv = R where R is constant.4-55-4-6] RESISTANCE DEPENDING ON VELOCITY 39 When P is constant.= It — kv6. P-kv2 which gives on integration m . A simpler result is obtained connecting v and the distance x. R — kv3 —m log (R — kv3) = fix + const.for v. If on the other hand the force P be not constant. which leads to z mdz and is then integrable by partial fractions. „ mv -Y.

s.j . determine the distance in which the car can accelerate from 15 to 30 miles per hour. or 22 f. so that by integrating we get — —f\og(n — kvi) = x+C. therefore k = 12100 x 32/663=400/297. I . From this instant the velocity will remain constant.h. there is no acceleration.44? z=z. or 66 f. g = 173-9 ft. and then find the value of x when • = 44..s. n— k. and 44 f.p.p. and 30 m. Suppose that the resistance is proportional to vn. Fall of a heavy body in a resisting medium. and the acceleration vanishes when the velocity attains the value (gjh)n. but ?j = 12100(7. 3A LOS 27-8 27 1 = 2240 x | 5 log.40 RECTILINEAR MOTION. P—l2\00g/v=n/v say.s.p. If the weight of the car is 1 ton and the maximum speed of the car against its resistance is 45 miles an hour. T. Tlie resistance to the motion of a car varies as the square of its speed and the effective horse-power exerted at the road wheels is constant and equal to 22. so that vdv/dx = 0 and n=k.. [M. 462.OET m 66 3 -44 3 66^ 22 3& v = TO. namely o _ m . Since (g/k)n is the greatest velocity attained it is called the limiting or terminal velocity. KINETICS [IV 4*61.h. by the help of tables. where v denotes the velocity. E x a m p l e . we may write dv . Now at the maximum speed of 45 m. and in (1) we may find C by putting x — 0 when v = 22. Hence mv2dv/dx=n — kv3. Measuring x vertically downwards. 1917] The equation of motion is mvdvjdx = P— kv2. 663. Again the initial and final speeds are 15 m. therefore TO.h. where C is a constant (1). and the rate of working i*» = 22 horse-power = 22 x 550^r foot-poundals per second. n v . where m = 2240 lb. djX The acceleration therefore decreases as the velocity increases.= g — kv . — — J.

This result may also be obtained by the principle of conservation of energy. so that by adding we get mlvdvjdx = mgx. since the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is constant. A uniform fine chain of length I is suspended with its lower end just touching a horizontal table and allowed to fall. The principles developed so far can be applied to the rectilinear motion of a uniform chain. Motion of a Chain. 471. J mlv2 — \ mgx2 = const. Let v denote the velocity at time t.^x..e. as soon . Let m be the mass of unit length. and mxv dv/dx = mgx — T. and let T denote the tension at the edge of the table. Then. the velocity when a length * has reached the table is given by v2 = 2gx. 2 and on integration lv = gx2 + G. Pall of a chain on to a table. a mass mvSt is brought to rest and therefore the amount of momentum destroyed is mv2ht in time St. When the velocity is v a length vSt is brought to rest in a short interval of time Bt. to find the pressure on the table when a length x has reached it. the potential energy is — mgx. where G is a constant depending on the initial conditions. i. for the kinetic energy of the whole chain is ^mlv2. Thus suppose a chain of length I and mass m per unit length to be placed on a smooth horizontal table in a line at right angles to the edge of the table. and. The equations of motion for the horizontal and vertical portions of the chain considered separately are m(l — x)vdv\dx = T. therefore the total pressure on the table is Smgx. since the upper end falls freely. having at time t a length x hanging over the edge. But. which is equivalent to the last result.4-61-4-71] MOTION OF A CHAIN 41 47. and since the weight on the table is mgw. if we take the zero level for the potential energy to be the upper surface of the table. Hence the pressure on the table due to the rate of destruction of momentum is mv2. This only holds good so long as x is less than I.

space and time. All other dynamical units are derived from and expressible in terms of these in the same way as we expressed the units of velocity and acceleration in 34.42 EECTILINEAR MOTION. A. L and T. space and time. Thus momentum being the product of mass and velocity. like the unit of momentum. Sometimes a consideration of dimensions alone is sufficient to determine the form of the answer to a problem. Force is rate of change of momentum or the product of mass and acceleration. The fundamental units are those of mass. Units and Dimensions. so that the unit of impulse is denoted by MLT"1. dimensions in length and T dimensions in time. Impulse is force multiplied by time. Change of Units. since an impulse is equal to the change of momentum it produces. the dimensions of any physical quantity in terms of mass. for each side of an equation must represent the same physical thing and therefore must be of the same dimensions in mass. 4'81. Work or potential energy is force multiplied by distance. If a certain physical quantity is of fi dimensions in mass. so the unit of force is denoted by MLT~2. 4'8. Therefore the unit of power is denoted by ML2 T~3. L. L and T. 4'82. then if the units of mass. Hence the unit of work is ML2 T~2. length and time are changed to M ^ L ^ T ! the measure of the quantity becomes Vi where since these are equivalent representations of the same thing. KINETICS [iV as x becomes equal to I the force due to impacts ceases and the pressure becomes mgl. length and time. and V is its measure when M. suppose that a particle starts from rest at a distance a from . For example. and the unit of kinetic energy has the same dimensions either because kinetic energy is equivalent to work done or because it is measured by \ mv2. denoted by M. The consideration of dimensions is a useful check in dynamical work. the unit of momentum is denoted by MLT -1 . T are the units of mass. Power is rate of doing work or work divided by time. space and time being indicated by the indices attached to M.

1912] 5. (Assume that 1 cubic ft.) [S. of dimensions LT~2 and x being of dimensions L. 1910] 3. [S. where x denotes distance from 0. caused by its stoppage in one-tenth of a second. 1910] . but /ijx^ is acceleration. therefore /3 = — \ and a = f. Shew that the horse-power required to pump 1000 gallons of water per minute from a depth of 50 feet. of water in a quarter of a mile. An engine of 400 horse-power is drawing a train of 200 tons mass up an incline of 1 in 280 at 30 miles per hour . 1915] 4. of water per second with an initial velocity of 100 feet per second. is about 34J. [S. 1911] 2. [S.e. and that 1 gallon of water weighs 10 lb.«. it follows that fi is of dimensions L3T~2.4-71-4-82] UNITS AND DIMENSIONS 43 a fixed origin 0 and moves with an acceleration njx* towards 0. is 610 lb. and neglect the friction losses. Suppose that the expressions for the time contain as factors <z" and /jft. Hence a*/*3 is of dimensions L a+S3 T-^.] Uniform Acceleration 1. The time taken to arrive at 0 can only depend on the given constants a and p. Prove that the time average of the pressure of the water on the piston. A column of water 30 feet long is moving behind a plug piston in a pipe of uniform diameter with a velocity of 15 feet per second. Find the horse-power required to lift 1000 gallons of water per minute from a canal 20 feet below and project it from a nozzle of cross-section 2 sq. [S. determine the road resistance in pounds weight per ton mass. inches. find the back-pressure thereby produced on the train and the extra horse-power required on this account to maintain the speed. of water is 6j gallons. Consequently the time taken to arrive at 0 is proportional to a}fi~*. Then aafjf is of one dimension in time. per square inch. EXAMPLES [In numerical work take g to be 32 /. i. Find the minimum horse-power that a fire engine must have if it is to project 150 lb. If a train travelling at 30 miles an hour picks up 10000 lb. and deliver it through a pipe of crosssection 6 square inches. but it is also of dimensions T.«. 1926] 6. [S.

Shew that it traverses a distance A. if the coefficient of friction be •18. and that it stays at the highest position if tan a < p. uniformly accelerated. When the velocity of the train is 30 miles per hour. with initial velocity u given by u? = 2gh (sin a + p cos a). the part of the load carried by the driving wheels of the engine cannot be less than 12-7 tons.. weight per ton. At what steady speed will the engine pull the train up an incline of 1 in 100 with the same expenditure of power against the same resistances ? [S. Assuming that the forces resisting its motion remain constant. seconds.h. 1921] . [S. find to the nearest unit the horse-power of its engine if it can attain a velocity of 30 miles per hour in 4 minutes on the level. find its acceleration. acquires in two minutes from rest a velocity of 30 m. f. „ . . bbWH . KINETICS [IV 7.„—=r.44 RECTILINEAR MOTION. Shew that. If tan a > fi. An engine driver of a train at rest observes a truck moving towards him down an incline of 1 in 60 at a distance of half a mile. A train of 200 tons../sec. . find its velocity when it returns to the starting point. 1911] 12. [S. after at least _ „ .2.s. [S. [S. Prove that at the end of a minute after starting on the flat the velocity will be less than 29^ T miles per hour. 1917] 8. [S. 1923] 13. per ton. A particle is projected directly up a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizon. An engine of weight W tons can exert a maximum tractive effort of P tons weight and develop at most H horse-power. What is the greatest velocity which the engine can attain ? 9. and explain the difference between the initial and final kinetic energies. If the truck just catches the train find its velocity when first observed. the part of the weight of the engine supported by the driving wheels is 25 tons and the coefficient of friction between the driving wheels and the rails is -18. Shew that starting from rest the engine will first develop its full horse-power when its velocity is . . [S. The weight of a train is 200 tons. 1922] 10. where /i is the coefficient of friction.p. The resistances to motion are constant and equal to R tons weight. He immediately starts his train away from the truck at a constant acceleration of 0'5 ft. An engine working at 500 horse-power pulls a train of 200 tons along a level track. A car weighing 3 tons will just run down a slope of angle a (= sin ~J £$) under its own weight. 1923] 224P. Assume that friction opposing the truck's motion is 14 lb. 1924] 11. the resistances being 16 lb. and that the engine exerts a constant tractive force.

where /J. per ton. The total mass is 200 tons . [8. per ton. weight per ton. in diameter. is . Shew that the mass of the train is approximately 85 tons. [S. 1917] 19. The tractive effort of an electric train is uniform and equal to the weight of 4 tons. [S. " . A train weighs 200 tons and the engine exerts a constant pull of 45 lb. . A mine cage. midway between the axles. [S. Find the acceleration and the time that elapses before the cage reaches full speed : also find how far the cage rises in that time. when the train ' coasts' at a uniform speed until power is shut off and the brakes are put on. The road resistance is 40 1b. 20 sees. of which 40 tons are carried by the driving wheels. is the t+/Aft- coefficient of adhesion between the tyres and the ground. [S. and also the greatest horse-power developed. The train is taken from one station to the next. A motor-car has its centre of gravity at a height h ft. 1917] 15. when its output is 55 horse-power. 1923] 16. (6) on the back wheels. full power being kept on until the speed reaches 30 miles an hour. The train comes to rest at a distance of 1050 yards from the starting point 2 mins. weight per ton of the train. there is a road resistance of 12 lb. weighing with its load 5 cwt. 1915] 17. find the tension in the coupling between the engine and the first carriage. in 1£ minutes. Find the retarding force per ton of the brakes. an additional resistance equal to -075 the weight of the train is applied to bring the train to rest. after it started.. An engine weighing 96 tons. and the brake resistance is an additional 200 lb. The speed rises until the engine is running at 60 revolutions per minute. is raised by an engine which exerts a constant turning moment on the rope drum which is 16 ft. weight per ton. and the engine exerts a uniform pull of 5 tons weight until the maximum speed of 30 miles per hour is reached. The rotary inertia of the wheels may be neglected. 1918] 18. A train travels from rest to rest between two stations 5 miles apart. Shew that the ratio between the least distances in which the car can be stopped by brakes acting (a) on the front wheels. If the friction between the driving wheels and the rails is 0-2 times the pressure. exerting a uniform pull gives a train a velocity of 25 miles per hour after travelling for 50 seconds from rest against a resistance of 10'5 lb. This speed is maintained until. after a certain time steam is turned off and the brakes put on. [S. resistance to motion being 10 lb.EXAMPLES 45 14. weight per ton. 1915] . steam being shut off. distant half a mile. Find the time between the stations. the wheel-base being I ft. The train starts from rest.

v). including load. weight where s p 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 644 634 622 607 587 565 537 509 475 440 404 Find. shew that the distance travelled in these t seconds is v'2tl(2v' . weight. 1914] . the velocity after the car has travelled 100 feet. if the car weigh 8 tons. When it has travelled S feet the force exerted by the engine is P lb. If the engine starts down the same incline with velocity v' and moves for t seconds with a constant acceleration until it reaches its steady velocity down the plane corresponding to the same horse-power. Also. starts from rest. When moving up a plane inclined at a small angle to the horizontal its steady velocity under the same horse-power is v'. 1926] Variable Acceleration 23. 1910] 24. the resistance to the motion is equal to 50 lb. the greatest tension which the rope can safely bear is n W. are given in the following table : Time in seconds Velocity in miles per hour 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 8-1 11-8 14-6 16-3 17-7 19 Calculate the distance in yards travelled in the above time. A load W is to be raised by a rope. from rest to rest. Find the maximum steady rate at which the lorry can move up the slope. A tramcar starts from rest and its velocities at intervals of 5 sees. through a height h. T. [S. KINETICS [IV 20. [S. 1923] 22.46 RECTILINEAR MOTION. The frictional resistance is equivalent to 13 lb. moves up a hill with a slope of 1 in 20. H. [S. An engine moves at a steady velocity v along level ground when working at a constant horse-power H. Assume that the frictional resistance is constant throughout. ( 2nh ) i Shew that the least time in which the ascent can be done is \TT— \ . estimate the effective pull exerted on the car at the end of 20 seconds. and the acceleration capable of being developed when it is moving at 6 miles per hour. approximately. A 20 horse-power motor lorry. weighing 5 tons. and may be supposed independent of the velocity. [S. 1926] 21. weight per ton. [M. A car whose mass is 2000 lb.

A locomotive of mass m tons starts from rest and moves against a constant resistance of P pounds weight. and its velocity after time t is given for various values of t by a smooth curve passing through the points denned by the following table : Time in seconds Velocity in feet per second 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 10-0 9-0 8-2 7-4 6-7 60 5-4 Derive the curve connecting the retardation with the distance travelled.. [S. approximately.s. for which the retarding force at V miles an hour when the brakes are acting may be expressed as (1000 + 008F 2 ) pounds weight per ton of car. find an expression for the distance described when the power P is shut off and the velocity [S. 38"9 miles an hour respectively. 1924] 28. 1925] decreases from v0 to v1. the total weight of machine and rider being 400 lb. 26-4. as it passes five posts placed 50 yards apart on a level track. 1927] . If the resistance R=a + bv2. against a resistance of R lb.p.s.] [S. where v is expressed in miles an hour. A body of mass 1 lb. The acceleration of a tramcar starting from rest decreases by an amount proportional to the increase of speed. moving at v feet per second on the level is pulled with a force of P lb. 33-3.l. 1915] 26. [S. from rest. A train of weight if lb. can be stopped in approximately 57 yards from a speed of 50 miles an hour. from 1*5 f. at starting to 0 5 f.p. the distance in feet described by the train is— I 9 J vo " — ti „—^. The speed of a motor cycle is observed.EXAMPLES 25.s. 1921] 27. [S. The driving force decreases uniformly from 2 P pounds weight at such a rate that at the end of a seconds it is equal to P. 37 . [S. Find the time taken to reach 5 m. is projected on a rough plane surface with a velocity of 10 feet per second. and by determining the area of this curve verify that the energy lost during the 30 seconds is 1"1 ft. 30. Assuming the resistance in pounds weight due to mechanical and air friction to be 6+0O2i>2.s.h. to be 14'0. Shew that in accelerating from v0 to vx feet per second. 1925] 29. Find the velocity and the rate of working after t seconds (t < a) and shew that the maximum rate of working is 1-54 x 10~6 aPtjm horse-power. [log.-lb. 10 = 2-30.h. calculate the horse-power actually developed by the engine when the speed is 35 miles an hour. Shew that a motor-car. when the speed is 5 m.

the time of descent is still independent of /3. The resistance to an aeroplane when landing is a+bv2 per unit mass. 0A subtends angle a at the centre. a. in about 500 yards. KINETICS [IV •31. and the resistance of the air produces a retardation hv2. (a+/3<^?r. For an exactly similar bullet of the same material (diameter 0'5") shew that the velocity will drop from 2000 f. 1923] trajectory horizontal. OAB is a vertical circle of radius a.s. and this pull decreases uniformly with the time until at the end of 10 sees. Shew that the velocity V with which the particle will return to the point of projection is given by [S. where v is the velocity.1925] 1L = ± + ^. 35. [loge 10 = 2-30.) Shew that the time taken for a particle to slide down the chord AB from rest at A is 2 x/(a cos ajg). [S.48 RECTILINEAK MOTION. [S. &=10~3 ft.he speed attains a certain value u. A particle is projected vertically upwards with velocity V. Shew by means of a curve the variation in the velocity and find the distance run during this period of 10 sees. the pull exerted by a horse is initially 200 lb. AB subtends angle 2/3.-lb. b constants. and for a particular bullet (diameter 0-3") is 40 times the weight at 2000 f. Calculate the value of the constant a. it has fallen to 40 lb. to 1500 f. Shew that if the motion is also subject to a resistance proportional to the velocity. 1927] 34. assuming the [S.s. is found to run at 30 miles per hour up an incline of 1 in 20 and at 50 miles per hour down the same incline. Shew that the horse-power is a maximun\at the end of 5 sees.-sec..] 32.s. and after 1. A motor-bicycle which with its rider weighs 3 cwt. Assuming that the resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity and that the engine is working at the same horse-power. 0 is its highest point. 1924] 33.. [S. In starting a train the pull of the engine on the rails is at first constant. 1913] 37. [M. and find its maximum value. v being the velocity. T. Prove that when the engine . find the speed that would be attained on the level. units and it is found that if the landing speed is 50 miles per hour the length of run of the machine before coming to rest is 150 yards. 1926] 36. For a particular machine. The resistance of the air to bullets of given shape varies as the square of the velocity and the square of the diameter. the engine works at a constant rate R=*Pu. In starting a tram of mass 3200 lb. when the angle of friction is also o. and shew that the horse-power is 2^ nearly. an amount just sufficient to overcome the frictional resistance of the tram. and equal to P.

Steam is shut off when the speed is 30 miles per hour and the train slows down under the given resistance. A train of mass 300 tons is originally at rest on a level track. T. T. when the total mass is 300 tons. find the acceleration when the speed is 15 knots. If the resistance is proportional to the square of the speed. It works at constant horse-power until its speed is 60 miles per hour. given loge7 = r946.EXAMPLES 49 has attained a speed v greater than u. [M. independent of the speed of the train. Calculate the time occupied in attaining a speed of 45 miles an hour. in such a way that F=0 when t=0. whilst the horse-power required at this instant is about 13. 1916] 39.000 tons displacement at a steady speed of 20 knots is 15. It is acted on by a horizontal force F which uniformly increases with the time. the time t and the distance x from the start are given by where M is the mass of the engine and train together. [M. In what time will the speed fall to 20 miles per hour 1 [M. one knot = 100 ft. T. 1920] . the train being on the level. Sketch a curve shewing how the horse-power per ton. F=b when i = 15 .000. F being measured in tons weight. T. per min. and shew that at i=15 the speed of the train is 0-64 foot per second. t in seconds. necessary to overcome the resistance. 1919] 41. Shew that it reaches the speed of 45 miles per hour from the speed of 15 miles per hour in a distance of approximately 5080 feet. The resistance to the motion of a train for speeds between 20 and 30 miles per hour. increases with the speed as the speed rises from 20 to 30 miles per hour. may be taken as -j^V2 + 9 in pounds weight per ton. and the engines exert a constant propeller thrust at all speeds. Find the instant of starting. 1918] 40. Shew that the time taken from rest to acquire a speed of 15 knots is about l£ minutes. 1914] 38. A locomotive drawing a total weight of 264 tons on the level is exerting a tractive force of 20. the engine has 420 horse-power and can exert a pull equal to 12 tons weight. [M. When in motion the train may be assumed to be acted on by a frictional force of 3 tons. which may be taken to vary as the square of the velocity. [M. when it is just able to overcome the resistance to motion. The horse-power required to propel a steamer of 10.000 pounds weight at the speed of 15 miles per hour. T. where V is the velocity in miles per hour.

50 RECTILINEAR MOTION. A uniform chain 30 centimetres long. assuming that when the rider is propelling the bicycle 10 per cent. T. Find P. 1926] 45. T. is about 537 feet. T. the distance in feet described by the train is W f^ VdV If TF=300 tons. negligible. KINETICS [IV 42. The mass of the bicycle and rider is 200 lb. find the velocity of the chain and its tension at the edge of the table when x centimetres have slipped off. When there is no wind. with the power shut off. per sec. The portion hanging over the edge is just sufficient to cause the chain to begin to slip. ii = 2160 + 15F 2 . a constant force and a force varying as the square of the speed. [log. The total mass of man and cycle is 180 lb. [M. 10 = 2-303. 1924] 44. T. moving at V feet per second on the level is pulled with a force of F lb. and that on a slope of 1 in 25 it becomes constant at 20 feet per second. and shew that the speed of the cyclist when riding on level ground against a wind of 22 feet per second is between 10 and 10'5 feet per second. and at 11 feet per second up a hill making an angle s i n " 1 ^ with the horizon. [M. The resistance of the air is hi2 lb. against a train resistance of R lb.] [M. Shew that in accelerating from Vo to V1 ft. Find the power expended by the rider in maintaining a steady speed of 15 feet per second on the level. A rider observes that his speed when freewheeling down a hill of slope 1 in 50 is sensibly constant when it reaches 10 feet per second.. the other frictional forces are. lies partly in a straight line along a rough horizontal table perpendicular to the edge. [M. when the velocity of the man relative to the air is v feet per second . A cyclist works at the constant rate of P horse-power. 1921] 43. A train of weight W lb. he can ride at 22 feet per second on level ground. The external resistance to the motion of a bicycle and rider may be supposed to consist of two parts. shew that the distance described in slowing down on the level from 45 to 30 miles per hour. The coefficient of friction with the table being \. 1919] . weight. having a mass of 1 gramme per centimetre. of the work he does is lost in internal friction in the pedalling gear.

41. 17 lb.P..s. 42fJ. ^ j f.s. 12. 53 lb. 43f l\l 27. 38. 3-4. ^ v"5To=58-6 f. 23.s. 2-25f. 17. 21-35 sees. 16. per ton. 21 sees. f. 5 3 J f t . wt. 24 T 6 ^ m. (flr = 32. PH (2 . 4-1 . 36. l o g Y l + ^ W g .s.. 9. wt. P (t-P/2a)/70m f. 8. 37.P. 49 (20 — x) (10+. lb. 239 f. 30.s. « = 9. {Zgh (sin a-/i cos a)}*.s. per sec. ^ . 10 mins. 51 5.t/ay/UOm ft.h.J?) gms.s. 55Jfir/224iJ f. 19.s. a = 3-68. per sec. 29. 10.s. 6..s. 11984 lb. per ton . 32. 736-ft H. P=-2. per sec. 97"13 sees. 93'5 ft. 2546 lb.. 40 f. .. wt. 191 yds. 531 ft.p. 7. 28. 2.ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES ANSWERS. 3 = 8-06 sees. 458J lb. 15.h.s. 26...s. ^880 f. 33. 44. lb. 180f§.. 21. ^ log. 3 mins. wt. 12 m.s. 11. $$ f.) 1.s. 39.. 45.. wt. wt. 1x cm. 43.s..l o g ^ j ^ . sees. 24.p. 36§ H. l £ J .

By are the resolved parts of the vector PQ. (x + Bx. and let P. The velocity of a point is defined to be a vector drawn through the point and such that its resolved part in any direction is the rate of displacement of the point in that direction. confining our considerations in this chapter to Kinematics or the geometry of the motion apart from the forces that cause it.y + By) be the y o X coordinate of P.or T7 or x ot at and . Q be its positions at times t. We now proceed to consider the motion in one plane of a particle and of a rigid body. Let the point be moving along a curve APQ..Chapter V KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 5*1. so that the resultant velocity as defined above is l i m ^ . Bx dx lim -=. y). . and let (x. We require general definitions of velocity and acceleration applicable to curved paths. Q referred to rectangular axes. hm -£ or -£ or y. Then the resolved parts of the velocity parallel to the axes are . t + Bt.. By dy Again 8a?.

.. if V denotes the resultant velocity and i|r its inclination to the axis of x. st-*o ot at It does not follow however that the resultant acceleration is directed along the tangent to the path of the point. Then ab represents the change of velocity in time Bt. . we have. (See 4*161. that the velocity / V parallel to & r. and let Bifr denote the angle between the tangents at P.51-5-11] ACCELERATION 53 But if s denotes the arc AP measured from a fixed point A on the curve and s+ Bs denotes the arc A Q. Bv dv hm ^i =-r =v=y..) Thus if we use rectangular axes and u. Q.. Further.. v denote the resolved parts of the velocity parallel to the axes at time t. as a verification. v + Bv denote the resolved parts at time t + Bt.-=.= -=• orx. From any point 0 draw vectors Oa. The acceleration of a point is a vector drawn through the point and such that its resolved part in any direction is the rate of change of velocity in that direction. we know that . . st^. Ob to represent V and V+BV. Q of the path. Let V. chd PQ hm —K—^ = 1. Bu u-^. and u + Bu. . dsdx dx ux= TVcosvr = -=. where PQ is the small arc described in time Bt.o os bt at and its direction is along the tangent at P. OS so that the resultant velocity is .V+BV denote the velocities at the points P. chd PQ Bs ds hm —j—-5 . T at ds dt and the velocity parallel to x 5"il. then the resolved parts of the acceleration are .0 ot du at and .T = — or s.

.. has components -— 5 = lim -=— == --5j £ o ot ot at at and or V in the direction of the tangent to the path - . Hence we have equivalent representations of velocity as shewn in the diagrams. along the inward normal to the path. J ds at ds 5-12. Then ab = mb + am. a Therefore the acceleration.54 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [V Draw am at right angles to Oa meeting Ob in m. in. y y y v=s X o X .= li = lim hs V* where p is the radius of curvature of the path. am Inn -«r.e.1 . We note that the tangential component of acceleration dV/dt may be written -^--j-or V . i. being lim ^.both as regards 8«-*o or magnitude and direction. and the direction of this component is that of am.

either geometrically in the form of vectors. y). Hence R'S is the velocity of Q relative to P. Let two points P. and by differentiation we find the relative velocity components £= x —x and V ~y' ~ V- In other words the velocity of Q relative to P is to be found by subtracting the velocity of P from that of Q. bending of the path involves a normal component of acceleration. y) are the coordinates of P. 52. Similarly SB. Then QR' is a vector representing a velocity equal in magnitude and direction to that p Q of P. or algebraically by subtracting corresponding components. . Q move in the same plane with velocities repreR sented by the vectors PR. Q referred to any frame of axes in a plane. (oc. Thus it (x. Relative Velocity. in fact. we may call £ = x — x and v = y' ~y the coordinates of Q relative to P. We may also represent the same thing analytically.' is the velocity of P relative to Q. ^ Complete the parallelogram PQR'R. therefore R'S represents a velocity which when compounded with the velocity of P gives the velocity of Q. QS.5-11-5-2] RELATIVE VELOCITY 55 Also equivalent representations of acceleration as shewn in the diagrams V X X and we note that we do not represent acceleration by a single symbol unless the path is a straight one . But QS = QR' + R/S.

. Again. where 6 is the angular distance from the vertex. We may also write this result rO = Fsin <f>. Shew that at any instant its angular velocity about a point on the circumference is half its angular velocity about the centre. and therefore Vp is twice the rate at which the radius vector OP sweeps out area. E x a m p l e s . If a point P is moving in a plane the angular velocity of P about a fixed point 0 in the plane is the rate of increase of the angle that the line OP makes with a fixed direction in the plane. Thus if a point P be moving in any direction with velocity V. But if OP = r and the tangent to the path makes an angle cj> with OP we have therefore or dO rdO/ds = sin tf>. ds sin <fr _ F s i n <£ dt~dtr r angular velocity = (component velocity at right angles to OP)/OP. a sectorial element of area of a plane curve is represented by %r2&0. or multiplying by r we get r26 = Vp. Angular Velocity. where p is the perpendicular distance of the tangent from the origin. (i) A point is moving in a circle. That is r2 6 = moment of the velocity about the origin. Shew that the angular velocity about the focus varies as cos 3 i#.56 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 53.P (ii) A point moves in a parabola with constant velocity. so that \r2Q is the rate of increase of a sectorial area as P moves along the curve. and OP makes an angle 0 with a fixed direction Ox. 5*31. the angular velocity of P about 0 = ddjdt. This follows from the fact that in the diagram the angle POC=\PCx so that -rXPOC) = \ y ^S.

Motion in a Circle. Then the velocity Also the acceleration components are s or rd along the tangent and V2jr or r62 towards the centre. then there is of course no acceleration along the tangent. then the line PQ is moving parallel to itself. then either point in general possesses an angular velocity relative to the other. but therefore 8 x cos 3 ^0. 532. and £ therefore the angular velocity of Q relative to P is (v sin<f> — u sin 6)/PQ.j . o2=ar. which may be represented thus : Let the directions of the velocities u. If the motion be uniform. v make angles 6. centre 0. .5-3-5S3] ANGULAR VELOCITY 57 We have 6 =~ but in the parabola with the focus as origin ~.u sin 6. v. Let s be the arc APmeasured from a point A on O». Q are moving in a plane with velocities u. 5'33. V constant.e. At time t let Vbe the velocity of a point P moving in a circle of v radius r. £ The component velocity of Q relative to P at right angles to PQ is v sin < . so that 6 oc . but there is in every case the acceleration V2/r or rB2 towards the centre. < with the line PQ. If two points P. i. Relative Angular Velocity. Let 0 be the > angle that OP makes with a fixed direction Ox. Whenever v sin 0 = u sin 6.

b sin {6 + OPQ)=0. a. For if one point A of the body is fixed the only possible motion is a . therefore cos 6=aibi'/(a. E x a m p l e .' The position found above is that in which the clockwise rotation of PQ ceases and a counter-clockwise rotation is just about to begin. or (a . the velocities resolved at right angles to PQ must be equal. Let P0Q = 6. therefore when the planet Q is on the line OP. the join PQ must be turning in a clockwise sense. If P. Two points describe concentric circles with velocities varying inversely as the square roots of the radii of the circles. Q as representing the earth and an inferior planet describing circular orbits round the sun 0 in the same plane. 6 the radii. Q in their orbits at which the planet Q would appear to be 'stationary' as seen from the earth . Let 0 be the centre of the circles. This problem has a practical application. after passing which the motion again becomes retrograde. where Q'OP=d. Q are positions of the points when the relative angular velocity vanishes.b sin 6 cos OPQ=0. to find positions in which the relative angular velocity vanishes. 54. therefore a sin OPQ . we have found the relative positions of P. or a~ * cos OPQ-b~ I coa (6+OPQ)=0. v the velocities.b sin OQP=O. since in this position there is no relative angular velocity. this being another 'stationary' position. Eliminating the angle OPQ we get (a~* . By a rigid body we understand a body in which the distance between any two particles remains invariable.b ~i cos 6){a-b cos 6) + 5* sin2tf = 0. The visible motion of the planet then becomes 'direct. Since v>u. Displacement of a Plane Rigid Body in its Plane. Therefore u cos OPQ + v cos OQP=O. the motion of the planet among the stars as seen from the earth is then described as 'retrograde.' and continues to be direct until the relative position is such a position as Q'P in the diagram.a*5* + 6).6 cos 6) sin OPQ . and u. The position in its plane of a plane rigid body is therefore determined when the positions of any two points A. or (a~i-b'i cos 0) cos OPQ But a sin OPQ .58 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 5*34. B of the body are known. If we regard the points P.

. If the displacement be a pure translation A A' and BB' are parallel and the point I is at an infinite distance. B of the body and drawing normals to the paths of A and B through their instantaneous positions. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AA\ BB' meeting in /.O . Then I A = IA'. the direction of motion of P must be . IB = IF and AB = A'B'. BB' that take place in time St are chords of small elements of these paths. BB'. It follows that if P be the position of any other point of the body at the same instant. B'.0. will. and if a second point B is fixed no motion is possible. Let A. Let a plane body be moving in any manner in its plane. as 8t—*. Hence it follows that at any instant the body is turning about an instantaneous centre of rotation I. which is found by taking any two points A. 541. obtained as the inter/ "^^ J& section of the perpendicular bisectors of AA'.tend to coincidence with the intersection of the normals to the paths at A and B. B be any two points of the body which become displaced to A'. B of the body have definite paths of motion and the displacements A A'. Therefore the triangles IAB. I may be called the centre of rotation for this displacement. We shall now shew that any displacement of such a body in its plane consists in a rotation about a point in the plane.and consider the displacement that takes place in a short interval of time St. IA'B' are A identically equal and the second is obtained from the first by a rotation about / through an angle AIA' or BIB'. Any two points A. Instantaneous Centre of Rotation. and the point I.34-5-41] INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE 59 rotation about A.

Let P. And this example illustrates the general theorem that the motion of the lamina can be produced by the rolling of one pole curve on the other. and. Q. Another proof of this theorem will be given in 5'51. . therefore this perpendicular bisector ultimately passes through A which is therefore the instantaneous centre of rotation. The instantaneous centre of rotation is the point / found by drawing AI. Let 0 be the centre. BI perpendicular to Ox. R. These loci are called the'polecurves. if S0 be the angle turned through by the body in time St. R. SO. the displacement of P in time Bt is IP. •we can give an explanation that may satisfy the reader as to the truth of the theorem. of a circular lamina rolling along a straight line. When a lamina is in motion in its plane there is a locus of the instantaneous centre of rotation in the lamina and also a locus in the fixed plane. But ^4P' = arc AP. Prove that the instantaneous centre of rotation is the point of contact. Examples. If by rolling through a small angle hd the point P on the circle is brought into coincidence with P' on the straight line. Oy in the same plane. and the locus in space is the fixed straight line. Oy respectively. Pole Curves. (ii) A circular lamina rolls along a /O X straight line.60 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS at right angles to IP. and A the point of contact. 543. therefore the instantaneous centre is on OA. Thus in the last example. and therefore as dd-*-0 the ratio AP'jchAAP-*-l. (i) The ends of a rod AB are constrained to move along two given lines Ox. and it is also on the limiting position as 88-*-O of the perpendicular bisector of PP'. Without attempting a rigorous demonstration of this theorem. Now since the path of 0 is parallel to the given line. then PP' is of order (8<9)2. 5'42. Consider the results of making infinitesimal displacements of the body about the points Q. the locus of the instantaneous centre in the lamina is the circular boundary. T be a succession of points on the locus of the instantaneous centre in space. S.

AC always pass through two fixed points P. Hence the instantaneous centre / is on the perpendicular to AB through P.e. P by the rolling of one polygon on the other. Q. R.5-41-5-44] POLE CURVES 61 S. the third displaces 8RQXP2 to SR^Ps. E x a m p l e . Q3. therefore B C the pole curve fixed in the piano is a circle PIQ. Hence by regarding the pole curves as the limits of polygons the motions of the body can be produced by rolling the pole curve fixed on the lamina on the pole curve fixed in space. The first of these displaces QP to QPlt the second displaces i^QPi to RQxP^. Q are fixed points. A triangular lamina ABC moves in its plane so that the sides AB. and in like manner on the perpendicular to AC through Q. i. they are points on the locus on the lamina of the instantaneous centre and they can in turn be brought back into coincidence with the point S. Hence the pole curve on the lamina is a circle of centre A and radius PQ cosec A. Tin succession. . 5'44. Therefore the angle PIQ is the supplement of A and a constant angle. Again AT is a diameter of this circle and is a fixed length (in fact PQ cosec A). for if it had any component of displacement at right angles to AB the side AB would no longer pass through the point P fixed in the plane.e. and the fourth displaces TSR^Ps to 2 ^ J?2Q3P4. i. and the motion of the triangle could be produced by rolling the larger circle on the smaller. Q. twice the size of the former circle . The point P on the lamina can only move along AB. Now Slt R2. and P. Find the pole curves. Pi are a series of positions on the lamina of the instantaneous centre of rotation.

62 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [V 55. it is immaterial upon what line fixed in the body we concentrate our attention. such as its centre. Also if any other line CD fixed in the body makes an angle 6 + a with Ox at the same instant. we therefore propose to illustrate the latter by considering a simple problem from more than one standpoint. for such a motion would not alter the direction of any line fixed in the body. For example. 5"51. meaning thereby the rate of increase of the angle between any line AB fixed in the body and any line Ox fixed in the plane of motion : i. Take the given line as axis of x. when we say that a wheel has an angular velocity a> in its plane this statement is independent of whether the wheel is turning about a fixed point. It is important that the reader should appreciate the difference between the angular velocity of one point about another as defined in 53 and the angular velocity of a body as defined in the last article. or rolling along in contact with a fixed line. to find the velocity and acceleration of any point on the circumference. A circle rolls along in contact with a straight line. A the point on the circumference whose velocity and acceleration are re- y . When a plane body is moving in its plane we may speak of the 'angular velocity of the body' without specifying any particular line or point of reference. Further. so that 0 is also the rate of increase of the angle between CD and Ox. or possessing any other translational motion. then a is the constant angle between AB and CD and unaltered by the motion. Let C be the centre of the circle.e. P the point of contact with Ox at time t. Angular Velocity of a Body. a> being the rate of increase of the angle between any line fixed in the plane of the wheel and a line fixed in the plane of motion. the angular velocity of the body is independent of any motion of translation of the body as a whole. a the radius. if at time t the angle between AB and Ox be 8. Consequently in measuring the angular velocity of the body. then 6 is the angular velocity of the body.

cos 6) + a82 sin 6. 5'52.5 . and y — ad sin 8 + a82 cos 8. For convenience take the origin 0 so that OP=axc AP. As a special case we may put 6=0. In the same case the acceleration components are x = 0. Thus. 0 is a position of the point A in the rolling motion.5-5-52] ANGULAR VELOCITY OF A BODY 63 quired. . We may also obtain the foregoing expressions for velocity and acceleration by compounding the velocity and acceleration relative to the centre of the circle with the velocity and acceleration of the centre. and the components of acceleration are x = a'6{\ . i. Taking an axis Oy at right angles to Ox. Every point on the circumference has a velocity aa> relative to the centre. y = a82.e. therefore V=ai>. shewing that the point of contact of the rolling circle has an acceleration a82 towards the centre. and the acceleration of C is V parallel to Ox. then we find that shewing that the point of contact of the rolling circle has no velocity. then 8 is the angular velocity of the circle. and where a=8. But assuming 'rolling' to mean that P is the instantaneous centre of rotation it follows that P has no velocity and therefore V=aa. Again for accelerations we have that the accelerations of A relative to Care ai> along the tangent and aa>2 along AC (5*32).AC cos 8 = a { \ . so that the total velocity of the point P on the circle is V— aa>. as proved previously in 5*32. and y = a8 sin 8.e. so that A is the point of contact of the circle and the line.) Hence the components of velocity are x = a8 (I —cos 8). y be the coordinates of A. giving as before components aa>(l —cos 8) parallel to Ox. it is the instantaneous centre of rotation as proved previously in 5*42. am sin 8 parallel to Oy. then y = CP . The velocity of a point A on the circumference is therefore compounded of aa> along the tangent relative to the centre and V or aa> parallel to Ox. let the circle be rolling with angular velocity a> and let V be the velocity of its centre G. Let 6 be the angle ACP. i. let x. But V=aa>.

e. therefore p = 2l'G. Now if p is the radius of curvature of the cycloid the normal component of the acceleration of P is v^jp. i. because it would involve compounding accelerations of A relative to P with accelerations of P. E x a m p l e s . T. Hence v*/p = co2 PC cos CPG = |o>2 PG. 5*53. as before. But the acceleration of P may also be represented by its acceleration relative to C. a?PC (5*32) compounded with the acceleration of C. The point A is moving at right angles to AP with velocity a>AP. this gives components 2am sin2 \8 or aa> (1 — cos 8) parallel to Ox. [M. and since AP=%asin\6. We may also obtain the velocity components of the point A by considering the motion relative to the instantaneous centre of rotation P.KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS Hence the accelerations of the point A are compounded of ai> along the tangent. as before. as in 5*52. aa>2 along 4 C a n d ai> parallel to Ox. 1908] A cycloid is the curve traced out by any point on the circumference of a circle which rolls along a straight line. and 2a<»sin^#cos£# or aa> sin 8 parallel to Oy. where < is the angular velocity of a the circle. and the latter accelerations would have to be found by compounding accelerations of P relative to C with the acceleration of C. Let C be the centre of the circle. 5*54. But the finding of the accelerations of the point A by reference to the instantaneous centre would be more cumbersome than the process of 5*52. G the point of contact with the line. . Then since G is the instantaneous centre of rotation the point P is moving at right angles to PG with velocity v=aP0. by considering a point on the circumference of a circle rolling uniformly along a straight line. But v = aPG. and P the point that is tracing the cycloid. that the radius of curvature of a cycloid at any point is twice the length of the line joining that point to the point of contact of the generating circle with the base. (i) Prove. and these are equivalent to components a i (1 — cos 8) + aa>2 sin 8 parallel to Ox. and ad> sin 8 + aw2 cos 8t parallel to Oy. Therefore the resultant acceleration of P is a?PC along PC. But G has no acceleration because the motion is uniform.

Let P be the point of contact at time t. Find the time taken (1) for the point of contact to make a complete circuit of A. i. b (a' — a)t 6= 5-^ And the time taken for P to make a circuit of the circle A is 2n/6 = 2ir (a + b)/b (a . in time t they turn through angles at. Determine the accelerations of the common point of the two circles and the greatest acceleration of a point on the circle B. Since AM. Also the acceleration of any point on the circle B is compounded of its acceleration relative to the centre B. so that if PAM=6 then the angle PBN=aQ\b.e. Thereforeif BNmeetsAx in if. PM are equal.5'52-5'54] ANGULAR VELOCITY OF A BODY 65 (ii) A circle A of radius a turns round its centre with uniform angular velocity o). > Hence the time required =2n/(6 + a) For the accelerations we have that the acceleration of the point P on the circle A I' d \2 = a ijPAx) along PA by 5*32 and the acceleration of the point P on the circle B = accel. Suppose that at time t = 0 the points M. (2) for the centre of B to return to a former position. a+6 a+b . BN are lines fixed in relation to the circles.6<»'2 + (aa + ba'fl(a + 6). Again the time taken for the point B to describe a circle round A depends on the angular velocity of the line AB. at. SC Again the arcs PN. relative to centre .co). i. which=$ + &. the angle BKx^a't while MA x=at.B+accel. A circle B of radius b rolls on the circle A and its uniform angular velocity is a'. W 2 along the radius towards B. N on the circles are in contact and on the fixed line Ax through the centre A of the circle A. of B = -ba'* + (a+b)(6+a)2 along BP = . and the acceleration of B.e. so that the greatest acceleration will be when these components coincide in direction. Therefore a>'t = b(a' — a) .

and the time required. An aeroplane has a speed of v miles per hour.ft = 200 miles. If two particles describe the same circle of radius a. [S. 1924] 3. T. The velocity of a stream between parallel banks at distance 2a apart is zero at the edges and increases uniformly to the middle where it is u. If . A boat is rowed with constant velocity v{>u) relative to the water. B and C. If a point moves so that its angular velocity about two fixed points is the same prove that it describes a circle. determine the direction in which the aeroplane must move. by compass through a tide running 5 knots finds that after 2 hours it has made 4 nautical miles S. 2. Find the angular velocity of P about A. in the same direction with the same speed u. [M.w2)/v (v2 . AB is a diameter of the circle and AP=r. What is the angular acceleration of P about the same points? [S. A ship sailing N.E. find the direction in which its range is a maximum. [S. 1921] 4.W. and a range of action (out and home) of R miles in calm weather. and goes in a line straight across. Prove that provided the velocity of the wind remains fixed in direction and magnitude. all points attainable by an aeroplane in a given time lie on a circle whose radius is independent of the wind. 1903] 6. u = 80 miles per hour and w=30 miles per hour. and the value of the maximum range. If at the end of an hour the wind drops to 5 miles per hour. 1910] 7. How are the bows pointed at any point of the path and how long will it take to get across 1 [S. 1921] 5. of A. [S.66 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [V EXAMPLES 1.w2 sin 2 0)* in a direction whose true bearing is <$>. An aeroplane which travels at the rate of 80 miles per hour in still air starts from A to go to B which is 200 miles distant N. determine the position relatively to B of the aeroplane at the time when it should have arrived at B. A particle P is moving in a circle of radius a centre O with uniform speed u. 1909] . Determine the direction of the current and the speed of the ship. Prove that in a north wind of w miles per hour its range of action is R (v2 .W. shew that at any instant their relative angular velocity is u/a. If there is a wind blowing from the North at 20 miles per hour.

Q. Q are always collinear. Find the velocity of any point of the smaller ring in any position. while the other end Q moves on a fixed line through 0 in the plane of the circle. P.. If P is any point on the circumference of a circle. Q.1912 J 5-2 . Prove that the angular velocity of the line joining them when its length is r is 11. The end P of a straight rod PQ describes with uniform angular velocity a circle whose centre is 0. Prove that the angular velocity of P about 8 varies inversely as its angular velocity about H. until the point P is again on the line XX and Q is consequently again on the line YY.Exam. 1918] 10. Tangents XPX. Prove that the velocities of Q and Q' are in the ratio QO : OQ1. if aa> = b&. B are in directions which make angles o and /3 respectively with AB. 1924] 14. B is of constant length a and the velocities of A. and centre C. 1921] 13. The line joining two points A. The end Q' of an equal straight rod PQ1 moves on the same fixed line through 0. Indicate the position of this point for a general position of the rings. [S. The velocity at any point of the path varies as the square of the diameter conjugate to CP. so that C. Two points are describing concentric circles of radii a and a' with angular velocities a and a> respectively. Prove that the angular velocity of AB is •——. The distance between the two positions of P is equal to the circumference of the circle A. 1911] 9. C is the centre of two concentric circles A. [S. B. A circular ring of radius 6 turns round a fixed point 0 in its circumference with uniform angular velocity Q. A smaller ring of radius a rolls on the inside of the larger ring with uniform angular velocity a>. centre C. 1925] 12. where u * acos/3 is the velocity of A. the angular velocities being in the same sense. [S.EXAMPLES 67 8. A particle Pmoves in an ellipse whose foci are /Sand H. then in every position of the smaller ring one point on it is at rest. [S. and a line CPQ meets the circles in P. The circle A rolls along the line XX carrying the circle B with it. which rolls with angular velocity < on a fixed circle of centre 0 and radius a. Also shew that. [S. Investigate the fallacy in the assertion that the distance between the two corresponding positions of Q is equal to the circumference of the circle B. YQY are drawn to the circles at P. » prove that the angular velocity of P about 0 is a ~m>ooscop- tCo11.

where T is the point of intersection of PQ. IAB are directly similar and that their corresponding sides are perpendicular. Shew that if PQ is fixed the angular velocities of QR. and that. E. of B. At inclination cos" 1 (uxjav) to the bank. prove that as the rods move through this position Oq and Or [S. of P rel. 7. 1915] represent on the same scale the velocities of Q and R. Shew that the loci of the instantaneous centre in space and relative to the rod are both parabolas. Prove that the motion of a rigid lamina moving in its own plane is at any instant (in general) equivalent to a rotation about a certain point / . 12. of N. and if Oa and Ob represent the velocities of A and B at any instant. or W.. prove that Oc represents the velocity of C at the same instant. ANSWERS 1. the vel.68 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [v 15. A rod moves so that it touches the circle and one end is upon the tangent. u/2a. N. and of B is 6Q. B. [S. If A and B are points on a rod which is moving in any way in a plane. 1917] 18. Ob find a geometrical construction for the vector Oc which represents the velocity of a third point C. PS are in the ratio PT : QT. so is abc. 1925] 16. 34° 49' E. of A rel. 31-44m. A circle and a tangent to it are given. to A is aa>. 22-2 hours. A are the centres of the larger and smaller rings and P any point on the latter. QR. if the vectors Oa. prove that ab is perpendicular to AB. qr. Given Oa. if ABC is a straight line. 3. QR. [S. What is the exceptional case 1 Prove that. to B is bQ — aa>. rO perpendicular to PQ. The point required is the end nearer to 0 of the diameter of the smaller circle parallel to OB. [S. Shew in particular that AC : CB = ac : cb. 185'4m. 2. If B. and with the ends P and S jointed tofixedsupports.u/a. the triangles Oab. PQ. prove that the resultant acceleration of the particle varies as the square of the radius of curvature. If a triangle Oqr is drawn with Oq...0. . 1923] 19. RS are three rods in a plane jointed together at Q and R. ul2a. [S. Four rods are freely jointed together so as to form a quadrilateral PQRS. where x is distance from the nearer bank. 4. 1925] 17. Shew that if two given points of a lamina describe coplanar straight lines. Ob represent the velocities of two points A. RS.in such a way that the Qj tangent to the curve rotates uniformly . 3h. If C is any other point on the rod and if c divides ab in the same ratio as that in which C divides AB. 5f m. any point on a certain circle fixed in the lamina will also describe a straight line. RS respectively for any position of the rods. A particle moves in the curve y=a log sec . — s i n " 1 .

In a large class of problems in dynamics of a particle the force components X and T are given. and the solution of the problem consists in integrating these equations in order to determine the path of the particle. Oy the horizontal and upward vertical lines 1 ~x through the point of projection 0. Take for axes Ox. we have the equations m'x = X and my = F. ~7Q ' ' and let the particle be projected with velocity V in a direction making an angle a with the horizontal. and X. x = 0 and y = —g. We have Therefore X = 0 and Y= — mg. if m be the mass of the particle. and the rest of Chapter iv consists for the most part of examples of this equivalence in the case of rectilinear motion. the equivalence implying that the resolved parts of the two vectors in any assigned direction are equal. y its coordinates. 6'2. and the product' mass x acceleration '. Consider the case of a particle of mass m freely projected under the action of gravity in a non-resisting medium.Chapter VI DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 6'1. the ' force' acting on a particle. . Y the sums of the resolved parts parallel to rectangular axes of all the forces acting upon the particle. Motion of Projectiles. In the present Chapter we shall consider examples of this equivalence when a particle is free to move under the action of forces in one plane. In the early part of Chapter IV we interpreted Newton's law that rate of change of momentum is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction in which the force is impressed as implying the equivalence of two vectors. Consequently. x.

F 2 sin 2 a F 2 cos 2 a F2 + 2g 2g °* 2g' Again we can shew that the velocity at any point of the path is. Fsin o.osa and y = Vt sin a-%gt2 (1). the vertex / F2 F 2 sin2 a\ the point I—sin a cos a. namely Fcos a. i. and we get x=V cos a and y = V sin a — gt therefore x=Vtc. \2 2F 22cos 22a/ 2K cos a/ F 2 sin 2 a\ [x sin a cos a = y• V g ) g V it is seen that the latus rectum is 2 F a cos2 a/g. The time of flight before the projectile again reaches the horizontal plane through the point of projection is got by putting y = 0 in (1). the velocity that would be acquired in falling freely from the directrix. Eliminate t and we obtain the equation of the path of the particle 1 ox2 y = x tan a — „ ^ sec2 a (2). The range of the projectile on the horizontal plane through the point of projection is obtained as the value of x in (1) when . This represents a parabola and by writing the equation in the form / F2 . y {2g = 2g x depth below the directrix. which gives t = 2 V sin a/g. ^ J and the axis vertically downwards. The directrix is therefore horizontal.e. For. and its height above the point of projection is equal to the height of the vertex plus onefourth of the latus rectum. if v is the velocity at time t. y. in magnitude.70 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI Integrate and introduce the initial values of x.

a. those of inclination a and \TT .sin ft). and the greatest range for a given F is therefore V*/g got by taking Since sin 2 (J TT — a) = sin 2a. gr and we know that the polar equation of a parabola with the focus as pole is . latus rectum 2V2/g. The range on an inclined plane through the point of projection may be found from the equation of the path 6'2 (2) by writing y = x tan /3. i. 6"2i.e./3) .6"2-6*21] MOTION OF PROJECTILES 71 for t we substitute the time of flight. therefore in general there are two directions of projection with a given velocity which give the same horizontal range. F2sin2a/<7.e. where /3 is the inclination of the plane to the horizontal. the two coinciding when a = \ir. r where 6 is measured from the vertex and I is the semi-latus rectum. A comparison of the last two equations shews that.= 1 + cos 6. 1 ox2 „ therefore (tan a — tan x= and the range required = x sec /3 2F a cos a sin (a — /3) sec2 /3 F2 = — sec2 /3 jsin (2a . viz. if we construct a parabola with focus at 0. and this makes the maximum range We may write the last result F2 — = 1 + sin /3. i. For given values of V and /3 this expression is greatest when 2a —/3= ^7r. axis .

e. Geometrical Construction. the position which makes PM + QN = PQ. Then from the focus-directrix property of the parabola. which is then the focus of the one path possible. from P draw PM vertically upwards and of length V2/2g. then any radius OP drawn from 0 will give the maximum range in direction OP for a particle projected from 0 with velocity V. Thus if V be the given velocity. one possible path or no possible path. then M M is a point on the directrix. Draw QN at right angles to the directrix.72 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI vertical and vertex A upwards. i. or MPS' gives the required direction of projection. S' either of them is the focus of a possible path and the bisector of the angle MPS. and also on a circle of centre Q and radius QN. It may be shewn that with a given velocity of projection there may be two possible paths. A particle is to be projected from a point P so as to pass through a point Q. Alternatively the circles may touch at a point S on PQ. This parabola therefore is an outer boundary to the region that can be reached by projectiles starting from 0 with velocity V. the focus must lie on a circle of centre P and radius PM. If the circles intersect in two points S. in which case the velocity of projection is inadequate. or the circles may not meet one another. The directrix of the path is therefore a horizontal line MN. 622. The least velocity that will carry the particle from P to Q will correspond to the lowest possible position of the directrix. .

Hence. so that 2PM=h+k. Neglecting the resistance of the air. if tt. what is the farthest horizontal distance at which an aeroplane at a height of 2500 feet can be hit and what gun elevation is required? Shew that the shell would then take approximately 44'2 seconds to reach the aeroplane.F 2 )* 2 +a 2 + &2=0 (1). when for y the height of the aeroplane is substituted. b the horizontal and vertical distance of Q from P.F2) t2 + a2 + 5 2 =0. [M. 1916] Let V be the velocity of projection. and also find the time taken from the relation Vt cos a = x . E x a m p l e s . 1926] This problem can be solved by regarding the equation of the path 6*2 (2) as giving the range x as a function of o. and 6 = Vt sin a — ^gfi. We may then obtain another relation between x and o by differentiating with regard to a and using the fact that for a maximum value of x the derivative dx/da must vanish. T. we have PM + QN=h. and v* = 2gPM = g(h + k). so that t1t2 = 2PQIg. (i) Shew that the product of the two times of flight from P to Q with a given velocity of projection is 2PQ/g.2^6)*.G^l-G^] MOTION OF PROJECTILES 73 Thus if v be the least velocity and PQ = h. Then a= Vtco&a. o the inclination to the horizontal of the direction of projection. therefore a2 + (6 + \gfif = F 2 1\ or %gH* + (gb. and a. . t% are the two times of flight. obtained in the last example must have real roots. We can then solve the two equations for x and a. (ii) A gun fires a shell with a muzzle velocity 1040 feet per second. In this case 6 denotes the height of the aeroplane and a denotes its horizontal distance. this gives a = 31200 ft. and. 6*23.( F 2 . and PM-QN=k. [S. The condition for real roots is The greatest value of a is therefore . taking F = 1040 and 5 = 2500. and k be the height of Q above P. A simpler solution is obtained from the consideration that the quadratic equation for fi igW+igb.

Therefore the components of the resistance parallel to horizontal and vertical axes Ox. Now multiply by the integrating factor ekt and integrate both sides but y — 0 when t — 0. Thus if m denote the mass and F t h e velocity. — mky. dividing by e**. therefore y + ky = v — gt. dividing by ekt. therefore C'= — T — ~ . fc /c Results (1) and (2) express x and y in terms of t. we find that sec a = 1 '473. The equations of motion give x = — kx or x + kx = 0. x^l-er*) (1). Resisting Media. therefore x + kx = u. Now suppose that the motion is opposed by a force proportional to the velocity. So far we have assumed that gravity is the only force acting on a projectile. since initially x = 0 and x= u. . Let u. Now multiply by the integrating factor ekt and integrate both sides as in 161. since initially y — 0 and y = v. Reverting now to the equation for the horizontal range a= Vtco&a. and. namely and for the given values of V and b this makes t = 44"2 sees.74 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI Also for this value of a the quadratic (1) has equal roots in t2. let mkV denote the magnitude of the resistance. and. but x = 0 when t = 0. v denote the initial horizontal and vertical components of velocity. Oy are — mkx. Again y = -g-ty. therefore G = — u/k. 63. so that the elevation required is 47° 17'. and if t is eliminated the resulting equation gives the path.

so that we have y_ Vsma-gT_ Vain a-gT x~ F c o s a — kx F c o s a— Fcos a (1— e~kT) Vsaaa-gT V coaae-kT ' Eliminate V by means of (3). Again tan a> is the value of — dyjdx.623-631] RESISTING MEDIA 75 From (1) it follows that.e. 6*31. the numerator becomes 2! + 3T + ""' a series of positive terms. save that the terms are alternately positive and negative. i. Therefore the numerator is greater than the denominator and c > a. the time of flight T is obtained by putting y=0 in (2). T. and we get tan c = • o . Prove that tano_ ekT-\-kT tana ~ e~kT. > a. (3).l (!-«-**•)} cot a ' (kr-l+e-kT) . so that the path approaches a vertical asymptote. Example.1+kT' and deduce that a. and the time offlightis T. o . when y = 0 and t—T. as t becomes large. It strikes the horizontal plane through the point of projection at an angle o>. first multiplying numerator and denominator by (1 — e~kT). [M. therefore tan tana e-™ ~e-*T-l+kT' If we expand ekT and e~kT. A particle subject to gravity is projected at an angle a with the horizontal in a medium which produces a retardation equal to k times the velocity. 1924] Taking u— Fcos a and v— Fsin o as the initial components of velocity in the equations of the last article. . and the denominator becomes 2! ~3T + '"' the same series. x tends to a constant value u/k.

we have dv dv2 . 5 d kV2+g The highest point is reached when v = 0. If the initial velocity is V. has a small horizontal component U. and then Powers. where C is a constant. v slkg . dv -— 2 g Ik + kv 9 1 Therefore --= tan" 1 W . y dy dy Therefore log(2fo2 + 2 5 . o r —r. and the square of k V2/g can be neglected. and the resistance follows the same law.= —q — KVA. The resistance of the air produces an acceleration opposite to the velocity and numerically equal to kv2. in addition to the vertical component V. v . We shall illustrate another law of resistance by taking an example in which the resistance varies as the square of the velocity. by integration.v= C -1. A particle is projected vertically upwards under gravity. and that the greatest altitude reached is V2 kV* ~%> 4gr 2 • If the initial velocity. yi fey * therefore the greatest altitude is ^ --~j • To find the time. Putting v= V when y = 0 gives and substituting this value for C in (]).= —y2(7— zkv*. measuring y vertically upwards. (1).) = . and.76 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI 6*32. shew that the particle reaches V kV3 its highest point in time 5-= . T.= .2 % + C where C is a constant. 1925] For the upward vertical motion. we write dv . shew that when the particle returns to the original level its horizontal velocity is approximately P i r ^ V [M. Resistance proportional to the Square of the Velocity.„ 7 . where v is the velocity and k a constant. log^2ty.

V *Jkg V g Hence -= tan" 1 J v= —= tan" 1 U . neglecting higher powers. x .ks. so that 'g *\g. x= —k?dxjds=— kax. x Hence. or r = — ks. and x— U when «=0. if we multiply these equations respectively by x and y and add. 6-4.V-1. s/kg V 9 *Jkg V g The time of reaching the highest point is found by putting v=0. log x=C".. kV3 = 7r-£.. mic = X. .6-. so that ks — kV2/g.32-64] RESISTING MEDIA 77 But when (=Owe have v= V. and as an approximation to the value of s when the particle again reaches the plane we may take twice the greatest altitude and write therefore 9 W But by hypothesis the last term is negligible. and then . viz. Principle of Work. Therefore x=Ue~k».. therefore C'=~-== tan" 1 K I . but v=i and costy= dx fds. we get m {xx + yy) = Xx + Yy.. Now the horizontal velocity is small and decreasing. by integration.1 < # ^ 1 ] . Reverting to the equations of motion of 6-1. and the required value of x is Ue~kr'lf. *]kg V 9 The function on the right-hand side can be expanded by Gregory's series . provided . 9 °9 When there is also a horizontal velocity. we have for the horizontal acceleration V where yfr is the inclination of the path to the horizontal. therefore the horizontal distance travelled is small. my = Y. so that C"=log U.

P. 1910] 2. v^ are the velocities at A and B. Alternative proof. or \ m«i2 — \ mv<? = J(X dx + Ydy). [S. EXAMPLES 1. shew that the times of flight in the two trajectories are {(SP+ SQ+PQ)i ± (SP+ SQ . Shew that if a gun be situated on an inclined plane. B. we get \mv2 — \mv<? = \Fcos eds. Resolving along the tangent. maximum slope is a the plane [S. and it follows that \m (x2 + y2)t — \m (a? + y2)0 = f(Xdx + Ydy). and e the angle that the force makes with the tangent to the path. as Integrating along the path between any two points A. where the suffixes denote the values at the beginning and end of the interval. Q are two points distant a apart.PQ)l}/gl. Let F be the resultant force acting on the particle Avhen it is at any point P of its path. and at heights h. This result shews that the increase in the kinetic energy of the particle in any interval is equal to the work done by the forces acting on the particle in that interval. the range in a direction at right angles to the line of greatest harmonic mean between the maximum ranges up and down respectively. and by 4'3 the integral represents the work done by the resultant force. [S. where v0. h above a given horizontal plane . 1917] . we have dv „ A mv ~T~ = F cos e. If S is the focus of either of the possible trajectories. A particle is projected with given velocity from a point P so as to pass through a point Q.•° DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI Now integrate this equation with regard to t for any interval of time from t0 to ti. prove that the minimum velocity with which a particle must be projected from the plane so as to pass through P and Q is V{g(a + h+k)}. 1909] 3.

6'4] EXAMPLES 79 4. 1915] 11. 1917] B is a right angle if B lies on the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 2hy. [M. and hits a mark at a depth of 50 feet below 0 and at a distance of 100 feet from the vertical line through 0. A projectile is fired from a point 0 with a velocity due to a fall of 100 feet from rest. v3 in directions making angles «i> "2> <3 with the horizontal. Shew that the two possible directions of projection are at right angles. Shew that if B has horizontal and vertical coordinates x. in 1911. if the head of the hammer was 8 ft. [S. and that the three particles will always lie on a straight line. A particle is projected at time t=0 in a fixed vertical plane from a given point S with given velocity ij(2ga). [S. A particle is projected under gravity from A so as to pass through B. and the velocity of projection is /\/%gh. and that its direction of motion is then perpendicular to its direction of projection. 1912] 5. where v is the velocity of the particle at P and u is the horizontal component of v. Prove that the velocity required to project a particle from a height h to fall at a horizontal distance a from the point of projection. 1923] 8. T. 1927] 10. the angle between the two paths at [S. if 2v2vs sin (o 2 -a 3 ) = 0. from the ground at the instant of projection. Three particles are projected simultaneously and in the same vertical plane from a point with velocities »i. Particles are projected simultaneously from a point under gravity in various directions with velocity V. Shew that the angular velocity of the line joining P to the focus is Zgujv2. and find to the nearest minute their inclinations to the horizontal. A particle P is describing a parabola freely under gravity. T. 1912] 7. 1910] 9. of which the upward vertical component is v. y referred to A. Prove that at any subsequent time t they will all lie on a sphere of radius Vt. 6. [S. [S.h}\ eq u a l t o The hammer was thrown at Cambridge a distance of 122 ft. [M. A particle is projected from a given point with a velocity whose vertical component is given. [S. that its path touches the parabola. Shew that the area of the triangle formed * by the particles at any time is proportional to the square of the time elapsed from the instant of projection. is at least J[g {J{a? + A2) . 1922] . Prove that the initial angular velocity about the focus of the path is greatest when the angle of projection is 45°. v^. calculate the least velocity required and the corresponding angle of projection. Shew that at time « = 2a/« the particle is on a fixed parabola (independent of v). and determine the motion of the centre of this sphere.

also shew that the angle of elevation for maximum range is cos" 1 {(V+ \ / F 2 + 8W2)/4«}. If d1 and d2 are the greatest (horizontal) ranges at which the fort and ship. [S. [S. where a < 45°. NC2+AC2. 1925] . [S. of area 8TTM. where tj2gk is the velocity of the shells used by both. if this condition be satisfied. and that. prove that 16.NB. and the elevation of the gun cannot exceed a. 1926] 15. Shew that the velocity with which the particle must be projected is J{g(AiV2. which can be reached by shots fired with velocity v from a fixed point at a distance c from the 2v2 plane. the shell might also have hit the airship if the latter had remained stationary in the position it occupied when the gun was actually fired. but the ship is not out of range of the fort. 13. From a gun placed on a horizontal plane. lie within a parabola of latus rectum — . it is required to throw a shell over a wall of height h. whose focus is at a C2<7 ^ distance =-^ vertically below the foot of the perpendicular on the plane from the point of projection. 1917] 18. Shew that all points in a vertical plane. A shell fired with velocity V at elevation 6 hits an airship at height H which is moving horizontally away from the gun with velocity v. A fort is on the edge of a cliff of height h. respectively. and the guns in the fort are at a height h above the guns in the ship. A battleship is steaming ahead with velocity V. [M. the gun must be fired from within a strip of the plane whose breadth is 4cos a Vtf ( # sin2« ^X).v) (F 2 sin2 6 . can engage. If v is the velocity of projection (relative to the gun). which can fire a shell with velocity \/2gH. A fort and a ship are both armed with guns which give their projectiles a muzzle velocity sltyk. 1911] 17. 1925] 14. Shew that there is an annular region in which the fort is out of range of the ship. A particle is projected from a point A so as to pass through a given point B and to return to the same level as A at a point C. and is set at an angle of elevation a. [S.80 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI 12. where N lies in A C directly below B. Shew that if (2 V cos e . JVC}. shew that the range is — sino (vcos a—V). NB*)\ZAN. A gun is mounted on the battleship so as to point straight backwards. T. Shew that this will be possible only when A<i7~sin2a.2gH)i = v V sin 6.

1915] 20. Prove that. the shot will strike the ground at a distance from the mark ——.EXAMPLES 81 19. Shew that a man 100 feet away is in danger for § J2 seconds. 1923] 24. the components of its velocity along and perpendicular to SP are respectively equal to the vertical and horizontal components of its velocity. T. at a speed Fo. A shot is fired with initial velocity V at a mark in the same horizontal plane . [M. within these limits of V. shew that if a small error e° is made in the angle of elevation. [S. 1923] 22. [S. 1917] 21. where Assuming that the effective thrust power of the propeller Z is independent of V. where SP=r. find the greatest rate of gain of height. and shew that the 7 T-f a wl/ aeroplane is then climbing at an angle sin~x where W is the weight of the aeroplane. where V is the initial velocity of the shot. the velocity at A being u. [S. the shell will hit the aeroplane provided 2 (V cos a — v)v tan2 a=gh. Shew that the component in the direction SP of the acceleration of the particle is g . and an error 2e° in azimuth. A shell bursts on contact with the ground and pieces from it fly in all directions with all velocities up to 80 feet per second. 1921] 23. A particle moving under gravity describes a parabola of vertex A and focus S. Shew that. the path being assumed to be parabolic.u'/r. the power absorbed in air resistance has a minimum value Ha. Shew that if the rifle is fired with the same elevation from a car travelling at 10 miles per hour towards the target the range will be increased by 220 tani a feet. Shew that. where a and b are constants within certain limits of V. RD to the horizontal. An aeroplane travelling at a speed V relative to the air experiences a resistance R = aV2 + b/V2. 1925] 6 . The range of a rifle bullet is 1200 yards when a is the elevation of projection. An aeroplane is flying with constant velocity v and at constant height h. when the particle is at P. if a gun is fired point blank at the aeroplane after it has passed directly over the gun and when its angle of elevation as seen from the gun is a. Shew also that if the angle of elevation is less than about 31J° an error in elevation will cause the shot to miss the mark by a greater amount than an equal error in azimuth. [M. T. [S.

.. 76° 43'. 1926] 26. Shew that ua — u is proportional to OP. the particle is at 0 and has velocity « 0 . 43° 7' with horizontal. where u is the velocity at time t. 10.82 DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONS [VI 25./. A particle P moving along a horizontal straight line has retardation hu.s. A particle is projected horizontally with a velocity v0 in a medium in which the resistance to its motion is kv2 per unit mass. ANSWERS 3. T. T.13° 17'. Shew that the resultant acceleration / has a constant direction. If \ff is the downward inclination of its path to the horizontal when it has traversed an arc s. . 1923] acceleration when < = 0. and that /=/oe~*S where f0 is the [M. shew. that eiu dz_ = vjt s e c s. that and by resolving along the normal to the path. and that the final value of OP is tco/k. 60-4 f. When t = 0. A particle subject to gravity describes a curved path in a resisting medium which causes retardation h x velocity. [M. when its velocity is v. by resolving along the horizontal. .

Let 0 be thefixedpoint and P the position of the particle at time t. we may multiply both sides by 2x and integrate. The solution of this equation may be written down as in 17 (16) or. This relation is equivalent to dx V(C . thus 2xic = — Ifixx. When a particle moves in a straight line so that its acceleration is always directed towards a fixed point in the line and is proportional to the distance from that point its motion is called Simple Harmonic Motion.fix2) "777=.Chapter VII HARMONIC MOTION 7 1 . But the acceleration is directed towards 0. or x = A/-sin(± V fi 6-2 . and this will be so whether the particle is on the right or left of 0. i \ ~~ ± **> 2 2 where the positive or negative sign must be taken according as x is increasing or decreasing with t. therefore the acceleration in the positive direction of the axis of x is — fix. On integration we get where a is a constant. therefore x = G — fix where G is a constant. then the acceleration may be denoted • . where fi is constant. Hence in all positions of the particle we have x = — fix (1). O P by fix in magnitude. which may be determined if the velocity is known in any one position. as in 36 (ii) (/3). Let OP = x.

e. if t is increased by 27r/V/i or by any multiple of 27r/V/i. The solutions obtained in the last article all represent periodic motions. from (2) and (3). and the frequency of the oscillations means the number of complete oscillations per second. (4). (3).. on putting t — 0 in (2) and (3) we get a — B. Periodicity. This is the general form of solution of equation (1) and therefore includes all special cases. the values obtained for x and x in (2). and 0 = ^. (ii) Let the particle be at a distance a from 0 and moving towards 0 with velocity v when t = 0. Then. For example : (i) Let the particle start from rest at a distance a from 0.84 HARMONIC MOTION [VII The solution contains two arbitrary constants C and a and may be written in the simpler form x = A sin \/fx t + B cos 'J fit (2). Here we have x — a and x = — v when t = 0. We notice that the period only depends on the given constant ft. since x= A V/xcos \/fit — jBvVsin V/*£ (3). when t = 0. shewing that after a time 27r/V/x the particle is again in the same position and moving with the same velocity as before. The distance through which the particle moves away from 0 on either side is called the amplitude of the oscillation. therefore x = a cos *J fit (4) gives the position at time t in this case. for. so that in this case the position at time t is given by x=—r=sin Vfit + a cosVfit VfM (5). and — v = A \'/t. 7*11. i. a — B. x = a and x = 0. so that the period is independent of the amplitude.e. The interval 27r/V/i is called the period of the harmonic motion or oscillation. Further when a coordinate of position is represented by a formula a cos (nt + e) e is called the phase at the instant from . Therefore. i. (5) remain unaltered..

72. The velocity of P is the resolved part along AA' of the velocity of Q. b sin nt. since sin nt — cos (nt — -= J. a)2P0.e.7-1-7-2] PERIODICITY 85 which t is measured. . by comparing the formulae for acceleration. The velocity of Q in the circle is coQO along the tangent TQ. of 7-11 because.e. and we can shew that the motion of P is simple harmonic motion. or it may be measured in terms of the time in which either of the angles concerned would increase by this amount. coQO cos QTP = wQO cos OQP = coPQ in magnitude. Let a point Q describe a circle of centre 0 with uniform angular velocity a. 2"jr/co. The difference in phase e — e' may be spoken of as a certain number of radians. these motions differ in phase by one-quarter of a period. Thus if two harmonic motions are represented by a cos nt. (e — e')/n seconds. or it may be measured as the fraction (e — e')/27r of a period.e. Hence the acceleration of P is always directed towards 0 and proportional to its distance from 0 and therefore the motion of P is simple harmonic. they are said to differ in phase. Let P be L^_ • „ the projection of Q on a fixed diameter AA'. Since Q moves uniformly in a circle its only acceleration is a>2QO along QO. one particle is at the origin when the other is at an extreme position and vice versa. it follows that. This agrees with the 2TT/V/J. The period of oscillation of P is the time taken for Q to describe the circle. we see that a>2 = /i. As Q moves round the circle P will oscillate to and fro in the line AA'. b cos (nt + e').e. i. If two different harmonic motions with the same period 27r/re are represented by a cos (nt + e). i. The velocity of P is therefore proportional to the ordinate PQ and has its greatest value when P is at 0.e. i. Geometrical Representation. The acceleration of P is the resolved part along A A' of the acceleration of Q. i. i.

7*23. We can deduce formula (5) of 7'1 thus: Measuring t from the instant when the particle is at M. always represents a periodic motion. A particle starts at a distance a from 0 with velocity v towards 0 and acceleration = fi x distance directed towards 0. where fi is a positive number. to find the uniform circular motion of which this motion is a projection. Take OM = a. It is to be noted that an equation of the form * + fix = 0. The ' extension' of a stretched elastic string means the ratio x= . and. since the angle through which it turns between any two positions is proportional to the time taken. Elastic Strings and Spiral Springs. therefore acos^fit^ V f 7"22.86 HARMONIC MOTION [vil 7"21. The geometrical representation of simple harmonic motion is very useful in the solution of examples. which we have made equal to the given velocity v. and this will be the radius of the required circle. 73. and erect a perpendicular MN so that Join ON. and its velocity when P is at M is '•J/iMN. if MON= e. of period 2TT/\/fi independent of the amplitude. we have x = OP = OQ cos {^1 fit + e) = ON cos e cos Vytt t — ON si n e sin V/i t = OM cos \lfit — MN sin V'fit. in time t OQ turns through the angle NOQ= Vfit. For if a point Q moves round the circle wil^h anM gular velocity V/x then by 72 its A projection P on OM has acceleration fiPO towards 0. Hooke's Law. The revolving radius may be regarded as a time-keeper of the motion.

is the natural or unstretched length and the stretched length is I then the extension is (I — Z0)/70*. 7-31. therefore the ratio Pp: AP is constant. Thus if It. Work done in Stretching an Elastic String. For when the spring is compressed the length I is less than the natural length l0. Suppose the end 0 to be fixed and the string stretched by moving the end A. The extension or compression of a spiral spring follows the same law. c Let P be a point between B and G and at every such point erect an ordinate Pp to represent the tension. but in this' case the length is measured along the axis of the helix and not along the wire that forms the spring. Since the tension is proportional to the extension. The formula above may be used for compression as well as extension provided we regard a negative tension as a thrust.' 4-43. a thrust of magnitude X(lo — l)llo.e. so that the formula would give a negative tension. i. it is however frequently used to denote increment of lenyth. To find the work done as the length is increased from OB to 00. and when the spring is extended or compressed the force exerted by the spring is a tension or a thrust in the direction of the axis. If T denote the tension and we state the law in the form then X is called the modulus of elasticity of the string. Let OA represent the natural length of a string. . Hooke's Law is that the tension of the string is proportional to the extension. and this line is a 'force-space curve. * The above is the proper mathematical meaning of the word extension.7-21-7-31] ELASTIC STRINGS 87 of the increment in length to the unstretched length. Hence the upper ends of the ordinates lie on a straight line Abpc.

the line BPG is the 'space' through which the point of application of the gradually increasing force is moved. therefore in increasing the length from I to I' the work done is v x 'V To. so that (1). Also the work done when a force T moves its point of application through a distance dx in its line of action is Tdx. (x — la) dx = increase in length x mean of initial and final tensions. AO=l and measure x vertically downwards from 0. and the area under the 'force-space curve' represents the work done. Let A be the fixed point and AB the unstretched length of the string. we take T= \ (x — lo)llo. 7-32. . Let m be the mass of the particle and let the weight of the particle be such as to extend the string to the length AO when the particle hangs at rest. The same result may be obtained by using Hooke's formula for tension. Let AB = l0.HARMONIC MOTION [VII In order to stretch the string the experimenter has to apply to the end A a force equal to the tension. The motion of a heavy particle suspended from a fixed point by an elastic string or a spiral spring is simple harmonic motion. In the equilibrium position the weight is equal to t'he tension. 74. Thus if T be the tension when the length is x. Therefore the work done in extending the string from a length OB to a length OG is measured by the area BCcb = i(Bb + Gc) BG — increase in length x mean of initial and final tensions. because the tension of the string causes an acceleration proportional to the distance from a fixed point and directed towards it.

where T is the tension when the length is AP=l+x. returning to B in time 2vjg. .31-7 4] ELASTIC STRINGS 89 Let the particle be in another position P where OP = x. o) \ a / At B the velocity is v = a>BD = a> \J{a? — (I — lof}. As a particular case let us suppose that the particle is pulled downwards to a point G. it then has a downward acceleration given by mx = downward force = mg-T (2). But if OG > OB. so that lo)/lo (3).7-. This motion lasts until the particle reaches B. Equation (4) is independent of initial conditions. OB the equation (4) will apply to the whole motion. and the time from C to B = the angle COD/a = — I 7T — COS" 1 — . and the simple harmonic motion is the projection on the vertical of the motion of a point describing the circle with angular velocity m. which will be a purely oscillatory motion about 0 as centre through a distance a below and above 0. equation (2) becomes mx = — Xx/l0 (4). and the particle then moves freely upwards under gravity. Using (1) and (3). If OC*. This equation represents a simple harmonic motion of period Up to this point it has not been necessary to specify in what way the motion began. Equation (4) can be written x = — (o2x where a = *J(\/ml0). where OC = a and then set free. Draw a circle of centre 0 and radius OG. the string will become slack when the ascending particle passes B.. Hence the whole time of ascent and descent = — \/{az — {I —10)2} H— \ir— cos" 1 where m = >J(\/mlo).

below the equilibrium position there is therefore an extra tension of \Qxg poundals acting upwards on the body. Therefore the velocity i = 4/3 f. Further Applications.. Hence the period = 2n-/x/64 = |n. is due to a force of 5 lb.absolute units = ^ x ^ g = ^. weight. starting from this position with velocity u. would correspond to a tension of ICte lb. Since a stretch of "5 ft. would extend the cable 1 ft. (ii) A cage of mass Mlb. and released. and such a position of the cage may be called an equilibrium position. the length of the cable will remain the equilibrium length and the position of the cage relative to the upper end of the cable will still be the equilibrium position. since there is no acceleration. the motion of the cage becomes a simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium position. therefore a displacement of the cage through x ft. or x=. and when the body is at a distance x ft.=-785 sec. the cable. Find the period of the oscillations and the kinetic energy of the mass as it passes through its equilibrium position. (i) A body of mass 5 lb. If the cage were hanging from the cable at rest. The mass is then pulled down a further 2 ins. and the kinetic energy > \mvi=|x 5 x Jge. and it is this extra unbalanced tension which causes acceleration. When the upward motion is uniform. =Jft. We assume that any vertical displacement of the cage which extends or compresses the cable results in an extra tension or thrust proportional to the extension or compression. weight therefore a stretch of x ft. In the working of examples on elastic strings or springs it is not necessary that the data should include the natural length and the modulus of elasticity provided that the ratio of an additional force to the additional length it produces is given.90 HARMONIC MOTION [ vn 75. Since a weight of m lb. after the fixing of the upper end of the cable. is hung on a light spring and is found to stretch it 6 ins. where a>2=64 and amplitude = 2 ins. would have a definite length which we may call the equilibrium length. Again the velocity is greatest as the body passes through the equilibrium position and is then a> x amplitude.foot pound. so that 5i?= — lOxg.. from the equilibrium position . E x a m p l e . though extended by the weight of the cage. is being pulled up with uniform velocity u by a long steel cable when the upper end of the cable is suddenly fixed.64%.. Having given that a weight of m lb. Hence. would extend the cable 1 ft. shew that the amplitude of the oscillation of the cage is u*J(M/mg). In the equilibrium position the weight is balanced by the tension.s.

0 is its equilibrium position and PA = PB—y are the strings. We ha ve mx—mg — 2X ^-j—°.cos OP A. The modulus of elasticity is such that when the particle is suspended from any portion of the string its extension is equal to its natural length. Let x denote the vertical displacement and y the length of either string at time t. where I is the stretched length of either string in equilibrium. so that Mx = — mgx. but \ = mg. or x= —a>2x. The particle is displaced vertically a small distance and then released. . we have. where o^ = mgjM. Therefore aa>=u . where fi is a constant. but o) = » so that a=Un (iii) A heavy particle is supported in equilibrium by two equal elastic strings with their other ends attached to two points in a horizontal plane and each inclined at an angle of 60° to the vertical. Then by supposing the particle to be suspended from any portion of the string. Prove that the period of its small oscillations is 27r\/2l/5g. 'o where P is the particle at time t.7-5] ELASTIC STRINGS 91 would be opposed by an unbalanced force of mx pounds weight. 1923] Let m be the mass of the particle and X the modulus of elasticity. To find the period of small oscillations we want to obtain an equation of the form X=-flX. in the equilibrium position. [S. It will therefore be sufficient for our purpose to write down the equation of motion at time t and neglect all powers of x higher than the first. since the extended length is double the natural length we find that \=mg. therefore lo = ^l. If l0 be the natural length of either string. But if a is the amplitude of the oscillation the velocity at the centre of the harmonic motion is aa>.

later. A gun is fired during a roll 2 sees. and 2 sees. Shew that the shell loill miss the centre of the target by about 4 feet. The gun was correctly aimed at the moment of firing. but the shell does not leave the barrel till 0'03 sec. therefore B=0.e. 1923] Let 8 denote the angle turned through by the ship in t seconds after passing the vertical.\jzljbg. Also A is the amplitude of the oscillation. [S. i. where 27r/ra=the complete period = 16 sees. 2\(l+$x-M) 1 / . but 8 vanishes for i = 0. the angular velocity of the ship at the instant of firing the gun is 1/48 ^/2 radians per sec. and is rolling {simple harmonic motion) through an angle of 3° on either side of the vertical in a complete period of 16 sees. after passing the vertical the value of this is or taking TT2 as equal to 10. . and cos to the first power of x. (iv) A warship is firing at a target 3000 yards away dead on the beam. Hence mv = mg ^ S {l therefore x=g-g 5 qx Sx which represents a simple harmonic motion of period 2n. Then the change in 8 is simple harmonic. after the ship passes the vertical. The angular velocity is therefore given by 8 = nA cos nt. The complete solution of (1) is 8 = A sin nt + B cos nt.. „ . and 8 = A sin nt. so that it is connected with t by an equation 8=-n28 (1). an angle of 3° or »r/60 radians.92 Now therefore HARMONIC MOTION f=> [VII correct to the first power of x.

Equivalent Simple Pendulum. (F2sin2o)/0=9OOO feet. if A denote the additional range when the elevation is o + 8. ' If the oscillations are so small that we may put 0 instead of sin 6. The simple pendulum consists of a heavy particle suspended from a fixed point by a fine thread moving in a vertical plane. Now if F be the velocity and a the angular elevation of projection. 2 or F (sin 2a + 28 cos 2a)Iff = 9000 + A. and if we neglect the square of the angular elevation. 7-61. and. Let m be the mass of the particle and I the length of the thread. or l=g/ir2. The forces acting on the particle are its weight mg and the tension of the thread and the former alone has a component along the tangent. 7-6. Any simple harmonic motion may be compared with the motion of a simple pendulum and such motions may be regarded as equivalent if their periods are the same. F 2 sin 2 (a + t)lc/ = 9000 + A . . before the shell leaves the barrel the gun receives an additional angular elevation 5 = '03/48^/2 radians. this is equal to 90008. Hence by resolving along the tangent we have mid = — mg sin 6.7-0-7-61] SIMPLE PENDULUM 93 It follows that during the 003 sec. and substituting the value found for 8 this gives 4 feet as the approximate result. the equation becomes W = -gd. Simple Pendulum. Also the shell will pass over the centre of the target at a height A tan (a+ 8) approximately. If at time t the thread makes an 0 angle 6 with the vertical the acceleration of the particle along the tangent to its path is Id. This equation represents a harmonic oscillation of period A " seconds pendulum" is one of which a single swing or half-period occupies one second. so that the length of the seconds pendulum is given by ir >J{ljg) = l. so that A = 180008 cot 2o.

this is zero. The periodic time. 7-62. T lies between tin \fljg and 2JT tjljg x yV/3- . when the particle is displaced at right angles to the string. If x denotes the displacement of the particle. where X is a positive function of x which is unchanged when —x is put for x. mx=-2Txjb. E x a m p l e . Comparing this equation with l6=—gd. A particle moving along the axis of x has an acceleration Xx towards the origin. is T.94 HARMONIC MOTION [VII Thus. neglecting x2. when a simple pendulum of length I vibrates through 30° on either side of the vertical. if we neglect all powers of x above the first. when the particle vibrates between x=-a and x = a. As an illustration of the finite oscillations of a simple pendulum we will take the following: E x a m p l e . X2 are the greatest and least values of X within the range x= — a to x=a. they represent equivalent motions if /A = g/l. Shew that. we see that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is given by I mb g = M" or l=mgbl2T. the increase in length of the string is 2 {v/(62 + x2) — 6} and. A particle of mass m is attached to the middle point of a string of length 26 which is tightly stretched between two fixed points. To fmd the length of the equivalent simple pendulum. and we may therefore say with regard to the motion x = — fiai that the ' length of the equivalent simple pendulum' is g//i. Shew that where Xx. neglecting the force of gravity in comparison with the tension of the string. Therefore the tension T remains constant and by resolving at right angles to the string we get or. if we compare the equations ic = — fix and 18 = — g6.

and sin 6\6 is positive and unchanged when — 6 is put for 6.X*). . Ja Jx ne 7 > ^ negative sign since we have supposed the motion to begin from x = a. so that the last result may be applied. Jo 2n-/\/Zi < T7 < 16= 2TT/\/T2. so that x is decreasing as t increases. and Xi. and we get x2=-2 Therefore dt = —j-—j^ [xxdx = 2 ("Xxdx. therefore '£-7 Now X is a positive function. and therefore the greatest and least values of ". Also as 6 increases from 0 to n/6. therefore 2xx = — 2Xxx. fa JX / X X1xdx>2 I Xxdx > 2 I X2xdx.. Jx Hence dx <i(a dx but therefore 4 / — ^ . Again the equation of motion of the simple pendulum may be written 6 = —j . Xi are constants. The period is four times the time from x = a to x=0.7-61-7-62] FINITE OSCILLATIONS 95 We have x — — Xx.—j— are 2 and f . 6.x2) > 2 ["Xxdx > X2 (a2 . .= 4 sin->- 7o v/(a 2 -^ 2 ) L a =2ir. sin#/0 decreases from 1 to 3/TT. Integrate this. so that the last line gives Xj (a2 . remembering that the velocity x vanishes when x=a. Hence the period lies between 2TT \lljg and 2?r V % x \lnjZ. throughout the motion. and "a fa J X dx Xl>X>Xi.

Periodic Disturbing Force. Then or x = — fi (% — If we put x — x' +f/fi. . To find a particular integral of this equation. The equation id = — fix +fcos pt (1) represents harmonic motion disturbed by a periodic force proportional to cos pt. substitute x = G cos pt and we get — Cp^cospt = — /iG cos pt +f cos pt. so that * = A sin Vui + -Bcos"/ui+fip2 — • (2). 7-71.96 HARMONIC MOTION [VII 7-7. The complete solution is found by adding to the particular integral the complete solution of x + fix = 0.e. the centre of the simple harmonic motion is the point of equilibrium. which by 1-7 (16) or by 7-1 (2) is A sin Vfit + B cos "Jfit. We have had applications of this in problems of masses suspended by elastic strings or springs (7*4. so that x = G cos pt is a solution provided that is a particular integral. or the point where the variable force is balanced by the constant force. Disturbed Simple Harmonic Motion. Suppose that in addition to the force varying as the distance there is a force in the line of motion producing a constant acceleration f in the positive direction of the axis of x. which is equivalent to moving the origin to the point of equilibrium x =fjfi. Forced Oscillations. 7"5) where the constant force of gravity causes the extension of the string or spring and the oscillations take place about an equilibrium position. This shews that the effect of the constant force is merely to move the centre of the simple harmonic motion a definite distance f/fi in the direction of the constant force. the equation becomes x = — fix'. i.

putting %T\mb = i2. shewing that the amplitude of the forced oscillation increases continuously with t. or. we get % x= -n2x+]tn2 a sin pt. Consider again the problem of 7*61. When _pa is nearly equal to p. equation (1) no longer has a solution of the form x= C cos pt. When p2 = i^. E x a m p l e . The phenomenon of the large amplitude of vibration of a body forced to vibrate with a period nearly equal to that of its free vibrations is a familiar one in the theory of sound and of electromagnetism and is known as resonance. as in 7-71. when the forced and the free oscillations have nearly the same period. As before. which gives C=//2p. we can shew that the tension T remains constant. if x denotes the displacement of the particle. displacements of large amplitude should be set up and cause the bridge to break.e. so that the forced oscillation is now represented by x = J. The reason why troops are ordered to fall out of step in crossing a bridge is lest by forcing upon the structure vibrations of period nearly the same as that of a free vibration. i n a8vnpt R D 7 .7-7-7-72] FORCED OSCILLATIONS 97 The two parts of the solution represent what are called the 'free' and the 'forced' oscillations. 2 X = Asmnt + Bcoa nt . Resolving in the direction of x. i. Either free or forced oscillations can exist independently and the actual motion may be a combination of both. depending on the initial circumstances.t sin pt. we have. 7*72. The solution is. the latter being of the same period 2w/p as the disturbing force. but if we substitute % = Ct sin pt in (1) we get C(—p2t sin pt + 2p cos pt) = — fiCt sin pt + / cos pt. for the motion of the particle. supposing that one end of the string is fixed while the other end has a periodic motion of small amplitude at right angles to the string such that the displacement at time t is given by %=asinpt. the amplitude //(/A—jo2) of the forced oscillations is large. and we neglect x" and a2.

98 HARMONIC MOTION [VII Suppose that when t = 0. . If however we suppose that when t = 0. the solution is of the form <c = e-*t(A+Bt) 1-7(11). This last result represents harmonic oscillations with amplitude Ce~kt decreasing steadily with the time.Be-*'-*"*2-*)« 17 (10). we may write the equation of motion x = — ixx — 2ktb. where G and e are arbitrary constants. There are three cases. n2a sia. and the motion is resisted by a force proportional to the velocity. the solution is of the form x = Ae-^"1^-^ * + . > k2. x = 0 and x = 0 . The oscillations die away as t increases. where n2 = fi — k2. and the second makes 0 — nA+i therefore the solution (3) takes the form x " „• In this case — \ ~jj 2 and represents a combination of forced and free oscillations. varying as the distance.^ 5 . If fi = k2. the solution may be written x = e~M(A cosnt + Bsinnt) 17(12). the first of these conditions requires that 5 = 0 . Damped Harmonic Oscillations. 78. When a particle moves in a straight line under the action of a force towards a fixed point in the line. which again does not represent oscillations. They are called damped oscillations and e~kt is the damping coefficient. w e find t h a t b o t h A a n d 5 a r e z e r 0 s o t h a t w i t h t h i s s e t of ' initial conditions (3) becomes . but if //. This equation is solved in 1*7. and the motion is non-oscillatory. or x = Ge~u cos (nt + e). or x + 2kx + fix = 0 (1). If /A < £2. x=0 and that the velocity x is then i 4 .pt shewing that now there are no 'free' oscillations but the 'forced' oscillations alone.

the complete solution is. Hence we must choose E and F so as to make the last equation an identity for all values of t. Therefore and whence (lx-p2)E + 2kpF-f=0. and owing to the damping the free oscillations die away and the forced oscillations alone persist. E 2 _ F _ ^ f (^ _ ^ 2 + Therefore the required integral of the given differential equation is _/. Damped Forced Oscillations. -2kpE+(p-p*)F=0. i. x=f cos(»i + a) v ^ ' where n2 = /A — k2. from 7-8. The complete solution of this equation is got by adding a particular integral to the solution of equation (1) of 7'8. 7-2 .e.7-72—7*9] DAMPED FORCED OSCILLATIONS 99 7*9. cos pt) + F(—p2 sin pt + 2kp cos pt + /J. n w / _ \ . {(2Y+4k22}t The two terms represent the free and the forced oscillations.. The equation x + 2kx + fix =f cos pt represents damped forced oscillations. P where tan a = —~— Hence.(/* — P2) cos pt + 2kp sin pt or j. sin pt) = / cos pt. in the case in which p > k2. f COS (pt + 0) x = Ge~u cos (nt + e) H {(( — —. and we find that it satisfies the differential equation if E(—p2 cos pt — 2kp sin pt + /J. equate to zero the coefficients of cos pt and sin pt. 2k u i. To find a particular integral we substitute x = E cos pt + F sin pt as a trial solution.

Shew that.100 HARMONIC MOTION EXAMPLES [vn 1. The particle is let fall from rest at 0. 1915] 6. [S. if the greatest depth of the particle below 0 is a cot2 ^8. which obeys Hooke's law. A heavy particle of mass m is attached to one end of an elastic string of natural length a. and that the particle attains this depth in time — {\ + (n-8)oot6}. the amplitude of the oscillation becomes (P + £a2)*. find the natural length of the spring. A mass m hangs from afixedpoint by means of a light spring. and that. [S. the modulus of elasticity of the string is \mg tan2 8. where 8 is a positive acute angle. Determine the motion and shew that. A mass of 1 lb. (ii) shew that the time of an oscillation of the whole mass is approximately f sec. is hung on to a light spiral spring and produces a static deflection of 1£ inches. if as the body rises through its equilibrium position it picks up another body of equal weight. 1926] 2. its velocity is 4 feet per second. the semi-amplitude of the path is 7T feet. the tension is m (Air^rfil—g). When t—2 seconds. if the complete period is 16 seconds. 1911] 3. If n is the number of oscillations per second in the ensuing simple harmonic motion. [M. is suddenly added to the original mass. A particle of mass m is moving in the axis of x under a central force fimx to the origin. Find the least value of the coefficient of friction in order that a heavy body placed on the board may not slip. 1918] . and when t = 4 seconds. A horizontal board is made to perform simple harmonic oscillations horizontally. T. (i) Find the maximum elongation produced. 1925] 5. [S. [S. A mass of 1 lb. A body is suspended from a fixed point by a light elastic string of natural length I whose modulus of elasticity is equal to the weight of the body and makes vertical oscillations of amplitude a. the mass being given a small vertical displacement. when the spring is extended to double its natural length. and if I is the length of the spring when the system is in equilibrium. Shew that part of the motion is simple harmonic. [S. moving to and fro through a distance 30 inches and making 15 complete oscillations per minute. whose other end isfixedat 0. and shew that. it passes through the origin. 1921] 4.

is attached to the mid-point of the string. it will oscillate with simple harmonic motion of period t^/p and of amplitude pa. what is the earliest time at which a ship drawing 28 ft. where t is the period and a the amplitude when P coincides with the midpoint of AB. It is subjected in addition to a constant force X. A body. and at low water 6J hours earlier it is 21 ft. and that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is 8. 1920] 9. An elastic string is stretched between two fixed points A and B in the same vertical line. A light elastic string is stretched between two points in the same vertical line.. shew that the mass of the body is approximately Fd/T. A particle is constrained to move along a straight line. and of magnitude sufficient to hold the particle in equilibrium at another point A. If the periodic time of small horizontal oscillations of the body is T2.. A particle is attached to C. T. 1924] 8. and the steady displacement of C is found to be 8.m.. distant I apart. of arbitrary magnitude and phase. and n = ^AP. assuming the rise and fall of the tide to be simple harmonic ? [S. Shew that a further small vertical displacement of C will cause the particle to execute a Simple Harmonic Motion. after which it ceases. The particle being initially at rest at 0. For what value of t (expressed as a fraction of the natural period T) will the particle arrive at A with zero velocity ? [M. acting in the same straight line away from 0. On a given day the depth at high water over a harbour bar is 32 ft. and the weight of the string may be neglected. PB/AB2. CB of unequal lengths and elasticities. 10. T. B being below A. Shew that the periodic time. Both portions of the' string are assumed to be in tension throughout. A string AB consists of two portions AC. can cross the bar. [S. The tension in the string is F. 1917] 11. Shew that the most general motion possible to the particle is a simple harmonic oscillation. 6 ins.1927] . Tlt of small vertical oscillations of the body is the same as that of a simple pendulum of length d.EXAMPLES 101 7. The composite string is stretched and held in a vertical position with the ends A and B secured. about the point A as centre. whose weight is small compared with F. If high water is due at 3. the force X is applied and maintained constant for an interval t.20 p. The string may be assumed taut throughout. if a particle is fixed to a point P of the string and released from rest in that position. [M. and is attracted towards a fixed point 0 in that line by a force proportional to its distance from 0. causing it to sink a distance d. Prove that.

prove that he falls clear of the ship. hangs from a long elastic string which extends 0-25 inch for every pound of load. Placing Hades at the centre of the Earth and assuming that the acceleration downwards varies directly as the distance from the centre (and is 32 ft./sec.2 at the Earth's surface). The man weighs 200 lb. units. 1918] 16. shew that Hesiod's figures would give a value of about 15 x 108 miles for the Earth's radius. A particle is attached to a point on the string and when the particle is in equilibrium the string forms the three sides of an equilateral triangle. Prove that the period of vibration of the particle in a vertical line is the same as that of a pendulum of length ^ 6 . Find where it will hit the water. he is thrown off the mast. [S. then the motion of the projection of the point on the directrix is also simple harmonic and of double the period. [S. Prove that the period of vibration of the particle in a vertical line through its equilibrium position is the same as that of a simple pendulum of length a.102 HARMONIC MOTION [VII 12. and his horizontal hold failing at 501b. A man at the masthead 100 feet above the deck is swung to and fro 25 feet on either side of the vertical with a motion which is approximately horizontal and simple harmonic. A ship is rolling with a period of 10 sees. [S. According to Hesiod the anvil of Vulcan would take 9 days and 9 nights to fall from the Earth to the realms of Hades. A particle when hanging in equilibrium at the end of a light elastic string stretches it a distance a. [S. Prove that if a point move in an arc of a parabola having the vertex as middle point so that the motion of the projection of the point on the axis of the parabola is simple harmonic. T. 1913] 13. A light endless elastic string of unstretched length 26 passes over two small smooth pegs on the same level distant b apart. when the upper end of the string is suddenly brought to rest. 1924] 17. A mass of 12 lb. 1924] . The string and the given mass are moving upwards in relative equilibrium with uniform velocity 2 feet per second. A ship is making n complete rolls a minute and the motion of the masthead h feet above sea level may be taken as a horizontal simple harmonic motion of total extent 2a. [Assume TT2 = 1 0 and # = 32 f. Find the distance through which the mass will oscillate.] [M. 1915] 15.s. The width of the deck being 80 feet. and prove that the distance of this point from the ship will be a maximum when ( ) ~*approx[S 192V] - 14. When at a distance x from the mean position a weight falls from the masthead.

20. A ring of mass m can slide on a smooth circular wire of radius a in a horizontal plane. CB fastened at points A. A (cc-~~C) where a is the length of the diagonal of the square and a is so much greater than I that the strings remain stretched.\'IV) = (X . The ring is fastened by an elastic string to a point in the plane of the circle at a distance c ( > a) from its centre. B at the same level.a) is its natural length.\ ~\ . Find the equations of motion for small oscillations of the particle .T2)*. at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side 2a. If the particle is displaced a small distance towards one of the corners and then set free. Shew that if the particle can rest in equilibrium at the centre of the triangle.T. Shew that with this length of rope the distance in which the weight is stopped is 23.cos " 1 T\ To) T+ 2 (T<? . I' and I' and of moduli X. and that in this case the new motion has a period 2 (ff . Shew that. 1924] string and I < (c . if the upper end of the string is suddenly fixed.EXAMPLES 103 18. [S. where X is the modulus of elasticity of the [S.X') J3. 1909] 22. [S. It is required to bring to rest a weight W which has fallen freely from a height h by means of the direct pull of a rope of modulus X. A heavy particle hangs at one end of a light elastic string which is such that the period of a small vertical oscillation of the particle is 2irT. A particle of unit mass is tied by four equal elastic strings of natural length I and modulus of elasticity X to the corners of a square. The string is moving vertically upwards with uniform velocity gT0 and the particle is in relative equilibrium. A particle of mass m lies upon a smooth horizontal table and is attached to three points upon the table. A particle is hung at the end D of a light string CD knotted at C to two equal light strings AC. one end of which is attached to it and the other to a point at a variable height vertically above. Shew that if the ring makes small oscillations about its position of equilibrium the period is 2n. [S. prove that the time of a small oscillation is n*/ • . X' and X' respectively. 1926] 19. by means of three strings of natural lengths I. the string will become slack if TQ is greater than T. 1926] 21. Find the minimum length of rope if the tension is not to exceed a given value T. then 2a (\/l . Find also the period of a small oscillation of the particle in the line of the string of natural length I.

shew that. -098.104 HARMONIC MOTION [VII in the vertical plane through AB. If a is the depth of G below AB in equilibrium. 4. 4-24 ins. 15. 4-5 ins. IT. [M. 22. 56m. 57s. the particle may be made to describe an arc of a parabola. 10. and in the vertical plane through C perpendicular to AB. 2. 1922] ANSWERS 2. 11. U f) + f - 2\Wh/(T22TW) . when a=36. 20. and CD = b. T. l-gjA^nK 6. and integrate them. Oh.

and the pressure will vanish at the point where the particle leaves the surface. y mvdv d$ V o X If m is the mass of the particle the forces acting on it are the weight mg and the reaction R along the normal. so that the resolved parts in any assigned direction in the two diagrams are equal. The motion is determined by the tangential and normal components of acceleration. There will then be a normal pressure inwards exerted by the sphere on the particle so long as contact persists. and the constraint may be one-sided. or a bead moves along a wire. A particle may be constrained to move along a given curve or surface. On the other hand if the constraint is two-sided as when a particle moves in a fine tube. one showing the components of acceleration multiplied by the mass and the other showing the forces. as for example when a heavy particle slides on the inside of a spherical surface and is free to break contact with the surface on the inside of the sphere but cannot get outside. 82. Motion of a Heavy Particle on a Smooth Curve in a Vertical Plane.Chapter VIII MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINT 8*1. The beginner may find it useful in such problems as this to make two diagrams. It is then only necessary to realize that the two diagrams are equivalent representations of the same vector. then the normal reaction may vanish and change sign but the particle persists in the prescribed path. The components of acceleration are vdvjds along the tangent and v2/p .

Motion of a Heavy Particle. if v0 is the velocity when the ordinate is y0. and A a is the radius of the circle and v the velocity at P where the angular distance from A is 6. the values of p and -v/r at any point can be determined. Therefore R = mg (3 cos 0 — 2 cos a).106 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINT [VIII along the inward normal (5'11). therefore. v2 = 2ga (cos a — cos 0). resolving along the normal. so the increase in kinetic energy is equal to the work done by the weight. we get (2). 83. by resolving along the tangent. from 82 (1). we have %m(v2-v02) = mg(y0-y) (1). then. If the particle starts from Q at an angular distance a from the highest point A. if any. or. and thus R is known. . Hence. Also by resolving along the inward normal mv2/a = mg cos 6 — R. R = mg cos -*jr+ m{v02+ 2g(yo-y)}/p Assuming that the form of the curve is given. when cos 8 = f cos a. This is the equation of energy and might have been written down at once. we have (3). mv2/p — R — mg cos yjr Substituting for v from (1). Again. where R is the outward reaction of the curve. by integration. and if we equate to zero the value of R we shall have an equation to determine the point. placed on the outside of a Smooth Circle in a Vertical Plane and allowed to slide down. shewing that the pressure vanishes. we get mvdv/ds = — mg sin i|r = — mgdy/ds. at which the particle leaves the curve. and that the particle flies off the curve. for since the curve is smooth no work is done by the reaction R in any displacement.

given by (4) smaller than that given by (3). (ii) If v? = 2ga..(l). the tension just vanishes in the highest position. neither v nor T vanish. (iii) If 2ga <u2< 5ga. the string does not reach the horizontal position and the tension does not vanish. cos 0 = — u2 We have the following cases: (i) If u2 < 2ga. Therefore T = m (3g cos 6 . so that circular motion persists. the string just reaches the horizontal position. we find that the tension vanishes when (4). (iv) If u2 = bga. and get (3). so that the string becomes slack before the velocity vanishes and the particle will fall away from the circular path and move in a parabola till the string again becomes taut.8-2-8-31] MOTION IN A VERTICAL CIRCLE 107 8-31. the tension vanishes for 0 = ^ IT. (v) If w2 > 5ga. 2gacos0 = 2ga-u2 and by putting T = 0 in (2). the equation of energy is \m(y2 — u2) — — mga(l — cos#). we consider that of . and by resolving along the inward normal mv2/a = T— mg cos 8. This is an example of a one-sided constraint. Motion in a Vertical Plane of a Heavy Particle attached by a Pine String to a Fixed Point. and the particle swings through a quadrant on each side of the vertical. an obtuse angle. To find the height of ascent we put v = 0 in (1). If v is the velocity at P and 0 is the angle that the string makes with the vertical. we find that there is a value of 0. Suppose that the particle starts with velocity u from its lowest position B. but v does not vanish. if instead of the problem of a particle attached to a string. where T is the tension of the string.2g + u2/a) (2)..

As the rolling proceeds the curve is repeated with a cusp at A and wherever P reaches the fixed line. Let A be the position of P when it is on the given line. PO ° T x is therefore normal to the path of P and the tangent PT passes through the other end of the diameter through G. so that and by integration ds = 4a cos s = 4a sin yjr (]). Let the angle PTx — yjr.108 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINT [VIII a bead sliding on a wire. G the centre of the circle. the instan. so that x = 0T+GP sin 2f = a (2f + sin and y = GT-GP cos 2f = a(lcos 2i|r). AGD the line on which it rolls. and if PGP' is a diameter and GD = arc GP'. then since the circle rolls we have A G = arc GP. we find that if u2 = 4<ga the bead will reach the highest point of the wire and for any greater value of u it will describe the complete circle. .e. we have = 4>a2 {(1 + cos 2i/r f + sin 2 = 8a2 (1 + cos 2f) difr2 = 16a2 cos2fdf2. i. which is called the vertex of the curve. A cycloid is a curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle as the circle rolls along a straight line. and P will then be at 0. if s denote the arc OP. Then the angle PGT in the alternate segment is also T|T and PGT is 2ifr. then P' will coincide with D when the circle has turned through an angle ir. 8'4. These are the ' parametric' equations of the cycloid. For the intrinsic equation. Cyeloidal Motion. Let P be the point on the circumference. Take axes Ox parallel to DA and Oy along 0D. the line AD being called the base. y be the coordinates of P and a the radius of the circle.^ taneous centre of rotation. and let x. 0 the point of contact.

This property is called the ' isochronism of the cycloid. Also if we draw an equal circle to pass through Q and touch AG at G. Now let us consider the motion of a particle under gravity on a smooth cycloid in a vertical plane with its base horizontal and vertex downwards. but s = 4<z sin y}r. A cusp of one cycloid corresponding to a vertex of the other and vice versa. Resolving along the tangent we have ms = — mg sin yfr. . ' This equation represents a periodic motion. so that if PG be produced to Q so that GQ = PG.8-31-8-4] CYCLOIDAL MOTION 109 and this is the intrinsic equation. This can be attained by making the string that supports the bob wrap and unwrap itself on cycloidal arcs.' We recall that the formula 2ir *J(l/g) obtained for the period of vibration of a simple pendulum depended on the amplitude being so small that 6 can be used for sin 6. the time of oscilla^y? irmg tion being 2v »J(4<a/g). and we now see that if the ' bob' of the pendulum could be made to move in a cycloidal path the formula for the period of vibration would be independent of the amplitude. It follows ^ that the particle oscillates on ° either side of the vertex with a period that is independent of the amplitude. then Q is the centre of curvature. We notice that the radius of curvature p = dsjd^r = 4a cos ty = 2PG. no constant of integration being required since s and yfr vanish together. it is easily seen that the locus of centres of curvature or evolute of the cycloid could be constructed by rolling this second circle along a parallel line EB. R therefore s = — gsj^a.

The tension in the string has the values m W and n W. when the particle is at the highest and lowest points in its path. Hence if a string of length 4a had one end fastened at B and were wrapt round the curves BA and BA' alternately. A heavy particle slides under gravity down the inside of a smooth circular tube held in a vertical plane. Shew that n = m + 6. [S. and a particle attached to P moving under gravity and the tension of the string would oscillate in the time 2TT V(4a/(?) whatever be the amplitude of the oscillation within the limits AOA'. EXAMPLES 1. The particle starts at the highest point with the velocity it would acquire if it fell down the radius. arc AB = 4a. respectively. 1927] 2. describes a circle in a vertical plane. [M. T. prove that when in the subsequent motion the vertical component of its acceleration is a maximum the pressure on the curve is equal to twice the weight of the particle. the other end P would trace out the cycloid AOA'. attached to a fixed point by a light inextensible string. A heavy particle of weight W. from (1) the arc AQ = 4a sin QGD while = QP. 1919] .110 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINT [ VIXI Thus in the second figure.

which is horizontal. The particles are then slightly displaced in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Shew that during the circular motion the tension of the string at any time is proportional to the depth of the particle at that moment below a certain horizontal line . the pressure on the other is rather more than three-fourths of its weight. A particle slides down the surface of a smooth fixed sphere of radius a. the velocity at the lowest point being u. Shew also that if the particle is projected from P downwards along the curve with velocity equal to that with which it reaches A when starting from rest at P. 1912] 8. Their masses are m. hanging from a fixed point by a light inextensible string of length a. [S. A heavy particle. shew that the tension of the string when it makes an angle 8 with the horizontal is tanacos^ m+m' ' rg ?. A particle starts from rest at any point P in the arc of a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex A downwards. and shew that it will afterwards describe a parabola of latus rectum ^f a. Two beads connected by a string are held at rest on a vertical circular wire with the string horizontal. and find the values between which V must lie that the string may become slack. 1916] 5. being slightly displaced from rest at the highest point. [S. from the L • J 7. is projected horizontally with velocity V. and above the centre.8-4] EXAMPLES 111 3. Find where it will leave the sphere. A particle is projected along the inner side of a smooth circle of radius a. prove that the time of descent to the vertex is n. [S. the radius of the cylinder being a. T. [S.. If the beads are released. and the string subtends an angle 2a at the centre. [M. and that it will strike the horizontal plane through the lowest point of the sphere at a distance —— 27 vertical diameter. 1916] 4. it will now reach A in half the time taken in the preceding case. Two equal particles are tied together by a light string of length 7ra/2 and rest in equilibrium on the surface of a smooth circular cylinder in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Shew that if u2 < bga the particle will leave the circle before arriving at the highest point and will describe a parabola whose latus rectum is 2 (u2 — 2ga)sj27gsa2. Prove that when the lower of the two particles leaves the surface. m'.» / . where a is the radius of the generating circle. 1918] 6. 1915] .

[S. fS. 1901] 13. [S. T. where u0 is the velocity at the vertex. Shew that the greatest admissible gradient such that the second car does not leave the track is cos"1 ^f. A particle is constrained to move under gravity on a parabola with axis vertical and vertex upwards. A switchback railway consists of straight stretches smoothly joined by circular arcs. A level and a straight descending stretch are smoothly joined by an arc of radius a. A particle of mass m is attached by a string to a point on the circumference of a fixed circular cylinder of radius a whose axis is vertical. What is the meaning of the special case u^=gl ? [M. 1924] . A bead of mass m slides down the wire starting from rest at x = j n. [S. The particle is projected with velocity v at right angles to the string along a smooth horizontal plane so that the string winds itself round the cylinder. the string will break when it has turned through an angle l/a-mv^/aT. the whole lying in a vertical plane. Shew that the acceleration makes with the normal an angle tan" 1 (J tan PRQ). 1927] 14. A smooth wire is bent into the form y = s i n # and placed in a vertical plane with the axis of x horizontal. but that if braking is available up to half the weight of the car. 1921] 12. The forces vary as the distance and are equal at equal distances. Shew that the pressure on the curve is numerically m{u^—gl)jp. The centre of curvature at P is Q. and resistance to motion other than braking. 1912] 11. %l the latus rectum and p the radius of curvature at any point.112 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINT [VIII 9. [Neglect the size of the cars. (iii) that if the initial length of the string is I and the greatest tension the string can bear is T. (ii) that the tension in the string is inversely proportional to the length which remains straight at any moment. Shew (i) that the velocity of the particle is constant. the string being initially horizontal and tangential to the cylinder.] [S. A heavy particle P slides on a smooth curve of any form in a vertical plane. Prove that the pressure on the wire is constant. Two equal cars without brakes are joined by a cable of length 2a. 1927] 10. Shew that a car started on a level stretch and running freely will leave the track if the downward gradient exceed cos" 1 ! at any point. and R is on the same vertical as Q and at the level of zero velocity. gradients of about 77° are admissible. and find the pressure as it passes through x= —\TT. A bead moves on a smooth circular wire under the action of forces tending to the corners of a regular polygon concentric with the circle. Shew that the pressure on the wire as the bead passes through the origin is mg/^2.

.EXAMPLES 113 15. prove that the angle 6 through which the wheel will turn before the ring slides is given by the equation cos(#—A)/cosX + (B2a/<7 = 0. [S. A small ring fits loosely on a rough spoke (length a) of a wheel which can turn about a horizontal axle and the ring is originally at rest in contact with the lowest point of the rim : if the wheel is now made to revolve with uniform angular velocity a. where X is the angle of friction. 1910] ANSWER 11.

In this case any momentum which is produced or destroyed in any assigned direction is accompanied by the production or destruction of an equal momentum in the opposite direction. (00%. w2. be the coordinates of a system of particles of masses m1( m-ir etc. Hence it follows that. When two or more particles are moving in such a manner that the motion of any one is affected by the presence of the others we have to make use of another law enunciated by Newton. In explicit terms this means that if a body A exerts a force F on a body B. or. F2'. attracting or repelling each other or acting on one another by contact. are Zi'. Let the particles be subject to given external forces whose components parallel to the axes are X 1 . etc. This is the principle of conservation of linear momentum. and also to internal actions and reactions due to the mutual actions of the particles upon one another of which the components on m1. So far we have been concerned with the motion of a single particle. y2).. Y2. Y{. etc. F. etc. then B exerts an equal force F on A but in the opposite direction. X. the actions of two bodies on one another are always equal and opposite. etc. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 91. viz. Xt. of the system.Chapter IX THE LAW OF REACTION. the total •momentum. Motion of a system of particles. either for a finite time or by instantaneous impulses. in any assigned direction remains constant. .'. Action and Reaction are equal and opposite. Let (xlt y{). or through connections by means of strings or rods. Consequently the momentum communicated to A by the action of B is equal and opposite to the momentum communicated to B by the action of A. if no external forces act on a system of bodies. Consider the case of a system of bodies. 92.

2my = 2 F (3).?/i «i) = *iFt-yiZ14•xxYx «l 2 (#2^2 — Vix.y2X2'. i. hence %{xY'-yX') is the sum of the o * X i i X .i) = x2Y2-y2Xi -yxXj > + x2Y2' . etc.9'l-9'2] CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM Writing down the equations of motion for the separate particles. the rate of change of the linear momentum of the whole system in any prescribed direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external forces in that direction. etc. Y located at the point (x. from equations (1). Hence equations (2) reduce to XmS = XX.. i. say the axis of a. by integrating Xmx = 0 we get 2 mx = const. or. Whence by addition "l 2 and Now by the law of reaction the internal actions and reactions are equal and opposite in pairs. i. we deduce that mx (xxyx . This is again the principle of conservation of linear momentum. whence by addition y Xm (xy . It follows that if there is a direction. in which the sum of the resolved parts of the external forces is zero. we have m2y2=Y2+Y2' etc. etc.. Again.yx) = %(xY-yX)-ht(xY'-yX'). 2X = 0. so that the sums of their resolved parts in any direction must vanish.y) is xY-yX. then. Now the moment about the origin of a vector whose components are X. (1).. the linear momentum in that direction is constant. in words.e. by multiplying each y equation by the corresponding x and each x equation by the corresponding y and subtracting. 2X' = 0 and 2 F ' = 0.e.e.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES [iX moments about the origin of the internal actions and reactions. y the coordinates of the centre of gravity G. Moment of momentum is frequently called angular momentum. the rate of change of moment of momentum of the system about any fixed origin (or axis) is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about that origin (or axis). 9'21. or. which are equal and opposite in pairs. and the principles embodied in equations (3) and (4) of the last article are that for any system of particles the effective forces are the exact equivalent of the external forces acting on the system. If M be the whole mass of the system of particles and x. My = %my. . moving with the velocity of the centre of gravity. This is the principle of conservation of moment of momentum. By differentiating these equations we get Mx = "Zmx. it follows that the moment of momentum of the system about that axis is constant. shewing that the linear momentum of the system is the same as that of a particle whose mass is the whole mass. The product of the mass and the acceleration of a particle is called the effective force of the particle. (4). in words. Therefore 2 O F ' . the usual formulae for the position of the centre of gravity are Mx = "tmx. 93. Independence of Translation and Rotation.116 THE LAW OF REACTION. Motion of the Centre of Gravity. and we have tm(xy-yx)=^(xY-yX) This may also be written j t tm (xy ~yx)=t(xYyX). Effective Forces. If the sum of the moments of the external forces about any fixed axis is zero.2 / X ' ) = 0. My = %my (1).

My = %my.ylX + 2 (x' Y . from (1). In virtue of (2) this equation reduces to 2. y = y+y'. the rate of change of moment of momentum about the centre of gravity is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about the centre of gravity. The results of this article shew that the motion of the centre of gravity and of the system relative to the centre of gravity are independent of one another and this constitutes the principle of the independence of translation and rotation.+ y') (^ + x)) Multiplying out and observing that such terms as 2/rrixy' = *2my' = 0. It follows that if the system is not acted upon by external forces its centre of gravity is either at rest or moving with constant velocity.9'2-9'3] INDEPENDENCE OF TRANSLATION AND ROTATION 117 A second differentiation gives Mx = limx. in the motion of the system relative to the centre of gravity. Again in equation (4) of 9'2 we put X=x+x.y'X).. . therefore from (3) of 9-2 M = 2X.y'x') = *2 Y .(y. so that by differentiation 2m»' ="%my= 0. for in this case the integration of equation (2) gives Mx = const. y denote coordinates of the particle of mass m relative to axes through the centre of gravity G. and (4) of 92 becomes 2m {(x + x') (y + y) .7. shewing that. then.mW-y'x') = 2. My — const.yx) + 2m (xtf . and these equations shew that the motion of the centre of gravity 0 is the same as if all the mass were collected into a particle at G and all the external forces were moved parallel to themselves to act at G.(af7-i/X) (3). (2). My =2. there remains M {xy .my = 0. 2ma/ = 2. so that x.

118 THE LAW OF REACTION. or |{ The left-hand side is the rate of increase of the kinetic energy of the system. Reverting to equations (1) of 9'2. by multiplying each equation by the corresponding velocity component and adding. Kinetic Energy in reference to Centre of Gravity. so that Xmx' = %my = 0. But %mx' = Xmy' = 0. and the kinetic energy = £ M (x2 + y2) + $ £m (a/2 + y'2). In all cases in which the potential energy depends on the configuration of the system and in which the change of potential energy due to a change of configuration is independent of the manner in which that change is made. Kinetic energy may be created by explosions. the work done will be equal to the loss of potential energy. From this we conclude that the increase of kinetic energy in any time is equal to the whole work done. and the right-hand side is the rate at which all the forces external and internal are doing work. Similarly kinetic energy may be dissipated by friction when it is converted into heat. GENERAL PRINCIPLES [iX 94. Using the notation of 9-3. Conservation of Energy. The kinetic energy of a system of particles is equal to the kinetic energy of the whole mass moving with the velocity of the centre of gravity together with the kinetic energy of the particles in their motion relative to the centre of gravity. in which case the visible kinetic energy together with the heat developed are the equivalent of the chemical energy stored in the explosive substance. Whence it follows that kinetic energy + potential energy = constant. which proves the proposition. 95. we have that the kinetic energy = \M (x2 + f) + xXmx + ytmy + \ Xm (x2 + y'2). . we get Xm (xx + yy) = t {(X + X') A + (Y+ Y')y].

Whether any particular force is to be classed as external or internal depends on the way in which we regard the particles composing the system. but in considering the motion of the earth and moon regarded as one system moving about the sun the gravitational pull of the earth on the moon or the moon on the earth is an internal force. A rigid body is considered to be an aggregation of particles bound together by forces of cohesion and internal mutual attractions which are in all cases equal and opposite. Moreover many problems about rigid bodies not involving rotational properties may be solved by elementary methods in virtue of the principle that the motion of the centre of gravity 0 is the same as if all the mass were collected into a particle at Q and all the external forces were moved parallel to themselves to act at G. It is only when we are concerned with rotational motion relative to the centre of gravity that the size and shape come into consideration. for upon them depend the moment of momentum and the moments of the forces. In the last few articles we have distinguished between external and internal forces. In the chapter on rectilinear motion when we applied the second law of motion to rigid bodies or cars and trains we considered every particle of the body to be moving with the same acceleration. 9"8. Rigid Bodies. Thus if we are considering the motion of a single particle A. . and any assumptions there made which might seem to need further justification find it in the principles established in 9 3 of this chapter. then all the forces acting upon it are classed as ' external forces. Consequently the motion of the centre of gravity of such a body does not depend upon its size or shape but only upon its mass and the resultant of the external forces acting upon it. The force of gravity is an external force in considering the motion of a body relative to the earth.94-9-8] RIGID BODIES 119 9 6. The results obtained in this chapter for a system of particles are therefore true for a rigid body.' but if we are considering a system composed of two particles A and B then the forces exerted by B on A and A on B are internal forces. 97.

and = (R+S) cos 6. and by taking moments about G (since there is no moment of momentum about G) we get {R-S)a=Fh.S=mv2h/ra. therefore Hence and 2 R . h the height of O and 2a the distance between the wheels. since this condition implies a negative pressure of the inner wheels on the ground which is an impossibility. 2R = mg+mv2h/ra. If r is the radius of curvature of the curve described by the centre of gravity O. 9'81. If the track be banked up to make an angle 6 with the horizontal and there is no sideways friction (i. R + S=mg. Let R. But the only force in this direction is friction on the wheels. we get. GENERAL PRINCIPLES [IX As an example let us find the condition that a car may upset when rounding a curve. We are concerned with the forces in planes at right angles to the direction of motion. The necessity for sideways friction F can be obviated by banking up the track. So if F is the total friction across the track we have F=mv2/r. S be the upward pressure of the ground on outer and inner wheels. Let v be the velocity and m the mass. Therefore the resultant of all the forces perpendicular to the direction of motion must be mv2jr. by resolving horizontally and vertically.120 THE LAW OF REACTION. then G has an acceleration v2/r inwards along the normal to its path. 2S=mg — mv2h/ra. Therefore v2 = rg tan 6 gives the velocity at which tendency to side-slip is eliminated for a track of slope 6.e. no tendency to side-slip). ) sin (9. . We conclude that if v > grajh the car will overturn outwards. Then by resolving vertically.

Prove that. the lateral gradient a being designed to reduce the tendency to side-slip to zero for a lower speed U.V) sin a cos o/(F2 sin2 a + U2 cos2 a). What ' superelevation' must be given to the outer rail in order that a train travelling round this curve at 30 and at 60 m. V. T. 1925] 6. and the fragments separate in a horizontal direction: shew that they strike the ground at a distance apart which is equal to I k ( ) \ [S. 1924] 8. the outer rail must be raised above the inner rail by 5'8 inches. 1916] 2. 1914] 3. a.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES 121 1. falls through 5 feet and drives a pile which weighs 600 lb. 1927] .) [M. (The rails are 4 feet 8 | inches apart.p. A gun of mass M fires a shell of mass m horizontally. T.OT2-The explosion produces an additional kinetic energy E. and at the highest point in its path the shell explodes into two fragmentsOTJ. Shew that the velocity of recoil of the gun is i. A pile-driver weighing 200 lb. A car takes a banked corner of a racing track at a speed V. [S. through a distance of 3 inches. How many foot-pounds of energy are dissipated during the blow ? [S. Shew that the coefficient of friction necessary to prevent side-slip for the greater speed V must be at least ( F « .h. Find the average resistance offered to the motion of the pile. A skater describes a circle of 40 feet radius with a velocity of 15 feet per second. [S. A railway of gauge 5 feet is taken round a curve of \ mile radius. 1921] 4. may impose the same side pressure on the inner and outer rail respectively 1 [M. [S. and the energy of the explosion is such as would be sufficient to project the shell vertically to a height h. Find the speed of the car if in going round a level track of 400 feet radius the inner wheels just leave the ground. At what angle must he lean inwards ? [S. A shell of mass (TOi-t-m2) i s fired with a velocity whose horizontal and vertical components are U. in order to allow properly for a curve on a railway line of radius 1320 feet for a train moving at 45 miles an hour. is 2 feet. assuming that the two remain in contact after the blow. 1926] 7. The wheel axles of a motor car are 4 feet long and the height of the c. 1928] 5.

is fired into a railway truck (containing sand) of mass 20 tons. If the two balls coalesce how long will they take to reach the ground 1 [S. [S. At the same moment a ball of equal mass is thrown from a point on the ground 50 feet from the foot of the tower so as to strike the first ball when just half-way down.. 5(^5-l)/4V2.s. weight per ton ? [M. find the velocity given to the truck and account for the conservation of energy in the phenomenon. 1000 lb. 750. Find how long it takes for the last truck to start and the value of the final velocity.. 6.-lb. 777. 9. 1927] 10. A set of n trucks with s feet clear between them are inelastic and are set in motion by starting the end one with velocity V towards the next. 4. A ball is dropped from the top of a tower 100 feet high. 2. shew that the direction of motion immediately after firing makes an angle of about 1° 21' with that before. and are fired at an elevation of 30°. wt.. 13.896 ft.-lb. 1265 ft.. through a distance of 4 inches. [S. assuming the two to remain in contact. 1926] 12.. T. If the shell fails to penetrate the sand. 20^/10 f. %n(n-l)s/V.000 tons is moving at 10 miles per hour and fires a salvo of all its eight guns in a direction perpendicular to its motion. How far will the truck run against a constant retarding force of 30 lb. Find in footpounds the energy dissipated in one stroke. A pile-driver weighing 2 cwt. the direction of motion being parallel to the rails. GENERAL PRINCIPLES [IX 9.. 12.s. 1917] ANSWERS 1. 3-45 ins. 11. 32ff f. 280 ft. Find the average resistance to the pile in cwt. and velocity 1350 feet per second. If the shells weigh 15 cwt. A battleship of symmetrical form and mass 30. .122 THE LAW OF REACTION.s.. 1921] 13. have a muzzle velocity of 2000 feet per second. 1922] 11. Vjn. 9° 58' to vertical. Find the initial velocity of projection of the second ball and the direction of projection. A shell of mass 1120 lb. specifying how much remains kinetic. falls through 5 feet and drives a pile weighing 6 cwt. 113-13 f. 7'5cwt. each. [S. tan" 1 2 above horizontal.

/ " denote the accelerations with which the strings are slipping over the pulleys as indicated in the figure. for if / . then the upward accelerations of »ii. / . so that the tension of each string is constant throughout its length. The latter are of masses mi. T'. Prove that the velocity of the wire at any instant. mb are Therefore m1f=T' -{2. 1927] . I t is not necessary to use five unknown quantities to denote the accelerations of the five masses. 10'2. m6f"=m5g-T. These equations are sufficient to determine the five unknown quantities /. two fixed and two movable. the uppermost side BC passing through smooth fixed rings in a horizontal line. CA. The figure shews an arrangement of pulleys. / ' . while both the beads are moving on it. and that the acceleration of the wire is J3(m'~ m) gl(4:M+ 3m + 3m'). is equal to the difference of the speeds of the beads relative to the wire. We shall now apply the principles already established to a few simple problems. The system begins to move with the beads at B and G respectively. m2 and •£ ^.ro5are attached to the free ends of the strings. The triangle can move horizontally in a vertical plane. Particles of mass mz. /". nii{f-f)=T-rrng. «i4. Beads of masses m and in' are free to slide on the wires BA. A fine smooth wire of mass M forms an equilateral triangle ABC. m4. Let the tensions be denoted by T. ms. the strings passing round them can slip without friction.T-m1g. r. T.Chapter X GENERAL PROBLEMS 101. [S. ro2.

m But. we get Therefore S'= (M+m cos2 a) g and F= mg sin a cos a.124 GENERAL PROBLEMS At time t from the start let V be the velocity of the wire and v.(2). Again differentiating (1) gives (M+ m + m!) V= \m'v' . 10'3. Shew that the pressure on the table is (M+ m cos2 a) g or (M+m) Mgj{M-\-mB\na (sin a . Let R be the reaction between the particle and the wedge. The wedge is of mass M and it rests on a rough horizontal table.. and by resolving at right angles to the wedge for the particle. </ §\c. we have m(v+V cos 60°) = mg cos 30°] and m'(v'. we get t M S=Mg+R cos «. £ and F the vertical reaction and the friction acting R between the table and the wedge. and noting that the velocities are all zero initially so that there is no constant of integration required. we get V=v' — v.(1). the face of a smooth wedge of inclination a to the horizontal. (i) If the wedge does not move we must have F< pS. Integrating this. according as the coefficient of friction ji is greater or less than m sin a cos a/(M+m cos2 a). Therefore MV+m(V+v cos60") +ro'(F-v'cos60°) = 0 . Therefore by subtraction v' — i= V.V OOB 60")=m'g cos 30" I' . v' the velocities of m. A particle of mass m slides down. m! relative to the wire. Hence this value of S is the value for the pressure provided that y. . > m sin a cos aj{M+m cos2 a)./ J cos a)}. resolving vertically and horis^ 9 | zontally for the wedge.. Since there is no external horizontal force acting on the system as a whole the horizontal momentum remains zero. F=Rsma (1).\ and substituting for v and v' from (2) we get so that V=s/z(m'-m)g. Resolving along BA for m and along CA for m'.

therefore Mx + m(x-ld sind) = 0 (1). The particle is held in contact with the wire with the string taut and is then let fall. This result could also be obtained from the consideration that the centre of gravity of the masses M and m undergoes no horizontal displacement.m cos2 a).cos 8)/(M+ TO).10-2-10-4] CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM AND ENERGY 125 (ii) If jti is less than this value there is not enough friction to prevent motion. we get Again. but from (1) Rcoaa = S — Mg. Eliminate / from (2) and (3). viz.\TT • momentum remains zero. Since there is no external horizontal force. the two values of S are the same. therefore m/sin o = mg cos a — R (3). so motion takes place and the friction F=pS. we get Mx+m (x + lcos 6) = ml. We note that if p. Let / be the acceleration of the wedge (from left to right in the figure) and / ' the acceleration of the particle relative to the wedge. Integrating and observing that initially x and 8 are both zero. the total horizontal ••. /sin a. . 1915] Suppose that the bead moves a distance x while the string turns through an angle 8. T. the acceleration of the particle m at right angles to the face of the wedge is the same as the acceleration of the wedge in this direction. 104. which is the required result. Prove that when the string is inclined to the wire at an angle 8 the bead will have slipped a distance ml (1 — cos 8)j{M+m) along the wire. Then the velocity of the bead is x and the particle m has a velocity 18 relative to the bead in addition to the velocity of the bead. therefore S {M+ m sin a (sin a — p cos a)} = (M+TO)Mg. Examples of conservation of momentum and energy. and that the angular velocity to of the string will be given by the equation (Jf+TOCos2 8) lto2=2(M+m)g sin 8. [M. and we get R (M+TOsin2 a) = pSm sin a + Mmg co$ a.=m sin a cos a/(M-\. (i) A bead of mass M can slide on a smooth straight horizontal wire and a particle of mass m is attached to the bead by a light string of length I. therefore x = ml (1 . Resolving horizontally for the wedge.

A particle of mass m is placed on the hemisphere at an angular distance a from the vertex. we get Mv=R sin 6.62 sin 0) and R vanishes when v vanishes. Suppose that .126 GENERAL PROBLEMS [x Again. (ii) A hemisphere of mass M is free to slide with its base on a smooth horizontal table. . by equating the kinetic energy to the work done by gravity we get $Mx2+im(x2 + l2d2-2xW8md) = mglsin6 and eliminating x from (1) and (2) gives (M+m cos20)l62=2(M+m)gsin 6. (2). Examples of Circular Motion. therefore \ Mv2+\m (v2 + a2 61 . Also the kinetic energy created is equal to the work done. To find at what point the particle leaves the hemisphere.2va6 cos 6) = mga (cos a -cos 6) The result of eliminating v between (1) and (2) is a82=2g (cos a-cos 6) (M+m)l(M+m sin2 6) (3). i. and then (1) gives the velocity of the hemisphere. 105. the surface of the hemisphere being smooth. By differentiating (3) we find 8\ then by equating 6oos0 to 8'2sind we find the equation for 6. viz. (2). which gives the velocity of the particle relative to the hemisphere. where h is the depth of the circle below the fixed point. A particle suspended by a thread from a fixed point is projected so as to describe a horizontal circle with uniform velocity.(M+ m) (3 cos 6 — 2 cos a) = 0. when 6 cos 6 = 62 sin 6. to determine the motion. But from (1) (M+ m)v=ma(6 cos 6 . the velocity of the particle being ad relative to the hemisphere.at time t the particle is at an angular distance 6 from the vertex. and that the hemisphere has acquired a velocity v. to prove that the time of revolution is lir \l(h\g).e. Then by resolving horizontally for the hemisphere. where a is the radius. let R denote the mutual reaction between them. therefore Mv+m (v-a6 cos 6)=0 (1). which determines the point at which the particle leaves the surface. m cos3 6 . Since there is no external horizontal force acting on the system as a whole the total horizontal momentum remains zero throughout the motion. Conical Pendulum.

T2) v foot-pounds per second. PN perpendicular to the axis is the radius of the circle described by P. and the work done per second by this couple is (Tt — T2) bco. Let b be the radius and w the angular velocity of the shaft B. And if the normal to the surface at P meets the axis at G. the acceleration of the particle is aP-l sin a towards the centre of the circle. and as in the last article <»2. > and the time of revolution = 2ir/a> = 2ir \l{hjg). or the horse-power transmitted is (Tx — T2) w/550. a belt round it and another shaft B will cause the latter to rotate. Therefore if m is the mass of the particle the effective force is m<oH sin a towards the centre of the circle and this is the resultant of the weight mg and the tension T. The moment about the centre of the forces producing the rotation of the shaft B is (2\ — T2) b. T2 pounds weight be the tensions in the tight and slack sides of the belt. or & 2 = gjh.10-4-10-6] CONICAL PENDULUM 127 If co is the angular velocity. Transmission of Energy. Thus if a shaft A be made to rotate by an engine. Hence by resolving horizontally and vertically mcoH sin a = T sin a. . and let Tt. Power is sometimes transmitted from one rotating shaft or pulley to another by means of a belt passing round both. 10-6. I the length of the string and a its inclination to the vertical. 1051. the forces on the particle in this case are its weight rag and the reaction R of mg the surface along PO. Thus if P be the particle. and mg = T cos a. Therefore a>2l = g sec a. Hence the rate of working is (Ti . NG=g. The problem of a particle describing a horizontal circle on the inside of a smooth surface of revolution with a vertical axis is solved in the same way. or (JPJ — T2) v if v is the linear velocity of the belt.

128 GENERAL PROBLEMS [X 107. and let Ss denote a short length PQ. Then. Suppose that the tension varies along the string being T at P and T+ST at Q. no matter what are the forces that make the string assume a curved form and whether it be at rest or in motion. Let s denote the length of a curved string or chain measured from a fixed point A on the string up to a point P. Dynamical problems can be solved in like manner by equating the components along tangent and normal of the effective forces of the element Ss to the components of the external forces together with ST and . Statical problems on strings or chains can be solved by resolving along tangent and normal for an element 8s and including in the equations along with the external forces acting on the element the forces ST and TSyjr. Neglecting squares and products of 8T and Si|r. Resolve the latter into components along the tangent and the inward normal at P. Q make angles yfr. and we get along the tangent -T + (T+ST)cosSf and along the inward normal (T +ST) sin Sf. these components are ST along the tangent in the sense in which s increases and TSty along the inward normal. the effect of the tensions of the rest of the string on the element Ss is represented by a force T along the tangent at P and a force T+ST along the tangent at Q. Let the tangents at P.yfr + Stfr with a fixed direction. Further problems on strings and chains.

Suppose that the friction is limiting. T = mv2. therefore 5>/T7 (T-mv^Bf^— . an endless chain under the action of no external force can run with uniform speed along a curve of any given form. if p is the radius of curvature. And if m is the mass per unit length. mBs the mass of a length Bs and let a be the radius of the pulley.10-7-10-71] STRINGS AND CHAINS 129 For example. 1071. there is no acceleration along the tangent. the mass of the element Bs is mBs. i. and then the chain will continue to run in the same curve for a long time. The tensions on the element Bs are equivalent to BT along the tangent and TBifr along the inward normal. and. and no external force. T The normal reaction of the pulley * on the element Bs of the belt may be denoted by RBs. If the speed of an endless chain be high the tension may be so great that external forces such as the weight of the chain are negligible in comparison. is the coefficient of friction. or T is constant. and a But Bs = aByfr. by considering the motion of this element and resolving along the inward normal we get but therefore p = Lim Bs/By]r. therefore BT = 0. Belt running on a Pulley at Uniform Speed. For. the velocity v being constant. just sufficient to prevent slipping of the belt on the pulley. whatever form the curve may have.e. and then the friction is fiR Bs if /J. Let v be the velocity of the belt. Resolving along the tangent and normal we have O = BT-fiRBs. // \ .

(1). t + 8t and -1) the velocity of the sand relative to the truck. B are the points where the belt leaves the pulley and TA. Initially the pail is at rest. Hence if A. v2. of sand is thrown out with velocity V—v. 1903] Let M be the mass of the truck and its contents at time t. If the belt is in contact with the pulley round a semicircle we have If the inertia of the belt is neglected the result becomes TB — Tj^ev. and thus doing H ft. and we measure i|r from the tangent at-A. there being no elasticity. Problems on Changing Mass. and strikes a pail which retains it. of work per second. by equating the momentum at time t + 8t to its value at time t. or T . so that v (ii) A mass m of water issues per unit time from a pipe with uniform velocity u. Prove that dV _m(u-Vf dt . and at a subsequent instant is moving in the direction of the steam with velocity V. (i) If a man on a truck running on smooth level rails is throwing out m Ib. The linear momentum is constant and. just as if the belt were at rest. and by (1) this = \m8t. of sand per second in a direction parallel to the rails. neglecting the product 8t 8 V. In time 8t a mass m8t lb.-lb.130 GENERAL PROBLEMS [X and.. V.(V. M8V-mv8t=O Again the work done in time 8t is Hg8t foot-poundals and this is equal to the increase in kinetic energy.fflji2 = Get1*. TB the tensions there. we get or. [M. we have T—TA when T|T = 0. log (T— mi)2) = /ui/r + const. so that G=TA — mvz.vf -1MV* = MV8V-m8t. T. and T-mvli=(TA-mv2)e'l+. Therefore Hg8t=£ (M. prove that the velocity of the sand relative to the truck is */(%E~g/m). V+ 8 V the velocities of the same at times t. 10*8. by integrating.m 8t) ( V+ 8 Vf + $ m 8t.

so that 8JT = —y?~—'dt. where Mis the mass of the pail. by conservation of linear momentum. and its momentum is m{u— V) 8t. = Mu because initially M' = 0 and V—0. Dividing (3) by (4) gives the result dV_m(udt JMit (2). Substituting in (1) we get (M+M1) 8 F = ^ ^ Eliminate bt from (2) and (3) and we get bM' _ bV M+M'~u-V' therefore (M+M')(u— V) = const. But the momentum of the pail and its contents at time t is {M + M') V and in time bt this increases to (M+M' + bM')(V+bV). the loss of energy up to this point is and on substituting the value of M' from (4) this gives \MuY. [S. Therefore pua—m.1O71-10-8] PROBLEMS ON CHANGING MASS 131 and that the loss of energy up to this instant is \MuV. (4). The increase must be equal to the momentum of the water that enters the pail. bt (3). But when the pail has velocity V the velocity of the stream relative to it is u — V and therefore the length of stream entering the pail in time bt is (u — V) bt and its mass is p (u— V) abt==— bt. the'volume is ua and the mass pua. But bM' is the mass of water added in time bt. V)3 Again. 1910] Let V denote the velocity of the pail and M' the mass of water in it at time t. 9-2 . since the velocity is u the length of the stream that emerges in unit time is u. If a denotes the cross-section and p the density of the stream of water. Therefore {M+M')bV+ VW = m(ii. and gravity is omitted from consideration..V)bt (1)..

and shew that the mass M will remain at rest provided that 2/J/"=l/m + l/TO'. 1918] neglecting the inertia of the pulleys. A light string passes over two smooth pulleys in the same horizontal line and carries masses m1. W balance on any system of pulleys with vertical strings. obtain expressions for the velocities and accelerations of the movable pulley and the masses. [8. If a weight w be attached to W. What distribution of masses between the various parts of the system would cause it to do so ? [S. A light string passes over a fixed smooth pulley and carries at one end a mass 6m. after falling 8 feet. impinges on a fixed inelastic support. A mass m lying on a smooth horizontal table is attached to a string which after passing over the edge of the table hangs in a loop on which a heavy smooth ring of mass M is threaded and then passes over a smooth fixed pulley and supports a mass m'. Use this system to verify the principle of the conservation of energy.132 GENERAL PROBLEMS [X EXAMPLES 1. 1917] 5. and shew that the system finally comes to rest 3 seconds from the beginning of the motion. and at the other a smooth pulley of mass 3m over which passes a second light string carrying masses 2m and m at its ends. and that in that case the acceleration of the centre of gravity of the three masses is (mt-mg) 2 TS 19001 3. and explain why it does not illustrate the principle of the conservation of linear momentum. The system starts from rest and the heavier particle. 1924] . [S. «i2 at its extremities and a smooth ring of mass m3 free to slide on the string between the pulleys. Two weights W. If all parts of the string hang vertically. shew that it will descend with acceleration + W(W+WT\ 'w ] ' [S. Two particles of masses m and 3m are connected by a fine string passing over a fixed smooth pulley. prove that the ring will remain at rest provided ) = <±m1m2. determine the tension of the string. 1924] 4. If the free portions of the string are vertical and the whole system lies in a vertical plane. 2. Assuming that the system moves from rest. Find the velocity with which it is next jerked off the support.

and slope 30°. is placed on the smooth face of an inclined plane of mass 7 lb. A particle of mass m is projected directly up the face of the wedge with velocity V. Prove that the acceleration of the wedge is —=j-^ find the pressure between the particle and the wedge. A smooth wedge of mass M and angle a is free to move on a smooth horizontal plane in a direction perpendicular to its edge. m! are attached. if M be the mass of the wedge. then ). 1907] . Determine the direction in which the shell is moving when it leaves the gun. 1899] 11.m')2g sin a cos a M{m + m') + (m — m')2 sin2 a + imm!' assuming that the motion is in planes of greatest slope. which is free to slide on a smooth horizontal plane in a direction perpendicular to its edge. Two equal particles A and B are connected by a light inextensible string of length a which is stretched at full length perpendicular to the edge of the table. Prove that. A smooth wedge of inclination o is placed on a horizontal table . its acceleration is (»i . [S. Prove that it returns to the point on the wedge from which it was projected after a time 2 V (M+ m sin2 o)/{(w+M) g sin a}. to the extremities of which masses m. the elevation of the gun being a.EXAMPLES 133 6. The wedge moves (edge foremost) along a smooth horizontal plane under the action of a constant horizontal force P perpendicular to its edge. passes round a smooth peg which projects from the upper face of the wedge. The particle A is drawn just over the edge of the table and is then released from rest in this position. [S. Shew that if the system starts from rest the particle will slide down a distance of 15 feet along the face of the plane in 1-25 seconds. and shew that. 1923] 9. if the shell strikes at right angles the plane that passes through the point of projection and is inclined to the horizontal at an angle /3. Also find the pressure between the particle and the wedge at any time. [S. Describe the nature of the subsequent motion and shew that after B leaves the table the centre of inertia of the two particles describes a parabola of latus rectum a/2. the particles being in contact with the same face of the wedge. all the motion being parallel to the same vertical plane. 1917] 10. From a gun of mass M which can recoil freely on a horizontal platform a shell of mass m is fired with velocity v. [S. and [S. a string. A particle of mass 2 lb. 1917] 7. A particle of mass m is placed on the smooth slant surface of a wedge of mass M and angle o. ~—cc . 1924] 8. [S.

which is free to move on a smooth horizontal plane. shew that the smaller particle will move up the face on which it is placed if . the part BC is vertical. The system is released from rest Apply the principles of . The part AB is horizontal and slides freely through two fixed rings. 1915] L J ^ J/sin 2 a+m 15. and X' is the angle of friction for the wedge and the table.134 GENERAL PROBLEMS [X 12. Prove that. ro tan /3 < v/"---9 . and are connected by a string passing over a smooth pulley of negligible mass at B. Solve the same problem when the wedge. [S. . A particle of mass m slides down the rough inclined face of a wedge of mass M and inclination o.. is made to move in the same direction as before with constant velocity V. 1925] 14. Two particles of mass M and m (M>m) are placed on the two smooth faces of a light wedge which rests on a smooth horizontal plane. [S. A smooth wedge of mass M resting on a horizontal plane is subject to smooth constraints so that it can only move along the plane in a direction at right angles to the intersections of its slant faces with the plane. X is the angle of friction for the particle and the wedge. Particles P. move without friction in AB. Shew that the wedge moves with constant acceleration and that the path of the particle on the surface of the wedge is a parabola of latus rectum 2M2 J/"+msin 2 a g {M+m)sm. i/sin a cos a .. If the system starts from rest. BC. A tube ABC of mass rn is bent at right angles at B. if the particle slides down. The faces of the wedge are inclined to the horizontal at angles a and /3. Shew that the time of describing any distance from rest is less than the time taken when the wedge is fixed in the ratio f \ M+m J ( 1 13. each of mass rn. instead of being free to move. the wedge will begin to move provided that m cos X sin X' -17 >" where a is the inclination of the face of the wedge to the horizontal. A particle of mass m is moving along a face of the wedge which is inclined to the horizontal at an angle a so that the component velocity of the particle perpendicular to the line of greatest slope is «. respectively.a' Verify that the principle of conservation of energy holds good in this case.. A particle of mass m is placed on the inclined face of a wedge of mass M which rests on a rough horizontal table.. Q. [S. 1924] 16.

The system is caused to execute small vertical oscillations. M being below m. 1917] 18. if the particles are released. when Q has fallen a distance y from its initial position. [S. where p. AQ in the position of equilibrium. its vertical velocity is ij(6gyl§). Shew that the vertical and horizontal components of the acceleration of Q are 3#/5 and g/5. Shew also that the resultant vertical pressure on the tube is / x2 \ W I 1 cos o cos B). shew that when a length x has passed over A in the direction of P both the velocity and the acceleration vary as x. passes through smooth rings B. q are the lengths AP. T.x). AC make angles a. [The total length of the string is greater than 10a/3. Two particles. masses M and m {M> m). and that the tension of the string at A varies as (p +x) (q. provided that tan 2 o is greater than (3M+m) (Mro)/m2. [S. attached to the ring is a light string passing over a smooth peg distant a from the rod. T. which passes over a smooth peg at a height I above a smooth plane inclined at an angle a to the vertical. are attached to the ends of a string. length 21. 1915] 21. and at the other end of the string is a mass M(>m). 1923] 20.] Shew that when C has fallen through 3a/4 from 0. A light string ABCDE. C. [M. Prove that. suspended at its upper end. the middle point of BD. A smooth straight tube BAC is bent at A and is fixed in a vertical plane so that AB. whose middle point is C. m will oscillate through a vertical distance 2M (M-m) ll(m2 sec2 a — Jf2). A mass m is suspended at the lower end of a vertical elastic wire of mass m and length L. 1922] 17. The ring is held on a level with the peg and released: shew that it first comes to rest after falling a distance W^rf[S. /3 on opposite sides of the vertical. 1922] 19. D which are fixed in a horizontal plane at a distance 2a apart. Assuming that the wire can be treated as uniformly stretched throughout the motion. its velocity is [M.EXAMPLES 135 momentum and energy to shew that. shew that the . To each of the points A. Shew that 0 will come instantaneously to rest when 0C=4a/3. \ PI I where W is the weight of the string. and is then set free. A heavy uniform string PAQ in the tube is slightly displaced from the position of equilibrium . The particles are initially held at rest on the plane at the point vertically below the peg. E is attached a mass m. A ring of mass m slides on a smooth vertical rod. Initially 0 is held at rest at 0.

Prove that Icosd+acot6=gl<o2. 24.136 GENERAL PROBLEMS i [X kinetic energy of the system is \x (M+\m). [M.T. 1924] . where k is such that unit force produces an extension of k units in unit length of the wire. ring of mass m free to slide on a smooth horizontal rod. A horizontal bar AB of length a is made to rotate with a constant angular velocity a about a vertical axis through the end B. [M. are joined by a rod of negligible mass and of length a. 1914] particle of mass m' is attached by a light inextensible string of to a. If a particle is attached to A by a string of length I.: if the rod is just disturbed from its position of unstable equilibrium. the string makes an angle 6 with the vertical when the motion is steady. B respectively of a weightless rigid rod. One particle rests on a smooth horizontal plane and the other is vertically above it. Exam. it will oscillate through a distance ArnMaj^M2 — 4wi2) and find the greatest velocity of m. and find the tension in the string. Two particles of masses 7m and 3m are fastened to the ends A. Shew that when its inclination to the vertical is 60° the velocity of the lower particle is */(ga/l4:). where x is the displacement of the mass M from its equilibrium position. [S. [S. Two equal particles A. Two particles. 1921] 22. if m is dropped from the point in the rod in the same horizontal line as the peg. from A. each of mass m. provided M> 2m. which is freely hinged at a point 0. 1926] 27. Hence shew that the time of a complete oscillation is 2irJ{kL(M+^m)}. Prove that. The system is released from rest in this position. B attached to the ends of a light string of length a are placed on a smooth horizontal table with the string AB perpendicular to the edge of the table and B hanging just over the edge. then. 1923] 23. A length I Initially they are string is [M. A heavy ring of mass m slides on a fixed smooth vertical rod and is attached to a fine string which passes over a smooth peg distant a from the rod and then after passing through a smooth ring of mass M is tied to the peg. the two masses are held with the string taut along the rod and then set free. [S. Prove that the greatest angular velocity of the Also shew that the time of a small oscillation about the vertical is 2TT \lm/g (m + ro')}*[Coll. 1910] 26. 15 ft. T. The upper particle is given a small displacement so that the rod begins to fall. 5 ft. 1914] 25. Prove that when first the string is horizontal the distance of B from the vertical through the edge of the table is Ja (n . prove that the velocity with which A will pass through its position of stable equilibrium is ^ \f'Z80g.2). long. T.

his velocity relative to the rod being constant and equal to u. Shew that the total energy of the system after the run is . 1918*] 30. if p be the coefficient of friction between the gun and the ground. If 3 H. and subtends an arc of 180° of the pulley. is the rate of working when the cycle is going 20 miles an hour. 1914] 29.2M M+m S m 1.2M V J JU+m) ' and find the amplitude of the final motion. The driving wheel of a motor cycle has a diameter of 28 ins. and allow not more than 300 pounds per square inch pull in the ropes. A spider of mass m stands on the rod. and 52^ lb. the belt pulling on the driving wheel has a diameter of 20 ins. and in order that the belt may not slip the tension on one side may not exceed 2£ times that on the other. in diameter and turns at 90 revolutions per minute. The spider then runs a distance a along the rod. wt. 29. T. A horizontal rod of mass M is movable along its length. 30. Assume the tension on the tight side to be twice the tension on the slack side. and then stops. shew that the tensions are 131J lb. [S. [S. If the coefficient of sliding friction between the gun and the plane is p. and everything is initially at rest. T. A machine gun of mass i f contains a mass M' of bullets which it discharges at the rate m units of mass per unit time. wt. . Power is delivered by an engine through ropes passing round the flywheel of the engine and over pulleys in the mill. Shew that. V being the velocity of the bullets relative to the ground.. determine how many ropes of l j inch diameter will be required to transmit 2000 horsepower. A belt-driven pulley of diameter 2 feet transmits 10 horse-power when running at 240 revolutions per minute. 1921] 32.ngM') M'/Z/igmM. If the flywheel is 30 ft. [S. The shot is fired at the rate of mass m per unit of time with velocity u relative to the ground. 2/a // Sm 1. [M. the whole time of recoil of the gun will be (2m V. [M. 1925] 33. and its motion is controlled by a light spring which exerts a restoring force Ex when the rod is displaced through a distance x.EXAMPLES 137 28. Shew that if the belt is just on the point of slipping. the biggest tension in the belt is 306 lb. Half the weight of either particle. nearly. A machine gun of mass M stands on a horizontal plane and contains shot of mass M'. The coefficient of friction between belt and pulley can be taken at 0'4.P. shew that the velocity of the gun backward by the time the mass M' is fired is ANSWERS 22. 1920] 31.

we get = £ I Xdt. In such cases it is not possible to measure the rate of change of momentum because a finite change of momentum takes place in an infinitesimal interval of time. rt rt y — %my0 = 2 Ydt. Equations of Motion for Impulsive Forces. Now it is possible for the force to increase and at the same time the interval t2 — tx to decrease in such a way that the integral tends to a finite limit.' The latter is of dimensions MLT~2 and the former of dimensions MLT"1 (4r8). 112.2TO (xy — yx) = %{xY — yX). or the collision of two billiard balls. although we have no means of measuring the exact value of X at any instant during the interval. Xmy = 2 Y. we measure it by its ' impulse' as defined in 42. i.Chapter XI IMPULSIVE MOTION 11 "1. If we integrate these equations with respect to t through an interval from t0 to t. The equations of motion for a system of particles acted upon by finite forces were found in 92 to be ~Zmx = %X. Jt. and T. In 4-2 we saw that the change of momentum produced by a variable force X acting from time t = tx to t = t2 is X dt. It is to be noted that an impulsive force or impulse is not of the same physical dimensions as ' force.e. For example—a ball struck by a bat. It is usual to call such a force an Impulsive Force or Impulse and measure it by the change of momentum it produces. The state of rest or motion of a body sometimes undergoes an apparently instantaneous change owing to the sudden application of a force which acts for a very short time only. .

where x0. measures of the components of the impulse and may be denoted by P.yP) . vanishes when the interval t —10 . in writing down equations for the instantaneous change of motion produced by impulsive forces. Q respectively. in t h a t if there be a direction in which the external impulsive forces have zero component there is no change of momentum in that direction. Further we observe that with the notation of 9'3 equations (1) may be written and Also the equations confirm the principles of conservation of linear and angular momentum.. y at time to. then Xdt Smy — 1my0 = 2Q. . and if there be an axis about which the external impulsive forces have zero moment there is no change of moment of momentum about t h a t axis. and (2) the instantaneous increase in the moment of momentum about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments about that axis of the externally applied impulsive forces. Now if we suppose that we are concerned with impulsive rt rt and I Ydt are the Jt0 Jt. and 2m (xy — yx) — 2m (xy0 — yx0) = 2 (xQ . Hence the last three equations may be written "tmx — 2wi«0 = SP"i forces as defined in l l ' l . These equations express the facts that (1) the instantaneous increase in the linear momentum in any direction is equal to the sum of the externally applied impulsive forces in that direction. I t is to be observed that. because if F is a finite force then I Fdt J t0 tends to zero.(2).111-112] EQUATIONS OF MOTION 139 and ( rt rt •) Sm (xy — yx) — %m (xy0 — yxa) = 2 •<x\ Tdt — y\ Xdt>. y0 denote the values of x. all finite forces such as weight are to be neglected.

by Newton's rule. when inelastic. Direct Impact. and so e is determined. e = 0. The problem of the motion of smooth spheres after impact is determined partly by the principle of conservation of linear momentum and partly by an experimental law due to Newton. The momentum in the line of motion is unaltered by the impact. i. v' their velocities after impact and let the motion be along the line of centres. 11*31. When a substance is described as perfectly elastic it is to be understood that e — 1. u. Impact of Smooth Spheres. From 8'2 the square of the velocity of either sphere at the lowest point of its path.' where e is a constant depending on the substances of which the spheres are composed. u' their velocities before impact and v. m be the masses of the two spheres. These equations determine the velocities after impact. so that when at rest the spheres are in contact and the threads vertical. but for a soft substance it is small. at striking. called the coefficient of restitution. Let m.140 IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI 11 "3. and.e. For hard substances like steel or ivory e is nearly unity. viz. v — v' = — e (u — u') (2). The value of e may be determined experimentally by suspending two spheres by equal fine threads. so that mv + mV = mu + m'u' (1). ' The relative velocity of the spheres along the line of centres immediately after impact is — e times the relative velocity before impact. mu + m'u'+ em(u — u) and m+m . namely mu + m'u' — em' (u — u') m+m . Hence by measuring the vertical heights all the velocities immediately before and after impact can be found. and. is proportional to the vertical height through which it has descended or to which it ascends. Then one of the spheres is drawn back and released so as to strike the other.

and from 11'31 this is in accordance with Newton's rule. This hypothesis is that when the bodies come into contact there is a short interval in which they undergo compression followed by another short interval in which the original shape is restored. by hypothesis. Eliminate U.H'3-11-32] IMPACT OF SPHERES 141 The impulse between the spheres which reduces the velocity of the first from u to v is in (u — v). At the instant of greatest compression the bodies have a common velocity along the line of centres.v) = (1 + e) I. li"32. the whole impulse = (1 + e) / . and m'{U-u) = I. which is equal to (1 + e) mm (u — u') m + m' and this is (1 + e) times what the impulse would be if the coefficient of restitution were zero. Poisson's Hypothesis. x m m ' But. and rri (V . and the impulsive pressure between the bodies during restitution is less than the impulsive pressure during compression in the ratio e : 1.u') = (1 + e) / . . so the hypothesis is that when the bodies are elastic the whole impulsive pressure during impact is (1 + e) times the impulse during compression. In fact we may deduce Newton's rule from this hypothesis. if e = 0) they would acquire a common velocity (mu + m'u')/(m + m') and there would be no restitution. therefore v — v' — — e{u — u). then u-u' = ~ +— (1).e. which is Newton's rule. then m(u-U) = I. therefore m (u . Now if the bodies were inelastic (i. Whence we get and from (1) = (1 + e) (u — «'). If with the notation of the last article we denote by I the impulse during compression and by U the common velocity at the instant of greatest compression.

When the directions of motion of the spheres are not along the line of centres their velocities can be resolved along and perpendicular to the line of centres. there is no impulsive action that can affect the velocity in this direction. We may use the symbols of 11 "31 to denote the velocities along the line of centres. the square of the velocity being the sum of the squares of its perpendicular components and components at right angles to the line of centres being unaltered by impact. Kinetic Energy lost by Impact. I . they also denote the components in the same directions after impact. since the spheres are smooth.142 IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI 11 33. In general there is a loss of kinetic energy in the cases we are considering. 1134. This reduces to {mu + m'u')2 . Hence if U. we see that. Oblique Impact. mm' (v — v')2 m + m' . U' denote the component velocities at right angles to the line of centres before impact. mu + m'u'\2 ) +\m [ u ) m+mJ m+m J * \ where {mu + mu')j{m + m') is the velocity of the centre of gravity and the terms in the last two brackets represent the velocities of the spheres relative to the centre of gravity. With the notation of 1131 and using the theorem of 95 we write the kinetic energy before impact in the form \mu2 + \mu2 = | ( m + m) ^ — — ~ r mu + m'u'\2 . it follows that it is only the velocity components in the line of centres that can effect a change in kinetic energy. mm' (u — u')2 * m + m' * m + m' Similarly the kinetic energy after impact _ ^ (mv + m'v')2 2 m + m' . in oblique impact. When we consider the motion of either sphere at right angles to the line of centres. because. . We need only consider the case of direct impact. and they will satisfy the equations of that article.

Let 1 denote the impulse between the upper and either of . and that it rebounds with w velocity v making an angle <f> with the normal. and let u' be the velocity of m. of the points of two bodies that come into contact resolved along the common normal at the point of contact are in the ratio 1: — e.11-33-11-36] KINETIC ENERGY LOST BY IMPACT 143 But and mv + m'v = mu + m'u. Two equal spheres of mass m! are suspended by vertical strings so that they are in contact with their centres at the same level. therefore cot (f> = e cot 6. v — v' = — e (u — u'). Thus suppose a sphere moving with velocity u strikes a smooth plane in a direction making an angle 6 with the normal to the plane. A third equal sphere of mass m falls vertically and strikes the other two simultaneously so that their centres at the instant of impact form an equilateral triangle in a vertical plane. therefore there is a loss of kinetic energy equal to \mm' (1 . After impact the spheres of mass m! begin to move horizontally because of the constraints of the strings. 1136. find the velocities just after impact and the impulsive tension of the strings. For impacts of bodies other than spheres we may generalize Newton's rule and say that the velocities. which by symmetry must be vertical. 11 35. let v be the velocity of either. before and after impact. If u is the velocity of m just before impact. Generalization of Newton's Rule. E x a m p l e .w')2/(m + m'). The above rule makes v cos <{> = eu cos 0.e2) (u . So that the angles of incidence and reflection of such a sphere impinging on the plane are governed by this law of reflection. and since the velocity parallel to the plane is unaltered v sin <\> = u sin 6. or (1 — e2) times the kinetic energy of the spheres relative to the centre of gravity before impact.

Prove that the kinetic. Shew that if after explosion the parts move in the same line as before. 1902] Let u be the speed of the body before explosion. (1). As further examples of impulsive action we take the following: E x a m p l e s . m( M . therefore The kinetic energy is increased by E.2 (m-i + m2) E. m2 after explosion. By Newton's rule u' cos 30° — v cos 60° = —eu cos 30". therefore (m1 vx2 + m<L v22) (m-i + m2) = (TOtvx + m21»2)2 4. resolving vertically for m'.144 IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI the lower spheres. therefore \ mx V + \ m2 v%2=-| (Mij + m2) « 2 + E. [M. and from (1) Again. B. . (3). The rod is struck by a blow P at right angles to it at a point distant from A equal to BC. and »i. v2 the speeds of m1.'v. Eliminate u.M ') = 2/cos30° and horizontally for m'. There is no change in linear momentum. v=\f3um(l+e)l(m + 6m'). T the impulsive tension of the strings and e the coefficient of restitution.'). or \J?Lu'-v=-\IZeu Resolving vertically for m. — 6em')l(m + 6m'). m'v = IcoB 60° Eliminating / from (2) and (3). their relative speed is sl{^E(m1^-m2)lm-im^. and from (3) 11'4. T. we get m (w — u') = 2'\/3m. (2). and from (1) =6mf (u' + eu). or and (ii) A light rigid rod ABC has three particles each of mass m attached to it at A. energy set up is ipz 2 ~m where AB = a. =3mm'ii(l+e)l(m+fym. C. we get T = / cos 30°=«/3 m'tf. therefore u' = u (in. (i) A body of mass m1 + m2 is split into two parts of -masses m1 and m2 by an internal explosion which generates kinetic energy E. and BC=b.

B. because P has no moment about 0. i. AC and the angle BAC is 60°. Therefore m{u + (a+b)a>} b — m (u-\-ba>) (a— b) — mua — 0.6 ) = 62<B (2). The velocity of B is Uj.11-36-11-4] I M P U L S I V E MOTION 145 The motion of the rod is completely defined by its angular velocity a> and the linear velocity u of any one ^ ^ point. J (a + b)a>. v denote the initial velocities of A along and at right angles to BA. at which the blow is applied. then u + bco and the velocity of A is / I . From (1) and (2) P 1 or P 1 m 'P And the kinetic energy created by the blow 2m (iii) Three equal particles A. and let T. [S. An impulse Us applied to A in the direction BA. C of mass m are placed on a smooth horizontal plane. Since B and A are joined by an inextensible string their velocities along BA must be the same. writing down the equations of impulsive motion of the particles in turn. or « ( a . so that the total moment of momentum about 0 is zero. we have for A . (1). say C. a we resolve at right angles to the rod and equate the total momentum to the impulse. For a similar reason the velocity of C is u cos 60° — v cos 30° or ^(u — sfZv) along CA. AC. T' denote the impulsive tensions in AB. 1924] Let u. and the point 0. therefore the velocity of B is u along BA. Now. and for C im(w-«/3») = Z". is the most convenient point about which to take moments. 2 for B mu=T. Find the initial velocities of the particles and shew that A begins to move in a direction making an angle tan~l sJ'Ajl with BA. . To find the two unknown quantities u. A is joined to B and C by light threads AB.e. 3u + a>(a + 2b) = P/m We also take moments.

F 2 ). Y3). including the 'internal' as well as the ' external' impulses on every particle . m2. vx').vt) = Yx. 3 (u3 . (ui} v2). m2 (v2 — v2) = F 2 . 11'51. Fi). Consider a system of particles of masses mi. and let the velocities be changed by the impulses to («/.v3) = F 3 .. m3. and decreases the ' | | ' velocity of m2 from u to v2. Oy are («i> Vi).... V3). . L e t t h e m be acted upon by impulses whose components in the same directions are (Xi. Vz)> •••• Then the equations of impulsive motion of the particles are u1) = X1. and we get This equation expresses the fact that the change of kinetic energy created by a set of simultaneous impulses is the sum of the products of each impulse into the mean of the velocities of its point of application resolved in its direction. ^W Hence 1 .146 Eliminating T' gives IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI -rsv. acting in opposite directions on the two masses.M3) = X 3 . Let us consider how the last theorem is illustrated by examples (i) and (ii) of 11-4. Multiply each of these equations by half the sum of the velocity components that it involves and add them all together. (i) Here the impulse I is an internal one which increases the velocity of (say) ^_ __^ mi from u to »!. . Kinetic Energy created by Impulses. (X 3 . moving with velocities whose components parallel to the axes Ox. r m3 (v3r . Also the direction of motion of A makes with BA an angle li'5. (MS.. mx (vi . (X 2 . (w2'> va')» (W. l — u2) = X 2 . or Then by eliminating T and T' from the first equation we get so that M = 7//15TO. and v = */3I/l5m.

It is to be observed that an elastic or deformable body as distinct from a rigid body yields to an impulsive action and does not begin to offer resistance until a finite deformation has taken place. and By adding we get ^ Q As(m 1 + TO2) ^ .H-4-11'61] KINKTIC ENERGY CREATED BY IMPULSES 147 And. the initial velocities of the spheres m' would not be horizontal but along the lines joining the centre of m to their centres. Thus if an impulse is applied to an elastic string there is no impulsive tension set up in the string. 1916] Let x. E x a m p l e . and equal impulses I in opposite directions act simultaneously on them in the line of the string so as to extend it. the energy created by the simultaneous impulses is E as is otherwise obvious. 11*81. (ii) The velocity of the point 0 is zero initially. and let x+y — z. Prove that the greatest extension of the string in the ensuing motion is I {{mi + m2) Ijmi ?»2A}4 > and that this value is attained in time £»r {mjwia J/(m. The tension at time t is therefore \z/l. and after the blow it is v say. if the strings were elastic. This property of an elastic string is also illustrated in the following example. by the last theorem. where p m Therefore the kinetic energy created by the blow 11 6. For example in 11*36. Elasticity and Impulses. and it is not until a finite elongation has taken place that a finite tension is produced. m^ in opposite directions in time t. T. The equations of motion of the particles are therefore —\z/l. Two particles of masses m^ and m2 are connected by a fine elastic string of natural length I and modulus of elasticity X. They are placed on a smooth horizontal table at a distance I apart. y denote displacements of mx. + m2) \}k [M.

and so finding the velocity z in terms of z. Two equal spheres of mass 9ra are at rest and another sphere of mass m is moving along their line of centres between them. Shew that if they are assumed perfectly elastic. EXAMPLES 1. since the string being elastic has no impulsive tension. and the angle. then find the value of z for which z vanishes. 1921] 3. Shew that the final velocities of the spheres depend only on their order and not on their initial distances apart. n equal perfectly elastic spheres move with given velocities under no forces in the same straight line. Therefore the kinetic energy created 2 mi m2 Now when the string has its greatest extension momentarily at rest and the kinetic energy has been potential energy of the stretched string. [S.148 IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI This represents a simple harmonic motion so long as the string remains stretched and the time during which the velocity z changes from its maximum to zero is one quarter of the period. Again the initial velocities of mi and m2 are 1/m.i and I/m2. Two smooth elastic spheres (coefficient of restitution e) impinge obliquely in any manner. 1926] 2. it is found that the angle between their subsequent directions of motion is constant. Hence if extension and T the greatest tension. their masses must be equal. [S. one of them being initially at rest. after the collision their directions of motion are at right angles. the work done in the particles are converted into the z is the greatest stretching and by equating this to the kinetic energy we get z We might also obtain this result by multiplying equation (1) by 2£ and integrating.e. [S. A smooth sphere impinges on another one at rest. How many collisions will there be if the spheres are perfectly elastic? [S. 1923] 4. i. 1926] . Find the ratio of the masses of the spheres.

and that the final velocities of A. C are 7m. [M. shew that the second impact will occur after a further time 2t/e. v0 are the final velocities. CQ. where EF= 16 cms. and strikes first B and then C. T. A body of mass m rests on a smooth table. The bob P is projected horizontally with velocity \/gl from the point at height I vertically above 0.. [S. C. Its final path is at right angles to EF. Shew that its velocity is -. 1m. T. The centres of two such spheres. [M. are at E. A and B. T. such that when the bobs are hanging at rest they are just in contact. Shew that vA = 9uJ25. The more massive sphere is then projected in such a direction as to strike the other sphere and rebound. [M. Prove that the direction of motion of the more massive sphere cannot be deflected by the collision through an angle greater than 14° 29'. 1921] 10. Both are perfectly elastic and smooth and no rotations are set up by the collision. B. then tan 6= . m. lie on a smooth horizontal circular groove at opposite ends of a diameter. vB. A sphere collides obliquely with another sphere of equal mass which is initially at rest. vB—20ul25. Another of mass M moving with velocity V collides with it. Fcos 6. 1925] 11. A is projected along the groove and at the end of time t impinges on B. 1925] 6. Initially A and B are at rest and C is given a velocity along the line of centres in the direction of A. Shew that their paths after collision are at right angles. T. both spheres TOi-m2Cos20 being perfectly elastic. both spheres being smooth and perfectly elastic. 1915] 9. Their centres are in a straight line and C lies between A and B. where vA. F. 1. C in a horizontal line. Two equal marbles. Two smooth and perfectly elastic spheres of masses 1 and 4 respectively are initially at rest under no forces. where e is the coefficient of restitution. B. vc=12u/25. An equal sphere A is projected with velocity u at right angles to EF. C are proportional to 21. each of 3 cms. are suspended from two points 0. the sphere of mass mt being set in motion in a direction <f> ^ . radius. and strikes the with the former path of ?». 12. Find the point of contact between A and B. The masses of three spheres A. 1922] 8.r . Shew that it strikes A twice and B once. The body m is driven in a direction at angle 6 to the previous line of the body M'a motion.11-61] EXAMPLES 149 5. Shew that if a smooth sphere of mass mx collides with another smooth sphere of mass m^ at rest. Two equal pendulums OP. [M. 1921] 7. [S. and is deflected through an angle 6 from its former path. B. of length I. their coefficient of restitution is unity.

1925] 16. are suspended from the same point by light strings of equal length. 1926] 13. of mass m. Shew that the kinetic energy of the system tends to the value \mv?. Two imperfectly elastic particles of equal mass. A steel ball is released from rest and falls upon a fixed steel anvil and rebounds. Shew that. Shew that all subsequent impacts occur when the spheres are in the same position as for the first impact. Prove that the loss of energy = J (1 . and that the velocity of the sphere A immediately after the third impact is \u (1 — e3). [S. The lowest point of the ball is initially at a distance of one foot above the anvil.e2) mm'u? cos2 a/(m + m' sin2 a). A fourth smooth sphere. falls vertically so as to strike the other spheres simultaneously. 1924] 15. T. T. where e is the coefficient of restitution. [S. having given the velocity u of the fourth sphere and the angle 6 which the lines of centres make with the vertical at the instant of striking. Shew that the particle ceases to rebound from the plane when it reaches a point B such that where e is the coefficient of restitution. Two small spheres A and B of equal mass m. whose coefficient of restitution is e. One particle is drawn aside a small distance x0 and then released. between the mth and (« + l)th impacts. T. 1920] . Shew that the string of Q will become slack before Q reaches its highest point. if the coefficient of restitution lies between Vl-6 —1 and unity. [S. its velocity on impact being u. A spherical particle is let fall vertically under gravity and after describing a distance h impinges at a point A on a smooth plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. Shew that the ball finally comes to rest on the anvil 4'75 seconds after its release and that the total distance travelled is 9Jg feet. The sphere A is drawn aside through a small distance and allowed to fall back and collide with the other. Find the position and velocity of the ball half a second after its release. 1923] 14. [M. are suspended in contact by two equal vertical strings so that the line of centres is horizontal. T. the coefficient of restitution being 0'9. [M. 1914] 17. 1924] 12. [M. Three equal similar spheres of mass m! are suspended by equal vertical threads so that their centres are at the corners of an equilateral triangle in a horizontal plane.150 IMPULSIVE MOTION [XI bob Q which was previously hanging at rest. [M. A spherical ball of mass m suspended by a string from a fixed point is at rest. and another spherical ball of mass m' which is falling vertically with velocity u impinges on it so that the line joining the centres of the balls makes an angle a with the vertical. the particle originally drawn aside swings through a distance J {l+( — e)n}x0 on one side of the vertical through the point of suspension. Determine the velocities immediately after impact. the coefficient of restitution between which is e.

EXAMPLES

151

18. Two smooth spheres of equal mass, whose centres are moving with equal speeds in the same plane, collide in such a way that at the moment of collision the line of centres makes an angle %n — e with the direction bisecting the angle o between the velocities before impact. Shew that after impact the velocities are inclined at an angle tan" 1 (cos 2c tan o), the collision being perfectly elastic. [M. T. 1923] 19. Two particles of masses if and m are connected by a fine inextensible string passing over a fixed smooth pulley, and the motion of the heavier particle, M, is limited by a fixed horizontal inelastic plane, on which it can impinge. The system starts from rest with M at a given height above the plane; shew that the successive heights of M at which it comes to instantaneous rest form a geometrical progression of ratio {m/(M+ TO)}2, and that the whole time of motion is three times the interval from the beginning of the motion to the first impact on the plane. [M. T. 1916] 20. A bucket of mass ml is joined to a counterpoise of mass m2 by a light string hanging over a smooth pulley. A ball of mass m is dropped into the bucket. Shew that the ball will come to rest in the bucket at a time -.—•—\ after the first impact, where v is the velocity of the ball

relative to the bucket immediately before the first impact, and e is the coefficient of restitution. Shew that the sum of the upward momentum of the system on one side of the pulley, and the downward momentum of that on the other side, increases at a uniform rate, and determine this rate. Hence or otherwise shew that the velocity of the system so soon as the ball has come to rest in the bucket is
mm<i + e (mmi + m-f — m22) ( 1 — e ) m ( m + m + ™) '

where u is the downward velocity of the bucket immediately before the first impact. [S. 1925] 21. A railway truck is at rest at the foot of an incline of 1 in 70. A second railway truck of equal weight starts from rest at a point 1000 feet up the incline, and runs down under gravity. The trucks collide at the foot of the incline, the coefficient of restitution being J-. Find how far each truck travels along the level, the frictional resistances for each truck being 16 lb. wt. per ton, both on the incline and on the level. Where the incline meets the level, the rails are slightly curved, each in a vertical plane, so that there is no vertical impact, and at the instant of collision both trucks are on the level. [S. 1925] 22. A heavy elastic particle is projected from a point 0 at the foot of an inclined plane of inclination a to the horizon. The plane through the direction of projection normal to the inclined plane meets the inclined plane in a line OA which makes an angle <f> with the line of greatest slope

152

IMPULSIVE MOTION

[XI

and the direction of projection makes an angle 6 with OA. Find equations to determine the position of the particle after any number of rebounds and shew that the particle will just have ceased to rebound when it again reaches the foot of the plane if tan 8 tan a = (1 - e) cos <£, where e is the coefficient of restitution. [S. 1926] 23. Shew that after an elastic collision (e = 1) between two equal smooth spheres, one of which is initially at rest but free to move in any direction, the directions of motion of the two spheres are at right angles. Shew further that if the mass of the resting sphere is greater in the ratio 1 + ( : 1 (e small), then the angle between the directions of motion will exceed a right angle by J c tan <j> approximately, where (f> is the deflection of the moving sphere. [M. T. 1927] 24. A heavy perfectly elastic particle is dropped from a point P on the inside surface of a smooth sphere. Prove that the second point of impact on the surface of the sphere will be in the same horizontal plane as the first if the augular distance of P from the highest point of the sphere is cos-»{(2* + l)*/2}. [S. 1919]

25. A sphere of mass m impinges directly on a sphere of mass m' at rest on a smooth table. The second sphere then strikes a vertical cushion at right angles to its path. Shew that there will be no further impact of the spheres if m (1 + e' + ee') < em!; where e, e' are the coefficients of restitution between the spheres and between the sphere and the cushion. [S. 1921] 26. Two equal flat scale pans are suspended by an inextensible string passing over a smooth pulley so that each remains horizontal. An elastic sphere falls vertically and when its velocity is u it strikes one of the scale pans and rebounds vertically. Shew that the sphere takes the same time to come to rest on the scale pan as it would if the scale pan were fixed. [S. 1924] 27. A ball is projected on a pocketless billiard table. Shew that, if the effect of friction and rotation be neglected, it will travel always parallel to one of two fixed directions so long as it strikes the four cushions in order: and that the velocity is decreased in the ratio e2:1 after each complete circuit, e being the coefficient of restitution. [S. 1922] 28. A bullet of (H lb. weight is fired with a speed of 2200 feet per second into the middle of a block of wood of 30 lb. weight, which is at rest but free to move. Find the speed of the block and bullet afterwards, and the loss of kinetic energy in foot-pounds. What becomes of this energy 1 [M. T. 1917]

EXAMPLES

153

29. A bullet of mass m is fired into a block of wood of mass M, which is free to move on a smooth horizontal table, and penetrates it to a depth a. Shew that, at the instant when the bullet comes to rest relative to the block, the block has moved through a distance ma/(M+m), the stress between the bullet and the block being assumed constant, so long as there is any relative motion. [S. 1911] 30. A, B, C are three equal particles attached to a light inextensible string at equal intervals a. The system is placed on a smooth horizontal plane with the three particles in a straight line. A blow P is applied to the middle one B in a direction perpendicular to the string. Describe the nature of the subsequent motion, and shew that the angular velocity of ,42? or BC is P/rna (2 +cos 0)i where 6 is the angle ABC and m the mass of a particle. [S. 1913] 31. Four particles, each of mass m, are connected by equal inextensible strings of length a and lie on a table at the corners of a rhombus the sides of which are formed by the strings. One of the particles receives a blow P along the diagonal outwards. Prove that the angular velocities of the strings after the blow are equal to P sin a/2ma, where 2a ( o < -j) is the angle of the rhombus at the particle which is struck. [S. 1926]

32. Three particles A, B, C each of the same mass rest on a smooth table at the corners of an equilateral triangle; AB and BC being tight inextensible strings. A is given a velocity v in the direction CB. Shew that when the string AB again tightens C starts off with velocity ^gv. [S. 1921] 33. Three equal particles A, B, C connected by inelastic strings AB, BC of length a lie at rest with the strings in a straight line on a smooth horizontal table. B is projected with velocity V at right angles to AB. Shew that the particles A and C afterwards collide with relative velocity 2F/V3. If the coefficient of restitution is e, find the velocities of the three particles when the string is again straight. ^ [S. 1927] 34. Three masses mu ra2 and m3 lie at the points A, B and C upon a smooth horizontal table; A and B, B and C are connected by light inextensible strings, and the angle ABC is obtuse. An impulse / is applied to the mass m3 in the direction BC: find the initial velocities of the masses and shew that the mass m2 begins to move in a direction making an angle 6 with AB where m2 tan 6 + (mx + m2) tan B = 0. [S. 1926]

154

IMPULSIVE MOTION

[XI

35. Four equal masses are attached at equal distances A, B, C, D at points on a light string, and so placed that L ABC=LBCD = 12O°, and the various parts of the string are straight; an impulse / is given to the mass at A in the direction BA, shew that the impulsive tension in AB is Jf/. [S. 1910] 36. A light string passing through a smooth ring at 0 on a smooth horizontal table has particles each of mass m attached to its ends A and B. Initially the particles lie on the table with the portions of string OA, OB straight and 0A = 0B. An impulse P is applied to the particle A in a direction making 60° with OA. Prove that when B reaches 0 its velocity isP\/22/8?». [S. 1923] 37. Two equal particles connected by an elastic string which is at its natural length and straight, lie on a smooth table, the string being such that the weight of either particle would produce in it an extension a. Prove that if one particle is projected with velocity u directly away from the other, each will have travelled a distance nu first returns to its natural length. I jr- when the string [S. 1925]

38. A man of mass m is standing in a lift of mass M, which is descending with velocity V; the counterpoise being of mass M+m. Suddenly the man jumps with an impulse which would raise him to a height h if he were jumping from the ground. Calculate the velocities of the man and the lift, immediately after the impulse; and find also their subsequent accelerations. Deduce that the height in the lift to which he jumps is h (M+m)/(M+^m). 39. A particle of mass M is at rest at a point A on a smooth horizontal plane. It is attracted towards another point B in the plane by a force proportional to its distance from B. At the instant at which it is released it is given an impulse / in the direction AB. If AB=Xo, and if the initial value of the attractive force is P o , shew that the particle reaches B after a time P<s Find an expression for the rate at which the force attracting the particle towards B is doing work, and shew that it has a maximum value

i)

[M-T.1926]

ANSWERS 2. « : 1 ; in-. ; 3. 3. u (m sin2 6 - 3m'e cos2 6) mu (1 + e) sin 6 cos 6 2 i2 ' 2 0 ' l 16. '8 ft. above anvil, downward velocity -8 ft. 21. 160 ft.; 360 ft. 28. 7-3 f.s.; 7537'3 ft.-lb.; converted into heat. 33.

Chapter XII
POLAR COORDINATES. ORBITS
121. Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates. Let the position of a point P be defined by its distance r from a fixed origin 0 and the angle 8 that OP makes with a fixed axis Ox. The cartesian coordinates (x, y) of P are connected with the polar coordinates X (r, 8) by the relations x = r cos 8,
y — r sin 0.

Let u, v denote the components of velocity of P in the direction OP and at right angles to OP in the sense in which 0 increases. The resultant of the components u, v is also the resultant of the components x, y. Therefore by resolving parallel to Ox and Oy we get
u cos8 — vsin8 = x = -.-(rcosd) = rcos8 —rdsin8,

and

u sin 8 + v cos 8 = y = -j- (r sin d) = r sin 0 + rd cos 8. at Solving these equations for u and v clearly gives
u = r and v — rd,

and these are the polar components of velocity. In like manner if/i,/ 2 denote the components of acceleration along and at right angles to OP, since these have the same resultant as x and y, we get 2 d / i cos 8 - / z sin 8 = x = -^ (r cos 8) - (r - rd2) cos 0 - (rd + 2rd) sin 8,
and " ' /..--./. ••
d2

= (r - r62) sin 8 + (rd + 2r0) cos 0; 2rd. giving on solution fi = r —

and the other for .(r20).156 POLAR COORDINATES. —JT (r2d) = 0. therefore r28 = constant. It is usual to denote this constant by h. it follows that r2d is twice the rate of description of area by the radius vector. and we note that r2d is also the moment of the velocity about the fixed point and that the following forms are equivalent: h = r^d = pv = xy — yx. There are two common formulae for the law of force. and we note that the transverse component of acceleration may also be written . i. where r denotes the radius vector and p the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent. they are sometimes called radial and transverse components. If a particle is describing an orbit under the action of a force directed to a fixed point (i) the orbit must be a plane curve. (ii) the rate of description of area by the radius vector drawn from the fixed point to the particle is constant. Since a sectorial r dt element of area is ^r2B6. p) equation.-7.e. ORBITS [XII These components constitute a third representation of the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a plane (see 5"12). Given the Orbit and the Centre of Force to determine the Law of Force. y y P 12-21. rat 12-2. one for use when the orbit is given by its (r. for there is no force at right angles to the radius vector so that the transverse component of acceleration is zero throughout the motion. Central Orbits. therefore the particle continues to move in this plane. because at any instant the particle is moving in the plane through the tangent to its path and the fixed point and the only force acting on the particle lies in this plane.

the acceleration towards the centre 0.121-12-21] CENTRAL ORBITS 157 use when the orbit is given by its polar equation.. and make use of the formula P \de)' to be found in books on Calculus. we may start from the polar components of acceleration and write and the latter giving r2<? = h.. therefore J p3p p3 dr * '" - (ii) Orbit given by (r. a relation between r and 9. p) equation. i. If we write u for . therefore the last relation reduces to M2 2 ( { d*u and (1) may be written Alternatively. Let / denote the required force per unit mass. i. 6) equation. we have _±(_ p3 dr dr VpV d6' 1 dp p 3 dr d6 \ + \deJ (/ )/d6' and since -^ = dd 5 -j^. r . 2 d Jt^^d6= dd' where w = . Then.e. it follows that d h d _ . (i) Orbit given by (r.e. the acceleration along the inward normal is therefore by resolving along the normal r Pm But p = rdr/dp and vp — h. if v is the velocity.

.. and provided that the orbit can be identified by its (r. Circle with any internal point 0 as centre of force. Since a particle describing a circle with uniform velocity v has a constant acceleration v2/a towards the centre. p) equation it is clear that (1) is the simpler formula to use as the orbit will be found by a single integration. Let a be the radius and c the distance of 0 from the centre C. The converse problem—given the law of force to find the orbit—is solved by substituting the given expression for f in formula (1) or (2) and then integrating the resulting equation. 12-3. ^ h2 dp _ h2r ps dr paa' the velocity at P being given by vp = h. it follows that a particle can describe a circle under any constant force per unit mass f tending to the centre provided that it is projected at right angles to the radius with velocity *J(af). where a is the radius. / 12 22. Circular Orbits.for r in the expression Cbv It r — r82. or v = . it is easy to see from the triangle OOP that so that dp/dr = r/a. Therefore the force towards 0 under which the particle would describe the circle is . we get / = —to2-— Ihu2 JTJ (-)\+h2u3 J dd { d6 W j h* or as before. Then if P is any point on the circle and p the perpendicular from 0 to the tangent at P. ORBITS [XII Substituting this operator for ^~ and .158 POLAR COORDINATES. and OP = r.

and the position of the centre of the circle and therefore also its radius depends only on the direction of projection. 124. from the properties of the ellipse. and » = Conversely a particle projected from a point P at a distance r from 0 with velocity V^ytt/r2 under the action of a force /i/r5 per unit mass towards 0 will describe a circle passing through 0.CD = ab. h*dp A2 where ft is a constant h?/a2b2. Elliptic Orbit. If p is the central perpendicular on the tangent at P and CD is the radius conjugate to CP. we have and p. p) equation of the ellipse when the centre is the origin. By differentiating (1) we get a2b2 dp p3 dr Hence the force to the centre necessary for the description of the ellipse is . This is the (r. Let P be a point on the ellipse whose centre is G and semi-axes a. 2ah U ' or and = TT. b. we have a2b2 . for we construct the position of G by drawing PG at right angles to the direction of projection and making the angle POG equal to OPG. if GP = r.12-21-12-4] CIRCULAR ORBITS 159 In the special case in which 0 is on the circumference. c — a and r2 = 2ap. so that 2 . Hence. Force directed to the Centre.(1). or where h — a6 V'/*• .

ORBITS [XII Again the velocity at P is given by p ab' and is parallel to CD. and therefore cUid area A GQ = | a 2 . Find the Orbit. then if t denotes the time taken for the particle to move from A to P we have t = (2 sector ACP)/h.A GQ. Also since h is twice the rate of description of areas. so that area A GP: area A GQ = 6 :a. it ^— ~z—. But the ellipse is the projection of the circle. gives . the coordinates of the point P in terms of the eccentric angle ^1fit are given by x = a cos 'Jfit. This shews that the elliptic motion can be compounded of two simple harmonic motions along lines at right angles having the same period 2n/n/fj. . Law of Force ftr. y — b sin Vfit.160 POLAR COORDINATES.\j\j)I\f LL. The law of force h? dp . It follows that as P moves round the ellipse the corresponding point Q moves round the auxiliary circle with uniform angular velocity *//"•• Further. Let A be an end of the major axis and Q the point on the auxiliary circle corresponding to the point P on the ellipse. area A GP = \ab. therefore the time taken to describe the ellipse or the periodic time in the orbit = twice the area divided by h = 2-n-ab/h = 2-Tr/s/fi. or the angle AGQ = V'fit. p) equation of an ellipse with the centre as origin is so that the orbit is in general an ellipse. and on integration But the (r. 1241. A GQ. and differing in phase by a quarter of a period 7*11. / L o u == -ti.s ~ = fir.

Elliptic Orbit. To find the (r. therefore also = .124-12-5] ELLIPTIC ORBIT.HZ=b\ (iii) the tangent is equally inclined to the focal distances so that SPY. r r V rr *J{r(2a — r)\ 2a-r\ Hence - p V I 1. squaring. u. if SP = r. HP = r'. p) equation with 8 as origin we assume three properties of the ellipse (ii) 8Y. or. HZ the perpendiculars to the tangent at P. .SY=p and HZ = p\ we have b £=^7. if the particle be projected with velocity u from a point P at a distance c from the centre of force C in a direction making an angle a with CP. These equations determine the lengths of the semi-axes of the ellipse in terms of the data /n. The inclination 6 of the major axis to GP is then to be found from the polar equation of the ellipse. therefore substituting in (1) gives w2 = A — /MC* or4=M 2 + fie2. we have h = moment of velocity about G = we sin a. / 4^. and since h/p always measures the velocity. Hence. viz. HPZ are similar triangles.„ A h? i u2c2 sin 2 a. cos2 6 sin2 6 _ 1_ a2 b* r* 125. FORCE DIRECTED TO FOCTTS 161 The constants involved are determined by the initial circumstances. Let S.(1).= 7 r — ^. a. c. Force directed to Foeus. Thus. 62 = 2a jp2 r . Now by comparing (1) and (2) we get „ and . H be the foci of an ellipse and SY.

Also.= -5. = h /2a.(3). Parabolic Orbit. where p = h a/b or h = fil. therefore i>2 = — ( ( ' a \r or r Again. Force directed to Focus. YSP are similar. therefore „ A2 h2 (2a 1). This gives P2 = ar (1). if I denotes the semi-latus rectum b2ja.(3). then SY is at right angles to PY and the triangles ASY. the periodic time = 2irabjh (4). or h = /J.162 POLAR COORDINATES. ar . so that by differentiation 2 dp _ 1 p3 dr ar2' Hence the force to the focus necessary for the description of the parabola is given by h? dp _h2 2 2 1 _ { h where /J. as in 124. 1 1 or -g = — . _ h2 dp _ h2a 2 2 2 1_ n •(2). p) equation of a parabola is obtained from the facts that if the tangent at P meets the tangent at the vertex A in Y and S is the focus. ORBITS [XII Therefore pi5 —. x semi-latus rectum. b u t h2 — ub2la. 12-51. a _ _ ^ p2 . The (r. J' a . and the force to the focus 8 necessary -5 J for the description of the ellipse is given by . Again the velocity v = h/p. if v is the velocity at P.

viz. To find the (r. where C is a constant (1). Force directed to Focus. v p* r ' Comparing this with the (r. viz. p3 dr b2 ' r2 r2' 2 ^ •(2). where /M = h a/b . Law of Force /t/r2. (iii) the tangent bisects the angle between the focal distances. p) equation of a hyperbola we assume the corresponding properties as for the ellipse. therefore TO o —a = — + C.HZ=b2. Hyperbolic Orbit.125-1253] LAW OF FORCE fj. We now have h2 dp _ (i p3 dr r2' and. or A = yu. if I denotes the semi-latus rectum 62/a. Therefore 2 2 b2 dp _ a p3 dr r2' 2 2 _h dp _h a 1 _ /x. (ii) r'-r = 2a. In this case 2 _h2 (2a \_fi(2a \ 2_h 2 7) ~~ b2 \ r 1 a \r / 2 or « = -£-4-C (3) v 7 r a gives the velocity.: b2 _ 2a _ p2 r ' 2 _ ' " b2 _ 2a p2 r ' . 12-53. p) equations of the ellipse./r2. parabola and hyperbola obtained in the last three articles.: (i) SY. Hence as in 12'5 we have p=p= r r' so that and by differentiation /PP_ = o V rr' Vr(2a + -s = pi hi r •(1). Find the Orbit. by integration.?. FIND THE ORBIT 163 1252.

G = p/a. we see that in the ellipse in the parabola in the hyperbola G = — fija. C = 0. parabola or hyperbola according as the constant of integration G in (1) is negative. ORBITS [XII we see that the orbit required is an ellipse. and then in each case the semi-latus rectum = h?/fi. by substituting in (1) we have (2). Therefore the semi-major axis of the ellipse or hyperbola is given in terms of the initial velocity and distance by the equations c a' Also when the initial circumstances are given h. so that if the particle is projected with a velocity V from a point at a distance c from the centre of force. = or >2fi/c. Now hjp always denotes the velocity. . 12-54. parabola or hyperbola according as F 2 < . the moment of the velocity about the centre of force is known. zero or positive according as F 2 < . so that the dimensions of the orbit are completely determined. The determination of the position of the major axis is left as an exercise for the student. one perpendicular to the radius vector and the other perpendicular to the major axis. zero. and therefore C is negative. Velocity Components. When a particle describes an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus the velocity can be resolved into two components of constant magnitude. Also by comparing (2) of this article with (3) of the last three articles.164 POLAR COORDINATES. Hence the required orbit is an ellipse. = or >2/*/c. or positive.

. Again. the velocity at P in the ellipse is A h and its direction is perpendicular to HZ. and y. CZ. Since HC = ae where e is the eccentricity. therefore CZ is parallel to SP. But a vector HZ is equivalent to vectors HC. but HC=CS.or r perpendicular to SP. and CZ = a and is parallel to SP therefore the velocity components are -^. 12 55.or -|perpendicular to the major axis. then since the tangent is equally inclined to SP. Velocity from Infinity. and f^ CZ perpendicular to CZ.12-53-12-55] VELOCITY COMPONENTS 165 Let SP meet HZ in H'. It is easy to see with the help of a figure in what sense these components must lie in order always to give a resultant in the direction of the motion of the particle. In connection with central orbits the phrase 'velocity from infinity' at any "point of an orbit means the velocity that a particle would acquire if it moved from infinity to that particular point under the action of an attractive force in accordance with the law associated with the orbit. therefore the velocity at P may be represented by components ™ HC perpendicular to HC. and we notice that the component e/xjh always acts in the same sense and the component fi/h is always directed in front of the radius vector SP as it revolves. PH it is easy to prove that HZ=ZH'.

ab may be regarded as an elementary arc of the hodograph. therefore the hodograph is a similar ellipse. . J 00 fdr. so that the orbit is an ellipse. 1256. so that the velocity with which the point a describes the hodograph is a measure in magnitude and direction of the acceleration with which the point P describes its path. v2 = 2fi/r.166 POLAR COORDINATES. But the locus of Z is the auxiliary circle. parabola or hyperbola according as the velocity at any point is less than. The Hodograph. (ii) when the focus is the centre of force. It is there shewn that the acceleration of P is lim -=-. if / = p/r2. for though it has no special connection with central orbits they afford some of the simplest illustrations of it. It is convenient here to mention the hodograph. the velocity is V/xCD in magnitude and direction (12'4). Referring to the figure of 5'11. If from a fixed origin 0 a line Oa is drawn to represent the velocity of a moving point P the locus of a is called the hodograph of the path of P. equal to or greater than the velocity from infinity (12'53). Q are sufficiently near to one another. therefore in this case the hodograph is a circle. but this is the velocity of the point M-»O ot a in the hodograph. ORBITS [XII Thus if f stands for acceleration towards the origin. we get dv Ar V ds = ~-'ds' and therefore the velocity from infinity is given by \v*=-\r For example. we saw (12-54) that the velocity is -^ HZ perpendicular to HZ. As examples of the hodograph consider the two cases of elliptic motion: (i) when the centre of the ellipse is the centre of force. when the points P. by resolving along the tangent to the path.

m' denote the masses of two particles and r their distance apart. constant. it follows that the planets. Prop. Sect. Thus. The areas described by radii drawn from the sun to a planet are proportional to the times of describing them. II. which moves in any curved line described in a plane. is acted on by a centripetal force tending to the same point {Principia. 11).12-55-126] KEPLER'S LAWS 167 126. if m. In his Principia Newton proved a series of propositions in Mechanics which enable us to follow a process of reasoning from Kepler's Laws to the Law of Gravitation. in. the force of attraction between them is 7 mm where 7 is a constant known as the gravitation —g-. III. and describe areas proportional to the times of describing them by radii drawn to the sun. which describe ellipses about the sun in a focus. The following laws were announced by Kepler (1571-1630) as the result of observations of the planets: I. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. Sect. The planets describe ellipses with the sun in a focus. and describes areas proportional to the times of describing them about a point either fixed or moving uniformly in a straight line. Thus Newton proved that Every body. Hence by combining this proposition with Kepler's first and second laws. must be acted upon by forces directed to the sun. The squares of the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances of the planets from the sun. The discovery of these laws was followed some sixty years later by Newton's enunciation of the Law of Gravitation: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. xi). by radii drawn to that point. Newton also proved that If a body describes an ellipse under the action of a force tending to a focus of the ellipse. II. . Prop. the force must vary inversely as the square of the distance {Principia. representing the attraction between two particles of unit mass at unit distance apart.

168

POLAR COORDINATES. ORBITS

[XII

Hence by Kepler's first law the sun must attract a planet with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance. Then in the same section of the Principia, Sect. Ill, Props, xiv
and xv, Newton shewed that If any number of bodies revolve about a common centre, and the centripetal force vary inversely as the square of the distance, the latera recta of the orbits described will be in the duplicate ratio of the areas, which the bodies will describe in the same time by radii drawn to the centre of force. And On the same supposition, the squares of the periodic times in ellipses are proportional to the cubes of the major axes. These

two propositions are demonstrated on the hypothesis that there is a common law of force for all the different bodies, i.e. that if the force be denoted by /i/r2 then fi is the same for all the bodies revolving about the common centre, and only on this hypothesis would these theorems be a logical consequence of what precedes. But Kepler's third law states as a matter of observation that for the planets the squares of the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances (or major axes). The inference is that for the attraction of the sun on the planets there is a common law of force /n/r2 per unit mass, where p is the same constant for all the planets. And since this expression /i/r2 is the force per unit mass or the acceleration imparted to the planet by the sun, therefore the whole force exerted by the sun on the planet varies as (mass of planet)/?-2. It is only a short step further to infer that the force is also proportional to the mass of the sun, and the law of universal gravitation is a generalization from these inferences. Calculations based upon the law of gravitation were sufficient to enable the astronomers, Adams and Le Verrier, independently to determine the existence and position of the planet Neptune before it had been actually observed, and predictions of the return of comets have been fulfilled. In fact the law has proved adequate as a basis for dynamical astronomy generally, though there are a few known phenomena where calculations shew minute differences from the results of observation, and these have been explained and accounted for by the substitution of Einstein's theory of Relativity for the absolute Newtonian dynamics.

12-6-12-61]

KEPLER'S LAWS

169

1261. Necessary Modification of Kepler's Third Law. In the preceding argument the acceleration produced by the action of the sun on a planet is considered and the acceleration of the sun produced by the action of the planet is ignored. Both should be taken into account, for the observations made are based on the motion of the planet relative to the sun and not on an absolute motion of the planet. Assuming that the sun and planet attract one another like two particles, if S and P denote their masses and r their distance apart, the force on each towards the other is ySP/r2, where 7 is the gravitation constant.
• P

jSPjr2 Therefore their accelerations are as shewn in the next diagram,
s • *• -*—• p

yP/r2

yS/r*

and to find the acceleration of the planet relative to the sun we must add to the acceleration of both that of the sun reversed in direction,
S• « • P

so that the acceleration of the planet relative to the sun is 7 (S + P)/r2, and this is the /a/r2 of our theory. Hence the periodic time for the relative motion is

and Kepler's third law should read ' The square of the periodic time is proportional to the cube of the mean distance and inversely proportional to the sum of the masses of the sun and the planet.' Since the mass of the largest planet, Jupiter, is less than one-thousandth of the sun's mass it is clear that this correction to the law is a small one.

170

POLAR COORDINATES. ORBITS

[XII

It must be remembered that the units are such that ymm'/r2 is a force, so that in terms of fundamental units therefore <y = M~\ and this makes 2irefi/\/{y(S + P)} of one dimension in time.
12*62. E x a m p l e s , (i) The eccentricity of the earth's orbit round the sun is 1/60; prove that the earth's distance from the sun exceeds the semi-axis major of the orbit during about 2 days more than half the year. [M. T. 1908] If S be the sun in the focus of the ellipse ABA'B', then, since £5=semiaxis major, therefore the distance from S of a point P on the curve exceeds the semi-axis major so long as P is on the arc B'A'B, and since time of describing an arc is proportional to sectorial area, therefore the time required area, SB1A'BS , , = T of a year, where a, 6 are the semi-axes, . , SC.GB , e , , . =$H ,— = § + — of a year, where e is eccentricity,
irao 7r

days, = \ a year + about 2 days.

a year + _ x

:

(ii) The greatest and least velocities of a certain planet in its orbit round the sun are 30 and 29'2 kilometres per second. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. [M. T. 1919] Since the moment of the velocity about the focus S is constant, the greatest and least velocities are where the distances from S of the tangent to the path are least and greatest, i.e. at the ends A, A' of the major axis. Hence or therefore 59i2e = '8 or e = l/74. (iii) The acceleration of a particle in the gravitational field of a star is fi/r2 towards the centre of the star, where p. is a constant and r is the distance from the centre of the star. A particle starts at a great distance with velocity V, the length of the perpendicular from the centre of the star on the tangent to the initial path of the particle being p. Shew that the least distance of the particle from the centre of the star is X, where

12 - 61-12'7] EXAMPLES. LAW OF INVERSE SQUAEE

171

If H = l, F=2, in the system of units chosen, and if the radius of the star is 0 005, prove that the particle will strike the star if p is less than 0'05. [M. T. 1925] Since the particle starts from a great distance, we may assume that F 2 > 2fi/c, where c denotes this great distance, so that by 12*53 the orbit is a hyperbola, with the centre of the star at the focus S. Initially the particle is moving along the asymptote at a great distance, and p, the perpendicular SF from the focus to the asymptote, is known to be equal to the semi minor axis b. This also follows from the properties of the hyperbolic orbit; for V2p2 = h2 = jxtfja (12'52), and the velocity v at distance r from 8 is given by v2= — + - , but at a great distance
T
OJ

we may put r = oo and v — V, so that F 2 = pja; therefore from above p2 = b%. Now the least distance of the particle from S is AS ; therefore, if e denotes the eccentricity, X = SA= CS - CA = a (e - 1 ) , but therefore Hence p2= 62 = a2 (e2 - 1 ) , and V2a=p, Vipi = H2(e2-1) F2X or f i 2 e 2 = / i 2 + Vlp2.

or F2X = ( F 2 + F V ) * - F Substituting the numerical values fi = l and F = 2 we have and the particle will strike the star if it would pass so that its least distance from the centre is less than the radius, i.e. if X < '005, or if 4X < "02. Therefore the necessary condition is
(1 + 1 6 ; B 2 ) * - 1 < - 0 2 ,

or or

1 + 16^2 <(l-02) 2 , p < '05.

127. Use of u, 6 Formulae. So far we have only made use of the formula which expresses the law of force in terms of r, p, and this method is adequate for most simple problems. We shall now make use of the alternative formula

172

POLAK COORDINATES. ORBITS

[XI1

Law offorce /AM2. Find the orbit. Since f= /nu2, therefore d?u fi Putting u =u — /A/h?, the equation becomes dV , „ the integral of which is u' = A cos (6 — •&) (see 17 (16)), or u=~ + A cos(O-vx), where A, vr are constants of integration. This equation may be written AW a (1), | ( ) 1 | fju( 0 ) r which we recognize as the polar equation of a conic with the focus as origin and semi-latus rectum A2//*, since the typical form of the equation of a conic is - = 1 + e cos 6. r The constants of integration can be found when the circumstances of projection are known and the form of the conic can be determined, but the details are not so simple as in 1253, where the same problem is solved by the (r, p) equation. 1271. Inverse Cube. Let the force to the centre be fiu3, then we have _ fi d2u d&+U = h?UThe solution of this equation is different in form according as
/A/A,2 > = or < 1.

First let /j,/h? —l = n2, then the equation is the solution of which is u = AenB + Be~n0 (17 (14)), where the constants A, B depend on the circumstances of projection; if these are such that either A or B is zero the path is an equiangular spiral.

the equation is -^ = 0. . Again. when /j.dr V 1-7(16). putting 1 — fijh? = n2. Le. te~~~fds'' therefore \v* — G — j/dr. which is also a function of r. which is a function of r alone. Hence an apse line. for by resolving along the tangent to the path we get dv _ j./h2=l.12-7-12-7 2] APSES 173 Secondly. In the third case. and the length of the radius vector at such a point is called the apsidal distance. An apse is a point in a central orbit at which the normal to the curve passes through the centre of force. Apses and Apsidal Distances. 1272. the curve known as the reciprocal spiral. a line from the centre to an apse must divide the orbit symmetrically. the equation is and the solution is u — A COB nd + Bsxund a curve with infinite branches. Whenever the central force is a function of the distance. therefore sin <f> = h/rv. the velocity and the inclination of the path to the radius vector are also functions of the distance. the solution of which is u = Ad + B. It follows that at all points in the orbit which are at the same distance from 0 the velocity v and the inclination <f> have the same values. but pv = h. as is also obvious from the fact that if particles were projected from an apse in opposite directions at right angles to the apse line they would describe the same curve in opposite senses. if <f> is the angle between the tangent and radius vector sin <f> = pjr.

therefore the lefthand side of the equation (1) is h2/p2. that the tangent to the curve must be at right angles to the radius vector. The analytical condition for an apse. When it is required to find an orbit for a more complicated law of force it is generally necessary to make use of the (u. are consecutive apses. — dr j ^ . Either process gives C—0.^ = %d6 cos ~' . 8) equation. In like manner if the relative motion of the earth and sun be ascribed to the sun the apse nearer to the earth is called perigee and the further apse is called apogee. We have h21 -j^ + u I = 5/iw + 8nc* u3. the equation reduces to This i \cLu / p s or. is 3 \Jp. D..= \6 + a. by symmetry about OG we have OB = OD and so on.and that h.„ (dlu \ „ . and then. If the law offorce is 5fiv?-\-8fic2u5. is that dujdO vanishes and changes sign as 6 increases through the value that indicates the position of an apse. C. or by observing that at the apse dujd8 = 0 and w = . and the particle is projected from an apse at the distance c with velocity 3 V ulc. and we shall illustrate the general method of procedure by other examples.e. the moment of c the velocity. . ORBITS [xil There can therefore be only two different apsidal distances though there may be any number of apses. The apse nearer to the sun is called perihelion and the further apse is called aphelion. the square of the velocity. for if A. since A2=9^.e. putting so that u = l/r. \at> / Multiply by 2du/d6 and integrate and we get To determine the constant C we substitute the initial values and we may do this either by observing that since ( ~ \ + «2=—5. to prove that the orbit is r=ccos 2fl/3.174 POLAR COORDINATES. by symmetry about OB we have OA — OC. 12-73. i. namely the major axis of the orbit. etc. In the motion of a planet about the sun there is a single apse line. c T . B. Example. i.

' We have seen in 127 that the Newtonian differential equation of the orbit is d2u w £ - +u _ ft ~w ) } {h .. r= ccos(|# + a).12-72-12-74] EINSTEIN'S LAW 175 i. and since this makes du/dd = 0 when 6 = ts.e. Equation (2) is therefore a first approximation to the solution of equation (3). According to Einstein's Law of Gravitation the differential equation of the orbit is The term 3/xw2 is small. In order to obtain a second approximation to the solution we next substitute the value of u given by (2) in the small term on the right of (3) getting The only one of the additional terms that gives appreciable . which in Einstein's theory is taken to be the velocity of light. Hence Einstein's theory adds a small term 3fiv? to the right hand side of equation (1). For applications in the solar system this ratio is of order 10~8. i. for its ratio to /j. there is a choice of signs./h? is 3h?u2. It should be remarked that on taking the square root in (2) above. therefore a = 0 and r=c cos 25/3. 1274. thereforeOTis the angular coordinate of perihelion.e. three times the square of the transverse velocity measured in terms of unit velocity.. and if we measure 8 from the apse line then r = c when 6 = 0. the solution of which as in (1) of 12-7 is of the form w (2). Einstein's Law of Gravitation. when the small term on the right is neglected. One of the small discrepancies unexplained by the law of the inverse square is a slight continuous change in the position of the apse line of the planet Mercury spoken of as 'the advance of perihelion. and that whichever sign be chosen we get the same equation for the path.

And this is of the form g w . Shew that the orbit is a conic when the law of force is fin?. and neglecting the others we have Now it is easily verified that a particular integral of the equation T™ + u = A cos (0 — tss) is u = %A0sin(6 — •sr).(5). E x a m p l e .•or). and (6) shews thateat any instant the planet may be considered to be moving in an ellipse but that the ellipse is not fixed..a (1 — e2). ~W ~ h? ~ a(l-e2)' since h? = fil= /j. aw3..*T). T. 1927] .8 t x ) } provided that SOT =-~~ 8 and (Stn-)2 is neglected. ft *3 2 (6). Hence the solution of (4) is obtained from the solution of (1) by adding to it a term ~ whence we get from (2) M ed am (6 . 12*741. ORBITS [XII effects is the one that contains cos(0.176 POLAR COORDINATES. and find the angular advance of the apse line in one period when the velocity in the orbit is less than the velocity from infinity and the central acceleration contains a small extra term. for the coordinate •sr which defines the position of the apse line is undergoing a continuous change proportional to the angular motion of the planet in the ratio s SOT _ V _ S/J. = ^{l+ecos(0--5r)}+^e0sin(6>-OT) . This calculated motion of the apse line in the case of the planet Mercury accords closely with the results of observation. NowOTis the angular coordinate of perihelion and 6 is the corresponding angular coordinate of the planet. [M.

12'74-12'75] ROTATING OKBIT 177 We have already seen that but for the small extra term the orbit would be an ellipse £ . 1275. the work done in a small displacement ds is . The form of (5) shews that at any instant the orbit may be regarded as an ellipse whose apse line is advancing at the rate of air jh2 in a revolution. Thus (2) may be written and. Neglecting a2 this may be written = p f i + ^ cos (8 -ztprovided that — = ~-^. if f denote the force per unit mass towards the origin.dr . In this case the differential equation is From this point we might proceed as in the last article to regard (1) as a first approximation to the solution of (2) and substitute the value of u given by (1) in the small term on the right of (2) and follow closely the procedure of the last article. Problems on central orbits can also be solved by applying the prinoiples of energy and momentum. (5). -f-r-ds. regarding a— ~^— as the dependent variable. Thus. . But inasmuch as (2) can be solved in explicit terms we may proceed directly to the solution.r a . the solution of this ft — <x differential equation is by (16) of 1'7 where A. Principles of Energy and Momentum applied to Central Orbits. or -fdr.) } (1). •m are constants of integration.

A particle moves in an orbit under a central acceleration fijr% along the radius vector r. Also the moment about 0 of the momentum is constant. If the particle is projected with velocity u at right angles to the radius. at distance c from the origin. therefore (2). Substituting in (1) we find %u? = . if/ is a given function of r. r=0. ^ 12-8. and the equation of angular momentum is r20 = h Initially r=c. and rd = u. obtain the equations of energy and angular momentum. . prove that The equation of energy is or i(r* + rW) = £+C (1). c and in (2) cu — h\ therefore and Eliminating 8 we find that ^ rz8=cu. 12*751.178 POLAR COORDINATES. The motion of a particle under the action of a central repulsive force can be discussed in like manner. where C is a constant. ORBITS [XII and since f and rd are the components of velocity we have (1). (2). r 2d = h Equations (1) and (2) are sufficient for the determination of the orbit. Repulsive Forces. E x a m p l e .+ C.

we may write p^dr so that = ~^' -^=0—.(1). when the repulsive force is inversely as the square of the distance. The acceleration of each particle can then be expressed in terms of its distance from the centre of gravity and thus everything necessary for the determination of the orbits relative to the centre of gravity is known.. Hence the particle would describe the farther branch of the hyperbola under a repulsive force /x/r-2. .12-75-12-9] REPULSIVE FOKCES 179 For example. (2) shews that G = fi/a. If two particles are moving under the action of no forces but their mutual attraction. Motion of Two Particles under their Mutual Attraction. the centre of gravity is reduced to rest and the velocities of the particles become their velocities relative to the centre of gravity. and h? = idPja. If the velocity of the centre of gravity reversed in direction is compounded with the velocity of each particle. 9-3. •(2).. j)2 r Now in 1252 we see that for a hyperbola f=r' so that for points on the branch remote from the focus S we have bz r — 2a „ 2a p* r r and a comparison of equations (1). there is no external force acting upon the system as a whole and therefore the centre of gravity G is either at rest or moves uniformly in a straight line. If the velocities of the particles at any instant are known the velocity of the centre of gravity can be calculated. and from (1) the velocity would be given by 2 fi 2fi a r 12 9.

For example. m are the masses of the particles P and Q and G is their centre of gravity. ORBITS [XII 1291. its path is an ellipse. E x a m p l e . so that the accelerations of M and m are ym\rh and yM/r2 towards one another. 12*92. if V is the velocity of P relative to G. Thus if m. m encounter one another after approach from a great distance. Law of Inverse Square. Shew further that if the two particles have equal masses and one is initially at rest the final velocities are Veos^cj) and Vsin^<p. 7TO' or (m + TO )2 r 2 Hence the path of P relative to G is a conic of which G is a focus. = or > 2m'3/(m +TO'2)r. Two gravitating particles of masses M. The force between the particles is yMmjr2. If on the other hand we wish to find directly the path of P relative to Q. and the acceleration of M relative to m is y(M+m)jr2. so that Q is thereby reduced to rest. If at a great distance the velocity of one relative to the other is V along a line distant p from this other particle. In like manner the path of Q relative to G is a similar conic. we have PQ . we can do so by first giving to both particles the reversed velocity and acceleration of Q. and <j> is the angle through which the relative velocity is turned by the complete encounter. QG = r' and ymm j(PQ)2 is the force between the particles. Then the path determined for P is its path relative to Q. The form of the conic depends in each case on the initial circumstances. prove that tan I </>=y (M+ m)l V2p. r r m' m m and the acceleration of P is towards Cr. parabola or hyperbola. and PG = r. as also are the paths of the particles relative to one another. according as 7 2 <. And since at a great distance .180 POLAR COORDINATES.

12-91-12-92] TWO GRAVITATING PARTICLES 181 if r is taken large enough. The magnitude of the final relative velocity is given by (1) when r -—<*> and is therefore V. this gives u' + u — — Fsin \ <f> and v'+v= Fcos J <f>. since the masses are equal. A smooth straight wire rotates in a plane with constant angular velocity about one end. 1926] 3. 2. v. M= — F s i n ^ . [S. and M is initially moving in the direction of an asymptote with velocity V and the asymptote is at a distance p from the focus. A steamer moving with constant speed. prove that the transverse component of its acceleration is proportional to the radial component of its velocity. 1921] . and. «/= Fcos ^<j>. Again if v is the relative velocity at distance r (1). Hence p is the semi-conjugate axis of the hyperbola. relative to the water passes round a lightship anchored in a tideway. Hence u' — u= Vsin ^(j>. v= Vwe get The angle <f> is the angle between the asymptotes indicated in the figure.= i^—*T '-. Hence tan k<h = . because after the encounter M will be at a great distance in the direction of the second asymptote. v' — v= Fcos^<£. Shew that the path of the steamer is an ellipse whose minor axis is in the direction of the tidal current and whose eccentricity is iijv. EXAMPLES 1. v=0.) [S. From these equations we deduce M' = 0. The velocities of a particle along and perpendicular to a radius vector from a fixed origin are Xr* and pO2: find the polar equation of the path of the particle and also the component accelerations in terms of r and 8. therefore the orbit of M relative to m is a hyperbola. and by substituting the values r=oo. so that the final velocities of M and m are Fcos \<$> and Fsin \<$>. If the angular velocity of a particle about a point in its plane of motion be constant. [S. Shew that a particle which is free to slip along the wire may describe an equiangular spiral. keeping the lightship always dead abeam. yi Again let m be initially at rest and let the final velocities of m and M parallel to the axes of the hyperbola be u. But the final momentum must be the same as the initial momentum. (u is the speed of the tide and we assume u < v. v and u. v' as indicated in the figure. 1924] 4.

An elastic string has one end fixed at A. the mass of one being double that of the other. [M. [S.182 POLAK COORDINATES. 1923] 7. 1926] 6. Find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of projection in order that the orbit may be an ellipse with S. A particle on a smooth table is attached to a string passing through a small hole in the table and carries an equal particle hanging vertically. 1902] 8. at rest relatively to the tube. T. pPS' directed towards fixed points S. Q describe the same ellipse under the same central force to the centre C. If the particles meet and coalesce at an end of the minor axis. [Coll. 1911] 10. m being the mass of each particle. prove that the area of the triangle CPQ is invariable. Find the force the tube is then exerting on the particle. ORBITS [XII 5. 1910] 9.J. 1921] 11. 1926] . T. passes through a small fixed ring at B and has a heavy particle attached at the other end. At time ( = Oa particle is inside the tube. where v is the velocity at that instant and a. 8'. Shew that the normal component of the acceleration at any instant is abffijv. A particle is projected from a given point P under the action of forces whose accelerating effects are uPS. If r is the distance from the hole at time t. [S. T. Assuming that it will describe a plane curve. Shew that at time t the distance of the particle from the point of rotation is a cosh at. shew that the curve is in general an ellipse. [M. Two particles are describing the same ellipse about a centre of force in the centre in opposite directions. A smooth straight tube rotates in a horizontal plane about a point in itself with uniform angular velocity o>. prove the results (ii) the lower particle will be pulled up to the hole if the total length of string is less than a + \h+V'ah+$k?. A particle of unit mass describes an ellipse under the action of a central force fir. shew that the new orbit trisects the major axis of the old. [M. Exam. [S. If two particles P. and a distance a from the point of rotation. The unstretched length of the string is equal to AS. b are the semi-axes of the ellipse. The particle is projected from any point in any manner. S' for foci. (iii) the tension of the string is \mg ( ] +—5. The former particle is projected along the table at right angles to the string with velocity *j2c/h when at a distance a from the hole.

is approximately 18£ miles per minute. A particle describes an ellipse under the action of a force to a focus. Shew that. Three particles P. R. If the intensity of the force is unity at unit distance. where r is the distance of the particle from 0. and the velocity of projection is ^. when the earth in its orbit is at one end of the latus rectum through the sun. [S. Shew that the area of each ellipse is %\ST. and that each particle describes an ellipse about O in the periodic time T= 2jr/v/(3/im). T. 1910] 18.. \CA. Prove that the earth's velocity of approach to the sun. 1922] 14. [Coll. Exam. 1912] . [M.s. 1911] 19. A body moves under a central force varying inversely as the square of the distance. determine the major axis and eccentricity of the orbit. are at A. Q. [Coll. What must be the velocity of projection to make the orbit a parabola 1 [Coll. A particle is repelled from a centre of force 0 with a force yx per unit mass. the accelerating effect of the force at a distance of one foot being 32 f. SA. Exam. attract one another with a force fim2 (distance). 15. If a particle be describing an ellipse about a centre of force in the centre. T.s. Exam.EXAMPLES 183 12.000 miles as the semi-axis major of the earth's orbit. shew that the new orbit will be a parabola or hyperbola according as the apse is the farther or nearer one. if the particle on arriving at any point in the orbit is diverted by a blow in the direction of the normal so that the tangent to the new orbit at that point passes through the second focus. each of mass m. Shew that their centre of gravity. remains at rest. and is acted on by a force varying inversely as the square of the distance towards 8. 1909] 16. if the particle is projected from a point P in any direction with velocity OP \f/i. If a particle is describing an ellipse of eccentricity -5 under the action of a force to a focus and when it arrives at an apse the velocity is doubled. [M.000. [Coll. and find the periodic time. Exam. B. prove that the eccentricity of the orbit is f. A particle is projected from a point A at right angles to SA. If the body is projected at right angles to the radius at a distance of -75 foot with velocity 8 f. shew that the sum of the reciprocals of its angular velocities about the foci is constant. \AB. and 93. prove that the latus rectum of the new path is four times that of the old. when t = 0. 1914] 17. its path is a rectangular hyperbola with 0 as centre. Q. taking the eccentricity of the earth's orbit as 1/60. They move on a smooth horizontal plane and. C and are then moving with velocities equal in magnitude and direction to \BC.s. where S is the area of ABC. 1925] 13.

Shew that. if a particle describes an ellipse under a force to a focus. T. T. 1909] 27. the radial velocity is given by the equation 5 ) 2 = ^{a(l+ e )-r}{r-a(l-«)}. T. find the two points of the orbit at which the component of velocity in any direction LM and the component in the opposite direction ML have maximum values. A particle is projected from infinity with velocity V so as to pass a fixed point at a distance o if undisturbed. In an elliptic orbit described under the action of a force to a focus S. but that its velocity at perihelion is to its former velocity at aphelion as twice the major axis of the former orbit is to the major axis of the new one. When the planet is at perihelion. Shew that the acceleration of the first particle at the vertex of the parabola is ~^-g. 1915] 22. the velocity at the mean distance from the centre of force is a mean proportional between the velocities at the ends of any diameter. where u is the reciprocal of the radius vector. 1916] 24. the mass of the sun is suddenly doubled. [Coll. T.184 POLAR COORDINATES. ORBITS [xil 20.with its initial distance a from the centre of force : shew that its orbit is the equiangular spiral r=ae~e. one under an attraction to the focus. [Coll. Shew that. Shew that the planet will continue to describe an elliptical orbit. Exam. 1926] 26. Exam. 25. [M. Two particles describe in equal times the arc of a parabola bounded by the latus rectum. [M. T. [M. prove that the path is rn = ancosn6. shew that the equation of the orbit is u cos 8 6 being measured from the apse. 1915] 21. If a particle is projected from an apse at distance a with the velocity from infinity under the action of a central force nr~2n~3. 1924] 23. and the other with constant acceleration g parallel to the axis. Also. 1910] . in elliptic motion about a focus under attraction /*r~2. A planet of small mass is describing an elliptical orbit round a sun of large mass. and shew that the sum of the two maximum values is the same for all directions of LM. If it is attracted to the fixed point with acceleration /x«2. [M. [M. if the tangent at P meet any line through S in T. A particle acted on by a central attractive force /rw3 is projected 1 with a velocity ~ VM a t a n angle of jn. shew that the component of the velocity at P in a direction perpendicular to 8T varies inversely as ST.

Shew that the orbit is unstable and that if a slight disturbance takes place inwards the path may be [Coll. 1910] . [M. The law of force is fxus and a particle is projected from an apse at distance a. according as the wire is smooth or not.jiu3.J. and is projected from an apse at distance a + b. and the horizontal range is . A particle of mass m moves under a central force a being > 6. If the pole of the hodograph be at distance c from its centre. If the law of force be 2fi (u3 . 30.EXAMPLES 185 28.a 2 ) + a 2 cosh-ir/a}. 33. 1915] 35. From the fact that the velocity in the hodograph of the motion of a particle represents the acceleration in the path. Find the orbit (i) when the velocity of projection is vW a 2 v'2.]a. Prove that. if the law of force is 3/i«3 + 2/i«V and a particle is projected in a direction making an angle cot" 1 2 with the initial distance a. if r—f{8) be the hodograph of a projectile with the initial line horizontal and 6 measured positively downwards. other than the reaction of the wire. the orbit is au = tan {6 + ^n). 29. shew that its orbit is r—a + bcoad. (ii) when it is \/fi/a2. shew that the time of a complete revolution is approximately [S. is a circle or an equiangular spiral. 1914] represented by r=a tanh 6. Prove that the hodograph of the motion of a small ring. T. Exam.s ¥ ) and the particle be projected from an apse at distance a with velocity sj\s. 31. A point describes a circle of radius a so that its hodograph is a second circle of radius b. 1919] 34. where cjb is small. shew that it will be at a distance r from the centre after a time 1 ' " " . moving along a circular wire under the action of no force. with velocity \fp/(a + b). Exam.jr^dd. deduce that. and with a velocity equal to that in a circle at the same distance. [Coll. the retardation due to the resistance of the air is g I sin 6 -y. 32. Find the velocity necessary for the description of a circular orbit of radius a under a central force 2^ia2«6 .

T. m' are moving in the plane of xy. Shew that the centre of gravity moves with constant velocity in a straight line. under an attraction R along the radius r joining the particles. the other end of which is fixed to a point in a smooth horizontal table. M and E are the masses of the moon and earth respectively. 1923] 37. establish the equation + M_ 4r3 E~~ where a is the earth's radius. Impulses of magnitude / are applied to the particles in opposite directions perpendicular to their line of motion at the instant when their distance apart is a. and that if 1 is small. Two particles of masses m. [S. Two gravitating particles of masses m and M. . Shew that the maximum extension of the string is approximately 2mv2/\. their relative velocity of approach is \/{2y (M + m)/a}. then mm' d2x T>. ORBITS [XII 36. [M. and that if x. T. y being the constant of gravitation. 1914] 38. relative to the earth. Shew that p.v mm' d2y _y 2 m + m' dt r' m + ni' dt2 r' If the relative orbit is a circle of radius r. and that the moon describes a circle of radius r. described in a period T.1923] L J 39. and N is the number of seconds in the moon's period. When the wheel is fixed the period of a small oscillation of the weight is 27r/ra: shew that when the wheel is made to rotate with constant angular velocity < a the period of oscillation is 27r/\/(m 2 -0) 2 ). I the length of the seconds pendulum. The particle lies on the table and is projected with velocity v at right angles to the string which is initially just taut. prove that mm' ' T2 ' 4TTV Assuming Newton's law of attraction. their distance of closest approach during the subsequent motion. A weight can slide along the spoke of a horizontal wheel but is connected to the centre of the wheel by means of a spring. p is given approximately by [M. starting from rest at an infinite distance apart. are allowed to fall freely towards one another. Shew that when their distance apart is a. is the positive root of a certain quadratic equation. A particle of mass m is connected to a slightly extensible string of modulus X.186 POLAR COORDINATES. y are the rectangular coordinates of either particle with respect to the other.

/ * 2 ^ . 1917] ANSWERS 2. (ii) tanh<9/V2 = ?-/a or air both having a common asymptotic circle r=a. [M. J(fySP. 21.8. 0-5. 6. (i) r—a cos 6. 31. 16. ^rB^+^e^jr. 17. \ffi/a. shew that if £l = 6n. The points are the ends of the chord through S perpendicular to LM. -^-5 = f-^ + C. 3ft. 8. 28.EXAMPLES 187 If the wheel is a light frame whose mass may be neglected. T. 16/\/3f. and is started to rotate freely with angular velocity Q.S'F). . 16TT/7 \/7 sees../5Jll the greatest stretch of the spring is 20°/o of its original length. a X V 3 .

y — y + y'. y.mx + tyimy1. Theorem of Parallel Axes. Let the given axis be taken as axis of z. Let (x. (%. where r denotes distance from the point or plane. B = tm(z2 + x2). . If M denotes the whole mass and k be a line of such length that Mk2 is the moment of inertia about an axis. then k is called the radius of gyration of the system about that axis. G = %m{a? + y2). and let x = x + x. If the mass of every element of a body or particle of a system be multiplied by the square of its distance from an axis. z = z + z'. and the sums represented by D = ~%myz. z) be the coordinates of a particle of mass m. F= ~%mxy are called the products of inertia of the body with regard to the axes yz. The moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal to its moment of inertia about a parallel axis through its centre of gravity.Chapter XIII MOMENTS OF INERTIA 13-1. the sum of the products is called the Moment of Inertia of the body or system about that axis. the moment of inertia is 2mr2. E = "£mzx. When rectangular coordinate axes are used. z) the coordinates of the centre of gravity G. 132. The moment of inertia about Oz = Zm(x* + if) = 1m {(x + xj + (y+ y'f\ = 2m (x'2 + y'2) + (Sa + y2) 1m + 2x2. zx. In like manner we may define the moment of inertia of a system with respect to a point or plane as Xmr2. together with the product of the whole mass and the square of the distance between the axes. Thus if m denotes the mass of an element or particle and r denotes its distance from the axis. y. xy. the moments of inertia of a body about the axes are denoted by A = 2m(yi + z2).

26. . and the first sum is the moment of inertia about an axis through 0 parallel to Oz. since z = 0 at all points on the lamina. about an axis through its centre perpendicular to plane containing the edges 26. 26. In all cases Mkz is taken to be the moment of inertia. 2c .. Then.. 134.. 2 Value of fc ^a 2 -Ja2 . 2c. . the .... The moment of inertia of a plane lamina about an axis perpendicular to its plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two perpendicular axes in the plane that intersect on the first axis. Plane Lamina.. and G denotes the centre of gravity.. 2c... Take the plane of the lamina as the plane of xy and the perpendicular axis as Oz. where M is the whole mass.. about a perpendicular to its plane through a corner Rectangular parallelopiped of edges 2a. therefore The moment of inertia about Oz— 1m (a/2 + y'2) + (a? + ?/2) 1m. The calculation of a moment of inertia is generally a simple matter of integration and the following results are tabulated for convenience.13'1-13'4] REFERENCE TABLE 189 But Xmx = 0 and %my = 0. about the axis 26 about a perpendicular to its plane through O Ellipsoid of axes 2a. and the remaining terms are the product of the whole mass and the square of the distance between the axes.. about the axis 2a . about a perpendicular axis through O about a perpendicular axis through an end Rectangular lamina of sides 2a... . J J i(« 2 Ja 2 J(a 2 + 62) j(« 2 Rod of length 2a. Reference Table.. Elliptic lamina of axes 2a. . In some of the cases given the result follows from the preceding result by an application of 132 or 133. we have so that G = A + B.. 26. ... about an axis bisecting the sides 2as about a perpendicular to its plane through O .. 26. about the axis 2a .. 133.

But for an axis through the centre perpendicular to the plane k2 = l(a?+a?) = ±a?. the perpendicular semi-axis in the plane is of length a and that perpendicular to the plane is zero. Therefore the ring makes a contribution —^-rsdr to the moment of inertia. where a is the radius. First find the moment of inertia about an axis through the centre perpendicular to the plane. so that A =B= C= . according as the body is rectangular. elliptical or ellipsoidal. therefore by 13"3 the moment of inertia about a diameter—\Ma?. Some of the results of the last article can be obtained by simple direct methods. for the moment of inertia about a diameter. We notice that a sphere is a particular case of an ellipsoid and that its moment of inertia about a diameter is therefore f Ma2. Circular disc of radius a and mass M.190 MOMENTS OF INERTIA [XIII The last three results may be included in a single formula known as Routh's rule: A body has three axes of symmetry: about an axis of symmetry &2 has the value Sum of squares of perpendicular semi-axes 3. Let r denote the radius and dr the breadth of one of these rings. For this purpose divide the disc into narrow concentric rings. The moments of inertia about all diameters are the same. 4 or 5 ' where the denominator is to be 3. therefore k2 = Ja 2 . Thus a circle is a special case of an ellipse. and the moment of inertia of the whole disc a Jo Secondly. S p h e r e of radius a and mass M. and if we want the radius of gyration of a circular lamina of radius a about a diameter. 4 or 5. Its area is iirrdr and therefore its mass is —xZnrdr and every element of the ring is at a distance r2 from the axis. 13'41. since the moment of inertia about every diameter is the same.

r2dr. Hence the moment of inertia •nab about Oy — —? I s irabj_a x2ydx. 26 the axes. Taking coordinate axes Ox. The area may be divided into narrow strips such as PP'. The mass of such a strip is —=• Iiidx. Oz along the axes of the ellipsoid let us find the moment of inertia about Ox. |wa 3 a3 Hence. The semi-axes of this section are given by R1 and RN = i . 26. a3 Jo and therefore the moment of inertia about a diameter = §J/a 2 . Let M be the mass of the ellipsoid and 2a.13-4-1342] ELLIPSES AND ELLIPSOIDS 191 Divide the sphere into concentric shells. Its volume is Anr^dr and therefore its mass = j 5 4irr*dr = —. 2c the lengths of its axes. 1342. We append two examples of integration: Elliptic Lamina. Oy. where 3 p' Therefore T Put x = a sin 8. Let the solid be divided by planes parallel to yz and let QRQ/R' be the section at a distance 0N=% from 0.h™ ain 6 cos 6d6 /•*"• /"*"• 2TT JO It follows that the square of the radius of gyration about Ox is J 62 and about a perpendicular to the plane through 0 it is j (a2 + 62). and we get A ^= » 2 ^ 1 a 2 I si 2 J . of length 2y and breadth dx. To find the moment of inertia about the minor axis. in the figure. Let M be the mass and 2a. Let r denote the radius and dr the thickness of such a shell. for the whole sphere. Ellipsoid.

Momental Ellipse.-mPN2 = 2m (y cos d . But the whole volume is f wabc. y are the rectangular coordinates of Q. Plane Lamina. and / = 2. if x. Aa? + By2 .2F sin 0 cos 0 = Me4/r2. Hence the moment of inertia of the whole ellipsoid about Ox = l S (62+°2) [«**- 135.2 sin 6 cos 02mOT/ = A cos2 0 + 5 sin2 6 . PN — ycosO — x sin 6. Reverting to the case of a plane lamina we can shew that the moment of inertia about a y line through the origin making an angle 6 with the axis of x is given by the formula I = A cos2 8 + B sin2 6 . or.192 MOMENTS OF INERTIA [XIII so that the area of the section = -•=.(a2 — x2) dx. where A. and therefore A cos2 0 + B sin2 6 . To prove this theorem we have only to put / = Jie4/r2.2Fxy . For if P (x.^ 2 ). B. and the square of its radius of gyration about Ox is I ( § # 2 + iJ# 2 ) = ^ (62 -t-c2) (a2 .*'2). the locus of the point Q is an ellipse called a momental ellipse for the lamina at the point 0. therefore Q •!#• the mass of the slice at distance x from 0 is -—^ (a2 — «2) dx.2JPsin 0 cos 6. and the volume of a slice of ct thickness dx is —j. y) be the position of an element of mass m and PN be perpendicular to the line.2Fsin 6 cos 9.x sin Of = cos2 02m2/2 + sin2 6%mx* . F have the meanings assigned to them in 131. such that the moment of inertia of the lamina about OQ is inversely proportional to OQ2.(a2 . If along any line through 0 we measure off a length OQ = r.

13-42-13-52]

PRINCIPAL AXES

193

which represents a central conic; and, since every radius is real by construction, therefore the conic is an ellipse. M is intended to denote the mass and e is a length in order to make both sides of the equation of the same dimensions. The constant e is arbitrary, so that we have any number of similar, similarly situated, momental ellipses at the same point. 13*51. Principal Axes. When rectangular axes at a point are so chosen that the products of inertia %myz, Imzx and tmxy are all zero, these axes are called the principal axes at the point. In this case A, B, C are called the principal moments of inertia. It can be shewn that at any point there always is a set of principal axes, but we shall confine ourselves to proving this theorem for the case of a lamina. Reverting to the figure of 13*5, the product of inertia with regard to the axis ON and a perpendicular axis is 2m (PN. NO) = 2m (y cos 0 — x sin 0) (x cos0 + y sin 0) — ~S,mxy (cos2 6 — sin2 0) + 2m (y* — x2) sin 0 cos 0 = Fcos 20 + KA-B) sin 20, and this will vanish if 0 = \ tan" 1 -=—-j; thus determining the principal axes at 0 in the plane of the lamina. The existence of the principal axes at 0 also follows from the fact that when the equation of a momental ellipse is referred to its axes the coefficient of xy vanishes, but this coefficient is the product of inertia with regard to those axes. Therefore the axes of a momental ellipse at 0 are the principal axes at 0. 13 52. Geometrical Representation. Suppose that we have constructed a momental ellipse at a point 0, and that a, b are its semi-axes. By hypothesis the moment of inertia about any radius OP is M^/OP2. But if p is the length of the perpendicular from 0 to the tangent parallel to OP it is a property of the ellipse that p. OP = ab, therefore the moment
RD J3

194

MOMENTS OF INERTIA

[XIII

of inertia about OP is directly proportional to^p2; or, on some suitable scale of measurement, p represents the radius of gyration of the lamina about OP. 13*53. If the principal moments of inertia of a lamina at its centre of gravity are known, the moment of inertia about any other axis in the plane can be calculated. For if A, B are the principal moments and Ox, Oy the principal axes, the moment about an axis through 0 making an angle 0 with Ox is by 13'5 A cos2 6 + B sin2 6, and the moment about any parallel axis can be found by the theorem of parallel axes in 132. 13*54. If the principal moments of inertia of a lamina are equal at any point, then a momental ellipse at that point is a circle and any pair of axes at right angles through the point are principal axes through the point. For example, at the centre of a square the moments of inertia about lines parallel to the sides of the square are clearly equal, therefore a momental ellipse is a circle and the moment of inertia about every line in the plane passing through the centre is the same. 136. Equimomental Bodies. Two bodies are said to be equimomental when their moments of inertia about all straight lines are equal each to each. This will be so if the bodies have the same centre of gravity, the same mass, and the same principal axes and principal moments of inertia at the centre of gravity. Thus a straight rod of mass M is equimomental with particles of mass \M at each end and a particle of mass \M at the centre.

EXAMPLES 1. A parabolic area is cut ofl' by a double ordinate at a distance h from the vertex, shew that for the moment of inertia about the tangent at the vertex &2=f A2. 2. Shew that the square of the radius of gyration for the area of the curve r2=a?cos28 about an axis through the origin perpendicular to the plane is \na2.

13-52-13-6]

EXAMPLES

195

3. A right cone of height h stands on a circular base of radius a. Shew that for the moment of inertia about the axis of the cone k2=$ja?t and about a line through the vertex perpendicular to the axis £2 = g (A2 +Jo. 2 ). 4. Shew that, for a thin hemispherical shell of radius a and mass M, the principal moments of inertia at the centre of gravity are %Ma2; and that for a solid hemisphere the values are 5. Particles of equal mass are placed at the corners of a regular polygon. Prove that the squares of the principal radii of gyration at any point 0 in the plane of the polygon are a2/2 and (os2 + 2A2)/2, where a is the radius of the circumscribing circle of the polygon and h is the distance of 0 from the centre of this circle. [Coll. Exam. 1913] 6. Prove that a uniform triangular lamina of mass M, and a system consisting of three particles each of mass ^M, situated at the middle points of the sides and rigidly connected by light rods, have the same moment of inertia about any axis in the plane. [M. T. 1925] 7. Shew that, if p, y are the distances of the corners B, C of a triangle ABC from any straight line through A in the plane of the triangle, then the moment of inertia of the triangle about this line is ^M(fi2 + f3y + y2), where M denotes its mass. 8. Shew that, if o, /3, y are the distances of the corners of a triangle from any straight line in its plane, then the moment of inertia of the triangle about this line is where M denotes its mass. 9. Shew that the principal axes at a corner of a rectangular lamina of sides a, b make with a side angles 8, 5 n + 8, where

10. Shew that, in the last example, if half the rectangle be removed so as to leave a right-angled triangle of sides <z, b, the value of 8 for the principal axes at the right angle is given by

11. A uniform rectangular plate whose sides are of lengths 2a, 26 has a portion cut out in the form of a square whose centre is the centre of the rectangle and whose mass is half the mass of the plate. Shew that the axes of greatest and least moment of inertia at a corner of the rectangle make angles 6, \n + 8, with a side, where tan 28 = f ab/(a2 - ¥•). [M. T. 1928]
13-2

196

MOMENTS OF INERTIA

[XIII

12. Find the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass m and length 2c about any axis for which the line of shortest distance to the given rod cuts the rod at its middle point. [Take 6 for the angle between the axis and the rod.] Shew by direct integration of the previous result that the moment of inertia of a plane uniform elliptic lamina of mass M and semi-axes a and h about an axis through its centre in the plane normal to the lamina containing the axis a and making an angle <j> with that axis is \M (V + a? sin2 <£). [M. T. 1927]

ANSWER 12. m (dP + \c2 sin2 6), where d is the shortest distance between the rod and the axis.

Chapter XIV MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM
14-1. A rigid body means a body in which the distance between each pair of particles remains invariable. The bodies with which we are familiar are all more or less elastic and capable of compression, extension or distortion under the action of external forces, and the problem of the motion of such a body is in general rendered more complicated by its deformability. The problem of the motion of bodies is greatly simplified by the hypothesis that they are rigid in the sense denned above, and in elementary dynamics we limit our considerations for the most part to the problem of the motion of one or more such bodies. Further, we regard a rigid body as an agglomeration of particles held together by cohesive forces such that the action and reaction between any pair of particles are equal and opposite (97), and we use the principles established in Chapter IX for the motion of a system of particles. In the case of the rigid body however there is an additional fact to be observed, namely, that since the distance between each pair of particles is unaltered in any displacement of the body, therefore the total work done by the action and reaction between the particles is zero. For if R denotes the mutual reaction between two particles A, B which undergo a small A' displacement to A', B', so that A'B' = AB, where A'B' makes "~ a small angle 6 with AB; then, A R M if MN is the projection of A'B' on AB, the work done is R. AM - R. BN = R (AB - MN) = R.AB(l-cos0); and this is zero to the first order of small quantities, and by

dx) + (y'-y) (dy' -dy)}. The work done by B at A in any displacement of the body is \(Xdx + Ydy) integrated along the path of A. since by differentiating (1) we get (x . (ii) The rate of change of moment of momentum. and the work done by B at B is . Y denote the components of B at A and consequently . . The principles of the independence of translation and rotation established in 9 "3 also hold good for a rigid body or system of bodies. done by the internal forces is included.dx') + {y. * A more formal proof of this theorem may be set out as follows : Let (x. if any.198 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. of a rigid body about any fixed axis is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about that axis (9"2).x') (dx . The same principles also apply to the motion of a system of rigid bodies.Y denote the components of B at B. and this is zero.X. Hence the total work done is 'B {(x' . provided that in (iii) we include the work done. by the internal actions and reactions between the bodies.y') (dy . y). but in the case of a single rigid body the internal forces do no work in any displacement and therefore in (iii) we only refer to the external forces.dy') = 0. B in any position of the body. (iii) The increase in the kinetic energy of a rigid body in any time is equal to the work done by the external forces in that time (9-4). It will be convenient to summarize here the results of Chapter IX in reference to a rigid body. B the mutual reaction and r the invariable distance of the particles. Y=B(y'-y)jr. y') be the coordinates of the particles A. thus : (i) The rate of change of linear momentum of a rigid body in any direction is equal to the sum of the components of the external forces resolved in that direction (9'2). ENERGY AND MOMENTUM [XIV summation the same result holds good for a finite displacement *. .x) (dx' . In 9-4 work. (x'. then X=B(x'-x)lr.j(Xdx' + Ydy') integrated along the path of B. if any. so that Let X.

momentum and moment of momentum of a rigid body. If P be the position of an element of mass m of the body whose coordinates referred to parallel axes through G are x'. v. The velocity of every point of the body is determinate provided that the angular velocity of the body is known and the linear velocity of some one point of the body. we need to find the most convenient expressions for the kinetic energy. and let <o be the angular velocity of the body. Therefore the components of velocity of P parallel to the axes are u — rco sin 8 or u — y'a>. But 2m is the whole mass M of the body. In order to apply the principles of the last article. y' or r. the velocity of P relative to G is ra> perpendicular to GP. and we shall confine our attention for the most part to twodimensional motions. 2.mx'. noting however that the principles can also be applied to motion in three dimensions. Hence the kinetic energy of the body is A 2 m {(u . Oy are u. and v+rcocos8 or v+x'a>. Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body. and 2m (x'2 + y'2) is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis through G .y'a>)2 + (v + x'wf) = £ (u2 + v2) 2m + -|o)22m (a/2 + y'2) — uw'tmy' + va> 2. 8 in polar coordinates. Let us suppose that the centre of gravity G has a velocity whose components parallel to coordinate axes Ox.mx and ~2my' are zero because G is the centre of gravity.141-14-2] KINETIC ENERGY OF A RIGID BODY 199 142.

sin26: the mean speed of the pump is 600 rev. The first two terms represent the kinetic energy of the whole mass moving with the velocity of the centre of gravity and the third term is the kinetic energy of the motion relative to the centre of gravity. This result is capable of simple independent proof. when the body is turning about a fixed axis through 0 perpendicular to the plane xy. Hence the kinetic energy may be written %M(u2 + v2 + k2a>2) (1). also. in accordance with the theorem previously proved in 9'5. and therefore the kinetic energy of the body 14*21.200 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. for if r denotes the distance of an element of mass m from the fixed axis. the work done in reaching the lowest position is mga (1 + cosa). find the angular velocity when m is in its lowest position. (i) A uniform disc is free to turn about a horizontal axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane. since its velocity is aa>. where for a plane body we may speak of k as the radius of gyration about G. and of the particle \ma2a?'. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM [XIV perpendicular to the plane and may be denoted by Mk2. then ha> is the velocity of G and the formula (1) becomes \ M (h2 + k2) or*. As a special case. therefore | (Mk2 + ma2) » 2 =mga (1 + cos a). Then. the kinetic ^—~T-~^ energy of the disc is \M1C2B?. if a> is the angular velocity. since the weight of the particle is the only force that does work. we append a few solutions. Examples of Conservation of Energy. (ii) An electric motor which gives a uniform driving torque drives a pump for which the torque required varies with the angle during each revolution according to the law To. . let h be the distance of G from this axis. Let a be the radius of the disc and Mk2 its moment of inertia about its centre. Numerous problems can be solved by the principle of energy alone. or by the theorem of parallel axes in 132 \I«? (2). A particle of mass m is attached to a point in the edge of the disc. its velocity is ra>. If motion starts from the position in which the radius to the particle m makes an angle a 'with the upward vertical. where / is the moment of inertia of the body about the fixed axis.

-lb. 143. v denote the components of velocity of O as in 14-2. If x. i. y are the coordinates of the centre of gravity and M is the whole mass. we have '%mx=Mx and Liny = My. so that its components of momentum are m (u — y'a>) and ..-lb.. and the mean horse-power required is 8. Momentum of a Rigid Body. the velocities of the element m are u — y'co and v+x'm.. per second.-lb.-lb. Reverting to the notation and figure of 142. of energy is successively stored and given out by the flywheel. the same as if the whole mass were collected into a particle at G and moved with the velocity of G. and when the pump requires a smaller torque than this the surplus energy is stored by the flywheel.e. Since the torque required by the pump varies from 0 to 140 ft.-lb. where k is a constant. Therefore the mean couple required =8X550/20TT = 70ft. To limit the fluctuation of speed during each revolution. approximately. y are the coordinates of an element of mass m of the body and x.14-2-143] MOMENTUM OF A RIGID BODY 201 per win. during a revolution. Now consider the moment of momentum of the body about an arbitrarily chosen origin 0. The mean rate of working is 8 horse-power or 8 x 550 ft.-lb.\ therefore \k= 70 ft. [S.. i.. 1mx = Mx and Smy = My. Shew that the energy thus successively stored and given out by the flywheel is approximately 70 foot-pounds. to be given out again when the pump requires a torque larger than the mean. or £ = 140 ft. 1925] ' Torque' means couple. it follows that 70 ft. by differentiation. the components of linear momentum of the whole body are Mu.-lb. Mv. and the steady torque supplied by the motor is 70 ft.-lb. The mean speed is 10 revolutions or 20JT radians per second.-lb. and varies from 0 to 140 ft. 70 ft.-lb. The torque required for driving the pump is therefore given by r = 140sin 2 0 ft. a flywheel is provided between the motor and the pump which successively stores and gives out energy. Now the mean value of sin2 6 taken over a revolution Hence the mean value of the torque required for the pump is also \k.e. so that if u. Therefore.-lb. Let the torque required for driving the pump be given by 9 r = £ sin2 < ft. But the electric motor gives a uniform driving torque equal to the mean torque required by the pump.

moment about 0 of the components G of linear momentum of the body.e. i. Multiplying out and remembering that Xmx' = 0 and ~Zmy' = 0. for we get the moment of momentum about any point 0 by taking the algebraical sum of the moments of Mu. since x = x + x and y = y + y'. . where k is the radius of gyration about G. Numerous problems are simple illustrations of the principles of conservation of momentum. it is the ->.202 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. It is in fact the moment about G of the momentum in the motion of the body relative to G. if the system be set in motion with angular velocity a>. 1431. or. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM [XIV m (v + x'co). together with a couple Mk^a which may be called the spin couple. We append the solution of a few examples. Mv and adding on the spin couple Mk%a>. Taking moments about 0. the angular velocity of the tube as the rod leaves it is ^o>. Examples of Conservation of Momentum. (i) A thin straight tube of small bore is movable about its centre on a smooth horizontal table. the moment of momentum = 2 m {(% + x)(v-+ x'w) — (y + y')(u — y'oo)}. viz. We y also remark that the second term in formula (1). Hence the whole momentum of the body may be regarded as composed of a vector with components Mu. Prove that. the moment of momentum of the whole body = Xm [x (v + x'a>) — y(u — y'co)}. is independent of the choice of origin 0 and independent of the velocity of G. Mk2a>. Mv. there remains 2m (xv — yu) + a %m (x'2 + y'2) = M(xv-yu) + Mk2co (1). Mv localized at the centre of gravity. We observe with regard to this formula that the first term M (xv — yu) is the moment about 0 of a vector localized at G and having y components Mu. and it contains a uniform thin rod of the same length and mass whose centre of gravity is nearly at the middle point of the tube.

But the system is not acted upon by any force which has a moment about the axis. or a>' = ^a>. and the moment of momentum about the axis at time t is 6 (I+mr2t). (ii) A horizontal wheel with buckets on its circumference revolves about a frictionless axis. [M. hence the moment about 0 of the momentum of the rod is 4ma2<o' + J m a V . 1921] . and returns to the point of starting on the lamina. the angle turned through by the wheel in time t is In time t a mass mt of water falls into the buckets and the total moment of inertia about the axis is increased from 1 to / + mr2t. The man proceeds to walk on the lamina. Originally both man and lamina are at rest. find the angular velocity of the wheel after time t. and shew that if I be the moment of inertia of the wheel and buckets about the vertical axis and r the radius of the circumference on which the buckets are placed. Shew that the lamina has moved through an angle relative to the ground given by n {1 — V1/(1+ ma2)}. when the rod is leaving the tube its centre of gravity G has velocity 2aa>'. Treating the buckets as small compared with the wheel. ultimately describes {relative to the lamina) a closed circle having OA (=a) as diameter. Water falls into the buckets at a uniform rate of mass m per unit of time. so that the moment of momentum is constant. and the moment of momentum of the tube is now J u w V . If 8 be the angle turned through in time t the angular velocity is 6. if Q. The initial moment of momentum about 0 is § m a V If a is the angular velocity required. be its initial value. where I is the moment of inertia of the lamina about the axis. T.143-14'31] EXAMPLES OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 203 Let m be the mass and 2a the length of either body. And since there is no external force the total moment of momentum about 0 remains unaltered. so that the momentum of the rod consists of a linear component 2maa> at right angles to the rod and a spin couple \ma2a>. therefore 4moV + § ma2a> = § ma2a. therefore HenOe 0 I+mrH (iii) A man of mass m stands at A on a horizontal lamina which can rotate freely about a fixed vertical axis 0.

therefore the kinetic energy is \nia2 (sin2 6 + \) 62. therefore ( / + ma2 cos 2 <f>)6=ma2 cos 2 <£<£. therefore But OP=a cos <]>. where P = ^ a a and y = acos$.204 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. Hence TT d6=-f 5—?-7 dd> 1 + ma' cos1* q> r m ma2 cos2 d> \ 1+ma2 cos 2 <f>J Now as the man walks round the circle from A to 0 the angle <fi increases from 0 to Jw. Examples of Conservation of Energy and Momentum. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM [XIV Let Ox be a fixed line. Therefore the whole angle turned through by the lamina f o I+ma2 W_2/T—J*__ cos 2 <j>' To evaluate the integral put tan <$>=t.6) and <> his moment of momentum about 0 is WJOP2 (<£ — #). and we get J uI+ma2 + It2 2/ tan" 1 = n {1 . If m is the mass. therefore the velocity of the man 0 / at right angles to OP is OP ( / . The angle xOP increases at the rate <p — 6. where P denotes the position of the man. The lamina has a moment of momentum Id in the opposite sense . Since there is no horizontal force acting on the rod its centre of gravity O does not acquire any horizontal velocity y and therefore remains in the same vertical line Oy. the kinetic energy is \m(y2 + k282). and as he walks on from 0 to A the angle <f> increases from f 7T to 2n. and at time t let AOx — 6 and AOP=<f>. (i) A uniform straight rod is held at an inclination a to the vertical with its lower end in contact with a smooth horizontal plane and let go.V'1/(1+ ma2)}. y the height of O above the plane and 6 the inclination to the vertical at time t. and the total moment of momentum in the same sense remains zero throughout the motion. 2a the length. 14*4. Find the angular velocity when the rod becomes horizontal. and the work .

Shew that the sphere will surmount the block if (a2-ah + k2)2v2>2gha*(a2+k2). therefore its angular velocity is vja just before striking the block. therefore the kinetic energy of the sphere is \m (a2+k2) a2. But before the impact there was a linear momentum mv and a spin couple mk2vja. and.ah+k2)2 v2 > 2gha? {a2+k2). If 0 is the point of contact of the sphere with the edge of the block the sphere begins to turn about 0 and when it begins to rise the velocity of its centre O is aa at right angles to 00. on substituting for a. therefore \ma2 (sin2 8 + \) S2 = mga (cos a — cos 6) gives the angular velocity in any position. therefore TO (a2 + k2)a> = mv (a — h) + mkhi/a. where h<Ca. the sphere and the block are perfectly rough and perfectly inelastic. rolls with linear velocity v on a horizontal plane. and for 6 = \n (ii) A sphere of radius a. . otherwise the kinetic energy would be destroyed by the time the sphere had risen to the required height. Let a> be the angular velocity immediately after striking the block. Now in order to surmount the block the kinetic energy of the sphere when beginning to rise must be more than the work that would have to be done in lifting the sphere through a height h. This equation determines the angular velocity a> with which the sphere begins to rise. and the required condition is \m(a2 + k2)ai2>mgh. where in is the mass. we get (a2 . T. but it has no moment about 0. and of radius of gyration k about any axis through its centre..14-31-14-4] CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM 205 done as O descends from a height a cos a to a cos 6 is mga (cos a — cos 6). But since the velocity of O is aa when starting to rise. the direction of motion being perpendicular to a vertical face of a fixed rectangular block of height h. [M. and the moment of momentum about 0 is therefore m(a2+k2)a>. The sphere strikes the block. Now there is an impulsive reaction on the sphere at 0. therefore the moment of momentum about 0 is unchanged by the impact. 1924] Since the sphere rolls with linear velocity v. immediately after the impact.

carries a mass of j lb. The wheel is held with OP inclined at 30° above the horizontal and then released. 1927] . without horizontal motion.206 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY. which is of radius r. The flywheel contains a pocket at a distance a from the axis into which is dropped a sphere of mass M. Shew that when its radius is reduced to —th of its former value the kinetic n energy is multiplied by n2. T. concentrated at a point P on its rim. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM [XIV EXAMPLES 1. Find the angular velocity of the system after the sphere has come to relative rest in the pocket. The rods are rigidly joined together at right angles at C. the middle point of AB. [M. calculate the angular velocity when AB is horizontal. [M. 5. A wheel 30 inches in diameter. A mass m is suspended from the axle. What is its kinetic energy (in ft. 1913] 7. AB and CD are two rods of lengths 2a and b respectively.2 makes 10 revolutions per second. Rotation is opposed by a constant frictional couple O.-lb.000 ft. A flywheel of moment of inertia / is rotating with angular velocity Q about a vertical axis. what is the average force exerted by the rod? [M. 1917] 3. and prove that in the next swing OP will come to rest before reaching the vertical.-ft. of kinetic energy stored in it when its speed is 250 revolutions per minute. A flywheel of a pressing machine has 150. A wheel whose moment of inertia about its axis is 200 lb. If the system is held with AB vertical and then let go. A wheel and axle has moment of inertia / about its axis. Owing to a friction couple of constant magnitude L at the bearing. What energy does it part with during a reduction in speed to 200 revolutions per minute ? If 82"/o of this energy given out is imparted to the pressing rod during a stroke of 2 inches. A uniform sphere rotating about a diameter contracts by cooling. [S. 6. moment of inertia i and spin a about a vertical axis. and what constant couple would reduce it to rest in one revolution ? 2. Determine the value of L. T. and the system is free to rotate in a vertical plane about D. the first swing carries OP to a position only 45° beyond the vertical.). T. Find the angular velocity acquired as the mass TO descends a distance h. by a fine thread wrapped round and fastened to the axle. which can rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis through its centre 0.-lb. 1912] 4. the mass of each rod being m per unit length.

. 3. 1 5 ( 1 + V2)/88B. 1908] 9. then or according as the plane is smooth or sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. and this particle adheres to the rod.000 ft. T. &. 54. Exam. A uniform rod of length a and mass m is describing circles on a smooth horizontal table about one end which is fixed. 1918] 10.500 ft.EXAMPLES 207 8.-lb. 4 . {3gb(4a + b)/(2a3 + 6ab* + V)}K 0)/r(I+mr1)}i. . A cube of side 2a slides down a smooth plane inclined at an angle 2 tan" 1 J to the horizontal. Shew that. [M.-lb.ma?. Shew that. 7. find the ratio in which the angular velocity is changed.. ^A (mgr 2 6. The obstacle may be taken to be inelastic and so rough that the cube does not slip on it.-lb. and meets a fixed horizontal bar placed perpendicular to the plane of motion and at a perpendicular distance \a from the plane. (l£t + ia)l(I+i+Ma ). If the rod strikes a particle of mass m' at distance 6 from the fixed end. ANSAVBES 1. it must be allowed first to slide down the plane through a distance J^f a. 2. if o is the angular velocity when a face of the cube comes into contact > with the plane. mcfi + Zm'W-. 118£f tons.ft. [Coll. 6250/jr ft. 12. if the cube is to have sufficient velocity to surmount the obstacle when it reaches it. A uniform cube of edge 2a is placed in unstable equilibrium with one edge in contact with a horizontal plane and allowed to fall.-lb.

152. m' be connected by a fine string passing over a pulley of mass M. the linear acceleration of the string and therefore also of the particles is a&>. T.m!) ag. Mii= „ „ „ „ „ Oy. . algebraical sum of moments about 0 of Mu and Mi) plus the couple MJc*(b = algebraical sum of moments about 0 of the external forces. If we take 0 to be the point through which the centre of gravity G is passing at the instant considered. we obtain the formal equations of motion of the body by equating the rates of change of momentum to the external forces and equating the moment of the rate of change of momentum about any axis to the moment of the external forces. (i) Pulleywith inertia.Chapter XV EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY 151. shewing that the acceleration is constant. and an equation of moments. And by taking moments about its axis for the pulley mig mg MWi. radius a and moment of inertia about its axis MB. Hence by resolving vertically for the particles we get ma<Z> = mg.=aT-aT'. Using the expressions found in the last chapter for the momentum of a body. Let the tensions in the two straight portions of the string be T. Let two particles of masses m. thus Mu = sum of the external forces resolved parallel to Ox. Suppose that the pulley is free to turn about its axis without friction and that the string does not slip on the pulley. and if we eliminate the tensions we get (mai + m'a2+Mk2)a> = (m . then since Mu and Mi) are localized at G they have no moment about 0 and the last equation reduces to Mk2a> = sum of moments about G of the external forces. where 0 is any point in the plane. If the angular acceleration of the pulley is d in the > sense indicated in the figure. viz. Applications of the Equations of Motion.T WCget < r a n d m'aa> = T' — rn'g.

From (3) and (4) we get 2 2 F=mk uja (5). that the velocity of the point P in contact with the plane is zero. B. Let u be the velocity of the centre 0 and to the angular velocity. and these are two equivalent systems. u. i. R the normal reaction and a the inclination of the plane to the horizontal.e. and it is got from the kinematical condition that the body rolls. m the mass. Let a be the radius of the body. (ii) A circular hoop.151-15-2] ROLLING SPHERE 209 Alternatively this result might be obtained from the principle of energy. therefore the condition that the body rolls is u — aa> = 0 (4). F the friction. therefore J (m + n! + Mk2\a2) v2 = (m-m') gs. The first of the diagrams shews the external forces F. (m. R and the weight mg. mk2 the moment of inertia.It Taking moments about O gives (3). The velocity of P relative to & is aa> up the plane and the velocity of Q is u down the plane. For if we suppose that in descending a distance s the particle m acquires a velocity v. and differentiating with regard to s gives (m + m' + MA. and substituting for F in (1) gives so that the body rolls down the plane with constant acceleration. a>. Resolving along and at right angles to the plane we get mil — mg sin a — F (1). the second shews the rates of change of momentum. then the angular velocity acquired by the pulley is y/a. a disc or a sphere rolls down an inclined plane. ED 14 . and 0=mg cos a. and the whole kinetic energy is •but the work done as m descends and m! ascends a distance sis. so that the acceleration vdv/ds has the same value as was obtained previously for aa.2/a?) v dv/ds — {m — m')g.m')gs. One other equation is required for the determination of the four unknown quantities F.

and the acceleration when sliding is g (sin a . .) (iii) A sphere rolls down on the surface of a fixed sphere. m$? the moment of inertia of the moving sphere. therefore it has accelerations (a + b) & at right angles to OG and (a + b) 62 along GO.F and m(a + b)62=mgcosd-R Taking moments about G gives mk2i> = Fa (1). Let G be the centre.jx cos a). (See 4'55. m the mass. Since O describes a circle of radius a + b. From (5) and (6) we see that the friction necessary to cause rolling is „ but therefore mi? l = mg cos a. but whether it rolls or slides depends on the relation of the coefficient of friction /i to the slope of the plane.210 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV For a hoop ^2 = a2 „ disc k =\a „ sphere £ 2 =§a 2 and „ „ u = $g sin a. The first of the two diagrams shews the external forces acting on the moving sphere. Let a. = -rr7. (2). u u We have assumed that the body rolls and found the acceleration on this hypothesis. Eesolving at right angles to and along GO we get m(a + b)6 =mg sin 6 . b be the radii of the moving and fixed spheres. Let the common radius OG through the point of contact P make an angle 6 with the vertical at time t.2 t a n a > and the body will slide instead of roll if this fraction exceeds /*. and the second shews the rates of change of momentum and these two systems are equivalent. (3) . And if a> is the angular velocity of the sphere the rate of change of the spin couple is mkla>. The friction F cannot exceed limiting friction fiR. F the friction and R the normal reaction.

which expresses that the point P of the moving sphere has no velocity. But (5) and (6) give F=%mg sin 8. We leave it as an exercise to the student to obtain equation (7) by the principle of energy. as we have done in these last two examples. -And the moving sphere will leave the fixed sphere in the position for which R vanishes. is (a + b)8-aa> = 0 (4). and (5) (6). so that sliding would begin when 2 sin 8 = n (17 cos 8.15-2] KOLLING SPHERE 211 The kinematical condition for rolling. From (3) and (4). Beginners should also be careful to remember that the angular velocity of a body moving in two dimensions is the rate of increase of the angle between a line fixed in the body and a line fixed in the plane.lOcosa). 14-2 . which with the help of (4) is the equivalent of (6). and we also remark that if we are not concerned with the question of the possibility of sliding we can avoid the introduction of F into the equations by taking moments about P. Beginners in this branch of the subject will find it a help at first to draw separate diagrams to shew the rates of change of momentum and the equivalent system of external forces. = %m(a + b) 6 and by substituting this value for F in (1) I (a+b) 8'=g sin 8 Multiply by 28 and integrate. | (a + b) 82=2g (cos a -cos 6) (7) gives the velocity in any position. so that C=2g cos a. The sphere will begin to slide when the friction F becomes equal to pR. i. Let the motion begin when 6 = a. when cos 6=\ty cos a. putting fa 2 for Jc\ we get F=\ma&. because aa> is the velocity of P relative to O and (a+b) 8 is the velocity of O in the opposite direction. and thus getting the equation ma (a + b) 8 + m£2<i = mg a sin 8. Thus the angular velocity of the moving sphere in this example is not 8 because OP is not a fixed line in the moving sphere. i. and (2) and (7) give R=^mg (17 cos 8 — 10 cos a).e.e. provided that the spheres are still in contact. # = 0 when 8 = a.

. [M. Prove that. Let v be the velocity of its centre and a> its angular velocity at time t. By resolving in the direction of -fmotion for the truck and wheels = P-2F (3). the mass and radius of gyration of each pair of wheels and axle are m and k respectively. u-ra> = 0 (1).] Let u be the velocity of the truck and < the angular velocity of the o wheels. F and by substituting this value of F in (3) we get Again considering a pair of wheels alone. mu=Q — F. Let m be the mass and a the radius of the reel and mk% its moment of inertia about its axis. the acceleration is P/(A1 + 2m£2/ra) / and find the horizontal force exerted on each axle by the truck. The point A of the reel in contact with mk%( . and the radius of each wheel is r. The condition that the wheels roll is. Find the acceleration of the reel. two therefore v — aa=O (1). There must be the same friction force F on each pair of wheels. if Q be the horizontal force exerted by the truck.212 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV (iv) A four-wheeled railway truck has a total mass M. since they have the same angular velocity. if the truck is propelled along a level track by a force P. assuming its axis to remain horizontal. 1913] \_Axle friction and wind resistance to be neglected. But from (1) and (2) (4). T. the straight thread is the instantaneous centre of rotation and has no velocity. as in the last example. and by moments about the axis of a pair of wheels «!. but its velocity relative to the centre is aa>.&& = Fr (2). Therefore from (4) (v) The end of a thread wound round a reel is held fixed and the reel is allowed to fall so that the thread is unwound.

Hence from (1) and (3) and therefore from (2) v=ga2l( Instead of equations (2) and (3) we might take moments about the point A and thus avoid the introduction of the tension T. Reverting to the equations of motion for a rigid body under the action of finite forces in 15"i. If we now suppose that we are concerned with impulsive forces as defined in 11 "1.15-2-15-3] IMPULSIVE MOTION 213 The rates of change of momentum are mi and the spin couple mk2 a>. Y denote the sums of the components of the external forces and L the sum of their moments about the centre of gravity. J ta where u0. and where X. Mk2a = L. MB (<o . The equation of moments about A being mav + mi:2ai = mga. if we integrate these equations with respect to t through an interval from t0 to t.w0) = I* Ldt. Equations of Impulsive Motion. v0. we get rt M(u-uo)= I Xdt. and by moments about the axis mWi> = aT (3). 153. the integrals are the measures of the components of the externally applied . and the external forces on the reel are its weight mg and the tension T of the string. Therefore by resolving vertically we get mv = mg-T (2). a>0 denote the values of the velocities at the beginning of the interval. and this with (1) gives the same value for v as before. which may be written Mi = Y. JU M(v-vo)=( and t Ydt.

then the velocities of every point of either rod mu m'(u-aw-biv') can be stated. 26 are smoothly jointed at B and placed on a smooth table so that ABC is a straight line. u-aa> — ^ba>' = 0 (1). giving or m'b (u — aa — ba)-^ m'b2a>'=0. (2). Let m. By considering the velocities of A and B relative to O we see that the velocity of A is u + aa> and of B is u — am. Suppose then that u is the velocity of the point O and that a.ba') — \m'b2m'=0.214 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV ' impulses' and their moments and may be denoted by P. H their centres.am {J ma + m' (2a + b)} — 2ba>'m' (a+1 b)=0. Examples of Impulses. m' be the masses of the rods AB. determine the initial velocities. and we also see that H has a velocity — ba> relative to B in the same sense. a are the angular velocities of the rods in the senses indicated in the figure. Q and H.. Since the unknown impulse on the rod BC acts at the joint B it is convenient to take moments about B for BC. These three equations merely repeat what we have already demonstrated in li'2. getting mau — JmcAo + ro' (2a + 6) (u — aa>. 15'4. It is clear that if the angular velocities of the rods are known and the linear velocity of any one point. . Two uniform rods AB.. We can again avoid introducing the unknown impulse at B by taking moments about A for the two rods together. BC of lengths 2a. so that we have M(u-uo) = P. so that the velocity of H is u — aa> — ba>. An impulse P is applied at A at right angles to AB. or u {ma+m' (2a + 6)} . and Mk2 (to — e»0) = H. that the instantaneous change of momentum both as regards linear momentum and angular momentum is the exact equivalent of the externally applied impulses. BC and O.

a>.15-3-15-41] Weget EXAMPLES OF IMPULSES 215 Then by considering the linear momentum at right angles to the rods mu + m' (u-aa-ba. maa parallel to DA and a spin couple mk2a>. Hence we have ma2a> — ma {u — aa>)+§ ma?a> = 0. and AOcosin JTT. if a is the angular velocity. o r a . therefore the moment of momentum about A is zero. Therefore the velocity components of O are u — AOa cos \TT. Before the fixture the momentum of the disc is simply the spin couple \maru> (since for a disc F = i« 2 ). determine the initial angular velocity of the lamina. After the fixture ° | ) I Othe centre of gravity Q has a velocity aa> at right angles to 00. Therefore the momentum of the square consists of linear components m(u — aa>) parallel to BA. The impulse that causes the change must act through the point 0 that becomes fixed. where 0 is the point fixed. the centre of gravity O has velocity AO. (2) and (3) are sufficient for the determination of u. or aa> parallel to BA. u>. Let m be the mass and %a a side of the square. therefore there can be no change of moment of momentum about 0. Then. hence we have (ii) A square lamina ABCD rests on a smooth horizontal plane. therefore the momentum consists of a linear component maa> and a spin couple \ma<ias.') = P (3). where £2 = §a2. The effects of sudden prescribed changes also serve to illustrate the application of the equations of impulsive motion : (i) A circular disc is revolving in its plane about its centre with angular velocity <o. m the mass and a the new angular velocity.a s parallel to BA. What is the new angular velocity if a point on the rim is suddenlyfixed? Let a be the radius. 15-41. But the only external impulsive action is applied at A. If the corner A is made to move with velocity u along the line BA produced. giving a> = 3uj8a. .a> relative to the point A. Equations (1).

is called a compound pendulum. by 13*2. then the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is. where L is the sum of the moments about the axis of the external forces. Compound Pendulum. for if <o be the angular velocity and r denotes the distance from the axis of an element of mass m. 15*51. Let GO be drawn at right angles to the axis to meet it in 0. m(k2 + h2). or h (1). Hence by the last article 2 TO (F + h ) 6 = . Hence the equation of motion is I<b = L. and at time t let GO make an angle 6 with the vertical. G its centre of gravity at a distance h from the fixed axis. its velocity is r > and its moment of & momentum about the axis is mr^co. Now in 7 6 we saw that the equation of motion of a simple pendulum of length I is Id = — g sin 6. Also let k be the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through G parallel to the axis of rotation. Therefore the moment of momentum of the whole body is %mr2a> or Ia>. . about which it can turn freely under the action of its weight. therefore the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is I = (k* + h2)jh. When a body turns about a fixed axis the motion is completely determined by the principle that the rate of change of moment of momentum is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces. Motion about a Fixed Axis. where I is the moment of inertia of the body about the axis. Any body oscillating about a fixed horizontal axis.mgh sin 6. Let m be the mass of the body.216 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV 155. The equation of motion takes a very simple form.

i.15-5-15-52] COMPOUND PENDULUM 217 The period of small oscillations of the compound pendulum. If on OG produced we take a point C such that then C is called the centre of oscillation. oscillations of such small amplitude that we may write 9 for sin# in (1). Pressure on the Axis. We can also determine the reaction of the axis on the body. i. as in 15-51. 1552. sin < 9 (3). 2 mh6 = Y-mgcosO (2).e. and by taking moments about the axis. Thus if X. whence it follows that the centres of suspension and oscillation are interchangeable. T are the components of this reaction at 0 at right angles to and along GO (the body is assumed to be symmetrical about the plane of the diagram). we get mhd = X — mg sin 0 (1). where h=OG. if the body swings about a parallel axis through G the point 0 will become the centre of oscillation and the period of small oscillations will remain unaltered.e. . therefore OG. one of the accompanying figures represents the external forces and the other the equivalent system of rates of change of momentum. Since OC = h+k2/h. is 27rv/{(P + n W (2).GC = P (3). while 0 is called the centre of suspension of the pendulum. and by resolving at right angles to and along GO.

Let k be the radius of gyration of the arc about O and m the mass. Q is the centre of oscillation and PQ is the length of the equivalent simple pendulum. 1923] Let 2a be the length of the rod. if in the position of equilibrium Q is the point of the circle vertically below P. 13"2. 0 the centre of the circle and a its radius. x the distance of the nut and h the distance of the centre of gravity of the whole from the mid-point. „ n 2mqh?. and I = mg cos v + . ma2 = mk2+m. 1916] Let APB be the arc. 1553. In equilibrium PGQ is a vertical chord of the circle. T. The moment of inertia about 0 is «i«2. The nut may be treated as a particle. [M.cos a) Substituting from (3) and (4) in (1) and (2) we get -„ i T7- (4). T. (i) An arc of a circle is formed of thin wire (whose density may or may not be uniform. Hence. where the constant of integration can be determined if the velocity is known in any one position. since P is the centre of suspension. (ii) A pendulum consists of a thin uniform rod of mass M pivoted at its mid-point and of a regulating nut of mass m. if a is the amplitude of the oscillation. for example. 2 2 Therefore k =a -OG2 = PG. Prove that if M>3m the period is always lengthened when the nut is raised slightly. G its centre of gravity. which can be screwed to any desired position of the rod. and {t? + h2) 02 = 2gh (cos 0 . 0 G2. then PQ is the length of the equivalent simple pendulum when the wire oscillates about P in its own plane. by the theorem of parallel axes. Examples on the Compound Pendulum. by (3) of 15'51. so that 0 = 0 when 0 = a. Shew that. then C= — 2gh cos a. GQhy the property of the circle. but if M < 3m the period is lengthened or shortened according to the position of the nut.) and hangs from a point P of the arc. [M. therefore. Then .218 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV By multiplying the last equation by 20 and integrating we get (Jc* + h?)62=C+2ghcos0. J n . mgl? . 2 (cos 0 — cos a).

15'52-15-54] COMPOUND PENDULUM 219 (M+m) h = mx. 1554. The weight mg can be resolved into mg sin a parallel to the lines of greatest slope in this plane. The derivative is dx Now since a~£. dyjdx is negative. Suppose that a body is free to rotate about an axis that makes an angle a with the vertical. and GO = h and k is the radius of gyration about an axis through G parallel to the axis of rotation. then dy/dx is negative or positive according as Ma? > or < 3mx2. then dy is positive. so that if the nut is raised slightly making duo negative. The latter component has no moment about the axis. Hence if GO is perpendicular to the axis and makes an angle 8 with the line of greatest slope. and the moment of inertia of the whole about the point of suspension is J Ma?+nix2. But if M < 3m. implying that the lengthening or shortening of the period for a slight displacement of the nut depends on its position. . the centre of gravity G will then oscillate in a plane making an angle a with the horizontal.x it follows that. Compound Pendulum with Axis Non-horizontal. Therefore by formula (2) of 15'51 the period = 2n. or the period is increased. if M> Zm. small the period can be increased indefinitely. so that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is and the period is By making a. the equation of moments about the fixed axis is m (k2 + h2) 6 = — mg h sin a sin 8. and the former component alone is effective in causing oscillation.»/{(4 Ma? + mz2)/(M+ m) gh} Hence the function of x whose variations are to be considered is _ Ma? . and mg cos a parallel to the axis.

and. Let P meet 0G at a distance p from 0. .e. so that the momentum is represented by mhco perpendicular to GO and the spin couple mk2a. Since there is no reaction at 0 there can be no momentum set up in a direction at right angles to P. the equation of linear momentum is mha> = P.220 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV 1555. the line of the impulse is called the line of percussion and the point in which this line meets the plane through the centre of gravity G and the axis of rotation is called the Centre of Percussion. by moments about 0. We shall limit our investigation to the two-dimensional case. Centre of Percussion. or the direction of P must be at right angles to 0G. The velocity of G is hw. which requires that 0 = \ TT. If a single impulse can be applied to a rigid body which is free to turn about a fixed axis so as to produce no impulsive stress on the axis. we suppose that the body is symmetrical about a plane through G perpendicular to the axis and that the impulse acts in this plane. Since there is no reaction at 0. Suppose that when an impulse P is applied in a direction making an angle d with GO there is no reaction at 0 and that the body begins to turn about 0 with angular velocity a>. as in the second figure. we get Therefore p = (h2 + W)jh. and let m be the mass and mk% the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through G. or the distance from 0 of the centre of percussion is equal to the length of the equivalent simple pendulum if the body were set to swing about the given axis placed horizontally. i. Let GO perpendicular to the axis be of length h. therefore mhco cos 6 = 0.

mf. where h' is the radius of gyration about a vertical line through G.15-55-15-6] - MOTION ABOUT AN AXIS 221 15 6. and B has accelerations 2a82 and 2a8 along and perpendicular to BA which must be added to the two former components in order to get the total acceleration of H. and therefore by taking moments about this line f or m (a2+h"z) 8-maf cos 8 = 0 mkfy — maf cos 8 = 0. Shew that if the door be initially at rest and at right angles to the side of the train which then begins to move with acceleration f the door will not close unassisted unless f> %a>W/a. while the centre of gravity of the door is at a distance a from the line of the hinges.~ " celerations ad and aS2 relative to 0. m' be the masses. The door swings about vertical hinges and has a radius of gyration k about a vertical axis through the hinges. Multiply by 28 and integrate and we get rnhW . (1). and at rmad time t let them make angles 8. T. Let 0 represent the line of the hinges and let O be the centre of gravity. or (ii) Motion of two heavy rods AB. mad and mWd. therefore C= 0 and h282 = 2a/sin 8. The accelerations of H relative to B are b<f>2 and b(f> along and perpendicular to HB. BC smoothly jointed at B and swinging in a vertical plane about the end A which can turn about a fixed point. cj> with the vertical.maO . Let m. Let O. mad mad2. [M. so that h2 = c The only forces on the door in addition to its weight act through the line of the hinges. 26 the lengths of the rods.2ma/sin 8=0. . therefore the rates of change of momentum are. 1920] Let 8 be the angle through which the door turns in time t. Then 0 has an acceleration f and O has ac. since the door is initially at rest. H be their middle points. Further examples of Motion about an Axis. When the door is about to close 8=^n and # 2 =2a//£ 2 . In order that the door may close we require that 6 > a>. as in the figure. (i) The loch of a railway-carriage door will only engage if the angular velocity of the closing door exceeds a>. The accelerations of O are a62 and a8 along and perpendicular to OA. and 2a. But 8 = 0 when 8=0.

0).6)} . By taking moments about B for the rod BC. and one first integral might be found directly by writing down the equation of energy. 14*1 and 14r3. and about A for the whole system. All these are shewn in the figure. In establishing the theory of moment of momentum. and the rate of change of this expression is not the same thing as the left-hand side of (1) in the last example. consist of the reactions at A. and for the rod BG they are m'b^>2. Thus in the last example the components of velocity of H are bcj> relative to B and the velocity 2ad of B.' The reason why the expressions differ is because ' rate of change of moment about a moving point B' must take account of B's . Hence the moment of momentum about . if the axis about which moments are taken is not fixed in space.2m'aff. In order to avoid introducing the unknown reactions at A and B we form equations by taking moments about B for the rod BC. B and the weights of the rods rag acting at G and m'g acting at H.m'bj>2 2a sin (<f> . The external forces. (1). 2m'a6.' It is important however to note that. and the spin couple \ma?6. we get | m'b2cf> + m'b2(f> + Zm'abS cos (0 . = -TO'£r(6sin$+2asin 6) — mga&md These two equations serve for the determination of the angular velocities. 2m'a62. and the spin couple ^m'b2cj>.6) = -m'gb sin (j> And by taking moments about A for the two rods we get %m. ma£. 157. m'b(j>. then the phrases 'rate of change of moment of momentum' and ' moment of rate of change of momentum' are not equivalent. The latter phrase was used in 15*1. see 92.6) + 2m'ab62 sin (cf> .222 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV The rates of change of momentum for the rod AB are therefore mad2.8 is £m'&a<j> + m'b2cj> + 2m'a6b cos (<j> . and the spin couple fyn'Wcj).6) + 2m'aS {2a + b cos {$-$)} + 2m'a02b sin (<£ . not shewn in the figure. so that the components of momentum of BG are m'bcj>. which represents 'the moment about B of the rate of change of momentum. The last two examples serve to illustrate an important point.0) + \ma26 + meflS (2). we always referred to moments about an axis fixed in space and the phrase employed was 'rate of change of moment of momentum.'tf<j> + m'b$ {b + 2a cos (# .

so that the rate of change of moment of momentum about the moving origin is Sm(xy-yx}.u2my + v2mx. At the same time the momenta have become m (x + xbt). but the origin has moved to tcbt. SOT (xy -yx) = S(xY.15-6-15-8] MOMENT OF MOMENTUM 223 displacement during the short interval St during which the change is observed. But in 9'2 we go on to rewrite equation (4) in the form ^ S. and read the left-hand side as 'rate of change of moment of momentum1 instead of 'moment of rate of change of momentum. y+ybt. This will become clear if we suppose that at the instant considered the origin about which we take moments is moving with velocities u. we get as the increment in the moment of momentum 2wi (xy —yx — uy + vx) bt. At time t the momenta of a particle m at (x. This represents that the sum of the moments about the origin—any origin in the plane—of the rates of change of momentum (mx. so that the new moment of momentum about the moving origin is 2m{(x + xbt-ubt)(y+ybt)-(y+ybt-vb and if we subtract the original moment of momentum and retain only the first power of bt. v parallel to the axes. y+ybt-vbt.' and the important point is that we may not rewrite (4) in this way unless the point about which we take moments does not change its position while the operation djdt is performed. and is not the same as if the point B were fixed. At time t + bt its coordinates have become x+xbt. my) of the particles is equal to the sum of the moments about that origin of the external forces. so that the relative coordinates are x + xbt-ubt.m (xy -yx) = 2 (x T-yX). my. y) are nix. 15"8. and this is not the same as . The student who desires to pursue this point further may revert to equation (4) of 9'2.yX). viz. vbt. and when in 15"6 (ii) we took the moments about B of the rates of change of momentum we were merely applying this principle and taking as origin the fixed point in the plane through which the junction B of the rods is passing at the instant considered. m(y+ybt).

Exam. parallel to the plane. [M. EXAMPLES 1. Calculate the tension on the thread and the acceleration of m (i) when the inclined plane is smooth. which is also perpendicular to the inclined plane. T. wound on the cylinder. d being the difference between the radii of the ball and globe. 1917] 2. Prove that. Exam. over a smooth pulley.224 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV In conclusion therefore we repeat that it is only permissible to make use of 'rate of change of moment of momentum1 when the axis about which moments are taken is fixed in space. the part of the string between the pulley and the cylinder being parallel to the lines of greatest slope. T. A light thread. consisting of a cylinder of radius a connecting two discs of radius b(b> a). rolls on a rough inclined plane with its axis perpendicular to the line of greatest slope. The ball is struck a horizontal blow of such magnitude that the initial speed of its centre is v. the ball will leave the globe. and prove that the tension of the string is (3 + 4 sin a) Mmg 3M+8m ' where a is the inclination of the plane to the horizontal. 1911] . mass M and radius a. [Coll. The thread lies in the vertical plane of symmetry of the reel. 1927] 3. [M. to its free end is attached a mass m. A reel of radius r with rims of radius R rests on a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. A uniform solid cylinder. Shew that the reel will move with acceleration mb(b-a) f=n J y M(b*+k2)+m(b-a)2' where h is the radius of gyration of the wheel about its axis. As it rolls the cylinder winds up a light string which passes over a fixed light pulley and supports a freely hanging mass m. and thence vertically downwards. (ii) when the plane is rough and there is no slipping of the reel on the plane. passes in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the reel. horizontally from its under side. but in every case it is legitimate to take moments about any axis and equate the moment of the rate of change of momentum and the moment of the external forces. A solid spherical ball rests in equilibrium at the bottom of a fixed spherical globe whose inner surface is perfectly rough. A reel of mass M. [Coll. if v lies between »JlOdg/7 and */27dg/7. and over a smooth pulley. 1913] 4. a mass m hanging freely from this end. Discuss the motion of the cylinder. A thread fixed to the reel passes round and under it and then upwards. rolls without slipping on a horizontal plane.

and has a constant couple \A opposing its motion. 1919] 9. if a uniform heavy right circular cylinder of radius a be rotated about its axis. A flywheel. [Coll. shew that KM r6 9 r M T 1 9 1 5 -| 6. The figure is free to move in its own vertical plane about one end of the major axis: shew that the length of the simple equivalent pendulum is (5ct 2 -a6 + 262)/4a. A uniform trap-door swinging about a horizontal hinge is closed by a spring coiled about the hinge. Determine the pressure on the axis in each case. and laid gently on two rough horizontal rails at the same level and distant 2a sin a apart so that the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the rails. The spring is coiled so that it is just able to hold the door shut in the horizontal position. a being the angle through which the spring is coiled when the door is in the horizontal position. the moment of inertia of the system about the axis of revolution is K. An axis through the centre of the plate and perpendicular to it can slide without friction horizontally. T. 1909] RD 15 . while the plate revolves. the door starting from the vertical position will just reach the horizontal position. Find the least moment of inertia required to make the difference between the greatest and least angular velocities less than p/100. is acted on by a driving couple A sin2 pt. T. b and a circle of radius 6 are cut from the same sheet of thin uniform metal and are superposed and fixed together with their centres coincident. find the angular velocities when the disc has made one quarter and one half a turn. [M. Find the angular acceleration of the wheel when its motion is opposed by a constant frictional couple G. If the plate is just disturbed from rest when m is in its highest position. 1918] 8. A flywheel has a horizontal shaft of radius r. Exam. [M. Shew that. but will initially rise on one rail if /u > tan a. An ellipse of axes a. [M.15-8] EXAMPLES 225 5. the cylinder will remain in contact with both rails if the coefficient of friction fi < tan o. turning with average angular velocity p. If the string is released from the shaft after the wheel has turned through an angle 6 from rest. 1922] 1. T. A circular plate of mass M and radius a has a mass m fixed in it at a distance b from the centre. A string of negligible thickness is wound round the shaft and supports a mass M hanging vertically. [M. and if the wheel then turns through a further angle 0 before it is brought to rest by the frictional couple. T. 1919] 10. The horizontal opening which the door closes is in a body which is mounting with uniform (0"57 H 1 *2S\ J g.

1918] 14. the period of oscillation is unaltered. (The system is at rest before the monkeys start climbing. which is of moment of inertia /.Shew that in a race through a height h the monkey of speed ux can give the other monkey any start up to where a is the radius of the pulley. [M. Two monkeys of equal mass m hang one on each end of the rope. 1925] . T. and a circular disc of mass 12™ and radius a/3 can be clamped to the rod so that its centre is on the rod. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum lies between 2a and 2a/3. if an additional weight is rigidly attached at P. T. A rope hangs over a pulley. A rigid pendulum 00 swings about a horizontal axis through 0. lP=m \/ Deduce the impulse Q of the horizontal force exerted on the pendulum during the impact by the axis 0 and shew that it vanishes when I is equal to the length of the equivalent simple pendulum. and determine how much energy the wheel would lose in falling from a speed of 120 to 90 revolutions per minute when revolving round its axis. Prove that the impulse of the blow=»i \/<ogl. The pendulum is released from rest when 00 is horizontal. Shew that. Shew that. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length 2a can turn freely about one end which is fixed. A straight rod of mass m and length 11 swinging about one end as a compound pendulum starts from rest in a horizontal position and when vertical is struck a blow at its middle point which reverses and halves its angular velocity. "When 00 is vertical.) [S. and perfectly smooth on its bearings. and the period of a complete swing is 3'2 seconds. The mass of the pendulum is m. the pendulum is brought to rest by an inelastic buffer B which is such that the line of the reaction between B and the pendulum is horizontal and at a distance I below 0. The line joining the centres is parallel to and distant 4 feet from the axis of the wheel. its centre of gravity being at O. 1914] 12.226 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV 11. [Coll. The monkeys can climb with constant speeds % and «2 relative to the rope («! > «2). 1912] 13. 16. [M. its moment of inertia about a horizontal axis through G is mh2 and 00 = h. Shew that. T. 1915] 15. A flywheel weighing 5 tons is suspended from a pair of centres entering conical holes in the rim so that it can swing in a vertical plane. [M. and P is the centre of oscillation. but perfectly rough to the rope. if the impulse of the force exerted by B upon the pendulum during the impact is P. A pendulum is supported at 0. for oscillations in which the plane of the disc remains vertical. Find the radius of gyration of the wheel about its axis. Exam.

shew that if the string does not slip. A uniform rod of mass m and length 2a is lying on a smooth horizontal table and is struck a blow B perpendicular to its length at one extremity. is the mass of the bars together. Two thin uniform rods AO. Exam. T. and lie in a straight line on a smooth table. [Coll.M')I(M+ M'+mW\aF) where m. a are respectively the mass. [Coll. 1922] 19. shew that the impulse at 0 is numerically equal to J P and that the initial velocity of 0 is zero.Suddenly the belt is tightened. so that there is no more slipping at either wheel. [M.1918] 18. Shew also that to prevent slip the coefficient of friction must be greater than [M. a belt passing round both. An impulse P is applied at A perpendicular to AOB. of mass m2 and radius <?2> is at r8S*. Initially one. A circular disc of radius a lies on a smooth horizontal table. M' (M> M') attached to its ends and passes over a rough pulley with a fixed centre. are joined by a smooth hinge and laid out in a straight line. the downward acceleration of M is g (M. A fine string has masses M. Shew that the second wheel begins to revolve with angular velocity 2 22. Prove that the disc begins to turn with angular velocity 2u/3a. Exam. 1924] 21. Find the velocities with which the two ends of the rod begin to move. OB of lengths 2a and 26 and of masses m and M. [M. 1927] 20. An impulse J at right angles to them is applied at the hinge. are smoothly jointed at 0. mk . T. whose radii of gyration are in the ratio of their radii. moment of inertia about axis and radius of pulley. If equal and opposite impulses P are applied simultaneously at A and B. Two flywheels. but of lengths a and b. perpendicular to AOB. Find the impulsive reaction at 0 and the initial velocity of 0. where m. are free to revolve in the same plane. Shew that the hinge takes up a velocity 4Jjm. of mass mx and radius alt is rotating with angular velocity Q. and the other.EXAMPLES 227 17.T. 1910] . when a point on the circumference is compelled to move in the direction of the tangent at that point with velocity u. Two uniform bars of the same material and cross-section.

of magnitude 3£ sin 8 cos (9/(1+3 cos28). BC of length 26. Two rods are smoothly jointed at A and B to a circular lamina. T. A uniform rod AB of mass M and length 2a is struck by an instantaneous impulse £. AB being a diameter of which the rods are continuations. instead of being free. Exam. k2 are their moments of inertia about their centres of gravity. Shew that AB will become parallel to BP after a time t given by t=Ma8IZt-f&a8. prove that the centre of mass will start off with a velocity v(k2 — h2)/k2.228 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY [XV 23. Exam. The whole system lies at rest on a smooth horizontal table. Shew that after a time t from this instant the distance of C from the original position of the centre of gravity is given by \ M2 where tan e = a/b. A point P in the line joining 8 to the centre of gravity O is brought to rest by an impulsive force passing through the point. acting at B in direction BP which makes an angle 8 with AB produced. T. where h is the distance of the centre of mass from the axle and k the radius of gyration about the axle. [Coll. m2 are the masses of the rods. 1926] 24. Find the position of P in terms of SG and the radius of gyration about 6. and AD. and when the body is at rest. If a body can only turn about a smooth horizontal axle. 1911] 26. rests upon a smooth horizontal plane. and that the initial angular velocity will be vhjk%. 1927] 25. CD of length 2a. At a certain instant it receives a blow of impulse P applied at A and directed along AB. If the end B. assuming that the velocity of O is the same as before but reversed in direction. provided that where m1. 1918] 27. [M. [Coll. A free lamina of any form is turning in its own plane about an instantaneous centre of rotation S. the axle is given an instantaneous horizontal velocity v in a direction perpendicular to its length. A rectangular lamina A BCD of mass M and sides AB. is compelled by a frictionless constraint to move in the line BP. 1913] . and hi. Shew that a horizontal blow P applied normally to the rim of the lamina will produce in the latter no initial angular velocity. shew that the impulse £ will be accompanied by a simultaneous impulsive reaction on the constraint. [M. T. aly a2 are the distances of their centres of gravity from A and B respectively. M [M.

The moment of inertia of the gate about the hinge is / = j . if H be the angular momentum of the system about the vertical axis through 0. and the motion takes place without friction. When it is in equilibrium a particle of mass m and velocity v strikes the gate normally at its middle point. [M.2 units. and the moment of inertia of each pair of wheels and axle about its axis is 3600 lb. No external forces act upon the rods except those due to the axis and the guide. the normal pressure between the rails and each of the front wheels is 50 lb. T. Shew that the force which the smooth guide Ox exerts upon the rod AB is Zma«>2 sin 0 / 2 ( 4 . T. Shew that Prove that.3 cos2 6f. and that the centre of gravity of the truck is 4J ft. When 6=0. above the ground and equidistant from the axles. of length a and mass m. The angle A0x = 6. by the brakes. Shew that. turns in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis through 0. given that the distance between the axles is 12 ft. T. [M. ft. d6jdt=a>. [M. an equal rod AB is jointed at A to OA and a smooth guide compels the end B to move along a horizontal straight line Ox. 1924] ANSWERS /( (ii) T + l . When the gate is shut the top and bottom lines are horizontal. H=ma?ddldt. Find its angular velocity in any position. is reduced uniformly from 25 to 20 miles per hour on the level in a distance of 695| ft. Find the velocity of the particle and the angular velocity of the gate just after impact.EXAMPLES 229 28. The speed of a railway truck. 1916] 30. weight greater than the corresponding pressures on the back wheels. The gate is then opened through 90° and slightly disturbed so that it shuts. and the time occupied in the last 45° of its swing. and the coefficient of restitution is J. while the diameter of each wheel is 3 ft. if no slipping takes place between the wheels and the rails. 1928] 29. A rectangular gate is free to swing about one edge which is inclined at an angle of 5° to the vertical. The gate is uniform and 4 feet wide. A thin uniform rod OA. T. [M. A gate of length I can swing about a vertical hinge at one end.r f . 1923] 31. weighing 5 tons.

-. (if+m) g {l+8mWg/[M(M+m) a 18.2m? b2gjMa2 . . 45/TO. MPfi(M+m).GP\ 31. 8 {2sin 5°(1 -cos 6)}ijk.2 5 / T O . (Mgr-G)I{K+Mr>). 26.—^ log e -— 1 o . (M+m) g . seconds where 6 is o Y sin o t3>n X X X o the angle turned through and k is the radius of gyration about the hinges.230 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A EIGID BODY [XV 5. 28. 20. £». 2P/(M+m). 6. B{GP-SG)=2SO. . 2»/J. .

When sliding takes place the friction F bears a constant ratio /JL to the normal reaction R but when rolling takes place the friction has generally a much smaller value. Suppose that initially Q has velocity v0 and that there is an angular velocity o>0 in the opposite sense to what it would be if the o motion were one of pure rolling. Since the point A of the wheel has a velocity v + aa>. Rolling and Sliding. and A the point of contact with the plane. ml? its moment of inertia about its centre O. < be what these velocities become at time t. When two bodies in contact at a point A have a relative motion the process of determining whether this motion involves rolling or sliding at A is as follows: Write down the equations of motion which involve the friction F and the normal reaction R. . 1612. (ii) Assuming that sliding takes place. write /JLR instead of F in the equations of motion and solve the equations without the kinematical condition above referred to. If the solution shews that there is a relative tangential velocity at A and the direction of motion is opposed to what has been assumed as the direction of the friction then we have found the true motion and it will continue until relative velocity at A vanishes. and assuming (i) that rolling takes place also write down the kinematical condition which expresses the fact that there is no relative tangential velocity at A. the assumption that rolling takes place is justified and rolling will continue until F/R becomes greater than /JL.Chapter XVI M I S C E L L A N E O U S PEOBLEMS 161. Let v. to determine the subsequent motion. If from the solution of these equations we find that F/R is less than the coefficient of friction /i. Let m be the mass and a the radius of the wheel. A wheel spinning about a horizontal axis is projected along a rough horizontal plane.

This happens. and the velocity of the point A is 1+Tjj) — a&i (4)..R begins to create an angular velocity Q in the . is A F given by (2). These equations shew that v and a decrease steadily and the subsequent motion depends on which vanishes first. At the instant when v vanishes the angular velocity has the value <»i given.ga . Therefore v=—fig and k2a>=—figa. so that sliding continues and the friction y. and the wheel continues to roll witk this constant velocity. and t h e equations of motion while sliding lasts are or u = fxg and 2 k2w—-/j. i.232 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS [XVI sliding is taking place and the friction is /J. and at that instant the point of contact A has the same velocity as Q. there is still slipping at A though & has come to rest and there is still friction jiR in t h e same sense. O = R-mg. v=vo — figt and k2a = k'ia>a — figat (1). mk2i> = Fa and the condition for rolling u — «<B=0. This friction will now give Q an acceleration u in the reversed direction.e. from (1). v vanishes after a time v^ipg a n d "> vanishes after a time k2a0/figa. so t h a t u=figt and k a> — k2a>i — pgat where t is the time since O was at rest. namely. The equations of motion are mv= . by or o>i = CD0 — avajk2 (2). so t h a t t h e point A still h a s a velocity aa>i in the same sense.e.(3).R where R is the vertical reaction. i. Reverting now to the first stage of the motion and suppose alternatively (ii) that av0 > k2a0 so that a> vanishes first. These equations shew that u=Q or u = constant = k2aa1/(k*+a2) where ».. and the equations mk2w become mu=-F. Hence. These equations shew that u increases and a decreases. from (1).JXR. mkii>=—fiRa. v1 = v0—k2a>0/a from (1). by integrating and putting in the initial values. when t-=k2a^\figa. that vo<k2a>i)ja. This velocity vanishes after a time Waa^/fig (k2+a2) when sliding ceases. and since at that time u is k2aa\j{k2+di) therefore the wheel rolls. Let us suppose (i) that v vanishes first. which i s positive in t h e same sense as a>0.

Similarly the rates of change of momentum of mf are rn'i and the spin couple m'V2a> or |m'62t»'. Hence the rates of change of momentum of the sphere m are mv. Let A. H1** The velocity of A is 2 2 v . Q = R — ing. we get v=Vi — jigt and k2Q = ngat. = »! . Two Spheres in Contact. B be the centres of the spheres and a. There are two kinematical conditions for rolling. and let BA make an angle 6 with the vertical at time t.figt (1 + a jk ) which vanishes when «*/*»). by integrating and using the initial values.1612-16-2] ROLLING SPHERES 233 opposite sense to the former angular velocity. m (a + b) 6. mh2Q = iiRa mv Therefore. the friction is sufficient to prevent sliding and the motion is all parallel to the same vertical plane. Also the point of contact P of the two spheres must have no relative tangential velocity. 16'2. the equations of motion are mi= —jiR. a> their angular velocities. therefore y-6<o' = 0 (1).aQ. . A is describing a circle of radius a + b. Measuring t from the instant at which a> vanishes. Let v denote the velocity of the sphere m'. A sphere of mass m and radius a rolls on a sphere of mass m! and radius b which rolls on a horizontal plane. viz. Relative to B. in (a + b) 62 and the spin couple mk2a> or §WMZ2O>. Sliding then ceases. therefore its accelerations relative to B are (a + b) 6 at right angles to AB and (a+b) 62 along AB. and since v is not then zero rolling begins and as before it may be shewn that the final velocity is uniform. the point of contact Q of the lower sphere with the plane has no velocity. and with these must be compounded the acceleration v of B. or the tangential velocities of the point P on the two spheres must be the same.

(3) and (4) and also determine the unknown reactions. Thus we have ma (a + b) 8 + mav cos 8+:g ma!la=mgasin 8 (3). And equations (1). We might alternatively have written down the equation of energy for the whole system.' = mg (a+ 6) sin 8 (4).Fsin 8. and m(a + b)8 (a + b + bcos8) — rn(a+b) 62b sin 8 + mv {(a + b) cos 8 + b} + f ma2w + m'bv + % m'b2a. lma2i> = Fa. P's tangential velocity is (a + b) 8 + v cos 8 — am. (2). P has velocity bat relative to B so that its tangential velocity is ba>'+v cos 6. We have now to write down the equations of motion and we may avoid the unknown reactions by taking moments about P for the sphere m. (3) and (4) are sufficient to determine the motion. . and taking moments about the centre for each sphere we have m (a + b) 6 +mi cos 8=tngsin8 — F. resolving. These six equations together with (1) and (2) are equivalent to (1). but A's velocity is (a + b) 8 relative to B and B's velocity is v.R cos 8 . therefore on the sphere m. and about Q for the two spheres together. m (a + b) 82 — mi) sin 8 = mg cos 8 — R. we can write down the formal equations of motion for each sphere .234 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS [XVI On the sphere m. P has velocity aa> relative to A. Observing that the velocity of A is compounded of v and (a + b) 8. 0 = 8 . therefore (a + b)8-aa = bu' (2). (2). this equation is I m {v* + (a + bf 82 + 2 (a + b) 8v cos 8 + f « V } + \m'(v2 + ^b2a'2)+mg (a + b) cos# = const (5). m'i= — F' — R sin 8+F cos 8.rn'g . This equation is of course a first integral of the equations of motion. But on the sphere m'. denoting them as in the second figure. If however we wish to determine the unknown reactions.

and with the help of (3) and (1) we find that T=?-^ mg. Let m be the mass and 2a the length of the rod. If one string is cut. (i) A heavy uniform straight rod is suspended from a point by two strings of the same length as the rod attached to its ends. whence we get a>'=9o) (3). and let a>. & ' denote > the initial accelerations of the string and rod. and the other equations are as in the last article. therefore G has also T this acceleration. prove that the initial angular acceleration of the rod is nine times that of the remaining string. but instead we have the condition that there is no external horizontal force acting on the system. A | \ . The middle point O of the rod has acceleration ai)' relative to the end A . This fact is expressed by the equation mv + m (a + b) 8 cos 6+rn'v = 0. Initial Motions and Stresses. and the rates of change of / momentum are maa. • If T be the initial tension in the string. 2maa> and the spin / / G couple JfflaV. Examples. so that if it starts from rest its horizontal momentum remains zero throughout the motion. by \ ^ 2 ma w resolving horizontally for the rod. In this ease equation (1) no longer holds. but the end A of the string has acceleration 2aa> perpendicular to the string OA.16-2-163] INITIAL MOTIONS AND STRESSES 235 16'21. we get mad)' 2mai> cos 30° =Tcos 60° (1). 13 . When one or more of the constraints which maintain a system in equilibrium are removed the initial motion and the initial values of the remaining stresses in the system may be determined by writing down the kinematical conditions that specify the remaining constraints together with the equations of motion of the system in its initial position. To find T in terms of the weight of the rod we resolve vertically and get mai> + 2maa> cos 60° = mg — Tain 60°. 16-3. The same problem as the last but no friction between the lower sphere and the plane. and by taking moments about O lma^'=TaamG0° (2). with the simplification that initial velocities are all zero so that radial and transverse accelerations are simply r and rd and all normal components of acceleration vanish.

a the radius. if a> is the initial angular acceleration. Bending Moments in Bodies in Motion. Hence the rate of change of momentum is represented by mhu> and the spin couple mk2d> where k is the radius of gyration about a horizontal axis through O parallel to the wall. Therefore 164. we see that the forces exerted by AP on PB must balance all the other given forces that act on PB. When a rod AB is in equilibrium under the action of given coplanar forces the stresses at any point P of the rod may be determined by imagining the rod to be divided by a cross-section at P. Let X. Y be the pressures of the wall and floor on the hemisphere. But a system of coplanar forces can be reduced to a single force acting at any assigned . 0 the centre and G the centre of gravity of the hemisphere. Then J by considering the equilibrium of either portion. Find the initial pressures on the wall and the floor. the acceleration of G is ha> at right angles to 00. But its moment of inertia about a diameter of its face is § ma2. or a<b = ^g. then by resolving horizontally and vertically we get mha cos COG =X. Let m be the mass. The hemisphere is released. 2 2 Now m(h +k ) is the moment of inertia of the hemisphere about the line of intersection of the wall and floor. Let 0 be the point of contact with the ground and let 00 = h. CG = %a. say PB. or mad> = X. and therefore by the theorem of parallel axes (13'2) the moment of inertia about the required axis is § ma2.k2) o>=f mga. Hence %ma2a> = § mga.236 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS [XVI (ii) A solid hemisphere is held with its base against a smooth vertical wall and its lowest point on a smooth floor. By taking moments about the line of intersection of the wall and floor we get m (A2 -f. Since the hemisphere begins to turn about 0. and mhi>sm COG — mg — Y or \ma<o = mg — Y.

Hence by resolving at right angles to and along A 0 and taking moments about P. 162 = $g(cos6 -cos a) (2). and the reaction of AP on PB balances these. by multiplying by 28 and integrating. We have to write down the equations of motion of the part PA of the rod. S.§gr sin 0 (1). m the mass of unit length. E x a m p l e . for the portion PA of the rod. The accelerations of this element are x8 and x92 at right angles to and along QO. mdoc. Hence the given forces acting on PB can be represented by a force at P with a tangential component T and a normal component S together with a couple 0. fl I mxd2dx=T-mg(l-a)oos and J a (3). or and. if the accelerations have first been determined by considering the motion of the whole rod. A heavy rod swings freely in a vertical plane about one end. 16"41. G denote the tension. and the latter is taken as the measure of the tendency of the rod to break at P. When the rod is in a given state of motion instead of in equilibrium. Now let the point P at which the stresses are required be at a distance a from 0. we get mx'8 dx=S-mg (l-a)smd •. shearing force and bending moment in the sense in which they act on PA. if we write down the equations of motion for either portion these equations will suffice for the determination of T. By taking moments about the fixed end 0 for the whole rod. Let I be the length of the rod OA. Consider a small element of length dx and mass mdx at Q where OQ=x. 8 (4). (5). 8 the shearing force and G the bending moment. and 6 its inclination to the vertical at time t. to find the stresses at any point of the rod. 8 and G.16-3-16-41] BENDING MOMENTS 237 point in the plane together with a couple. we get \mls'6=-\mgP sin 6 # ' = .xQ when a denotes the amplitude of the oscillation. and let T. I mx8(x-a)dx= -Q-\mg (l-a)2sin8 J& . T is called the tension.

(l-a)2 .a sin 8.a) cos 8 + f mgy-—-—-(cos 8 . Io Jo >2 £ 3 cosasina = J mgl2 sin a. Steady Motion in Three Dimensions. G = f mg -—j-?. 1917] i . (5)'.O-\mg (l-a)2 sin 8 Substituting for 8 from (1) and for 62 from (2) we get „ . . E x a m p l e s . O Let m be the mass of unit length and consider an element mdx at a distance x from the fixed end 0. Take moments for the whole rod about a horizontal axis through 0 perpendicular to the rod. . where AB=BC=b. (I2 — a2) T= mg (I . „ . Find the angular velocity with which it can describe a cone of semi-vertical angle a. AD^l. S. (ii) The framework in the figure revolves about the vertical axis and the balls move outwards for an increase of speed. therefore la2 cos a = § </. therefore its rate of change of momentum is mdx.i mgv '-^ sin 8. (4)'. . A steady motion is one in which all velocity components are constant in magnitude.a2) 8 = S-mg (I-a) sm 8 -a2) 62=T-mg (l-a)cos8 and \m (l-a)2 (21 +a) 8= . AA' = CC' = 2a. and 165. T. a?x sin a towards the mdx. Its acceleration is a>2x sin a. If < is the angular velocity then each element of the rod describes a o horizontal circle with angular velocity <». ma2x sin adx = mlg. (i) A uniform straight rod of length I is free to turn about one end. (3)'. the weight E sliding up the axis. il sin a. Shew that the angular velocity < with which the frame rotates in the o position in lohich the arm ABD makes an angle a with the vertical is given by (a + l sin a) <a2 = (1 + m'b/ml) g tan a. Problems of steady motion are often solved by simple applications of the principles of energy and momentum.cos a). and we get x cos a . (I-a) (I-3a) .iu2xsina centre of the circle that it describes. The balls are each of mass m and are fixed to the arms: the sliding weight E is of mass m' and the weights of the arms may be neglected. [M.238 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS [XVI These are equivalent to 2 .

We therefore take moments for the ball and rod AD about an axis through A perpendicular to the plane of the diagram. Use of the Instantaneous Centre of Rotation. If (r. 166. v denote the velocities of its centre of gravity G parallel to rectangular axes and let co be the angular velocity of the body. we have „_ . let u. y) are coordinates of P relative to the axes through G. xa> respectively. 2Tcoaa = m'g. which is at rest in the steady motion. 6) are the polar coordinates of a point P of the body referred to G as origin. if {x. We have now to consider whether to resolve or take moments and we notice that we cannot resolve without introducing A' the stresses in the rod AD to which the ball is fixed. where T is the tension in the rod BO. This gives TO (a+l sin a) a2. the velocity of P relative to G is ra> at right angles to GP and this has components — rco sin 6.1 cosa=mgl aina+Tb sin 2a. Therefore the whole velocities of P are u — yto and v + xa> . and we cannot take moments about any point of the rod except the point A without introducing the bending moment of the rod. In the motion of a body in one plane. rco cos 0 parallel to the axes of x and y or — ym. Therefore the acceleration of D is (a +1 sin a) a2 towards the axis of rotation and the rate of change of momentum of the ball is m (a + 1 sin a) a>2. Eliminating T.16-41-16-6] INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE 239 The point D describes a horizontal circle of radius a+ 1 sin a with angular velocity a>. Next resolving vertically for the weight E. we get (a + l sin o) a>2 = (l +m'b/ml)g tan a.

240

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS

and if these components vanish the point P has no velocity. Therefore the point whose coordinates are — v/co, uja> is at rest at the instant considered. This point / is called the instantaneous centre of rotation (5'41). Let us now write down the equation of motion for the body obtained by taking moments about i". The rates of change of momentum are TOW, mi) and the spin couple mk2a>, and if L denotes the sum of the moments about / of the external forces we have L = moment about / of rate of change of momentum .u . ( v\ = mu mv V «/ = — (uu + vv + k2cow)
a> at

If now r denotes the distance GI, since the body is, at the instant considered, turning about I, the velocity of G is ra>, so that M2 + v2 = r2a>2, and therefore

i~im(r2

+

k2)^} = L

(1).

By the theorem of parallel axes (13'2) if K denotes the radius of gyration about /, we have K* = r2 + k\ and therefore ^ 1

(2).

Since the instantaneous centre is generally changing its position relative to the body, K is not generally constant but there are the following special cases: (i) If the body is turning about a fixed axis K is constant and (2) becomes mK2i> = L (3), as in 15-5, and the same is true if the instantaneous centre is at a constant distance from G.

166—1661]

USE OF THE INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE

241

(ii) If the axis be not fixed but the body starts from rest, since (2) is equivalent to
r77T2 (4), at and initially a> = 0, therefore the initial value of the acceleration is given by mK2o) = L (3). (iii) In a small oscillation about a position of equilibrium, if we take moments about the instantaneous centre in a position slightly displaced from the equilibrium position, then in equation (4) co is small and dK^/dt is of the order of a velocity, and therefore the second term of the equation is of the order of the square of a small velocity and can be neglected, so that again

mK2d> = L

(3).

To summarize the results, it appears that equation (3) is a valid equation if the instantaneous axis of rotation is a fixed axis or at afixeddistance from the centre of gravity, or if we are dealing with an initial motion or a small oscillation; but in every other case in which we take moments about the instantaneous centre or axis of rotation we must use equation (2).
1661. E x a m p l e s , (i) The ends of a heavy rod are constrained to move on two smooth intersecting wires, one of tvkich is vertical and the other horizontal. Let AB be the rod, 2a its length, m its mass and 6 its inclination to the vertical. The instantaneous centre of rotation is the corner / of the rectangle OAIB (5'42) where Ox, Oy are the wires. Also, since 01—a, the moment of inertia of the rod about / (13-2) = %ma. -. _ _ This is a case therefore in which we can employ equation (3) of 166, taking moments about I and thereby avoiding the unknown reactions at A and B which pass through / . The angular velocity of the rod is 6 in the counter-clockwise sense, and the only force that has a moment about / is the weight mg in the same sense, therefore §ma?S=mga sin 6.
RD
l6

242

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Za62=g (cos a —cos 6),

[XVI

On multiplying by 6 and integrating, this gives where a is the initial inclination of the rod to the vertical. We leave it to the student to obtain the same result by the principle of energy. (ii) The figure represents the cross-section through the centre of a uniform elliptic cylinder which rests on a smooth horizontal plane against a smooth vertical plane. The minor axis of the cross-section passes through the inter- y section 0 of the planes. To find the initial angular acceleration. Q The normals at the points of contact P, Q meet in the instantaneous centre /, and in the symmetrical position OGI is a straight line, where G is the centre of gravity, and it can be shewn that where a, b are the semi-axes. P x Since the reactions at P, Q pass through / the weight mg is the only force that has a moment about / . Therefore if w be the initial angular acceleration m (P + GI2) a = mgGIIs/2. > But therefore £2 = (a2 + 62)/4, (5a4 - 6«262 + 56*) & = 2 \/2g (a2 - ¥) V(a2 + 62).

1662. In the next chapter we shall have occasion to use the instantaneous centre of rotation in examples of small oscillations. EXAMPLES
1. A circular hoop of radius a, while spinning in a vertical plane with angular velocity u> about its centre, is gently placed on a rough inclined plane which slopes at the angle of friction a for the surfaces in contact. Shew that, if the sense of the rotation be that which causes the slipping at the point of contact to be down the line of greatest slope, the hoop will remain stationary for a time aa>/g sin a. 2. A uniform sphere, of radius a, is projected with velocity V down a rough slope of inclination o having also an angular velocity Q about a horizontal axis in such a sense as to tend to cause rolling up a line of

16-61-16-62]

EXAMPLES

243

greatest slope. Prove that it will never stop slipping unless /* > f tan a 5 V\ l - s — I. ^ as// [Coll. Exam. 1928]

A

3. A circular hoop in a vertical plane is projected down an inclined plane with velocity Vo and at the same time is given an angular velocity < o tending to make it roll up the plane. Find the relation between Vo, a>0, » the slope of the plane and the coefficient of friction, if the hoop comes to a position of instantaneous rest. [Coll. Exam. 1914J 4. A circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal, and a sphere is placed on the highest generator and slightly disturbed. If the surfaces are rough, find the position of the sphere when sliding begins, and shew that the sphere must slide before leaving the cylinder. [Coll. Exam. 1910] 5. A homogeneous sphere of radius r is placed on a smooth horizontal table and a perfectly rough equal homogeneous sphere is placed on the top and then slightly displaced. Prove that the same points always remain in contact and that the angular velocity of either sphere is at the instant of impact with the table. [Coll. Exam. 1909] 6. Investigate the motion of a circular hoop, hanging over a rough peg whose cross-section is circular, and find the components of the reaction in any position, assuming that the peg is sufficiently rough to prevent slipping. [Coll. Exam. 1908] 7. A sphere of mass m rolls down the rough face of an inclined plane of mass M and angle a, which is free to slide on a smooth horizontal plane in a direction perpendicular to its edge. Investigate the motion and shew that the pressure between the sphere and the inclined plane is m(2m + 7M) g cos a/{(2 + 5 sin2 a) m + 7M}. [Coll. Exam. 1912] 8. A sphere of radius a and mass M rests on a smooth horizontal plane, and a second sphere of radius b and mass m is placed upon it, the line of centres being inclined at an angle 60 with the vertical; the surfaces between the two spheres are rough. The system is allowed to move from rest in this position. Shew that as long as the spheres remain in contact (1M+ 5m sin2 6) (a + b) 62 = 10 (M+ m) g (cos 80 - cos 6), where 8 is the inclination of the line of centres to the vertical. [Coll. Exam. 1927]
16-2

244

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS

[XVI

9. A perfectly rough solid sphere, of mass m and radius r, rests symmetrically upon a hollow cylinder, of mass M and radius R, free to turn about its axis which is horizontal. If the sphere roll down, shew that at any time during the contact the angle < between the line of centres and £ the vertical is given by (7M + 2m) (R + r)(j> = (5i/"+ 2m) g sin (j>; and find the value of tf> when the bodies separate. [Coll. Exam. 1926] 10. The mass of a sphere is -J of that of another sphere of the same material, which is free to move about its centre as a fixed point, and the first sphere rolls down the second from rest at the highest point, the coefficient of friction being /x. Prove that sliding will begin when the angle 8 which the line of centres makes with the vertical is given by sin0=2/i(5cosd-3). [M. T. 1905] 11. A rough perfectly elastic sphere is dropped without rotation on to a horizontal cylinder which is free to turn about its axis. There is no slipping at the point of contact during the impact, and the sphere starts moving horizontally after the impact. If 8 is the angle which the radius of the cylinder through the point of contact makes with the vertical, prove that i

tan2 8=1+—?.
Did'

*,
IBS'

where a and a' are the radii of the cylinder and sphere, / and / ' are their moments of inertia about their centres and m is the mass of the sphere. Shew also that the coefficient of friction between the cylinder and sphere must be greater than J (tan 8 — cot 6) in order that there may be no slipping during the impact. [M. T. 1922] 12. A uniform straight heavy rod AB of mass M is freely jointed about a smooth horizontal axis at A, and is supported at an inclination 8 to the vertical by a light string which is perpendicular to the rod and attached to it at B. The string is suddenly cut. Find the pressures on the axis at A before and immediately afterwards. [M. T. 1919] 13. A square lamina is suspended by vertical strings tied to two adjacent corners; two edges of the square being vertical. If one string is cut, shew that the tension of the remaining string is instantaneously diminished to £ of its former value. [M. T. 1911] 14. A uniform rod is held at inclination a to the vertical, with its lower end resting on an imperfectly rough table. It is suddenly released. Shew that the lower end will instantly begin to slide if the coefficient of friction is less than ——^—r~i~ > ar>d hence that if the coefficient of friction 2
4 — 3 sin a

exceeds j the rod will not slide initially whatever a may be. [Coll. Exam. 1927]

Shew that. T. [Coll. where a is the angular distance of the point of contact from the highest point of the sphere. [M. Prove that the disc will make a complete revolution round the point if F 2 > Mag. [S. 1917] 19. T. Prove that the maximum bending moment experienced at the diametrically opposite point A' is and find the corresponding direction of A A'. 1918] . if there is a state of steady motion in which the rod is not horizontal. It is completely fractured at one point A. 1928] 17. A uniform circular disc of radius a is rolling without slipping along a smooth horizontal plane with velocity V when the highest point becomes suddenly fixed. Find the position of relative rest of the ring on the wire and shew that the pressure between the ring and the wire is then m«?r. its inclination to the horizontal is cos"1 (g/aa>2). 21. 18. Exam. A rigid ring hanging over a smooth peg is set spinning about its centre (which remains stationary) in its own vertical plane. if the string is cut. A smooth ring of mass m slides on a wire bent into the form of a circle of radius r which is made to rotate about a vertical diameter with uniform angular velocity a. A uniform heavy rectangular plate is placed with an edge along the intersection of a smooth vertical wall and a smooth horizontal plane and allowed to turn round the edge from a position of rest in a nearly vertical position: shew that the edge will leave the wall during the motion. Two unequal masses are connected by a string of length I which passes through a fixed smooth ring. Find the semi-angle of the cone. the initial pressure of the rod on the sphere is m^cosa/(l+3sin 4 a). The ring has unit mass per unit length. The smaller mass moves as a conical pendulum while the other mass hangs vertically. [S. 1915] 16. 1927] 20. [M. where a is the distance of its centre from the centre of the circle. Shew that.EXAMPLES 245 15. The ends of a uniform rod can slide without friction on a circular wire which is made to rotate about a vertical diameter with angular velocity o>. and the number of revolutions per second when a length a of the string is hanging vertically. its radius is r and its angular velocity is a>. A heavy uniform rod of mass m is supported against a smooth fixed sphere by a horizontal string fastened to its upper end and also to the highest point of the sphere.

ANSWERS 3. 18. The ends of a uniform rod of length I can slide freely along two smooth wires at right angles to one another. \ing sin 8. (ao>0 — Fo) = aa>0 tan a. where m.a sin 28} = C. {m'gl4n2m (I — a)}i. if the frame rotates round the vertical wire with uniform angular velocity <o. 6. one of which is horizontal and the other vertical and below the first. 2 sin 6—ix (17 cos 6 -10). ix. 12.246 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS [XVI 22. Prove that the angular velocity 8 is given by {a2 +$6 2 .8)} 62+g {26 sin (a + 6) . 4. 19. Shew that. where a is the inclination of the diagonal to a side and 8 is the inclination of that side to the horizontal. The radius to the ring makes an angle cos"1 (a%r\g) with the vertical. in which its lower end is at a depth 3<7/2a>2 below the horizontal wire. there is a position of relative equilibrium for the rod. A A' makes an angle tan" 1 \TT with the vertical. 21. m' are the masses. cos" 1 (m/m1). 23. A rectangular lamina of diagonal 26 can move in a vertical plane with adjacent sides in contact with two smooth pegs at a distance a apart in the same horizontal line.2a6 cos (a . the reaction at right angles to the rod changes from \Mg sin 8 to \Mg sin 6. where a is the radius and a the slope. . The reaction along the rod remains Mg cos 6. The equivalent simple pendulum is of length equal to the difference of the diameters of the hoop and peg. where m is the mass and a the extreme value of 6. The reactions when the line of centres makes an angle 8 with the vertical are mg (2 cos 6 — cos a).

where A may contain x but does not vanish when x vanishes. Let us suppose that the system has a position of stable equilibrium and that the origin from which x is measured is so chosen that * vanishes in the position of equilibrium. There is a large class of problems wherein the equation of motion can be reduced to this form. In any other position the kinetic energy T must be proportional to x2. and we remarked (7-23) that an equation of this form always represents a periodic motion with a period independent of the amplitude.e. express the fact that the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is constant. 172. which may denote a linear or an angular displacement. The usual method of solving such a problem is to write down the equation of energy. say T=\A& (1). If a system possesses only one degree of freedom its position can be defined by the values of a single variable x. which we assume can be expanded in ascending powers of x in the form V= V0 + ax + bx* + cx3 + (2). The method will be explained more fully in the next article.Chapter XVII SMALL O S C I L L A T I O N S 17*1. and the potential energy V will be a function of x. then differentiate this equation. In Chapter vn we considered the case of harmonic oscillations of finite amplitude of a particle moving in a straight line. this class includes all problems of a system having one degree of freedom which is slightly disturbed from a position of stable equilibrium and proceeds to oscillate about that position. . i. the characteristic equation for which is x + rfioo = 0. Application of the Principle of Energy. though generally with the limitation that x remains small throughout the motion.

therefore V=mg {R -r){l. .248 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII Now in a position of stable equilibrium the potential energy V is a minimum*. Differentiate with regard to t and divide by x and we get Ax + 2bx=0 (5). {CO . which represents a periodic motion of period lit »J(A/2b). since A is multiplied by x2. then the point of contact P has a velocity ra> relative to the axis O. let a denote the angular velocity of the rolling cylinder. (i) A solid uniform circular cylinder of mass m and of radius r rolls {under the action of gravity) inside a fixed hollow cylinder of radius R. 1914] Let C and O be the axes of the fixed and rolling cylinders. 257. shew that the time. i. and in (2). if A is a function of x. Shew that the potential energy of the moving cylinder is mg {R — r) (1 — cos ff). 17'3. Hence. therefore dV/dx = O when x = 0. T. T. At any time t during the motion the plane containing the axes of the cylinders makes an angle 8 with the vertical. neglecting higher powers of x than the second. and let 0 be the equilibrium position of the point G. this is Again. the axes of the cylinders being parallel to each other and also horizontal. and the potential energy is the weight multiplied by its height above 0. This means that in (1). or put x = 0 in A. and that its kinetic energy is ^m(R-r)i8i. * See Note on the Energy Test of Stability.^{3 (R-r)j2g}. [M. but 6 has a velocity {R — r)6 in the opposite direction. so that the condition that P has no velocity at the instant considered gives r<o = (R-r)d (1). we may now write V=V0 + bx2 (3). as far as the second power of 6. now becomes $Ax2 + bx2 = const (4). E x a m p l e s . Further the oscillations that we are about to consider are assumed to be so small that powers of x and x above the second power can be neglected. p.CO cos 6).e. it will be sufficient for our purpose to retain the part of A that is independent of x.cos 6). where A and b are constants. The equation of energy T + V = const. since a = 0. and this requires that a — 0. or otherwise. and. Then C0 = CO = R — r. of a small oscillation is T=2n.

2a2) 82. is the same as equation (2). At time t let 00 make a small angle 6 with the vertical. therefore the kinetic energy is \m {(W. The equation of energy is therefore \m (362 . find the length of the equivalent simple pendulum. Therefore by taking moments about the line of contact of the cylinders we get m(R-r) rd + ^mr2d>= —mgrsm 8. but from (1) r& = (R — r) 8\ therefore the equation reduces to %{R-r)6= -gaind. we get Therefore the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is (36 2 -2a 2 )/3v/(6 2 -a 2 ).172—173] SMALL OSCILLATIONS 249 Since the velocity of the centre of gravity O is (R . Otherwise. and the moment of inertia of the cylinder about its axis is £mr2. therefore the rates of change of momentum are m(R-r)i). and let 0 be the centre of the wire.2a2) 82+\mg V(62 . or \mgJ(^-a?)8\ to the second power of 8.r) 8.. the accelerations of O are (R — r)6 and (R-r)82 at right angles to and along OC. m its mass and G its centre. (ii) The ends of a uniform rod of length 2a can slide on a smooth circular wire of radius b in a vertical plane. The equation of energy is therefore | m (R . which. Again.a2) e2+iai82} = ^m (3b2 . If the rod makes small oscillations about its equilibrium position. and the potential energy is mg00(1 -cos8). the velocity of O is 008 or and the angular velocity of the rod is 8.. thus neglecting 83. if we write 8 for sin 8.a2) 82 = const. Let AB be the rod. when higher powers of 8 are neglected. m(R-r)82. ..r) 6* = const. and the spin couple \mriu. we get %{R-r)6+g6 = Q This represents oscillatory motion with period (2).r) 8. when higher powers of 8 are neglected.rf 82 + § mg (R . Then O(?=N/(62 —a2). Differentiating and simplifying. therefore the kinetic energy is \m {(R . Differentiating and dividing by m (R .rf 82.rf 82 + \r2a2} = f m (R .

neglecting 6s. Also the reactions at A and B pass through 0 and therefore have no moment about 0.2a2) 6=-mg as in 17'3. Hence. As an application consider the last example of 17'3. Use of the Instantaneous Centre of Rotation. or mg s/(b2 — a2) sin 8. and let O be the centre of gravity of a rod AB. In a slightly displaced position let 8 be the inclination of the rods to . and the moment of the weight is mg 0G sin 8. Let P. A being the joint. so that in equilibrium the rods make equal angles a with the vertical. and c = asin 3 a or (1). Therefore in equilibrium the vertical through G goes through /. 17'41.250 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII 174. We saw in 166 that in problems on small oscillations we can take moments about the instantaneous centre of rotation as though it were a fixed point. v/(6 2 .a2) 6. The reaction a t P and the reaction of the rod AC on AB are along PI and I A respectively. therefore the instantaneous centre / for the rod AB is where the perpendicular to the rod through P meets the horizontal through A. In this case 0 is the instantaneous centre and the moment of inertia of the rod AB about 0 is by the theorem of parallel axes (13'2) =m(|2 + 6 2 -aA = \m(362-2a2). Q be the pegs at a distance 2c apart. E x a m p l e ! Two uniform rods each of length 2es and of the same mass m are smoothly jointed and placed over two smooth pegs in the same horizontal line. Since when A moves vertically the rod AB slides over the peg P. Find the period of the small oscillations in which the joint moves vertically. where mK2 is the moment of inertia and L the moment of the external forces about the axis of rotation through the instantaneous centre. we have \m (362 . writing mK2d> = L.

it will be a sufficiently close approximation to take 8 = a. therefore. in the coefficient of x on the left-hand side of the equation.Zga cos a. (f-sin 2 a) ax + 3gcoa a.(2).c cosec2 8) . making the period 2n </{« (1 + 3 cos2 a)/9g cos a}.° dicular for axis of x. therefore f{8)=xf («)• In this case f(6)=—ff(a s i n 6 — ccosec2 8). or. if x2 can be neglected. and bytaking moments about / for the rod A B we have 6'=-mg(aam6-ccosec26). the field M of force being the same in all planes through this axis.# (a sin 5 . The vertical through O no longer passes through 7. from (1). Oscillations of a Particle constrained to move on a Revolving Curve. Here 5 is not small.17'4-17-5] USE OF THE INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE 251 the vertical. / ' (8) = — g (a cos 8 +2c cosec3 6 cos 8). y . so that we may write 8 — a + x where x is small and the first power only of X is to be retained in the equation.x=0. Let a particle P of mass in be constrained to move on a plane curve which revolves with uniform angular velocity m about an axis in its plane. but by (l)/(o) = 0.. but differs from the constant a by a small quantity. or (1+3 cos 2 a)a^+9<7cosa. x. therefore and / ' (a) = —g (a cos a + 2c cosec3 a cos a) = . 175. the simplest method is to remember that.. The right-hand side is a function of 8 which by (1) vanishes when 8 is put equal to a. by substituting from (1). Since now 8 = x. Let the coordinates of the particle be x.3ga cos a. Take the axis of rotation x for axis of y and a perpen.2ac cosec a + c2 cosec4 o) x = —tyacos a. m(ia2 + GI2) 2 2 2 But GI = GP + PI ={a-c cosec 6)2 + c2 cot2 8 cosec2 8 = a? — 2ac cosec 8 + c2 cosec4 6. Hence the right-hand side of (2) becomes . x = 0. To obtain the value of this expression correct to the first power of x. Therefore (§ a 2 -2ae cosec 0 + c2 cosec4 #)#' = . x a n d we have (|a 2 .

find the period of small oscillations about this position. since 6 = a in relative rest. Hence in relative rest tan 6=ma>2a sin 8/mg. so that the radial component of acceleration (12'1) is ob — xco2. if PM be perpendicular to the axis of y. the radius vector MP is turning about M in a plane perpendicular to Oy with angular velocity a>. E x a m p l e . my = Y. 17'51.252 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII at time t. including the reaction of the curve. The effect of the rotation of the curve is to make the x component of acceleration of the particle * — xa>2 instead of x. A particle is constrained to move on a smooth circular wire which rotates uniformly about a diameter which is vertical. mg or. Hence the equations of motion are m (x — xa>2) = X. For small oscillations about the position 6 = a. If in the position of relative rest the radius drawn to the particle makes an angle a with the vertical. Then. Let X. my = Y. . And in any general position by resolving along the tangent ma0=m<o2a sin 6 cos 6 . Y be the components parallel to the axes of the forces acting on the particle. or mx = X + muPx. substituting g sec a for aw2. We may regard the wire as at rest if we add to the forces acting on the particle a force mafia sin 8 away from the vertical diameter. Therefore the effect of the uniform rotation can be provided for in the solution of the problem by adding to the forces acting on the particle a force a>2x per unit mass directed from the axis of rotation and otherwise regarding the given curve as at rest. Let a be the radius of the circle. because. m the mass of the particle and let 6 be the angle that the radius drawn to the particle in any position makes with the vertical.mg sin 6. put 8 — a + x where x is small. The other forces are the weight mg and the normal reaction. we have a a X + ffXs*n2 «/cos a = 0 . and we get X=i a>2a s m ( 2a + 2 x) ~ 9 s™ ( a + x) = | a?a (sin 2o + 2^ cos 2a) — g (sin a+x cos a). therefore aa>2=g sec a.*J(a cos a/g sin2 a). which gives a period 2n.

and the acceleration f(uQ) is (vel. we get ^ + u . This shews that x is periodic in 8 and oscillates in its values so that the motion is stable.)2/(radius). and retaining only the first power of x. for example. where * is small. Suppose. that a particle is describing a circle of radius 1/M0 under the action of a force to the centre which would produce an acceleration /(«•) at distance 1/u. The equation for the path with the law of force / ( « ) is. i. Such a motion is said to be stable if when owing to any cause the motion is slightly disturbed it continues without a wide departure from the original path. or Now suppose that without altering h. h2u03. if ce vanishes for a given value . Also. some such were described in 16'5. In previous chapters and in the last two articles we have had examples of steady motion. Let h be the moment of the velocity about the centre in the circular orbit. the particle is slightly displaced from the circular orbit.e. then hu0 is the velocity. x_ "o3/(«o + a) Therefore g + ^ ^ If the coefficient of x is positive and we denote it by n2.17"5-17"6] STABILITY OF STEADY MOTION 253 176.h%u2' d2u ad2 uo3/(u) vPf^Uo) Putting u = uo + x. we have d2x the solution of which is * = A cos (nd + a). Stability of Steady Motion. by 12-21. u . so that l/w0 remains an apsidal distance.

and A is caused to move along a horizontal straight line OX. which gives the period of the oscillations. then by retaining only the first power of % and its derivatives we obtain the equation between % and %.e. if any. This means that we are making all velocities constant and finding the particular value of the variable. 177. 6 = a say. k = — 2. Next deduce from these equations the condition for steady motion by making all the second differential coefficients zero. The point of suspension of a pendulum is A. so that the apsidal angle or angle between consecutive apses is irjn. it will next vanish when 0 is increased by -jr/n. and AO=l. We shall illustrate this process by some examples. uof'(uo)lf(l<o)=:~k. The centre of gravity of the pendulum is O. i. The pendulum can move in the vertical plane . The condition for stability is that the expression under the square root must be positive. If the force varies as the kth power of the distance. When the force varies inversely as the square of the distance. and the apsidal angle = ir. which defines the position in steady motion. When the force varies as the distance. The usual method of procedure in solving a problem on disturbed steady motion is first to write down the equations of motion in their general forms for the given system under the given field of force together with the kinematical conditions. k = l. The disturbed circular orbit becomes in fact an ellipse with the centre of force in the centre and there are four apses at the ends of the axes (12-41). so that 3 + k must be positive and k must not be less than — 3.254 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII of 6. 17'8.e. and the apsidal angle = \rn. i. Next suppose the motion to be slightly disturbed from the steady state and substitute in the original equations 6 = a + ^ where % is small. f(u)cc—^. The radius of gyration about any axis through Gperpendicular to AO is k. In this case the disturbed orbit is an ellipse with the centre of force in a focus and there are two apses at the ends of the major axis (12'5).

1924] The point A has acceleration x. where x ' s small. it becomes (P+i?)6 + lgsm6 = lfcosd (2). mid. Hence by taking moments about A we get mP6 — mxl cos 6 + mk2d= . the rates of change of momentum are mx. Hence we get giving a period 2JT cos a It should be observed that the latter part of this question can be solved by elementary considerations. Prove that (P+k2) 6 + Ig sin 6=1 cosd .mgl sin 6. and we denote this value of 6 by a. (1). if m be the mass of the pendulum. which gives tan 8 =f/g. and if x has the constant value / . and the angle between AO and the vertical is 6. OA = x. This is the general equation of motion. The . for the relative effect on the pendulum of giving its point of suspension a constant horizontal acceleration is equivalent to keeping the point of suspension fixed and applying a force m / t o the pendulum at O in the opposite sense to the acceleration. and neglect all powers of x above the first. and that the periodic time of small oscillations about this position is .T. shew that the pendulum can maintain a constant inclination a to the vertical. where tan a=f/g. ml62.17-6-17-8] ABOUT STEADY MOTION 255 containing OX. and O has accelerations IB and Iff1 relative to A at right angles to and along OA. Therefore. Ifx has the constant value f. To find the period of the small oscillations about this position we now put 6 = a + x. At time t. In this case we find the possible steady motion by putting $=0. and the spin couple mk'2i). supposed positive when GAX is obtuse. Substituting g tan a for / i n (2) gives (72 + £ 2 )#+Zg<sin(0-a)/cosa = O (3). x. [M.

Hence if there be a steady motion in which 8 — a and <j> = a>. Therefore the moment of momentum about the vertical diameter is constant. Let the radius to the particle make an angle 6 with the downward vertical. Shew that if a> be the angular velocity the depth of the circle below the centre of the sphere is g/a>2.. . neither of which has any moment about the vertical diameter.. i. Again the particle is acted on by its weight mg.cos 6) = const.e. Eliminating <f> between (1) and (2). and find the period of small oscillations about this steady motion. Therefore the equation of energy is \ma2 {82 + sin2 8$) + mga (1 . ma2 sin2 8. and its time of oscillation is got from the ordinary formula for the period of a compound pendulum by writing \/(g2+f2) or gseca instead 17'9. Let m be the mass of the particle and a the radius of the sphere. Now /W=/(«+x)=/(«) + x/'(«)> and to g e t / ' (a) we first differentiate f{6) and then put 0 = a. A particle moving on the inside of a smooth fixed sphere describes a horizontal circle. By differentiating this equation it follows that a6-aa>2 sin4 a cosec3 0cos0+#sin 0 = 0 (3).$ = o sin2 a > (2). sin2 <?. and let the meridian circle make an angle <f> with a fixed vertical plane. <£=const.(l).. <j>. and retain the first power of ^ only. Substitute g sec a for am2 in (3) and we get ad—g sin4 a sec a cosec3 9 cos d+g sin 8 = 0 (5). The condition for steady motion with 8 = a is got by putting £ = 0. or the depth of the horizontal circle below the centre of the sphere is a cosa=g/a>i (4). whence aa>2 cos a~g. and the reaction of the surface which passes through 0.256 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII equilibrium position of AO is then the direction of the resultant of / and g. Then for small oscillations about the horizontal circle we put 8 = a where ^ is small. In the general motion of the particle on the sphere its velocity along the vertical circle is a9 and along the horizontal circle a sin 8. we get \a82+\aa>2 sin4 a cosec2 6-g cos 0 = const.

e. i. In the first place if the potential energy of a system is stationary in value for small permissible displacements from an assigned position. and the period of the small oscillations is 2?r J{a cos a/g (1+3 cos2 a)}. In like manner it can be shewn that a position of maximum potential energy is unstable. with equal heavy rings at the ends. by the principle of virtual work. is describing small oscillations in the vertical plane containing the wire. and that position is therefore one of stable equilibrium.17-8-179] ABOUT STEADY MOTION 4 3 257 In this case f(8)=—g sin a sec a cosec 8 cos 8+g sin 8. back towards the position of minimum potential energy. 1914] 2. such a position is one of equilibrium. 1916] of oscillation is about T36 seconds. A weightless rod of length 3 feet. It moves therefore so that its^potential energy decreases. prove that the period of oscillations when the spring is extended and then set free is 2w{Mml(M+m)ii}i. Now consider a body in a position of minimum potential energy. and / ' (6) = 3g sin4 a sec a cosec4 8 cos2 8 +g sin4 a sec a cosec2 6 +g cos 8. A circular disc of mass M lies on a smooth horizontal table. EXAMPLES 1. then no work is done by the external forces in any such displacement so that. Therefore/(a) = 0. and a body . it begins to acquire kinetic energy and therefore to lose potential energy. 3. If the body undergoes a small but finite displacement in any direction compatible with its geometrical connections and is then set free so that motion ensues. A running watch is placed on a smooth horizontal surface so that it may be regarded as free to rotate about its own centre of gravity. [S. one of which can slide on a smooth horizontal wire. it is however an application of the principle of conservation of energy. Note on the Energy Test of Stability. if a particle of mass m resting on the disc is attached to the centre by a spring which exerts a force px when extended a length x. It is composed essentially of a balance-wheel of moment of inertia i. Shew that the period [S. Hence (5) becomes ax+g (1 + 3 cos2 o) seco. and / ' (a) = 4g cos a +g sin2 a sec a =g(l+3 cos2 a) sec a.^ = 0. The proposition that positions of minimum and maximum potential energy are positions of stable and unstable equilibrium respectively is generally found in books on Statics.

The increase in the tension of either string when its length is increased by x is Ex. T. is connected by a smooth hinge at A to a second light rod AO. rotating with uniform angular velocity about a fixed centre 0. [Coll. are connected by a light rod subtending an angle 2/3 at the centre of the wire. find the position of stable equilibrium when the . length 2a and thickness 2h. AB is now displaced through a small angle. and its inclination to the vertical is a. remaining horizontal. rests in equilibrium on the top of a fixed rough cylinder of radius r whose axis is horizontal. if the plank is slightly disturbed. In the position of equilibrium the length of each string is I.)3. Two masses rn and m'. where 2iEeoa« + g r i n « t g n a j [ M . the period of an oscillation is that of a simple pendulum of length (a2+4A2)/3 (?•-£). A light rod AB. If / = 110 gm. 1920] 4.)2. T. if its rate is correct when the body is rigidly held. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is 21. The inertia of the hair spring and other parts of the mechanism may be ignored. 1927] 6. (cm. shew that the watch gains nearly 20 seconds a day in this position.258 SMALL OSCILLATIONS [XVII of moment of inertia / connected by a hair spring. the body of the watch rotates steadily with a small uniform spin. OB. AB are initially in the same straight line. the equilibrium is stable. 7. Shew that. ?'=0'05 gm. Shew that. in the plane of rotation. [M. Determine the angular motion. if small oscillations take place in a vertical plane. Din the same horizontal line at a distance a apart. One end of a uniform rod rests on a smooth horizontal plane and the other end is attached by a string of length I to a point whose height above the table is greater than I.T. Shew that. relatively to OA. OA. 9. and a and I are the lengths of OA and AB respectively. (cm. 1913] 8.1924] 5. and shew that in general. Prove that. A uniform bar AB of mass M is suspended from a point 0 by two equal elastic strings OA. if r is greater than h. A uniform plank. where E is constant. where T is the time of revolution of OA about 0. in addition to its oscillations. The bar vibrates vertically. which are free to move on a given circular wire of radius a. BC. if the angular velocity of OA be maintained constant. when the rods move in a vertical plane. AB will oscillate relatively to OA with a period T s/l/a. Three equal uniform rods AB. Exam. [M. Shew that the period of a small oscillation is 2?r/p. carrying a heavy particle at B. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is 5a/6. and that. CD of length a are smoothly jointed at B and C and suspended from points A.

the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is a (m+m')/</(m? + m"2 + 2mm' cos 2/3). Find the position of relative equilibrium of the particle. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius b is free to turn about its axis.EXAMPLES 259 plane of the wire is vertical. [M. 1917] 15. . 1907] ANSWEES 3. Prove that the length of the simple equivalent pendulum is 2a. [M. 10. The period of the balance-wheel is 2 sj{ljl+i) sees. 1928] 14. A circular cylinder of radius a surrounds another cylinder of smaller radius b. T. A conical pendulum executes small oscillations about a state of steady motion in which the string of length I is inclined to the horizon at an angle a : shew that the period of its oscillation is . Shew that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is -| (a — b). Shew that the plane through the axes moves like a simple pendulum of length k being the radius of gyration of the moving cylinder about its axis. and shew that the time of a small oscillation about that position is 2n I sin a 1» ~^~' (. A particle can move in a smooth circular tube which revolves about a fixed vertical tangent with uniform velocity a>. which is fixed. 14. 1910] 12. performs rolling oscillations of small amplitude with its circular edge in contact with a rough horizontal plane. A solid uniform sphere of radius 6 makes small oscillations at the bottom of a fixed hollow sphere of internal radius a. which is horizontal. [S. T. and shew that. 11. the surfaces being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding and the motion being in a vertical plane. a» 2 (1 +sin a) =g tan a. prove that the plane through the axes will oscillate like a simple pendulum of length (b . The former rolls on the latter. having the form of a sector of a circle of radius 2a.a) (2M+ m)j(M+ TO). Its centre of gravity is half-way between this edge and its centre. and another rough cylindrical shell of mass m and radius a is placed inside it. if the masses are slightly disturbed. where a is the radius. 13.1+sin3 of ' where a is the angle of inclination to the vertical of the radius to the particle when in relative equilibrium. A body of uniform density. Exam.

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