Make tbis Attractive Book Rack You ca. make a Cobbler'. Bencb A Few Fact. about CrllJllPS an d Clamp. - • . - - - .

111e Art of ",aking W all Plague. A Ccllapsi ble Pen or Pencil Rack A Catgut Barometer -••A e.w Croid Product ••-rnteresting Notes about Solders How to make Your 0 .... Test-meter How You can Identify Plastics - • Repf os of Int erest •-•-• Pattern, for a Collapsible Peon or Pencil Rack

P~r, 310
371 372 373 374 374 375 376 378 380 333

For a few special booksMake this attractive

You will .find a


Sheet Inside
HE handy book rack illustrated has been designed to satisfy the requirements of those who have a few special books they wish to keep properly housed. It is 1ltins. long and 51ins. high, altogether a very suitable size where limited space and initial cost are factors for consideration. Yet there is nothing makeshift about the rack. It is cleverly and attractively
All correspond.nce should be addressed

the interior frets in piece 1 and piece 3 before cutting round the main outlines of the pieces, then finish cutting pieces 2 . and 4, which will, of course, have come from the same pieces of wood as the other overlays, ow cut the maio end pieces, taking care with the mortises. Cut these latter with the saw on the inside of the lines so that the resulting fit with the stripwood is a firm one. The stripwood should be cut to length next, and tried for fit in the main end pieces. When you are satisfied that these str~ts fit properly, remove them again while the overlays are placed in position. Fixing tbe Overlays To fix the overlays, use a good glue, but make sure that you do not use too much so that the excess is squeezed out when the overlays are fixed. Place them carefully in position on the main end pieces (the exact positions are indicated by the dotted lines on the design sheet) and place each end under weights until the glue has thoroughly hardened. The method of fixing the three strut pieces is shown on the design sheet. A touch of glue can be added before the screws are run in.


designed, each end bearing two overlays, the centre one in each case showing a pair of birds perched on a leafy twig. The support for the books is formed by three tin. rails let into the main end pieces, and the construction generally makes for a solid, lasting job. Transfer the patterns to the required wood, taking care to trace the picturesque overlays correctly. Now cut

The Editor,


Weekly, Der"ham,

Norfolk. I

Finish for this attractive book rack is a matter of choice, .but some sort of stain and polished effect might possibly interest those workers who like to retain the natural appearance of the wood so far as is possible. For these workers, most of the finish has to be done before the parts are assembled. Suppose a stained and polished finish is required, • using two different coloured stains in order to emphasise the overlays. In this case, the main end pieces and struts would be stained first to the required, shade, then the overlays. stained before gluing to the main end pieces. A suggested contrast would be dark oak for the main overlays and struts, and

light oak for the overlays. Alternatively, the overlays could be left. in the natural co!our of the wood, and the main end

To' make this book rack, you can obtain a complete kit of wood (No. 3046) from any Hobbies braI!ch, or post free from Hobbies Ltd., Dereham, Norfolk, price 3/11, including tax. pieces and struts stained' any desired shade. With all the staining complete and dried, the overlays would then be glued

in position as previously detailed, and the struts fixed as before. A -reasonable polish could be imparted to the whole by applying a good wax furniture polish, and rubbing briskly with a soft, clean, shoe brush. Alternatively, the whole thin~could be finished with brush polish, but-in this case care would be taken to see that blobs of the polish did not collect in the interior frets of the overlay' and spoil the appearance. For those who prefer paint, an ideal finish is jet-black enamel for the main end pieces and struts, 'and a bright colourful enamel for the overlays. The book rack would then appear much as shown in the finished illustration.


make .a Cobbler's Bench
part are easily carved with a spokeshave. There is very little actual working to be done.-so make a smooth job, of the little cutting there is. Finally bore yin. . diameter holes for the tive legs in the positions as dimensioned. _ Two end views of the final assembly an: given in Fig. 2. All the legs are lin. diameter round stock, three cut exactly to l Zins. in length and two to 12tins. Three of the legs are assembled perTo tit these legs the bored holes must be enlarged ,sideways, as shown in Fig. 3. Do this on the underside of the bench, using a gouge or similar carving tool and using a dummy leg to check progress. The bottoms of these end legs should be 12ins. apart in the final assembly. All the legs should be a drive fit in their respective holes. Coat the ends of the legs with glue before forcing home



HIS is a v. ry usefUl.item of equipe ment for the workshop or the kitchen. In-the workroom it forms a convenient portable bench "for tackling small jobs. In the kitchen it can be used for cleaning and polishing shoes and similar dutie-s. Cost should not be more than a shilling or so at the most, and constructional 'time only part of a spare evening. Join two Planks For the bench part you will require a 30ins. length of 12ins. wide planking, at least lin. thick. If you find it difficult to obtain stock that wide, two 6ins. planks may be joined at the centre. If this has to be done it is recommended that the glue joint be reinforced with dowels and, preferably, a resin-typeglue used which will set with a joint strength greater than that of the parent wood. Glues of this type require setting under pressure, so cramp the two planks together for at least twenty-four hours after assembling. Mark out the pattern for the bench top as shown in Fig. 1. The stopped chamfers on either side of the narrower



.' 1-1:-1


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Fig. 1

Fig. 2

pendieular to the bench top but the two legs at the broad end are splayed out for greater sta bility, 370

with a mallet. Assemble the three perpendicular legs first, turn the assembly over and check that the bench rests true and parallel to the ground. Then assemble the splayed-out end legs, using a shaped wedge to lock in the tapered holes. Again stand the bench right side up and check for' trueness. It should be possible to align the end legs accurately at this stage by tapping the broad end of the bench with a mallet. Then leave to set before trimming off the wedges flush and also smoothing off any projecting portions of tbe legs standing proud of the top of the bench. No further finishing is required other than a rub down with glasspaper, rounding off all sharp edges. (R.H.W.)


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A Few Facts about Cramps & Clamps
SEFUL in all types' of woodworking, and indispensable.. in many, cramps, clamps, wedges, etc., are often neglected by the amateur. \ Once he has found out their usefulness for himself, however, he will never neglect them again. We have started our illustrations of typical types with something that could hardly be considered a 'tool'-a spring type clothes-peg. It is possibly the cheapest; and certainly one of the most useful of the small cramps for modelling and similar light work--even if it was never designed for that job. Its equivalent in 'conventional' tools is the spring clamp, usually of metal and designed to clip in place to hold light work pieces, etc.
Finger Cramp





The plain finger cramp is the type most commonly found in the average home kit of tools. Its usefulness is limited to light clamping duties as the frame is not braced and can be twisted or bent out .of parallel by excessive tightening. Nevertheless, it is suitable for most small jobs and is available in a variety of sizes. Instead of a frame bent from flat strip metal, finger clamps are sometimes parted off angle section stock, giving slightly more rigidity. The ring handle is cheap and simple, but not so easy to manipulate- as 'a knurled handle. A thumbscrew is best for applying tighter clamping pressures. ' The (A) or (C) cramp is a more rigid tool of essentially the same form.' The frame is much stiffer, being formed with a flange to rainimise the risk of distortion. Again (AJ and (C) cramps come in all sizes. Strictly speaking both are the same tool. The distinction, normally.. is that an (A) cramp has a rounded frame with a single strengthening web on the inside edge-the frame taking on a rounded (A) shape, with the screw forming the bar. Most (C) cramps have a double .ridged frame and are also sometimes called (G) cramps clamps. In the larger sizes, these cramps may have a tommy-bar handle fitting.























Hand Vice The hand vice is an adjustable version , of the simple spring clamp, tightened by screw action. This is useful for holding small parts and assemblies which have to be worked on whilst held together. The modeller's vice performs very much the same function and is, in principle, a light vice which may be screwed down or merely rested on its flat base. One jaw is fixed and the other is adjustable, the jaw faces having a parallel motion.


The screw or hand screw is usually made of maple or similar hardwood and is adjusted by means of tbe long threaded screws jcining the two wooden parts. It is pseful for all sorts of clamp371

ing jobs, including holding.non-parallel

assemblies and also has a geneTOu'l;i' clamping area. Used on parallel work J'.t . is important to see that the two wooden (Continued on page 373)



The Art of mal~ing Wall Plaques
a fiat type of picture bas been made and the technique of lining in the picture and working the tinfoil has been attempted, we can turn to something a little more ambitious and attractive. Let us; then, see how a wall plaque similar to that introduced in the last article can be made. A domed clock glass approximately


ow that

picture, of which an outline is to be traced with brush and black enamel, is clipped to the outside face of the glass with spring pegs, and the lines are is'!tintedon the opposite face. It is an advantage to choose a picture that is small and self-contained, similar to those found on calendars and greetings cards. The irregular shape surrounding the picture can be blackened com-

Fig. 4

Fig. S

r diameter is required. This can be obtained at any Jewellers for about -e;~ghteeD pence. It must be a domed .one, t]:\.,ough,or much of the attraction will be llost. The work, of course, is executed on the concave face of this. That is, the

plete)y with enamel, which not only provides a good adhesive area for the background, foil (see the previous article) but unparts a clean-cut effect to the finished picture. The inside of the glass is thoroughly 372

cleaned and dusted with chalk. Being a comparatively small job, the work of painting and lining is best done over a comer of a-table which will lend support to the hands. The black enamel is used freely so' that the main lines dividing the areas of colour are approximately Win. thick. Finer, detail lines can be thinner. It is always easier to start the work at the top of the glass and to work towards the bottom. To complete the paintwork the area round the picture is. enamelled, and it must extend from the outline of the picture itself to the rim of the glass. . The application of the foil was fully described in the last article, and precisely the same methods apply in this case. Having completed this work, a circular backing of pliable cardboard is glued in place behind the foil. This is shown in Fig. 4, First of all, a roughly circular piece of card is cut about tin. bigger all round than the diameter of the clock glass. The approximate centre of this is marked with a pencil and then, converging on this centre from the outside edges of the card, several slender V cuts are made, which should be about tin. wide at the edges of the card. The number does not matter, but they should be fairly evenly spaced as indicated in the photograph. One, side of the card is then given a thin coat of Durofix, Similarly a thin coat is applied to the foil. The Durofix should be thinned for this and applied with a brush to avoid peeling the foil from the glass .. When dry, similar thicker coats are applied to each component, and the card back is centred on the glass and pressed firmly into place over the foil. It is held with spring pegs until the cement has set,a,nd then the backing is trimmed flush with the edges of the glass. Following this the picture is fitted to a . surround. This takes the form of a'ring 'and can be cut from plywood, which must be glasspapered very smooth, the front edges rounded off, and then enamelled. In the original, however, coloured Perspex was used which was treated similarly. The size of the surround should allow an overhang of about tin. all round, and the width of the ring should be at least tin: Compasses should be used to mark out the ring and the centre of it should be cut out first. This is done by drilling a small hole near tbe edge of the inner circle, threading the fretsaw blade through, and sawing in the ordinary way. Final (Continued on page 378)


-.~--.-. '--


--. --------








A - Collapsible Pen or Pencil Rack
HIS is just the thing to make uR as a little gift, especially. if it is required to be sent through the post. Simply cut out rhe parts, stain' or colour them, and hinge the base in position. Holes are bored ready to take the four tin. pins arid the whole thing packed flat for transit. .When the little present arrives, the four pins, which you will include in your parcel, are inserted through the back (A) into the shaped pieces (B) and (C), and through the base (D) into the lower ends of the pieces (B) and (C). The stand is then ready for use. Saleable Article For the experienced fretworker, we suggest that, it could be a saleable article if sufficient attention is paid to finish. Cut the first one to use as a template for marking round, Make it a 'mass-produced' article, doing all the cutting, then the cleaning, painting and so on. Cut from odd pieces of wood or from standard panels it will sell for a shilling or two, leaving a fair profit for the worker. Trace the parts and transfer them to



patterns are on page 383
the wood -by means of carbon paper. Cut round the shapes carefully, using a fine-grade fretsaw. Keep the saw upright while cutting. Clean up all the parts with fine-grade glasspaper and then drill the holes for the iin. fretpins. Use a fretwork drill for this purpose. Do not drill to the full extent of the pins, but stop a little short so that the-pins can be gently tapped home. Before assembling, stain the parts- by rubbing over with a little stain, on a piece of cloth. Finish by varnishing or polishing with wax. Hinge the base in position with a No. 5308 fancy hinge, obtainable from Hobbies, price 6d. per pair. A brighter finish is obtained by painting with high-gloss paint or enamel, but you will need to give two or l>ree coats, glasspapering between coats when dry. When packing to. send by post wrap carefully in tissue paper to prevent, scratching, and put plenty of packing round it to prevent damage. (M.p.) reinforced against splitting by two bolts. This can be sprung in place for light or temporary cramping duties and is quick and simple to use. (R.H.W.)

Facts about Cramps and Clamps
(CotUim~edfrom page 371) members are tightened up parallel to one another. Corner cramps for holding picture frames and similar assemblies may take several forms. The simple corner clamp shown holds just one comer, calling for one cramp at each comer. The fourcorner cramp does the whole job at once, being tightened by the adjusting screw in the centre. . The sash cramp is a)arg_c:! eavy affair h mounted. on a rigid beam of flat channel or angle section and is-adjustable over a very wide range of jaw spacing. The pipe crampis similar but in.this case the head and adjustable face members are mounted on a tubular slide. It is quite common to find cramps of this kind fitted with winding-type handles for tightening up and releasing quickly. The bar cramp is designed to fit over work pieces, when it can be tightened up with the bars resting one on either. side of the work to prevent buckling. It is particularly useful for clamping up edge-glued timbers which might be displaced out of line if cramped in a sash or pipe cramp. The Band Cramp The band cramp is useful for clamping up circular frames, etc. It can be ·Iightened up with a plain (C) cramp, Using strip steel as the basic material, cramps of this kind can be 'tailor made' to suit any particular job. A length of cord, doubled around the edge of a frame and tightened with a wooden stick, is another useful sort of 'improvised' cramp for awkward shapes. In the same vein, the possibility of using strip rubber wound round an assembly for tight clamping' pressure should oot be ignored. Pressure can be controlled by the tension imparted to the rubber strip during winding. Finally illustrated is a simple spring wedge, made from hardwood and



LONDON 7Sa N"w Oxford se., W.C.I (Phone MUSeum 2975) 87 Old Broad Str" ... , E.C.] e (LONdon Wall 4315) -117 Walworth Road. S.E.17 (RODney 5509) 81 Stre •• ham Hill, S.W.2 (TUL.e Hill 8796) GLASGOW-326 Arllyle Street (Phone CE Nt ....1 5041) MANCHESTER.:.cIO Piccadilly (Phone CENtral 1787) BIRMINGHAM-14 Bull Rin. SHEFFIELD-4 St. Paul'. Parade (Phone 26071) LEEDS-IO Queen Victoria Street (Phone 28639) HULL-IO Parason Square SOUTHAMPTON - 25 Bernard St. BRISTOL-3D Narrow Wine Str ... (Phone 21744)




appearance and one which will take a other end of the roller spindle and, nice finish. In the centre of the back, leave access to the interior whilst the attach the two ends, top and bottom of catgut is strung between 'top and the casing, cut to the dimensions given bottom and the thread wound in place from tin. or -&in. material. Note that arid tied to the catgut. Add the solder the front is given a slight backward tilt r counterweight to the wire arm and for improved appearance. You can make check th~ working of the assembly. aparallel assembly if you prefer, when Extreme range can be duplicated by you wiU not have to chamfer one edge putting tbe instrument in front of a of both top and bottom casing to fit. warm fire (maximum 'fine' movement). Also the pointer will swing 'true' over and in a damp or steamy atmosphere the paper scale. With a tilted front, the (maximum 'wet' movement). Check pointer is bent to a compromise posi-: that tbe range of movement is adequate, tion which gives an approximately adjusting by sliding the counterweight parallel track over the scale, Alternaalong the wire arm. or adding to or G .. tively, of course, you can align the roller reducing the weight as reg uired. When ORKIN . on the principle assembly at right angles to the tilted the best setting has been established, that catgut expan<;ls or confront for a true parallel movement from fuse the counterweight on to the wire .. tracts. With. changing weather the pointer. with a hot iron. Do not attempt to melt cond!tlons, this ~slly made ,ba~on1eler;... Locate the roller in the centre of the the whole of the solder wrapping. Just provides. weather. fo!ec<,\stmg by ~eans casing, drilling a hole in the front for add flux at each end and 'tack' to the wire. of a pointer swingmg over a printed . , scale. Sensitivity is ensured by mounting """'If"" - -j The temporary the catgut in tension so that relatively I" II backing strip can ~ ij now be removed small atmospheric changes produce a .THeRMOMETE"R and replaced by reasonable pointer movement. Fig. 2 s" the proper back, II drilled out ' to take the roller spindle. Stain -~----_~ and polish the ...... ~~~--1 " front as-required,




. ita! 1


II fr-I €=1=-~+-:~.:t=-•

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Fig. 1 The complete 'works' are shown in Fig. J. A wire pointer is assembled in a short length of dowel, acting as a roller. Around this roller wrap a few turns of thread. one end fastened to the roller and the other to the centre of a length of catgut suspended between the top and bottom members of the completed assembly. The wire is counterweighted so the t the catgut is. stretched towards the roller. the exact amount of counterweight for best results being determined by simple practical experiments. The shape of the wire enables the 'Works' to be hidden behind a Hat panel with the pointer emerging through a slot to move over a suitable paper scale, Fig. 2 summarises constructional details of the rest of the assembly. Start by cutting a 7ins. by 3ins. panel of good quality hardwood for the front panel. Choose wood witli a pleasing the spindle. N ow pass the pointer .jhrough the slots in the casing ends, and through the roller. Use a temporary strip in place of the back to locate the


The casing will look quite nice painted black. A small thermometer screwed or glued to the other side of the front will complete YQfIT barometer. (R. H. W.)

ITH the Croid Home Outfit comes a welcome addition to , the Crcid range of products, which are so widely known to those interested in all types of handicrafts. It should appeal particularly to woodworkers and model makers. The Croid Home Outfit consists of a water container, 802:s. of Croid Aero Glue and a handy brush. It is a complete service, making all gluing operations dean and simple, and enabling the user to obtain 'the best results from the glue. All that is needed to bring the glue into use is to fill the outer container with boiling water. . 374


A New Croid Product

A feature is that the standard 80zs. tin of Aero Glue acts as a refill. The water container is specially treated to resist corrosion, and with reasonable care should give many years' useful service.




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HE majority of soft solders are either tin-lead or tin-lead-antimony alloys, t_hemelting point of which is determined by the tin-lead proportion. In general, the higher the proportion of tin the lower the melting point of the solder. . Solders with a fairly high tin content are usually preferred on account of their greater fusibility and also because they possess favourable 'wetting' characteristics. That is to say they tend to spread out readily 00 non-oxidised surfaces when melted, making it easy to 'run' the soldered joint. The solders containing antimony do not 'wet' copper so readily and are not to be recommended for the joining of brass and zinc. In any soldered joint a section through the joint area would show solder' and parent metal separated by an interlayer of the solder alloy and parent metal. It is this interlayer which provides the true strength of the joint In the case of brass and zinc and zinccontaining alloys, the interlayer tends to be brittle due to the formation of antimony-zinc compounds. Hence the resulting soldered joint may be on the weak side. • Throughout the range of normal soft solders, joint strength is fairly similar, independent of the proportions of the solder alloy. The addition of antimony does tend to increase creep resistance-or creep strength in the case of copper, etc. The composition of British Standard soft solders is shown in Table 1. Probably the best general purpose soft solder, and certainly the one best suited to the soldering Up of electrical assemblies, is the 60/40 tin/lead alloy. This has a satisfactory low melting point for most purposes-low enough from the point of view of the iron retaining its heat for c-ontinuous soldering and high enough for the joint to remain solid at normal service temperatures. . There is a point, however, that as regards the price of the two metals in the alloy, tin costs something like seven times ll-li much as lead. Hence the higher the tin eontent of a soft solder, the higher its cost of manufacture. The cost of 40/60 tin/lead solder, for instance, Js some twenty per cent less than 60/40 solder, but the melting point is 110W some 43 degrees C. higher, Also 40/60 solder has probably the lowest creep strength of' all the normal range of tinlead .soft solders which does not make it particularly suitable for conditions where the joint may be stressed. Melting points of some, typical, tinj lead aUoys are summarised in Table Il,


Interesting Notes about Solders'
together with recommended bit ternperatures for soldering" As a general rule- the bit temperature should be at least .40 degrees C. higher than the melting point of the solder. Unfortunately few, if any, commercial electric soldering irons ever quote the bit temperature achieved-s-wattage ratings are normally given for such irons which, in practice" do' not mean very much.

may not become fully molten, in the sense that it will run readily, until some higher temperature, depending on the proportion of tin. The eutectic alloy, composed of 63/37 tiojlead; -has no plastic range. That is to say it changes instantly from solid to liquid at 183 degrees C. With decreasing tin content, however, the plastic range increases. the .liquidus of 60/40 alloy




TABLE Solder





..IE~jj;'" 60/40 ··1

-M-.-U-jn-g-P-"-i"-t-('-C-.)-----.,+ Minimum Bit Temp. ('c,)

5"0/50 1'-1-83-~1--1-8-9-1-2-1-4-


----:us- ----m-"""""25S"






Allny!JI...Ti ....Lcad-Cadmiwn Bism"th~CadmilLDl~Lead .. 'Biim"lh~ Tm-Lead .. 'Bi'!Qulh-Cadmium.-Tin Tin~Lead..cadmi"m Bismltlb-cadmium .. Tin-Cadmium Tin-Lead

Mclti.n~ Point (Solidus)




70 91 95 103 142



177 183

196 203 217 288 291 351 361


Solder (Alloy) TiD-Lead Tin-Cadmium ., Tin-Lead-Cadmium Blsmuth-Tin-Lead-Cadmi B'ismuth-Cadmium ,Bj&_w'utb-Cad_miutti- TiD Bismuth-Lead ., B;""Ylh-Cadmlllm-Lcad ·Bismuth-Tin .. Bismu!IF-Tin-Lead

- Joint


(Brass) tOllS/Sq. 2,6 2·1'


,, .. .. ..




09 0,'7




O'S *Fryts

Metal Foundries

Hence some irons may not give a satisfactory performance with highermelting point solders, especially if mains voltage is lower than normal "at the time. Actually the solidus of, all tin/lead alloys is IS] degrees C. The alloy at this temperature enters a plastic state and 37.5

occurs at 189 degrees C. (i.e, the alloy becomes fully liquid at this paint) so that the plastic r'!lnge in this case becomes 6 degrees C. With 40/60 alloy the plastic range has increased to 49degrees C. Incidentally, in quoting alloy propor(Continued on page 380)



How to make Your O'wn Test-meter
But the opposite cannot be done, This this should present is why a meter of sensitive type is no difficulty. The required, A 1 rnA (milliamp) meter is case may be of the ideal. A ·5 rnA or ·1 rnA meter would be typewith a hinged excellent. A 5 rnA or 10 mA meter lid, the meter, etc., could be used, 'but the current drawn, by being mounted on this type tends to become rather large, an inner panel. Or so that very exact readings of voltages, it may be in the etc., cannot always be obtained. form of a simple shallow box, with The meter should be of the directcurrent, moving-coil type. If a thermoremovable back, couple or radio-frequency ex-service the meter and other parts being meter is used, tbe thermocouple should mounted on the be removed and two thin leads soldered to the tags which feed the moving-coil front. Both forms of construction are UITE a number of readers equally satisfactory, and thin wood may through hairsprings. These two leads appear interested in the possibe used for the case. The panel upon are then soldered to the terminals on the bility of making up a test-meter, which terminals, etc., are mounted meter which project through the back of especially as ex-service meter should, preferably, be of bakelite, paxo- , t,becase. movements suitable for this purpose are lin, or other insulating material as wood so cheaply obtainable. Such a homeVoltage Ranges absorbs moisture, which causes leakage. constructed tester 'can give good -and Pig.. lshows how a voltage range ;is Thin paxolin panels may be obtained reliable results, with an accuracy good very cheaply. ' obtained by adding a resistor in series enough for aU ordinary purposes. The with the meter. By choosing a suitable constructor may provide such voltage, . The Meter resistance value, any desired voltage current, or ohms ranges as he requires, The meter obtained depends to some range can be obtained. If the meter is a and the completed tester will cost only a extent upon the size of the finished 1 rnA type, the resistor should have fraction of the cost of a ready-made . tester, and such meters are obtainable in 1,000 ohms for every 1 volt of the instrument of comparable type.



Fig. I-The circuits for yo/tage and current ranges




t L1K







desired - range. That is, it would be 2,000 ohms for 2 V, 5,000 ohms for 5 V, 10,000 ohms for 10 V, and so on. If the meter is a ·1 rnA one, the resistor should have 10,000 ohms for every 1 volt of the desired range. If a ·5 rnA meter is used, 2;000 ohms per volt are required .. For a 5 rnA meter, 200 ohms per volt are used. In the finished test-meter, a number of voltage ranges can be provided 9Y selecting a resistor for each range. This may be carried out by using a rotary

.Fig. 3-The

circuit of the "l-range test-meter

Fig. 2-The circuit for ohms range Such home-made testers normally use a simple, single-range meter, this being housed in a case together with the resistors, etc., required to obtain further ranges. It is not proposed to give actual constructlonal details of a case, since

diameters of from about 2ins. upwards. The larger instruments' have longer, larger scales, but this does not, of course, influence the actual results obtained. The- meter 'should have a fairly low full-scale deflection. (This 'means that a very small current will move, the pointer completely across the scale.) -Other ranges may be obtained so that 'the voltage or current for a full-scale deflection of the pointer is increased.

switch, by having a plug to insert in a number of sockets, or simply by connecting to a "separate terminal for each resistor. It is usually most convenient to provide ranges which 'fit in' with the meter scale markings. For example, a 1 mA meter would probably be marked at intervals of ·1 mAo If 10 V and 100 V ranges are provided, the figures can readily be seen on the scale, without other markings. E.g., on the 10 V range, ·2 rnA would be 2 V, ·3·mA, 3 V, and so on. Similarly on the 100 V range these readings would- be 20 V, 30 V, and so on. If the meter is marked 0-5 (as with a 5 rnA instrument) ranges of 0-5 V, 0~50 V, and so ori can be provided.

of wire should now be adjusted until the pointer indicates ·1· rnA. When this is done, this length of wire forms the 100 rnA shunt. The battery must be disconnected each time the length of wire is altered, in this instance, to avoid passing 10 mA through the 1 mA meter. ObmsRange The circuit: for this is shown in Fig. 2. The limiting resistor is used solely to prevent a high current passing through the meter if the variable resistor should be turned to zero. Its value is such that with the variable resistor set at about midway position, the meter pointer moves to the full-scale position. With a 4! V dry battery, values of 4,000 ohms and 1,000 ohms would be suitable for limiting resistor and variable resistor respectively. When the two leads are connected to' a resistor of unknown value, the current flowing in the circuit will be reduced. This causes the meter pointer to fall back. From the reading, the value of the resistor- being tested can be found by Ohm's Law. This Law is as meter' follows:. Voltage Resistance = Ciii'reiit The current is in arnps., and 1,000 mA .equal 1 amp. It will be seen that this Law has already been employed to find the value of the resistors for various ranges. The constructor may work out the current flowing when resistors are presumed to be wired in circuit. The values of resistances may then be marked at the appropriate points on the scale. (This has already been done in the completed meter scale given.)
Completed Test-meter



Fig. 4-The scale for the T-range For normal radio and.similar testing, three voltage ranges are suitable, from 0-10 V, 0-100 V, and 0-500 V. There is, however, no reason why other ranges should not be provided, as explained, CWTelItRanges Higher current ranges may 'be obtained by wiring a resistor in parallel with the meter. This is termed a 'shunt', as shown in Fig. 1. Such shunts have to be of very low resistance, and are best made from short lengths of resistance wire, wound on a strip of insulating material. . With the 1 mA meter, shunts for lOrnA and 100 mA will be convenient .: These may be found from the meter itself. The circuit in Fig. 2 should be wired up,and the variable resistor adjusted until the meter shows exactly 1 mA. ~ length of resistance wire is now connected across the meter terminals. This causes the pointer to fall back, and the length of wire in circuit is adjusted until the pointer indicates ·1 mAo This length of wire is the 10 mA shunt, and it can be wound up as mentioned. When it is connected, the full-scale deflection of the pointer will be 10 rnA; with all other readings in proportion. (E.g" ·2 mA becomes 2 rnA; ·3 rnA, 3 mA, and so on.) . To make the 100 mA shunt, connect the 10 mA shunt and increase the voltage of the battery until the meter again indicates full-scale. Disconnect the battery, then the 10 rnA shunt. Connect a much shorter length of resistance wire across the meter, and reconnect the battery. The new length

The three types of circuit mentioned may be employed together to make up a multi-range meter, as shown in Fig. 3. The negative terminal should go to a black flexible lead equipped with clip or test prod. The positive lead is taken to 'Ohms', 'Volts' or 'Current' terminals according to whether ohms, volts, or currents are to be read.. When measuring currents, the 100 rnA shunt/is connected in one position of the switch, and the lOrnA shunt in the second. In the third position, no shunt

is connected, so that the 1 inA meter works alone. When volts are being tested, 10K (10,00.0 ohms), 100 K (100,000 ohms) and 500 K (500,000 'ohms or ·5 megohms) resistors are connected, according to the position of the switch. In addition, there is an ohms ranglll obtained by connecting to tbe ohms terminal. This provides seven ranges in all-O-l rnA, 0-10 mA, 0-100 rnA, 0-10 V, 0-100 V, and 0-500 V, plus ohms from zero' to about 250,000. A completed scale for this instrument is shown in Fig. 4. This may be kept for reference, or copied in a suitable size on the meter dial. Other Points The ranges obtained with such circuits are ~for direct current only. However, this fulfils most radio and similar test requirements where only D.C. voltages and currents need be ascertained. If A.C. is to be tested, an instrument rectifier has to be added in the circuit, and this is rather outside the scope of the present tester .• Though Fig. 3 gives values for a 1 rnA meter, meters of other deflections may be used the manner explained. The resistor values must be those particularly required for the meter, however. and the ohms range will be different, So the constructor should use a I mA instrument, unless he is prepared to work. out his own ohms scale. All connections should be good if reliable results are to be obtained. Excess current should never be passed through any meter, such as to take the pointer beyond full-scale deflection, or the windings may be damaged. Finally, the resistors used for the voltage ranges should be close-tolerance types, accurate to 1 per Cent or 2 per cent. Normal radio resistors are only accurate to 10 per cent or 25 per cent and this degree of inaccuracy could exist in tbe voltage readings, if they were used. Various manufacturers produce close- tolerance resistors. Theoretically, the internal resistance of the meter should be deducted from the resistance values, but . this only need be bothered with if the meter has a high internal resistance (over 100 ohms) and very low voltage ranges are wanted. In ordinary cases, any error introduced from this cause is not likely to exceed I per cent on ranges of 10 V, and less on higher ranges. (F.O.R.)


There is still time to enter Hobbies Grand Fretwork Competition for which prizes valued at over £100 are being awarded.·The dosing date is April 30th. For free details, write to the Editor, Hobbies Weekly, Dereham, Norfolk.





How You can Identify Plastics
HERE are probably as many kinds of plastic as there are kinds of wood, so it is no use regarding plastic as one kind of material with definite characteristics. Some plastics are soft and flexible, others are hard and rigid, while some soften and harden with differences in temperature. In many cases it is not necessary to know what an actual plastic article is made of. but there is an exception when the borne worker wants to make something from transparent plastic. Of the common transparent plastics there are three which may be confused. The oldest one is cellulose nitrate, which is generally known as 'celluloid'. The non-inflammable form of this is cellulose acetate, often spoken of as 'acetate' sheet. The third one is acrylic resin. The British form .of this is called


'Perspex'. Names for the same material in other parts of the world are 'Plexiglass' and 'Lucite'. To a casual glance these three- trans'parent plastics look the same, yet there are many' jobs where it would not be satisfactory to use the wrong one. Celluloid is very inflammable and tends to yellow with age. Acetate has a greater resistance to burning and does not discolour so readily. Both suffer from a slight shrinkage with time. Perspex is more glass-like and not as flexible as the other two. It does not shrink and remains clear. However, it is comparatively brittle and one of the others will last Longer if the, panel has to withstand flying stones. If the edge of a sheet of Perspex is examined it will not show any colour. Celluloid or acetate sheet may show a

slight tinge of pink, green or blue as the edge is manipulated for the light to strike across it. If a piece of Perspex is held up and tapped, it will give a ringing' note. The note of the other two will be dull. The only positive way to identify the three plastics is by trying to burn them. Celluloid will burn violently. Acetate will not ignite as easily and when it burns the flame will be smoky. The flame will not propagate downwards-c. if a burning piece is held with the flame upwards, the burning pieces will fall away and the flame will soon die out. There may be a slight smell of vinegar when the flame is extinguished. Perspex burns more readily than acetate. The flame is clear and smokeless and will propagate downwards.

Wall Plaques
(Continued/rom page 372) trimming is done with a smooth file, glasspaper, and the application of metal polish. The glass is then- cemented to the surround. using Durofix if the surround is wood or Tenso! cement if Perspex has been used for the surround. When dry the v-shaped gap between the glass and the surround is filled in. This can be done with putty, plastic wood or alabastine, Putty is, perhaps, the best, and it should be applied a little at a time. A roU about -kin.diameter and ljn. long is made and fed into the groove. This is continued until the whole gap is filled, and then it, is faired into both the glass and surround by using a knitting needle. If desired the putty can be mixed with oil colour prior to its application to produce added attractiveness. Fig. 5 shows the surround ring in between the completed picture and the final backing. The latter, which is made from very stout cardboard or ply to the outside diameter of the surround' ring, and incorporates a picture-hanger ring, is not cemented flush with the back of the surround until the back has been filled with plaster of paris. First of all, the cardboard backing to the picture is given a thick coat of quick-setting cement and, when dry, a mixture of plaster is applied as shown in Fig. 6. ., The plaster should be mixed with cold water, a little at a time, until the resulting mixture is the consistency of thick cream. Incidentally it is not strictly necessary to use plaster .of paris.


Fig. 6 Ordinary decorator's plaster will suffice, since it will be covered over later. The mixture is applied a spoonful at a time and is smoothed out with the bowl of the spoon. Gentle patting of the plaster as it' builds up will remove' air bubbles and will result in a tougher job' at the end. (G.A.)


HEL'L CRAFT. Beautiful ormer shells, Mothor-of-pearl both sides, Sample doz. 4/-. Also good mixture small sea shells. 5/- Ib.Payne, Braye Rd., Ajderney, C.1. TAMPS, free, catalogue over 2/6 to genuine apJ'licants for approval s. Send 3td. post.age.Roy, 37 Lyndon Road, Olton, Birmingham. bRTUGUESE Guinea insects. Another beautifully coloured set offered free to approval applicants enclosing postage.YUlwontmor Stamps (Dept. H3), 175 Priory Road, SI. Denys, Southamptcn. ARQUETRY veneer Mveneers 10/-,0 Sample lOO varieties ' stock, bargain, 2Q named packet unnamed 216. - Kirby, Veneers,




A GRAND BOOK FOR ALL THE FAMILY. Th" "Kayle. Year Book of Bright Id.... ". A reaUy helpful ~uide to home planning, deeeraelen, Hobbles, toys, etc. Showing famous Kaylee Transfers in brjlliant eolcurs, and mO$'t uses, From "Hobbies" stocklsrs, _ or direct. KAYLEE TRANSFERS Po".g.3d. LTD., (HW) Long Eaton, Nottlnrham.



FREE British Colonial s, Request appro. vats. 2td. postage.-Worldwide Stamps, 16{CulverIRoad, Leicester.


GIENTIFIC magic using 9d. P.O.-Box No.9, Derebam, Norfolk.


simple chemicals. Hobbies W•• kly,

UND RAISERS-Club badges, sample 2/6.. Bernard, 81 Abbotsbury Way, Ham Bstate, Plymouth. . REE. stamp' to applicants for approvals, Postage appreciated.-Kenworth Approvals, 23 St. Lawrence Terr., Pudsey, Nr. Leeds, Yorks. LYWOOD offcut" Assorted roymaking, etc, Parcels at plus 9d, to wards po.lage.-Green, Live,rpooJ,6.



RACTICAL COURSES, subjects, PBritish Cours cs ,American. Books, all London, and Bargain List.Practical 28 Dean Road, ' TAMPS FREE.-Empire Packet including Pictorial, and Victorians with approval.s.Robert!. Peck, 7A Kemp Road, Bournemouth:



322 Denman

St., Nottingham.


DIFFERENT stamps free, witb illustrated price list. Request approvals.-Box No.8, Hobbles Weekly, Dereham, Norfolk.


sizes, suitable 10/- C.W.O., 8 Shaw St., •


BRIT. EMP. free wilh approvals. Bonus scheme. 2Id.· postage. England, 5 Greystones Drive, Sheffield.

ODELS. You can make lasting stone-hard models with Sankey's Pyruma Plastic Cement. Supplied in tins by Ironmongers, Hardwaremen and Builders' Merchants. Ask for instruction leaflet. UPLEX Self-adhesive Transfers for decorating fancy $_oods, trays, plastics, etc. List and samples 3d.-H. Axon.Harrison, Jersey. HOUSE fittings and papers. Send DOLL'S for list. Doll's House plan, 88 Ware S.A.E. special-> send 2/6, Trade supplied.-Zimplan, Road, Hoddesdon. Oy CASTING MOULDS. Soldiers, sailors, airmen, etc. 1,000 varieties from 31~ each, Rubber moulding ccmpound for flexible moulds, granulated ready for use, 8/6 per lb. Aluminium moulds for plaster work. S.A.E. for Iist, Catalogue 9d,-F. W. Nuthall, 69 St. 'Marks Road. Banwell.London, W.7.


DIFFERENT stamps free, td. upwards approvals.-Bush, 939 Christchurch Road, Bournemouth.



OPPER WIRES, enamelled, tinned, cotton, silk covered. B.A. screws, nuts; washers. Stamp for Iist.-P.R.S., 33 Bourne Gardens, London, EA. ' MllRICAN MAGAZINE Subscriptions. On. year Popular Mechanics, 32/·. Popular Science" 28/1;. Homecraftsman, 16/6. Popular Homecraft, 18/-. Dellagram,. 9/·. Free hooklet quotmg others. - Willen Ltd. (Dept. 57), 10J Fleet Street, London, 1l,C.4. LOSSY Fluorescent pafnt-e-Glo-gloss high gloss lacquer. Five brilliant colours-yellow, orange, red, magenta, green. For brushing; sprayio.g and dipping , No varnishing required. 2/6 per bottle, 3d. postage. Trade enquiries invited.c=Atlas, 57a Deobigh St., London, S.W.I.


TAMPS FREE!! Twenty unused G. H. Barnett, Limington. Somerset.



fl.2 Bay View, Craigavon,


25 a peIUQI upwards.-Jeffreys, Port Talbot.

lugg.age luggage, lamp shades, an decoration. CONTINENTAL collection labels,d for Schienke, Colourful. 3/6 doz. Send P.O, to-G. 191 St. Luke's Rd., Edgbaslon.,' Birmingham, 5. ONJURING. Illustrated catalogue of magic 6d.-De Hernpsey, 363 Sandycombe, Kew Gardens, Surrey.







TtJl!leemplere outfit (or deanine and repairLnr. Comprise.5: Illustrated explanatory bookre_t" • eye,l:ust tweeters, screwdrivers, oil, dustin,. ,poy.rde,., aile.iS, also mu:!li~rated catalogue, to~ls an d mate rials. Poswre all d pac/.c;mg 6d. eAtra Pnce,




(Made in Sweden)

Complete ou.flt include. explanahas additionally luminous comtory booklet, touchstone, acid pounds, jeweller'S rouge, boeeles, o8y.,lu'l u!:s-,ti.n, liIia.l'b,rusn.jewels Price .. file, tweezers Price P.'tag. and paoki"g 6d. ext,a Po>!o,. and packing oxW Money bac:k guarantee C.O.D. ;f rrtqu;red BOLSTER INSTRUMENT CO. (Dept. HW.ll) 10, Wathead Chambers, George Street. Staines, Hiddx.


One Valve K1t, Price 15/-.
SupplierS (or ever

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18 yetl,. of Rodio S.W. Receive,,.

Two Valve Kit, Price 501-

lmproved de:si,ns: wleh Denco ccus. All 'kitS compleee wit~ a~1component.'5. accesso des in d f ... 1j nsrr IJ eetens. Bela re 0 rderl n g. ca II and I n;pe.ct a d em 0 n... 1 seraelon rec:elvlr, or send st'ampe.d addressed envelope fol' descrtpclve

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in r2 days or money back. New gra.nd and spinal d isco'Very increases height 1 to 5 inche •• 'I have gained 4t inches in height. My weight incr .... d from 9-"ono oI-lb. to IO-,wn. 3,-lb.'-P.D. 'Incr ..... d l ind.,'.H,G. Guaranteed h.rml .... Full course 10/- (or $1.50). Air Mail H/3. Daeails ltd. Sent under ecver-, J. H MOR.LEY, 28 (H/l30)D ... n Rd., L,ondon, N~W.l, Practical Courses, aU subjects. List free.


Fascinating. clean. well paid ~

Hobbies range of Ship Model, includes Elizabeth [onas CuCty Sack, Victory, Mayflower. etc. Complete kits of wood. sail material, guns. puHeys, cord. etc. with futl-size patterns of p-aru and planed wood ready to CUt OUt, shape and eonseruct, A fascinating pastime .. Kits for models 7ins. 'ong and upwards. Ask for free illustrated lists at Hobbies Branch ... o,."om Hobbies Limited, Dept. 99, Dereham, Norfolk.


Men and women wanted to make Bennett Model Bungalows at Home.
No •• III"C involved. Send 5'tamped (Jddres~e4 envelope for fu.O details4 BENNETT MODELS, Ric.hmond, S.. rr.,


dye you should write to George T. Gurr Ltd., 136/138 New King's Rd., London, S.W.6, specifying that the colours required should be amyl acetate soluble. Coloured Perspex may also be obtained cut to buyer's sizes from Henry Moat & Son Ltd., Atom Works, Newcastle, 1.

Renovating a Table
HAVE a dining-room table which has . frequently been wed for ironing, with the result that both stain and polish have been removed in several places, and the panelling on top 0/ the table has blistered. Can you tell me how to remove the remaining polish and stain, remove the blisters and repolish it mid oak? (T.E.Oswestry).
REATMENT will depend on whether the table top is solid wood or veneered. If solid, remove old polish with a cabinet scraper, which should also reduce any swellings, etc., caused by ill usage. Glasspaper, then stain, grain fill if necessary, and french polish or coat with white hard spirit varnish. If the wood is veneered, remove old polish with Stripit varnish remover first, then


reduce the blisters by making a cross-cut across them, lifting the tips of the cut veneer and forcing a little tube glue beneath. Press Hat, cover with newspaper and weight or cramp- down. Finish with glasspaper, restain, and polish as above.

Painting a Sink White
a good white enamel paint on it, so that it will look better with the white tiles 1 have put round it. I have not been very successful as it soon comes off. Can you advise me as to a good paint or undercoat, or a method by which I could remedy this? (J.H.-New Brimington).
OU should apply a priming coat to the sink of white lead paint, with a little red lead mixed in. On this, put three coats of the white lead paint, rubbing each coat 'down when dry. A final coat of Aspinall's bath enamel should make a good finish. ditionalt flux for ferrous metals, copper and brass where the flux can be 'neutralised' by washing off after the joint has been completed. Ammonium chloride is also an excellent 'basic', flux for ferrous metals, coppers and brasses. Rosin or tallow is the 'workshop' flux for lead. Modern fluxes have tended to adopt rosin as a base foe all types of fluxesthe natural resin being 'activated' by the addition of other powerful fluxing agents to produce better 'wetting', etc. Essentially all rosin fluxes are non-corrosive as regards the, resid ue left after making the joint, whether of the 'plain' or 'activated'type. Several other types of fluxes have, however, been developed, most of which leave at least a mildly corrosive residue, but one which is soluble in" water and can be removed by washing. Such fluxes have even been applied to soldered connections in electrical equipment, particularly as the water-soluble residues are much more easily removed than resin residues. Probably rosin-cored-solders are now used almost to the exclusion of all other types for electrical work, and for a large proportion of other soldering jobs as well. The flux content of a typical 'cored' solder is usually about 2 to 3 per cent of the total weight of the solder. Besides being a vaila ble in sta rrdard round and wire sizes, cored solders 'are also' manufactured in flat strip form, etc., or pre-forms for mass-production work. (R.H.W.)




TV! E have an old stone sink in our W house, and I have been trying to put


Colouring Perspex
T lIA VE some clear Perspex and desire 1to colour it with an' amber tint. Can you tell me how? (R. W.-Shoredilch).
HE Perspex may be surface coated to an amber tint by painting with a clear amber dope, Such dope may be made by diluting Durofix with an equal volume of amyl acetate and dissolving an amber synthetic dye therein. For the



Notes about Solders
(Continued/rom page 375)
tions in tin-lead soft solders the tin content is always specified first. The solidus temperature of 183 degrees C applicable to all tin-lead solders also means that all these soft solders have the same service temperature limit, i.e, all become plastic at 183 degrees C. and hence cannot be expected to maintain good mechanical joints at service temperatures approaching this value. In such cases, 'hard' or high melting point solders have to be used. Tin-antimony solders, for example, do not begin to melt until 235 degrees C, whilst tinlead-silver solders ba ve a still higher melting point at 305 degrees C. Silver solders, for even higher temp era tures, are usually silver-copper-zinc alloys. At the other end of the scale there are also some very useful low melting point alloys which can be used for soldering, some of which melt at a temperature lower than that of boiling water. With few exceptions, bismuth is one of the main alloying elements-other metals used in these fisible alloys being lead, cadmium and tin, Whilst a whole range of alloy compositions is, again, obviously possible, fusible, alloys are generally prepared in 'eutectic' proportions. That is, the proportions of the constituent elements is adjusted so that the resulting alloy has no plastic range but melts sharply at one definite temperature. . Wood's metal is probably .the best known of the low melting point of socalled fusible alloys, being a eutectic alloy of bismuth, lead, tin and cadmium. Its melting point is 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.) or appreciably below that of boiling water, It is, perhaps, best known as the metal from which 'joke' spoons can be cast-s-metal spoons which melt when used to stir a cup of hot tea or coffee. Wood's metal, however, is also a good solder with all types of flux, Quite a number of other fusible alloys within this range are also good solders, used with all types of fluxes or, in some cases, with 'active' fluxes for best results. Table III summarises, some typical data .. The specific advantage of such low-temperature solders is the small amount of heat required to fuse them, They can, of course, only be used under conditions where the service temperature of the soldered component also remains low. Some figures relating to joint strength with brass specimens are given in Table IV, As regards fluxes, rosins have become almost a 'traditional' standard for the soldering of electrical components, being non-corrosive; with spirits of salts or 'killed' hydrochloric acid the 'tra380





~ '~._.r .. ~.. ~, ,~.





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Whethe r you area student for an exam inatlon, startt ng a new hobby, intent upon a career in industry or running your own businessthese Practical Courses are intended for YOU-and may be yours at Very Moderate Cost. With these instructions the subject thus give_n EASY TERMS FROM £1 A MONrH outfits, which you receive upon enrolment, you are given that bring you in easy stages, from the basic principles in concerned to advanced practical experiments. You are a fundamental knowledge of your subject :

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~ RADIO ,2 -Instruction

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Resin Glue

casein glue. It glues almost every thingwood to wood or wood to metal, plastic materials suches Formica and Warer;te, lin", cork, asbestoS',kardboard,elc.

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Mal r, D istri b ut o r s : Ch ar l cs

CI eev e . ~






The qedrS /f10sterpiece!

from 2~in.x 3fin. or 35 mm. negatives.


Expense need no longer deter you from buying an enlarger, With the Johnson Exactum Postcard Enlarger you can make postcard-size prints from, 2l:in. x 3;in. (box camera size) or 35 mrn., negatives. It is as simple to use as a contact printing frame. No focusing is required and there are no adjustments to make. Full instructions are enclosed. with each Enlarger.
• No. 1 No.2

2t x negatives to POSTCARD 35 mm. negatives to POSTCARD



/ .. "col>

MAKE BETTER PRINTS WITH JOHNSONS UNIVERSAL OEVElOPER Johnson Universal Developer ,is highly concentrated and contains Johnson '142' for preventing fog an~ stains, and !326! wetting agent ~Opromote-even development .. , Universal IS e~""lIem for deve,lol?ing both contact and "bromlde papers, producing a rich imase colour With a full range of tones. EuJl instrucriona accompany every bo u fe,. 225 c.c. (8 ••. )


21' ea<1l

570 c.c, (20 "".) ,;"04/6


:ltil'nd a,.'rd' :5 i aes ar-e, 4 Ru id



1Qfluid us.• I Gallon

Can •.









Print, ed" by B,.u.DIN" & M.w,'ln.r., L,'TD., [;,oodoo, and W.i,"bo,ch,' and, ,Publisbed ,for the Proprietors, HOSBlSS, LTD., by HOMO! M""SHALL & SON, LTD., T=ple House, Tallis Street, B.C.4. Sol" Agent> for A""trlilla and New zealand: Gordan & Gotch (jI.'.ia) Ltd. For South Africa: Central Nem . Agency Ltd. Registered for transmission by Canadian Magazine Pom.

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