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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON
HYDRODYNAMICS AND SOUND
Digitized by
*in
tine
Internet Arciiive
2007
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littp://www.arcliive.org/details/elementarytreatiOObassiala
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON
HYDRODYNAMICS AND SOUND
BY
A.
B.
BASSET, M.A, F.RS.
TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
SECOND
EDITION, REVISED
AND ENLARGED.
CAMBRIDGE DEIGHTON BELL AND
1900
[AU Rights
reserved,}
CO.
LONDON GEORGE BELL AND SONS
CatnfariligE
PBINTED BY
J,
AND
C.
F.
CLAY
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
PEBFACB.
npiHE
treatise
on Hydrodynamics, which
I
published in 1888,
are acquainted with
was intended for the use of those
who
its
the higher branches of mathematics, and
aim was
to present to
the reader as comprehensive an account of the whole subject as
was
passible.
But although a somewhat formidable battery of
artillery is indispensable
mathematical
to
those
who
desire
to
A
possess an exhaustive knowledge of any branch of mathematical
'X physics, yet there are a variety of interesting and important
VV investigations, not only in
Hydrodynamics but
also in Electricity
'^and other physical subjects, which are well within the reach of
"^every one who possesses a knowledge of the elements of the
Differential
^of
and Integral Calculus and the fundamental principles
I
Dynamics.
have accordingly, in the present work, abstained
'from introducing any of the more advanced methods of analysis,
such as Spherical Harmonics, Elliptic Functions and the like
and, as regards the dynamical portion of the subject, I
have
endeavoured to solve the various problems which present themselves,
by the aid of the Principles of Energy and Momentum, and
There are a few
have avoided the use of Lagrange's equations.
problems, such as the helicoidal steady motion and stability of a
solid of revolution
moving
in
an
infinite liquid,
which cannot be
;
conveniently treated without having recourse to moving axes
as the theory of moving axes
is
but
not an altogether easy branch of
Dynamics, I have as
far as possible abstained
from introducing
VI
PREFACE.
them, and the reader
axes
is
who
is
unacquainted with the use of moving
recommended to omit those sections in which they are
principally designed for those
employed.
The present work
is
who
are
reading for the Mathematical Tripos and for other examinations
in which an elementary knowledge of
is
Hydrodynamics and Sound
be of service to
required
;
but
T
also trust that it will not only
those
who have
neither the time nor the inclination to
become
conversant with the intricacies of the higher mathematics, but
that
it
will
also prepare the
way
for
the acquisition of more
elaborate knowledge, on the part of those
of devoting their attention to the
subjects.
who have an opportunity
more recondite portions of these
The
first part,
which relates
to
Hydrodynamics, has been taken
with certain alterations and additions from
my
larger treatise,
and
the analytical treatment has been simplified as
I
much
as possible.
have thought
it
advisable to devote a chapter to the discussion
of the motion of circular cylinders and spheres, in which the
equations of motion are obtained by the direct method of calculating the resultant pressure exerted
by the
liquid
upon the
solid
inasmuch as
this
method
is
far
more elementary, and does not
any further
necessitate the use of Green's Theorem, nor involve
knowledge of Dynamics on the part of the reader than the ordinary
equations of motion of a rigid body.
The methods
of this chapter
can also be employed to solve the analogous problem of deter
mining the
electrostatic
potential
of cylindrical
and spherical
conductors and accumulators, and the distribution of electricity
upon such
surfaces.
The theory of the motion
and the motion
of a solid
body and
is
the surrounding liquid, regarded as a single dynamical system,
explained in Chapter
III.,
of
an
elliptic cylinder in
an
infinite liquid,
and the motion
of a circular cylinder in a liquid
bounded by a
rigid plane are discussed at length.
The Chaptera on Waves and on
Rectilinear Vortex Motion
comprise the principal problems which admit of treatment by
elementary methods, and I have also included an investigation
PREFACE.
due
to
Vll
Lord Rayleigh, respecting one of the simpler cases of the
instability of fluid motion.
In the second part, which deals with the Theory of Sound,
I
have to acknowledge the great assistance which
classical
treatise.
I
have received
from Lord Rayleigh's
solution
strings,
This part contains the
of the
simpler problems respecting the vibrations of
gases.
membranes, wires and
A
few sections are also
for
devoted to the Thermodynamics of perfect gases, principally
the sake of supplementing Maxwell's treatise on Heat, by giving
a proof of some results which require the use of the Differential
Calculus.
The
present edition has been carefully revised throughout,
I have
and a certain amount of new matter has been added.
devoted Chapter IX. to the flexion and vibrations of naturally
straight wires
and rods
finite
I
;
whilst an entirely
new chapter has been
added on the
wires, in
deformation of naturally straight and curved
which
fairly
have discussed a variety of questions which
admit of
simple mathematical treatment.
Fledborough Hall,
HoLYPORT, Berks.
CONTENTS.
PAET
I.
HYDRODYNAMICS.
CHAPTER
I.
ON THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
ABT.
1.
2.
PAGE
Introduction
Definition of a fluid
1
3.
4. 5.
6.
7.
Lagrangian and flux methods Velocity and acceleration. The Lagrangian method
Kinematical theorems.
do.
...
. .
1
2 2 3
.
.
The
flux
method
The equation of continuity The velocity potential
Molecular rotation
4
5
8.
910.
11. 12.
Lines of flow and stream lines
.......
is
6 6 7
13.
14. 15. 16.
Earnshaw's and Stokes' current function The bounding surface Dynamical Theorem's
Proof of the Principle of Linear
8
9
Momentum
equal in
all directions
.
.
10 10
11
Pressure at every point of a fluid
The equations of motion
Another proof
is
1718.
19.
of the equations of
motion
of molecular rotation
if it
12
Pressure
a function of the density
satisfied
15
. .
20. 21.
Equations
by the components
15
Stokes' proof that a velocity potential always exists,
particular instant
exists at
any
16
22.
Physical distinction between rotational and irrotational motion
Integration of the equations of motion
.
.
17
18
23.
24. 25.
when a
velocity potential exists
.
Steady motion.
Bernoulli's theorem
18
Impulsive motion
20
21
26.
Flow and
circulation
X
ART.
27.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Cyclic
and
acyclic irrotational motion.
Circulation
is
independent of
22
the time
28.
29.
Velocity potential due to a source
do.
23
due to a doublet
due to a source in two dimensions due to a doublet in two dimensions
30.
31.
do. do.
.... ...
24
24
25
25 25
32.
33. 34.
Theory of images
Image Image
of a source in a plane of a doublet in a sphere,
whose axis passes through the centre of
26
is
the sphere
35. 36.
37.
Motion of a liquid surrounding a sphere, which TorriceUi's theorem The vena contracta
Giffard's injector
suddenly annihilated
27 29 30
31
38.
Examples
32
CHAPTER
II.
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES IN AN INFINITE LIQUID.
39.
Statement of problems to be solved
40.
41.
42.
43.
Boundary conditions for a cylinder moving in a liquid Velocity potential and current function due to the motion of a circular cyhnder in an infinite liquid Motion of a circular cylinder under the action of gravity Motion of a cylinder in a liquid, which is bounded by a concentric
cylindrical envelop
... ...
37 38
40
40
42
44.
Current function due to the motion of a cylinder, whose cross section is a lemniscate of Bernoulli
45. 46.
Motion of a liquid contained within an equilateral prism
do. do.
an
elliptic cylinder
47.
48. 49.
Conjugate functions
Current function due to the motion of an
Failure of solution
elliptic cylinder
... ... ...
.
43 44 45
45 46 47
when the
elliptic cylinder
degenerates into a lamina.
50. 51. 52. 53. 54.
65.
Discontinuous motion Motion of a sphere under the action of gravity Motion may become unstable owing to the existence of a hollow . Definition of viscosity and its effect upon the motion of sphere Resistance experienced by a ship in moving through water Motion of a spherical pendulum, which is surrounded by liquid Motion of a spherical pendulum, when the liquid is contained within a
; . .
.
49
51
52
54
54
55
rigid spherical envelop
Examples
57
CONTENTS.
XI
CHAPTER
III.
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID IN AN INFINITE LIQUID.
ABT.
PAGE
Different
methods of solving the problem 57. Bertrand's theorem 58. Green's theorem 5963. Applications of Green's theorem 64. Conditions which the velocity potential must satisfy Kinetic energy of liquid is a homogeneous quadratic function of the 65. velocities of the moving solid 66. Values of the components of momentum Short proof of the expressions for the kinetic energy and momentum 67. 68. Motion of a sphere 6971. Motion of an elliptic cylinder under the action of no forces Motion of an elliptic cylinder under the action of gravity 72. Helicoidal steady motion of a solid of revolution 73.
56.
61 62 63 64
....
66 67 68 70
71
72
.
74.
76.
Conditions of stability
Application to gunnery
7678.
Motion Examples
of a circular cylinder parallel to a plane
.... ....
.
.
77
78 80
81 81 85
CHAPTER
WAVES.
79.
IV.
Kinematics of wavemotion
.........
two liquids
87
80.
Progressive waves and stationary waves
81.
Conditions of the problem of wavemotion
8284. 8687. 8891.
92.
Waves Waves
Stable
in a liquid under the action of gravity
at the surface of separation of
...... ....
89
90
...
91 93 95
and unstable motion
in shallow water
Long waves
99
100
101 103
93.
94. 95. 96.
97.
Analytical theory of long waves
Stationary waves in flowing water
Theory
of
group velocity
Capillarity
Capillary waves
—conditions
at the free surface
.....
103 104
105 105
98.
99.
Capillary waves under the action of gravity
Discussion of results
Capillary waves produced by wind
100.
106
Examples
108
Xll
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
ABT.
101.
V.
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
PAGE
Vortex motion in two dimensions
Definition of vorticity
Ill
102.
103. 104.
112
Velocity due to a single vortex Velocity potential due to a vortex
113 114
114
115
105. 106.
107. 108. 109.
Conditions which the pressure must satisfy
Kirchhoff's elliptic vortex
Discussion on the stability of a vortex
117
110.
111.
Motion Motion Motion Motion
of two vortices of equal vorticities
of
118
vorticities
. .
.
two vortices
of a vortex in
and opposite a square comer
of equal
118 119 120
121
of a vortex inside a circular cylinder
112.
113. 114.
Rankine's free spiral vortex
Fundamental properties
Proof that the vorticity
of vortex motion
is
an absolute constant
....
122 124
125
Examples
PAET
CHAPTER
II.
THEORY OF SOUND.
VI.
INTRODUCTION.
115. 116.
Noises and musical notes
constants of a wave
.
.
131
Connection between the characteristics of a note and the geometrical
Velocity of propagation of sound in gases and liquids
117.
....
132
132 132 132
118.
119.
120. 121.
Intensity
Pitch
Compound
Timbre
Beats
notes and pure tones
133
134
134
122.
CHAPTER
VII.
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
123.
124. 125.
Transverse and longitudinal vibrations
136
137
Equation of motion for transverse vibrations Solution for a string whose ends are fixed
Initial conditions
138
139
126.
CONTENTS.
ART.
127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132.
Xlll
PAGE
Motion produced by a given displacement Motion produced by an impulse applied at a point Motion produced by a periodic force Free vibrations gradually die away on account of friction
Forced vibrations
....
.
140
141
142
. .
143
Normal
coordinates.
Kinetic and potential energy
....
144 144 145 146
147 148 149
133. 134. 135.
Longitudinal vibrations
Transverse vibrations of membranes
Nodal
lines of a square
membrane
136.
membrane Examples
Circular
CHAPTER
VIII.
FLEXION OF WIRES.
137. 138. 139.
140. 141.
Equations of equilibrium of a wire Value of the flexural couple
Conditions to be satisfied at the ends
151
152 153
The
elastica
154
Kirchhofif's kinetic
analogue
156 156 159 161 161 162
free end,
142—143.
144. 145. 146.
Stability
under thrust
Greatest height consistent with stability
Equations of motion of a wire
Equation of motion
wire
for the flexural vibrations of a naturally straight
147.
148.
Conditions at a free end
Equation of motion and conditions at a
inertia is neglected
when
the rotatory
162 163
163 163 165
149. 150.
151. 152.
Period of an infinite wire
Flexural vibrations of a wire of given length
Period equations
Extensional vibrations
Examples
166
CHAPTER
IX.
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
153. 154. 155.
General equations of motion Value of the flexural couple Its components about two arbitrary axes are proportional to the
170
171
156.
157.
158. 159.
changes of curvature Value of the torsional couple Potential energy of a deformed wire
Torsional couple
is
173 175 176
is
constant
when
the wire
naturally straight
.
176
177
Integration of the equations of equilibrium of a naturally straight wire
.
XIV
ABT.
160.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Discussion of the three
first
integrals
.
.
.
.
.
.
178 178
161. 162. 163.
A
helix is a possible figure of equilibrium
Discussion of the terminal stresses
Stability of a naturally straight wire
165';
179
.
.
164
—
Equilibrium and stability
circle
under thrust and twist of a naturally straight wire which
180
181
is
deformed into a
166.
Vibrations of a circular ring
183
CHAPTER
X.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
167. 168. 169. 170.
171.
Fundamental equations
of the small vibrations of a gas
.
.
.
186
Displacement in a plane wave is perpendicular to the wave front Newton's value of the velocity of sound
.
187
188
189 191
Thermodynamics of gases The second law of Thermodynamics
Specific heats of a gas Specific heats of air
172. 173.
174. 175. 176. 177.
192
192
.
Equations of the adiabatic and isothermal lines of a perfect gas
Elasticity of a perfect gas
193
194
195
Velocity of sound in air
Intensity of sound
195
CHAPTER
XI.
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
178.
Motion
in a closed vessel
179
— 181.
197
182.
Motion in a cylindrical pipe Reflection and refraction
197
199
183.
184.
Change
of phase,
when
reflection is total
202 203 204
Spherical waves
185.
Symmetrical waves in a spherical envelop
186. 187. 188. 189.
190.
Waves
in a conical pipe
205
205 205
Sources of sound
Diametral vibrations
Motion
of a spherical
pendulum surrounded by
air
Scattering of a sound wave by a small rigid sphere
....
206
208 210
Examples
PAET
I.
HYDEODYNAMICS.
CHAPTER
I.
ON THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
1.
The
object of the science of
of fluids.
Hydrodynamics
fluids
is
to
in
vestigate
the motion
All
with which
or
we
are
acquainted
fluids
may
be divided into two
classes, viz. incompressible
or
liquids,
and compressible
fluids
gases.
It
must
however be recollected that all liquids experience a slight compression, when submitted to a sufficiently large pressure, and
therefore in strictness a liquid cannot be regarded as an incompressible fluid
;
but inasmuch as the compression produced by
is
such pressures as ordinarily occur
very small, liquids
may be
usually treated as incompressible fluids without sensible error.
The
physical interest arising from the study of the motion of
gases, is
due to the
is
fact that air
is
the vehicle by means of
which sound
transmitted.
We
shall therefore devote the first
part of this volume to the
discussion of incompressible fluids
or liquids, reserving the discussion of gases for the second part,
which deals with the Theory of Sound.
We
2.
must now
define a fluid.
he defined to he
A
fluid
to
it
may
which yield
the slightest effort
made
is
an aggregation of molecules, to separate them from
incapable of sustaining any
of a
each other, if
he continued long enough.
is
A
will
is,
perfect fluid,
stress
one which
in
tangential
or action
the nature
shear;
and
it
§ 15 that the consequence of this property that the pressure at every point of a perfect fluid is equal
be shown in
in all directions,
whether the
fluid
be at rest or in motion.
A
perfect fluid
B.
is
however an entirely ideal substance, since
•
all fluids 1
H.
2
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
with which we are acquainted are capable of offering resistance
to tangential stress.
This property, which
is
known
as viscosity,
gives rise to an action in the nature of friction, by which kinetic
energy
is
gradually converted into heat.
In the case of gases, water and
of viscosity
is
many
other liquids, the effect
of viscosity very
so small that such fluids
fluids.
regarded as perfect
simplifies the
The neglect
may be approximately much
mathematical treatment of the subject, and in the
present treatise,
we
shall confine our attention to perfect fluids.
Before entering upon the dynamical portion of the subject,
it will
be convenient to investigate certain kinematical proposifor all fluids.
tions,
which are true
Kinematical Theorems.
3.
The motion
first
of a. fluid
may be
investigated by two different
methods, the
to Euler.
of which
is
called the
Lagrangian method, and
•
the second the Eulerian or flux method, although both are due
In the Lagrangian method, we
fix
our attention upon an
c of
element of
fluid,
and
follow its motion throughout its history.
b,
The
variables in this case are the initial coordinates a,
the
particular element
upon which we fix our attention, and the time. This method has been successfully employed in the solution of
very few problems.
In the Eulerian or flux method, we
particular point of the space occupied
fix
our attention upon a
fluid,
by the
in
and observe
are the
what
is
going on there.
The
variables
this
case
coordinates x, y, z of the particular point of space upon which
we
fix
our attention, and the time.
Velocity
and
Acceleration.
4.
In forming expressions for the velocity and acceleration
it is
of a fluid,
necessary to carefully distinguish between the
Lagrangian and the flux method.
I.
The Lagrangian Method.
Let u, V, w be the component velocities parallel to fixed axes, of an element of fluid whose coordinates are w, y, z and x + hx, y V^y, z + Bz at times t and t + Bt respectively, then
u = dx/dt =x, v=y,
w=z
(1),
VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION.
where in forming
x, y,
3
z
we must suppose
6,
a;,
y,
z to be expressed
in terms of the initial coordinates a,
c
and the time.
The expressions
where
u, v,
for the
component accelerations are
fz
fx=u=x, fy^y,
=z
(2),
b,
w
are supposed to be expressed in terms of a,
c
and t
II.
5.
The Flux Method.
across
Let 8Q be the quantity of fluid which in time St flows any small area A, which passes through a fixed point P
;
in the fluid
velocity,
let
p be the density of the
fluid,
q
its
resultant
and e the angle which the direction of q makes with the normal to A drawn towards the direction in which the
fluid flows.
Then ^Q = pqABt cose,
therefore
q
is
= —. pA
7
cos
e
at
upon a plane passing through P perpendicular to the direction of motion of the fluid hence 8Q is independent of the direction of the area, and is the same for all areas whose projections upon the abovementioned plane are equal. Hence the velocity is equal to the rate per unit of area divided by the density, at which fluid flows across a plane
the projection of
perpendicular to
its direction
is
Now A cos 6
A
of motion.
The
velocity
therefore a function of the position of
P and
the time.
In the present treatise the flux method
sively be employed.
will
almost excluy, z, t)
t
;
We may
therefore put
u x
= F {x,
whence
(^> z),
if
u + hu be the
velocity parallel to
t
at time
+ 8t
of
the element of fluid which at time
2/.
was situated at the point
t
Su=F{x + u8t,
,.
y + vBt, z
Bu
+ w8t,
du
+ 8t)F{x,y,z,t).
du
du
dz
Therefore the acceleration,
du
f^
= ^''^Tt= dt^^'Tx^'dy''''
denotes the operator
djdt
Hence
if djdt
+ ud/dx + vdjdy + wdjdz,
the component accelerations will be given by the equations
J^^'
fydi' J'~
dt
^
''
1—2
4
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
The Equation of GontirMity.
6.
If
an imaginary fixed closed surface be described
of
in a fluid,
the difference between the amounts of fluid which flow in and
flow out during a small interval
time
ht,
must be equal
to
the increase in the amount of fluid during the same interval,
which the surface contains.
The
of
analytical expression for this fact
is
called the equation
continuity.
z
oy^
A y
'
A
£
Let
Q
be any point
{x,
y, z),
and consider an elementary
parallelepiped hxhyhz.
The amount
time
ht is
of fluid
which flows
puhyhzht.
in across the face
GB
in
The amount which
flows out across the opposite face
AD m
puBySzSt
+ j~
(pu) SwSySzSt,
faces
whence the gain of
fluid
due to the fluxes across the
GB,
AD
is
— J (pu) SxByBzSt.
Treating the other faces in a precisely similar manner,
follows that the total gain is
it
EQUATION OF CONTINUITY.
The amount
of fluid within the element at time
if
5
t is
pSxBySz,
and therefore the amount at time
(/3
+ SHs
SxSySz.
+
^
S^j
The gain
is
therefore
j^SwSySzSt
Equating
this to (4)
we obtain the equation
d
^
dp
^
dt
d (pu) dx
(pv)
^
d (pw) ^
dz
dy
^
This equation
is
called the equation of continuity.
is
In the case of a liquid, p
constant,
and
(5) takes the simple
form
du dx
dv
dw _
dz
,
.
dy
We
liquid
shall
hereafter require the equation of continuity of a
referred to polar coordinates.
This
may be
obtained in
a similar manner by considering a polar element of volume
r^ sin
OSrBdBco, and
it
can be shown that
r, 6,
if u, v,
w
be the velocities
in the directions in
.
which
a
increase, the required equation is
sm^*
If
cr, 6,
^d(r'^u)
\ +r ^—j^ dr dd
('STu)
d(vsin6)
^
—+
dw
rj~
dco
dw
=
„
,u,s
(7).
z be cylindrical coordinates, the equation
is
.„.
d
dv
_
The Velocity Potential.
7. In a large and important class of problems, the quantity X/? udx + vdy + wdz is a perfect differential of a function of x, y, z which we shall call ^ when this is the case, we shall have
;
^
udx + vdy + wdz = d^,
whence
,
d(b
u=r, dx
v
— ^, w=
dy
u, v,
d(b
dd) ^
,„s
dz
\^)
Substituting these values of
d,'i
w
in (6)
we
obtain
^f.4t = o
da
().
or as
it is
usually written
V20
=O
6
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
This equation
is
called Laplace's equation,
from the
name
of
its
discoverer
;
it is
a very important equation, which continually
occurs in a variety of branches of physics.
called Laplace's operator.
The operator V^
is
We
when
can
now
obtain the transformation of Laplace's equation
polar coordinates are employed.
For in
this case
udr + vrdd
+ wr sin Odw = d<f),
d(i)
whence
u
=
d(f)
1
,
~^
dr
v^Tn,
r do
w=
r
— —d dw ^rsm
1
d(f>
.
(11).
Substituting in (7) we obtain
— ^fsin^^^U1 ^0 (12) lf^.#U ^indddV de)^ ^inddw^^^^^^dr\ dr)^
The equation
potential
of continuity and
the theory of the velocity
may
therefore be employed to effect transformations,
which it would be very laborious to work out by the usual methods for the change of the independent variables.
8.
The existence
of a velocity potential involves the conditions
that each of the three quantities
dw
dy
should be zero
quantities
will
;
dv
du
'
dw
dx'
dv
dz
dz
dx
du dy
by
when such is not the case we shall denote these The quantities ^, 97, ^, for reasons which 2, Irj, 2^.
be explained hereafter, are called components of molecular
rotation, they evidently satisfy the equation
dx
dy
dz
is
When
tional
is
;
a velocity potential exists, the motion
called hrota
and when a velocity potential does not
exist,
the motion
called rotational or vortex motion.
Lines of Flow and Stream Lines.
Def. a line of flow is a line whose direction coincides 9. with the direction of the resultant velocity of the fluid.
The
differential equations of
a line of flow are
dx _dy _dz
u
V
w'
LINES OF
FLOW AND STREAM
^j
LINES.
7
Hence if %i(a;, y, z, t)=ai, x^(^> V^ independent integrals, the equations %i =
the equations of two
families
= «2
%2
be any two
const.,
= const.,
are
of surfaces
whose intersections
determine the lines of flow.
Def.
a
stream line or a line of motion,
fluid.
is
a line whose
direction coincides with the direction of the actual paths of the
elements of
The equations
of a stream line are determined
by the simul
taneous differential equations,
x=
where
x, y,
u,
y
= v,
z
= w,
t.
z must be regarded as unknown functions of
The
integration of these equations will determine x, y, z in terms of
the initial coordinates and the time.
10.
When
a velocity potential exists, the equation
udx + vdy + wdz =
is
the equation of a family of surfaces, at every point of which the
velocity potential has a definite constant value,
called surfaces of equivelocity potential.
and which may be
If
P
a,t
be any point on the surface,
element of the normal at
(f)
F
= const., and dn be an which meets the neighbouring surface
</>
+ 8(f)
Q, the velocity at
P
hence
dcj)
must be
positive,
along PQ, will be equal to dcp/dn and therefore a fluid always flows
;
from places of lower to places of higher velocity potential.
The
lines of flow evidently cut the surfaces of equivelocity
potential at right angles.
11.
plified
The solution of hydrodynamical problems is much simby the use of the velocity potential (whenever one exists),
enables us to express the velocities in terms of a single
</>.
since
it
function
But when a
is
velocity potential does not exist, this
cannot in general be done, unless the motion either takes place
in
two dimensions, or
In the case of a
symmetrical with respect to an
axis.
liquid, if the
motion takes place in planes
parallel to the plane of xy, the equation of the lines of flow is
udy
— vdx =
is
(13).
The equation
of continuity
du dx
dv
_^
'
dy
8
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
is
which shows that the lefthand side of (13) ential d^lr, whence
a perfect differ
"=? ^t
The
function
yfr
(1*)
is
called
Eamshaw's current
function.
When
axis of
z,
the motion takes place in planes passing through the
the equation of the lines of flow
may be
written
(15),
m{wdnT — udz) =
where
iir,
z are cylindrical coordinates.
By
(8) the equation of continuity is
d (tsu)
dw
dz
is
aw
which shows that the lefthand side of (15) dyjr, whence
~w= Idf d'ST
or
,
a perfect differential
u
=
Idylr

tjj
dz
,
(IG).
The
function
i/r
is
called Stokes' current function.
The Bounding Surface.
12.
Besides the equations which must be satisfied within the
interior of a fluid, it is necessary that certain other conditions
should be satisfied at the boundary, which depend upon the
special
problem under consideration.
is
whose equation referred the normal velocity of the fluid at the surface, must be equal to the normal velocity of the surface; hence the sheet of fluid of which the boundary is composed, must always consist of the same elements of fluid.
If the fluid
surface,
bounded by a
is
to axes fixed in space
F{x,
y, z, t)
= 0,
Hence
F{xiruht, y
and therefore
,^,
„
+ vZt, z + w8t, t+St) = dF + dF dF dF ^ '^ j^ + ^ ;t~ + '^ ^j" ~ ^ ";77 OjZ (to ay
cLoc
0,
.,^
y^'/
If the boundary
is fixed,
the condition becomes
(18),
lu
+ mv + nw =
where
I,
m, n are the direction cosines of the normal to F.
DYNAMICAL THEOREMS.
Dynamical Theorems.
13.
Before proceeding to discuss the equations of motion of a
it
perfect fluid,
will
be desirable to consider certain dynamical
theorems.
The
three
fundamental propositions of Dynamics are the
Principle of Linear
Momentum,
the Principle of Angular
MomenMomen
tum and
the Principle of Energy.
The
first
two propositions,
which may be conveniently referred tum, may be enunciated as follows
:
to as the Principle of
The rate of change of the component of the linear Tnomentum, to an axis, of any dynamical system is equal to the component, parallel to that axis, of the impressed forces which act upon
I.
parallel
the system.
II.
The rate of change of
the
tum about any
acds, is equal to the
component of the angular momenmoment of the impressed forces
about that axis.
The form
in
in mechanical investigations is
Principle of the that
:
which the Principle of Energy most usually occurs one which may be termed the Conservation of Mechanical Energy, which asserts
III.
If
the system, is not acted
upon by any
dissipative forces
{such as internal friction which converts mechanical energy into
heat), the
sum of
the kinetic
and potential
energies of the system is
constant throughout the motion.
Let
^,
X be the components
of the system along of the forces
of the linear and angular momenta and about auj fixed axis; X, L the components and couples which act upon the system. Then the
is
Principle of
Momentum
expressed by the two equations
d^jdt
If the
= X;
d\/dt
= L.
zero,
components of the
^=
force
and couple are
we obtain
by integration
const..
A,
= const.,
which shows that the components of the linear and angular momenta are constant throughout the motion. These results are called the Principles of the Conservation of Linear and Angular
Momentum.
10
14.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
For the proof of these theorems the reader is referred to Dynamics but it may be worth while to show that Principle of Linear Momentum is a direct consequence of the Newton's Laws of Motion.
treatises on
:
It is proved in treatises on
Mechanics that the parallelogram
of forces
is
a consequence of Newton's second law, and that the
is
parallelogram of couples
forces;
a consequence of the parallelogram of
whence
all
the theorems relating to the composition and
resolution of forces
law.
and couples are deductions from the second
ma be the masses of any two elements of a material coordinates referred to fixed z^), {x^, 3/2, z^ their axes let i^a be the molecular force of m^ on m^, and R^ of m^ on mg also let F^ be the force acting on mj which arises from causes which are independent of molecular action.
Let
wii,
system;
;
(x^, y^,
;
By Newton's
into
second law, the forces R^^ and
/12, ^12,
F^^
may
be resolved
K^ and X^, Fi, Z^ parallel to the axes; also by the same law the equations of motion of the elements are
components
= Xi +/12 +/13 + d (m^)/dt = X2 +/21 4/23 +
d
(nhxijldt
.
.
.
. . •
By Newton's third law, the molecular force of rn^ on nii is equal magnitude and opposite in direction to that of mj on m^; whence /"i2=— /21, &c. Accordingly if we add the preceding system of equations, all the molecular forces disappear, and we obtain
in
r
X {mil) = XX,
we have not assumed that
which
is
the analytical expression for the Principle of Linear
It should be noticed that
Momentum.
line joining
the molecular force between two elements of mass acts along the
them.
It should also be noticed that the Principle of
Momentum
;
is
a proposition of a
Principle of
more fundamental character than the since the the Conservation of Mechanical Energy
far
is
former proposition
true in the case of dissipative systems in
which there
15.
is
a conversion of mechanical energy into heat.
been already stated, that the pressure at every point of a perfect fluid is equal in all directions, whether the fluid
It has
EQUATIONS OF MOTION.
be at rest or in motion.
is
11
that this property
It will
now be shown
the consequence of such a fluid being incapable of offering
resistance to a tangential stress.
Let
A BCD
be a small tetrahedron of fluid, and
let p, p'
be the
pressures per unit of area upon the faces
let
ABC
and BOB.
Also
f be the linear momentum of the element along a fixed axis
parallel to
its
AD,
8v
its
volume,
and the force p per unit of mass parallel to AD.
density,
X
Since the projections of the
faces
ABC
and
BCD
upon a
plane perpendicular to
AD
are each equal to the
same quantity
BA,
it
follows that the equation of motion of the element is
f^pXBv(pp')SA = 0.
Now
if
X be the mean velocity
;
parallel to
AD of
any point of
the element, f = pxBv ultimately accordingly when the element is indefinitely diminished the first two terras vanish in comparison with the third, and the equation reduces to
p = p',
which
proves the proposition.
The Equations of Motion.
16.
The equations
of motion
of a
perfect fluid
may be
obtained by two different methods, which we shall proceed to
explain.
be the components per unit of mass of the impressed forces (such as gravity and the like), which act upon the fluid p the pressure, and p the density. Let X,
Y,
;
Z
Let
I 6)
Q
be any point of the
fluid,
whose coordinates are
x, y,
z;
and consider an elementary parallelepiped Bx, By, Bz (see figure to
whose edges are
Let
parallel to the axes.
fluid contained within
Bm
be the mass of an element of
component of its acceleration parallel to X, and Px the component parallel to x of the pressure due to the surrounding fluid upon the faces GB, AD.
this parallelepiped, fx the
Since the rate of change of the linear
momentum
parallel to
12
EQUATIONS OP MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
fluid
X of the
contained within the element
is
is
S {fx^m),
it
follows
that the equation of motion
S(/^Sm) = P^ + 2X^77*'.
(19).
Now
Px = p^y 8z — ip +
J
8x] 8y8z,
whence (19) becomes
%{Xfx)Bm^SxBySz =
Since the parallelopiped
the
first
is
(20).
term of
this equation
supposed to be indefinitely becomes in the limit
small,
(X /,) tSm = (X fa:) pSxSyBz,
and
therefore (20)
becomes
p^tpf'
In
all
<^i>
the applications which will occur,
/a; is
we
shall use the flux
method, in which case
written
given by (3); whence (21)
1
may be
„
dp _du
dt'
p dx
manner, we
Resolving parallel to y and z and proceeding in a similar shall obtain two other equations, which may be
cyclical interchange of the letters x, y,
;
deduced by
respectively
z,
and
u, v,
w
whence the equations
dx
of motion are
du' du du ^ 1 dp du X :T=Tr + w:j+^:r' + '^j~ dx
p
1
dt
dy
dv
dz
dv
^^
dp
dp
dv
dt
dv
p dy
dx
dy
dz }
(22).
„
1
dw
dt
dw
dx
dw
dy
dw
dz
p dz
It thus appears that
of a perfect fluid solely by
we can obtain the equations of motion means of Newton's laws of motion, and
without the aid of such adventitious devices as D'Alembert's
Principle.
17.
We shall now obtain the equations of motion by a different
will enable
method, which
us to express the Principle of Linear
Momentum
Let
in another form.
AFBQ
represent the
fluid,
which at time
t,
is
contained
EQUATIONS OF MOTION.
within any imaginary closed surface 8, described in the
the end of an interval
the line
Bt,
.
13
fluid.
At
the fluid will no longer be contained
is
within S, but will occupy a different position, which
shown by
ApBq
in the figure.
Let Mx,
M^ + ^Mg;,
of the original fluid at times
be the component momenta parallel to cc, t, t + Bt; X' and Fg. the components
forces,
parallel to x of the impressed boundary of the given mass of rounding fluid.
fluid
and the pressure upon the due to the action of the surobtain immediately
By
the Principle of Linear
Momentum we
the equation
f==^'+^'
Let
an,
•
w
ApBPA,
,
S/Ai,
M^^hM'X,
Sfii
be the component momenta parallel to
of the fluid which at time
t+
St
occupies the spaces
APBQ A
whence
and
and
AqBQA
JI4
;
then
BfjL,
+ BM^ = Mx + BM'a; + BM^ = BM'^ + S/Xj —
may be
written

Bfio
S/Xg,
therefore (23)
'w^'^^'^'
Now
dM'g;/dt
is
(^*)
the rate of increase of the component of
;
momentum parallel to x, of the fluid contained within S and dfi^jdt — dfii/dt is the rate at which momentum parallel to x, flows into 8. Whence (24) asserts that, The rate of increase of the component of momentum parallel to
X,
to the rate at
of the fluid contained within any given closed surface 8, is equal which momentum parallel to x flows into x across the
to X, is
boundary of 8, together with the rate at which momentum parallel generated by the component of the impressed force parallel
14
to
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
cc, and by the componevt parallel to x, of the pressure exerted by the surrounding fluid upon the boundary of S.
18.
momentum which
In order to apply this proposition, we must calculate the flows into a surface across its boundary.
D
MB
Let AB be any element dS of the surface, GA the direction of motion of the fluid, q its resultant velocity, and e the angle which
its
direction makes with the normal to dS drawn outwards. Through the perimeter of dS, describe a small cylinder, whose curved side contains the lines of flow which pass through the be the projection of dS upon a perimeter of dS; then if Hence the plane perpendicular to the lines of flow, BAM = e. total momentum which flows into 8 across the element dS in
AM
time
ht is
pqdS
where
q'
cos e
.
qht
=
pqq'dSSt
;
=
q cos
e,
is
the component velocity perpendicular to dS.
in
is
The component which flows into S,
any assigned direction of the momentum
found by multiplying this quantity by the
cosine of the angle between this direction and the direction of q and may therefore be written pq"q'dSBt, where q" is the velocity
in the given direction.
Applying
this to
an elementary parallelopiped
Bx, By, Bz,
we
see at once that
dfi,
_ djL, ^ _ d ipu^) ^ d (puv) _^ dipuw) g^g
)
\
g^_
dt
dt
\
dx
dy
dz
)
^
'
Also
w^dT
X'
for
^""^y^"'
= pXBxByBz,
is
whence the equation
^
motion parallel to x
~dx~
dt
dx
dy
dz
'
Performing the differentiations on the righthand side, and taking account of the equation of continuity, this equation reduces
to the first of (22).
MOLECULAR ROTATION.
19.
15
The equations of motion together with the equation of continuity, furnish four relations between the five unknown
quantities v,
v,
w, p, p\
and are therefore not
sufficient
to
determine the motion.
If however the fluid be a liquid, p is constant, and the abovementioned equations together with the boundary conditions are sufficient to determine the motion but in the case of a gas another equation is required, which is furnished by means of a
;
relation
which exists between
p
and
is
p.
When
the motion of the gas
such that the temperature
remains constant, we have by Boyle's
Law
the equation
(25),
P = kp
where
A;
is
a constant.
is such as to cause a sudden compression an increase or decrease of temperature will be produced and if it is assumed (as is the case with sound waves), that the compression is so sudden that loss or gain of heat by radiation may be neglected, it will be shown in the second part,
But when the motion
dilatation,
;
or
that the required relation
is
p=k'py
where 7
is
(26),
the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to
the specific heat at constant volume.
For
all
gases this quantity
has the approximately constant value 1*408.
20.
Let us now suppose that the forces arise from a conis
servative system whose potential
p,
V.
Since
p
is
a function of
we may put
J
P
and the lefthand sides of (22)
dQ/dy, dQ/dz.
the
If therefore
will
be respectively equal to dQ/dx,
differentiating
to
we eliminate Q by
respect
z
second
equation
with
and
^,
77,
the
third
with
respect to y, and introduce the values of
shall obtain
^ from
§ 8,
we
d^
f.du
dv
^,dw
^.f.
dr^Tx^^^d^^'^d^^^'
where
6
f,
77,
=
du/dx
+
f are the components of molecular rotation and Eliminating by means of the dv/dy + dw/dz.
equation of continuity dpjdt
+ p0 = 0,
and taking account of the
16
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
two other equations which may be written down from symmetry,
we
shall obtain
9 /\
dt \pJ
_^du
p dx
7)
dv
^ dw^
p dx
7)dv
p dx
^
9
dt
/7}\
_^du
~ pdy
dw
(27).
\p)
pdy
7}
> p dy
9 f^\
dt \pJ
_^ du
p dz
dv
^
dw
p dz
p dz
These equations may also be written in the form
p dx
dt \pJ
p dy
p dz
21.
It
was stated
is
in § 7, that in
many important
exists.
^,
r],
problems,
the motion
such that a velocity potential
is,
The
con
dition that such should be the case
vanish.
that
^ should each
We
shall
now prove
it
that,
when the
fluid is
under the
action of a conservative system of forces, a velocity potential will
always exist whenever
exists at
any particular
instant.
Let us choose the particular instant at which a velocity
potential exists, as the origin of the time
I,
7),
;
then by hypothesis
interior of the
^ vanish
in (27), will
fluid;
it
when ^ = not become
;
also the coefficients of these quantities
infinite at
any point of the
will
therefore be possible to determine a quantity L,
which
shall
be a superior limit to the numerical values of these
coefficients.
Hence
f,
tj,
^ cannot increase faster than
if
they
satisfied the
equation
1(f)
But
if
= f(^+'' +
^>'
*"•*"
^
+ v + ^= ^p, we
obtain by adding the above equations
whence
fl
= A^^\
4=0; and
is
Now n =
sum
follows that
^,
when
7),
t
= 0,
therefore
since fl
is
the
it
of three quantities each of which
essentially positive,
particular instant.
1
f must always remain zero, if they are so at any The above proof is due to Sir G. Stokes^
II,
"On
the friction of fluids in motion," Section
Trans. Camb, Phil. Soc.
vol, vui.
MOLECULAR ROTATION.
22.
17
There
is,
as
was
first
shown by Sir G. Stokes, an important
physical distinction in the character of the motion which takes
place, according as a velocity potential does or does not exist.
Conceive an indefinitely small spherical element of a fluid
in motion to
to
become suddenly
solidified,
and the
fluid
about
it
be suddenly destroyed. By the instantaneous solidification, velocities will be suddenly generated or destroyed in the different
portions of the element, and a set of mutual impulsive forces will
be called into action.
Let
X, y,
z be the coordinates of the centre of inertia
solidification,
let
ii,
G
of the
element at the instant of
of any other point
x
\ x' ,y } y' , z\ z'
those
P
in
it
;
v,
w
be the velocities of
u'
,
along
the three axes just before solidification,
relative to
v',
w
the velocities of
u^, Vi,
P
G\
also let u,
v,
w be
f,
the velocities of 0,
17,
w^ the
relative velocities of P,
after solidification.
and
all
^ the angular velocities just
Since
the impulsive forces are internal,
we have
u
= u,
V
= v, w = w.
We
have also by the Principle of Conservation of Angulai
Momentum,
tm [y' {Wi — w') — z' (vi — v')] = 0,
&c.
m denoting an element
But
Mj
of the
mass of the element considered.
= tiz' —
^y',
and
u' is ultimately equal to
,
du dx
du
f
du
dz
,
dy^
'
stituting in the above equation,
and similar expressions hold good for the other quantities. and observing that
Xmy'z'
Sub
= '^mz'x = Smx'y' = 0, and
^mxf^
'
=
%my'^ =
Sw/^
we have
^= i
see then that
fdw
(
dv\
dzj
dy
j
^
I
^c.
an indefinitely small spherical element of and detached from the rest of the fluid, will begin to move with a motion of translation alone, or a motion of translation combined with one of rotation, according as udx + vdy + wdz is, or is not, an exact differential, and in the latter case the angular velocities will be determined by the equations
the
fluid, if
We
suddenly
solidified
ay__dw
dy
B. H.
dv
dz'
_du
dz
dw ay_dv
dx'
du
dy'
2
dx
18
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
On
account of the physical meaning of the quantities
f,
j;,
^,
they are called the components of molecular rotation, and motion which is such that they do not vanish is called rotational or vortex
motion; when they vanish, the motion
is
called irrotational.
In the foregoing investigation,
pressure
is
it
has been assumed that the
is
a function of the density, and also that the fluid
;
under the action of a conservative system of forces it therefore follows that vortex motion cannot be produced and, if once set up, cannot be destroyed by such a system of forces. It can however be shown that the theorem is not true if the pressure is not a
function of the density.
If therefore
by reason of any chemical
action, the pressure should cease to be a function of the density
during any interval of time however short, vortex motion might
be produced, or
23.
if
in existence
might be destroyed.
The equations
of motion can be integrated whenever
;
a force and a velocity potential exist
for
putting
Q.mv.
and multiplying (22) by
obtain
dx, dy,
dz respectively and adding, we
dq=j^dx + ^^dy + ^^dz.
Now
in the present case
du
dt
_ du
dt
du dx
dv
dw
dx
dx
dx\dt +*?
where q
is
j'
the resultant velocity.
Integrating,
we
obtain
/7 + ''+f + 4«' = ^«
where
.^ is
(28),
an arbitrary function.
24. When the motion of a liquid is steady, du/dt, dv/dt and dw/dt are each zero, and in this case the general equations of motion can always be integrated. It will however be necessary
to distinguish
between irrotational and rotational motion.
STEADY MOTION.
In the former case d4>ldt
first
19
is
—
and
F (t)
constant
;
whence a
(29).
integral
is
p/p+V+^q'=G
This result, from the
name
of its discoverer,
is
called Bernoulli's
Theorem.
When
the motion
is rotational, let
R=p/p+V + ^q\
and the general equations of motion
may be
dR\
written
du
dv
^ ^

c,
t.
c
i,
dR
(30).
^2.^ + 2.^ = ^^
w= ^= = 0, and
7j
then none of the quantities are functions of z or t; whence substituting the values of u and v from (14) in terms of
(i)
;
Let the motion be steady and in two dimensions
^
we obtain
dx dx
(yjr),
'
dy
dy
'
which shows that 2^=F'
therefore
where jPis an arbitrary function; and
^+V+hq' + F{ylr) =
P
(31).
From
terms
is
these results
it
follows that the
sum
of the
first
three
constant along a stream line, but varies as
we
pass from
is
one stream line to another; also that the molecular rotation
constant along a stream
(ii)
line.
it
In the same way
can be shown that when the motion
axis,
is
symmetrical with respect to an
2(olzT
= F'{'f),
(32),
P+V+^q^ + F{ylr) =
r
where
eo is
the molecular rotation, and
yjr
is
Stokes' current function.
(iii)
In the general case of the steady motion of a liquid,
u, v,
multiply (30) by
w and dR
,
add and we obtain
dR
,
dR
Ia^O
»
''ibc^'^'d^'^'^lU^^ UjU U/vU
.„ov ^^^^'
2—2
20
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
Multiply by
^,
•»;,
^ and add, and
,
we obtain
^
fs+'dy+fSFO
;
dR
dR
dR
,
^ni\
(«*>•
These equations show that R is constant along a stream line and a vortex line whence it is possible to draw a family of surfaces each of which is covered with a network of stream lines and vortex lines. Let X, = const, be such a surface then since X contains stream lines and vortex lines, it follows that
;
u\x
+ v7^ + w\z = 0,
if
where \x
first
= dX/dx,
&c.
These equations show that
we write
R = — F(X)
equations (33) and (34) will be satisfied; whence a integral of the equations of motion is
P+V+^q' + F(X) =
where X
lines.
is
(35),
a surface which contains both stream
lines
and vortex
Impulsive Motion.
The equations which determine the change of motion when a fluid is acted upon by impulsive forces, may be deduced in manner similar to that employed in § 16.
25.
Let
u, V,
w
and
u', v',
w
be the velocities of the
;
fluid just
before and just after the impulse
p
the impulsive pressure.
Since impulsive forces are equal to the change of
momentum
which they produce,
parallelopiped
it
follows
by considering the motion of a small
ttx'^yhz,
that
p
iu'
— u) hxhyhz = phyhz —
ip
\ 
hx\ SySz,
whence the equations of impulsive motion are
.(36).
FLOW AND CIRCULATION.
Multiplying by dx, dy, dz and adding
21
we obtain
(37).
 dpjp = (u' u)dx + (v' v)dy + (w' w)dz
with respect to
of continuity,
In the case of a liquid p is constant, whence differentiating x, y, z, adding and taking account of the equation
we obtain
V^p
=
(38).
If the liquid were originally at rest, it is clear that the motion produced by the impulse must be irrotational, whence if <^ be its velocity potential
P = p4>
which
is
(39),
a very important result.
Flow and
26.
Circulation.
The
line integral
j{udx
+ vdy +
wdz), taken along any
curve joining a fixed point
A with a variable
point P,
is
called the
flow from
A
to P.
If the points
A
and
P
coincide, so that the curve along
is
which
is
the integration takes place
called the circulation
a closed curve, this line integral
round the closed curve.
is irrotational,
and ^^, ^p denote and P, the flow from A to P is simply (f>p — (f>^, and is independent of the path from A to P; also the circulation round any closed curve is zero, provided is Cases however occur in which be a singlevalued function. a manyvalued function ; and when this is the case, the value of the circulation will depend upon the position of the closed curve round which the integration is taken, being zero for some curves,
If the
motion of a liquid
the values of the velocity potential at
A
(f)
(f>
whilst for others
it
has a
finite value.
is
For example, when the motion
the equation
da^
"^
in
two dimensions, ^
satisfies
dy'
'
and
it
can be verified by
is
</)
trial,
that a particular solution of this
equation
= m tan~^ y/x.
value of the angle tan~^ y/x; then since
This value of
motion.
^
therefore gives a possible kind of irrotational
least
Let 6 be the
22
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
the equation B
of
= tan~^ y/x
is satisfied
by ^
+ 2n7r,
positive or negative integer,
is
<f)
it
follows that the
where n is any most general value
<f)
= mO +
Imnir,
whence ^
is
a manyvalued function.
Let a point P start from any position, and describe a closed curve which does not surround the origin. During the passage of P from its original to its final position, the angle 6 increases to a certain value, then diminishes, and finally arrives at its original value, and therefore the circulation round such a curve is zero but if the closed curve surrounds the origin, 6 increases from its original value to 27r 4 6, as the point travels round the closed curve, and therefore the circulation round a curve which encloses
the origin
is
2m7r.
is
Irrotational motion which
velocity potential,
is
characterized by a single valued
irrotational
called
acyclic
motion; whilst
motion which
is
is
characterized
by a many valued
velocity potential,
called cyclic irrotational motion,
27.
The importance
motion
will
of the distinction between cyclic
and
§
acyclic
not be fully understood, until
;
we
discuss
the theory of rectilinear vortex motion
will enable us to prove, that cyclic
but the results of
25
motion cannot be produced or
destroyed by impulsive forces.
Integrate (37) round any closed curve, then since pjp (or Jp~^dp in the case of a gas) is necessarily a singlevalued function, it vanishes when integrated round any closed curve, and we
obtain
J(u'dx
+ v'dy + w'dz) = ^iudx
is
f
vdy \ wdz),
which shows that the circulation
unaltered by the impulse.
We
forces
generated nor destroyed, when the liquid
can also show that cyclic irrotational motion cannot be is under the action of
;
having a singlevalued potential
for if
we put
^=ft,K + f + i,»
P
the equations of motion are
dH^Q dH^
dx
'
dH_
'
dy
dz
SOURCES AND DOUBLETS.
23
Multiply these equations by dx, dy, dz, add and integrate
round a closed curve, and
let
k be the circulation
;
we obtain
0...(40).
/f
+ (F+4.=).(F+i,X +
initial
f4;f =
and
where the suffixes refer to the moving point. Since Jp~^dp
functions, the
final positions of the
and
V + ^q^
are
singlevalued
sum
of the
first
three terms
is zero,
and (40) reduces
to
^=
dt
'
whence
If therefore k
is zero,
k
= const.
it
or the motion is acyclic,
will
remain
zero during the subsequent motion.
Sources, Doublets
28.
and Images.
is irrotational
When
the motion of a liquid
and sym
metrical with respect to a fixed point, which
we
shall choose as
the origin, the value of
^
at
the distance alone of
P
from the origin
d'<f>
any other point P is a function of and Laplace's equation
;
becomes
2d<f>_
=
dr^^ r dr
Therefore
0.
m
<i>
and
d<\>
dr
origin is therefore a singular point, from or to which the
The
stream lines diverge or converge, according as
negative.
m
is
is
positive or
In the former case the singular point
called a source,
in the latter case a sink.
The
flux across
any closed surface surrounding the origin
is,
JltHI~''lh
= 47rm,
where dXl
is
is
the solid angle subtended
by dS
at the origin,
and
e
the angle which the direction of motion makes with the normal
to
S drawn
outwards.
The constant
m is
called the strength of the source.
24
29.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
A doublet
p
is
formed by the coalescence of an equal source
and
let
sink.
To
find its velocity potential, let there
be a source and sink at
S and
H respectively, and
m
be the middle point of 8H, then
<}>
=
m
SF'^HF mSH cos SOP
OP'
Now
finitely,
finite
let SH diminish and m increase indebut so that the product SH remains and equal to /x, then
m
.
<^
=
fi
cos
SOP ^
flZ
if
the axis of z coincides with OS.
Hence the
velocity potential
due to a doublet,
is
equal to the
magnetic potential of a small magnet whose axis coincides with
the axis of the doublet, and whose negative pole conesponds to the source end of the doublet.
30.
When
the motion
is
in
two dimensions, and
z,
is
sym
metrical with respect to the axis of
Laplace's equation becomes
dt^
r dr
Therefore
^ = m log r, d4 m
dr
r
axis.
where r
is
the distance of any point from the
equal to m.
This value of
represents a line source of infinite length, whose strength per
unit of length
If
>/r
is
be the current function,
m_1
r
d'>^
'
r dd
Therefore
i/r
= md
= m tan
THEORY OF IMAGES.
31.
25
in
The
velocity potential
due to a doublet
twodimen
sional motion is
<f)
= mlog8Pm\ogHP
a cos SOP SH „^„ = — m 7^^ cos iSuP = —
UP
r
_
fix
Theory of Images.
32.
"
Let Hi, H^ be any two hydrodynamical systems situated Since the lines of flow either form closed curves or have their extremities in the singular points or boundin
an
infinite liquid.
aries of the liquid, it will
is
be possible to draw a surface
8,
which
is
not cut by any of the lines of flow, and over which there
therefore no flux, such that the
two systems jETi, H^ are completely
shut off from one another.
The
surface
8 may
be either a closed surface such as an
such as a paraboloid.
of the
ellipsoid, or
an
infinite surface
If therefore
we remove one
systems (say
H^
and
such a surface as 8, everything will remain unaltered on the side of 8 on which H^ is situated hence the
substitute for
it
;
velocity of the liquid
due to the combined effect of H^ and H^, will be the same as the velocity due to the system H^ in a liquid which is bounded by the surface 8.
The system
surface 8, and
is
i/g is called the
such that
if
image of H^ with respect to the H^ were introduced and 8 removed,
there would be no flux across 8.
The method of images was invented by Lord Kelvin, and has been developed by Helmholtz, Maxwell and other writers; it affords a powerful method of solving many important physical problems.
33.
We shall
now
give some examples.
Let 8, 8' be two sources whose strengths Through A the middle point of 88' are m. draw a plane at right angles to 88'. The
normal component of the velocity of the liquid
at
any point
P on
this plane
is

^
cos
P8A +
^
cos
P8'A = 0.
26
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OP A PERFECT FLUID.
Hence there
is
no flux across AP.
If therefore
Q be any
fixed plane
point on the righthand side of
to a source at S, in a liquid
AP,
is
the velocity potential due
which
bounded by the
AP,
is
mm
of a source
Hence the image
whose distance from
^ with
respect to a plane
is
an
equal source, situated at a point S' on the other side of the plane,
it is
equal to that of
>S^.
34. The image in a sphere, of a doublet whose axis passes through the centre of the sphere, can also be found by elementary
methods.
Let
and
let
8 be the OS =/.
doublet,
the centre of the sphere, a
its radius,
The
velocity potential of a doublet situated at the origin
and
whose axis coincides with OS, has already been shown to be
m cos 6
whence
if
R,
@
be the radial and transversal velocities
„_d^_2mcos^
dr
r^
'
„
=1
r
d(b

= m sin
r^
6
.
dd
Hence
along
if is
we have
a doublet at S, the component velocity
OP
cos
_
^
OSP cos OPS 
^
sin
OSP sin OPS
(41).
= ^^ {cos OSP cos OPS + cos {OPS  OSP)]
Let us take a point
H inside the sphere such that OH = a^/f;
IMAGE OF A DOUBLET IN A SPHERE.
then
it is
27
known from geometry
that the triangles
OPH and 08P
may be
written
are similar, and therefore the preceding expression

^
{cos
OPH cos OHP + cos SPH].
due to a doublet of strength m' placed
at
H
But the normal is by (41)
velocity
 ;^3
{cos
OPH cos OHP + cos SPH],
will
and therefore the normal velocity
be zero
/^
if
^' _ m SP^'^WP^^
for all positions of
P.
But by a wellknown theorem,
Z = HP' _^ SP
and therefore the condition that the normal velocity should vanish,
is
that
m'
= — ma^lf^.
Whence the image of a doublet of strength bounded by a sphere is another doublet placed point H, whose strength is — ma^jf^.
m
in a liquid
at the inverse
The theory of sources, sinks and doublets furnishes a powerful method of solving certain problems relating to the motion of
solid bodies in a liquids
We
35.
shall conclude this chapter
by working out some examples.
a sphere of
surrounds
it is
A
a,
radius
mass of and which
liquid whose external surface is
is subject to b.
a constant pressure
is
IT,
a
solid sphere
of radius
The solid sphere
annihilated,
required to determine the motion of the liquid.
It
^
is
evident that the only possible motion which can take
If
a magnetic system be suddenly introduced into the neighbourhood of a
shell, it
conducting spherical
can be shown that the
effect of the
induced currents
at points outside the shell, is initially equivalent to a
shell,
magnetic system inside the
;
which
is
the hydrodynamical image of the external system
is
and that the law
of decay of the currents,
obtained by supposing the radius of the shell to diminish
", where <r is the specific resistance of the shell. according to the law ae"*^ Analogous results hold good in the case of a plane current sheet ; hence all results concerning hydrodynamical images in spheres and planes are capable of an electro
magnetic interpretation.
See C. Niven, Phil. Trans. 1881.
28
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID,
which each element of liquid moves towards the whence the free surfaces will remain spherical. Let R', R be their external and internal radii at any subsequent time, r the distance of any point of the liquid from the centre. The
place, is one in
centre,
equation of continuity
is
.(^) = 0,
whence
r'^v
= F(t).
The equation
for the pressure is
l
dp _
dv
dt
p dr
dv dr ^dv'
"^
F'{t)
r'
dr
whence
p
r
;
When
r
= R', ^ =
11
;
and when r = R, p = Q
whence
if
V,
V be
the velocities of the internal and external surfaces
Since the volume of the liquid
R'^
is
constant,
Rs = a^b^ = c\
= ^^{R^V),
also
F'{t)
whence
R*
p
dR^
=
^\(R^
+
c')^
R)
1
1(
Putting z
obtain
R^V^, multiplying by 2i2^ and integrating, we
U{R^h^) ^^^{
pR'
1
1
\R^ + (ff
R.
which determines the velocity of the inner
If the liquid
surface.
c
had extended to
infinity,
we must put
=
oo
,
and
we
obtain
TORRICELLl's THEOREM.
29
whence
if t
be the time of
filling
up the
cavity
V
Putting }fx
2nJo
V6»  R^
= R^,
this
becomes
6nr()The preceding example may be
of Energy.
solved at once
by the Principle
The
kinetic energy of the liquid
fR'
is
rB'
/7*.
27rp
1
rH^dr
= 'Iirp V'R*
J
J
£
—
'
R
(R'
+ (^y
The work done by the
47rn
J It
external pressure
is
r r'dr = fHtt (a'  R'^)
= fn7r(6^i2'),
whence
fH {h^  R') = VR^p ^ ^
(R'
+
c^)*
36. The determination of the motion of a liquid in a vessel of any given shape is one of great difficulty, and the solution has been effected in only a comparatively few number of cases. If,
however, liquid
is
allowed to flow out of a vessel, the inclinations
of whose sides to the vertical are small, an approximate solution
may be
liquid.
obtained by neglecting the horizontal velocity of the
This method of dealing with the problem
is
called the
hypothesis of parallel sections.
Let us suppose that the vessel
is
kept
full,
and the liquid
is
allowed to escape by a small orifice Let h be the distance of P below the free surface, and z that of any element of liquid. Since the motion is steady,
at P.
the equation for the pressure will be
^gz + ^v^=a
H
30
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
Now
that
it
if
the orifice be small in comparison with the area of the
neglected
top of the vessel, the velocity at the free surface will be so small
may be
;
hence
if 11
be the atmospheric pressure,
II/p.
when
z
p = JI,
=0, p = H, v = and therefore C = z = h, whence the velocity of efflux is
v=^/(2gh),
At
the orifice
and
rest,
is
therefore the
same as that acquired by a body
liquid.
falling
from
through a height equal to the depth of the
This result
is
orifice
below the
upper surface of the
Theorem.
called Torricellis
The Vena Gontracta.
37.
When
a jet of liquid escapes from a small hole in the
bottom of a
cistern, it is
;
found that the area of the jet
o
is less
than
the area of the hole
of the jet, the ratio of the jet,
ratio
is
so that if
be the area of the hole and
called the
coeffi,cient
a' that
o'/o",
which
is
ofcontraction
that this
always
less
than unity.
.
We
shall
now show
must always be greater than
We shall suppose for simplicity, that no forces are in action, and that the jet escapes in vacuo we shall also suppose that the upper surface of the liquid is subjected to a pressure p.
;
If the hole were absent, the pressure would be equal to
p
throughout the
pressure
vessel,
and therefore since the hole
is
small, the
may be taken to be sensibly equal to neighbourhood of the hole, where it is zero.
If
across
(t"
p
except just in the
be the area of the cistern, v" the velocity of the liquid
is
any section which
at
some distance from the
hole, the
momentum which flows in across pa'v'"^ and the momentum which
whence by the principle stated
pa'v"^
this section per unit of time is
flows out of the hole is pa'v'^
;
at the
end of § 17
— pa'v'^ = per" — p {a" — a) = pa.
But
since the pressure is zero at the hole
p/pW = W'
Also the equation of continuity
is
a
ft
V
It
'I =av,
THE VENA CONTRA CTA.
whence eliminating p,
v',
31
v"
we
obtain
a
which shows that the
or'
a"
'
coefficient of contraction is greater
than
\.
The quantity
of time
is
of liquid which flows out of the vessel per unit
therefore pa'v'
a"~'^,
we may
is
neglect
Now if o is small compared with o", and therefore a =^\a\ hence the discharge
.
equal to
\p(XV',
where
v' is
the velocity of
effiux.
Giffard's Injector^.
38.
hole,
If we suppose fluid of density p to escape through a small from a large closed vessel in which the pressure is p at points
in
pressure
where the motion is insensible, into an open space is 11, then if q be the velocity of efflux,
Jl
which the
whence
If
+ \pt=C, p = Gq = V[2 (p — TI)/p].
be the sectional area of the jet at the vena contracta, the quantity of fluid which escapes per unit of time is
A
Upq = A{2p(pU)].
The momentum per
unit of time
is
Apq^ =
2A(p U).
is
The energy per
unit of time
upper part of the
In Giffard's Injector, a jet of steam issuing by a pipe from the boiler, is directed at an equal pipe leading back
into the lower part of the boiler, the jet being kept constantly just
surrounded with water.
Now
if
we assume
that the velocity of the
steam jet
is
equal to the velocity at which the water flows into
follows from the preceding equations that
the pipe leading to the lower part of the boiler, which must be
very nearly true
;
it
velocity of steam jet
_
_
/p
^
velocity of water jet
\/ a'
/a
.
quantity of steam jet
quantity of water jet
1
\
'
p
Greenhill, Art. Hydromechanics, Encyc. Brit.
32
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID,
momentum momentum
of steam jet
of water jet
=
1,
energy of steam jet
_
/p
energy of water jet
V
a
where a
is
the density of the steam jet.
If the steam and water jets were directed at each other with
a small interval between them, the superior energy and equal
momentum
of the steam jet would overcome the water jet, and steam would be driven back into the boiler. But the steam jet without losing its momentum, is capable of being mixed with
water to such an extent, as to become a condensed water jet
moving with the
boiler,
velocity of the water jet,
and
still
entering the
a
valve preventing the reversal
of the
motion.
Con
sequently the amount of water carried into the boiler per unit of
time, will theoretically at most be the difference between the quantities which would escape by the water and steam jets, and
therefore
and therefore the
of water
efficiency of the jet,
in,
i.e.
the ratio of the quantity
will
pumped
to the quantity of
steam used,
be
^
1.
EXAMPLES.
Find the equation of continuity in a form suitable for air and prove that if the density \)Q fiat — x) where t is the time and x the distance from one end of a uniform tube, the
1.
in a tube,
velocity
is
afjat
 ^) + ( F  a)f{at)
f{atx)
where
2.
V is
the velocity at that end of the tube.
if at
If the motion of a liquid be in two dimensions, prove that any instant the velocity be everywhere the same in magniit is
tude,
so in direction.
EXAMPLES.
3.
33
surface of a sphere,
If every particle of a fluid
move on the
is
prove that the equation of continuity
cos
J^
+
ja
(P^ co^ ^^
(p
"*"
^
^P^' ^^^ ^^
~ ^'
where p
is
the density, 6 and
&>, to'
the latitude and longitude of any
element, and
the angular velocities of the element in latitude
and longitude
4.
respectively.
is
Fluid
moving
in a fine tube of variable section k, prove
is
that the equation of continuity
where v
5.
is
the velocity at the point
s.
If
^ (x,
y, z, t) is
the equation of a moving surface, the
is
velocity of the surface normal to itself
\^f. where
6.
R''
= {dFjdxf + {dFldyY + {dFjdzY.
a, h, c
If X,
c
y and z are given functions of
are the values of x,
if,
and
t,
where
a,
h
and
are constants for any particular element of fluid, and if
u, V
and
w
z
when
a, b, c
are eliminated,
prove analytically that
d^x
_ du
dt
dP
7.
du dx
du dy
lie
du
dz'
If the lines of flow of a fluid
on the surfaces of coaxial
cones having the same vertex, prove that the equation of continuity
is
"'ft
8.
+ ^'Tr (^^> ^ ^^" ^
^°^"^ ^
^
^^^>
= ^
Show
that
x'Kakt'f
is
+ kt'
{{y/by
+ (z/cY} = 1
^
a possible form of the bounding surface at time
9.
of a liquid.
its
A fine
tube whose section
A;
is
a function of
length
s,
in
the form of a closed plane curve of area
in
A
filled
with
ice
ice, is
moved
any manner.
When
the component angular velocity of the
its
tube about a normal to
plane
is
H, the
melts without
change of volume.
B.
Prove that the velocity of the liquid relatively
3
H.
34
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID.
where the section
is
to the tube at a point
is
K,
at
any subsequent
time when
&> is
the angular velocity
^ (12 where
10. 1/c =fk~^ds, the integral
o)),
being taken once round the tube.
A
centre of force attracting inversely as the square of the
distance, is at the centre of a spherical cavity within
an
infinite
tir,
mass of
liquid, the pressure
on which at an
infinite distance is
and is such that the work done by this pressure on a unit of area through a unit of length, is one half the work done by the attractive force on a unit of volume of the liquid from infinity to the initial boundary of the cavity prove that the time of filling up the cavity will be
;
^/£{(r/}
a being the
liquid.
initial radius of
the cavity, and p the density of the
11.
A
solid sphere of radius
is ^ttc^/S,
a
is
surrounded by a mass of
is
liquid
whose volume
and
its
centre
a centre of attracIf the
tive force varying directly as the square of the distance.
solid sphere
be suddenly annihilated, show that the velocity of the
inner surface
x'a^
when
its
radius
is a; is
given by
(c^
{(cc'
+ c')^ x} =
(~ +^ ficA (a'  of)
+ cc^)^,
the absolute,
where p
force.
is
the density, 11 the external pressure and
/x
12.
Prove that
if
ct
be the impulsive pressure,
</>'
(f>,
the
acts,
velocity potentials immediately before
and
after
an impulse
V the
13.
potential of the impulses,
•ST
+ pV+ p
{(f)'
—
<f))
= const.
momentum
is
If the motion of a
homogeneous liquid be given by a
its
single valued velocity potential, prove that the angular
of
any spherical portion of the liquid about
centre
always
zero. 14.
Homogeneous
liquid
is
moving
so that
u—yx + ay,
v
= ^x — 73/, w = 0,
EXAMPLES.
and a long
axis
is
35
is
cylindrical portion
whose section
initial
small,
and whose
rest of the
parallel to the axis of z, is solidified
and the
liquid destroyed.
Prove that the
angular velocity of the
cylinder
is
where A, B,
F
are the
moments and products
of inertia of the
section of the cylinder about the axes.
15.
Fluid
is
contained within a sphere of small radius
the whole were
;
prove
that the
momentum
than
it
of the mass in the direction of the axis of
if
greater
would be velocity at the centre by
g—
j
^ is moving with the
pxUx
+ pyUy + pzU^ + \pVhiV
where p^
16.
= dp/doc
&c.
The motion
of a liquid
is
in
a constant source at one point
at another point
A
in the liquid
two dimensions, and there is and an equal sink
as
B
;
find the form of the stream lines, and prove
that the velocity at a point
P varies
{AP
.
BP)~^, the plane of
the motion being unlimited.
If the liquid
and if an expression
17.
bounded by the planes x = 0, x= a, y = 0, y = a, the source is at the point (0, a) and the sink at (a, 0), find
is
for
the velocity potential.
of a liquid consists of an infinite plane
boss,
is
The boundary
having a hemispherical
whose radius
is
a and centre
>S,
0.
A
doublet of unit strength
situated at a point
whose axis
coincides with 08, where OSi is perpendicular to the plane. P is any point on the plane, OP = y, OS=f. Prove that the velocity
of the liquid at
P is
^'
6/r^
18.
<^
Prove that
=f(t)
{(r'
+ a"  2az)i + (r^ +
a''
+ 2a2)i  r'] + ^{r (t)
it.
is
the velocity potential of a liquid, and interpret
Find the
surfaces of equal pressure if gravity in the negative direction of
the axis of z be the only force acting.
3—2
36
19.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT FLUID,
Liquid enters a right circular cylindrical vessel by a
supply pipe at the centre 0, and escapes by a pipe at a point
in the circumference
;
A
proportional to
show that the velocity at any point P is PB/PA PO, where B is the other end of the
.
diameter AO.
is in
The
vessel is supposed so shallow that the
motion
two dimensions.
i
CHAPTER
IL
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES IN AN
INFINITE LIQUID.
39.
The
present chapter will be devoted to the consideration
of certain problems of twodimensional motion, and
discuss the motion of a sphere in an infinite liquid.
If
we
shall also
a right circular cylinder
is
moving
in a liquid, the pressure
of the liquid at any point of the cylinder passes through its axis,
and therefore the resultant pressure of the liquid on the cylinder reduces to a single force, which can be calculated as soon as the pressure has been determined. Now the pressure at any point of
the liquid
is
found by means of the equation
p/p
+
cf>
+ iq'=C,
and therefore p can be determined as soon as the velocity potential is known. Hence the first step towards the solution of problems
of this character
is
to find the velocity potential.
is
If the cylinder
liquid
not circular, the resultant pressure of the
upon
its
surface will usually be reducible to a single force
and a couple, and the problem becomes more complicated. The motion of cylinders, which are not circular, can be most conveniently treated by means of the dynamical methods explained in the next chapter. In the present chapter we shall show how
to find the motion of
an
infinite
liquid, in
which cylinders of
certain given forms are moving,
and we
shall also
work out the
solution of certain special problems relating to the motion of
circular cylinders
and spheres.
38
40.
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
If the liquid be at rest,
and a cylinder of any given form and
is
be set in motion in any manner, the subsequent motion of the
liquid will be irrotational
and
acyclic,
therefore completely
determined by means of a velocity potential.
convenient
to
It is however more employ Earnshaw's current function i/r. This is irrotational, satisfies the equation function, when the motion
^'±
at all points of the liquid.
+ ^^^0
(1)
The
integral* of this equation is
ylr
= f(x\Ly) + F{xcy)
(2),
^^^"
^=
?'
^
=
^
^^>
We
hyyfr.
must now consider the boundary conditions
is
to be satisfied
If the liquid
case), dyfr/dx
at rest at infinity (which will usually be the
and dyfr/dy must vanish at infinity. If any portions of the boundary consist of fixed surfaces, the normal component of the velocity must vanish at such fixed boundaries, and therefore the fixed boundaries must coincide with a stream line. This
requires that
yjr
= const,
at all points of fixed boundaries.
is
When
the cylindrical boundary
velocity of the liquid along the normal,
component velocity of the cylinder
(i)
in
component must be equal to the the same direction.
in motion, the
axis of
£c,
Let the cylinder be moving with velocity U parallel to the and let 6 be the angle which the normal to the cylinder
this axis
;
makes with
then
at the surface
u cos d
Now
cos 6
= dyjds
;
+ V sin = Ucos 6. sin ^ = — dxjds therefore by
;
(3)
ds
ds'
Integrating along the boundary,
we
obtain
(4),
^r=Uy +
where
1
A
(1), is
A
is
a,
constant.
The
easiest
way
(2) is
of showing that (2) is a solution of
to differentiate the
righthand side of
Since the result
twice with respect to x, and twice with respect to y and add. zero, this shows that (2) satisfies (1) also since (2) contains tico
;
arbitrary functions,
it is
the
most general solution that can be obtained.
BOUNDARY
(ii)
CONDITIONS.
velocity
39
If the cylinder be
it
moving with
V parallel
to the
axis of y,
can be shown in the same manner that the surface
condition
is
ylr
= Vx + B
(5).
(iii)
Let the cylinder be rotating with angular velocity
<u
then at the surface
u
or
cos 6
+ vsmd =  coy cos
dyjr —/ = —
6
\(ax sin 6,
dr
(orj
as
as
(6),
Therefore
y{r
=  ^eor'' + C
where r
= (ar' + y^)^.
there are any
(4), (5)
When
conditions
of the
and
(6)
number of moving cylinders in the liquid, must be satisfied at the surfaces of each
moving
cylinders.
yjr
In addition to the surface conditions,
following
liquid
;
must
satisfy the
conditions at
every point of space occupied by the
viz. yfr
equation
finite
(1),
must be a function which is a solution of Laplace's and which together with its first derivatives must be
liquid.
and continuous at every point of the
If
(5) or (6),
we take any we shall
solution of (1), and substitute its value in (4),
in
many cases be able
to determine the current
is
function due to the motion of a cylinder, whose cross section
some curve,
in one of the three prescribed manners.
'yjr
In most of the applications which follow form
will
be of the
'^=f(x+cy)+f{xcy)
alsoby(3) ^
"^
"^
(7),
^ = ^, dx dy
we
<^
t"^^ dy dx
+ t2/)
(8)^
^
From
these equations
see that
(9),
+
tir=2t/(a;
and therefore when i/r is known, real and imaginary parts of (9).
can be found by equating the
40
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
Motion of a Circular Cylinder.
41.
Let
^ = _ iFa=^ f ^— + ^ V ^ ^ \x\t,yx— ly)
Transforming to polar coordinates, and using
theorem,
De
Moivre's
we
obtain
^= Va^w/r"
yjr = — Vx;
(10).
equation (10) consequently deterWhen r=^a, mines the current function, when a circular cylinder of radius a is moving parallel to the axis of y, in an infinite liquid with
velocity V.
By
(9) the velocity potential is
<^
=
Va^yjr^
(11).
Let us now suppose that the cylinder is of finite length and that the liquid is bounded by two vertical parallel planes, which are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.
42.
unity,
is descending under the action of gravity, let yS be the distance of the axis of the cylinder at time t from some fixed point in its line of motion which we shall choose as the origin, and let (x, y) be the coordinates of any point of the liquid referred to the fixed origin, the axis of y being measured vertically downwards; also let (r, 6)
In order to find the motion when the cylinder
vertically
be polar coordinates of the same point referred to the axis of the
cylinder as origin.
By
(11)
6=
and therefore since
sm ^ =
d/S/dt
^
=
V,
—^
,
6=
and therefore at the
sm ^ +
surface,
—
sm2
6,
where r = a,
F^cos2^.
<^
= _aFsin(9l
Also
therefore
..^#Y+f^^'when
r = a,
f = V\
CIRCULAR CYLINDER.
Whence
41
The
horizontal
the vertical
component of the pressure component is
/'2ir
is
evidently zero
Y=a\
Jo
psm0de.
from (12) and integrating, we
Substituting the value of
obtain
p
Y^irpa^V + g).
Hence
motion
is
if
o
be the density of the cylinder, the equation of
TToa^
V=Y+
TToga^,
or
{cT+p)V = (crp)g
Integrating this equation,
(13).
we obtain
^
where
v is
(0
+
'
P)
the initial velocity measured vertically downwards.
We
therefore see that the cylinder will
move
is
in a vertical
straight line, with a constant acceleration
which
equal to
g{cT
p)l{(T
+ p).
In order to pass to the case in which there are no forces in
action,
we must put ^ =
its initial value.
is
0, in
which case
V remains
constant and
equal to
It thus appears that the only effect of
the liquid
cylinder,
to produce
is
which
an apparent increase in the inertia of the equal to the mass of the liquid displaced.
these two results,
By combining
projected in any
we
see that if the cylinder be
it
manner under the
action of gravity,
will describe
a parabola with vertical acceleration g{<T
It is well
— p)l{a + p).
it
known that
if
a solid body be projected in a liquid
will
of unlimited extent, and no impressed forces are in action,
not continue to
come
to rest.
move with constant velocity, but will gradually One reason of this discrepancy is, that we have
is
proceeded upon the supposition that the liquid
frictionless,
whereas
all
liquids with which
we are acquainted are more
or less
viscous, and the viscosity produces a gradual conversion of kinetic
energy into heat.
We
shall consider this question
more
fully
when
discussing the motion of a sphere.
42
43.
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
The motion
of a cylinder in a liquid, which
is
is
bounded by
a fixed external cylinder,
a problem of considerable difficulty.
If however the cylinders are initially concentric, the initial motion
can easily be found
;
and
this
problem
will afford
an example of
the use of the velocity potential.
The velocity potential, as we know, satisfies Laplace's equation, which when transformed^ into polar coordinates becomes
dr^^'^rd?
^r'W^^^
this
^^^^•
Let
<f>
us
endeavour
;
to
satisfy
equation
by assuming
= F{r) e'"*
this will be possible,
provided
dr^
r dr
r^
Assuming
F=
r"*,
the equation reduces to 7n?—'n?
is
= 0,
whence
m=±n,
and therefore the required solution
(^
=
(^r» + 5r»)
€'"«
(15).
In this solution n may have any value whatever, and the real and imaginary parts of the above expression will be independent
solutions of (14).
Let us now suppose that the radius of the outer cylinder, which
is
supposed to be
fixed, is c;
and
let
the inner one be started
with velocity U.
Since the velocity of the liquid at the surface of the outer
cylinder
must be wholly
tangential, the boundary condition
P
is
dr
=0, when r =
c
(16).
is moving with component velocities of the cylinder and liquid along the radius must be equal whence the boundary condition
At
the surface of the inner cylinder, which
velocity U, the
;
at the inner cylinder
is
Y^=Ucos$, when
dr
r
=a
(17),
being measured from the direction of U.
If in (15)
we put w =
<f)
1,
the function
(18)
by forming the equation
= {Ar + BJr) cose
effected,
^
This transformation can be most easily
of continuity in polar coordinates.
LEMNISCATE OF BERNOULLI.
is
43
a solution of Laplace's equation
;
if
therefore
(17), the
we can determine
problem
will
A
and
B
so
as
to satisfy (16)
and
be
solved.
Substituting from (18) in (16)
we
obtain
Substituting in (17)
we obtain
Aa''B= Ua\
Solving and substituting in (18) we obtain
<^
=
Ua' fall
—
(
r
c^ +
^ cos^.
If
we put c=oo, we
moving
in
back on our previous result of a
cylinder
an
infinite liquid.
We
By
can now determine the impulsive force which must be
it
applied to the inner cylinder, in order to start
§ 25,
with velocity
JJ.
equation (39),
it
follows that if a liquid
which
<^
is
at rest be set in motion
by means of an impulse, and
is
be the
velocity potential of the initial motion, the impulsive pressure
at any point of the liquid
equal to
— p^.
Hence
if
M
be the mass of the cylinder,
is
/•2ir
F
the impulse, the
equation of motion
MU=F Jo
_ = Fwhence
since
pcosOdd
(f)cos0d0
= F+paj
Jo
U7rpa\c''
+ a^) c  a''
M=
ttcto^
The Lemniscate of Bernoulli.
44.
The lemniscate
of Bernoulli
is
a bicircular quartic curve
is (x^
whose equation
function
in Cartesian coordinates
r^
+ y^y=
is
2c"
(x'^
— y'^),
or in polar coordinates
= 2g^ cos 20.
In order to find the current
this curve, is
when a
cylinder,
whose cross section
infinite liquid, let
moving
v = x—
parallel to
ly,
x in an and assume
us put u
= x+ty,
44
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
Now
whence at the becomes
= r^{cos20 + isin26)d'; surface where r^ = 2c^ cos 20, the
iv'c^
righthand side
2c» cos" 2(9
+
ic"
sin
4^
 c^ = c^ (cos
I
26 +
i
sin
2dy
;
whence
(w^
^
— c^)* = c ^ o/j + (cos 2^
.
^
^^^'^om sin 2^)
= ^ (cos ^ ^
Uy.
i
sin ^)/c.
'^^
Therefore at the surface
^frx
= Ur sin 6 =
is
The value
of
y^rx
given by (19),
parallel to
is
therefore the current function
velocity U, of a cylinder
due to the motion whose cross section
If
x with
a lemniscate of Bernoulli.
we put
^, = iFo{^^^ + ^^^jj.
it
can be shown in a similar manner, that
y^y
is
the current
when a cylinder of this form is moving parallel to y with velocity F; and that i/tj is the current function, when the cylinder is rotating with angular velocity w about its axis.
function,
If the cross section be the cardioid r
of y^x
(u^
and
i/r^
can be obtained by writing {u^
in the preceding formulae
;
= 2c (1 + cos 6), the vajues — c^)^ {v^ — c^f for
but the value of
vol.
i/rg
— c^)i,
{iP
— c^)i
can be so simply obtained.
See Quart. Jour.
xx.
p.
246.
An
Equilateral Triangle.
find the
cavities,
45. The preceding methods may also be employed, to motion of a liquid contained within certain cylindrical
which are rotating about an
Let
'^
axis.
= iA {(x + cyY + (x lyY} = A{a^ 'dxy"") = Ar> cos 3^.
the boundary condition becomes
Sxy')
Substituting in
(6),
A {x^ If
+ ^(o {a^ + y^) = G
(20).
we
choose the constants so that the straight line
x=a, may
form part of the boundary, we find
.
ft)
^
2ft)a'
ELLIPTIC CYLINDER.
45
Hence (20)
splits
up
a;
into the factors
\
(x
— a);
y
\/S
+ 2a
;
a;
—
y
\/S
+ 2a.
The boundary therefore consists of three straight lines forming an equilateral triangle, whose centre of inertia is the origin.
Hence
yfr
is
the curi'ent function due to liquid contained in an
equilateral prism,
which
is
rotating with angular velocity
an axis through the centre of inertia of
values of
i/r
its cross section.
m about The
and
(f),
when
cleared of imaginaries, are
vlr
^
=

6a
r^ cos S6,
6=^ r^sin S6. ^
6a
An
46.
Elliptic Cylindrical Cavity.
[{x
Let
'^=\A
we
+ lyf +{x
cyf]
Substituting in (6)
find
^ ,,. Puttmg
A (x^  2/2) + a> (x^ + 2/2) = G. C02A 1 ay + 2A 1
^^
=^;
^^=6.'
the equation of the boundary becomes
a^'^b''
'
and
yfr
•
^lr
^
= ^^^Ax^y% ' ^ 2 {a + b^) ^
is
is
therefore the current function due to the motion of liquid
contained in an elliptic cylinder, which
rotating about
its axis.
Elliptic Cylinder.
47.
The problem
;
of finding the motion of an elliptic cylinder
in an infinite liquid cannot be solved by such simple
the foregoing
in order to effect the solution
we require
methods as to employ
the method of Conjugate Functions.
Def
If ^ and
rj
are functions
ofx and
y,
such that
(21),
y.
^
then ^
+ cv=f(^ + ^y)
and
7}
are called conjugate functions of x and
If
we
differentiate (21) first with respect to x,
and afterwards
46
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
y,
with respect to
eliminate the arbitrary function, and
then
equate the real and imaginary parts, we shall obtain the equations
dl^d^
dx
dy'
d^^_dv
dy
/22)
dx
(8),
conjugate functions of
Comparing these equations with a; and y.
we
see that
^ and
v/r
are
From
equations (22)
we
also see that
d^dri^d^dv^Q
dx dx dy dy
V^r}
(23)
(24).
V2=0,
=
Equation (23) shows that the curves ^ = const., 77 = const., form an orthogonal system and equations (24) show that ^ and rj each
;
satisfy Laplace's equation.
7}
If <f) and yjr are conjugate functions of x and are also conjugate functions of x and y, then conjugate functions of ^ and rj.
For
and
<f)
y,
<f>
and ^ and and yjr are
+ t^ = F (x + cy), =/(^ + ^3/). I+
tT?
whence eliminating x +
ly,
<}>
we have
+ iylr = x(^ + I'V)'
From
this proposition
V^^fr =
the equation
combined with (24), it follows that if be transformed by taking ^ and ij as
independent variables
^
+ ^'^0
(25)
48.
We
X
can now find the current function due to the motion
of an elliptic cylinder.
Let
then
+ ly = c cos (^ — irj) = c cos ^ cosh ic sin ^ sinh = c cos ^ cosh x
7) \
1/,
rj)
.
.
.
,
,
(26),
whence the curves 77 = const., ^ = const., represent a family of confocal ellipses and hyperbolas, the distance between the foci
being
If
2c.
a and
1;
b
be the semiaxes of the cross section of the
then,
elliptic
cylinder
= y8,
a
= c cosh /8,
b
= c sinh /3.
ELLIPTIC CYLINDER.
If
y8 is
47
to the value ^ce^
fi and cosh y9 both approximate and therefore as the ellipse increases in size, it approximates to a circle whose radius is ce^.
exceedingly large, sinh
;
It can be verified
by
trial,
that (25) can be satisfied by a series
of terms of the form
e""''
{An cos n^
it
+ B^ sin n^) and
;
if
n be a
x/r
t}
positive quantity not less than unity, this
is
the proper form of
outside an elliptic cylinder, since
increases.
continually diminishes as
When
the cylinder
is
moving
parallel to its
major axis with
velocity U, let us
assume
T/rj.
=
^e~''sin
^.
Substituting in (4) we obtain
Ae~^
where
77
sin ^
= Uc sinh ;8 sin ^ + G,
to be satisfied at every point of the
= yS
is
the equation of the cross section of the cylinder.
is
Since this equation
boundary, we must have
= 0,
is
A=
Uce^ sinh
13
/3
;
whence
(27).
yjr^= Uc€^+^ sinh
sin ^
When
the cylinder
it
velocity V,
moving parallel to its minor may be shown in the same manner that
axis with
^y^velocity
co
Fc6''+^ cosh /3 COS
is
^
(28).
Lastly let us suppose that the cylinder
rotating with angular
about
af
its axis.
Then
(cos^
+ y^ =
c'^
f cosh^ rj
277
+ sin* f sinh* 7;)
= ^c* (cosh
Let us therefore assume
fa
+ cos 2^).
= Be"^ cos 2f.
2f)
Substituting in (6) we obtain
Be^ cos 2^ + i«c* (cosh 2^ + cos
whence
and therefore
49,
= G,
(29).
£ =  J coc^e^, G = l(oc^ cosh 2/3,
^s
=  i «c*e* C"^' cos 2
that
/3
If
we suppose
= 0,
the ellipse degenerates into a
straight line joining the foci,
and (28) becomes
(30).
yjry^Vce^ cos ^
It
current function, due to a lamina of breadth
might therefore be supposed that (30) gives the value of the 2c, which moves with
48
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
itself. This however is not the case, inasmuch as the velocity at the edges of the lamina becomes To prove this, we have infinite, and therefore the solution fails.
velocity V, perpendicularly to
dyjr
dr]
_
dyjr
dx
drj
dyfr
dy
drj
dx
dy
= c sinh
and
7}
cos f —^
+ c cosh
c
rj
sin
^
^
^
^ = —
rff
c
cosh
77
sin f
^
~ +
dx
sinh
77
cos P
^
dy
whence squaring and adding, we obtain
c2
(sinh2 V cos2 f
+ cosh^
7;
sin^ )
q""
=
FVe"^ (~^J + i'S^=
.
.
.
(81).
x= ±c, y = 0; and therefore in and ^ are very small quantities and therefore by (31) the velocity in the neighbourhood of an edge is
The coordinates
of an edge are
rj
the neighbourhood of an edge
;
which becomes
edge
is
infinite at the
edge
itself,
where
It therefore follows that the pressure in the
rj and ^ are zero. neighbourhood of an
negative, which
is
physically impossible.
positive at a sufficient distance from the
Since the pressure
is
edge, there will be a surface of zero pressure dividing the regions
of positive and negative pressures
;
and
it
might be thought that
the interpretation of the formulae would be, that a hollow space
exists in the liquid surrounding the edges,
surface of zero pressure.
which is bounded by a But the condition that a free surface
it is
should be a surface of zero (or constant) pressure, although a
necessary one,
is
not sufficient
;
further necessary, that such
a surface should be a surface of no flux, which satisfies the kinematical condition of a bounding surface
§ 12,
equation (17); and
it
will be found on investigating the question, that no surface exists, which is a surface of zero (or constant) pressure, and at the same time satisfies the conditions of a bounding surface. The solution
altogether
fails in
the case of a lamina.
is
When
the easiest
the velocity of the solid
constant and equal to V,
is
way
of dealing with a problem of this character
to
reverse the motion
by supposing the
it,
solid to
be at
rest,
and that
the liquid flows past
the velocity at infinity being equal to
—
F.
MOTION OF A SPHERE.
The
correct solution in the case of a lamina has
49
been given by
is
Kirchhoff^, and he has
shown that behind the lamina there
i.e.
a
region of dead water,
water at
rest,
which
is
separated from
the remainder of the liquid by two surfaces of discontinuity, which
commence
at the
in the direction in
two edges of the lamina, and proceed to infinity which the stream is flowing. Since the liquid
is
constant
on one side of this surface of discontinuity and therefore since the motion
;
at rest, its pressure
is
is
steady, the pressure,
and therefore the velocity of the moving
that a surface of discontinuity
is
liquid,
at every point of the surface of discontinuity.
It
must be constant may be added
of the velocity
an imaginary surface described
in the liquid, such that the tangential
component
suddenly changes as we pass from one side of the surface to the
other.
Motion of a Sphere.
50.
The determination
of the velocity potential,
when a
solid
body of any given shape is moving in an infinite liquid, is one of great difficulty, and the only problem of the kind which has been completely worked out is that of an ellipsoid, which of course
includes a sphere as a particular case.
We
shall
solve the
however find it simpler in the case of a sphere to problem directly, which we shall proceed to do.
line
Let the sphere be moving along a straight
V, and let
(r, 6,
with velocity
initial line.
w) be polar coordinates referred to the centre of
the sphere as origin, and to the direction of motion as
The
(r,
conditions of
6)
and not of
is
symmetry show that <^ must be a function of w, hence by § 7, equation (12), the equation
of continuity
i^riv^i^c^
The boundary
(,
condition, which expresses the fact that the
normal component of the velocity of the liquid at the surface of the sphere is equal to the normal component of the velocity of
the sphere
itself, is
^=Fcos6'
we
1
(33).
shall therefore try
Equation (33) suggests that ^ must be of the form F {r) cos 6 whether we can determine F so as to satisfy
See also, Michell, Phil. Tram. 1890,
p.
889
;
Love, Proc. Gamb. Phil. Soc.
vol. VII. p. 175.
B.
H.
4
50
(32).
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
Substituting this value of
(f>,
we
find
that (32) will be
satisfied,
provided
dF
dr^
2dF2F^^
r ar
r^
(34).
To
obtain
solve (34),
assume
F = r^;
whence on substitution we
2)
which requires that
in
(wl)(m + = l or — 2.
of (32)
is
= 0;
A particular solution
<f>
therefore
6.
= (Ar + Br'') cos
0.
Since the liquid
is
supposed to be at rest at
infinity, d(f)/dr
=
when r =
and put
X and therefore A = r= a, and we find
,
To
find B, substitute in (33)
whence
This
is
(f>
=
^^,
(35).
the expression for the velocity potential due to the
infinite liquid.
is
motion of a sphere in an
In order to determine the motion, when a sphere
descending
its
under the action of gravity, time t from some fixed point centre at
vertically
let
y be the distance of
in its line of motion,
which
we
shall choose as the origin
;
let
y,
the axis o{ z be measured
z be the coordinates of any
vertically
downwards and
let x,
point of the liquid referred to the jixed origin.
Pi,, /of^x
15y(35)
^_
*P2{a;^
VaHzy) + 2/^+(^7)^}t'
and therefore since
7=
F,
,
^ _ _ Z^^^^i^ "^^r^ _ 3F^a^cos^^ Z!^' dt~
2r2 ti^
and therefore at the surface where r
— a,
^ = iFa
=
and therefore
p/p =
cos 6?
^F^Scos^^l),
F2(cos^6'
+ isin^^),
. .
.
+ ^ (ry + a cos ^) + i Va cos + ^ F^ (9 cos^ ^  5)
6>
(36).
MOTION OF A SPHERE.
If
51
liquid,
Z
be the force due to the pressure of the
which
opposes the motion,
z Up cos eds
=
27ra^
p cos
Jo
sin
6dd
(37)
^iTTpa^iht+g)
by
(36).
If therefore
is
^TToa'^
cr
be the density of the sphere, the equation
of motion
V= ^rrpd^ ih^ + g) +
{a
i'rra^ag
or
,
+ ^p)V={ap)g
vertical acceleration
(38).
Hence the sphere descends with
9{^ p)/(o + hp)In order to pass to the case in which the sphere
with a given velocity and no forces are in action,
is
projected
we must put
;
g=0, and we
see that
V= const. = its
its
is
initial
value
hence the
sphere continues to
inertia of the sphere,
move with
which
is
velocity of projection,
and
the effect of the liquid
to produce
an apparent increase in the
equal to half the mass of the liquid
displaced.
It also follows that if the sphere
be projected
in
any manner
under the action of gravity, it
acceleration
51.
will describe
a parabola with vertical
^ (cr
— /))/(o + ^p).
is
Let us now suppose that the sphere
constant velocity
V
under the action of no
is
forces.
moving with The equation
determining the pressure
p
dz
^
G = H/p,
where
Since d^fdz and q vanish at infinity, it follows that 11 is the pressure at infinity, whence
p
p
u p^
d4_
^
dz
*^
'
and therefore at the
surface,
^
P
=5 +
P
it
iF2(9cos2^5).
be a
The righthand
6
side of this equation will
minimum when
if
=
Itt,
in
which case
becomes
ll/p
— F^
Hence
4—2
52
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
the pressure will become negative within a certain region in the
neighbourhood of the equator, and the solution
exceeds the critical value (SII/op)*
rest of the liquid
it is
fails.
When V
probable that a region of
is
dead water exists behind the sphere, which
separated from the
by a vortex
sheet.
62.
if
In discussing the motion of a cylinder, we found that
the solid were projected in a liquid and no forces were in action,
the solid would continue to
velocity of projection;
this result
move
in a straight line with its original
and we
called attention to the fact that
;
this discrepancy
fact
is
was contrary to experience and that one reason of between theory and observation arose from the that all liquids are more or less viscous, the result of which
that kinetic energy is gradually converted into heat. The motion of viscous fluids is beyond the scope of an elementary
work such
as the present, but a few remarks on the subject will
not be out of place.
Let us suppose that
axis of X.
fluid is
moving
in strata parallel to the
is
plane xy, with a variable velocity U, which
parallel to the
Let U be the velocity of the stratum AB, U + SU of the stratum GB, and let 8z be the distance between AB and CD.
If the fluid were frictionless, the action between the fluid on either side of the plane AB would be a hydrostatic pressure p, whose direction is perpendicular to this plane, and consequently
the fluid
no tangential action or shearing stress could exist if however is viscous, the action between the fluid on either side of
;
AB, usually consists of an oblique pressure (or tension), and may therefore be resolved into a normal component perpendicular to the plane, and a tangential component in the plane.
the plane
The usual theory
gential stress on
stress
of viscosity supposes, that
if
F
be the tan
AB
per unit of area,
is
F+BF the
corresponding
on CD, then the latter stress
proportional to the relative
velocity of the
strata, so that
two strata divided by the distance between the
whence proceeding to the
limit
Foe
—
dz
'
VISCOSITY.
53
We may
where
is
//,
therefore put
F = jjlj/i is
(39),
is
a constant.
The constant
is
called the viscosity
;
it
a numerical quantity whose value
also
different for ditferent fluids,
and
depends upon the temperature.
viscosity
is
The
in the
a quantity which corresponds to the rigidity
If a shearing stress
Theory of
Elasticity.
F
be applied
parallel to the axis of x,
and
in a plane parallel to the plane xy, to
an
elastic solid, it is
known from the Theory
of Elasticity, that
F = nda/dz,
where a
is
is
the displacement parallel to
x.
Whence
the ratio of
it,
the shearing stress F, to the shearing strain da/dz produced by
equal to a constant n, which
is
called the rigidity.
fluids,
Now
in the
hydrodynamical theory of viscous
rate at which shearing strain is produced
dUjdz is equal to the by the shearing stress F\
hence (39) asserts that the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate which shearing strain is produced, is equal to a constant fi, which is called the viscosity.
at If the shearing stress
F
is
applied in the plane
z=c, and
(40),
if
U = uzjc, (39)
where u
if
is
becomes
F = fiulc
the velocity of the fluid in the plane z
c
= c.
Hence
w=l, and
The
= 1,
then F=fjb.
We may
therefore define the
viscosity as follows ^
viscosity is equal to the tangential force
per unit of area, on
of two parallel planes at the unit of distance apart, one of which is fixed, whilst the other moves with the unit of velocity, the
either
space between being filled with the viscous fluid.
Equation (40) shows that the dimensions of
If
jm
are [ifZ~* T~ ^].
is
we put
V
= fijp,
where p
is
the density, the quantity v
called the kinematic coejficient of viscosity.
The dimensions
of v
are [DT^].
The equations
of motion of a viscous fluid are known,
is
and the
motion of a sphere which
descending under the action of gravity
in a slightly viscous liquid, such as water, has
been worked out by
will
myself; and I have shown that
if
the sphere be initially projected
downwards with
velocity V, its velocity at
1
any subsequent time
Maxwell's Heat,
p. 298, fourth edition.
54
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES,
be approximately given by the equation
where
/= Wp)9
,
.
,
—
fi
„
9/i .„
.
If no forces are in action, the velocity at time
V
t is
=
Fe~^*,
which shows that the velocity diminishes with the time.
If the liquid
fall
were
frictionless,
would be
zero,
and we should
back on our previous
53.
results.
which a ship experiences in moving through water, is principally due to the following three causes, (i) viscosity, (ii) skin friction, (iii) wave resistance.
The
resistance,
The
water
is
first
has been already considered, and since the viscosity of
in C.G.s.
viz. '014 djmes per square centimetre temperature being 24'5° C; it appears that the units, the
a small quantity,
effect of viscosity is small.
The second cause
is
due to the
friction
it,
the vessel and the water in contact with
between the sides of and in the opinion of
Mr
by
Froude^
ships.
is
the principal cause of the resistance experienced
third cause is due to the fact that, when a ship is in motion on a river or in the open sea, waves are continually being generated, which require an expenditure of energy for their pro
The
duction, and this
is
necessarily supplied
by the mechanical power
which
set in
If therefore the ship were is employed to propel the ship. motion in a frictionless liquid and left to itself, the initial energy would gradually be dissipated in forming waves, and
would be carried away by them, so that
ultimately bring the ship to rest.
54. Having made we must return to the
this digression
this cause alone
would
upon viscosity and
resistance,
subject of this chapter.
Let us suppose that a spherical pendulum, which is surrounded with liquid, is performing small oscillations in a vertical
plane.
Let
shall
Z
—a
be the length of the pendulum rod, whose mass we
let
suppose small enough to be neglected, and
M' be
the mass
of the liquid displaced.
1
On stream
lines in relation to the resistance of ships.
Nature, Vol. ni.
MOTION IN A SPHERICAL ENVELOP.
If
55
follows from
V be
the horizontal velocity of the pendulum,
it
(37), that the horizontal
and
vertical forces
due
to the pressure of
the liquid are
X = ^M'V,
Y=M'g.
sus
Now V = ad,
pension,
whence taking moments about the point of
we obtain
M (fa^ + P) e =  Mgie Xl+YW,
or
{M (a^ +
Whence
if
I')
+ ^M'l'} e + (M
M') gW
= 0.
we have
^^^^•
T be
the time of a small oscillation,
V
If in (41)
WwYgi
is
of a
we put p = 0, or if' = 0, we shall obtain the period pendulum which is vibrating in vacuo, and (41) shows that
to increase the period.
the effect of the liquid
(to
is in accordance with a general dynamical principle which however there are certain exceptions), that when a dynamical system is subject to a constraint which is equivalent to an increase in the inertia of the system,, the periods of oscillation
This result
are usually greater than when the system
55.
is free.
extends to infinity in
example we have supposed that the liquid In practice this is impossible, all directions. and it is therefore desirable to ascertain what effect the vessel which contains the liquid, produces on the period.
In the
last
Let us therefore suppose that the sphere and liquid are contained within a rigid fixed spherical envelop of radius c, whose
centre coincides with the equilibrium position of the sphere.
vertical pressure of the liquid
The
upon the sphere
will
is
evidently equal
to
M'g\ and the horizontal pressure
be of the form
VF{x)+Vf{x),
where x
its
is
the distance of the centre of the sphere at time
t
from
mean position, and F and moment of the latter about the
/
are
unknown
functions.
is
The
point of suspension
l[VF{x)+Vf{x)];
oscillations, the squares and since in all and products of small quantities are neglected, it follows by Maclaurin's theorem that the moment is IVF{Q), and therefore may be calculated on the supposition that the spheres are conWe must therefore first obtain the velocity potential centric.
problems relating to small
56
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
are concentric, and the inner sphere is set
when the two spheres
in motion with velocity V.
We
have aheady shown that a solution of Laplace's equation
<f)
is
= (Ar + Br^) cos 6.
at the
The boundary condition
moving sphere
is
^=Fcos^ ar
when r=
a.
(42),
The boundary condition at the
fixed envelop is
f=«
when r = c. we obtain
Substituting the above value of
<«)
^
in (42)
and
(43),
A2Ba'=V,
whence
A2Bc^ = 0;
A=
—
c'a^'
„
B=—
2
(c^
 a')
and
The
previous
pressure on the sphere
results
may
thus be obtained from our
2a^)/(c^
by
writing
^Fa(c^ +
— a^)
for
^Va;
whence
X = \M' ti& + 2a»)/(c«  a%
and the equation of motion
{Jf (fa^
is
'e
Y=M'g,
+ I') + ^M'l' (c^ + 2a') /{(f  a')} + (M M') gW =
0.
This "equation shows that the eflfect of the spherical envelop, which produces an additional constraint, is to increase the period and that its action is equivalent to an increase in the inertia of the pendulum which is equal to
^M' (c' + 2a')/{(f  a').
EXAMPLES.
57
EXAMPLES.
1.
Prove that
,^
= log ^^^^^^^^
gives a possible motion in two dimensions.
stream
lines,
Find the form of the and prove that the curves of equal velocity are
lemniscates.
2.
In the irrotational motion of a liquid, prove that the
it,
motion derived from
will also
by turning the direction of motion at each
point in one direction through 90° without changing the velocity,
be a possible irrotational motion, the conditions at the
boundaries being altered so as to suit the
Discuss the motion obtained in this
new
motion.
way from the preceding
example.
3.
Liquid
is
moving
irrotationally in
the space bounded by the two lines
r^ cos
6=
two dimensions, between ±^'jr and the curve
at rest, prove that the
S0 =
a?.
The bounding curves being
is
velocity potential
of the form
(f>
= r^ sin 3^.
4. The space between the elliptic cylinder (a?/a)^ + (y/6)2 = 1, and a similarly situated and coaxial cylinder bounded by planes perpendicular to the axis, is filled with liquid, and made to rotate
with angular velocity w about a fixed
velocity potential with reference to the
axis.
Prove that the
axes of the
principal
cylinder
is
coxy (a^
— b^)/(a^ + b% and
velocity
is
that the surfaces of equal
constant, are the hyperbolic
pressure
cylinders
when the angular
ScC'
+¥
Sb'
+
a"
5.
If
^ =f{x,
y),
'\{r
= F (x,
y) are the velocity potential
if
and
current function of a liquid, and
we
write
and from these expressions find and yfr; prove that the new values of and ^fr will be the velocity potential and current function of some other motion of a liquid.
</>
(f>
Hence prove that
and coaxial parabolic
if
(f)
= x^ — y^, >^= Ixy,
the transformation
gives the motion of a liquid in the space bounded by two confocal
cylinders.
58
6.
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
In example 4 prove that the paths of the particles relative
to the cylinder are similar ellipses,
and that the paths
in
space are
similar to the pericycloid
x = {a + b)cos6 + (a y = {a + b)
7.
— b) cos
(
j] 0,
sin 6
+ (a b) sin p
)
,
^•
enclosed in a vessel bounded by the axis of y and the hyperbola 2 (a^ — 3y^) +a; + my = 0, and the vessel is set
is
Water
rotating about the axis of
<f)
^^.
Prove that
= 2 {Saf'y  f) + xy \m{u^ y% i/r = 2 (ar' — ^xy"^) + ~ 2/^) + i^^V2 (^
8. is
The space between two
with liquid which
is
confocal coaxial elliptic cylinders
filled
at rest.
Prove that
if
the outer
cylinder be
moved with
velocity
the inner with relative
U parallel to the major axis, velocity V in the same direction,
P—Vc
and
the
velocity potential of the initial motion will be
(b= Uc cosh ^ where
7)
77
cos
cosh {p
—
r77^
\ — a) sinh a cos f
= ^,
rj
=0.
are
the equations of the outer and inner
foci.
cylinders respectively, and 2c the distance between their
9.
If in the last
with angular velocity
example the outer cylinder were to rotate D,, and the inner with angular velocity o),
cosh
^'"^
prove that initially
^ _ 0.2 ^Q^h "P^^^'
1
sinh
2 (va ) 2(0 af'""^^
2(07})
^
sinh2(;ga)'''''^^is
10.
The
transverse section of a uniform prismatic vessel
of
the form bounded by the two intersecting hyperbolas represented
by the equations
^/2 (x"
 2/") + x''+ f = a?,
to
\/2
(2/'
 ^) + ar^ + y' = 6l
and made
to rotate with
initial
If the vessel be filled with water
angular velocity
velocities at
about
its axis,
prove that the
component
any point
(x,
y) of the water will be
^Jy2f^a?y\^2(o?¥)y]
a'
+
{2x^
b'
 6xy^ + V2 (b'  a') w]
respectively.
EXAMPLES.
11.
59
is
In the midst of an
a,
infinite
mass of liquid at rest
to the
a
sphere of radius
small ellipticity.
which
is
suddenly strained into a spheroid of
Find the kinetic energy due
motion of
if this
the liquid contained between the given surface, and an imaginary
concentric spherical surface of radius c; and show that
imaginary surface were a real bounding surface which could not be deformed, the kinetic energy in this case would be to that in the
former case in the ratio
cH3a''+2c«)
12.
:
2(c5a«)2.
The space between two coaxial cylinders is filled with and the outer is surrounded by liquid extending to infinity, the whole being bounded by planes perpendicular to the axis. If
liquid,
the inner cylinder be suddenly moved with given velocity, prove
that the velocity of the outer cylinder to that of the inner, will be
in the ratio
'ilfc^p
:
p
{a'^h'
 a'c'' + ¥+ b'c^) + o" (a^  b^) {¥  c%
where a and h are the external and internal radii of the outer cylinder, a its density, c the radius of the inner cylinder and p the
density of the liquid.
13.
is
A
solid cylinder of radius
a immersed in an
it
infinite liquid,
attached to an axis about which
is c,
can turn, whose distance
oscillates
from the axis of the cylinder
of gravity.
and
under the action
Prove that the length of the simple equivalent
is
pendulum
la^+cHl+p/o)
'
c{\pI<t)
<T
and p being the densities of the cylinder and
14.
liquid.
is contained between two confocal and two planes perpendicular to their axes. The lengths of the semiaxes of the inner and outer cylinders are Prove that if the c cosh a, c sinh a, c cosh /3, c sinh ^ respectively. outer cylinder be made to rotate about its axis with angular velocity H, the inner cylinder will begin to rotate with angular
Liquid of density p
elliptic cylinders
velocity
rip cosech 2
(/9 — a) — a) + ^cr sinh 4a
p coth 2{l3
where a
is
the density of the cylinder.
60
15.
MOTION OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES.
A
circular cylinder of
is
mass M, whose centre of
inertia is
at a distance c from its axis,
projected in an infinite liquid under
the action of gravity.
Prove that the centre of inertia of the
cylinder and the displaced liquid will describe a parabola, while
the cylinder oscillates like a pendulum of length
{{M + M')k^ + M'd']I^M'c,
where M'
is
the mass of the liquid displaced, and k
is
the radius
of gyration of the cylinder about its axis.
is surrounded by a concentric and the intervening space is filled with liquid. The inner cylinder is moved with velocity u, and the outer with velocity v along the same straight line prove that the
16.
A
cylinder of radius a
h,
cylinder of radius
;
velocity potential
is
^ = ir.
17.
Ih)
— a'^u
2
.
^ cos ^
+^
(v
—
u) a%^ cos 6 jj^
—
is
.
A
long cylinder of given radius
immersed
in a
mass
of liquid bounded
by a very large
cylindrical envelop.
If the
envelop be suddenly moved in a direction perpendicular to the
cylinder with velocity V, the cylinder will begin to
move with
velocity \V, provided the density of the cylinder be three times
that of the liquid.
CHAPTER
III.
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID IN AN INFINITE LIQUID.
In the previous chapter, we obtained expressions for the and current function in several cases in which a solid was moving in an infinite liquid and we also worked out several problems relating to the motion of a right circular cylinder and a sphere, by first calculating the pressure, and then by integration determining the resultant force exerted by the liquid upon the solid. This method, in the case of solids other than circular cylinders and spheres, is excessively laborious and we shall devote the present chapter to developing a dynamical theory, which will
56.
velocity potential
;
;
enable us to dispense with this operation.
The
former
solid
and surrounding liquid constitute a single dynamical
system, in which the pressure exerted by the latter upon the
an unknown reaction arising from contiguous portions of The momentum of the solid can be calculated by the ordinary methods of Rigid Dynamics; and it will be shown
is
the system.
in the present chapter that the
momentum
of the liquid can be
solid.
expressed in terms of the velocities and coordinates of the
Now
the position and motion of the solid are completely detersix coordinates
;
mined by
and since the Principle of
it
is
Momentum
furnishes six independent equations of motion,
this principle
solid
is
follows that if
applied to the system which
liquid,
composed of the
and the surrounding
sufficient
equations will be
obtained for completely determining the motion.
The
surface
is
;
Principle of
Momentum
will not, however, enable us to
determine the motion when the liquid
is bounded by a fixed by the boundary upon the liquid for the pressure exerted one of the forces which must be included in the equations of
62
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
for this
motion which are the analytical expressions
In cases of this kind,
Energy.
it is
principle.
necessary to
use some form of
equations of motion which are deducible from the Principle of
The most convenient
;
course to pursue
is
to
employ
Lagrange's equations
for since
the pressure exerted by a fixed
it
boundary does no work upon the system,
the forces in Lagrange's equations.
cannot appear amongst
there
is
When
more than one
employed
to
moving
solid,
Lagrange's equations are always employed.
of
The
the
are
Principle
Momentum
could also
be
determine the motion of a single
liquid
solid in
a viscous liquid, provided
directions.
;
extends to infinity
in
all
Lagrange's
since they
equations, on the other hand, could not be employed
inapplicable to systems in which there
is
a conversion of
mechanical energy into heat.
57.
Before proceeding further,
it
will
be desirable to
prove
call
attention to two additional dynamical propositions which will be
required
analytical
hereafter;
and we
shall
then
an
important
theorem due to Green.
The
propositions are
I. The work done by an impulse is equal to half the product of the impulse into the sum of the components in the direction of the impulse, of the initial and final velocities of the point at which it
is applied.
the
If a dynam,ical system he set in motion by given impulses, work done by the impulses is greater when the system is free than when it is subject to constraint.
II.
The second proposition, from the name of its discoverer, is known as Bertrand's Theorem and the simplest way of proving
;
by means of the mixed transformation of Lagrange's equations, the complete theory of which was first given by myself in
it is
1887.
groups 6 and
Let the coordinates of a dynamical system be divided into two and let k be the generalized momentum of type x'x^
;
Then
it is
known
that the kinetic energy of the system can be
expressed in the form
T=% +
where and ^
2^ is
is
St,
a homogeneous quadratic function of the velocities
^,
a similar function of the
^
momenta
k.
Since impulsive
Proc. Gamb. Phil. Soc. Vol. vi. p. 121.
green's theorem.
forces
63
it
are equal to the
momenta produced by them,
is
follows
that
if
the free system
set in
motion by means of impulsive
forces of type %, the kinetic energy will be given
by the above
all
equation
ordinates
zero,
;
but
if
a constraint
is
introduced whereby
the co
will be and the kinetic energy will be equal to St: whence the kinetic energy produced by the impulsive forces is less when the system is subject to constraint than when it is free.
are compelled to remain constant quantities,
X
Greens Theorem.
58.
Let
(f)
interior of
a closed surface
with their first
any two functions, which throughout the S are single valued, and which together and second derivatives, are finite and continuous at
v/r
and
be
every point within
S;
then
d^d±UdJrMdJr\^^^^
ax ax
ay ay
az az
)
4>
"^^^dSjjj
(l>'^'fd.xdydz
(1)
= jjir ^dSwhere the
jjj
^^^'<^d.r.dydz
(2),
triple integrals extend throughout the
surface integrals over the surface of 8,
volume of S, and the and dn denotes an element
of the normal
to
S drawn
outwards.
Integrating the lefthand side by parts,
we
obtain
where the brackets denote that the double integral is to be taken between proper limits. Now since the surface is a closed surface, any line parallel to x, which enters the surface a given number of times, must issue from it the same number of times; also the ajdirection cosine of the normal at the point of entrance will be of contrary sign to the same direction cosine at the corresponding point of exit hence the surface integral
;
=//. ^IdS. ax
64
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
Treating each of the other terms in a similar manner, we find
that the lefthand side of (3)
The second equation
59.
(i)
(2) is obtained
by interchanging
corollaries.
and
y^.
We may
deduce several important
</>
Let i/^ = 1, and let be the velocity potential of a V20 = 0, and we obtain then
liquid;
= jjjv^4>da^dydz = jj^dS
The righthand
as
(4).
side is the analytical expression for the fact
is
that the total flux across the closed surface
zero; in other
it.
words
much
(ii)
liquid enters the surface as issues from
Let
^ and
yfr
be both velocity potentials, then
<^>
lht<''lh>
(iii)
Let
<p
=
'\lr,
where
<f>
is
the velocity potential of a liquid;
then
^dx)
If
^]\ \dy) \dzj m<^)h'^'^'=lhP'<'^j
sides of (6)
we multiply both
by
^p, the lefthand side is
;
and the equation shows is acyclic and irrotational, which is contained within a closed surface, depends solely upon the motion of the surface.
equal to the kinetic energy of the liquid
that the kinetic energy of a liquid whose motion
60.
surface
is
Let us now suppose that liquid contained within such a originally at rest, and let the liquid be set in motion by
means of an impulsive pressure p applied to every point of the surface. The motion produced must be necessarily irrotational, also if ^ be its velocity potential, it follows from acyclic and Now by the first proposition of § 57, § 25 (39) that p = — pj>. the work done by the impulse is equal to
;
^\\pfjs.y\l,fjs;
whence equation
is
(6)
shows that the work done by the impulse
it,
equal to the kinetic energy of the motion produced by
case.
as
ought to be the
GEEENS THEOREM.
61.
65
is
Let us
in the
next place suppose that liquid
is
contained
within a closed surface which
in
motion
;
;
and
let
the motion of
the liquid be irrotational and acyclic
also let the surface be
suddenly reduced to
tial,
rest.
Then
if
(j>
be the new velocity poten
d^jdn
= 0,
and therefore
whence d^/dx,
liquid
62.
is
d<f)/dy,
and
d(})/dz
are each zero, and therefore the
reduced to
rest.
In proving Green's Theorem,
we have supposed
that the
region through which
closed surface, but
internally
if
we
integrate, is contained within a single
the region were bounded externally and
surfaces, the
by two or more closed
theorem would
still
be true, provided we take the surface integral with the positive
sign over the external boundary, and with the negative sign over
each of the internal boundaries.
63.
Let us suppose that the liquid
Si, S2 &c.,
is
one or more closed surfaces
large fixed sphere
is bounded internally by and externally by a very
whose centre
the origin.
If
T be
the kinetic
energy
of the liquid,
T=ylJ,'Psy[Jl^fjs
where the square brackets indicate that the integral
over each of the internal boundaries.
If the liquid
is
to be taken
be at rest at
infinity,
the value of
<]>
at
S
cannot
contain any term of lower order than m/r, where
m
is
a constant,
whence
d<f)(dn
= d^/dr = — m/r'^
dS
at the origin,
also if dCl
be the
solid
angle subtended by
dS = r''dn;
therefore
which vanishes when r
infinite liquid
= cc Hence the kinetic energy of an bounded internally by closed surfaces is
.
T==hp
where the surface integral
boundaries.
B.
[ll^'>]
.(7),
is
to be taken over each of the internal
H.
5
66
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
The preceding
expression for the kinetic energy shows that,
if
the motion
is
acyclic
be suddenly reduced to
rest,
rest,
and the internal boundaries of the liquid the whole liquid will be reduced to
64.
When
<f)
a single solid
is
moving
in
an
infinite liquid, the
;
velocity potential
(i)
must
satisfy the following conditions
must be a
single valued function,
which at
all
points of
the liquid satisfies the equation V^c^
(ii)
= 0.
^ and
its first
derivatives
at all points of the liquid,
must be finite and continuous and must vanish at infinity, if any
portion of the liquid extends to infinity.
(iii) At all points of the liquid which are in contact with a moving solid, dj>Jdn must be equal to the normal velocity of the solid, where dn is an element of the normal to the solid drawn outwards if any portion of the liquid is in contact with fixed boundaries, d^jdn must be zero at every point of these fixed
;
boundaries.
The most general
into three
possible motion of a solid
may be
resolved
component
velocities parallel to three rectangular axes
(which
may
either be fixed or in motion), together with three
angular velocities about these axes.
Let us therefore refer the motion to three rectangular axes Ox, Oy, Oz fixed in the solid, and let ^i be the velocity potential
when the
solid is
moving with unit
velocity pai"allel to Ox,
and
let
be the velocity potential when the solid is rotating with unit X^ angular velocity about Ox. Let <^2> 03> X^, Xz be similar quantities
with respect to
Oy and
Oz.
Also
euj,
let u, v,
tOg,
w be the linear velocities
be
its
of the solid parallel to,
and
0)3
angular velocities
about the axes.
We
motion
can now show that the velocity potential of the whole
will
be
(f>
= u(f)i + v<f)2 + W(f>3 +
V
«iXx
+ »2%2 + a)sXs
we must have
(8).
For
point
surface
if X,
fi,
be the direction cosines of the normal at any
at the
X,
y,
z on the surface of the solid,
d^i
_^
'
c?02
_
d\o
^
^^3
dn
dyx
dn
dn
_ ~
'
d«='^'*"'
sl'^"^' ±='^^y
dy,
KINETIC ENERGY.
Hence
67
;;
= 0* ~ V^^ + za)^\\ {v — zw^ + xo)^fi 4 {w—xai^+ya)^)v
=
65.
normal velocity of the
of
solid.
If
is
we substitute the value
ft)2>
<^
from (8) in
(7), it follows
that
u, V,
r
w,
a homogeneous quadratic function of the six velocities
<«>3)
ft)i,
and therefore contains twentyone terms.
If
we choose
of inertia
as our axes Ox, Oy, Oz, the principal axes at the centre
of the solid, the kinetic energy of the latter will be
equal to
\M (m2 +
where
t;2
+ w") + \ (^iWi^ + B^wi +
A^, B^,
G^ai)
M
is
the mass of the solid, and
G^ are its principal
moments
being the
of inertia.
Hence the
kinetic energy
T
of the system,
sum
of the kinetic energies of the solid
and
liquid, is
determined by the equation,
2T=Pv?+ Qv" + Rvf + 2P'vw + iQ'wu + 2R'uv + A(o,^ + Bwi + Gayi + lA'ta^Wi + "^.B'w^a^ + iCoa^w^ + 2ft)i {Lu \Mv\ Nw) + 2&)2 {L'u + M'v + N'w) + 2a),(L"u+M"v + N"w)
The
for
(9).
coefficients of the velocities in the preceding expression
coefficients
the kinetic energy, are called
of
inertia.
The
quantities P, Q,
R
are called the effective inertias of the solid
parallel to the principal axes, and the quantities
A,B,G
are called
If the
the
effective
moments of
inertia about the principal axes.
and there is only one moving solid, the coefficients of inertia depend solely upon the form and density of the solid and the density of the liquid, and not upon the coordinates which determine the position of the solid in space.
liquid extend to infinity,
The values
of these coefficients are
...(10)
by
(5)
;
with similar expressions
for
the other coefficients.
When the form of the solid resembles that of an ellipsoid, which is symmetrical with respect to three perpendicular planes through its centre of inertia, and the motion is referred to the
5—2
68
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
must
principal axes of the solid at that point, the kinetic energy
remain unchanged when the direction of any one of the component hence the kinetic energy cannot contain velocities is reversed
;
any of the products of the velocities, and must therefore be of the form 2T = Pw" + Qv^' + Rw^ + Aco,'' + B(o^^ + Co),^ (11).
;
If in addition, the solid
is
one of revolution about the axis of
if
z,
the kinetic energy will not be altered
Ml into «2
;
u
is
changed into
v,
and
whence
P = Q, A = B,
and
{(oi"
2T = P (v? + ^0 + Rw^ + A
Although every
respect to
all
+ <»2') +
C^«3'
(12).
solid of revolution
must be symmetrical with
not necessarily symits axis.
planes through
its axis, it is
metrical with respect to a plane perpendicular to
solid
The
an
formed by the revolution of a cardioid about
solid.
its axis is
example of such a
unaltered
In this case the kinetic energy
0)3
will
be
when the
v,
signs of u, v or
are changed, and also
when
•
u
is
changed into
and
tuj
into Wg
{(oi"
;
hence in this case
.(13).
2T=P (w2 + v^) H Rw' + A
If the solid
+ WoO + Cgjs^ + 2Nw (wi + w^)
must be
origin to
zero,
moves with its axis in one plane, (say zx), v and m^ and the last term may be got rid of, by moving the a point on the axis of z, whose distance from the origin is
This point
is
— NjR.
66.
called the Centre of Reaction. find expressions for the
must now and angular momenta.
Since
motion,
it
We
component
linear
we
are confining our attention to acyclic irrotational
follows from  59 that the motion of the liquid at
any
instant depends solely
upon the motion
of the surface of the solid;
hence the motion which actually exists at any particular epoch,
could be produced instantaneously from
suitable impulsive forces to the solid
;
rest, by the application of and since impulsive forces
it
are measured
by the momenta which they produce,
follows that
the resultant impulse which must be applied to the equal to the resultant
solid,
must be
momentum
of the solid
and
liquid.
Let
the
solid, in
^,
7],
solid, of
f be the components parallel to the principal axes of the impulsive force which must be applied to the
t;
order to produce the actual motion which exists at time
\,
fi,
and
let
v be
the components about these axes, of the
^,
77,
impulsive couple.
Then
f are the components of the linear
COMPONENT MOMENTA.
momentum, and
liquid.
\,
fi,
69
of the solid
v of the angular
momentum
and
Let
p
denote the impulsive pressure of the liquid, and
X,
let
us
consider the effect produced upon the solid by the application of
the impulse whose components are
^,
t],
^,
fi,
v.
By
where
of S.
the ordinary equations of impulsive motion
I,
m, n are the direction cosines of the normal at any point
But
if
^ be the
velocity potential of the motion instantaneously
is
generated by the impulse, which
equal to the velocity potential
which actually exists at time
t,
it
follows from § 25, that
p = — p(f>,
whence
^ = MupJJ<f>ldS
=^"''j/4t"<'^'
since at the surface of the solid
I
= d(f)Jdn.
liquid, it
If
W,
'2r
be the kinetic energies of the solid and
follows from (7)
and
(8) that
"lift'''
since
by Green's Theorem both the double integrals are
equal.
Also
du
whence
,
t
^
= d®' + ^—
du
,
d^
du
^dT
du'
We
therefore see that the
is
component momentum along the
axis of x,
equal to the differential coefficient of the kinetic
energy, with respect to the component velocity of the solid along
the same axis
;
and by precisely similar reasoning,
it
can be shown
x, is
that the component angular
momentum
about the axis of
70
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
equal to the differential coefficient of the kinetic energy, with
respect to the
axis.
component angular velocity of the
solid
about this
We
thus obtain the following equations for
viz.
determining the
momenta,
dT
du'
^
_dT
dv
'
dT
dw
.(14).
dT
acoi
dT
aa)^
dT
uei)^
Equations (14) are wellknown dynamical equations.
67.
The preceding expressions
for the
kinetic energy and
momenta, have been obtained
;
in a direct
manner, by means of
hydrodynamical principles but the reader who desires a short cut
to equations (9)
and
(14),
may
begin by assuming the theorem,
is
that the kinetic energy of a dynamical system
a homogeneous
Since the
solid,
quadratic function of the velocities of the system.
kinetic energy of a liquid which surrounds a single
moving
and whose motion
the solid
is
is
acyclic
rest,
reduced to
must vanish when the kinetic energy of the liquid must
and
irrotational,
solid.
be a homogeneous quadratic function of the velocities of the
This leads to
liquid,
(9).
Also since the kinetic energy of an infinite
in the
when expressed
form
(9),
cannot depend upon the
position of the solid in space, the coefficients of the velocities
must be constant
If
^. Vy ?)
quantities.
V be the
\
H'}
component impulses, which must be
t,
applied to the solid, in order to generate from rest the motion
which actually exists at time
of § 57, that
it
follows from the first proposition
2T= ^U + 7)V + ^W + \(Oi +
But
since
/JbO)2
+
VWs.
T
is
a homogeneous quadratic function of the
velocities,
„^
dT
du
dT
dv
dT
dw
dT
dcoi
dT
d(o.2
dT
dco^
Comparing these two equations, we obtain
(14).
We
are
now
in a position
to solve
a variety of problems
connected with the motion of a single solid in an infinite liquid.
MOTION OF A SPHERE.
Motion of a Sphere.
71
Let us suppose that the centre of the sphere describes let u, v be its component velocities parallel Since every diameter of a sphere is to the axes of x and y. a principal axis, the axes of « and y may be supposed to be fixed
68.
a plane curve, and
in direction,
whence
and since on account of symmetry
P = Q, we
have
where
P = M pJJ(f>ildS
= M + Trpa? = M + ^M',
j
cos"
sin
0dO
Jo
where
M'
is
the mass of the liquid displaced.
Whence
and therefore
Let us now suppose that the sphere
action
of gravity,
is
descending under the
is
and that the axis of y
drawn
is
vertically
initially
downwards; we
are
shall also
suppose that the sphere
projected with a velocity, whose horizontal and vertical components
U
and V.
Since the
motion,
momentum
parallel to
x
is
constant throughout the
U,
{M + ^M')u = const. = (M + ^M')
whence
u=
force
U.
To determine the
distance from
it.
acting on the
system, draw two
at a considerable
horizontal planes above and below the sphere
and
Then the
JKPi P2
force
on the whole system due to
gravity
is
%+
+ gpz) dA  Mg' + h,
on the upper and lower
when
pi, P2 are the hydrostatic pressures
planes, z the distance between them, and h that portion of the
pressure due to the motion of the liquid.
also
The
integral vanishes
h vanishes when the planes are at an
infinite distance
from
72
the sphere
;
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
whence the
force is equal to
{M — M') g.
The equa
tion giving the vertical
motion
is
therefore
§ = (AfJ/')»,
or
(M + ^M')~ = (MM)g.
Whence
if a
be the density of the sphere,
_ a — p di~ a + ip^'
dv
and the sphere
will describe a parabola
with vertical acceleration
result.
g {or — p)/(a + ^p),
in accordance
with our previous
The motion
of a right circular cylinder can be investigated in
a precisely similar manner.
Motion of an Elliptic Cylinder.
69. Let u, V be the velocities of the cylinder parallel to the major and minor axes of its cross section, &> its angular velocity
about
its axis.
On
account of symmetry none of the products can
appear, and therefore
T=UPLi' + Qv' + Aa>')
where P,
Q,
(15),
A
are constant quantities.
Let us now suppose that no forces are in action, and that the
and liquid are initially at rest and let the cylinder be set in motion by means of an impulsive force F, whose line of action passes through its axis, and an impulsive couple which produces an initial angular velocity ft.
solid
;
Let us
refer the
motion to two fixed rectangular axes x and
let
y,
the former of which coincides with the direction of F, and
be
the angle which the major axis of the cross section makes with the
axis of
x at time t
Resolving the
momenta along the axes
^ cos d
of
x and
y,
we obtain
—
r]
sin
6=
F
0,
f sin 6 + 7} cos ^ =
whence since
^ = Pu,
7}
= Qv,
= F nine
(16).
we
obtain
Pu = Fcosd,
Qv
MOTION OF AN ELLIPTIC CYLINDER.
73
Since the kinetic energy remains constant throughout the
motion,
in (15),
it
follows that if
/8
we
substitute the values of u, v from (16)
and put
/cos^^
for the initial value of 6,
we
shall obtain
,
„
sin^6\
.A,
rr,
/cos^/S
sin^m
.
„„
or
Ad^ = An^ + F^
(i~ ^) (sin^^ sin^yS)
(17).
We
that
if
shall
presently show that
Q> P
;
it
therefore
follows
Q,<F sin
will vanish,
V
QP
AFQ'
;
and the cylinder
will oscillate
but
if
n>Fsinfi
6
will
QP
^/ APQ'
make a complete
never vanish, and the cylinder will
revolution.
The
integration of equation (17) requires elliptic functions, but
without introducing these quantities, we can easily ascertain the
character of the motion of the centre of inertia of the cylinder.
Let
{x,
y) be the coordinates of the centre of inertia referred to
;
the fixed axes of x and y
then
6
(18).
x
= u cos 6 — v sin 6, y=u sin d + v cos
Substituting the values of u, v from (16) we obtain
^
= i^ p —
(
T^
j
sin ^ cos ^.
These equations show that the centre of inertia of the cross
section of the cylinder,
moves along a straight
line parallel to the
direction of
F
with a uniform velocity F/Q, superimposed upon This kind of motion
which
it
is
a variable periodic velocity, and that at the same time
perpendicularly to this
called a
line.
vibrates
frequently occurs in hydrodynamics, and a body moving in such a
manner
If
is
Quadrantal Pendulum.
^a^ = i^^(i^)sin^/3,
which
is
the limiting case between oscillation and rotation, the
74
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
Putting
equations of motion admit of complete integration.
1^
(17)
= ^(11]
A\2'
QJ'
becomes
6=1 sin 6
/i
whence
Therefore
=
logtan^^.
^>
^ — ~p ^^^
IA
dx
.
.
F
IA
X
Putting
the path,
= ^pj. log tan ^u + ^
c,
cos
u.
lAjF =
and eliminating
we obtain the equation
of
viz.
X
V = „ T loR  r + ^c^ PI ^c + a/c^.v^
,
F
?/. "^
The curves described by the centre of inertia of the cylinder have been traced by Prof Greenhill, and are shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 of the accompanying diagram.
in the three cases
70.
We
shall
now show
that for an elliptic cylinder
Q > P.
When
the cylinder
in §
we have shown
and therefore
is moving with unit velocity 48 that
parallel to x,
>^x
<f>i
= ce"''"'"^ sinh )S sin ^, = — ce~''+^ sinh /3 cos f.
^dy
cos^ (^^
Now
at the surface
— J<f>ilds = c sinh y8/cos
= & sinh^ y8
I
JO
whence
P= M — pj(}>ilds
V
aaj
where
o is
the density of the cylinder.
of
The value
Q
is
evidently obtained by interchanging a and
b,
whence Q > P.
MOTION OF AN ELLIPTIC CYLINDER.
75
En
i?
S
76
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
Similar results can be proved to be true in the case of an
ellipsoid
from which it is inferred that when any solid body is moving in an infinite liquid, the effective inertias corresponding to the greatest, mean, and least principal awes, are in descending
;
order of magnitude.
71.
If the cylinder be projected parallel to a principal axis
it will
;
without rotation,
continue to move in a straight line with
if
uniform velocity
principal axis,
it
but
will
the direction
of projection
its
is
not a
begin to rotate, and
angular velocity at
any subsequent time will be determined by putting fl = in (17). We shall now show that if the cylinder be projected parallel to a principal axis, its motion will be stable or unstable according as
the direction of projection coincides with the minor or major
axis.
Let us
first
suppose the cylinder projected parallel to
is
its
it.
major
axis, and that a slight disturbance
communicated
is
to
The
equation determining the angular velocity
obtained by putting
n = /3 =
in (17)
;
whence
and therefore
differentiating,
and remembering that
is
in the begin
ning of the disturbed motion ^
a small quantity,
we obtain
^«+^(gp)^=o.
Since
Q>
is
P, the coefficient of
unstable.
is
is
negative, which shows that
the motion
If the cylinder
projected parallel to
will
its
minor axis we must
put
/3 = ^TT
;
also if
% = ^tt — ^, ^
be a small quantity in the
beginning of the disturbed motion; whence (17) becomes
whence
^x + ^' (p  q) % = 0.
;y is
Since the coefficient of
It
positive, the
motion
is
stable.
can also be shown that
if
an
ellipsoid
be projected parallel
to a principal axis, without rotation, the motion will be unstable
unless the direction of projection coincides with the least axis.
MOTION OF AN ELLIPTIC CYLINDER.
77
however presently show, that if an ovary ellipsoid be projected parallel to its axis, the motion will be stable, provided a sufficiently large angular velocity be communicated to the solid
shall
We
about
its axis.
72. Let us now investigate the motion of an elliptic which descends from rest under the action of gravity.
cylinder,
vertically
Let the axis of y be horizontal, and the axis of x be drawn downwards.
The equations
of
momentum
I sin ^
are
cos ^
e)
+
7;
= 0,
M') g,
j(^cosev sin
from the
last of
= (M
which we obtain
I cos ^

?;
sin ^
= (ilf  M') gt. = Pu,
tj
Solving these equations and recollecting that f we obtain
= Qv,
Pu={M M') gt cos e,
sin^
Qv
= (M M') gt sin 6.
Substituting these values of u and v in (18), we obtain
X
/cos^ ^\ ,, = (^^ + Q^jiM,
M') gt
,,,,
\
y= ( pThe equation
.(19).
gt aind cos
qJ
of energy gives
/co^
If
+ ?^\ (M  My gH'^ + A&^=2{M M') gx.
this
we
differentiate
equation with respect to
;
t,
we can
eliminate x by
means
of (19)
but the resulting equation would be
first
difficult to deal with.
We
see however from the
of (19), that
X
is
always positive, and therefore the cylinder moves downwards
its
with a variable velocity, which depends upon the inclination of
major axis to the vertical, as well as upon the time. We also see from the second equation, that the horizontal velocity vanishes, whenever the major axis becomes horizontal or vertical but
;
if
the motion should be of such a character that
always
lies
between
and
\'ir,
the horizontal velocity will never vanish.
78
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
Helicoidal Steady Motion of a Solid of Revolution.
73.
its
In the figure
let
OG be the
axis of the solid of revolution,
centre of inertia, and let the solid be rotating with angular
velocity
H
about
its axis.
Let the
solid
be set in motion by means of an impulsive force
F
along OZ, and an impulsive couple
G
about OZ, and
let
a be
the angle which
OC
initially
makes with OZ.
Let
yjr
be the angle which the plane
ZOO OA
;
makes
also let
at time
t
with a plane
ZOX, which
is
parallel to
some
fixed plane,
and
let
the former plane cut the equatorial plane in
It will
ZOO = 6.
be convenient to refer the motion to three moving axes, OA, OB, OC, where OB is the equatorial axis which is perpendicular
to
OA.
Resolving the linear
momentum
of the system along OZ,
OX
and a
line
Y perpendicular
(f cos
to the plane
ZOX, we
i?',
obtain
^sin^+^cos^ = O + ^sin 6) cos i^ — sin i^ = 0,
?;
(I cos ^
+
^ sin 6) sin
77
^/r
+
17
cos
i/r
= 0,
(20).
whence
^
= ^sin^,
=
0,
^=i^cos^
Since the components of
momentum
parallel to the axes of
X
and
is
Y (which
are fixed in direction, but not in position because
zero
in motion) are
throughout the motion, the angular
HELICOIDAL STEADY MOTION.
79
momentum
about
OZ is constant \ whence Ao)iSmd+Cncosd=G + Gncosa.
of energy gives
(21),
The equation
Pu" + Ryf +
also
A
(ft)i*
I
= Pu,
+ 6^) = ^ = Rw,
const
(22),
and therefore by (20) and (21)
this
becomes
6
p (?^ + ^_°Jf) + {0 + on (CCS a cose)]' ^^^^ ^^^^^
\
P
R
J
A
sm'^
= its
So
initial
value
of the axis.
(23).
This equation determines the inclination
far
our equations have been perfectly general, we shall now
introduce the conditions of steady motion.
These are
e
=
a
a,
^jr
=
fJL,
e
=
e
=o
(24).
Now
ft)i
= — 1^ sin
=
ft
sin
a,
whence (21) becomes
(25).
Afism^a = G
Differentiating
(23)
with
respect
to
t
and using (24) and
(25)
we obtain
Afi' cos a
 C^fM + (^for
^ F^cos
may be
a
=
/j,,
(26).
This
is
a quadratic equation
determining
when
is
O and F
that
(27),
are given.
Now
/x.
must
necessarily be a real quantity, and there
fore the condition that steady
motion
cos^a
possible
C'n'>4>F'A
and since
the condition becomes
(^— ^)
Rw = ^= F
C^n^ > 4>AR'w^
cos a,
(^  ~]
Soc. Vol. x.) that
(28).
^
It
was shown by Hayward (Trans. Camb. Phil.
when
the
is
origin as well as the axes are in motion, the Principle of Angular
Momentum
expressed by three equations of the form
dv'
Since the direction of the axes of X,
Y and Z
are fixed, 0^
= 02—0;
also since the
momenta
^'
and
i'
77'
parallel to
X and Y are
zero, the equation reduces to dv'jdt
= N;
which gives = const., when elementary methods.
N = 0.
This result can of course be proved by
80
If the solid
ellipsoid)
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
of revolution
is
oblate
is
(such
as
a planetary
;
R> P, and therefore
(28)
always
satisfied
but
if
the
solid is prolate (such as
an ovary
ellipsoid)
P > R, and
fl
therefore
steady motion will not be possible unless
value.
exceeds a certain
In order to find the path described by the centre of inertia
of the solid in steady motion,
we
have, since ^^^fit,
X = {u cosa +
w sina) cosi/r = F {^
sinyfr
y = (u cosa + w sino)
z
= w cosa — u sma
—p = F (^ —p = — ^—
r,
j
sina cosa
cos/tt#,
]
sina cosa sin fit,
/sin^a
J^
I
cos^a phelix.
which shows that the centre of inertia describes a
74.
In order to find whether the steady motion is stable or unstable, differentiate (23) with respect to t, and we obtain
Ad+f(e) =
where
o
(29),
f(0) = \V'
{^^) «in2^ + ^j^ [Q + on (cosa  cos^)l

4^^ A sin^c'
is,
[G
+ Cn (cosa  cos6>))2.
= 0,
small, (29)
The
to (26),
condition for steady motion
that /(a)
is
whence writing d=:a + x where x
which leads becomes
Ax+f{a)x = 0,
and the condition of
positive.
stability
requires
that /' (a) should be
Now
cos^a)
/' (a)
= Afi" (1 + 2
 .SCO/x cosa + ?^' F(^ ~]
this
cos 2a,
whence eliminating
H
by (26)
becomes
^Jcos^a.
^V/'(a)=^>*+^/*^(^ p)(l3cos2a) + 2?'*(^
The condition that the righthand
is
side should be positive
that
A^F'
(^  ^y sin^a (9 cos'^a lie
1)
> 0,
0,
which requires that a should TT — cos~^J and tt.
between cos~'i and
or between
CONDITIONS OF STABILITY.
As a
particular
foremost; then a
=
example and G =
let
0,
the solid be projected point
is
and therefore since ^
a small
quantity in the beginning of the disturbed motion
/(«)={ '^"%f=a 4,A \P
'
1)^,. R,
is
If
therefore
is
R
>
P
the
motion
always stable, whether
there
or
is
not rotation, and consequently the forward motion
is
of a planetary ellipsoid
always stable
;
but
if
P > R,
it
follows
that since
F=Rw,
the motion will be unstable unless
_
2Rw
I
.
(\
is
1
The motion
the ratio of
its
of an ovary ellipsoid
therefore unstable, unless
angular velocity to
its
forward velocity exceeds
a certain value,
75.
These results have an application in gunnery.
When
an elongated body, such as a
bullet, is
fired
its
from
a gun with a high velocity, the effect of the air upon cannot be neglected
fluid,
;
motion
and
if
the air
is
treated as an incompressible
the previous investigation shows that the bullet will tend
to present its flat side to the air,
and
it
also to deviate from its
approximately parabolic path, unless
rotation about its axis.
for
be endowed with a rapid
Hence the bores of all guns destined rifled, by means of which a rapid rotation is communicated to the bullet before it leaves the barrel. The effect of the rifling tends to keep the bullet moving point foremost, and to ensure its travelling along an approximately parabolic path in a vertical plane. Moreover when a bullet is moving with a high velocity, the efifect of friction cannot be neglected and it is obvious that when the bullet is moving
long ranges are
;
with
its flat side
foremost, the effect of frictional resistance will
be
much
greater than
when
it
is
moving point foremost, and
therefore explains the
therefore the bullet will not travel so far in the former as in the
latter case.
The hydrodynamical theory
necessity of rifling guns.
Motion of a Cylinder parallel
76.
to
a Plane.
We
H.
have thus
far
;
supposed that the liquid extends to
shall
infinity in all directions
B.
we
now suppose
that the liquid
6
82
is
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
bounded by a
fixed plane,
and
shall
enquire what effect the
plane boundary produces on the motion of a circular cylinder.
let
Let the axis of y be drawn perpendicularly to the plane, and the origin be in the plane, and let {x, y) be the coordinates
of the centre of the cylinder, {u, v) its velocities parallel to
and
perpendicular to the plane.
and liquid must be a homoand v, but since the kinetic geneous quadratic function of u energy is necessarily unchanged when the sign of u is reversed,
kinetic energy of the solid
The
the product uv cannot appear.
We may
therefore write
(30).
T = \{Ru''^R'v^)
The
not of X
since
coefficients
R, R' depend upon
the
distance
of
the
cylinder from the plane,
;
and are therefore functions of y but
fact their values are equal. It will
and as a matter of
not however be necessary to assume the equality of
our object will
and R\ be attained provided we can show that
increases.
R
R
and R' diminish as y
In order to produce from rest the motion which actually
t, we must apply to the cylinder impulsive forces whose components are X, F; and we must also apply at every point of the plane boundary an impulsive pressure, which is just sufficient to prevent the liquid in contact with the plane from having any velocity perpendicular to the plane. The work done by the impulsive pressure is zero, whilst the work done by the
exists at time
impulses X,
F
is
\{Xu\Yv)
which must be
equal to T.
(31),
Now
(30)
may be
written in the form
whence comparing (31) and (32) we see that
X=^ = Ru, du
and therefore
Y=
~=
dv
R'v
(33),
^"^*(^'"^5)
^'^*^*
The
last
equation gives the kinetic energy in terms of the
impulsive forces X,
Y
applied to the cylinder.
a distance
Let us now suppose that the cylinder instead of being at y from the plane, is at a distance yi, where y^>y; and
EFFECT OF A PLANE BOUNDARY.
let Ri,
83
set in
Ri be the values of R, R' at y^. Then if the cylinder were motion by the same impulses, the work done would be
^=*(B;+if)
Now
straint,
<'^>
the effect of the plane boundary
is
to produce a con
and the
effect
of this constraint
evidently diminishes
as the distance of the cylinder from
the plane increases, and
T.
therefore by Bertrand's theorem, 1\
>
Hence
is
positive for all values of
X and
Y,
which requires that
R> Ri,
differential coefficients
R'
> Ri'
;
hence R, R' diminish as y increases, and consequently their with respect to y are negative.
77.
We
can
now determine the motion
parallel to
of the cylinder.
The momentum stant whence
;
x
is
equal to
dT/du and
is
con
i^M
= const. =Z
is
(36).
Since the kinetic energy
constant,
we have
(37).
Ru'' + R'v^ = const. = 2T
Differentiating (37) with respect to
t,
and eliminating du/dt
by
(36),
we obtain
I
/
.dR'
„
dR\
From
boundary
plane,
this equation
;
we can
ascertain the effect of the plane
for if the cylinder is projected perpendicularly to
0,
the
u
=
and
.^ ^~
^ dR
'
2R' dy
is
Now
dR'/dy
is
negative, and therefore v
positive;
whence
it
follows that
whether the cylinder be moving from or towards the plane, the force exerted by the liquid upon the cylinder will always be a repulsion from the plane, which is equal to
Mv' dR'
2R' dy'
Hence
if
the cylinder be in contact with the plane, and a small
6—2
84
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
communicated
to
it,
velocity perpendicular to the plane be
the
cylinder will begin to
move away from the plane with gradually
increasing velocity.
nitely, for that
is
This velocity cannot however increase indefiwould require the energy to become infinite, which impossible, since the energy remains constant and equal to its
If R^' denote the value of R'
Vo
initial value.
when the
cylinder
is
in contact with the plane,
the initial velocity, and v the velocity
infinite distance
when the
cylinder
is
at
an
from the plane, the
equation of energy gives
RoW^RJv^
The value
of
RJ = M+ M', since the
motion
is
the same as
if
the plane boundary did not exist, whence the ratio of the terminal
to the initial velocity is
1=
the plane with initial velocity
Vo
I
Ro
M+M''
is
Let us now suppose that the cylinder
Uq.
projected parallel to
By
(38) the initial acceleration
perpendicular to the plane
.
is
_u^dR
will
and since dRjdy is negative, the cylinder the plane, and will ultimately strike it.
78.
be attracted towards
two sections are true in the case and can be proved in the same manner. Moreover the motion will be unaltered, if we remove the plane boundary, and suppose that on the other side, an infinite liquid exists in which another equal cylinder or sphere is moving with velocities u, — v. The second cylinder or sphere is therefore the image of the first. Our results are therefore applicable to the case of two equal cylinders or spheres, which are moving with equal and opposite
All the results of the last
of a sphere,
velocities along the
line joining
their centres
;
or to the case
in which the cylinders or spheres are projected perpendicularly
to the line joining their centres, with velocities
which are equal
and
in the
same
direction.
have however a wider application, for according Faraday and Maxwell, the action which is observed to take place between electrified bodies is not due to any direct action which electrified bodies exert upon one another, but to
These
results
to the views of
EXAMPLES.
85
something which takes place in the dielectric medium surrounding these bodies and although the preceding hydrodynamical results
;
do not of course furnish any explanation of what takes place in
dielectric media,
they establish the fact that two bodies which are
incapable of exerting any direct influence upon one another, are
capable of producing an apparent attraction or repulsion upon one
another,
when they
are in motion in a
medium which may be
treated as possessing the properties of an incompressible fluid.
EXAMPLES.
1.
filled
whose cross section is an ellipse is with water, and placed at rest on a smooth horizontal plane
light cylindrical shell
A
in its position of unstable equilibrium.
If
it is
slightly disturbed,
prove that
it will
pass through
to,
its
position of stable equilibrium
with angular velocity
given by the equation
(a
2.
+ by{aby
mass of which may be
its axis
An
elliptic cylindrical shell, the
is
neglected,
filled
with water, and placed on a horizontal plane
very nearly in the position of unstable equilibrium with
horizontal,
and
is
then
let go.
When
is
it
passes through the position
of stable equilibrium, find the angular velocity of the cylinder,
(i)
when
the horizontal plane
perfectly smooth,
(ii)
when
it
is
perfectly
rough
;
and prove that in these two
cases, the squares of
the angular velocities are in the ratio
(a"
 ¥y + 4>b' (a^ + b')
:
(a'
 b%
2a and 26 being the axes of the cross section of the cylinder.
3.
A pendulum
with an
elliptic cylindrical cavity filled
with
liquid, the
generating lines of the cylinder being parallel to the
axis of suspension, performs finite oscillations
gravity.
under the action of
I'
be the length of the equivalent pendulum, and length when the liquid is solidified, prove that
If
I
the
~
where
h{M+m){a' +
¥)'
that of the liquid, h the
M
is
the mass of the pendulum,
m
86
MOTION OF A SINGLE SOLID.
distance of the centre of gravity of the whole mass from the axis of suspension, and a, b the semiaxes of the elliptic cavity.
4.
Find the
ratio of the kinetic energy of the infinite liquid
surrounding an oblate spheroid, moving with given velocity in
its equatorial plane, to
the kinetic energy of the spheroid; and
denoting this ratio by P, prove that
if the spheroid swing as the bob of a pendulum under gravity, the distance between the axis of the suspension and the axis of the spheroid being c, the length of
the simple equivalent pendulum
(1
is
+ P) c + 2a'/ 5c 1p/a
where a
is
the equatorial radius, a and p the densities of the
spheroid and liquid respectively.
5.
A
pendulum has a cavity excavated within
with liquid.
cavity
is filled
Prove that
if
it, and this any part of the liquid
be
solidified,
6.
the time of oscillation will be increased.
p, is
A
closed vessel filled with liquid of density
moved
in
any manner about a fixed point 0. If at any time the liquid were removed, and a pressure proportional to the velocity potential were applied at every point of the surface, the resultant couple due to the pressure would be of magnitude G, and its direction Show that the kinetic energy of the liquid was in a line OQ. proportional to ^pcoG cos 6, where w is the angular velocity of the the angle between its direction and OQ. surface, and
7.
Liquid
is
contained in a simplyconnected surface S;
if js
is
the impulsive pressure at any point of the liquid due to any
to
•bt'
arbitrary deformation of S, subject
the condition that the the impulsive pressure
enclosed volume
is
not changed, and
for a different deformation,
show that
Ih'^'^HK:''8.
If a sphere be
immersed in a
is
liquid, prove that the kinetic
its surface, will
energy of the liquid due to a given deformation of
be greater
when the sphere
fixed than
when
it is free.
CHAPTER
WAVES.
79.
lY.
shall
Before discussing the dynamical theory commence by explaining what a wave is.
of waves,
we
Let us suppose that the equation of the free surface of a liquid
at time
t,
is
2/
= a sin (mx — nt)
is
(1),
where the axis of x is horizontal, the axis of y upwards, and a, m and n are constants.
measured
vertically
form of the free surface, i.e. its form when t—0, is which is the curve of sines. The maximum values of y occur when mx = (2i + ^) tt, where i is zero or any positive and this maximum value is equal to a. The or negative integer minimum values of y occur when ma; = (2i + 1) 'tt, where i is
The
initial
y = a sin mx,
;
zero
or any positive
is
or negative integer
;
and
this
minimum
value
equal to
to a,
0.
—
a.
As x
increases from
to ^irjm,
from
from a to
and as x increases from ^ir/m to 7r/m, As x increases from ir/m to ^ir/m, y is negative
latter
is
y increases y decreases
greatest
and when x has the
negative value, which
to 27r/m,
value,
y has attained
a;
its
equal to
y numerically decreases
of y comprised
—a; as from — a
increases from 7r/m
to 0.
The values
between
X = 2i7r/m and
x=2{i +
same
is
1) ir/m,
evidently go through exactly the
cycle of changes.
its free
is
When
motion.
the motion of a liquid
such, that
surface
is
represented by an equation such as
(1),
the motion
called
wave
88
WAVES.
The quantity
a,
which
;
is
equal to the
maximum
vahie of y,
and the distance lirjm, between two consecutive maxima values of y, is called the wave length.
is
called the amplitude
In order to ascertain the form of the free surface at time
;
t,
let
us transfer the origin to a point ^ = wi/m then if x' be the abscissa at time t referred to the new origin, of the point whose abscissa
referred to the old origin
is x,
we have x = x'
\
^ and
y
= a sin {vnx + m,^ — nt) = a sin mx'.
The form of the free surface at time t, is therefore obtained by making the point which initially coincided with the origin, travel
along the axis of
x,
with velocity n/m.
is
The
If
velocity of this point
called the velocity of propagation
of the wave.
V be
the velocity of propagation, and
X,
the wave length,
we
thus obtain the equations
w=27r/\,
and therefore
(1)
V = n/m
(2),
may be
y
written
(3).
= asm^(xVt)
A.
If n, and therefore V, were negative, equations (1) and would represent a wave travelling in the opposite direction.
(3)
The
position of the free surface at time
t
t,
is
exactly the same
;
as at time
+
2i7r/w, or
^
+ 2iX/V,
since n
= 27rF/X
the quantity
X/F is
from have
called the periodic time, or shortly the period,
and
is
equal
to the time which the crest of one
its
wave occupies
in travelling
position at time
t
to the position occupied
by the next
crest at the
same epoch.
If t denote the period,
we evidently
(4),
\ = Vt
and
(1)
may be
written in the form
^
which
is
= a sin
27r
^^
;^j
(5),
a form sometimes convenient in Physical Optics.
(4)
From
The
we
see
that for waves travelling with the same
velocity, the period increases
with the wave length.
reciprocal of the period, which is the
is
number
of vibrations
executed per unit of time,
called the frequency.
If therefore
we
KINEMATICS OF
WAVE
MOTION.
all
89
have a medium which propagates waves of
lengths with the
same
velocity, equation (4)
shows that the number of vibrations
executed in a second increases as the wave length diminishes.
This remark
is
of importance in the
Theory of Sound.
Let us now suppose that two waves are represented by the
equations
y=a
y'
sin
—
(a;

Vt),
= a sin —'
{x
— Vt — e).
velocities of propagation of
is
The amplitudes, wave lengths and
first;
the two waves are equal, but the second wave
for if in
in advance of the
for
t,
the
first
equation we put
t
+ e/V
the two
equations become identical.
at
It therefore follows that the distance
which the second wave
e is called
is
in advance of the first
is
equal to
e.
The quantity
80.
the phase of the wave.
are represented
Waves which
and their
are called progressive
lirjm,
waves; their
by equations such as (1), wave lengths are equal to
If such
velocities of propagation to njm.
waves
of
are travelling along the surface
gravity, they
of water under the action
may be
conceived to have been produced by com
municating to the
free surface
an
initial
displacement y
= a sin mx,
together with an initial velocity
— an cos mx.
We
therefore see
that the wave length depends solely on the initial displacement,
but that the velocity of propagation depends upon the
velocity as well as
initial
upon the
initial
displacement.
If
+
ri
we combine the two waves, which are obtained by writing for w in (1) and add the results, we shall obtain
y
= a sin {ttix — nt) + a sin {mx + nt) = 2a sin mx cos nt
(6).
Such a wave is called a stationary wave. It is produced by means of an initial displacement alone, and gives the form of the
free surface at
time
t,
when
the latter
is
is
displaced into the form of
to
itself.
27r/X,, is
the curve
y=2a sin mx,
and
(6),
then
left
is
In equations (1) or
in
m, which
equal to
always
supposed to be given, and the problem we have to
finding
solve, consists
the value of
n,
which determines the velocity of
propagation.
90
81.
is
WAVES.
In most problems relating to small oscillations, the motion
for the quadratic
supposed to be sufficiently slow
terms which
occur in the equations of motion to be neglected.
circumstances, the equations
Under these
e"**.
become
linear
and usually admit of a
solution in which the time enters in the form of the factor
Throughout the present chapter this hypothesis will be made but it may be remarked that a solution of the complete equations of motion has been obtained by Gerstner, which leads to a species of trochoidal wave involving molecular rotation. The theory of waves involving molecular rotation is not of any great interest in the dynamics of a frictionless liquid but it is of the highest importance in the dynamics of actual liquids, which are viscous, inasmuch as the motion of a viscous liquid always involves mole;
cular rotation.
We
liquid
shall
now proceed
to consider the irrotational
motion of
waves in two dimensions, under the action
of gravity.
The
solution of the problem involves the determination of a
<j>,
velocity potential
(i)
<f)
which
satisfies
the following three conditions
must
satisfy Laplace's equation,
first
derivatives,
must be
finite
and together with its and continuous at every point of
the liquid.
(ii)
(f)
must
satisfy the
given boundary conditions at the fixed
boundaries of the liquid.
(iii)
(f>
must be determined,
so that the free surface of the
liquid is
a surface of constant pressure.
To
find the condition to be satisfied at the free surface, let the
origin be taken in the undisturbed surface,
and
let
the axis of x
let
be measured in the direction of propagation of the waves, and
the axis of z be measured vertically upwai'ds.
The pressure
equation
at any point of the liquid
is
determined by the
(7).
is
p/p
+ 9Z+<l> +
^q^
=G
^=
The equation
of the surfaces of constant pressure
const.,
and since the free surface is included in this family of surfaces, and must also satisfy the kinematical condition of a hounding
surface, it follows
from
§
12 (17) that
(S).
f + „# + , # + „!?=« dz dx dy
dt
WAVES
IN
A LIQUID OF GIVEN DEPTH.
p
from (7) in
(8),
91
Substituting the value of
and neglecting
squares and products of the velocity, we obtain
s^4!=»
This
z
is
(«)•
the condition to be satisfied at a free surface, where
=
0.
Waves in a Liquid of given Depth.
82.
We
shall
now
find the velocity of propagation of twoh.
dimensional waves travelling in an ocean of depth
The equation
of continuity
is
£*lt =
The boundary
condition at the bottom of the liquid
is
(10,
^=
To
satisfy (10)
0,
when
z
= h
(11).
assume
(})
= F (2) cos (mx 
nt)
(12).
Substituting in (10) we obtain
the solution of which
is
whence
F = P cosh mz + Q sinh niz = (P cosh mz + Q sinh mz) cos (mx — ^
;
nt).
Substituting in (11) and (9) we obtain
P sinh mh = Q cosh mh,
Pn^ whence eliminating
= Qmg
;
P and
Q, and taking account of (2),
we obtain
(13),
F^ = (^V27r)tanh(27r/t/X)
which determines the velocity of propagation.
If the lengths of the waves are large in comparison with the
depth of the
liquid,
h/\
is
small,
V''
and the preceding
result
becomes
(14),
= gh
which determines the velocity of propagation of long waves
shallow water.
in
92
If the depth of the liquid
WAVES.
is
large in comparison with the
wave
length, h/X
is large,
and tanh 27rh/X
=
1
approximately, whence
(15),
V^ = g\l27r
which determines the velocity of propagation of deep sea waves.
The
last result
may be
obtained directly, for the value of
F
may be
written in the form
and since B=0, and
83.
<f>,
and therefore F, cannot be
infinite
when
z
= — cc
(9) at once gives the required result.
which determines the velocity of propagation of deepsea waves, may be written in the form n^—mg; whence the form of the free surface at time t is
Equation
(15),
y= a cos (ma; — m^g^t)
corresponding to the
(16),
initial form y=a cos mx. If the initial form were y = F {x), Fourier's theorem enables us to express F {x) in the form of a definite integral involving cos ma;; hence by (16)
the form of the free surface at any subsequent time can be written
dovvn in terms of these quantities
;
but the
difiiculty of evaluating
the definite integral
of
is
usually so great, that the results are rarely
much
practical utility.
As an example
of the use of definite integrals, let us suppose
is
that the initial form of the free surface
y = a exp (+
xjc),
where the upper and lower signs are to be taken on the positive and negative sides of the origin respectively. When x is positive
2
r
>(x/c)=eP^
—I, TTJo
_
2c
cos xujc
1
.
du
+ u' cos r°° CO rax dm
t
whence the equation
of the free surface at time
is
^~ VJo
84.
_
2ac r* cos (ma;
1
— m^g^t) dm
+ mV
case,
'
Returning to the general
we
see that
<^ is
of the
form
<f}=
A cosh m{z + h) cos (mx — nt).
WAVES AT THE SURFACE OF TWO
If
77
LIQUIDS.
93
surface,
be the elevation of the free surface above the undisturbed we must have
ij
=
d^ldz when z
=
(17),
whence substituting the value of ^
the origin
in (17),
and suitably choosing
we obtain
1;
= — Amn~^ sinh mh sin {mx — nt).
Let
let
undisturbed,
be the coordinates of an element of liquid when f ) its horizontal and vertical displacements, also x =x\^, z' = z + ^•, then
{x, z)
(,
I
^
= d(f)/dx' = — Am cosh m (z' + h) sin (mx' — nt) = d^/dz' =
Am sinh m(z'+ h) cos (mx' — nt).
is
Since the displacement
first
small
we may put
a;
=
a;',
^
=/
as a
approximation, and we obtain
= — a cosh m(z h) cos (mx — nt) f = — a sinh m(z + h) sin (mx — nt),
I
\
where
ellipse
Am/n =
a
;
whence the elements of
liquid
describe
the
^Ycosh^ m(z{ h)
+
^Vsinh^
m(z + h) =
a\
,
When the depth of the liquid is very great we may put h= 00 and the hyperbolic functions must be replaced by exponential
ones
;
we
shall
thus obtain
^= A e^" cos (mx — nt)
17
= — Amn~^ sin (mx — nt),
will describe the circles
^^
and the elements of liquid
^^
+
= (Am/ny e'^^.
Two
Liquids.
Waves
85.
at the Surface of Separation of
first
Let us
suppose that two liquids of different densities
(such as water and mercury) are resting upon one another, and
are in repose except for the disturbance produced by the
wave
motion
;
also let the liquids be confined
parallel to their surface of separation.
between two planes Let p, p be the densities
h, h! their
of the lower
and upper liquids respectively,
depths,
and
let
the origin be taken in the surface of separation
when
in
repose.
94
In the lower liquid
(f>
WAVES.
let
=A
let
cosh in (z
+ h) cos (ttuv — nt),
and
in the
upper
<f)'
also let
= A' cosh m (^ — h') cos (mx — nt) = a sin {mx — nt)
7}
be the equation of the surface of separation.
that
drffdt
At
this surface, the
condition that the two liquids should remain in contact requires
= d^/dz =
d<f>'/dz,
when
z
=
0.
Whence
 na
= 7nA amhmh = — mA' sinhmh'.
If Bp, hp' be the increments of the pressure due to the wave motion just below and just above the surface of separation, then
and and since Bp=
Bp',
+ gp7] + pd<f)/dt = 0, Bp' + gp'rj p'd<f>'/dt = 0,
hp
\
we obtain
gip p')v = 
pdcji/dt + p'd<l>'jdt = n(— Ap cosh mh + A'p cosh mh') sin (mx — nt) = (p coth mh + p coth mhl) nhfjm,
whence
f7^
= (Wm)2=—
'
7?i
(p coth mil
J^^~^'}coth + p ,^
,., nili
(18),
where
86.
m = 27r/A,.
When
X,
is
small compared with h and
are large, and coth
mh
h', then mh, mh' and coth mh' may be replaced by unity we
:
thus obtain
U"
= g{pp')lm{p^p').
is
If p
> p, U
is
negative and therefore n
imaginary
;
hence
if
the upper liquid
is
denser than the lower, the motion cannot be
t,
represented by a periodic term in
and
is
is
therefore unstable.
If the density of the upper liquid
small compared with that
of the lower,
we have approximately
U^
= gm'(l2p'lp).
air, p'/p
If the liquid
if
is
water in contact with
= '00122,
hence
the air
is
treated as an incompressible fluid
6^2^99756
xgmK
STABILITY
87.
AND
INSTABILITY.
95
is moving we may put
Secondly, let us suppose that the upper liquid
with velocity
V, and
(f>=Va;
(f)'
the lower with velocity V; then
+A
cosh in(z
=
V'x
+ A'
+ h) cos (mx — nt) cosh 171(2 — h') cos {mx — nt).
Let the equation of the surface of separation be
Then
in
§
both
F =7} —a sin {mx — nt) = 0. liquids F must be a bounding
when
dz
z
surface,
and
therefore by
12 equation (17),
= 0,
'
dF
dt
d±dF
dx dx
d4_dF_
dij
dF
dt
d£dF
dx dx
d(f>'dF
dz
dr)
Whence
an an —
mVa + mA sinh mh = 0,
m V'a — mA' sinh mh' = 0.
Hence
if
U = n/m be the velocity of propagation, A sinh mh = a {V — U)
A' sinh mh' = a{V'U).
of pressure at the
surface of
If Sp, 8p' be the increments
separation due to the wave motion
+ gr] + di^jdt + ^ F — Am cosh mh cos (ma;  nt)]" = \V, F'  A'm cosh mh' cos {mx  nt)]' = ^ V\ ^P'Ip' + 9V + d<f)'/dt + i Therefore since hp = hp', ag {p — p') = Amp {V — U) cosh mh — A'mp {V — U) cosh mh' or g{pp') = mp{V Uf coth mh + mp {V  Uycothmh'...{19\
Bp/p
{ {
which determines U.
Stability
88.
and
Instability.
We
shall
now
consider a question which
viz,
has excited
or
a good deal of attention of late years,
instability of fluid motion.
the stability
If a disturbance be
communicated
to the
two liquids which
are considered in
^
85
— 87,
the surface of separation
r}
may be
conceived to be initially of the form
=a
sin
mx
or a cos mx,
where
m
is
a given real quantity, whose value depends upon the
nature of the disturbance.
An
equation of this kind does not of
96
WAVES.
course represent the most general possible kind of disturbance,
but inasmuch as by Fourier's theorem, any arbitrary function can be expressed in the form of a series of sines or cosines, or by a definite integral involving such quantities, an equation of this
form
is sufficient for
our purpose.
We
problem
have pointed out that the object of the wave motion
is
to determine
n
;
if
therefore n should
be found to
be a real quantity, the subsequent motion will be periodic, and
but if n should turn out to be an imaginary or a complex quantity, the final solution will involve real exponential quantities, and therefore the motion will tend to increase with the time and will be unstable.
therefore stable
;
To understand this more clearly, it must be recollected that we have neglected the quadratic terms in the equations of motion. The validity of this hypothesis depends firstly on the condition
that the disturbance
is
a small quantity, from which
it
follows
that the initial displacements and velocities must also be small
quantities secondly, on the condition that these quantities remain small during the subsequent motion. If the solution thus obtained consists of periodic terms whose amplitudes are
;
small
quantities
of
is
the
same order
as
the disturbance, the
and the system oscillates about its undisturbed configuration but if the solution should contain an exponential term of the form e*', where k is positive, the system will tend to depart from its undisturbed configuration, and the
second condition
fulfilled,
;
solution will only represent the state of things in the beginning of
the disturbed
motion; and the subsequent history of the motion
cannot be ascertained without finding the complete solution of the
equations of motion, in which the quadratic terms are taken into
account.
In the former case the motion
is
stable,
and in the
latter unstable.
To express
part of
this analytically, let us
initial
employ complex quantities,
is
and assume that the
form of the free surface
the real
where A,
B
and
m
are real; and let n be of the form a
4 1/3.
Since the form of the free surface at any subsequent time
is
this
becomes
77
= (4 
i5)
e'
<"*a;«')+^«,
STABILITY
the real part of which
7]
AND
INSTABILITY.
97
is
=
e^*
[A cos {mx
is positive,
— at) + B sin (mw — at)]
(20).
If therefore
the amplitude will tend to increase
with the time, and the motion will be unstable.
case
In such a
the two liquids
will,
after
a short time, become mixed
and will usually remain permanently mixed, if they are mixing; but if they are incapable of remaining permanently mixed, the lighter liquid will gradually work its
together,
capable of
way upwards, and a
89.
stable condition will ultimately be arrived at.
If one
liquid
is
resting
upon another, equilibrium
is
possible
when the heavier
is
liquid is at the top, but in this case
;
the equilibrium
that
'n?
unstable
for since p'
is
>
p, it follows
i/S.
from (18)
is
negative and therefore n
of the form +
Hence
is
in
the beginning of the disturbed motion, the free surface
of the
form
7}
= Ae*'^^
is
cos
{mx —
e).
If the upper liquid
with velocity V, the values of
moving with velocity V, and the lower U or n/m are determined by the
quadratic (19); and the condition of stability requires that the two roots of this quadratic should be real.
Putting
k, k' for
iii
coth
mh and m coth mh',
(19) becomes
kp{VUy+k'p'{V'Ur==g{pp').
The condition that the
be
real, is
roots of this quadratic in
U
should
g (kp
+ k'p') {p  p')  kk'pp' ( V >
p',
VJ > 0.
the lower liquid
be stable.
It therefore follows that if p
is
that
is if
denser than the upper liquid, the motion
may
But
if
p > p; or if no forces are in action, so that g be unstable.
90.
= 0,
the motion will
If no forces are in action, and both liquids are of unlimited
extent so that h
= h' = oo the equation for determining U becomes p{Vuy\p'(V'uy = o,
,
the roots of which are
p
B.
+
p'
H.
7
98 Hence U, and
therefore put
WAYES.
therefore
n, is
a complex quantity, and we
i^
may
U =a ±
where a and
yS
= n/m,
If therefore the initial
are determined from (21).
is
form of the free surface
its
form at any subsequent time
7)
may be
written
(22),
=
<*»" {a'e'^' e'"'
+ ft'e"*^']
where
a'
+h' =
a.
^
= when ^ = 0, in which is no initial displacement, = ^a. To express this result in real quantities, let case a =b' a = A — iB, and (22) becomes = {A cos m {x — at) + B sin m{x — at)] cosh vi^t,
If there
7)
corresponding to an
initial
7}
displacement
= A cos mx + B sin rruc.
is
91.
When
Let p
the initial velocity
zero there are three cases
worthy of
(i)
notice.
= p',
V=—
(21), a
V,
so that the densities
of the
liquids are equal,
and their undisturbed
velocities are equal
two and
opposite
;
then from
'r)
= 0,
yS
=
=
F, whence
= {A
cos
mx + B sin mx) cosh mVt.
0,
(ii)
Let p
= p,
V=
then a
^V,
^=^V,
whence
7}= {A cos
m{x — ^ Vt) + B 8mm{x — ^ Vt)}
cosh
^mVt,
hence the waves travel in the direction of the stream and with
half its velocity.
(iii)
Let p
= p',
V=
V.
In this case the roots are equal, be obtained from (21) by putting
but the general solution
may
V = V(l +7), where 7 ultimately vanishes.
a=V\^Vy,
and therefore since 7
17
We
thus obtain
/3
= iF7.
written
is
small, (22)
may be
Putting
= e*"* '^^'» {a + ^mVyt [a (lt) 2a']}. c = ^mVy {a (t~— i) — 2a'}, this becomes
77
= (a +
cOe'"''*^''.
LONG WAVES.
Let a
'r)
99
= A — lB, c = G — iD, then the real part is = {A + Ct) cos m {x  Vt) + (5 + Dt) sin m {x  Vt), = A cos mx + 5 sin mx. corresponding to an initial displacement is zero, G = mBV, D — — mA F, and If the initial velocity = (A + mBVt) cos m{x Vt) + {B mA Vt) sin m(x Vt).
7) i)
7)
The peculiarity of ment there is no real
this solution
is,
that previously to displaceall.
surface of separation at
air,
Hence
if
we
have a thin surface dividing the
such as a flag whose inertia
be
may be neglected, it appears from
changes in the density of the
unstable and that
it will flap.
the last equation that (neglecting the motion of the flag
will
air),
Lo7ig Waves in Shallow Water.
In the theory of long waves it is assumed, that the lengths waves are so great in proportion to the depth of the water, that the vertical component of the velocity can be neglected, and that the horizontal component is uniform across each section of the
92. of the
canal.
In
§
82 we saw that
JJ
if
the depth
is
small compared with
the wavelength, then
is
= gh,
provided the square of the velocity
this result in connection with
neglected.
We shall
now examine
the abovementioned assumption.
Let the motion be made steady by impressing on the whole liquid a velocity equal and opposite to the velocity of propagation
of the waves.
Let
;
rj
be the elevation of the liquid above the
U, u the velocities corresponding to h
undisturbed surface
h
and
+
7)
respectively.
The equation
of continuity gives
u = hU/{h
whence
If
hjp
U''u''= U' (2117}
+ T]), + rj'^IQi + TJf.
v)
be the excess of pressure due to the wave motion
.
ilP^h +
\
When
whence
7]jh is
if U'^
very small, the quantity in brackets is V^lh — g = gh, the change of pressure at a height h^rj vanishes
;
to a first approximation, If the condition
and therefore a
is satisfied,
free surface is possible.
U^ = gh
is
the change of pressure to
a second approximation
hp
=
3gpr}'l2h,
7—2
100
WAVES.
which shows that the pressure is defective at all parts of the wave Unless therefore 7\ can be neglected, which rj differs from zero. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of a free surface for a in other words, it is impossible for a long stationary long wave
at
—
wave of
finite height to be propagated in
still
water without change
77 of type. be obtained with a somewhat increased value of U; and if 77 be everywhere negative, with a diminished value. We therefore infer
If
however
be everywhere positive, a better result can
that waves of elevation travel with a
of depression with a
somewhat
higher,
somewhat
lower, velocity than that
and waves due to
half the undisturbed depths
93.
The theory
of long
waves in a canal may be investigated
analytically as follows^.
Let the origin be in the bottom of the liquid, h the undisturbed depth, Tj the elevation and let x be the abscissa of an element of
;
liquid
when undisturbed, ^ the
t,
horizontal
displacement.
The
is is
quantity of liquid originally between the planes x and x
+ dx
hdx at the end of an interval dx {1 + d^jdx), and its height
;
the breadth of this stratum
is
h
+
1),
whence the equation of
(23).
continuity
is
{l^d^ldx){h
+ n) = h
contained between the planes whose original distance was dx
let
Let us now investigate the motion of a column of liquid and
;
us suppose that in addition to gravity, small horizontal and
vertical disturbing forces
X and Fact.
Since the vertical accelera
tion is neglected, the pressure will be equal to the hydrostatic
pressure due to a column of liquid of height h
fh+r,
+
r},
whence
(24).
p = gp(h + vy) + p
J y
Ydy
is
The equation
of motion of the stratum
P^% = fx^^^'^^^^P^
Now
from
(24),
<25).
dp
dr}
^,dr)
C^+'idY
,
,^^,
1
2
Lord Eayleigh, "On Waves," Phil. Mag. Airy, "Tides and Waves," Encyc. Met.
April, 1876.
LONG WAVES.
also in
101
last
most problems to which the theory applies, the
two
terms on the righthand side of (26) are very much smaller than the first, and may therefore be neglected, whence (25) becomes
Substituting the value of
r]
from (23) we obtain
f^s(^+rFor a
first
<)•
approximation, we
of small quantities,
may neglect squares and products and (23) and (27) respectively become
v/h
= d^/da;
(28),
§^''§*''
<2«)
= 0, assume ^ = e'("*^""^^^and we In order to solve (29) when = {gh)^, which shows that the velocity of propagation obtain ii/m
is
X
equal to {gh)^.
Stationary Waves in Flowing Water^.
94.
Let us suppose that water
is
flowing uniformly along a
straight canal with vertical sides, and that between two points
A
and
B
there are small inequalities, and that beyond these points
is
the bottom
the
perfectly level.
Let a be the depth, u the velocity,
;
mean pressure beyond A b the depth, v the velocity, and q p the mean pressure beyond B: also let f be the difference of levels
of the bottom at
A
and B.
The total energy of the liquid per unit of the canal's length and breadth, at points beyond B, is ^v% + gi
Jo
ydy+w = ^(v' + gb)b + iu,
is
where
w
is
the wave energy, and the density of the liquid
taken
as unity.
At very great
distances beyond
B
the wave motion will
have subsided and
w
will be zero.
is
The equation
of continuity
au
•»
=
bv
=M
Mag.
(5)
(30).
xxii. 353.
Sir
W. Thomson,
Phil.
vol,
102
The dynamical equation
WAVES.
is
found from the consideration, that
the difference between the work done by the pressure
p upon the volume of water entering at A, and the work done by the pressure qAi B upon an equal volume of water passing away at B, is equal to the difference between the energy which passes away at B, and Whence the energy which enters at A.
'pau
— qhv = {^vh + \g})^
\
w)v — {^ua + g
I
ydy) u,
which by (30) becomes,
pq =
Now p
\v'
+ yh + wlh\v?g{f+^a)
is zero,
(31).
and q are the mean pressures, and therefore since the
pressure at the free surface
p = ya,
q=zyb + w'jh,
where w' denotes a quantity depending on the wave disturbance whence (31) becomes
2 I if {a"
 ¥)/a'¥ g(ab+f) + {w w')/b =
D' = 2a*V(a +
b),
(32).
If
we put
M=VD;
b,
D will denote a mean depth intermediate between a and approximately equal to their arithmetic mean when their
ence
is
and
differ
small in comparison with either
;
and
denote a corresponding
mean
velocity of flow.
V will similarly We thus obtain
from (32)
and there were no disturbance would be the same at great distances beyond A and B but if this is not the case, there will be a rise or fall of level, determined by the formula
If 6
to /,
 a were exactly equal
of the water beyond B, the
mean
level of the water
;
yoa Jsmall inequalities
;
xT^lgD
'
Let us now suppose that between
A
and
B
there are various
each of these inequalities will produce small
is
waves whose nature
w';
determined by the form of the functions w,
both be small quantities and the sign of
hence
w
and
w
will
y
will
be independent of that of
w — w'.
Now /
is
positive or
negative according as the bottom at
A
is
higher or lower than the
STATIONARY WAVES IN FLOWING WATER.
bottom at B.
rises
t03
when
the bottom falls,
the converse is
Hence if V < gD the upper surface of the water and falls when the bottom rises ; and the case when V^ > gD.
Theory of Group Velocity.
95.
When
a group of waves advances into
is
still
water,
it is
observed that the velocity of the group
individual waves of which
first
it is
less
than that of the
composed.
explained by Sir G. Stokes ^
This phenomenon was who regarded the group as
formed by the superposition of two infinite trains of waves of
equal amplitudes and nearly equal wavelengths, advancing in the
same
direction.
Let the two trains of waves be represented by cos k{Vt
— a;)
and cos
k'
(V't
— x)
;
their resultant
is
equal to
QOBk{Vtx)+cos k'{V'tx)=^
cos I [{k'V
kV)t{k' k)x]
xcos^[{k'V' + kV)t{k'\k)x].
If k' — k, F' — F be small, this represents a train of waves whose amplitude varies slowly from one point to another between and 2, forming a series of groups separated from one the limits another by regions comparatively free from disturbance. The
position at time
t
of the middle of the group,
which was
initially at
the origin,
is
given by
(k'V'kV)tik'k)x =
which shows that the velocity of propagation
0,
U of
the group
is
U = (k'WkV)/{k'k).
In the limit when the number of waves in each group
indefinitely great
is
we have
^
k'
=
k
\
8k,
V'=V+SV,
whence
.r_d{kV)
~
dk
'
Capillary Waves.
96.
Most
liquids
which are incapable of remaining perma
nently mixed, exhibit a certain phenomenon called capillarity^,
'
Smith's
;
Prize
Examination,
1876
;
and Lord
Rayleigli,
"
On
Progressive
Waves " The
'^
Proc. Lond. Soc. vol. ix.
reader
who
desires to study the theory of Capillarity is
recommended
104
when
WAVES.
in contact with one another.
This phenomenon can be
is
explained by supposing that the surface of separation
of sustaining a tension, which
is
capable
equal in
all
directions,
and
is
independent of the form of the surface of separation.
surface tension depends upon the nature of both the which are in contact with one another. Thus at a temperature of 20° C, the surface tension of water in contact with
liquids
air is 81
The
dynes per centimetre
;
whilst
the
surface
tension
of
water in contact with mercury
is
418 dynes per centimetre.
The
liquids,
surface tension diminishes as the temperature increases
also a surface tension cannot exist at the
common
surface of
two
such as water and alcohol, which are capable of becoming
permanently mixed.
97.
We
T
shall
now
consider the effect of surface tension upon
the propagation of waves.
.
Let
be the surface tension, and
let
p and p +
hp be the
pressures just outside and just inside the then
free surface of a liquid;
Si>^+^'?
+
=O
(33).
But
tion,
if
we
resolve the forces which act
hs of the free surface vertically,
and put
h)(^
for
upon a small element and neglect the vertical accelerathe angle which hs subtends at the centre of
curvature,
we obtain
whence
8p
= T^.
X,
Now
therefore
^ = cot
r^
= — cosec^ x j
^tt,
•
Since
ds
x
i^
nearly equal to
we may put cosec%=l, and
= dx, whence
to consult
Chapter xx. of Maxwell's Heat
EncyclopcEilia Britannica by the
and same author.
;
also the article
on Capillarity
in the
A
table of the superficial tensions of various liquids will be found in Everett's
Units and Physical Constants, p. 49.
CAPILLARY WAVES.
105
Substituting in (38), differentiating the result with respect to
t,
and remembering that
17
•= d(f)/dz,
and that
d^cji/dx^
= — d'^^jdz'^,
^^^^
we obtain
pd^+^d^+df^
This
98.
is
the condition to be satisfied at the free surface.
shall
We
now apply the preceding
result to determine
the capillary waves propagated in an ocean of depth h.
Let
<!)
=A
cosh
m(z + h) cos (mx — nt).
obtain
Substituting in (34)
we
Tifn?jp
+ mg = n^ coth mh,
whence
U^ = n^jm? = {g^l^TT
+ 27rT/pX) tanh 2'7rh/\
(35).
Equation (35) determines the velocity of propagation corresponding to a given wavelength.
99.
Let us now suppose that the depth h
treated as infinite
;
is
so great that
mh
is
may be
then coth
it will
mh = ±1
according as
for
m
positive or negative.
Hence
Tm?lp
be sufficient
our purpose
to discuss the equation
+ mg = n^
(36),
when
m is
positive.
When
motion
is
m = 0, n =
is
;
and as
m
increases from zero to infinity
the value of n^
always positive, and consequently periodic
is for all
is
possible for all values of m, that
wavelengths.
If a given value
be assigned to
is
n,
(36)
a cubic fur deter
mining m.
complex.
to
The
real root is obviously positive;
positive, the other
discriminant^ of the cubic
and since the two roots are
Hence there
is
only one wavelength corresponding
any given period.
1
It
can be shown by means of Taylor's theorem, that,
is
if
f{x) be any rational
algebraic function of x, the condition that the equation /(.r)=0 should have a pair
of equal roots
obtained by eliminating x between f(x) =
result of the elimination is a certain function of the coefficients
and f [x) = 0. The which is called the
discriminant of f{x) zero or positive.
•
and
it
is
shown
in treatises on Algebra that two of the roots
of a cubic will be real, equal or complex, according as the discriminant is negative, If the cubic be
Ax^ + Bx^\Gx+ D, the discriminant
is
2742D2 + iBm + iAC^l8ABCDB^C\
106
If
WAVES.
U
be the velocity of propagation, n
= mU; whence
(36)
becomes
TmypmU^ + g =
Hence
(37).
and therefore U must be a minimum for some intermediate value of m, which by ordinary methods can be shown to be given by the equation V''^=2Tvi/p. By means of this result, the minimum velocity of propagation and the corresponding wavelength can be shown to be given by
od
,
U=
when
m=
and
m=
cjo
;
the equations
U={^Tglp)\
X = 27r{TJgp)i
(38).
A wave whose length is less than the preceding critical value of X is called by Lord Kelvin a ripple^. Now if we write (36)
in the form
U^
it
= gX/27r + 27rT/pX
(39),
follows that
when X
;
hand side are equal most important, whilst
important.
given by (38) both terms on the rightalso for long waves the first term is the
is
for short
waves the second
is
the most
Hence the effect of gravity is most potent in producing long waves, and the effect of surface tension in producing
ripples.
100.
In
§
85 we have considered the propagation of waves at
the surface of separation of two liquids, which are moving with
different
velocities.
We
shall
now
consider the production of
still
ripples
by wind blowing over the surface of
water.
Let
V
be the velocity of the wind, which
is
supposed to be
a
parallel to the undisturbed surface of the water,
air referred to water.
the density of
Since the changes of density of the air are very small in the
neighbourhood of the water, the
as
air
may approximately be
if
regarded
an incompressible
fluid,
whence
the accented letters refer to
the water, the kinematical conditions at the boundary give
(f)
(p'
= Vx + a(U—V) e~'"^ cos {nia; — nt), = — a Ue^ cos (mx — nt),
where U is the velocity of propagation of the waves in the water, and 7} = a sin {mx — nt) is the equation of its free surface.
•
Since
the vertical acceleration
is
is
neglected, the dynamical
condition at the free surface
T8x + {Bp^p')Ss=0,
1
Fhil.
Mag.
(4) vol.
xm.
CAPILLARY WAVES.
Bp8p' =
107
T^
^
(40).
or
Now Bp + gar] + j> + ^ {V  am {U V) sin {mx  nt)Y  ^ F = 0, hp\aa[g \niU —V) — m{U—V)] sin {mx — nt) = 0.
Similarly
Bp' \{g
— Un) a sin {mx — nt) = 0,
whence (40) becomes
Tm'mU^(7m{UVy + {\a)g = (41). Putting U—n/m this may be written Tm''<rV^m' + 2aVnm + g{la)m = {l+a)nK..{4>2).
Let
there
is
W be the velocity of propagation of waves in water when
no wind
;
then writing
V ^0, U= W in
(41)
we obtain
(43).
Tm'{l + (T)W'm + {la)g =
The minimum value
of
W
is
given by the equation
(44),
W^ = ^.JTg{l<T) L + cr
and the corresponding value of X
is
\=
Multiply (43) by
obtain,
27r^/T/g{l
a)
(45).
m
and subtract from (42) and we
shall
r
Hence
if
(iT^r"=v'~iTa)
0F2
^^^>
the value of n will be complex, and periodic motion will be
Equation (44) gives the minimum value of IF hence in order that wavemotion may be possible for waves of all lengths,
impossible.
;
we must have
V^<?^^i±^^Tg{la)
When
(47)
is satisfied,
(47).
(46)
may be
written
We
shall
now
discuss this equation.
108
Case(i).
WAVES.
V<Ws/(l + <r)/a.
negative
In this case one of the values of U is positive and the other hence waves can travel either with or against the wind. Moreover since the positive value is numerically greater than the
;
negative value, waves travel faster with the wind than against the wind also the velocity of waves travelling against the wind
;
is
always
less
than W.
Case(ii).
V>W
^/{l
+
a)l(r.
In this case both values of
travel against the wind.
U are
positive
;
hence waves cannot
Case
(iii).
with the wind
is
When V<2W, the velocity of waves travelling >TF; when V > 2W this velocity is < TT; and
is
when
V—2W,
the velocity of waves travelling with the wind
undisturbed.
EXAMPLES.
1.
A
liquid of infinite depth
is
bounded by a
fixed plane
perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the waves.
Prove
that each element of liquid will vibrate in a straight line, and
draw a figure representing the free surface and the direction of motion of the elements, when the crest of the wave reaches the
fixed plane.
2.
Prove that the velocity of propagation of long waves in a
is
semicircular canal of radius a and whose banks are vertical,
3.
If
two
series of
waves of equal amplitude and nearly equal
wavelength travel in the same direction, so as to form alternate
lulls
and roughness, prove that in deep water these are propagated
;
with half the velocity of the waves
and that as the
oo
ratio of the
depth
to the
wavelength decreases from
to 0, the ratio of the
1.
two
velocities of propagation increases
4.
from ^ to
If a small system of rectilinear
waves move parallel
to
and
over another large rectilinear system, prove that the path of a
particle of water is
an epicycloid or hypocycloid, according as the two systems are moving in the same or opposite directions.
EXAMPLES.
5.
109
is
A
fine
tube made of a thin slightly elastic substance
;
filled
with liquid
prove that the velocity of propagation of a
liquid
its
is
disturbance in the
(\0/ap)^,
A,
where a
is
the internal
diameter of the tube, 6
of the material of which
6.
thickness,
the coefficient of elasticity
liquid.
it is
made, and p the density of the
is
A
horizontal rectangular box
completely
filled
with
three liquids which do not mix, whose densities reckoned down
wards are
^1, l^, Is
and whose depths when in equilibrium are Show that if long waves are propagated at their common surfaces, the velocity of propagation V must satisfy
ctj,
a^, os,
respectively.
the equation
U
Prove that liquid of density p flowing with mean velocity through an elastic tube of radius a, will throw the surface into
7.
slight stationary corrugations, of
which the number per unit of
length
is
(2paU'\y^/(2'7raT)i,
where and T
8.
X, is
the modulus of elasticity of the substance of the tube,
its total tension.
Prove that the velocity potential
(f)
= A{\ +
27ry/X,) sin 27r (vt
 x)/X
satisfies
the equation of continuity in a mass of water, provided
is
the ratio y/\
so small for all possible values of y, that its square
may be
neglected.
Hence prove that
k,
if
the water in a canal of
uniform breadth and uniform depth
to gravity
be acted upon in addition
and
m
by the horizontal force Ha~^ sin 2 (mt — oc/a), where are small and a is large, the equation of the free surface
of the form
H
may be
y ^
9.
= k + ^^—
,
2 {gk
„—„. — m^a^) cos
2 (mt
 xja).
fill
Two
liquids of density
/?,
p'
completely
a shallow pipe
is
;
prove that the velocity of propagation of long waves
"^
~
g{ pp')AA'
h{A'p
+ Ap')'
where A, A' are the areas of the vertical sections of the two liquids when undisturbed, and h is the breadth of the surface of
separation.
110
WAVES.
If the upper liquid were moving with mean velocity U\ 10. and the lower with mean velocity U, and there is a surface tension T, prove that the wavelength is determined by the equation
4T7r»/V
11.
= 6 (p U'jA + p' U'yA') g(p p).
If the bottom of a horizontal canal of depth h be con
strained to execute a simple harmonic motion, such that the vertical
displacement at a distance x from a given line across the canal and
perpendicular to
small
;
its length,
be given by k cos
is
m{x— vt),
k being
show that when the motion surface is given by
y ^
12.
steady, the form of the free
= h\
,
kv"
v
r — gh cos m
filled
(x
/
^x — vt).
A
shallow trough
is
with
a,
of the water being k and
its
density
oil and water, the depth and that of the oil being
v
h and its density long waves is
V^lg
p.
Prove that the velocity of propagation
of
=^{h^k)+\
is
{{h
 ky + ^hkp/a]i.
oil
(Note that there may be slipping between the
13. If
and water.)
water
flowing with
velocity
proportional to the
distance from the bottom,
its surface,
V
is
being the velocity of the stream at
prove that the velocity of propagation
given by
U
of waves in
the direction of the stream
(J7where
14.
VyV{U
V) W'/gh
W=0,
still
W
is
the velocity of propagation of waves in
liquids of densities p, p' each of
,
water.
Two
2/i,
which half
fills
a pipe
of which the cross section
is
a square with a vertical diagonal of
length
are slightly disturbed.
Neglecting the disturbing effect
of the boundary in the neighbourhood of the surface of separation,
prove that the velocity of propagation of progressive waves along
the pipe
is
given by the equation
TJ^
= /(ppO
2m{p + p)^
(tanh or coth) mh.
CHAPTER
V.
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
101.
The
present Chapter will be devoted to the considera
tion of certain problems of twodimensional motion, which involve
molecular rotation.
A
vortex line
may be
defined to be a line whose direction
coincides with the direction of the instantaneous axis of molecular
rotation.
Hence the
differential equations of a vortex line are
dx
_dy _dz
When
the motion
is
in two dimensions,
w=0,
du/dz
=
0,
dv/dz
= 0,
^
= 0,
t;
= 0,
z.
and therefore the vortex
lines are all parallel to the axis of
it
In the case of a liquid,
that the rotation ^
satisfies
follows from § 20, equations (27),
may be any
d^
dK
function of
x,
y and
t,
which
the equation,
d^
^
Tt^^Tx^'Ty''
also a current function always exists, such that
(i>'
u
whilst u, V
= dyfr/dy,
v
= — d^jdx
(2)
;
and ^ are connected together by the equation
^^ = 2? dx dy
Substituting for u, v in terms of
i^r,
(3).
we
obtain
S?^f=o
(*>
112
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
(1),
Substituting from (2) and (4) in
we obtain
(5).
d^djrd_d^d\^
^t
ay dx
dx dyl
From
this equation it follows that the molecular rotation is
not a quantity which can be chosen
satisfy (5),
arbitrarily
is
;
for
a/t
must
and the corresponding value of f
then determined
by
(4).
When
of
t,
the motion is steady, none of the quantities are functions and we obtain from (1) by Lagrange's method
where
F
is
pressure
is
an arbitrary function, which agrees with determined by (31) of the same section.
§ 24.
The
liquid
The current function at all points of the is now determined by the equation
V2»r+i?"(Ar)
rotationally
moving
=
moving
(6).
At every point
of the irrotationally
0,
liquid which sur
rounds the vortices, f =
and therefore
*±+*t =
doc^
dy^
is
(7)
Equations (4) and (7) show, that ^
definitely long cylinders
(y27r,
the potential
of in
composed of attracting matter of density which occupy the same positions as the vortices.
102.
The
integral JJ^dxdy
;
is
called the vorticity of the
shall
mass
of rotationally moving liquid
and we
now show
that the
vorticity is an absolute constant.
Draw any
rotationally
closed curve which completely surrounds all the
liquid
moving
and does not cut any of
it.
Then
is irro
since ^
is
zero at all points of the liquid where the motion
tational, it follows that if
t denote the vorticity,
T
= JJ^dxdy,
where the integration extends over the whole area enclosed by the curve. Substituting the value of f from (3) we obtain by
Green's theorem.
= J{udx + vdy).
SINGLE CIRCULAR VORTEX.
where the
line integral extends
113
round the closed curve. By § 27, k due to the whole of the rotationally moving liquid within the curve and by the same article, the circulation has been shown to be constant. Hence the vorticity is constant and equal to half the circulation.
this line integral is equal to the circulation
;
103.
We
shall
now
consider the steady motion in an infinite
is
liquid of a single rectilinear vortex,
of radius a,
whose cross section and whose molecular rotation is constant.
a circle
In order that the cross section
necessary that
i/r
may remain
circular,
it
is
should be a function of r alone.
Denoting the values of quantities inside the vortex by accented letters, equations (4) and (7) become
air
r ar
inside the vortex,
.(8),
which gives the value of
ir
and
(«).
'^^fwhich gives the value outside.
The complete
integrals of (8)
and
(9) are
and
i/r
=
(7
log r
4
D.
J.
Now
y^'
also at the
must not be infinite when r= 0, and therefore boundary of the vortex, where r=a,
>/r'
=
;
= 1^,
dyfr'/dr
= dy^jdr
;
whence
5 i^a=== Cloga + D
=—
The constant
fa^
and therefore
=
^ct/tt
=
m/7r,
where a
is
the area of the cross section, and
m is
the vorticity of
the vortex.
D
contributes nothing to the velocity,
and may therefore be omitted, whence
,^'
= ^^(a''r'')(m/7r)loga — (in/7r)logr
(10),
(11).
'>^=
B. H.
8
114
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
is
Now  dyjr/dr
the vortex
the velocity perpendicular to
r,
whence
inside
dy}r'/dr=^r
(12),
which vanishes when r
= 0, and
dyjridr
outside
= m/7rr
(13).
Hence a single vortex whose cross section is circular, if existing in an infinite liquid, loill remain at rest and will rotate as a rigid It will also produce at every point of the irrotationally body. moving liquid with which it is surrounded, a velocity which is
perpendicular
cross section,
to the line
joining that point with the centre of
is inversely
its
and which
proportional
to the distance
of that point from the
104.
centre.
Outside the vortex, where the motion
is
irrotational,
a
velocity potential of course exists.
d<f>
To
find its value
dy^r
we have
d^y
my
TTT^
'
dx ~
<i
d^ _
dy
_ mx
irr^
dy
dx
whence
^
=
ttJ
^—
x^
+ y""
<^
^ =
is
ylx (mjir) tan~^ ^1 ^ /
/
(14).
It therefore follows that
cyclic
a manyvalued function, whose
The circulation, i.e. the line integral J(udx + vdy), is zero when taken round any closed curve which does not surround the vortex, and is equal to 2m when the curve surrounds the vortex whence if k be the circulation, m =  /c, and
constant
is
2m.
;
the values of
<f)
and
i/r
may
be written
y^
<f)
= {kJItt) tan~' yjx,
=
{kJ^tt) log
r.
105.
we
shall
The investigations of the last two articles are kinematical now calculate the value of the pressure within and without
the vortex.
Let the values of the quantities inside the vortex be
guished from those outside by accented
letters.
distin
Outside the vortex
plp=G^\q\
and since ^
= 0,
and q
= m.jirr = «:/27rr, we p/p = G  K^/Sir^r^
obtain
(15)^
SINGLE CIRCULAR VORTEX.
whence
if IT
115
be the pressure at an infinite distance
p
p
SttV^
is
^
^'
The equation
of motion inside the vortex
1 dp'
_
q'^
K^r
47r^a*
p dr
r
whence
where
^ = —+ the pressure at the centre of the vortex.
(17),
P is
At the surface of the vortex where r = a,p=p', whence
Plp=U/pKy4>7r^a^
and therefore
(18),
^=n__^
11
for
(l^)
(19).
Hence
p' will
if
<
K^pj^ir^a^,
become negative
outer boundary.
there
is
some value of r<a, which shows that
is
a cylindrical hollow will exist in the vortex, which with
its
concentric
no hollow, equations (16) and (19) show that the pressure is a minimum at the centre of the vortex, where it is equal to 11 — K^pj^ir^a^, and that it gradually increases until the
surface
it is
When
reached, at which
it is
equal to
11
— K^pj^ir^a^,
its
and that
then continues to increase to
It is also possible to
infinity,
where
value
is IT.
have a hollow cylindrical space, round
which there
is cyclic
irrotational motion.
Such a space
is
called
a hollow vortex.
The
condition for
its
existence requires that
p=
when r=a, and
therefore
by (16)
n = /c^p/SttW.
This equation determines the value of the radius of the hollow,
when the pressure
106.
at a very great distance is given.
Kirchhoff has shown that
it
is
possible for a vortex
whose
cross section is
an invariable
is
ellipse,
and whose molecular
rotation at every point
constant, to rotate in a state of steady
motion in an infinite liquid, provided a certain relation exists between the molecular rotation and the angular velocity of the
axes of the cross section.
8—2
116
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
function
is
The current
evidently equal to the potential of an
elliptic cylinder of
density
f/27r.
Let a and
yfr
b
be the semiaxes of
the cross section, then the value of
inside the vortex
may be
taken to be
ylr'
= D^(Aa^ + Bf)/(A+B),
i/r'
where A, B,
Let x
let
t;
D are
t)
constants, for this value of
cos
,
satisfies (4).
€
= c cosh
^,y=c sinh r) sin f where
;
= {0^ — b^)^, and
4
= y9 at the surface the value of becomes ^' = D ^d" {A cosh^ cos^ f + j5 sinh'' sin" f )/(^
i/r'
7]
17
B).
Also
let
the value of ^ outside the vortex be
f
= A'e^ cos = const.,
2f
+ Dr^l^.
= d\jr'/d7].
When
t;
= /S, we
yjr—
must have
yjr'
dyjr/dr)
Therefore
and
A 'e"^ =  i ^c" (A cosh'' /3B sinh" ^)/(A + B) A'e^ = ^ (A  B) sinh /3 cosh ^/(A + B).
^c'
Whence
Therefore
A' {a  bf = ^
'
2(^+5) 2(^+5) Aa = Bb and = D^ (bx" + ay')l{a + b).
'>lr'
;
<^^pl^ = ^^SA^^1^
'
Let w be the angular velocity of the axes of the liquid parallel to them, then
d)yco
u, v
the velocities
= u = dyfr'/dy =  2a^y/{a + b), y + X(o = v =  dy{r'/dx = 2b^a)l(a + b).
is
The boundary condition
^dF_^
dx
where
.dF^^
^ dy
'
F = {xjaf + (y/by 1 = 0.
/
Whence
26f
'
2a^\
1
/
\l
by.
r.
therefore
a>
= 2ab^l(a +
acoy/b,
We
therefore obtain
x=the integrals of which are
y
= bmx/a,
x = La
cos
(cot
+ a),
y
= Lb sin (at +
a),
STABILITY OF A VORTEX.
where
ellipse.
117
L
and a are the constants of integration.
Whence
is
the
path of every particle relatively to the boundary
a similar
107.
A
is
complete investigation respecting the stability of a
vortex
given in
my
larger treatise
;
but
it
may be
stated that
when the cross section is which we have considered,
circular both cases of steady
viz.
motion
the steady motion of a solid vortex,
;
and the steady motion of a hollow vortex, are stable and consequently if a small disturbance be communicated to either kind of vortex, the vortex will proceed to oscillate about its mean configuration in steady motion, and will not mix with the surrounding liquid. It is otherwise if the liquid composing the vortex is of
different density to the
surrounding liquid, for in that case the
;
and consequently after a sufficient time has elapsed, the two liquids will become mixed together, and will form what has been called a vortex sponge. The stability of Kirchhoff's elliptic vortex does not appear to have been
motion
will
be unstable
investigated.
The preceding
is
results are
however only applicable when there
it is
a single vortex in an infinite liquid, and
therefore im
portant to enquire, whether the presence of other vortices or the
presence of plane or curved boundaries renders the motion unstable.
This question has been dealt with by Prof.
J. J.
Thomson, and he
has shown that when there are two rectilinear vortices in a liquid,
the linear dimensions of whose cross sections are small in comparison
with the shortest distance between them, their cross
always remain approximately circular
;
sections will
and
it
is
inferred from this that a similar result holds good in the case of
any number of
vortices.
We
therefore
conclude that when a
number
of vortices of small cross section exist in a liquid, they
may be
treated as
if their cross
sections remain circular throughout
the subsequent motion, provided none of the vortices approach
It therefore follows, that the effect of too closely to one another. any number of vortices upon any external point of the liquid is equal to the sum of the effects due to each so that if mi, m^ their distances from be the vorticities of the vortices, rj, r^.
;
any point motion is
P of
the liquid, the current function due to the whole
ir
=  (mi/7r) log r, 
(r/ia/Tr)
log
ra

118
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
Moreover since a rectilinear vortex is incapable of producing any motion of translation upon itself, it follows, that the motion of any particular vortex is the same as would be produced by all the other vortices upon the point occupied by the particular
vortex, if the latter did not exist.
108.
We
shall pass
vortices of small
on to consider the motion of a number of and approximately circular cross sections.
it
Putting mjir
= M,
follows that since
we
neglect deformations
of the cross sections, the current function due to each vortex will
log r, and the velocity due to it at any point P will be Mjr, he — and will be perpendicular to the line joining P with the vortex. Hence if two vortices of equal vorticities exist in a liquid, each vortex will describe a circle whose centre is the middle point of the line joining them, with velocity M/2c, where 2c is the distance between them and therefore each vortex will move as if there existed a stress in the nature of a tension between them, of magnitude M^j^c^}
;
M
To find
mentioned
the stream lines relative to the line joining the vortices,
take moving axes, in which the axis of x coincides with the aboveline
;
then
[f
^ = ^M log {/ + {x cY]
Also
+ (a; +
c)}.
— a)y = u = dy}rjdi/, y + cox = V = — d^jdx,
X
where
a>
= Mjlc^.
Let
therefore
x
y,
= dx/dy,
y
= — dx/dx.
Multiplying by
x respectively, subtracting and integrating,
we obtain
X=
whence the equation of the
ia)(x'
109. If
const.
=A
+ {x + cf] = A.
relative stream lines is
+ f) \M\o^
{f
^{x cf\
[y^
two opposite vortices of
vorticities
m
is
and
—m
are
present in the liquid, the vortices will
line joining
move perpendicularly
where 2c
to the
them with
velocity M/2c,
the distance
between them.
'
Greenhill,
"Plane Vortex Motion," Quart. Journ.
vol. xv. p. 20.
MOTION OF TWO VORTICES.
In this case there
it
U9
is
evidently no flux across the plane which
and which is perpendicular to remove one of the vortices and substitute this plane for it. Hence a vortex in a liquid which is bounded by a fixed plane will move parallel to the plane, and the motion of the liquid will be the same as would be caused by the original vortex, together with another vortex of equal and opposite vorticity, which is at an equal distance and on the opposite side of the
bisects the line joining the vortices,
;
we may
therefore
plane.
This vortex
is
evidently the image of the original vortex, and
we may
therefore apply the theory of images in considering the
motion of vortices in a liquid bounded by planes.
110.
If
there
is
a vortex at the point
{x,
y)
moving
in a
square comer bounded by the planes Ox, Oy, the images will
two negative vortices at the points {—x, y), {x, — y), and a positive vortex at the point {— x, — y)\ for if these vortices be substituted for the planes, their combined effect will be to cause no flux across them.
consist of
y
r?
C^P
X
v>
•
Since the vortex
translation
is
incapable
of producing
will
any motion of
upon itself, duced by the combined
.
its
motion
effect of its
be due solely to that proimages whence,
;
M
2y
My
2{a^
Mxy"")
+
2y (of + f)
My''
M
2x
therefore
xja?
a"^
Mx
2{a?\2/2)
2x
(ar*
+ t/')
whence
or
+ yjy^ = 0, {x^ + y'^) = a?y^,
r sin 29
=
2a,
120
which
is
KECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
the curve described
is
by the
vortices.
The curve
its
in
question
the reciprocal polar with respect to
;
centre of a
fourcusped hypocycloid
called Cotes' Spirals,
but it also belongs to the class of curves which are the curves described by a particle
under the action of a central force varying inversely as the cube
of the distance.
Since
ayy
— xy = — ^M
the vortex describes the spiral in exactly the same way as a particle
would describe
111.
it,
if
repelled from the origin with a force SM'I4>r^.
The method
of images
may
also
be applied to determine
is
the current function due to a vortex in a liquid, which
externally or internally
bounded
by a
circular cylinder.
Let
let
H be the vortex, a the radius of the cylinder, OH =
a.
c
;
and
S
he
point such that
OS=f=a/c, then the
triangles
SOP
and
POH are similar,
therefore
also
therefore
SPO = OHP, OPH = OSP, OSP + SPA = OAP = OP A = OPH + HPA, SPA = HP A.
Let us place another vortex of equal and opposite vorticity
at S, then the velocity along
OP
due to the two vortices
is
u
=
M gpSmHPO + ~smSPO.
sin
sin
M
But
HPO ^ sin HPO SPO ~ sin OHP
= OH/a = HP ISP,
hence w
=
and there
is
no
flux across the cylinder.
VORTEX IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER.
Hence the image
121
of a vortex inside a cylinder is another vortex
of equal and opposite vorticity situated on the line joining the
vortex with the centre of the cylinder, and at a distance a^/c from
the centre, and the vortex will describe a circle about the centre
with a velocity
M/SH=Mc/{a'c').
The current
cylinder
is
function of the liquid at a point
(r,
6) within the
—
i^^^iog^2+y2_2r/cos^
i
f^^G^
/If
1
—
2rc cos 6
When
the vortex
is
situated outside the cylinder, the image
consists of a vortex of equal
and opposite
vorticity at
H, together
with a vortex of equal vorticity at 0.
cylinder,
The
latter vortex does not
produce any alteration in the normal velocity at the surface of the
and
its
existence arises from the fact that the circulation
round any closed curve which surrounds the cylinder must remain unaltered. The circulation due to vortex at 5^ is — ^irM, whilst
that due to the vortex at
cancel one another.
112.
is
IttM, so that the two circulations
We
source
is
m log r
is
have shown that the velocity potential due to a hence if we have a combination of a source of
;
strength m, and a vortex of vorticity m', the velocity potential due
to tlie
two
(f)
=
m log r + M tan~^ y/x,
_ my + Mx +
x'^ y"^
where
M = w'/tt.
Whence
mx — My x^ + y^
An
vortex.
^
'
arrangement of
this
kind
is
called
Rankines free spiral
In order to find the stream lines
ordinates,
let us transfer to polar co
and we
find
dr
_m
dd
_M
dt~r'
whence
if
^di~^'
m/M = a,
we obtain
equiangular
and therefore the stream
lines are
spirals.
122
113.
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
We
shall conclude this
Chapter by proving three funda
mental properties of vortex motion.
We
rotation.
have defined a vortex line to be a
line
whose direction
coincides with the direction of the instantaneous axis of molecular
If through every point of a small closed curve a series of
vortex lines be drawn, they will enclose a volume of fluid which
may be
called a vortex filament, or shortly a vortex.
We
have shown that
if
the forces which act on the fluid have a
is
potential,
and the density
a function of the pressure, the motion
of the fluid constituting the vortex can never
It will
become
irrotational.
now be shown
Every vortex
is
that every vortex possesses the following
three fundamental properties
(i)
always composed of
the
the
same elements of
fluid.
(ii)
The product of
its length.
molecular rotation of any vortex into
its
cross section is constant with respect to the time,
and
is the
same
throughout
(iii)
Every vortex must
either form,
a closed curve, or have
its
extremities in the boundaries of the fluid.
To prove the
first
&>
proposition, let
P
and
Q be any two
adjacent
points on a vortex,
the molecular rotation at P.
Then by the
definition of a vortex line,
PQ
is
the direction about which the
rotation
w
takes place.
Let
St
;
P', Q'
be the positions of
P and
is
Q
at the
end of an interval
then we have to show that P'Q'
the instantaneous axis of
rotation at P'.
Let
X, y,
z be the coordinates of
P
;
u, v,
w
the velocities of
the element of fluid which at time
If
t is
situated at P.
PQ = h,
the coordinates of
Q
are evidently
X
also
+ A.f
y,
/ft),
y
t),
+ hr]jw,
it
z
+ A^/ft)
v^,
since
u = F{x,
z,
follows that if u^,
w^ be the
velocities of Q,
u^
= F(x + h^/co,
h
f
y
+ hrj/o),
du
dy
z
+
/i^/&), t)
^,du
f,du\
—
by
§ 20.
^^ /f
0)
dt \p l(D
(^«).
PROPERTIES OF VORTEX MOTION.
The
coordinates of P' are
123
X and those of
Q' are
+ uSt,
y
+ vht,
z
+ wH,
=
by
(20),
a;
+ iiU +
^
^', 77', ^'
where
p' is
the density, and
are the components
of molecular rotation at P'
Hence
cosines,
if h!
denote the length of P'Q', and
X',
/x',
v its direction
then
VA'
= hp^'Jwp,
jxh!
= hpr)'/(op',
v'h'
= hp^'/cop'
(21),
whence
X'j^'
= ^'jrj' = v'l^',
which shows that P'Q' is the instantaneous axis of rotation at P' and therefore P'Q' is the element of the vortex line, which at time
t
occupied the position PQ.
This proves the
first
theorem.
(21) and
To prove the secood theorem, square and add
obtain
h'
we
=
hpco'/mp'.
is
But
since the
mass of the element
phcr
constant
whence
which proves that
Since
it
aco is
= p'h'cr', ctcd = a'w',
independent of the time.
^ + ^ + ^?=0, ax ay dz
can be shown by integrating this expression by parts throughout
the interior of any closed surface, as was done in proving Green's
Theorem, that
sm + m
or
«f ) ds =
///
(g + 1 + f) d.dyd. = 0,
edS =
0,
//(&>
cos
where
to
e is
the angle between the axis of rotation and the normal outwards.
S drawn
Now
if
we choose S
so as to coincide with the surface of
finite portion of a vortex of small section,
together with
its
any two
124
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
;
ends, cos e vanishes except at the two ends
and
is
equal to
+1
at
one end, and
—1
at the other
(o^dSi
;
hence
—
co2d8i
(ii).
= 0,
if
which proves the second part of
To prove the
third theorem,
we observe that
a vortex did
it
not form a closed curve or have
its
extremities in the boundary,
would be possible to draw a closed surface cutting the vortex once only, and the surface integral would not vanish.
The first theorem and the first part of the second theorem depend on dynamical considerations the second part of this theorem and the third theorem are kinematical.
;
114.
The second and
third theorems enable us to prove that
is
the vorticity of any mass of rotationally moving liquid
constant.
Let us consider the case in which the rotationally moving
liquid consists of a
irrotationally
number
liquid
;
of vortices which are surrounded by
moving
and
let
us
first
confine our attention
to a particular vortex of the system.
Draw any
surface cutting each filament of the vortex at right
;
angles once only
then the vorticity of the vortex
is
r^fJcodS
(22).
have proved that codS is constant along a vortex and is independent of the time filament hence the surface integral is an absolute constant. By a theorem due to Sir G.
;
Now we
Stokes (which
is
is
proved in
my
larger treatise) this surface integral
equal to the line integral ^f{udx
+
vdy
+ wdz) taken round any
liquid,
closed curve
drawn
in the irrotationally
moving
which em
braces the vortex once only.
ring, or of a vortex
Hence the
its
vorticity of a closed vortex
which has
extremities in the boundaries of
the liquid,
is
equal to half the circulation due to the vortex.
it
In the same manner
can be shown that the vorticity of any
number
of vortices is equal to half the
sum
of the circulations
due
to each vortex.
When
ticity is
the whole of the liquid
is
moving
;
rotationally, the vor
determined in the same manner but since it is impossible to draw any closed curve throughout whose length udx 4 vdy I wdz
is
a perfect differential, the vorticity cannot be expressed in the
its
form of a line integral: but
value must be determined by
means
of the surface integral (22).
EXAMPLES.
125
EXAMPLES.
z, measured downwards, the plane of xy being the asymptotic plane to the free surface, and if or be the atmospheric pressure prove that the equation of the surface at which the pressure is sr + gpa is 1.
If the axis of a hollow vortex be the axis of
vertically
:
{a?
+ 2/) {z —
a)=
c^,
where
2.
c is
a constant.
Three rectilinear vortices of equal vorticities form the edges Prove that they will always form the three edges of an equal prism.
of an equilateral triangular prism.
3.
If
n
rectilinear vortices of equal vorticities be initially at
is
the angles of a prism whose base
a regular polygon of n sides,
show that they
where k
is
will
always be so situated, and that each vortex
with velocity k {n
will describe the circumscribed cylinder
—
l)/2a
is
the velocity due to each vortex at unit distance and a
the radius of the cylinder.
Show
also that the equation of the
relative stream lines referred to the radius through a vortex as
initial line is r^"
4.

2a"r" cos n0

6^"
=
0.
The space on one
is
;
side of the concave branch of a rectangular
hyperbolic cylinder
exists in the liquid
filled
with liquid, and a rectilinear vortex
it
prove that
moves
in a cylinder
having the
same asymptotic planes
5.
as the boundary.
The motion
is
of a liquid in
;
two dimensions
is
such that the
rotation ^
constant
is
prove that the general functional equation
of the stream lines
(f>{y
+
loc)
+ xiy 
t«!)^^{os''+
f)
= c.
with liquid,
it
Prove that
x^ will
if
the space between one branch of the hyperbola
the tangent to
for
its
— Sy^ = a? and
be possible
vertex be
filled
the liquid to
move
steadily with constant
rotation,
6.
and
find the form of the stream lines.
liquid,
h, is
A
mass of
whose outer boundary
is
an
infinitely long
motion and is under the action of a uniform pressure 11 over its external surface. Prove that there must be a concentric cylindrical hollow whose
cylinder of radius
in a state of cyclic irrotational
radius a
is
determined by the equation
87r»a'6^n
= Mk\
126
where
RECTILINEAR VORTEX MOTION.
M
is
the mass of unit length of the liquid, and k
is
the
circulation.
If the cylinder receive a small symmetrical displacement, prove that the time of a small oscillation is
4
K
7.
„
,,,
/losba
V
D*
— a*
and negative
Four straight vortices
Avith alternately positive
rotations are placed symmetrically within a cylinder filled with
liquid; prove that if the motion
is
steady, the distance of each
is
vortex from the axis of the cylinder
radius of the latter.
nearly threefifths of the
8.
Prove that three infinitely long straight cylindrical vortices
of equal vorticities will be in stable steady motion at the vertices of an equilateral triangle
when
;
situated
whose
sides are large
compared with the
if
radii of the sections of the vortices
and that
they are slightly displaced, prove that the time of a small
oscillation is the
same
as that of the time of revolution of the
state,
system in
9.
its
undisturbed
A
is
straight
cylindrical
vortex
of uniform
rotation
f
is
surrounded by an infinite quantity of liquid moving irrotationally
which
to
at rest at infinity;
prove that the diiference between
separated by unit
distance
the kinetic energy included between two planes at right angles
the axis of the cylinder and
is
when the
equal area
cross section
J., is
an
ellipse,
and when
it
is
a circle of
p7ri^MMog(a + 6)/2V(a6),
where p
is
the density of the liquid, and a and h are the semiaxes
of the ellipse.
10.
f,
A quantity of liquid whose rotation is uniform and equal to
is
and whose external surface
11.
a circular cylinder, surrounds a consurface
is
centric cylinder of radius a.
The external
if
subjected to a
constant pressure
Prove that
the irmer cylinder be removed,
the velocity of the internal surface
"
when
its
radius
is
a
is
equal to
aV
where
Trpc^ is
loga2/(a2hc^)
the mass of the liquid per unit of length.
EXAMPLES.
11.
127
bounded by a
fixed
If a vortex is
moving
in a liquid
plane, prove that a stream line can never coincide with a line of
constant pressure.
12.
If a pair of equal
and opposite vortices are situated inside
is
or outside a circular cylinder of radius a, prove that the equation of the curve described
(r^
by each vortex
— a^y (r^ sin 9 — lr) = ^ta^Jfr^ sin^ 6,
where
6 is a constant.
PAET
11.
THEOEY OF SOUND.
B. H.
CHAPTER
VI.
INTRODUCTION^
115.
Sounds may be
divided into two classes, musical sounds
little
or notes, and unmusical sounds or noises, and a
is
consideration
sufficient to
show that the former
for
is
the simpler
phenomenon
of the two.
struck,
If,
example, one of the keys of a pianoforte be
we obtain a musical note, whereas if all the notes are sounded together, the result is an unmusical sound or noise, in which the different notes cannot be distinguished. We thus see
that a combination of a
noise,
number
of musical notes will produce a
is
but on the other hand no combination of noises
capable
of producing a musical note.
The
sensation of sound
is
produced by means of vibrations of
communicated to the tympanum of the ear, and are afterwards transmitted by the auditory nerve to the brain. That sound is produced by aerial vibrations can be experimentally verified in a number of ways. Thus if a bell be placed under the receiver of an air pump, and the air is gradually exhausted, the sound produced by the bell becomes fainter and fainter, and at last ceases to be heard. If, again, a note is produced by striking an ordinary finger bowl, the latter will be thrown into a state of tremor or vibration, the existence of which can be perceived by cautiously touching the bowl with the fingers and if the vibrations are stopped by pressing the bowl between the hands, the note ceases upon the stoppage of
the atmosphere, which are
first
;
the vibrations.
In this
to
case, the
vibrations
of the
bowl are
communicated
the atmosphere, and waves are
all
propagated
through the latter in
directions from the bowl.
vol.
i.
1 This and the following Chapter have been principally derived from Lord Rayleigh's Treatise.
of
9—2
132
116.
THEORY OF SOUND.
At the commencement
INTRODUCTION.
of Chapter IV.
we
explained
the kinematics of wave motion, and
we showed
wave
that the properties
amplitude,
its
of a wave depend upon three quantities,
velocity
if
viz. its
of propagation V, and
its
length X.
We may
also,
we
please, introduce the period t instead of the
wave length,
viz. intensity,
since
pitch,
Vr = \.
Notes
also
have three characteristics,
;
and a quality
called timbre
and we must now enquire how
these three physical characteristics of a note are connected with
the geometrical constants of a wave.
117.
all
In the
first
place
is
it
can be shown that the velocity of
if this
notes in air and gases
very nearly the same^; for
were
not the case, a piece of music which is played in tune would become hopelessly discordant when heard by an observer situated
at a considerable distance.
A
similar proposition
;
is
true of
all
substances which are capable of propagating sound
although the
magnitude of the velocity of propagation depends upon the particular substance, being greater in the case of solids and Thus in dry air the velocity of sound at liquids than in gases. 0° C. is about 332 metres (i.e. 1089 feet) per second, whilst in water at 8° C. it is about 1435 metres (i.e. 4708 feet) per seconds It therefore follows that the properties of a note do not depend upon its velocity of propagation.
118.
The
is
intensity of sound
is
measured by the rate
at which
energy
propagated across a given area parallel to the waves,
and
is
proportional to the square of the amplitude.
119.
The
pitch of a note
is
is
the quality by which
its
place in
the musical scale
forte is said to
recognised.
Thus the middle
shall
c of a piano
have a pitch an octave lower than the next
the scale.
succeeding
c in
We
now show
that the pitch
of a note depends upon the frequency of vibration, which has in
Chapter IV. been defined to be the number of vibrations executed per second and that the pitch rises as the frequency increases.
;
This
^
is
most
easily
shown by means
of an apparatus called the
It
appears however that violent sounds, such as are caused by explosions,
at Essen, for the purpose of ascertaining the velocity with
travel with a higher velocity than sounds produced by notes.
by Krupp's firm
per second.
the reports of heavy guns travel,
Experiments made which showed that the velocity may amount to 2034 feet
See
"Sound
velocity applied to range finding," Captain G. G. Aston,
Proc. Roy. Artillery Inst. AprU, 1890.
'
To
reduce metres to
feet,
multiply by 32809.
PITCH.
Siren, invented
133
of a stiff circular disc,
by Cagniard de la Tour. This instrument consists which is capable of revolving about an axis, and is pierced with one or more sets of holes arranged at equal intervals around its circumference. A wind pipe in connection
with bellows
the disc
after the
is
is
presented perpendicularly to one of the holes, and
to revolve.
made
When
the time of revolution
puffs
;
is
small, the
wind escapes by means of a succession of
but
time of revolution has sufficiently increased, the puffs
blend into a single note of definite pitch;
revolution
is still
and
if
the time of
further increased, the pitch of the note rises in
the scale.
frequency.
revolution
This shows that the pitch of a note depends upon the Another point of importance is that if the time of
is
doubled, the two notes stand to one another in the
;
relation of octaves
so that
note, the frequency of the note
if/ be the frequency of any particular an octave higher is 2/.
is
If
e"**
be the time factor of a vibration, the frequency
w/27r
VjX we have also shown that the pitch is independent of V, and it therefore follows that the frequency varies inversely as the wave length consequently the shorter the wave length, the higher the pitch
but since n
the frequency
is
= 2'ir V/\,
also equal to
;
of the note.
The frequency
ences
of pitch.
of a given note
is
is
to a slight extent arbitrary,
inasmuch as the ear
incapable of distinguishing slight differ
At
the
Stuttgart conference in 1834,
c
it
was
recommended that the middle
c,
of a pianoforte, which
is
written
should correspond to 264 vibrations per second.
The pitch
taken to be
usually adopted
c'
by
acoustical instrument
makers
is
= 256
or 2^ vibrations per second, so that the frequencies of the
2.
octaves and suboctaves are represented by powers of
Hence
the wave length of
c' is
about 4*2
feet.
Trained ears are capable of recognising an enormous number
of gradations of pitch, but
varies with different ears, to the audibility of notes.
it is
inasmuch as the power of perception somewhat difficult to assign limits
It is probable that the perception of
pitch begins^
when the number
of vibrations
it
in
a second
to 40000.
lies
between 8 and 32, and ceases before
120.
amounts
All notes which are produced by musical instruments
are of a highly
compound nature; and when we
^
discuss the
Donkin's Acoustics,
§ 19.
134
THEORY OF SOUND.
it will
INTRODUCTION.
be shown that the vibrations
dynamical part of the subject,
which are capable of being produced by a vibrating body are usually represented by an infinite series of terms of the form ^6'"^ in which the frequency of each term is different. A note which the ear is incapable of resolving is called by Helmholtz a tone. We thus see that a note which is represented by a series
of terms of the type
J.e'"* is
a compound note consisting of a
number
is
of tones, which are represented by the different terms of
the series. the
least,
The component tone
is
of this series,
called the gravest or
whose frequency fundamental tone, and the
happens (although
other tones are called overtones.
there are exceptions), that
It frequently
the
amplitudes of the component
so that the amplitude of the
tones diminish as their pitches
gravest tone
is sufficiently
;
rise,
upon the and in many cases is the note which is most Lord Rayleigh states^ that he has recently distinctly heard. examined a large metal bell weighing about 3 cwt., and that the
large to impress its character
whole vibration
following tones could be plainly heard ^
e^,
viz.
h".
f%
e",
The gravest tone
^ had
a long duration.
When
first
the bell was
struck by a hard body, the higher tones were at
predominant,
but after a time they died away leaving
field.
et?
in possession of the
When
the striking body was
less
soft,
the original preponder
ance of the higher elements was
121.
marked.
The word timbre
is
used to express a quality by which
notes of the same intensity and pitch are distinguishable from
one another, and which depends upon the nature of the instru
ment employed
122.
in producing the note.
Another phenomenon which we must notice is that of for simplicity that two notes of the same amplitude and phase have slightly different frequencies m and n. The vibration produced by the combination of these two notes may be represented by the equation,
heats.
Let us suppose
y
= a cos lirmt a cos '2'rrnt = 2 cos 7r(m — n)t cos tt (m + n) t = 2 cos 7r(m — n)t cos {27rm — tt (m —
f
n)}
t.
'
On
c
is
Bells, Phil.
Mag. Jan. 1890.
is
^
the octave below, and c"
the octave above the middle c
of the
pianoforte.
BEATS.
Since
as one
135
We
m — n is small, the resultant vibration may be regarded whose amplitude and phase vary slowly with the time. thus see that the amplitude vanishes whenever
s is zero or
i = (2s + l)/2 (m  n), maximum when t = s/(m — n), where and is a Hence at intervals (m — n)~^ positive integer.
any
there
is
absolute
silence,
and midway between the intervals of absolute
silence, the
intensity of the sound attains its
of silence are called beats,
is
maximum
value.
The
intervals
and the number
of beats per second
m — n.
In order that beats
may be
heard distinctly,
m — n,
or the
difference
small.
between the frequencies of the two
notes,
must be
CHAPTER
VII.
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
123.
If a piece of string or wire be tightly stretched between
two fixed points, and be set in motion, either by being struck or rubbed with a bow, it is well known that a musical note will be
produced.
wire
is
This arises from the circumstance that the string or
set into vibration,
and we
shall
now proceed
is
to investigate
the theory of these vibrations.
If a thin metal wire, whose natural form
into a plane curve of
straight, is bent
any form, the resultant
stresses across
any
normal
section,
due
to the action of contiguous portions of the wire,
consist of a tension, a shearing stress
and a couple
;
and conse
quently in order to investigate the vibrations of instruments whose
strings are
made
of wire,
it
would be necessary
to construct a
theory which would take these stresses into account.
obvious that although a thin string,
is
made
for
It is however example of catgut,
capable of sustaining a considerable tension, the resistance
it is
which
is
capable of offering to shearing stress and to bending
it is
very small in comparison with the resistance which
capable
of offering to stretching.
strings
stress
We may
therefore
when
dealing with
made of catgut and similar materials, neglect the shearing and the couple, and may treat the string as perfectly flexible. We may define a perfectly flexible string to be a string which is incapable of offering any resistance to shearing stress or to bending. A string of this kind is an ideal substance which does not exist in nature but inasmuch as most thin strings which
;
TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS.
are not
137
made
of wire
approximate to the condition of perfect
first
flexibility, it will
be desirable
of
all to
consider the vibrations
is
of a perfectly flexible string.
If
however the string
is
too stiff
to be treated as perfectly flexible, or
made
of wire, the theory
falls
of the vibrations which
it is
capable of executing
bars.
more properly
be considered
under the head of the vibrations of
in the next chapter.
These
will
The vibrations which a
consist of two kinds,
stretched string
is
capable of executing
which may be treated as being independent
first
of one another.
in
The
kind consists of transverse vibrations,
which the displacement of every element is perpendicular (or very approximately so) to the undisplaced position of the string.
The second
class consists of longitudinal vibrations, in
is
which the
displacement
parallel to the undisplaced position of the string.
It will thus be seen that, in the theory of transverse vibrations,
the longitudinal displacement
is
supposed
to
be so small in com
parison with the transverse displacement, that the former
may be
neglected in comparison with the latter.
Transverse Vibrations of Strings.
124.
it will
To
find the equation of
motion
for transverse vibrations,
be sufficient to consider the case in which the motion takes
Let Ti be the tension, p the linear density, i.e. place in a plane. the mass of a unit of length, y the displacement of the point whose abscissa is x, Y the impressed force per unit of mass.
If
w,
(j)
be the angle which any element 8s makes with the axis of
is
the equation of motion
pySs
= Y (Ti sin (f))8s + p YSs.
y
is
d
Now
The
sin
(f>
= dyjds
;
also since the displacement
small, the
curvature will also be small, and
tension T^
we may
therefore put ds
= dx.
may
also be regarded as constant throughout the
length of the string, whence the equation of motion becomes
d^_T,d^
dt'~ p dx''^
If the
y
,.
^
^'
motion does not take place in a plane, we may resolve the displacements and forces into two components respectively
parallel to the axes of
y and
2,
and we
shall thus obtain a second
138
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
(1), in
equation of the same form as
which
z,
Z
are written for y,
Y respectively.
125.
equal to
i,
Let us now suppose that the length of the string and that there are no impressed forces also let
;
is
o?=T,lp
Equation
(
I
(2).
)
now becomes
%%
To
solve this equation,
(«>
assume
y = F{x)
e^"^'.
Substituting in (3)
we obtain
the solution of which
is
F =C sin True + D cos mx.
The
where
solution of
(.3) may therefore be written in the form y=1,{G sin mx + D cos mx) e"*^* (4), present undetermined, and G and D are complex
m
is
at
constants.
The
value of
w will depend
shall
upon the particular problem under
that both ends of the string
consideration.
We
now suppose
are fixed
;
in this case the conditions to
ends
are, that
be satisfied at the fixed y and y should vanish when x = and x = l. These
conditions evidently require that
Z)
= 0,
sin
mZ
=
;
from the
last of
which we deduce
m = sirjl,
where
5 is a positive integer.
Writing
G= A —
iB and rejecting
the imaginary part, the solution becomes
y=
2
{Ag cos
siratjl
Tg
+ Bg sin STratjl) sin sirxjl
component
is
(5),
and therefore the period
of the sth
2Z
given by
_
and the frequency
•^'
_
2^
/p
2i\/ p
FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION.
The gravest note corresponds
frequency
is
139
its
to
s
=
l,
and therefore
^^
2l\/ pfollowing conclusions.
to
From
(i)
these results
we draw the
is
The frequency
inversely proportional
the length
will
fall.
and therefore if the string be shortened, the pitch of the note rise, and conversely if the string be lengthened, the pitch will
We
thus see
why
it is
that in playing a violin different notes can
be obtained from the same string.
(ii)
The frequency
is
proportional to the square root of the
string be tightened
tension, accordingly if the
rise.
(iii)
the pitch will
The frequency
;
is
inversely proportional to the square
and therefore if two strings having the same lengths, cross sections and tensions, be made of catgut and metal respectively, the pitch of the note yielded by the catgut string will be higher than that yielded by the metal string also the pitch of the note yielded by a thick string will be graver than that of the note yielded by a thin string, of the same material, length and tension.
root of the density
;
If s be
the displacement
r
any integer other than unity, we learn from (5) that is zero at all points for which a; = rljs, where
=
1, 2, 3, ... s
—1
;
it
therefore follows that, corresponding to the
sth harmonic, there are s
—
1
points situated at equal intervals
is
along the string, at which there
called nodes.
no motion.
These points are
depend upon the initial the motion of dynamical systems of which a string is an example may be produced either by displacing every point in any arbitrary manner, subject to the
126.
The constants
A
and
B
circumstances of the motion.
Now
condition that the connections of the system are not violated;
by imparting to every point an arbitrary initial velocity, same condition. Hence the most general possible motion is obtained by communicating to every point of the string an initial displacement, and an initial velocity. We shall now show that when the initial displacements and velocities are given, the constants A and B are completely determined.
or
subject to the
140
Let
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
yo) yo
be the
initial
displacements and velocities.
Then
it
follows from (5) that
y^
2/0
=
2^ Ag sin
strxjl
(6), (7).
= ^1
(s7rajl)Bg8ms7rx/l
Now
if
the integral

sin {sirxjl) sin (s'ttx/I)
dx
is
equal to zero
Jo
s and s' are different whence multiplying (6) by limits I and 0, we obtain
integers,
sin sirxjl
and is equal to i^l if s = s'; and integrating between the
STTOO
O
rl
^s = ll yosin
Similarly from (7)
^ d^
—j dx
(8).
Bg
Since
y^, y^
=
I
Vo sin
(9).
are given functions of x, these equations completely
determine the constants.
initial velocity is
We
notice that Bg
is
is
zero
when the
is
zero,
and that Ag
zero
when
there
no
initial
displacement.
127.
As an example
of these formulae, let us suppose that a
is
h,
point P, whose abscissa
displaced to a distance
of a
string fixed at
let go.
A
and By
is
7 and then
yo
From x =
of the string
.
to
x = b,
= yx/b, and
therefore for this portion
,
^8 =tj bl
2y
[^
Jo
to
I
« sm
.
STTX
^I
l,
,
rfa;
27/6 = yi
b
\
STrb
cos
,
I
I + —
.
,
STT
s%2
sin ^I
S7rb\
.
J
From x = b
x=
yo
= y{l — x)/(l — b), whence
=
27
ir
6
f
i
[STT
b — cos —
I
STrb h —J —J
(^6)sV^
27^2
—
lb
,
,
.
STrb)
y
j
.
„
„
sin —rI
Whence adding we obtain
A
'
.
A
/f
i
.
sirb
which determines Ag. This result shows that the amplitude of the gravest tone, which corresponds to s=l, is greater than the amplitudes of any of the overtones. The gravest tone is therefore the most predominant.
MOTION PRODUCED BY AN IMPULSE.
128.
141
is set in motion by communicated to every 'point of it, may be investigated in a similar manner but in many practical applications, a string is set in motion by means of an impulse applied at some particular point. The reader who desires to
The
vibrations of a string which
velocity
means of an
initial
;
study the theory of the vibrations of a pianoforte wire, or of a
and Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound. We shall confine ourselves to the simple case of the motion produced by an impulse F, applied at the point x = b.
violin string, is
recommended
to consult Donkin's Acoustics,
Putting n
= sira/l,
y
the value of y will be
= XBg sin (nx/a)
sin nt
(10),
in
which Bg has to be determined.
Now
applied
;
the work done by an impulse
is
equal to half the product the point at which
it is
of the impulse
and the
initial velocity of
is
and since the work done
equal to the kinetic energy
of the initial motion,
we immediately obtain the equation
Fij.^pl
where
t]
y.^dx
(11),
is
the value of y at the point at which the impulse
is
applied.
From
(10),
it
follows that
FijQ
=
FXBgTi sin nb/a,
I
and
pi yQ^dM
Jo
=p
S (Bgn sin nxjaf dx
Jo
= ^pl'ZBs'n";
and therefore restoring the value of
w, (11)
becomes
(12).
F%BgS sin S7rb/l
Comparing both
= ^piralBg^s'
we see that
sides of this equation,
B. =
2F
trpas
.
sirb
I
sin —r
and therefore
y
''
1 sirb = 2F .^  sin —J— S irpa
.
sic
.
sirx
.
sin
—r sin
sirat
I
j—
,
At the nodes corresponding
X = rljs
;
to the sth
component, we have
and since
in the preceding expression the sth
component
142
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
when
b
of the displacement vanishes
= rl/s,
it
follows that
when
the impulse
is
is
applied at a node, the corresponding component
absent.
129.
We
must now consider the motion
of a string which
is
is
under the action of a periodic force F (oc) cos pt It that when an elastic body is set into vibration and
to rest.
well
known
left to itself,
the motion gradually dies away and the system ultimately comes
The reason
of this
is,
that
all
such systems possess a
property called viscosity or internal friction, by virtue of which
the kinetic energy of the motion
is
gradually converted into heat.
represented mathematically,
The
eflFect
of internal friction
may be
by supposing that every element is retarded by a force proportional to its velocity, and we shall find it convenient in discussing motion
due to a periodic
force, to
include the effect of viscosity.
It therefore follows that in (1)
we must put
Y= F(x) cos pt — ky,
where
A;
is
a constant, and the equation becomes
§+4'=«'S+^W"^*
Since the motion which we are considering
respect to
is
(13).
periodic with
x as
well as to
t,
we may assume
where
w=
srrjl
;
whence
d?u
J
if
m^a"
„
= n^,
(13) becomes
,, ,,
du
fit
HP
'^
^ +^^ = ^cos^^
(14).
The
solution of this equation consists of two parts,
solution
viz.
any
particular
of (14),
together with the complementary
function, which
is the solution of the equation obtained by putting the righthand side equal to zero, and which therefore contains two
arbitrary constants.
To
find a particular solution, let us
assume
u
= c cos (pt —

e).
Substituting in (14), we obtain
c (n^
 p^) cos (pt e)
whence equating
= Ecose cos (pt  e) — B sin e sin (pt — e) coefficients of s,m(pt  e), cos (pt  e), we obtain c (n^^ p^) = E COS e cpk = Esine,
kpc sin (pt
e)
;
FORCED AND FREE VIBRATIONS.
whence
,
143
u=
tane=
^ sin e co^{pt —
,
,
.
y
e)
(15),
n^
/— —
^
p^
(16). ^
^
In order to obtain the complementary function, let u
substituting in (14) and putting
q^
—
ei*;
E = 0,
we obtain
+ kq + n^ = 0,
the roots of which are
Since k is always a small quantity, n will usually be greater than ^k, in which case the complete solution of (14) may be
written
u
= ^€**' cos y(n^  jA;2) ta] +
The
;
—^^ cos {pt 
77?
•
e). ..(17).
130.
first
is
term of
this
vibrations
that
to say the vibrations
equation represents the free which the string is capable
of executing,
to itself
when it is set in motion in any manner and then left The period of these vibrations is 27r {n? — \kf)~^, and the
is
amplitude
proportional to
e"^**
;
the free vibrations therefore
diminish as the time increases and ultimately die away.
In dissipative systems,
it is
usual to express the effect of friction
by means of a quantity called the modulus of decay; which is defined to be the time which must elapse before the amplitude has
fallen to
e"~^
of its original value.
It therefore follows that if r be
the modulus of decay,
which determines the physical meaning of k. We thus see that if the friction is small, so that the amplitude diminishes very slowly with the time, t must be large, and therefore k must be
small.
In order to pass to the case of no
in
friction,
which case the frequency
is
is
proportional to
we must put k = 0, Hence one of n.
the effects of friction
If
to lower the pitch of the free vibrations.
n<
^k,
periodic;
both values of q are real and the motion is nonbut since both these values are negative, the free
It therefore follows that since the
motion gradually dies away.
motion, whether periodic or not, always disappears after a sufficient
time has elapsed, the expression for u ultimately reduces to the
144
last
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
tenn, which represents the forced vibrations, and which
we
shall proceed to consider.
131.
A
forced vibration
is
a vibration produced and main
tained by an external force.
Its period is the
same
as that of the
force, and it is consequently independent of the dimensions or The amplitude of the forced vibration constitution of the system.
in the present case,
when expressed
in terms of n,
p and
k, is
E {{n'  py + p'^k^]^
If the system were absolutely devoid of friction, k would be zero, and the amplitude would be infinite when n = p. In practical applications k is usually small and we thus obtain the important theorem, that if a system is acted upon hy a periodic force, whose
;
'period is equal, or nearly so, to one
of the periods of the free vibra
tions of the system, the corresponding forced vibration will be large.
This theorem can be illustrated in the case of stringed instru
ments
;
for if
a note be sounded whose period
is
the same, or nearly
the same, as that of the fundamental note of one of the strings,
the string will often be heard to vibrate in unison with the note
whereas
if
the period of the note be different from that of any of
the natural periods of the string, no sound will be heard.
132.
When
both extremities of the string are
fixed,
the
general solution of (13) which of course includes (3) as a particular case, may be presented in the following form, which is
frequently useful.
In this case
m = sttJI,
may be
y
and therefore n
written
'S<"(}>sSm.S7rxjl
= sirajl, whence
the
complete solution
=
(18),
where
value
(f)g
is
a function of the time which
satisfies (14),
and whose
is
therefore determined
by
(17).
;
by
<f)s
are called normal coordinates
The quantities denoted and we shall now prove
This
that the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies do
not contain any of the products of the normal coordinates.
is
the characteristic property of these quantities.
If
T be
the kinetic energy,
we have
Jo
I
T=^p
I
y^dcc
Jo
= ^p
{2 ^« sin sirxjlY dx.
^
KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY.
Since
limits,
all
145
the products vanish
when integrated between the
(19).
we
obtain
T=ipa,(f>s'
The
let
potential energy
its
is
equal to the work done in displacing
In order to calculate
its value,
the string to
actual position.
the string be held in equilibrium in its actual configuration at
t
time
by means of a
force
Y applied
at every point of its length.
is
The value of this force per unit of mass
p dx^'
equal to
by
Sy
(1).
Let
8V
be the work which must be done by this force
in order to displace every element of the string through a space
;
then the work done upon an element 8s
YpBsSy
= T,^>8s8y'
is
and therefore since
Bs
= Sx,
the whole work done
'"'^^fM'y'^Integrating by parts, and recollecting that
%=
at both ends,
we obtain
8V=Tj'^^dx = ^TJ'8(^/ydx, \dx/ odx dx
J
J
whence
V=IT,C (j^'dx
2/
(20).
Substituting the value of
from (18) in (20), we obtain
(stt/I) cos STTx/lY
V=^tJ
Jo
(ST <}>s
dx
=^x:s"'cf>,^
(21).
Longitudinal Vibrations of Strings.
133.
We
shall
now
obtain the equation of motion for the
longitudinal vibrations of a string.
Let
let
P
and Q be two points whose
Q'.
abscissae are x,
x + 8x; and
these points be displaced to P',
If
a?
+^
be the abscissa of
P', the abscissa of Q' will be
B.
x+
^\
(1+ d^jdx) 8x.
10
H.
146
If
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
T be
the tension at any point,
^=^
where
PQ
E is Hooke's modulus of elasticity, whence
doc
is
The
equation of motion
^^^^=^^^ + ^^^^
and therefore becomes
where
a?
= Ejp,
and
is
X is the impressed force per unit of mass.
of the
This equation
verse vibrations,
same form as the equation
solved in a similar
for trans
and can be
manner.
The
conditions to be satisfied at a fixed end are, that the
displacement and velocity must be zero throughout the motion;
and therefore at a fixed end
1=0,
for all values of
t.
i=0
is
The
condition to be satisfied at a free end
that
T=
;
and
therefore at a free end
1^ dx
for all values of
t.
=
'
Transverse Vibrations of Membranes.
134.
The theory
of the vibrations of
membranes,
is
a par
ticular case of the theory of the vibrations of thin elastic plates
and
shells.
In general the stresses across any section of a thin
(i)
plate or shell consist of ^
stress
a tension T,
(ii)
a tangential shearing
a flexural couple G,
M,
(iii)
a normal shearing stress
JV^,
(iv)
H. If however the membrane is very thin and perfectly flexible, the stresses reduce to a tension T, which in the dynamical problem of small transverse vibrations, may be taken to be equal in all directions, and constant all over the membrane.
(v) a torsional couple
We
brane.
shall
now
^
obtain the equation of motion of a plane
Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. Vol. xxi. p. 33.
mem
VIBRATIONS OF MEMBRANES.
Let
147
w
be the transverse displacement of any point, the coordii.e.
(cc, y, 0) also let p be the mass of a unit of area of the
;
nates of whose undisplaced position are
the superficial density,
membrane. If hs, hs be the sides of any small element of the membrane, we may write hx, hy for these quantities; whence the equation of motion is
phxhyw =
which becomes
^ (rSy ^)
So.
+
1 (rhx^^)
8x,
df"" [dx^'^dfj
if
c' =
^^'^^'
T/p.
135.
If the
whose
sides are the axes
boundary of the membrane consists of a rectangle, and the lines x = a, y = h,we may assume
as a particular solution of (22),
where
w = A sin rrnrxja sin mryjh cos pt ^^ = cV (m7a^ + %«/&')
being any integers
;
(23), (24),
m and n
also
for this expression satisfies (22)
and
makes
w vanish
(i.e.
at the boundaries.
;
Equation (24) determines
the frequency of the different notes the nodal lines
of
and from (23) we see that
the lines of no motion) consist of a system
n—
1 lines parallel to x,
with
a/m.
m—1
lines parallel to y,
whose distances apart are b/n, together whose distances apart are equal to
If the
membrane be
square, a = b, and (23) and w = A sin rmrxja sin mry/a cos pt, p = Cir (m^ + n'^)^/a.
is
(24)
become
The gravest note
obtained
by putting
m = n=l,
and
corresponding to this note there are no nodes.
In the next place we shall determine the nodal lines corresponding to vibrations whose frequency
is
^c\/5/a.
Here
which requires that
V5 = ^/(m^ + n%
m = 2, n = l
or
w = l,
w
=
2; and therefore
is,
the complete vibration corresponding to this period
w = (G sin ^irxja sin Tryja + D sin irxja sin liryja) cos pt.
In this expression
G and
D
depend
solely
upon the
initial
circumstances of the motion, and
may have any
values whatever
consistent with the boundary conditions.
If however
we suppose
10—2
148
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
that the initial conditions are such, that the ratio
G/D has an
assigned value,
(i)
we may
obtain a variety of special cases.
consists of the line
Let
D = 0.
= 0,
x = ^a,
which bisects
Let
The nodal system now the membrane.
and we have a nodal bisecting the membrane.
(ii)
(iii)
line
y = ^a, similarly
be written
Let
C = D;
then the value of
w may
«;
= 4C sin Trx/a sin Try/ a cos ^tt (a; + y)la cos ^7r(x — y)/a cos pt.
x = a,
y=
a,
This expression vanishes when,
x+
y= a, x— y = a.
;
The first and second equations correspond to the edges the must be rejected, because it does not represent a line drawn on the membrane and the third represents one of the
fourth
;
diagonals of the square.
Since a nodal line
may be supposed to be
rigidly fixed without
interfering with the motion, the preceding
solution determines
the firequency of the gravest note of a rightangled isosceles
triangle.
(iv)
Let
G = — D, and we
in this
shall find that the nodal line is
y = X, which
is
represents the other diagonal of the square.
For further examples
referred to Chapter IX. of
1
branch of the subject, the reader Lord Rayleigh's treatise.
36.
The motion
case of
of a circular
membrane, which
is
the best
representative of a drum, cannot be solved by elementary methods.
The simplest
all, is
when the
vibrations are symmetrical
with respect to the centre, so that (22) becomes
d^w _ 2 (dw 1 dw\ "dt^'^ [d^'^rdp)'
and
if
we put w = F(r) e'^'^, the equation
for
F is
d^_^_ldF
dr^
^^^^
^
'
r dr
This equation cannot be integrated in
finite terms.
The two
of their
solutions are called Bes.sel's functions^ from the
^
name
During recent years the ungranunatical phrase Bessel functions has begun to creep into mathematical literature. The use of a proper noun as an adjective is a violation of one of the most elementary rules of grammar and in cases where it is not possible to form the corresponding adjective without introducing a cumbrous and
;
inelegant term, the genitive case of the proper
noun ought always
to be employed.
EXAMPLES.
discoverer
;
149
and the investigation of their properties constitutes
an important branch of analysis. Algebraic solutions may however be invented, by supposing that the density, and therefore c,
is
a function of
r.
EXAMPLES.
1.
A
string
of length
l
+ V,
is
stretched with
tension
T
between two fixed points. The linear densities of the lengths I, V are m, m' respectively; prove that the periods r of transverse
vibrations are given by
m'* tan {lirlm^lrT^)
2.
= m* tan {iTrVm'^IrT^).
I,
Investigate the motion of a string of length
line,
which
is
is
initially at rest in a straight
each extremity of which
subject
to
the
same obligatory motion y
= ksmmat.
Show
by
that
if
a sufficient period be allowed to elapse for the natural
vibrations to subside, the position of the nodes will be given
the equation
2mx =
where
3.
ml\ (2i
+
1)
it,
i is
any integer.
uniform string in the form of a circle of radius
repulsion,
ga^/r^\
a, rests
A
on a smooth plane under a central
distance r
so that
is
whose value at
Show
at r6st
that if the string be slightly displaced,
it is initially
and in the form of the curve
\X^
r
its
=
a
am
t,
cos m6,
will
form at any subsequent time
be determined by the
equation
r=a +
_,<» 2t,
1
ttm cos
^ mU cos m
<~
{a fm^
[a \
+ n — 2\]i ~ t m/+l /)
]
—
Discuss this result
4.
(i)
when
m = l, n = l,
OC
and
(ii)
when n =
3.
Three strings OA, OB,
different lengths, are united at 0,
fastened to fixed points A, B, G,
of the same material but of and are kept tight by being the angles BOG, GOA, AOB
being denoted by
a,
^, y.
Show
that the times of vibration of the
150
VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS AND MEMBRANES.
sounded when
viz.
is free,
different notes
are determined by the
equation for T,
(sin a)i cot irT./T
+ (sin ^)i cot irT^/T + (sin 7)* cot ttTs/T = 0,
the times of the gravest notes of
where
Ti, T^, T, are
is fixed.
OA, OB, OG,
when
5.
If a stretched string of length
I
be fastened to two equal
/a
masses M, controlled by springs of strength
allowing transversal
and be plucked at its middle frequency n of vibration will be given by
vibration,
point, prove that the
pa tan mrl/a
where p
6.
= fi/2mr — 2mrM,
is
the line density, and pa^ the tension of the string.
A
c,
heterogenegus membrane in the shape of a circular
annulus, whose edges are fixed and inner and outer radii are
6
and
and whose density
is
is /x/r^,
where r
is is
the distance from
the centre,
stretched with a tension T, and
performing small
is
symmetrical normal vibrations.
given by
Show
that a possible motion
w= {A sin {p log r/h) + B sin {p log cjr)] sin {apt + a),
where nir^p log cjh, n
7.
is
an
integer,
and
a^
= Tffi.
The
fixed
centre of the
small space
k,
boundary of a membrane is square, and the membrane is displaced perpendicularly through a the membrane being made to take the form of two
Prove that the origin
portions of intersecting circular cylinders.
being at the centre of the square, the vibrations are given by the
equation
where
w = 'ZAn^ cos 7^ sin nir {x + a)/2a sin rir {y + a)/2a, 4aV = c (n^ + r^).
V
Prove that in this case n and r are odd integers, and that
An...
—
128A;
( n^^r^
_
.
^
.
^
\
CHAPTER
VIII.
FLEXION OF WIRES.
137.
We shall now investigate the theory of the equilibrium
flexural vibrations of a thin rod or wire;
and the
and in the present
chapter shall confine our attention to problems in two dimensions.
When
any
ties:
the wire
is
not subjected to torsion, the stresses across
to the action of contiguous portions of
section,
which are due
the wire, are completely specified by the following three quanti
—
(i)
a tension
T
hs,
perpendicular to the section,
a flexural couple 0. p the radius and a the density and
(ii)
a normal
let
shearing stress N,
(iii)
In the figure
PQ
be a small element
at
the centre of curvature
P after deformation,
Also
w the
area of the cross
be the tangential and normal components of the impressed forces and the couple at P, per unit
section at P.
let
X,
Y,
L
of mass, measured in the directions of T, N, G.
The equations
resolving
all
of equilibrium of the wire, are obtained by
the forces along the tangent and normal at P, and
;
taking moments about this point
whence
152
FLEXION OF WIRES.
r  (T + BT) cos
B<f>
+ {N+ BN) sin
N {T+ BT) sin B<f>{N+ BN) cos
0_Q^80{N+BN)p' sin
whence
,
+ awXBs = 0, B<p + aooYBs = 0,
Bcf>
Bcf)
+ acoLBs = 0,
dT
i^
N = (rtoA ^\
7
as
p
dN
+
? = ^«F).
r
(1).
— +
as
138.
N = ao)L
an
expression
for
We
must now
find
the
flexural
couple G.
The curve which passes through the centre
cross section, is called the axis of the wire.
of inertia of each
When
a wire
is
bent
in such a
manner that
its
curvature
is
increased, the filaments
lie
into which the wire
may
be conceived to be divided, which
;
on
the outer side of the axis, will usually be extended
and those
which
lie
on the inner side will usually be contracted, whilst the
Cases of course
axis itself undergoes no extension nor contraction.
may
occur, in
which the axis undergoes extension or contraction,
difficulties
and when
this is the case, the
of the
problem are
greatly increased, and cannot be satisfactorily discussed without
a knowledge of the Theory of Elasticity,
confine
We
shall therefore
our attention to the case in which the extension or
is
contraction of the axis
neglected.
so small (if
it
exists), that it
may be
In the
figure, let
AB he the axis of the wire, PQ any filament, the centre of whose distance from AB is h, curvature at B; also let these points after deformation be denoted by accented letters.
It can
be proved in a variety of ways^ that
the
wire
the tension T' at P' due to the action of contiguous portions of
is
equal to
the
product of the extension of the element
PQ
and
If
a physical constant called Young's modulus.
k
is
the resistance to compression, n the rigidity
is
of the substance of which the wire
1
made and q
See
Thomson and
Tait's
Natural Philosophy, §§ 682—3.
BENDING MOMENT.
Young's modulus,
it is
153
shown
q
in treatises
n).
on Elasticity that
=
9nk/(Sk +
Hence
if
a be the extension
T'
= q<T
(2).
Now
if p, p'
be the radii of curvature before and after de
formation
PQ^p + h
AB
Since
neglected,
p
that
'
P'Q'_ A'B'~
p'
+h
p'
•
we assume
the
extension
of the
&c.,
axis
may
be
AB = A'B'\
whence neglecting A^
and
Accordingly
T'
= q}i{^,^
G^
= //#(^^)^'Sf
P
pi
=
where
wire.
k^oh is
«'=''>'
(JJ)
is
(3)
the
moment
of inertia of the cross section of the
Hence the
flexural couple
proportional to the change of
curvature.
The quantity
of g/c^w
is
or the coeficient of flexion.
sometimes called the Jiextiral We shall denote it by A.
rigidity,
In statical problems, the couple
the forces X,
L
will usually
be
zero, whilst
equations (1) together with (3) are therefore sufficient to determine the form of the wire.
Y will
be given
;
139.
The conditions
to be satisfied at the ends of the wire
are the following.
and couples, and at the ends must be respectively equal to the components along the tangent and normal of the constraining forces; and the couple G, must be
If the ends are subjected to constraining forces
the
values of the two stresses
T
N
equal to the constraining couple.
At a
free end, T,
N and
G must
vanish.
154
140.
FLEXION OF WIRES.
As an example of these formulfe, we shall consider the Elastica of James Bernoulli, which is the curve assumed by a naturally straight thin wire, whose ends are fastened together by
a string of any given length.
Since there are no impressed forces,
p'
X=Y=L = 0;
'
also
= ds/d<}},
whence the
first
two of
"'
rf«/>
(1)
become
d<f>
^^
^
and therefore
the integral of which
is
whence
Let
of
(f)
T= Ccos(f) + Dsin^, N= — Csin + D cos
(f>
(j).
be the tension of the string, and a and at the two extremities, then
t
tt
—a
the values
— i cos a = i\r= — sin a + D cos a, — < sin a = 2! = cos a + i) sin a,
therefore
G=Q,
D = t.
,
Writing
A = qK^a,
natural form of the wire
the third of (1)
and remembering that p = <x> since the is straight, we have G = Ajp, whence becomes
A
p
Integrating,
/^\ d /1\
ri
— tCOS<ji =
=
d<i>
[p'J
(4).
(
we
obtain
2A —^ —
Since
t
sin
(ft
= E.

G= = a^
when
ds
<f>
= a,E = aV2
1
sin a.
whence
if J./i
vTi
.(5),
'
which determines the
intrinsic equation to the curve.
We may
also integrate (4) in a diiferent
£C,
string be the axis of
and
its
manner, for middle point be the origin,
if
the
cos
<f)
= dy/ds,
THE ELASTICA.
and therefore
(4)
155
may be
"*
written
ds [p'J
p'y
Us'
(6),
whence
= a'^\
when y = 0.
dy
no constant being required because p~^ =
T^T
/
ds dy
whence integrating
(6) again
2/=*
= 2a2 (sin <^  sin a)
is
(7).
The forms
Part
II.
of the various curves which the wire
capable of
assuming, are shown in
p. 148.
Thomson and
Tait's
Natural Philosophy,
and tt, the maxima values of y are obtained and are therefore equal to ± 2a sin {^ir — a). The form of the curve is shown in the figures 1, 2 or 3 of that work and if the curve be bent upon itself and the slight torsion be neglected, the forms are shown in figures 4 and 5. In all these cases except the first, in which the wire is bent into the shape
If a lies between
(f)
by putting
= ^ir,
;
of a bow, the
maximum
If,
'ir
value of y
lies
is
numerically equal to
tt
its
minimum
put
it
value.
however, a
in
y^
between
and
27r,
we may
equal to
+ ^,
which case
(7)
becomes
=
2a''
(sin
<f)
+ sin /8).
<f)
In this case the
is
maximum
^ = 0,
or
equal to
2a cos (^tt — ^/S),
when and the minimum when
value of y occurs
= ^tt, and
y = a{2
in
sin
/8)*
the form of the curve
is
shown
fig. 7.
The constants a and
a are capable of being determined
;
when
the lengths of the wire and string are given and the equation of the curve in Cartesian coordinates can also be obtained, but to do
this a
knowledge of
elliptic functions is required ^
If,
however,
;
o
= fTT,
the integral in an algebraic form can be obtained
<i>
for
since tan
= — dx/dy,
(7)
becomes
•(f2a^)dy
=Py
^
— 2/^)i =  (4a^  2/2)i + a log {2ajy + (4aVy='  1)^} + 0.
(4a;'^
Greenhill, Mets. Math. vol. vin. p. 82.
156
Since
FLEXION OF WIRES.
y = aV2 when
a;
= 0, G=as/2 — a\og{>J2 +
(Jo^iTi)
1),
whence
x
= (4a='  y»)* a^2 + a\og
is
'
It will be noticed that this curve
the same as that described
by an elliptic cylinder, and rotation. See page
in the limiting case
75.
between
oscillation
Equation (5) enables us to prove a theorem discovered 141. by KirchhofF, and which is known as Kirchhoff's kinetic analogue. The theorem is, that if a point move along the elastica with uniform velocity, the angular velocity of the tangent at that point, is the same as that of a pendulum under the action of gravity.
If
V be
the' velocity of the
moving
point, (5)
may be
written
If
this
we put
;)(;
= Itt +
aV2^
<^,
a
= Itt + yS,
cos
becomes
is is
r^=
dt
—
jk (cos
v—
'^
^
yS)^,
which
length
the equation of motion of a
common pendulum, whose
equal ^ga^/V^
Stability
under Thrust.
is
142.
When
a thin straight wire or column
is
subjected to
a pressure or thrust, which
applied at one extremity in the
direction of its length, experiment shows that as soon as the
thrust exceeds a certain limit the wire
commences
to bend.
There
are several methods by which this limiting value can be obtained,
but the following
Let a thrust
is
perhaps the simplest.
;
P be applied at one extremity of the wire and Pq be the limiting value of P which is just sufficient to produce bending. Then if P is less than Pq, no bending will take place but if P is slightly greater than Pq, the wire will assume
let
;
a sinuous form which differs very
little
from a straight
line.
We
must therefore solve the equations of equilibrium on the hypothesis that the wire is not absolutely straight in its configuration
of equilibrium, but assumes a slightly sinuous form
;
and we
shall
find that our solution leads to a certain equation of the form
P = a, where a is a
quantity upon which the sinuous curve assumed
STABILITY UNDER THRUST.
by the wire depends.
157
;
have any value we please if which is less than the least value of a, the equation P = a cannot be satisfied, which shows that equilibrium in the sinuous form is impossible. Hence the
therefore
Now P may
we
assign a value to
P
minimum
value of a
is
the limiting value of P, which
is
just
sufficient to
produce bending.
or
143.
Let
ts
denote the curvature of the wire when slightly
p"^
bent
;
then
= /o'~\
= 0,
(r
= Jtsr,
and equations
(1)
become
f^=«
f+^=«
=«
w
W'
^t^^
From
(8)
w
'
and (10) we obtain
—
ds
A
~ =0
ds
(11).
whence
T=B^A^^
Since
ot is
a very small quantity throughout the length of the
wire, the constant
B may
be put equal to
— P, where P
is
the
thrust applied to the end of the wire; accordingly (11)
may be
(12).
written
T=P^A^'
Owing
to the smalluess of
•cr,
we may
neglect
its
cube
;
whence
eliminating
N from (9) and (10) we get
the integral of which
is
rff
= G cos fis+ D sin/iS
(13)>
where fj? = PIA.
Case
I.
We
have now three cases to consider.
Let the lower end
A
I
of the wire be firmly clamped,
whilst the upper end
B
;
is
pressed vertically downwards by a force
P, but
let
is
otherwise free
s
also let
be the length of the wire, and
the arc
be measured from A.
158
FLEXION OF WIRES.
B,
At the end
G
and therefore
or
are zero
;
whence
(14).
it
C COS
follows that
/jlI
+ D sin fil =
Also by considering the equilibrium of the whole wire,
N=0
&t A,
accordingly
D = 0.
whence by (10) dsr/ds^O when This requires that cos fil = 0, whence
fll
s
= 0,
= (2w +
1)
lTT,
which gives
P = l'ir^{2n + iyA/P
The
w=
;
(15).
least value of the righthand side of (15) occurs
when
and this gives the thrust P which must be applied to the upper end of the wire to produce an infinitesimally small deflection if, therefore, the thrust is less than this quantity, no deflection will take place and the wire will remain straight.
;
'
Whence
the condition of stability
is
that
(16).
P<i7rM/Z2
Case
II.
Let the wire be pressed between two parallel planes
its
which are perpendicular to
undisplaced position.
If the planes
were perfectly hard, smooth and rigid (a condition which can only be approximately realized in nature), the ends of the wire would
tend to
slip
on the slightest pressure being applied
;
we
shall
therefore suppose that the ends are in contact with mechanical
appliances which will prevent any such slipping taking place,
but are otherwise
free.
Under these circumstances the terminal when s = and s = Whence by (13)
l.
conditions are Br
=
(7=0,
sin
fxl
= 0,
fx,l=
tt,
and the condition of
stability is that
Pktt^AIP
(17).
Case III. Let both ends of the wire be clamped. The terminal conditions require that the values of and w at the two ends should be equal to one another. Consequently
N
D{1 — cos ixl) = — G sin fil, D sin fil. (1 — cos /jil) =
Eliminating
G and D we
obtain
sin^ ^fil
= 0,
^fil
= TT,
(18).
and the condition of
stability is
Pk^tt^AJP
STABILITY OF A COLUMN.
159
The value
of
nr
may now be
or
written
cos
2'irs/l,
=
which shows that there are two points of
inflexion,
which occur
when
end
s
= ^l
and
s
= ^l.
first case corresponds to a column or pillar whose lower cemented into a bed of concrete, whilst the upper end supports a building which simply rests upon but is not fastened
The
is
to the pillar
;
and we see that in
this case the
to cause the pillar to collapse is less
weight required than in the other two cases.
case corresponds to a pillar or rod both of whose ends on bearings to which they are not cemented. The third case corresponds to a pillar whose ends are respectively cemented to
rest
The second
the foundations and to the building supported.
In the third case,
is
the force required to cause the pillar to collapse
four times
greater than in the second and sixteen times greater than in
the
first case.
Another interesting problem rod or column consistent with stability.
144.
is
the greatest height of a
Let the lower end of a vertical rod be firmly fixed; then
can be shown by experiment that the rod will bend when
length exceeds a certain limit.
it
its
To
find this limit,
we
shall sup
pose that the rod
when
slightly bent is in equilibrium.
Since dx = ds, and p~^
= dT
—T
'ss,
equations (1) become
iVw
,_
= amg \
(19).
^ + Tw =0
ax
A ^ + N =0
.
disr
ax
From
where
the
first
and third we obtain
T=B +
crrngx
 ^Asy^
where x =
l,
5
is
a constant.
;
At the
free end,
T
and
ot
must vanish
whence
Substituting
T = (Toig {x  I)  ^AstK this value of T in the second
«r,
of (19), eliminating
N from the third and neglecting squares of A^y = a<og{xl)
we obtain
(20).
160
If If
is
FLEXION OF WIRES.
the weight of the rod,
W = awgl
;
also if
we put
(20)
may be
transf9rmed into
'%YMi?>''
the solution of which
is
<^^)'
where
/ is
a Bessel's function.
is
When X
cordingly
if
nearly equal to
Z,
r
is
a very small quantity
;
ac
and retain the two most important terms, the approximate value of z will be found to be
we integrate (21) by
series
z=Gr^ + Dr~^,
whence
= Ck^ (I  x) + Dk~ *. it follows that d'sy/dx must Since N=0, when x = when x = l; whence (7 = 0, and
ot
l,
vanish
i!f
= D(lxy^J_^{r).
end of the rod is Dl J _i = throughout its length.
(a;)
_
1
s
The value
if
if
of ot at the free
•bj
{tcV)
;
but
the rod remains straight,
kI^
is less
Whence
than the least root of the equation J"_i
= 0,
equi
librium in the bent form will be impossible, and
will
the vertical form
be the only configuration of equilibrium.
The
least root of
critical
this equation is approximately equal to
188
;
whence the
height at which the rod begins to bend
Z
is
= 283(^/lf)i
will
Further information relating to this subject
the following papers ^
1
be found in
Greeahill,
"On
the greatest height consistent with stability," Proc. Cavib.
Phil. Soc. vol.
Ibid. "
IV. p.
65.
On
the strength of shafting
when exposed both
to torsion
and end
thrust," Proc. Inst. Mechan. Engineers, Ap. 1883, p. 182.
FLEXUKAL VIBRATIONS.
Flexural Vibrations.
145.
161
equations! in statical problems;
The preceding examples illustrate the use of these we must now proceed to consider
.
the dynamical theory of the small vibrations of wires.
In order to obtain the equations of motion, we must write
X—
tion
ii,
Y— V
for
X and Y in
L + k^^
the
first
two of
;
(1),
where
u, v,
are
the tangential and normal displacements
and
in the third equa
we must
write
for L.
The equations
of motion are
thus
as
J
p
^
'
dN — = ,^ — T (Tw (Y v) +
..,
as
p
y
(22).
146.
We
shall
now
obtain the equation for determining the
flexural vibrations of a wire,
whose natural form
is
straight,
when
under the action of no
In
this case
forces.

= 0, ~="3^is
Since the curvature of the wire
small, p~^
is
a small quantity;
hence if there is second order of small quantities, and may therefore be neglected we may also write dx for ds (ds being measured in the figure in
the opposite direction to dx), and the last two of (22) become
no permanent
tension, the quotient T/p' is of the
dN = crcov.
dx
,
.(23),
qK'<o^ + N=aK'co4>
(24).
Now
and since
<f)
cot
is
= — dv/dx,
^tt,
very nearly equal to
^=
and therefore (24) becomes
dv/dx,
,«=„^ + ^ = .«.„*B.
(25);
11
H.
162
whence eliminating
FLEXION OF WIRES.
N between (23) and (24) and putting q/a =
b,
we
obtain
which
is
the required equation of motion.
147.
The
conditions to be satisfied at a free end are, that
It therefore follows
G
and
N
should vanish there.
from (3) and
(25) that these conditions are
These results agree with those given by Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, vol. i. § 162 but the method employed in the text is different, and jvas suggested by a paper by Dr Besaut\
;
In forming
use of the
(26), it will
be observed that we have not
that
made
first
of (22);
all
so
the differential equation of
motion, and also
the quantities upon which the vibrations
v.
depend, are expressed in terms of
Now
;
v is the displacement
perpendicular to the length of the wire
are frequently called lateral vibrations.
hence such vibrations
lateral vibrations of
line,
The
a wire, whose undisturbed form
is
a straight
involve flexion
and not extension.
And
it
can also be shown that when the
is
undisturbed form of the wire
any plane or tortuous curve,
;
vibrations always exist which involve flexion and not extension
but
since
these
vibrations
usually
involve
the
longitudinal
displacement of the central axis, they are not lateral vibrations. Hence the vibrations, which we are considering, are more appropriately
termed flexural vibrations.
148.
The third term on the lefthand
i.e.
side of (26)
is
due to
it
the rotatory inertia of the wire,
of the cross sections.
to say, to the angular motion
This term
is
generally very small, and
is
may
usually be neglected.
When
this
the case the equation
of motion becomes
dt'^"^ da^^
'
^^^^'
When
g
+
the Equilibrium of a Bent Lamina, Quart. Journ. Vol. iv. p. 12. there is a permanent tension Tj, it will be found that we must write Tj for q in (3) and the term T^jp in the second of (22), which becomes
;
On
 TiUxPvldx^, must be retained.
Rayleigh, § 188.
We
shall thus obtain the results given
by Lord
FLEXURAL VIBRATIONS.
whilst the boundary conditions at a free end are
''"
163
dx^^
149.
= 0,^ = d^
'
(29).
For the complete discussion of these equations we must Chapter viii. of Lord Rayleigh's treatise but one or two special cases may be noticed.
refer the reader to
;
If the wire
is
so long that
it
may be
treated as infinite,
its extremities.
we
If
may
neglect the conditions to be satisfied at
therefore the vibrations consist of waves of length X,
we may
e'^^+2'"*''^.
assume as a solution of (28) that
Substituting in (28)
v
is
proportional to
we
obtain,
and therefore the frequency
is
27rA:6/\l
150.
We
shall
I.
now
investigate the flexural vibrations of a
wire^ of length
Taking the origin assume
where
at the middle point of the wire,
we may
V
= U exp
ac,
(iKbrnH/l^),
U
is
a,
function of
and
m
is
a constant whose value
has to be determined.
Substituting in (28) we obtain
d'U _'mMI
dx^
~ ~¥~
To
i,
solve this equation
assume
U=
exp (pmx/l), and we see
that the values of
p
are the four fourth roots of unity, viz. 1,
—
1,
—
I.
The
solution
may
therefore be written
sin
U=A
We
+ G cos
151.
(i)
+ B sinh mxjl mxjl + D cosh mxjl
mx/l
(30).
have now three cases to consider.
free.
Let both ends of the wire be
The
first
of (29)
requires that
—A
1
sin
mxjl +
B sinh rnxjl — G cos mx/l + D cosh mxjl = 0,
xvi. p. 115;
Greenhill, Mess. Math. Vol.
viii.
Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound,
Ch.
11—2
164
FLEXION OF WIRES.
when
This equation of condition may be satisfied in = 0; and two different ways we may first suppose that C =
x=
±^l.
;
D
A sin lm\ Bsm\i^m =
or that
(31),
A=B =
first
0,
and
The
(7
cos
^?7i
+ Dcosh^m=:0
first line
(32).
solution corresponds to the
w,
of (80),
which
is
an odd function of
and may
therefore be called odd vibrations
whilst the second solution corresponds to the second line of (80), which is an even function of x, and may be called even vibrations.
We
thus see that the odd and even vibrations are independent of
one another.
Taking the case of the odd
requires that
vibrations, the second of (29)
—A
and therefore by (31)
cos
^m + B cosh ^m = 0, ^m = tanm
(33).
tanh
For the even vibrations the second of (29) gives
C sin ^m + D sinh \m = 0,
and therefore by (32)
tanh
^m = — tan ^m
(34).
Equations (33) and (34) determine the values of m for the odd and even vibrations respectively, and consequently the frequency
of the diflferent notes can be found.
(ii)
Let both ends of the wire be clamped.
satisfied at the
In this case the conditions to be
ends
are, that
U = 0,
the
first
dU/dx =
(35),
of which expresses the condition that the displacement
at each end should be zero,
and the second that the direction of
the axis should be unchanged.
The
solution
for
this
case
(i)
may
evidently be obtained by
x,
integrating the results of case
wire twice with respect to
and
consequently the values of
m
for
the odd and even vibrations are
given by (33) and (34).
EXTENSIONAL VIBRATIONS.
(iii)
165
free at
Let the wire be clamped at x
«
= — ^l, and
x
= ^l.
When
cc=
^l,
=—
1^ equations (35) have to be satisfied;
the conditions are given by (29).
and when Taking the value of U
given by (30) and writing out the four equations of condition in full, it will be found that they can be satisfied in two ways, i.e.
either,
B=C = 0,
—A
which gives
hm + D cosh \m = 0, A cos ^m — D sinh ^m = 0, tanh \m = cot ^w
sin
(36),
OT,A=D = 0,
— B sinh \m + G cos \m = 0,
B cosh ^m + G sin ^ m = 0,
which gives
tanh
m = — cot ^m
(37).
Equations (33) and (34) are both included in the equation
cos
m cosh w=
1
(38),
and (36) and (37) in the equation
cos
m cosh m = — 1
(39).
to
For a discussion of the roots of these equations, we must refer Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound, Chapter viil. and to Prof.
Greenhill's paper.
Extensional Vibrations.
152.
The equation
,
of motion for extensional vibrations of a
straight wire
In this case
may be obtained immediately from p' = oo c^s = — dx, and therefore
the
first
of (22).
dT
u being the
But
d'u
dx^^'^'^df'
longitudinal displacement.
T = q(or
whence putting qja = 6^ we obtain
(Pu_,^d?u
daf'~
dF'
106
which
fixed
free
is
FLEXION OF WIRES.
the same equation which
that u
we have obtained
to
for the trans
verse vibrations of a string.
The condition
be
satisfied at
a
end
is
end
is
that
= 0; whilst the !r = 0, or dujdx = 0.
condition to be satisfied at a
In the case of a wire of infinite length, which propagates waves of length \, we must put
and therefore
p=
27r6/\
— ~^ \/
•
In the corresponding case of flexural vibrations of the same
wavelength,
whence
Since
p'/p
= k/\.
greater than
k,
\
is
usually very
much
which
is
the
radius of gyration of the cross section,
we
is
see that the pitch of
notes arising from extensional vibrations
usually
much
higher
than that of notes arising from flexural ones.
It will
be observed that when the vibrations of a straight wire
is parallel
are extensional, the displacement
to the length of the
wire;
hence such vibrations are sometimes called longitudinal
vibrations.
sional
But
if
the natural form of the wire
usually
is
curved, exten
vibrations
involve
the normal as well as
the
tangential displacement of the central axis.
EXAMPLES.
1.
A naturally
straight wire
AB,
is
of which the end
A
is fixed,
is
lying on a smooth horizontal plane, and the other end
is
pulled
with a force F, whose direction
placed position of the wire.
length
perpendicular to the undis
Prove that the projection of any
AP on the
^
is
undisplaced position
AB is
equal to
</>)},
(2F/A)i {V(cos )S)
 V(cos y8  cos
where
/8 is
the angle which the normal at
<f)
P makes
with
AB, and
the value of
at the end B.
EXAMPLES.
2.
167
whose ends are
fixed,
If a uniform horizontal wire, both of
be displaced horizontally, so that one half
is
uniformly extended,
and the other half
is
uniformly compressed, prove that the displaceparticle
ment
at time
i/kilfir'')
t
of
any
whose abscissa
is
x
is
S
(2i 4 1)' cos {2i
+ 1) 7ratl2l cos (2i + 1) 7r^/2;,
is
where
origin,
21 is
the length of the wire, the middle of which
is
the
and nl
the
initial
displacement of that point.
I
3.
The extremities
of a uniform wire of length
I
are at
tached to two fixed points distant
strength.
is
apart by springs of equal
the admissible values of
Show
that
if
the longitudinal displacement of the wire
represented by Pe'"^* sin (mx/l
+ a),
m
are given by the equation
{in^q^

Pfj?)
tan
m + 2mqlfi = 0,
where
/x
is
the strength of either of the springs, and q the ratio
of the tension to the extension in the wire.
4.
An
elastic wire, indefinitely
extended in one direction,
is
firmly held in a clamp at the other end.
If a series of simple
transverse
clamp
;
tude as
waves travelling along the wire be reflected at the show that the reflected waves will have the same amplithe incident waves, but that their phase is accelerated by
one quarter of a wavelength.
5.
A
heavy wire of uniform section
is is
carried on a series of
supports in the same horizontal plane, Lr
at the rth point of support,
lr
the bending
moment
the distance between the (r
— l)th
and the rth support, and
length
;
m
the mass of the wire per unit of
prove that
Lr,lr
+ 2Lr {lr +
if
Ir+i)
+ Lr+ilr+i = l^g {1/
I,
\r
Ir+i).
6.
Prove that
an
elastic wire of length
with
flat
ends, im
pinges directly with velocity
F on
a longer wire at
rest, of
length
ends,
nl and of the same material and cross section, also with
flat
the
fi.rst
wire will be reduced to rest by the impact
;
and the second
wire will appear to
move with
successive advances of the ends
with velocity
rest
V
for
of 2 (n

1) Ija,
intervals of time 2^/a, and intervals of a denoting the velocity of propagation of
longitudinal vibrations.
168
7.
FLEXION OF WIRES.
An
elastic rod of length
I
lies
on a smooth plane, and
I'
is
longitudinally compressed between two pegs at a distance
;
apart.
One peg is suddenly removed prove that the rod leaves the other peg just as it reaches its natural state, and then proceeds with a velocity equal to V(l — l')/l, where V is the velocity of propagation of a longitudinal wave in the rod.
8.
A
metal rod
fits
freely in a tube of the
same length, but of
a different substance, and the extremities of each are united by
equal perfectly rigid discs fitted symmetrically at the end.
Show
that the frequencies of the notes omissible, which have a node at
the centre of the system, are given by xj^irl, where 21
of the rod or tube,
is
the length
and w
is
a root of the equation
cot x/a'
;
2Mx = ma cot x/a + m'a
where M, m, m are the masses of a disc, the wire, and the tube, and a, a' are the velocities of propagation of sound along the wue and the tube.
9.
(7
Two
equal and similar elastic rods
AG, BG
are hinged at
so as to form a right angle, while their other extremities are
clamped.
One
vibrates transversely and the other longitudinally
prove that the periods are equation
1
%^lpQ'\ where Q
is
given by the
+ cosh
6 cos Q
+ (sin
where
I
6 cosh
(9
 cos
^ sinh &) {gllp9) cot (O^p/gl)
=
0,
is
the length of either rod, and
/
g
are two constants
depending on the material.
10.
arc,
The natural form of a thin rod when at and the rod makes small oscillations about
plane.
rest is a circular this
form in
its
own
Assuming that the couple due to bending varies as the change of curvature, and that the tension follows Hooke's
by the quadratic,
law, prove that if the arc be a complete circle the periods 27r/p
are given
p*

[b (n^
+
1)
+ anJ" (w^ 
1)}
p^
+ abtv" (n^ 
1)
= 0,
where n is any integer, and a, b are two constants which depend upon the moduli of stretching and bending, and on the radius of
the
ciicle.
EXAMPLES.
11.
169
example the arc be not a complete circle, but have both ends free and be inextensible, show that it can be made to vibrate symmetrically about its middle point by suitable initial
If in the last
conditions in a period 27r/p, provided the angle 20, which the arc
subtends at
qiq'
its centre, satisfies
the equation
+ l) {q^  f) cot qO + q' (q'^ + 1) (q"^  q^) cot q^O + q;' (q"^ + 1) (q^  q') cot q"0 = 0,
q^, q'^,
where
q"^ are
the
roots, real or
imaginary, of the cubic
1) p\
ax (aP — ly = (x +
CHAPTER
IX.
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
153. When a wire, whose natural form is straight or curved, deformed in any manner, the stresses which act across any transverse section of the deformed wire are six in number, and
is
consist of
T =B, Ni = iVa = a
a,
tension along the tangent to the central axis,
shearing stress along the principal normal,
shearing stress along the binormal,
H = & torsional couple about the tangent,
(ti
=a
flexural couple
about the principal normal,
G^2
=a
flexural couple about the binormal.
To obtain the equations
the central axis
;
of equilibrium \ let
P be
any point on
Px, Py,
Pz
the principal normal, the binormal
^
Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, vol. xxui. p. 105
;
American Journal of Mathematics,
vol. ivii. p. 282.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION.
171
and the tangent to the central axis at P. Let P' be any point on the central axis near P 0,0' the centres of principal curvature
;
at P, P'\ let
S</),
St;
be the angles of contingence and torsion at
;
P, so that
POP' = S0, OP'O' = St;
let p,
a be the
radii of principal
curvature and torsion at P.
Also
let
T + hT,
N^
+ SNi,
;
&c. be
the values of the resultant stresses at P'; and
j^
jS %, 0^, the components of the bodily forces and couples per unit of
3C,
^,
length of the wire.
The equations
forces
of equilibrium are obtained
and couples which act upon PP'
parallel to
by resolving all the Px, Py, Pz.
Resolving the forces parallel to P^, we get
(T + ST) cos 8(f)T{N, +
or
SiYi) cos St; sin
B<f>
+ (N^ + BN^) sin
SriViS<^
Treating
all
8(f)
sin
St;
+ S^Bs =
0,
+ 5SSs = 0.
we
the other forces and couples in the same way,
obtain the following six equations
as
p
as
a
p
r'
as
+
—+ a
p
=
(1).
ds
dG,
ds
a
p
In statical problems the three couples %, JW, i^, are usually zero but in dynamical problems they must be replaced by the
;
time variations (taken with the negative sign) of the components
of the angular
momentum
now
of the element.
154.
We
shall
find the values of the three couples,
is
when
whose radius c is small compared with the radius of principal curvature and we shall assume that the extension of the central axis may be neglected.
the cross section of the wire a
circle,
;
172
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
;
Let PQ be the central axis of the undeformed element draw any plane through the tangent at P, let G be the centre of the centre of curvature of the element in this plane, and
principal curvature.
C
The
flexion
can obviously be effected by applying to the
ends of the element equal and opposite couples, whose axes are perpendicular to the plane PCQ, which will be called the
plane of bending. The effect of the bending will be to change the curvature at P in the plane PCQ, and also to extend or contract all filaments, such as pq,
lines
which are
parallel to
PQ, but the
pq and
PQ
will
remain sensibly parallel after bending.
The torsion can be effected by applying to the ends of the element equal and opposite couples, whose axes coincide with the
tangents at
all lines
be to twist on the surface of the cylinder ApqB through small angles, so that after torsion they will assume posiQ.
P and
The
effect of the torsion will
such as pq which
lie
tions slightly inclined to their former ones.
The
flexion
and torsion
will also
produce various deformations
of a secondary character, but these
may be
neglected in working
out the approximate solution which we shall obtain.
Let
also let
p, p'
be the radii of curvature in the plane of bending
before and after deformation, p^ the radius of principal curvature
qQO = 6, qQC=
6',
Qq = r.
Before bending,
pq _pi — r cos
PQ
The
eflfect
Pi
•
of the bending will be to displace the point q through
ff,
a small space rhto cos
where
Stu is
the rotation due to bending,
FLEXURAL COUPLE.
about a
line
173
through
Now
if
C
Q
perpendicular to the plane of bending.
be the centre of curvature in the plane
PCQ
after
bending,
Ba>
= PCQ PCQ = PQ (,],
\p
pJ
whence the displacement of q along pq
rBo} cos 0'
is
= PQ (,  V cos e',
\p
pJ
consequently
if
o;/
be the extension,
rhcocosd'
1\ =  /I ,
03=
,
rcos6''
Vq
if
\p
first
pJ
(2), '
^
higher powers of r than the
be neglected.
The
is
effect of the torsion will
be to displace the line pq to the
there
is
position ps, and therefore the above expression for the extension
not rigorously accurate
when
torsion as well as flexion,
but the error depends upon the square of the small angle qQs
and may be neglected.
If B! be the normal traction at q perpendicular to the crosswe have shown in § 138 that
Pt!
section,
= q(Ti
(3),
where q
is
Young's modulus
ii'
;
hence we obtain from (2) and
(3),
= _gfll')rcos6''.
Vp
p)
The
flexural couple
is
G
about the normal through
Q
to the
plane of bending
G = l'' TRr' 00s' 6' drd0' =
and
zero.
is
^^^(?J)
flexural
(^)'
therefore proportional to the change of curvature in the
plane of bending.
The
couple about
QC
is
obviously
155.
We
Qy
shall
now
resolve this couple about
two arbitrary
axes Qx,
at right angles to one another in a plane perpen
dicular to the tangent at Q.
174
In the figure,
bending,
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
QG
is
the normal to the wire in the plane of
QN is
the normal to this plane at Q, and
G
is
the centre
of curvature in this plane.
Let CQx =
be the flexural couples about Qx, Qy, and
NQy = A the
j
<f)
;
then
if
Gx,
Gy
flexural rigidity,
Gx =
— G ^\n ^ = — A
{—,
sin
^
.(5),
Gy =
G cos
<f>
=
A\~
\p
—
)
cos
<f)
pj
^
.(6).
Let QO, QO' be the principal normals at Q before and after also let bending 0, 0' the centres of principal curvature CQO = x, GQO' = x'' Let R^, Rx, Ry, Ry be the radii of curvature before and after bending in planes perpendicular to Qx,
;
;
Qy, and let
p^, p^
be the radii of principal curvature before and
after bending.
Then
cos^
Pi
1 1 —= —
cos y,
P
Pi
^
^,= —,sm{<f>x),
J^x
Pi
R = sin(</)x), y
^y
(7).
p'=/ cos (</)%),
^= cos (</>%),
Pi
is
is
Since the curvature in the plane through the tangent which
perpendicular to the plane of bending
1 — sm Y
.
unchanged,
,
,
Pi
^
1 = — sm Y
.
Pi
^
.(8).
TORSIONAL COUPLE.
From
the
first
175
(8)
and second of
^r,
(7)
combined with
cos
p^
we get
Rx
= —. sm
p
 sin
d>
(b
sin ^ v,
^^ =
whence
1
cos
sin v,
1
ly
G^ Ooc


sin
<f>,
accordingly
= A [^,^] A \R.'
~RJ
1
(9),
and
in the
same way i
KJy
=
A
/I
\A,'
\
~rJ
.(10), (
where
A = ^irqc^
is
the flexural rigidity.
This shows that the
flexural
couples about the normals to any two planes at right
angles to one another are proportional to the changes of curvature
in those planes.
the fact that owing to the
measured Gx
156.
is
The negative sign in (9) is accounted for by way in which the quantities are positive when the curvature is diminished.
find the torsional couple.
We
must now
The
line
flexion simply displaces the point q along
pq
;
the torsion
so that the
produces a displacement along the circular arc to
s,
pq assumes the
Let the angles
position ps.
qps
then

=
i/r,
qQs
= t PQ,
.
VT. PQ=pq.'yjr,
whence
ylr
,
= rT
PQ =
pq
p
prr
—
y.
'f
cos o
Now
the shearing strain perpendicular to Qq in the plane QqB, whence if be the torsional couple,
i/r
is
H
re
r2ir
J
J
= ^7rc%T
The quantity t
which
is
(11).
is
the change of twist, and
t'
the same quantity
Mr Love
denotes by
— t.
176
THEOBY OF CURVED WIRES.
Potential Energy.
Since the work done by a stress is equal to half the 157. product of the stress into the strain produced, it follows that
the work done by flexion
ffi
is
riir
/I
"\2
re
riir
by
(2)
and
(3).
The work done by
^n
torsion
re J
/"2ir
is
i^\drdd
J
= lirc^nr'.
It therefore follows that if
W be
the potential energy per unit of
length,
W=i'irc*hq(,f +
nA
(12).
Equilibrium of Naturally Straight Wires.
158.
is
The preceding
formulae can be simplified
when the wire
;
naturally straight.
In this case the curvature in every plane
is
through the axis of the wire
to the deformed wire
zero
before
deformation
and
since the change of curvature in that plane through the tangent
which
is
is
perpendicular to the plane of
it
bending
is
zero after deformation,
follows that the curvature in
the abovementioned plane the plane of bending
wire.
is
also zero after deformation.
Hence
the osculating plane of the deformed
From
this it follows that
G,
= 0,
G,
= A/p,
(1),
whence, by the fourth of equations
ds
or
^'
H=
This
is
const.,
is
which shows that the torsional couple
length of the wire.
constant throughout the
a very important proposition.
NATUBALLY STRAIGHT WIRES.
177
shall now proceed to integrate the equations 159. of equilibrium of a naturally straight wire.
We
Since
H
is
constant and 0^
tsr
curvature, so that
=
1/p,
= 0, it follows that equations (1) become
if ct
denote the
^^^^ =
(13),
VT + ^ =
C
"H^ + N, =
<r
^
(14)^
lis^i = '
(15),
(16),
w + ^'=«
Since G^
w.
= At!r, we
obtain from (13) and (17)
dT
ds
j^^d^_Q ~ ds
'
whence
where
T= P^A^sr^
is
(18),
P
a constant.
From
(16)
we get
JSf,=
(H ^) ^
(19).
and from (18) and (18)
N,
=
A~
we get
(20).
From
(19) and (20) combined with (15)
ds
ds\(T J
'
whence
where Q
is
A^^ff+l
a constant
;
(21),
accordingly by (19)
(22)
^.= (i^)To
from (18), (20) and (22) in (14) and we get
obtain a third integral, substitute the values of T, Ni,
N^
^2^ + (j^._p^)^_5! + 1^2^3=0 ds'
'
(23).
ot'
B.
H.
12
178
Integrating
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
we obtain
(24),
(Av:^Y = lA'm' + (APiH')vT* + Rw^Q\.
where
R is another constant.
From
(24)
160.
we
the
see that {dvy^ldsy
is
a cubic function of
s
or^,
and therefore
ts'^
can be expressed in terms of
first
by means of
elliptic functions of
kind.
Let ^A'^Z denote this cubic
function; then collecting our results from (18), (21) and (24),
we
have the following three
librium, viz.
first
integrals of the equations of equi
a
^
t^^
')•
(25).
ds
''
The
first
of (25) merely determines the tension, but the second If the curve
if
leads to important results.
a plane curve,
o
=
oo
;
whence
Q
is
not zero,
assumed by the wire is ct must be constant,
and therefore the curve is a circle. If, however, Q is zero, o is constant, and therefore the curve assumed by the wire is one oi constant tortuosity and if we suppose the curve to be plane, so must be zero and the wire devoid that o = 00 it follows that
;
,
H
of twist.
From
these results
it
follows that if a naturally straight
is
wire
is
twisted as well as bent, the circle
the only plane curve
if
which
ture
is
a possible figure of equilibrium
;
but
the wire
is
bent
without being twisted, a family of plane curves exist whose curvais expressed in terms of the arc by means of the These curves of course belong to the elastica family.
last of (25).
161.
We
shall
now prove
that
is
if
a naturally straight wire
is
twisted as well as bent, a helix
a possible form of equilibrium,
provided proper forces and couples be applied to the ends of the
wire.
Let a be the pitch of the helix, and a the radius of the cylinder on which the helix is traced, then
1
cos^ a
1
(T
sin a cos a
p
also in the
a
a normal
is
(26),
helix the
principal
the
normal
to
the
cylinder.
EQUILIBRIUM OF A HELIX.
Since the natural form of the wire
fl"=const.
also
is
179
straight,
G,
=
0,
G,
= A/p
s,
(27);
none of the quantities can be functions of
A
whence
A
it
follows
from the general equations that
N,
= 0,
T=^, N,= ~ paa^
TT TT
(T
(28).
p
These equations combined with (26) give
m _H sin a cos a
a
A bvd? a cos^ a
'
,
a'^
^^=
j^y
fi'cos^a
J. sin a cos" a
'
.j.^,
—a
cos^a
^^^^'
^
a^
n =A Cto
whence
a
T cos a — Nz sin a = 0,
"j
H ^. T sin a + No cos a = — cos a
,r
^sinacos^ai
a?
)
(30).
a
Equations (30) show that the resultant force
cylinder on which the helix
is
F which
must be
is
applied to the ends of the wire must be parallel to the axis of the
traced,
and that
acos^a
its
magnitude
H F = — cos a a
The
resultant couple CG
is
A
;
sin
(.31).
^ ^
a^
C52=^2 + ^'cos^a
The
resultant
force
(32).
and couple are therefore
is
to
a certain
extent arbitrary, since both contain the torsional couple H, the
only limitation on whose value
that
it
must not be
set.
large
enough
to break the wire or to produce a
fore
permanent
We
have there
two special cases
162.
to consider.
Case
I.
Let if = 0; then the terminal stresses consist
is
of a pushing force or thrust P, whose value
P = Aja?
The pitch
than Gi.
of the helix
is
.
sin a cos^ a,
is
together with a flexural couple G^, whose value
sin~^ (Pa/G^),
Aja.cos^a.
see that in
from which
we
order that equilibrium
may be
possible
Pa must
not be greater
12—2
180
Case
II.
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
Let
^=0,
then
£"=«=
—
a
sin a cos a
=—
a
(33),
whilst
(&
=^
Aja. cos a.
The
torsional
also since
couple
is
therefore
pro
portional to the tortuosity;
H cos a—
iT sin a
it is
G<i
sin a
= 0,
= A/a. cos a,
whose axis
is
+
G2 cos a
follows that the terminal stress consists of a couple
parallel to the axis of the cylinder
is
on which the helix
traced,
and whose magnitude
A fa. cos a.
Stability.
163.
In
§
143 we investigated the stability of a naturally
straight wire which
was subjected
to longitudinal thrust
is
;
we
shall
to
now
investigate the stability
when the wire
undamped,
(21)
subjected
a
torsional couple as well as a thrust.
In Case
or
I.,
in
which one end
II.,
is
or
must vanish
at
the free end; and in Case
in
which both ends are undamped,
must vanish
at each end.
Now
may
be written
whence
Case
if sr
vanishes anywhere, the constant
Q must
be
zero.
In
III.,
both ends are clamped, and the tangents at the ends of
inflexion,
the wire are consequently parallel
two points of
points of the wire.
hence there must be at least and consequently cr must vanish at two Hence in this case also Q = 0.
;
Writing
—P
for
P
in (23),
and recollecting that
•sr^
is
to be
neglected, the equation becomes
w^^^e
f''
= ^^ + J
/jls,
(34X
whence
accordingly
ct
= C cos /is + i) sin
value of
/i.,
if the righthand side of (34) is less than the least equilibrium in the sinuous form will be impossible, and
the straight form will be stable.
STABILITY OF A TWISTED WIRE.
Case
s
I.
181
•cr
Here one end
is
undamped, whence
disr/ds,
= 0, when
therefore
= 1;
whilst at the clamped end
which
is
proportional to
Ni,
/i
must
2'^/l,
=
also vanish; whence D=0, and and the condition becomes
cosfx,l
= 0,
4^2
Case
dition
is
^^ + P < ^ ^ 4^2
s
•
II.
Here
ot
= 0, when
=
77^
and
s
=
I,
whence the con
^
H^
P
Case
s =
1,
III. Here ur and and the condition is
d'cr/ds
must be equal when
47^
s
=
and
P
All these results agree with our former ones, as can be seen by
putting 11
164.
= 0.
wire whose natural
A
form
is
unbent;
secondly/, the
it
wire
is
twisted,
to
a and
tortuous curve is first
thirdly, the ends are
joined together ;
is
required
find the condition that a circle
may
be
a possible fig m'e of equilibrium.
a circle
is
When
a figure of equilibrium none of the quantities
;
can be functions of
s
we
,
therefore obtain from (1
N',
(^2
T=0
The constancy
^= const.,
= G, = = const., N^^Hja,]
,
(35)
of G2 and
H
requires that
the
changes of
curvature and twist which occur in passing from the natural to
the circular form shall be constant quantities.
will
be
satisfied if the natural
form of the wire
in
These conditions is a helix, which
includes as a particular case a circular coil of fine wire, the radius
of whose crosssection
is
small
comparison with the mean
radius of the
coil.
165.
If in the last
example the natural form of the wire
is
a
straight line, the circular form will be unstable
when the
twist
exceeds a certain limit.
To
find this limit,
we observe
still
that since
the natural form
is
straight, it follows that in the circular
form
0^
= A/a]
whilst in the sinuous form
H will
be constant and
182
Gi zero.
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
But
T and Ni
«t,
will
be small quantities depending on the
change of curvature
also
we must
write
0^ = A/aiAnr,
N^ = H/a+N,'.
Accordingly equations (1) become
ds
a a
'
ds
aa
'
dNJ_
ds
'
aa,
dts
T
^
From
the
first
and
fifth
we get
Substitute this value
eliminate
o
T=A^la. of T in the
second equation
;
then

sult with respect to
by means of the fourth, and differentiate the res, taking account of the third, and we obtain
d^'^\A''^a')ds~'
whence
where
^ =
as
P sin (us + a),
^2=_ + _.
when
s is
Since drsjds must be periodic
it
changed into
s
+ 2«7ra,
follows that
fi
= n/a, whence H'a^ = A(n^l).
than the least value of the righthand
side,
Hence
if
H
is less
equilibrium in the sinuous form will be impossible, and the
circular form will be stable.
The displacement corresponding
is
/i
to
n
= 1,
is
a bodily displacement which
unaffected by the strain
hence the least value occurs when
stability is that
= 2, and
the condition of
Ha<A V3,
or
T<q fJZjIna,
is
where t
the twist.
VIBRATIONS OF A CIRCULAR RING.
183
This result appears to have been first given by Michelle vi^ho obtained it by supposing the wire to perform small oscillations.
For a large number of metals, the ratio qjn is equal to about 2^, in which case the total twist must be less than 27r x 2 16, that is less than eight and a half right angles.
.
Vibrations of a Circular Ring,
166.
When
the equilibrium of the wire in the last example
is
stable, it is capable of
performing vibrations which yield a musical
note.
The period
is
of these vibrations satisfies a cubic equation
no twist, the cubic breaks up into two factors whose roots are always real. One factor represents vibrations in which the central axis assumes a tortuous curve; whilst in the
other type the motion takes place in the plane of the ring.
vibrations of the
first
but when there
The
type have been considered by myself^; whilst those of the second type have been discussed by Hoppel
We
shall
now
investigate the period equation of the latter type.
145 put ds = ad^, between p~^ and a~^ may be neglected when multiplied by T or N. These equations therefore become, measuring u in the opposite direction, so that u and
In this case, we
may
in equations (22) of §
and p
= a,
since the difference
increase together,
dT ,d<f)
—„
iV
.r
=
aawu
..\
]
^+T
dG —
d(f)
=<ja<ov\
r.
(36),
+Na =
the rotatory inertia being neglected.
We must now find an expression due to deformation.
If R,
<I>
for the
change of curvature
be the coordinates after displacement, of the point on
(a,
(ft),
the axis which was initially at
then
<f>
R=a+
^
v,
(^
=
+ u/a.
vol. xvii. p. 315.
Mess. Math. vol. xix. p. 184.
Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 120
Crelle, vol. lxiii.
;
* 8
American Journal, Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, § 233.
;
184
THEORY OF CURVED WIRES.
if
Hence
P
tangent to the deformed axis, at the point in question,
be the perpendicular from the centre on to the we have by
a wellknown formula,
l^ldP
p
R dR
1
Now
1
p^
=
1
(,
(dRV\
R^Y^E?m)\
R?{
'
ie^ (1
+
'
du/ad<l)Y]
also the displacements
small quantities
quantities,
and their differential coefficients are all whence expanding and neglecting cubes of small the above equation becomes
;
P
whence
1
fdvy
dv
dP =
/,
1 d'v\
,
V~ad4>^)d<l>^'^
Also
dR = p^,
therefore
11
p
1
/d'v
\
a~
(37),
a'\d<})''^^)
in
which determines the change of curvature
displacement.
terms of the normal
We
must next
find the condition that the axis
undergoes no
extension.
The elementary
equation
ds'^
arc ds' of the deformed surface
is
given by the
= (dvy +
{a
+ vf (d(f> + dujdf,
we
obtain, neglecting squares of
and since
this is equal to a?d<^^,
small quantities,
S+«
which
is
•
(38).
the condition of inextensibility.
Substituting from (37) and (3) of § 138 in the last of (36)
obtain
we
qK'w /d^v
dv\
_
j^
'^\df''^d4>)~
VIBRATIONS OF A CIECULAE, RING.
185
From
the
first
two of (36) we obtain
,^^
d (d?N
(d'v
du\
(d^v
by
(38),
whence eliminating
N we obtain
x
and we obtain
^^^)
To
solve this equation,
assume that
v
e'^^"*"'**,
P^^aaM^Vi)
If the wire
is
a complete
circle, v
must
necessarily be periodic
with respect to 0, and therefore s must be an integer, unity and zero excluded. We therefore see that there are an infinite number
of
5
modes of
vibration,
in (40).
is
whose frequencies are obtained by putting
= 2,3,4...
If the wire
not a complete
circle, s is
not an integer
;
its
is
values in terms of
p
are the six roots of (40), but since
p
unknown, another equation is necessary. This equation is obtained by considering the boundary conditions to be satisfied at the free These and G should vanish there. ends, which are that T, conditions will furnish six additional equations, by means of which the six constants which appear in the solution of (39) can be eliminated, and the resulting determinantal equation combined
N
with
^
(40), will
determine the frequency
flexure
See
Lamb, "On the
and the vibrations of a curved bar," Proc. Lond.
Math. Soc.
vol. xix. p. 365.
CHAPTER
X.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
have already called attention to the fact, that air is we must the vehicle by means of which sound is transmitted therefore investigate the equations of motion of a gas.
167.
;
We
The general equations
Chapter
i,
of fluid motion, which
we obtained
in
are of course applicable to elastic fluids such as air and
other gases, as well as to incompressible fluids such as water;
but in order to investigate the propagation of sound in gases,
these equations require modification.
In
all
problems relating to vibrations, the velocities upon which
the vibrations depend, are usually so small that their squares and
products
the gas
may be
is
neglected
;
also the variation of the density of
usually a small quantity.
If therefore a gas,
which
is
at rest, be disturbed
djdt for didt
+
by the passage of sound waves, we may write udjdx + vdjdy + ludjdz, and also put p = po (1 + s),
is
where
s,
which
called the condensation, is a small quantity.
The equations
of motion therefore
become
1
du _
dt
^
dp\
p dx
^'
dt
pdyi
1
^
dw _ „
dt
whilst the equation of continuity, §
dp
becomes
p dz,
6,
equation
(5),
ds
dt
du dx
dv
dw _
dz
dy
VIBRATIONS OF A GAS.
187
which act
motion
is
We shall
upon the gas
irrotational
;
also suppose that the bodily forces (if any)
arise from a potential U,
and
also that the
(2) therefore
becomes
s+^'*=«
We
have already shown that when the motion
is
<3)
is irrotational,
the pressure
determined by the equation
/ f+^+fHi,^
=C
(4).
Now
hold,
q^ is to
be neglected, also
if
we assume
Boyle's law to
we
shall
have
p=kp^ kpo (1 + s),
and therefore
^ks + C,
neglecting
^
&c.
Whence
(4)
becomes
ks+U+(l) +
terms would be zero
G'=a
first
If there were no forces in action and no motion, the
;
three
whence
G'
= C,
and
therefore,
(5),
ks+ U+j> =
or if 8p denote the small variable part of p, (5)
may be
written
(6).
^+U+4> =
Eliminating
s
between (3) and
(5)
we obtain
<^)
f=^'*f
small vibrations of a gas.
Equation (6) and (7) are the fundamental equations of the
168.
In almost
act,
all
the applications of these equations, no
impressed forces
and therefore
U = 0;
accordingly (7) becomes
7* = ^^'*
in
W
Let us now suppose that plane waves of sound are propagated
a gas of unlimited extent.
Let
I,
m, n be the direction cosines
188
of the
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OP A PERFECT GAS.
wave
front,
a the velocity of propagation of the wave.
(J,
We
may assume
Substituting in (8)
_ ^ giK (Ix+my+m—at) k^a"
^
we obtain
(9). k,
This equation determines the physical meaning of
and
shows that
it is
equal to the square of the velocity of propagation.
We may
therefore write (8) in the form
t=«'^=*
I^^
^> V)
<i«)fluid,
K ^6 the displacements of an element of
then
^ = ax = AlkU"' ^
at
(lx^my+iuat)
whence
^={A
^11
1 1 a) e""
(i<^^rny+^at)
^
with similar expressions for
77
and
^.
We
is
thus obtain
= rj/m = ^/n,
perpendicular to the front
light, for it is well
which shows that the displacement
of the wave.
This constitutes one of the fundamental distinctions
between waves of sound and waves of
in the
known
lies
that in a wave of light the direction of displacement always
wave
front.
It therefore follows that
;
waves of sound are
incapable of polarization
they are, however, capable of interfering
with one another and also of being diffracted, since these phe
nomena do not depend upon
169.
the direction of vibration.
to calculate
it
Equation
gas,
(9)
enables us
the velocity of
applied to
and we shall now show how obtain the velocity of sound in air.
sound in a
may be
We
where
it is
have
a=s/k =
\/{p/p),
p
is
the pressure corresponding to a given density.
Now
found by experiment that at 0° C. under a pressure equal to
the weight of 103.3 grammes per square centimetre, at the place
where the experiment
is
made
(i.e.
barads*), the density of dry air is "001293
a pressure equal to 1033 g grammes per cubic
1
In the report of the British Association at Bath, 1888, the Committee on Units
units, viz. that
recommended the introduction of the following additional
(i)
The
unit of velocity on the
c. o. s.
system,
i.e.
the velocity of one centimetre
per second, should be called one kine.
THERMODYNAMICS OF
centimetre.
GASES.
189
Hence
if
we employ the
C. G. s.
system units, and
take ^
= 981, we obtain p = 1033 = 1033x981,
(^
/>
= 001293,
which gives
a
= 27995;
is
so that the velocity of sound at 0° C.
279*95 metres per second,
or
91849
The
feet per second.
first
theoretical investigation respecting the velocity of
sound in
was made by Newton, but when his result was submitted to experiment, it was found that it was too small by about onesixth, inasmuch as the correct result is about 1089 feet per
air
second.
This discrepancy between theory and observation was not
explained for more than a century, until Laplace pointed out that
the use of Boyle's law involved the assumption, that the temperature remains constant throughout the motion, whereas
it is
well
known
rises.
that
when a gas
it
is
suddenly compressed
its
temperature
Now
was supposed by Laplace that
in the case of
waves
of sound, the condensation and rarefaction take place so suddenly,
that the heat or cold produced have not time to disappear by
conduction, and consequently the
much
the same as
vessel.
it
would
be, if
motion which takes place is the air were confined in a nonrelation
conducting
We
must therefore ascertain the
between the pressure and density under these circumstances, and shall accordingly make a short digression on the Thermodynamics
of Gases.
Thermodynamics of
170.
Gases'^.
is
v,
Let us suppose that a unit mass of gas
contained in a
cylinder fitted with a moveable piston, and let p,
sure,
E be its
pres
volume and intrinsic energy. Also let 6 be the temperature measured from the absolute zero of the air thermometer, i.e.
273°C.
(ii) The unit of momentum, i.e. the momentum of one the velocity of one kine, should be called one bole.
(iii)
gramme moving with
The
unit of pressure,
i.e.
the pressure of one dyne per square centimetre,
should be called one barad.
that a employing absolute units, it is most important to recollect, mass and not a unit of weight. gramme represents a unit of Thermo1 The reader is supposed to have studied some elementary work on
When
dynamics, such as Maxwell's Heat.
190
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
Let a small quantity dH of heat (expressed in mechanical units) be communicated to the gas. If the gas be allowed to expand, the effect of this heat will be (i) to do an amount of work which is equal to pdv, and (ii) to increase the intrinsic energy by dE. Now
the
first
law of Thermodynamics asserts that
When
work
is
transformed into heat, or heat into work, the quantity of work is mechanically equivalent to the quantity of heat. It therefore follows
from this law, that
dE = dHpdv
By
exists
(11).
virtue of the laws of Boyle and Charles, the relation
pv^hd
Any two
(12)
between the pressure, volume and temperature of a gas. of the quantities p,vov6 may accordingly be taken as the independent variables. If therefore we take v and 6 as independent variables, we may write
dH = ldv + K^de
The quantity
specific
I
(13).
is
heat at constant volume,
the latent heat of expansion, and K^ is the both expressed in mechanical
units. It is
not a perfect differential
ential of a quantity
important to notice that the righthand side of (13) is for although dH is in form the differ;
dH
of heat, yet
it is
not a definite function of
of heat
the volume and temperature.
to a substance
The amount
communicated
may be measured
in mechanical or thermal units,
but
to
it
cannot be regarded as a function of the state of the substance
it is
which
communicated.
The
definite
state of the substance,
on the other hand, is a function of the and therefore dE is the differential of a function of any two of the quantities p, v, 6.
intrinsic energy,
Equations (11) and (13) are therefore equivalent to
dE=(lp)dv + K^d0
;
(14).
This equation is true of all substances but the experiments of Joule and Lord Kelvin have shown that, the intrinsic energy of a unit of mass of a perfect gas is almost entirely dependent upon its temperature, and not upon its volume. Accordingly is a function
^
of 6 and not of
v,
and therefore
THERMODYNAMICS OF GASES.
From
these equations combined with (14)
191
we obtain
l=p,
K, = F{d)
which shows that the latent heat of expansion is equal to the pressure, and that the specific heat at constant vohime is a function of the temperature.
Equation (13)
may
therefore be written
dH=pdv + F(e)de,
whence by (12)
1 ^^T"^^
a function which
written
dH_hdv
F(d)
^^^>'
The righthand side of this equation is a perfect differential of we shall denote by 0, accordingly (15) may be
dH=ed(f)
171.
(16).
This equation
is
the analytical expression of a very im
portant but somewhat recondite law,
known
as the second law of
Thermodynamics.
must
refer to
For a full discussion of the second law, we treatises on Thermodynamics, bufc a few remarks on
be useful.
this subject
may
If one substance at a
temperature
8
be placed in contact with
another substance at a lower temperature T, heat will flow from
the hot substance into the cold substance
It can
;
and
this process will
continue until both substances are reduced to the same temperature.
however be shown by means of a theoretical heatengine
it is
devised by Carnot, that
possible to transfer heat from a cold
;
body
to a hot
body by means of the expenditure of work
it is
and the
second law asserts, that
penditure of work. the following terms
impossible to do this without exfirst
The law was
:
enunciated by Clausius in
It is impossible for a selfacting machine, unaided by external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher
temperature.
Lord Kelvin
follows
:
states
the law in a slightly different form as
It is impossible by
derive mechanical effect
means of inanimate material agency, from any portion of matter, by cooling
the coldest
to
it
below the temperature of
surrounding
objects.
192
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
of the experimental law, that the intrinsic energy of
its
By means
a gas depends upon
temperature and not upon
its
volume, the
second law of Thermodynamics
may be
more
dispensed with in dealing
correctly, the second law
with gases
;
or to put the matter
can be deduced as a consequence of the experimental law.
But
in the case of substances which are not in the gaseous state, the
first
law
is
not sufficient to enable us to investigate their thermo
dynamical properties.
Moreover, although
it
is
always assumed
that the pressure, temperature and volume are connected together
by a
tion
certain relation,
which may be mathematically expressed by
v,
an equation of the form F{p,
6)
=
0; yet the form of the func
F is not
accurately known, except in the case of perfect gases.
for all substances the
It can
be shown that
second law
it
is
mathe
matically expressed by means of equation (16), at)d
to a certain function
<}),
thus leads
which
is
capable of being theoretically
v,
expressed as a function of any two of the quantities p, which specifies the properties of the substance when
allowed to gain or lose heat.
6, is
and
not
it
The
Rankine
172.
function
;
but
it is
was called the Thermodynamic Function by now always known as the Entropy.
§ 170, let
Returning to
us take
independent variables; equation (13)
p and 6 to be may then be written
the
dH=Rdp^Kj>de,
where Kp is the specific heat at constant pressure. in (11) and eliminating dp by (12) we obtain
Substituting
dE = {Rp/d + Kp) ddp{l + Rjv) dv.
Since the righthand side of this equation must be identical
with the righthand side of (14), we must have
R = v,
whence
specific heats is constant
Rp/e + Kp=K^; Kp — K^ = h
(17).
Equation (17) shows that the difference between the two
;
also since the specific heat at constant to
volume has been shown
be a function of the temperature,
it
follows that the specific heat at constant pressure
must
also
be a
function of the temperature.
173.
The value
of the specific heat of air at constant pressure
it
is
has been determined by Regnault, and he finds that
nearly independent of the temperature, and
is
very
equal to 183"6 foot
ADIABATIC LINES.
pounds^ per degree Fahrenheit.
that K^)
is
193
also very nearly
It therefore follows from (17) independent of the temperature.
It also follows from Regnault's experiments, that the value of h
for air is 53'21
footpounds per degree Fahrenheit
^c
;
we thus obtain
= Kp — h, = 1836  5321 =
1304.
The quantity with which we
is
are most concerned in Acoustics,
the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure, to the specific
is
heat at constant volume, which
accordingly find
usually denoted by
14.08.
j.
We
J = Kp/K^ =
The
constant.
specific
heats of
all
perfect
gases are so very nearly
independent of the temperature, that they
may
be treated as
The
value of the ratio
<y,
is
also approximately the
same
for all gases.
174.
We
is
have already proved the equation
called
dH = 6d^.
The
by Clausius the entropy of the gas, and is a (f> which specifies in an analytical form, the properties of a quantity gas which expands or contracts without loss of gain of heat for
quantity
;
when this is the case fore we suppose that <^
dH = 0, and
is
therefore
^ = const.
If therev,
expressed as a function of
p and
the
curve (f) = const, on the indicator diagram will be a curve which Such represents the state of the gas under these circumstances.
curves are called adiahatic
lines,
or iserdropic
lines.
In order to find the form of these curves,
expression for the entropy.
Remembering
that
we must find an l = p, we obtain
(18),
from (13) and (16)
0d(l>=pdv
+ K^dd
= !^dv + K,de,
V
whence
By
(12)
whence
where
= h\og v + KJog 6 + const and (17), this may be expressed in the form = {Kp K,) log v + K„ log pv/h + const., pvy = Ae'l'/^'
<f>
(19).
<fy
(20),
A
is
is
a.
constant.
This
1
perfect gas. the equation of the adiabatic lines of a
in
XI. of Maxwell's Heat, This calculation is taken from Chapter British units are employed.
B.
which
H.
194
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
;
If p be the density of the gas, v oc p~' whence by (20) the relation between the pressure and density of a gas, which expands
without
loss or
gain of heat,
is
p
where
k' is
= ICpy
may be
written
(21),
a constant.
of the isothermal lines
The equation
pv
175.
= {KpK,)d
and their
is
(22).
The mechanical
is
properties of perfect gases are specified
elasticities.
by two
volume
;
quantities, viz. their densities
The
density, as
well known,
is
defined to be the mass of a unit of
but in order to understand what
meant by the
elasticity of a gas,
some further
definitions will be necessary.
The elasticity of a gas under any given conditions, is the ratio of any small increase of pressure, to the voluminal compression thereby produced.
The voluminal compression,
volume
to the original
if
is the ratio
of the diminution of
volume.
Hence
v the original volume, be reduced
by the application
of pressure Bp, to v
£J is equal to
+ Bv
{8v being of course negative), the elasticity
^=1="!
The quantity The value
(^^>
E
is
is
called the compressibility
by Lord Rayleigh
(Chapter XV.), and
denoted by him by m.
of dp/dp, and therefore E, depends
conditions under which the compression takes place.
upon the thermal The two
most important cases
constant,
(ii)
are,
is
(i)
when the temperature remains
loss or
when
there
no
gain of heat.
We
shall,
following Maxwell, denote the elasticity under these two conditions
by Ee and E^.
In the
first
case
p = kp, whence dp/dp = k Ee = kp = p
;
accordingly
(24).
In the second case
p = hfpt, whence dpjdp = k'yp'*~^; E^ = k'lyp"^ = yp
we
obtain,
accordingly
(25).
From
(24) and (25)
Er^'T,
^^^
INTENSITY OF SOUND.
Velocity of 176.
195
Sound
in Air.
Having made
this digression
upon the thermodynamics
of gases,
in a gas.
we
(21)
are prepared to investigate the velocity of sound
From
we obtain
dp
k'y
/
P
71
since
p=Pq(1 +
s).
Whence
(4)
becomes
k'ypo^' s
+
U+
(j>
= 0.
Eliminating
s
from (3) we obtain
and therefore the velocity of sound
is
equal to
{Ic'ypoy~^)i.
Now
and
k=p,/po,
k'=pjp^y,
k'p^~^
whence
= k.
and
is
The
fore
velocity of sound is therefore equal to (^7)*
in the ratio sjy :1.
there
augmented
In the case of
air,
the value
of k^ in feet per second has already been
91849, and therefore
(A;7)i= 108382,
shown
to be equal to
which nearly agrees with the value 1089
above.
feet
per second given
Intensity of
177.
Sound \
is
We
have stated in
§
118 that the intensity of sound
is
measured
by the rate at which energy
transmitted across unit
area of the wave front.
this quantity.
We
shall therefore find
an expression
for
Let the velocity potential of a plane wave be
(}>=A cos ^— (a)
— Vt),
§
Lord Bayleigh, Theory of Sovml,
245.
13
196
then
EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PERFECT GAS.
j^ ax
=
r
X
— sin
^r(x
X
— Vt).
If po, po + Bp be the pressures when the air is at rest and in motion respectively, the rate dW/dt at which work is trans
mitted
is
dW
and since
,
.
,
#
^ (x —
A,
8p=  p^ = — PoV —— sin A
(
Vt),
we
obtain
dW =
dt
t^Stt^
\Po RoV
^(^^i)\^ ^ sm 27r. t^a) sm ^
•
2'n
•
27r
(a^
 Vt),
.^
=
since
'^
T^
+ periodic
terms,
Vt = \.
therefore see that the rate at which energy
:
We
is
transmitted,
consists of two terms viz. a constant term, which shows that a definite quantity of energy flows across the wave front per unit of time; and a periodic term, which fluctuates in value and con
tributes nothing to the final effect.
The
first
term measures the
intensity of sound,
and shows that it varies directly as the square of the amplitude, and inversely as the product of the velocity of propagation in the medium and the square of the period.
CHAPTER
XI.
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
178.
We shall devote the
present chapter to the consideration
of certain special problems relating to plane
and spherical waves
of sound.
The theory
Chapter
vii.,
of the vibrations of strings, which was discussed in
explains the production of notes by means of stringed
;
but in order to understand how notes are produced by means of wind instruments, it will be necessary to investigate the motion of air in a closed or partially closed vessel. The simplest problem of this kind is the motion of plane waves of sound in a cylindrical pipe, which we shall proceed to consider.
instruments
Motion in a Cylindrical Pipe.
179.
section
is
Let
be the length of a cylindrical pipe, whose cross any plane curve, and let the fronts of the waves be
I
perpendicular to the sides of the cylinder.
We shall suppose for simplicity, that the motion is in one dimension, whence measuring x from one end of the pipe, the
equation of motion
is
df""
where a
is
da^
air.
^
^'
the velocity of sound in
is
Since the motion
periodic,
we may assume
that
</)
= 0V"',
(2),
whence
if
n/a
= 27rlX = k
198
(1)
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
becomes
is
~+
(f)'
K^(f>'
= 0,
kx).
the solution of which
= (A
cos Kx
+ Rsin
If the pipe
is
closed at both ends,
d^jdx =
when x =
and
x
= l\
and since
^ = k{B
the
first
cos
KX —
A sin kx)
e'***,
condition gives
B = 0,
k
whilst the second condition gives
sin kI
= 0,
of
which requires that
= iirjl,
^
in real quantities therefore
where i is an becomes
integer.
The value
(f>
=A
cos iirx/l cos nt
(3).
The wavelength and frequency
tions
are thus given by the equa
X2^/^;
nj27r
= ia/2l
(4).
These equations determine the wavelengths and frequencies
of the notes, which can be produced by a pipe of length
of whose ends are closed.
al2l,
I,
both
is
The
is 21;
frequency of the gravest note
and
its
wavelength
the frequencies and wavelengths
of the overtones are obtained by putting
180.
i=
2, 3....
From
is
(3)
we
see that d(j)/dx vanishes
i.
whenever x = rl/i,
where r
ith
any integer not greater than
i
Corresponding to the
harmonic, there are therefore
i
—
1
nodes which divide the
pipe into
equal parts.
of the pressure due to the
The increment
by the equation
wave motion
is
given
8p
=  p^,
;
and therefore Sp vanishes whenever cos ittx/I = i.e. whenever X = (2r + 1) l/2i, where r is zero or any positive integer less than i.
Points at which there
is
no pressure variation are called
{i
loops.
We
thus see that corresponding to the gravest note
is
—l,r = 0),
The
loops
3l/2i...;
there
a loop at the middle point of the pipe.
corresponding to the overtones, occur at points x
= l/2i,
and consequently the loops bisect the distances between the nodes.
The
conditions that a node
may
exist at
any point of the
pipe,
can be secured by placing a rigid barrier across the interior of the
MOTION IN A CYLINDRICAL
pipe at that point.
PIPE.
199
The conditions for a loop may be approximately realised, by making a communication at the point in question with the external air and consequently it was assumed by Euler and Lagrange, that the open end of a pipe may be treated as a loop. This supposition is however only approximately
;
is small provided the diameter of the pipe is comparison with the wavelength. Whenever a disturbsmall in ance is excited in a pipe which communicates with the air, the
true,
but the error
external air
is
set in
motion, and a complete solution of the
latter
problem would necessitate the motion of the
into account.
181.
being taken
pipe
is fitted
Let us in the next place suppose that one end of the with a disc, which is constrained to vibrate with a
velocity cos nt
The condition
situated, is
to
be
satisfied at the origin,
where the
disc
is
jf
= cos nt, when
x=
0.
If therefore
we assume
(fi
= (A
cos KW
we obtain
If the other
+ B sin kx) cos nt, Bk = 1.
is closed, d<f)/da;
end of the pipe
=
when x =
l,
whence
d)
^
= cos k(1
r'^
K
— j^ COS nt. sm kc
is
— x)^
^
If the other
end be open, the condition
sin k(1
that
<^
^
when
x=
l,
whence
<b= ^
K cos Kb
— —^
x)
.
cos nt.
The value
of k
is
of course n\a.
Reflection
and Refraction^.
and refraction of gases. plane waves of sound at the surface of separation of two
182.
We
shall
now
investigate the reflection
Let the origin
1
be in the surface of separation,
Green, Trans. Gamb. Phil. Soc. 1838.
let
the axis of
200
X be drawn
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
into the first
medium, and
let
the axis of z be parallel
to the line of intersection of the fronts of the
waves with the
surface of separation.
Let
let
i
be the angle of incidence, r the angle of refraction
;
also
F, Fi, be the velocities of propagation in the two gases, and
p, pi their densities
when undisturbed.
p'
Then
in the first
medium
we must have
p'
= p(h + s),
medium
(1
/3i
= k'p'y = k'py (1 + js) = k\p\y = k\py^ (1 + 7Si)we must have
(5).
and
in the second
Pi =
+ «i),
P'l
Since the two gases are supposed to be in equilibrium when
undisturbed by the waves of sound,
k'py
= k\py,
V,^
Again,
V' =
k''ypy\
= k\ryp^y\
(6).
whence
V'p
=
V,'p,
first
The equations
of motion in the
medium
are
dt'
W'^ dy'J
^
^'
f + '^'o
and in the second
dt'
'
W'
\daf
^ df)
^^^'
f+^^^^«
The boundary
(i)
(!«)•
conditions are,
to the surface
of separation should be the
(ii)
That the component velocity perpendicular same in both media. That the pressure
in the
two media should be equal at
their surface.
The
first
condition gives
d^^d^
dx
and the second gives
which by
(5), (8)
,
.
dx
^
^'
P = JPi and (10) gives
Vi^<f>
= V'^,
(12).
REFLECTION AND REFRACTION.
If
201
of the incident
we suppose that the
is
velocity potential
wave
^ ^ jl^.(ax+by+o.t)
(13)^
the velocity potentials of the reflected and the refracted waves
may be
written
fj^'^ji^'^^ia'x+by+o^t)
(X4)^
(15),
</)i
= ^ie'<«'*+''2'+'''
of the three waves
for the coefficient of
t
must be the same
in these three equations,
because the periods
whilst the coefficients of y
must be the same must be the same, because the traces of the three waves on the surface of separation must move together.
2'jr/a}
Substituting the value of
(9),
^ + ^'
in (7),
and the value of 0i
in
we obtain
and two media
= V (a" + h') = V (a'' + b") = Fi^ (a^^ + 6^) (16), Also if X, \^ be the wavelengths in the therefore a = —a.
6,2
a=
Oi
(27r/X) cos
i,
6
= (27r/A,) sin i = (Stt/Xi) sin
7']
"
,^.
'^
'
= (27r/Xi) cos r, w = 217 V/\ = 27rFi/Xi From the equation a = — a, we see that the angle
is
^'
j
of incidence
it
equal to the angle of reflection
;
and from (17)
follows
that
X.= sin r sm
I
^
(18),
which
is
the law of sines.
ratio of the amplitudes,
To obtain the
values of <^+
we must
substitute the
f
and
<}),
from
(13),
(14) and (15) in (11) and (12);
we thus obtain
(A  A') a = A,a, \ (A + A')V,' = A,V'
^^^y
By
(17) and (18) these
become
i]
{A — A') tan r = Ai tan
{A+A')sm^r = Aisin^i)
from which we deduce
j^,^
/go)
At^n(ir)
tan
(i
^21).
+
r)
i
A,
=
sm (t + r) sm
2 A sin" r cot r— J.
{i
— r)
;
/oq\ V^ W
202
The
first
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
formula
is
the same as Fresnel's tangent formula for
the intensity of the reflected light,
when the
i
incident light
;
is
polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence
and we obi.e.
serve that the reflected
i
wave vanishes when
+ r = ^tt,
when
= t&rr'V/V,.
183.
When
light is reflected at the surface of a
medium,
which propagates optical waves with a velocity which is greater than that of the medium from which the light proceeds, it is well
known
angle
;
that the light will be totally reflected,
when the angle
of
incidence
exceeds a certain value which
total reflection is
is
called the critical
and that
accompanied with a change of
phase.
We
shall
now show
that a similar
phenomenon occurs
in
the case of sound.
Since
it
cos r
=
{
1
 ( Fj/ Vy sin^ i}i,
when
will
i
follows that if Fj
>
V, cos r will vanish
= sin~^ V/ V^
,
and
for angles of incidence greater
than this value, cos r will become
Ui
imaginary; and therefore by (17), imaginary quantity.
become a negative
(21) and (22)
is imaginary, the values of A' and Aj^ given by become complex, and the formulae apparently fail. The explanation of this is, that the incident, reflected and refracted waves are the real parts of (13), (14) and (15) if therefore A' and Aj are real, the reflected and refracted waves are given by A cos (— ax+by + cot) and A^ cos (ajo; + by + cot) but if A' is complex, we must put A' = a + t/3, and the reflected wave, which
When
cos r
;
'
;
is
the real part of (a
a cos {— ax
+ by
+ 1^) 6'(«»+^2/+'«), is + cot) — /3 sin (— ax + by+ cot) = (ce + cos ( ax+by+cot+ tan"^ /3/a),
13'')^
which shows that there
is
a change of phase.
In order to calculate the change of phase, we must put
also let
A'=a + i^, A, = a, + t^„ pl=V,/V; q = (fi^ sin^ i — 1)*//* cos
i.
From
(17)
we
obtain
a,
Xcos?*
\i cos
i
Fcosr
Vi cos
i
a
=
iq,
TOTAL REFLECTION.
whence (19) become
203
Aavl3 = iq{a^ + i^,), {A + a + i^) fT = ai + ifii.
Equating the
real
and imaginary parts we obtain
A
whence
a
 a = g/3i,
= qai\
(23),
A(lfiY) i + fiY
. '
 _ 2A^'q ^ = irS. ^ i+fiy'
A = i+/xY'
"^^
_
2Afi*q
from which we see that
where
+ ^ = A\ yS/a = tan 2e, tan e = /x^q = (i (fi^ tan^ i — sec^ i)i
a^
(24).
The
reflected
wave
is
therefore
^'=
A
cos (—(iw
+ by+o)t +
2e),
which shows that total reflection takes place, accompanied by a change of phase, whose value is determined by (24).
Since
the refracted wave
0'
is
ySi'')*
Oi
=—
tqa,
= (a^^ +
where
qa
+ Q}t + tan^ A/ai), = (27r/X,) (sin^ i — fiT^)^.
€9»* cos (by
Since in the second
refracted
medium x
is
negative,
it
follows that the
wave
is
insensible at a distance of a few wavelengths,
stifled.
and thus the refracted sound rapidly becomes
Spherical Waves^.
184.
satisfies
We
have already shown that the velocity potential
the equation
this
where a is the velocity of sound and if we assume that becomes (V2h«2)^ =
;
(j)
= ^e""^,
(25).
1
The remainder
II.
of this Chapter
Vol.
Chapter
xvii.
is taken from Lord Rayleigh's Tlieory of Sound, His original investigations are given in the Proc. Lond.
Math. Soc. Vol.
iv.
pp. 93
and 253.
204
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
(12) of §
7, it
By
follows that if
r, 6, <u
be polar coordinates,
the value of V^
is
^
d"
dr""
1 d
1
r sin
d
6
f
.
.
d\
d0j
1
r^ sin^
d^
r dr
dd\
dm^
'
if therefore
is
the motion be symmetrical about the origin, so that
^
a function of r alone, (25) becomes
d^
dr^
2d^
y»:2<D
=
r dr
'
which may be written in the form
^,(r4>)
the integral of which
is
+ >.Hr$) = 0.
^ = r' {Ae""^ + Be"^)
in
(26).
If the motion which case
is finite
at the origin,
we must have
A = — B,
(27),
<l>
= 2iAr^
€"'"'*
sin KV
in which
A may
be complex.
185.
This equation
may be
;
applied to determine the symis
metrical vibrations of a gas, which
spherical envelop of radius c
enclosed within a rigid
for the condition to
be satisfied at
the surface of the envelop
is
d<l>fdr
= 0,
^
kc
which gives
or
k cos kc
— c~^ sin kc = 0,
(28).
is
tan kc
Since the wavelength X
=
27r//c,
and the frequency
equal to
Kajlir, (28)
determines the notes which can be produced.
roots of (28) have been investigated
finds that the first root is kc
The by Lord Rayleigh, and he
tt.
= 1'4303
is
x
We
therefore see that
;
the frequency of the gravest note
pitch
falls
•7151 x {ajc)
accordingly the
as the radius of the sphere increases. law, that the frequencies
This result
of vibration of similar bodies formed of similar materials, are inversely proexemplifies a general
portional to their linear dimensions.
The
gives r
loops are determined by the equation sin
/tr
=
0,
which
= mir/K,
where
m
is
an integer.
VIBRATIONS IN A CONICAL
PIPE.
205
186. Since any circular cone whose vertex is the origin is a nodal cone, the above solution determines the notes which could
be produced by a conical pipe closed by a spherical segment of
radius
c.
If a conical pipe be open at one end,
and we assume that the
is
condition to be satisfied at the open end
loop,
that
it
should be a
is
we obtain k = rrnr/c, and
therefore the value of
(f>
g'm,ra«/c sij^ nnrr/c. 4> = 2iAr^
The frequency
less
of the gravest nqte
is
therefore ^a/c, which
is
than
187.
if
the pipe were closed.
of
in the case of symmetrical
The most general value
<f>=Ar^ e« m+r)
(f>
waves
is
^ 2?ri e'*
<«'''*
(29),
the
first
origin,
origin.
term of which represents waves converging upon the whilst the second represents waves diverging from the
Let us now draw a very small sphere surrounding the origin then taking the second term of (29), the flux across the sphere is
f f r^
^^ rfn =
5
/] (1
+
iKv)
€«'««'•)
dn
when r = 0.
the
first
The second term
of (29) therefore represents a source
of sound diverging from the pole, of strength
— AnrBe""^^
;
similarly
term represents a source of sound converging towards the
pole^
188.
The general
solution of (25) cannot be effected without
is
the aid of spherical harmonic analysis, but there
considerable utility,
one solution of
which we
(f>
shall
now
consider.
Let
.
= ^^e"""' cos 0,
Substituting in (25),
where
^ is a function of r alone.
dr^
we
obtain
r dr
ir
1 The corresponding problems in twodimensional motion cannot be investikind Y^^kt). It is gated without employing the Bessel's function of the second certain expressions for these functions in the forms of series worth noticing, that sound. and definite integrals, can be obtained by means of the theory of sources of
See Lord Rayleigh, Proc. hond. Math. Soc, Vol. xix.
p.
504.
206
To
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
solve this equation, put
^ = dwldr
and integrate; we at
once obtain
dr^
r dr
the sohition of which has already been shown to be
accordingly
O =  (^e'*'  J5e"")  ^ (^e"" + Be'"^)
at the origin,
(30).
In order to find the condition that the motion should be finite
we must expand the exponentials
in
powers of
;
lkv,
and
shall
equate the coefficients of negative powers of r to zero
thus find that
we
the
A= — B, whence — $ = A (cos/cr Kr\
writing
A
for 2t/cM,
solution becomes
sin/cr\
(31).
)
KT
If gas, contained in a spherical envelop, be vibrating in this
manner, the frequency
is
determined by the equation
d^ldr
which gives
= 0, when =^
2
2/cc
r = c;
r„
tan kc
—
K^r
The
least root of this equation (other
than zero),
is
found by
Lord Rayleigh to be
the gravest note
is
kc = "662
x
ir
;
and therefore the frequency of
'331 x (a/c).
This note
is
the gravest note which can be produced by gas
;
vibrating within a sphere
it is
more than an octave lower than
the gravest radial vibration, whose frequency has been shown to
be 7151 X
(a/c).
is
Since the motion
symmetrical with respect to the diameter
is
^
=
0,
every meridional plane
a nodal plane
;
but since d^P/dO
does not vanish anywhere except along the diameter in question,
there are no conical nodal sheets.
189.
We
shall
now
consider
air,
the
is
pendulum surrounded with
lations.
which
motion of a spherical performing small oscil
Since the periods of the pendulum and of the air must be the
VIBRATIONS OF A SPHERICAL REDUCTION.
same,
207
to be re
we may suppose
Fe'"***,
the velocity of the
pendulum
to
presented by
and therefore the condition
is
be
satisfied at
the surface of the sphere
d</)/c?r
= Fe'"''* cos
^
(32).
The form
of this equation suggests that
^ must
vary as cos 6
;
we
shall therefore
assume that
<f)
= <>6"'"' cos 6,
where
^
is
given
by (30). Since the disturbance and therefore
is
propagated outwards,
A
=0,
^ =  Br^ (1 + iKv) €"".
Substituting in (32),
we
obtain
^^^^'
^^
where
If
c is
2K'c' + 2iKC
the radius of the sphere.
X be the resistance experienced by the sphere, X = JJ8p cos ddS
z=
— JJp^ COS ddS
=  7rpc^t«a^6"'«*
where ^ =
Fe""**, is
the velocity of the sphere.
Rationalising the denominator, and putting
P
_ 
2
+ K^d"
+
/c
'
4
V ^~4 + «V'
we obtain
_
K^C^
and remembering that ^ =
t/ca^,
X = M' (p^ + Kaq^),
where M'
is
the mass of the displaced
fluid.
The
first
term of
this expression represents
an increase in the
therefore a viscous
inertia of the sphere;
whilst the second term represents a reis
sistance proportional to the velocity, which
term, and shows that initial energy is gradually dissipated into be the mass of the sphere, I the distance of its centre space. If from the point of suspension, the equation of motion of the
M
pendulum
is
{M{P +
Ic')
+
M'lp] e
+ M'l'Kaq^ + (M M') gW = 0.
208
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
§ 129,
By
the integral of this equation
is
of the form
d
= Ae^^ sin (fit + a),
is
and the modulus of decay
2
{M (l' + fc^) + M'ly^jM'pKOAi.
is
If the wavelength \, of the vibrations of the gas,
large in
comparison with the radius of the sphere, kc will be of the order
c/\,
and
will therefore
be small
;
accordingly the value of p will be
nearly equal to ^, whilst the value of Kq, upon which the viscous term depends, will be of the order c^jX*. We therefore see that
term will be very small, and the motion hence the sphere will vibrate very will die away gradually nearly in the same manner as if the gas were an incompressible
in this case the viscous
;
fluid.
If,
on the other hand,
c
were large compared with
\,
p would
be nearly equal to unity, and the apparent inertia of the sphere would be greater than when c/\ is small but Kq would be of the
;
order c~^ and would therefore be small.
190.
Another interesting problem
is
that of the scattering of
is
a plane wave of sound by a fixed rigid sphere, whose diameter
small compared with the wavelength.
Measuring 6 from the direction of propagation, the velocity
potential of the plane waves
may be taken
to be
Jj __ giK(ot+a;) _. giK(at+rcosfl)
the positive sign being taken, because the waves are supposed to
be travelling in the negative direction of the axis of
x.
If c be the radius of the sphere, it follows that in the neighbourhood of the sphere, kt or 2'irr/\ is a small quantity, and therefore expanding the exponential and dropping the time factor
for the present,
we may arrange
<f>
in the form of the series*
</)= 1 ^/c^r"
+
iKV cos e
 ^/cV(3 cos^^
1)...
When
1
the waves impinge upon the sphere, a reflected or
that
The reader, who is acquainted with Spherical Harmonic analysis, will observe we have arranged in a series of zonal harmonics. It can be shown that the
solution of (25) can be expressed in a series of terms of the type
is
F
(r)S^,
where S^
a spherical surface harmonic.
SCATTERING OF A PLANE WAVE.
scattered
209
wave
to be
is
thrown
off,
whose velocity potential may be
assumed
<f>'
= Ao^o + ^
A
cos e
+
^2<^2 (3 cos^ ^
 1) +
. .
The quantities 4>o, <l>i are given by (26) and (30) respectively but since the scattered wave diverges from the sphere, we must put A =0, and take B=l, since the constant B may be supposed
to
be included
in A^, Ai...; accordingly
^"
<l>i
'
= r2(l +
it
<I>2
.(34).
iKr) etrial,
With regard
of (25)
is
to ^g?
can be verified by
is
that a solution
;
it will ^2 necessary to consider the form of <1>2, since it not however be introduces quantities of a higher order than /cV, which will be
(3 cos^
^— 1), where
a function of r alone
neglected.
The
equ,ation to be satisfied at the surface of the sphere
is
dr
dr
all
when
r=
c.
This equation must hold good for
values of
0,
whence
"
dr
^''^^'
Ai y
which determine Ao, A,.
dr
+
IK
= 0,
we obtain
Substituting from (34)
"^^
2
+ 2tAcc/cV
^
c
approximately, since we shall not retain powers of We thus obtain (f.
iKT
I
higher than
1
f=V(^''''
At a
+ t/cr a\ 2^e/.c^cos^j.
,
term k&I^"" considerable distance from the sphere, the therefore write we may so small that it may be neglected,
0'=_!l"'"(l+cos^)/c^c».
14
B. H.
is
210
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
Restoring the time factor and putting k
obtain in real quantities
0'
= 27r/\, we
finally
= 3'^(l+fcos^)cos^(a«r).
(35),
corresponding to the wave
(f)
= cos
—
(at
+ x)
(36).
scattered wave, corresponding to the incident
Equation (35) accordingly gives the velocity potential of the wave whose velocity potential is given by (36). This expression is however only an
approximate one, and the correctness of the approximation depends
upon the assumption, that the radius of the sphere
than
c^/X^
is
is
so small in
comparison with the wave length, that terms of a higher order
may
be neglected.
We
have also neglected
is
K(f/r^,
which
equivalent to supposing, that the point at which
we
are
observing the effect of the scattered wave,
distance from the sphere.
at a considerable
For a more complete investigation, we
treatise.
must
refer to
Lord Rayleigh's
EXAMPLES.
1.
If
two simple tones of equal intensity and having a given
small difference of pitch be heard together, prove that the
number
of beats in a given time will be greater, the higher the two simple
tones are in the musical scale
;
and prove that the pitch of the
is
resultant sound in the course of each beat
2.
constant.
One end
is fitted
of a tube which contains air
disc,
is
open, whilst the
other
with a
which vibrates in such a manner that
is
the pressure of the air in contact with the disc
n (1 where &
motion.
3.
A;
sin ^Trt/r)
is
a small quantity.
Find the velocity potential of the
The
radius of a solid sphere surrounded by an unlimited
mass of air, of sound in
given by R (1 + a sin nat), where a is the velocity Show that the mean energy per unit of mass air.
is
EXAMPLES.
211
of air at a distance r from the centre of the sphere, due to the
motion of the latter
is
in^a^a^R' (1
+ 2n'r')/7'' (1 +
n^R^).
4. Prove that in order that indefinite plane waves may be transmitted without alteration, with uniform velocity a in a homogeneous fluid medium, the pressure and density must be connected by the equation
•
pp, = a;yo'(po'p'),
and density
in the undisturbed part
where
p^, p^ are the pressure
of the fluid.
5.
Two
gases of densities
p,
p^
are separated
is
t/
uniform flexible membrane, whose equation
= 0,
by a plane and whose
superficial density and tension are a and T. If plane waves of sound impinge obliquely at an angle i, and the displacements of the incident reflected and refracted waves of sound and of the membrane, be represented by
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A sin [m {x sin i — y cos i) — wi + «},
A' sin [m (a? sin i +
A^ sin {wj
a
sin
(a;
sin r
cos i) — nt + a'} — y cos r) — nt + a^},
1/
(iv)
(mx sin i —
nt),
to be satisfied, and prove that the ratio of the intensities of the reflected and incident waves is
respectively;
find the relations
equal to
{Tm^ sin^ i — an^Y + {pjn^ sec r — pm sec if {Tmr sin^ i — avFf + {pm sec r + pun sec if
6.
'
If sound waves
be travelling along a straight tube of
infinite
length which
is
adiathermanous, and no conduction of
air,
heat takes place through the
prove that the equations of
be accurately satisfied by supposing a wave of condensation to travel along the tube, with a velocity of propagation which at each point depends only on the condensation at that
motion
may
point,
and which
for
a density p
is
^^lar''flv/^'
where
wave.
p^^, p^
are the pressure and density at each end of the
212
7.
PLANE AND SPHERICAL WAVES.
Prove that in a closed eudless uniform tube of length I will perform m complete small air, a piston of mass
filled
with
M
vibrations under the elasticity of a spring, if
tan
— — — mm a = Mmnrl fn^ — M a \m?
,,
'
j=;

1
where M'
is
the mass of the air in the tube, and a the velocity of
sound, supposing the piston to
make n
vibrations in a second
when the
8.
air is exhausted.
Investigate the forced oscillations in a straight pipe, which
when the temperature of air in the pipe is compelled to undergo small harmonic vibrations expressed by 6 cos m (vt — x), where x is measured along the axis of the pipe.
will occur
9.
The
its
greatest angle inclination of the adiabatic lines of a
gas to
isotherm als occurs,
is tt
is
when
the slope of the isothermal to
the line of zero pressure
points of
—
cot~^
7
;
and the locus of
all
these
maximum
angle,
a straight line through the origin,
inclined to the line of zero pressure at an angle cot~^ 7^
10.
A
sphere of
mean
radius R, executes simple harmonic
;
radial vibrations of
its
energy
is
a, in air of density p prove that radiated into the atmosphere in sound waves at the
amplitude
rate
^trpa
(
aaV —
i^irRy
per unit of time, where X
in air,
is
the length of the waves propagated
and a
is
their velocity.
CAMBRIDGE
:
PRINTED BY
J.
AND
C. F.
CLAY, AT
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
university of
CaUfomla
SOUTHERN ^^^'l^),^^Tcf<S^^*^^
was borroweo. from which W
R
tg'.vtf^iP^^^^
DEC
1 3 1994
EMS LIBRARV
QL OCT I 8
19<
r.
jyUfHERN REGIONAL .SRAS
,
:ac„ r.
A
000 938 640
o
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