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San Francisco, California 2006
MODERN RADIO by Kingdon S. BRACE AND COMPANY . Tyler ILLUSTRATED WITH DRAWINGS BY JAMES MAC DONALD AND WITH PHOTOGRAPHS NEW YORK HARCOURT.
BRACE AND COMPANY. All rights reserved. INC. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA .COPYRIGHT. including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form. BY HARCOURT. IQ44. first edition A WARTIME BOOK This complete edition is produced in full compliance with the government's regulations for conserving paper and other essential materials.
Agnes E. Guy C. Robert G. Jacobs. Law. James Kane. Goetz.ACKNOWLEDGMENT For their co-operation and help in collecting information and its material for this book and for their valuable suggestions in preparation. Thompson. R. Stanley McAllister. Worthington C. Philip A. Walter Seigal. Pierson. C. my thanks are due to: G. Minor. TYLER May. 1944 . Herny Grossman. KINGDON New York City S. Peter Goldmark. William Cooper Ackerman. Hutcheson. Walter R.
CONTENTS I THE STUDIO STUDIO DESIGN 3 II 14 III SOUND EFFECTS 34 IV MICROPHONES STUDIO CONTROL 48 V VI VII VIII ROOM 56 HOW RADIO TUBES OPERATE 68 82 MASTER CONTROL ROOM THE BROADCASTING TRANSMITTER BROADCAST ANTENNAS 95 107 120 128 141 IX X XI XII XIII BROADCAST RECEIVERS FREQUENCY MODULATION INTERNATIONAL TRANSMITTERS TELEVISION STUDIO 159 176 190 XIV THE TELEVISION CAMERA THE TELEVISION TRANSMITTER COLORED TELEVISION RADAR RADIO . XV XVI XVII XVIII 200 213 TOMORROW 223 231 INDEX .
MODERN RADIO .
we shall follow the program to the control room. . to your re- ceiving antenna. also true that some of the scientific problems involved cannot be fully explained even by if scientists. through your radio set to the loud-speaker in your home. Starting with the studio where program originates. but few people listening in have any idea radio THIRTY stations. to master control. and receivers operate. It is is true that radio is a complicated science It is and a science that constantly developing and changing. the explained separately. then out along the telephone lines to the transmitter. from the original broadcast to is reception in your home. how modern Even networks.The Studio million families listen to radio programs every day. Radio has made tremendous 3 strides in the last few years. to the transmitting antenna or radiator. people who visit broadcasting studios usually come away more mystified than they were before. But much of the mystery of radio can be cleared up its each operation.
lines. invented. any program. If noticed that each actor or actress This might leave you with the false impression that very rehearsing is necessary to produce a radio show. New types of microphones have been developed. Some of the actors do memorize most of their but they must always be prepared for changes which may air. be made in their script right up to the time they go on the . thunder.Modern Radio Studios have been designed where the quality or tone of a pro- gram may be changed by merely pressing and echo machines have been invented as if it a button. you have ever been to a radio broadcast. the skill of the technicians. subway trains. Reading the script does save the time that would be required for each actor is still or actress to memorize the lines. a man being stabbed. but a great deal of time spent rehearsing. the directing and timing. Echo chambers a voice sound well. and affect the production of affects many other things into it. New types of antenna systems have been The studio itself. the quality of the radio equipment. little ing company must have. The variety of programs the design of the studio and the radio facilities that go and the type and number of studios that a large broadcastyou probably have reads the lines from a script. facilities New master control switching have been designed to handle the ever-increasing number of programs coming from studios all over the country and by short wave radio from Europe and South America. that make were coming from a cave or from the bottom of a Sound effect machines can reproduce the sounds of soldiers march- ing. and hundreds of other sounds.
Most large broadcasting companies have a transmitting station near each principal city in the United States. at four they go on the air until fourtwenty-five.S. and they also have a number of studios associated with each transmitting station. The its studios are in the city itself. four-thirty Fun With Dunn comes when they go on and is into the studio for their rehearsal until five the air. makes it easier for actors. musicians.The Studio Half-hour shows can require ten hours or more of rehearsal. Broadway Matinee comes At into the studio at one-fifteen and re- hearses until four o'clock. originating In order to see sent over telephone wires to the transmitting stations. This neers. The Joan Brooks program comes 5 into the stu- . The studios are usually located in office buildings in the center of large cities. The transmitting station and antenna system are generally located out of town.) Studio is #22 New Columbia Broadcasting York City and check what going on in this studio for one typical day. Al Ward and Stoop- nagle are rehearsing from nine o'clock in the morning until one. so it is not practical to locate them in the heart of a city. engi- and all the other people employed by the broadcasting company to get to them.B. The radio tower or towers and ground system require a considerable amount of space. how active these various studios are in a large will select the in broadcasting company we System (C. Jeri Sullisix-thirty van rehearses at five-forty-five on the air from until six-forty-five. This means that each large station must have a dozen or more studios. in the studios. is The program.
Modern Radio dio at nine-forty-five for rehearsal and goes on the air at elevenfifteen to eleven-thirty.S. Mutual. whether they are the studios of C. the Blue Network. is There usually still another room near the studio where the 6 .B.. whether it is an audience show or have audiences Only the large programs most of the smaller daytime programs do not. you cannot hear what is going on in the studio except over the is control is room loud-speaker which room reproducing the program that being picked up by the various microphones. depending upon the type of program and not. Studios vary in size. so The control room is also sound proof. near the control room or in some other part of the studio is another sound-proof room which room is is also equipped with a loud-speaker and a window. One of these rooms is the The studio is a sound-proof control room and it is usually located near the acting area where the microphones are set up. (National Broadcasting Com- pany). In this particular ease the studio is used almost continuously from nine o'clock in the morning until eleventhirty at night and still was only on the air for eighty-five minutes. In one wall of is the control a large plate glass window through which is the control man and the director can see what going on in the studio. The studio also has other rooms that are used in conjunction with it. or any other large broadcasting company. This used for the sponsors. This is typical of all active broadcasting studios. room which has been designed especially for broadcasting purposes. Quite often.C. it so that they can hear the program exactly as trol sounds in the con- room.B. N.
few minutes or seconds off can cause a it is program be cut off before over. sixty min- whatever time is allowed for 'it. The clocks are can see them at so situated that the director. electric organ. timed by the director or He uses a stopwatch or a special electric clock to which operates like a stopwatch parts of the program. A band usually or requires music stands. sound etc. equipment. is and actors During rehearsals the program assistant director. since timing in radio is very important.. one over the control room window and one opposite the control room. There are usually two large electric clocks in each studio.The Studio various equipment is stored for each broadcast. thirty. showing to the second when each part of the program should be complete. etc. a xylophone. a program log made up. pianos. three four microphones. A clock to which is a . The platforms. After the timing has been is checked. At the top of the log is the time when the show is to go on the air. A play would not require a raised stage or any musical equipment but effect fect would need sound ef- equipment. These clocks have to be extremely accurate and they are constantly checked. are stored in the equip- ment room. The pro- gram must be arranged utes. electric organs. or to take exactly fifteen. If the commercial 7 . microphone stands. a raised platform. In this just check the timing of the various to the way he can determine is second how long each part of the program going to take. engineer. all times. or it may mean the opening lines of the next program are not heard because the program in the next stu- dio has already started before the switch is thrown to pick it up.
This means "crank it up. Another sign that erly is is used when everything is progressing prop- to hold up the right hand and form a is circle with the thumb and index finger. This indicates they are speaking their lines too rapidly and he In this is telling is them to "stretch it out slow down. sound technicians (sound effects men). and the director keeps checking the timing. A director and assistant director take care of the log sheet and timing.Modern Radio is to end is at two minutes and fifty seconds after air-time. his the director makes a motion with hands as if he were stretch- ing something. and the personnel involved." to The program log what musical instruments are be used on the program. This means everything also shows "okay. you're behind time." If the actors are behind time. orchestra conductor. If they are ahead of time. or ahead of time." Then the faster to artists speak their lines a little make up for lost time." to way the show speeded up or slowed down is keep pace with the timing on the log. the director swings his index finger rapidly in a circle or pretends to turn a crank handle with his hand. the director points this to his nose with his index finger- means "on the nose. During a program. behind time. that exact time shown. and artists are 8 . he signals the various actors from the control room. If they are on time. The announcer. and the program completed exactly on schedule. Large programs require a large personnel. They usually operate from the control room. One or two technicians operate the radio equipment in the control room. indicating with his hands whether they are on time. The log covers the entire show.
If the artist is too close. As the various actors and actresses rehearse before the micro- phone.The Studio in the studio. This enables them to hear exactly what is picked up by the microlisten to the phones. The to the when the sound source effect is close microphone is is quite different from the when the sound source far away from the microphone. the director and engineer stay in the control room and program as it is reproduced there by the loud-speaker. The director beckons when he wants move closer to the mike. During rehearsals the writer of the play is on hand if to make changes in the lines they are necessary. On certain shows four effects. One of the reasons for this is the variation caused by the distance of the sound source effect from the microphone. indicating that flie person should back away from the microphone. he signals the artists on the when they are too far away from the mike or too close the artists to to program it. Script changes can and do occur right up to the time the program is put on the air. If the director wants the musicians or artists to increase or decrease their volume of sound. he uses another set of signals. men are required to produce the vari- ous sound Some of these effects are produced mechani- cally while others are produced from recordings. As the director listens. the director moves his hands as if he were pushing someone away. He holds the palms of his hands upward or downward palma 9 . The reproduction by the control room loud-speaker may be quite different from the original sound.
Above each indicating light on the control desk is a small writing tab where the engineer can record what is each microphone position effects. a horse pulling a heavily loaded wagon. or a tired man climbing a long flight of stairs. sound and so on. The on- controlled by a switch on the engineer's . not only operates the on-air sign also connects the studio to a telephone line first which indirectly goes to the transmitting station. These indicating lights go on as the engineer throws the various switches which turn on the microphones. The director will spend hours of rehearsal to create just the right atmosphere for a play. and palms downward mean During rehearsals the director tells the various actors how he wants them to speak their lines. The engineer sits at his control desk in the control room.Modern Radio upward mean decrease it. This line passes through a master control room where all studios are connected to various 10 .control desk. orchestra. it is switched off so it will not pick extraneous sounds. being used for announcer. effects He also tells the sound man just what type of effect he wants. He tells them whether they should speak faster or slower or with more punch. This it is is done so that people working around the studio know when air sign is safe to enter. is Right outside of the studio door studio is a sign indicating whether a rehearsing or is on the air. it When but it this switch is thrown. increase the volume. Indiin use. a microphone is When up not in use. cating lights on the desk is show what microphones are This important since several microphones are used at the same time in large productions. such as a horse gal- loping.
The studio is set is up for a rehearsal of Broadway Matinee.The Studio outgoing lines. 1 viola. Four microphones are being used to pick up the music. 3 trumpets. During rehearsals he leaves it is it on the rehearsal position. side of the studio * and the wind instruments on the 11 Two . Some of these lines go to transmitting stations in The on-air switch on the engineer's control desk has three posi- tions: cue. time to go on the air He can then listen by means of a special line coming from the master control line) to the tail-end of the room (called a cue program preceding his. rehearsal. sign-off time. and 2 trombones. 4 saxophones. 1 base. 1 cello. and on-air. This orchestra consists of 4 violins. program sign off. Let's look in at Studio #22 and see what's going on now. This is originating from some other studio. If the other program signs off a late. he throws his switch to~the on-air position and signals the artists that they are on the air. and the cue line is connected to the outgoing line of that particular studio. The engineer hears the other program sign off the air and so checks on the few seconds late. coaching the various the engineer hears the other actors as to the timing As and when they are to come in with their various parts. The director then takes over. Just before he switches to the cue position. The orchestra is divided into two groups the string instruments on one other. the engi- neer can start his own program a few seconds tor and the direc- can speed it up to make up the difference in time. 1 percussion. There a seventeen-piece orchestra practicing before the micro- phones. other cities.
soloist is in front of the orchestra A girl who is a on a small raised platform. for example. Another microphone in front of the violins is placed directly The engineer in and the fourth in front of the trumpets. and assistant director. pletes the When she com- number. He would. sees that she varying in volume at and he calls this to the attention of the director. In the control the director. room overlooking this scene are the engineer. who is turning her head away from the mike as she sings. the director checks his assistant on how many took. He is presses a button and talks into a microphone on his desk which connected to a loud-speaker in the studio. In this way he to in- structs the vocalist to move in closer to the microphone and be sure not to turn her head as she reads the music. the engiin- neer reduces the volume on the orchestra microphones and creases the volume on the vocalist's microphone to balance her voice with the orchestra. the control room can control the volume on these various microphones. seated at their desks. After minutes and how many seconds that particular number 12 . The musicians in the back part of the orchestra are seated on a platform so they will be visible to the audience. He increases or decreases the to the volume on the different mikes according cal requirements of each musi- number. and she sings into a separate microphone. is The engineer notices that the vocalist's voice certain times. increase the volume on the trumpet mike when a trumpet solo happened to be a feature of the music. When she sings.Modern Radio microphones are used in front of these two 'groups and these mikes cover the entire orchestra.
Just before air-time the engineer throws one of the switches on his desk from rehearsal position listens to the to the cue position. To take care of this he cuts out part of the script and calls the author to rewrite a few of the lines. A half -hour before air-time the rehearsals are completed and is the audience permitted to enter the studio and take their seats.The Studio checking the time on discovers he is all the various parts of the show. As it approaches four o'clock he hears the preceding program sign off. the director going to run fifteen seconds over his time. he adjusts the volume on his loud-speaker by means of a volume control located on his desk. When the second hand indicates it is exactly four o'clock. As he program preceding his. 13 . Broadway Matinee is on the air. He keeps his eyes glued on the sweep-second hand of the clock on the studio wall. he throws the switch to the on-air position and signals the director to start the opening number.
They are rooms which the engineers have developed after years of research and experimental work. including the floors. They are de- MODERN signed and constructed for the particular purpose for which they are used. since it plays an important part in sound reproduction. was necessary also to improve the studio. and ceilings. is designed to improve As radio improved its technical equipment so that it more accu- rate reproduction of sound could be achieved. Studios have gone through many changes to keep pace with the other technical improvements in radio. the quality of reproduction of sound. A person talking or playing a musical instrument can sound 14 .// Studio Design broadcasting studios today are quite different from what they were a few years ago. Practically everything in the modern studio. walls. whereas in the early days of radio almost any room served as a studio. dramatic rooms designed to create the proper atmosphere for radio shows. They are not just modern.
ceilings. floors. while in another room if you whisper you can be heard all over the room. drapes. This reverberation. its source and the rest of it reaches you other* ob- has been reflected from the walls.Studio Design entirely different in different rooms. and and the volume seems be increased. which are really air-borne vibrations. our ears have become accustomed to a certain is little and there reverberation. and clothes. but if you are is in such a place as an indoor that is tile swimming-pool. When sound is reflected by hard walls. drapes. upholstered furniture. But too little it becomes annoying when there is or too much. walls. live indoors a amount of reverberation.. Engineers and scientists have made a study of sound and its behavior under different conditions. reflected to from the floor. However. in a certain You may have observed that room you have to raise your voice in order to be heard. a branch of science called acoustics. such as rugs. your voice reinforced by the sound ceiling. most of the sound absorbed good part and other forms of enterof the time and usually hear music tainment indoors. it. are reflected by certain objects and almost completely absorbed by others. and ceilings is it bounces around the room for a short period of time. many of the early difficulties with stu- 15 . The reason for this is that part of the sound reaches your ear directly from after jects. is such as rugs. Today. So if you are in a room where there is a lot of sound-absorbing material. called when sound waves As we strike soft materials. by applying the knowledge that the scientists have gained by research. and Sounds. your voice does not seem to have power .
Even sounds or vibrations which you cannot'hear or feel register on the microphone and so must be eliminated. may originate. Therefore we / call the vibrations sound waves. thus producing sound waves. Microphones are very tion leaks into the sensitive. 16 many times before it . in the vocal cords in your throat or in the strings of a piano. These vi- Sounds are created brations chiefly by mechanical vibrations. Sound can enter a studio from the outside in many different ways.Modern Radio dios have been eliminated. the sound can penetrate the walls or cause them to vibrate. The vibration of the wall will develop sound waves inside the room. it is and if the least noise or vibra- room picked up by the microphone. If the walls are porous. They may be caused by the reed in a wind instrument or by an insect rubbing his legs against his wings.we not only know what the microphone when causes these difficulties. for example. when almost any room was used as a studio. Sound travels in the form of waves. Mechanical vibrations caused by motors or machinery can travel along beams and cause a wall to vibrate or cause some other object in the room to vibrate. we also know how to overcome them. Noises originating outside of the room penetrated the walls and spoiled the program. In the early days of radio. great difficulties were encountered. certain musical instruments were Orchestras did not sound right too loud in comparison with others. Whatever the microphone picks up is amplified or magnified many. Today . Certain sounds would build up and linger annoyingly certain positions in was placed in the room.
The vibration from motor could be transmitted to the by the beam supporting the floor. As most large cities. Great care must be taken to isolate the studio from all outside noise or vibration. we will imagine a motor mounted on the floor of the room next to the into the studio. Therefore any foreign noise becomes quite objectionable on the receiving end. a The really room within a room in other words. and ceilings.. floors. a floor is built on top of a floor with an air space in between. be- cause they isolate or absorb certain vibrations which otherwise would be carried there is As an example. spethis. The walls and ceiling are constructed in a similar fashhair-felt ion. except that they are designed to absorb shock or vibrations of greater intensity and lower frequency. The springs on a car work on a similar prin- ciple. Separators are used to keep the two floors apart and these separators are supported by pads consist of a mixture of hair hair-felt pads. Hair a certain density under com- pression will absorb certain frequencies of vibration. These separators and pads are called isolators. 17 . the fre- quency being the rate per second of the vibration. cial precautions be taken against So the better studio is stu- dios have double walls. The felt floor of a modern radio studio is a floor floating on hair- pads. The hair-felt and felt which absorbs a considerable amount of vibration when felt of properly compressed. studios are located in office buildings in the heart of where there have to is considerable vibration and noise. but these felt isolators absorb the vibration and prevent it from reaching the floating studio floor in the studio. this studio.Studio Design reaches your home.
tv^JTj DETAIL OF STUDIO FLOOR STUDIO CONSTRUCTION .FLOAT! NGSTUD/0 FLOOR f FELT ) ABSORBS VIBRATION (ABSORB I .
Audible sounds are sounds which we the are capable of hearing. or at a frequency of two hundred and cycles. at air. he causes that string and sound-board to vibrate. though a good many people cannot hear above 15. intensity of the mechanical vibration deterit will produce sound waves which we can audible sounds. which the string vibrates string is The number of times per second called the frequency.Studio Design The frequency and mine whether or not hear that is. When a violinist draws many sounds which of sound. The piano can produce sounds varying to in range from 70 cycles per second It is 6. As a person plays the piano. sounds of various frequencies are produced.000 cycles.500 cycles. The reason for this ples' ears are is that some peo- more sensitive than others' just as eyesight varies with the individual. we should his bow across one of the strings of his violin. This generates a sound wave of the same fre- quency. ear to detect sounds as high as possible for the human 20. The normal male speaking voice covers a range of about 100 19 . There are a great human ear cannot hear. The middle C fifty-six fifty-six on the piano when struck will vibrate two hundred and times per second. a different frequency is generated by the vibration of the strings. sounds are a combination of frequencies. These air- borne vibrations of various frequencies combine to produce other frequencies.. this in turn causes vibrations in the thus generating sound waves. think in terms of When we think frequency.000 cycles per second. As each note is struck on the piano. Generally speaking.
MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF STRINGS VIOLIN AJ?6 CYCLES TO 3 (3 6 THE HUMAN l/OI CB 98 TO //7<J- CYCLES 2.7 PJ A NO TO 41 66 CYCLES FREQUENCIES PRODUCED BY VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS .
Musical instruments cover a range from 40 to 15. it causes a hashing effect.000 cycles per second. First. You might think of it as a series of echoes of short duration. sound-absorbing materials. this eliminates air noise caused by the fans.000 cycles per second. since this helps eliminate noises coming from the street. This absorbs travel along the ducts and reach the studio. the is sound seems to linger for a second or two. This is in done two ways. 21 . Interior to rooms are usually used for studios. the parts of the ducts where they connect to the fan on one end the studio on the other are and made in the form of a canvas sleeve any vibration that might for a space of a few inches. This is done by the use of acoustical materials or. is too long. from about 150 to 10. But if the reverberation time ity. an air-conditioning system used. In order to ventilate is these studios. There are a great num- ber of these materials on the market. Reverberation tends to 'increase the volume of an orchestra and to blend the different musical instruments together. If you room with plaster walls. in other words. which spoils the qual- Therefore a studio must be designed for a definite reverbera- tion time. This reverbera- tion plays a very important part in studio design. Even the metal ducts which supply air to the studios have to be isolated so they will not transmit vibration or sound to the studio. Second. like a Sound waves bounce around a room clap your hands together in a large rubber ball. This caused by the sound rebounding off the walls again and again. the female voice. the ducts are lined with sound-absorbing ma- terial.Studio Design to 8.500 cycles per second.
For instance. by all the materials used in the studio 22 . a certain material will absorb more sound at 100 cycles than it will at first 1. The acoustical engineer determines cies . and floor has traveled very far. however. an invention has been sible to made which makes by merely it pos- change the reverberation time in a studio press- ing a button. studios have been ent acoustical treatment designed where the acoustics can be varied for different types of shows. to The acoustical engineer must also consider the types of shows be broadcast from the studio. In fact. In large studios certain travel the entire length of the studio before sound waves may striking a wall surface to be partially absorbed or reflected. the acoustivane. This involves complicated calculations. glass. ceiling. By laboratory experiments the how much sound will be absorbed cies acoustical engineer knows just at the various audible frequenfloor covering. Also all the dimensions of the studio play an im- portant part in reverberation. because various audible frequencies behave differently. then how much sets reverberation he wants at various frequenthis effect. will be described later in this chapter. Bands or concerts require differfrom plays. Everything in the studio.Modern Radio Reverberation time (the length of time it takes for a given sound to die out in a studio) can be pre-determined fairly acis curately by acoustical engineers before the studio even built.500 or 5. It can readily be seen that in a very small studio the sound surfaces before it may strike several wall. he about designing the studio to produce air.000 cycles per second. However. This invention. including the has to be taken into consideration.
holes in good deal of sound passes through the the perforated materials and is trapped behind the walls A or ceiling. Some of the acoustical materials are in the form of perforated metal squares. and various other materials are also used for acoustically treating rooms. The cause of this is what is known as a standing wave. He also knows just how much sound absorption provided by the various acoustical materials that he is going to use in the studio. others are perforated asbestos board or fiber board. as other materials can be placed behind them to change the absorption at various frequencies. The materials used and from one-fifth of a the size of the studio can vary this anywhere second to well over a second. This curve shows what the reverberation time will be at various audible frequencies.Studio Design plaster. wood. We have already mentioned that certain sounds picked up by the microphone seem louder when the microphone is placed in certain locations in the studio. metal. By placing different materials behind the perforations the acoustical characteristics can be changed. There are acoustical plaster and rock-wool blankets. This difference but it may seem like a very small makes a tremendous difference in the quality of the sound in a studio. Restaurants often use these materials on the ceiling to re- duce noise. The perforated materials have an advantage. is etc. various absorption factors that have been established by can plot a curve. By knowing just how many square he feet of each material are going to be used and by applying the tests. A standing wave is produced by the sound beating back and forth between two parallel surfaces. such as 23 .
or by making certain walls and the ceiling in the form of a saw-tooth.Modern Radio walls. you can visualize what occurs. When this happens two or more sound waves of the same frequency are often super-imposed upon each other. 24 . This causes each sound to linger slightly. It usually occurs when sounds of the same frequency pass one an- other. This is called a standing wave. in somewhat the same way as the body of a sound. or ceiling and floor. difficulty it up parallel sur- eliminates practically all the caused by standing waves. this may occur it when * the sound is reflected by two parallel surfaces so that travels back and forth in the same plane. Plywood panels can improve the They tend to make the sound in the studio more brilliant. and the sound wave builds up in intensity at that par- ticular location in the studio. These panels vibrate. Plywood panels violin vibrates when it is being played. This done any one of several ways: by setting two walls and the ceiling at an angle. the crest of one wave at a certain point matches the crest of another. by making the walls and ceiling curve. Some studios use several different treatments to break faces. acoustical quality in a studio. Naturally. of the newer studios have eliminated this difficulty is Some by in designing the studio with no parallel surfaces. If this is properly done. smoothing out the (especially when they are in certain shapes) reverberate and improve the acoustical quality of a studio. when sound waves strike them. As these waves beat back and forth between two these sound surfaces. If you think of waves as being ripples on water. This causes them to build up in intensity. traveling in opposite directions.
it does not work out so well for plays. and the conductor's interpretation. The panels not only If liven the music but you place your fingers against the wood surface of the panels while an orchestra is playing. This probably due to the type of music. R. Beside being very practical. C. The engineer can automatically vary the acoustics of the room by merely pressing a button on his control desk. These are the only two studios in the United States equipped with acousti- vanes. the musical instruments used. Studios 21 and 22. For instance. can feel it vibrate. the scene was supposed to be an outdoor one and there was considerable reverberation. These vanes are used in C. to Mr. Jacobs. As they are mounted lengthwise. How to be able to vary the acoustics studio to suit a particular set any time in a of conditions has been a difficult at problem for the acoustical engineers. this makes part of the studio have an appearance similar to the in- side of a log cabin. in you would immediately get the effect a large room of some kind and this would in the case of musicals. that the scene was spoil the illusion. acoustical engineer. others want less. These long half-round hollow plywood strips add a pleasing reverberant quality While a to the sound.S. Studios have been built with large wall areas consisting of half-round plywood strips. Even some conductors want more is rever- beration.B. live reverberant room may be good if for music. invented acoustivanes solve this problem. Being able to vary the acoustics in a studio has definite advantages. you to seem add a mellowness.Studio Design particularly for music. they are the most modern and 25 .
By varying the amount you open the acoustivanes you can increase or decrease the reverberation time to the desired effect. these When the blades are closed. wooden vanes form LINEN a reverberating wall. Silently an entire wood-paneled wall opens or closes automatically. they expose sound-absorbing material which reduces the reverberation time.Modern Radio dramatic thing in the studio. At five different locations in the studio there are groups of these acoustivanes large hollow plywood veneered 26 . When the blades (SOUND ABSORBING.MATERIAL*) + AIR SPACE ACOUSTI VANES CLOSED \ ACOUSTIVANES OPEN HOW ACOUSTIVANES ABSORB OR REFLECT SOUND are open.
S. STUDIO 22.Courtesy of C. ACOUSTIVANES OPEN .B.
Each vane has a drive enclosure. Two of these groups form part of the walls for the stage or the end of the room where the microphones are set and the actors perform. The floor large vanes in the acting area start about 3 feet from the to the ceiling. expose the sound-absorbing material behind them. and extend The 3-foot space beneath the vanes encloses the mechanical device which automatically controls them. Gears are shaft on the bottom that extends this shaft into the mounted on is and a long rack gear engages them.Modern Radio panels shaped something like airplane wings. The three shorter sets of wood vanes at the audience end of the studio are used to compensate for the audience. except that a vacuum 28 used instead of steam. These plywood vanes not only regulate the reverberation but improve the quality of the music in the studio. the acoustivanes are closed to compensate for the audience. a few hundred yards of sound-absorbing material are added left to the studio when an audience is present. . If they are only partly opened. and They pivot at the top and bottom. These wood panels are 2 feet 5 inches wide. The vacuum cylinder is similar to the piston and cylinder on a is steam engine. sound-absorbing material behind them time arrives and the audience is exposed. When present. is The vanes are and the on-air open during rehearsals when no audience is present. This rack gear driven by a vacuum cylinder. When they are closed they form a saw-tooth wall. 4 inches thick. and when they are open they 12 feet tall. Since clothes absorb a great deal of sound. they expose only part of the acoustical material.
Electric valves control the operation MECHANICAL DEVICE WHICH CONTROLS ACOUSTIVANES of the cylinder pistons. These acoustivanes are set differently for 29 . There is also an indicating meter for each group of blades which gives the engineer the position of all the acoustivanes in the studio. opening and closing the vanes smoothly and silently. These indicating meters are conon the vacuum cylinders. almost every pro- trolled by an electrical device.Studio Design These vacuum cylinder pistons which control the various groups of vanes move back and forth. a rheostat. the various control buttons being mounted on the engineer's control desk.
Smaller orchestras quite often use more than one microphone. AUDIENCE END as possible. This is done to accent certain groups of instruments. one microphone another mike is may be used to pick up the entire orchestra.S. often producing the effect of a larger orchestra. ACOUSTIVANES. while in- placed in front of the string instruments to 30 . Usually a single microphone is used to pick up a large orchestra. the large vanes are partially or completely closed to add as much brilliance Courtesy of C. When large orchestras use these studios.Modern Radio gram. depending on the type of show and the number of microphones used. STUDIO 22. In other words.B.
and so on. up. in the studio A is set and individual sounds of various frequencies are fed to the speaker system by a machine called an oscillator. with various acoustical treatment behind it. it adds to the reverberation. phones are picking up reverberant sound. This machine records on tape the exact time it takes for the sound to die out in the studio or. The various tones are only applied to the speaker system for a short time and then they are cut off abruptly. The studios with acoustivanes are designed so they have no parallel walls or surfaces. What each microphone picks up large loud-speaker is amplified and fed into the machine. This ates: the way it oper- The machine is set up in the control room and several micro- phones are placed in various parts of the studio. the microphones in the studios pick The machine records what each microphone is picking up. Today there is a recording machine for measuring the is reverberation time at various frequencies. Both microthis. 1. 500 cycle tone.000 cycle tone. such as 100 cycle tone. When this is done. to get the proper absorption at various frequencies. The wall sections between the acoustiis vanes are type. in other words. The ceiling is of a saw-tooth ceil- A perforated asbestos board used on the walls and ing.Modern Radio crease the volume of this section of the orchestra. the 32 . As each tone is it produced by the speaker. In the early days. studio acoustics were checked mainly by listening. The oscillator supplies pure sounds of vari- ous frequencies. To compensate for either one or both sets of the large vanes are partially or fully opened. set at an angle and curved.
Machines of this type have enabled the engi- neers to improve the acoustic quality of programs to the high standards existing today.Studio Design time it takes for the sound reverberating around the room to be absorbed. 33 . You can also tell from this tape if there are standing waves in the studio.
the grunt of a pig. Some people packed their belongings in their cars and drove to the transmitting station. The director relies on these effects to produce the proper realistic REALISTIC atmosphere and background for a play. they may be farmyard noises like the cackling of chickens. the neighing of a horse. Almost every play requires certain sound They may be quite ordinary sounds such as the closing of a door. Orson Welles directed a show in which the effects were so effects it realistic that threw a great many people to into a state of panic. the effects were produced so well that a num- ber of people thought an invasion was actually occurring. they may be night noises the sound of a katydid or the far-away whistle of a train. Policemen were stopped in the street and questioned 34 ./// Sound Effects sound effects play an important part in radio. Properly handled sound and timing add immensely to the reality of a scene. effects. asking which way they should go to escape the invaders. Men from Mars were The description and supposed be invading New York City.
mining operations. but rately. Sound effects are so to the program in their important that the large broadcasting comin- panies have entire departments which do nothing else but vent. may have. cheers.Sound E ff e c t s by panicky drivers who had been listening cars. a trained ear. and produce various effects. or a cocoanut shell. boat whistles. bird noises. with straps fastened to the outside so that you can slide 35 . or any other sounds or combination of sounds which may be reproduced more accurately by recording them than by attempting to imitate them. They travel great distances to make sound re- cordings of steel mills in operation. cut in half. the engine room noise in a ship. is The one for horses walking. The gadgets and machines much ingenuity effects is required to reproduce effects accuthis The sound men who do work are really artists. Each sound learn effects man has to go through a training period to how great to use the various gadgets and machines. record. It songs. A many of these sound effect gadgets are quite simple. songs. or galloping made of two suction cups about 4 inches in diameter. No matter how many sound effect machines and sound recordings a company always being called for. and split-second effects. Other people ran from their homes. The broadcasting companies maintain huge record libraries containing thousands of records of different types of noises: air- plane sounds. timing to produce good sound help. etc. trotting. takes a good deal of practice. new effects are The sound effects men build machines and experiment for days to reproduce certain sounds accurately. battle animal noises.
or as if he were pulling a heavy load. How hard or how easy it is to produce a desired effect is diffi- cult to determine unless you have had experience 36 in this field. By using sand on the wood surface. the effect of a horse traveling on a gravel road can be produced.B. A skilled operator can make the horse sound tired. . Courtesy of C. DEVICE FOR PRODUCING SOUND OF HORSES' HOQFS frisky.Modern Radio your fingers underneath the straps. By putting these down on a wood surface with the proper motion all sorts of horses' gaits can be produced.S.
So they set out and tried various doors all over the city. They first thought all they would have to do would be to obtain a set of squeaky hinges and mount them on one of their sound effects doors. Finally they succeeded. ing. is On horror programs the eerie squeaking of a door effects often used and the sound department of C. locks.Sound E ff e c Offhand. and bolts. closing. only to find they would not squeak. After collecting quite a few hinges with various squeaks. and when they found one that squeaked properly they bought the hinges from the owner and gave him new ones. One of the best-known methods is actu- ally to build a small door approximately 2 feet by 3 feet. found this one of the most difficult sounds to reproduce. The door they had fixed up squeaked beautifully during 37 re- . Screen doors and windows are handled in a similar fashion.B. the sound effects it department actually purchases an automobile door in a frame. you might think crackling fire. As an automobile door sounds different from an ordinary door. they mounted these hinges on the sound effects doors. and mounts These various doors and door frames are mounted on platforms equipped with wheels. with standard door-catches. or You might imagine that the open- duce. There is slamming of a door would be simple to reprono easy method that we know of for reproducing these sounds accurately.S. it t s difficult to reproduce the sound of a Actually this is quite easy to do by crushing a sheet of cellophane in your hands. so they can be moved from studio to studio as the doors are needed. set in a wooden frame. They added weights on the doors and made the doors bind and did various other tricks to produce a squeak.
Courtesy of CBS. DEVICE FOR PRODUCING WINDOW NOISES .
It consists of a wooden frame about a yard square with wires stretched across it. A to rather simply constructed but odd device is the gadget used produce the sound of marching men. so the pegs hang down below the frame. the sound 39 effects department has . it. To imitate people running staircase is up and down stairs a small portable wooden It's used. If a heavy perstairs. They then decided failed to squeak. At each point where the wires cross. or cement roads. the sound effects man puts a pair of girl's shoes on his hands and stairs. so the ends of the pegs do not all strike the table at the A same time. rather odd to see the sound effects man run up these steps. it This worked well for a while. If the script calls for a girl running upstairs. a wooden dowel or peg about 4 inches long is fastened by the end. open the sound effects door. approximately 2 inches apart in both directions. it sounds perfectly natural. dirt.Sound E ff e c hearsals. makes his hands climb up or down For scenes requiring a wagon. then one day Some energetic maintenance man in the studio had oiled it. usually consisting of three or four steps. supposed be climbing the he walks up slowly in flat-footed fashion. and slam But when you hear son is it on the to air. By holding this frame slightly above a table top and lowering it with a rocking motion. so they had to find a new squeaky revolving chair. a squeaky revolving chair. reach over. sound effects man can produce numerous marching effects with machine in this marching marching as in a parade men drilling prisoners single file on pavement. you can produce the effect of soldiers marching. i>ut failed to use the springs t s when they were on and mechanism from the air.
SOUND EFFECTS DEVICES .Courtesy of C.S.B.
It is also possible to produce very realistic rain effects with this machine. and boat whistles to create the illusion you added fog horns that the wagon was travelif ing along the water front. that is. and an motor for operating the pump. for instance. This machine has a sink. Certain scenes require three or four sound effects men. a drain. This machine a self-contained unit with its own water circulating system. This produces the sound of a wagon going over a dirt road. is operated by form of a loop which passes over a drum on the crank shaft and several wooden rollers. has developed it a machine which uses water and can produce is many different types of water sound effects. It contains a water storage electric tank. The wheel rests on rollers which are covered with sandpaper. Various types of shower- heads may be used to produce different shower effects. and a pipe over the sink where the various plumbing fixtures can be attached. Faucets can be attached to produce the sound of water running in the sink. a water pump. C. So far no machine has been developed which can satisfactorily produce the sound of running water. is A crank handle attached to the wheel axle. The horse effect is added by another sound effects man manipulating the suction cups.B. This might be necessary. not unless running water is actually used to produce the effect. a crank.S. Vari- Chain noises are produced on a machine which The chain is made in the 41 .Sound E ff e ct s constructed a device which is a platform with two uprights to support an old-fashioned wooden wagon wheel. to the It is so arranged that various attachments can be made machine for producing different effects. so it may be turned.
just before air-time the director may to his decide he wants one of the actors to milk a cow for a barnyard scene. For instance. is uncanny. submerged his head in a bucket of water. One of the sound effects men took off his coat. The ingenuity of the sound effects men. fill his mouth with water. gasped for air. give the effect of a person being stabbed. he shakes a long sheet of Buck-shot shaken inside a football bladder can be used for surf crushing of a melon with your fist pounding on a beach. The produces the sound of a skull 42 . thunder. If the play is centered around a railroad station. Usually the sound to the studio. because they might shift the scene at the last moment. he may take a pail away from squirt it one of the charwomen. so he can squirt the water into the empty pail to produce the necessary effect. If the sound effects to get man doesn't have time back department to pick up a couple of syringes full of water and a pail. and called for help with his head half under water. he would take enough gadgets and records to produce almost any kind of a noise that might occur in a station. A To great many of the effects do not require elaborate machines. and On one of the radio shows just before air-time they had to pro- duce the sound of a man drowning. the sound effects man merely plunges a knife into a head of cabbage. As a precaution he usually takes a couple of doors and windows too.Modern Radio ous types of chains can be used on this machine. To produce tin. when last minute demands are made. effects man takes extra equipment with him hoping to anticipate last minute requests. into the pail.
latest model. barrel rolls. amplifier. They have also taking off. and loops. have dog fights and bomber squadrons Some sound battles. effects of the same one record may include twenty different types of boat whistles. they take portable equipment and record the actual sound. This reproducer consists of two electrical phonographs with volume controls and loud- speakers housed in a cabinet that can be wheeled from studio to studio. wherever it is needed. As the recorded sound effects are used over is and over again. This portable equip- and ment usually consists of a microphone. The sound effects man can use one turntable for background music and the other for sound effects or any other combination he desires.Modern Radio being crushed. If the request were for the sound of a lion yawning. effects departments have records actually made during If the effect sound if effects men cannot find a record with the proper none of their gadgets will produce it. re- planes in all kinds of action land- power dives. starting noises and has a complete with the oldest type of railroad engine and latest streamline winding up with the corded the ing. another will have all sorts of train noises. 44 . These records often contain many different type. and sound- recording machine. the sound effects department usually equipped with several portable dual electrical reproducers. For war scenes they flying in formation. One broad- casting company has recorded steam engine set. they would take the equipment to the zoo and sometimes wait for days to get the recording.
you add a half-submerged man calling for help and a fog horn. This allows the operator to effects at the sic same time. There is a key switch on the machine so the effect can be cut off at the right time. the background noise of a ship's engines and the sound of the anchor chain being hauled can be produced simultaneously with different records. the noise of the flying plane may be selected from a record and the crash produced by crushing a small wooden box.Sound E ff e c the sound effects library. effects are selected. Since there is are two reproducers. and this point is marked on the from turning by record with a grease pencil. and you have a completely realistic scene. It is easy to see how an entire scene may be built up by using several sound effects. Thus the record obtains proper speed almost immediately. another switch provided to change from set one to the other. If the script calls for an airplane crash. He then places the pickreits up needle on the mark he has previously made. and when he ceives his cue he releases the record. different records are selected from Then they are played and the proper be in the The point where a particular effect starts may middle of the record. For example. At the same time another sound effects man provides the lapping of water against the side of the ship with a bucket of water equipped with paddles. he may use one for the up two sound background mu- and the other for special effects. During the show the operator starts the turntable revolving but keeps the record holding it until the sound effect is needed. To this 45 . Quite often records and manually operated sound effects are used together. t s After checking the script.
and it can be used to reduce or cut out sounds of high or low pitch (high audio frequencies or low audio frequencies. This filter operates in a similar manner to the tone-control on a receiving set. The filter is connected into the microphone circuit.) This filter is plugged into the microphone circuit by 46 . it was com- Quite often an electrical filter is used to change or improve the Courtesy of C.Modern Radio This can be done so well that you would never realize ing from a studio.S. IRON GATE SOUND EFFECTS DEVICE quality of an effect.B.
Then you realize you are not in a museum but in a sound effects department. This filter ac- complishes the same thing. whistles. pistols. horns. Your voice sounds different over a tele- phone because the telephone does not reproduce high frequencies. 47 . windows. so the high frequencies in the voice are eliminated. New Year's Eve noise- makers. shoes. all the various machines for making weird is an experimental shop where they build and try out various gadgets. and noises. When the sound is reproduced by your person talking fre- you have the filter effect of a on the 'phone because the quencies. telephones. castanets. you hear all sorts of noises. has eliminated the high When you walk through a sound effects department. If a certain does not sound quite natural because part of the sound con- tains noises of a high pitch. receiving set loud-speaker. in cabinets it reminds all you of a museum. As you look around. coconut shells. The filter is often used to create the effect of a person talking on the telephone. doors. On shelves and you see types of bells and gongs. balloons. Another room is used to to this Next department repair the various machines. from horror chamber sounds to a babbling brook and the call of wild geese. then the filter can be added to elimi- nate them.Sound E ff e c the control effect t s room technicians whenever it is needed.
and transmitters are not capable of reproducing. to So the microphone has had be improved in design to keep pace with other developments in radio. amplifiers. necessary to know how they operate. it would be of little use until microphones. "A chain is is only as strong as its weakest link./V Microphones like all other branches of engineering. Before it is we discuss the latest types of high fidelity microphones." particularly applicable to radio apparatus. The old saying. 48 . The radio receiver cannot reproduce electrical waves that the micro- phones. is its always equip- striving to improve the quality and design of ment. A new and improved design for one piece of equipment usually requires the re-designing of all other equipment associated with it. RLDIO. amplito the and transmitters were brought up new standard. inexpensive receivers are the weak point in broad- casting today. As an example. However. fiers. if a new radio set were designed with better reproduction than any other equipment de- veloped so far.
The other types of microphones 49 carbon. This ribbon it is mounted between two permanent magnet pole pieces. used to a great extent in the broadcasting This microphone utilizes a thin metallic ribbon which vibrates as the sound waves act upon it. While there are a great many types of microphones. in turn. and The ribbon or phone which is crystal microphones. condenser. quite similar to the way which your ears function.Microphones The microphone is an electrical instrument which converts the elec- energy of air-borne sound waves into electrical waves. crystal. vibrates at the same frequency as the sound at the wave acting upon it. for example. moving coil. condenser. If. This voltage or current generated same frequency as the frequency of the vibrating ribbon. . This to vibrate. one string on the piano sends out a sound wave of 256 cal cycles. and as field it vibrates in this magnetic is generates a voltage. velocity typie is a high quality sensitive microfield. The ribbon. These trical waves have the same frequency characteristics as the sound waves. One common to all types of microphones the sound elec- waves go through an intermediate stage before they become trical waves. the most widely used types are the ribbon or velocity. carbon. Sound waves strike your ear drums and cause them The ear drums then send these impulses via your nerves to your brain. the microphone converts this into an electri- wave of thing the is same frequency. This intermediate stage strike a surface or is mechanical. The sound waves it diaphragm in the microphone and cause is to vibrate at their in own frequency.
RIBBON POLE PIECE PERMANENT MA&NET CROSS SECT/ ON OF MICROPHONE RIBBON MECHANICAL VI BRATI ON <'""> /\./ -ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES (SAME AS SOUND} CONTROL ROOM HOW AIR-BORNE SOUND WAVES ARE CONVERTED INTO ELECTRICAL WAVES BY MICROPHONE .
High quality microphones have a flat frequency response from about 40 to about 10. or moving-coil. crystal. so these types are called pressure microphones. moving-coil. this microphone is capable of reproducing electrical waves corresponding to most sound waves produced by an orchestra. Al- though carbon.Microphones and moving-coil are operated by varying pressure created by sound waves on a diaphragm. These microphones only respond 57 . microphones were not capable of doing this. This was one of the reasons for poor reception in those early days. the current in the circuit fluctuates at microphone the same frequency as the sound wave. condenser. The diaphragms of these microphones are mechanically connected to a condenser. and crystal microphones are operated by the varying pressure caused by the sound wave. This the means microphone will respond equally well for all frequencies between 40 and 10.000 cycles. therefore.000 cycles. When these elements are agitated by the varying pressure of the sound wave on the diaphragm. from them are quite similar to those produced by the ribbon microphone which is operated by the varying velocity the net results of the sound wave. A flat frequency response means that the volume level reproduced by the microphone will not in- crease or decrease over a certain frequency range. In early days of radio. and when they were used for orchestra pick-up they could not reproduce certain musical notes or frequencies. This is also true today of less expensive types of microphones re- used primarily for inter-communicating systems where good production is not important.
or uni-directional. covering a figure-eight pattern. and inexpensive.Modern Radio well between 200 and 2. such as most types of pressure microphones. a combination non- directional. teristics of the The directional characin microphone are varied by a switch which cuts the velocity half of the ribbon. Most microphones are directional. The ribbon or velocity microphone usually picks up sound from the front is and rear. 52 . Of course. though there are types which will pick up sound coming from any direction in a horizontal plane. rugged. or both.500 cycles. in studios that are over-reverberant is better to use a microphone that is sensitive in only one direc- tion. Microphones of this type are also used in other places where quality of reproduction is not important. is One of the latest types of microphones bi-directional. the ribbon fixed one half acting as a velocity microphone and the other half as a pressure microphone. it This microphone picks used to a great extent in studios. but they are used because they are small. If the switch is set to cut in the pressure half of the ribbon. It is a ribbon type. This microphone for it is can be used for a great many purposes really two microis phones built into one at the center with unit. but where space requirements. Pressure types are also often used for a public speaker before a large audience. cost. or durability are the primary factors. when the crowd noise might become objectionable. the pressure half of the ribbon. This type of microphone is used in the studio control room to talk back to the studio dur- ing rehearsals. as not only up the original sound source but a great deal of reverberant it sound as well.
NON-DIRECTIONAL DIRECTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS MICROPHONES .
It picks up a band. that football games. This type of used to a considerable extent at for instance. reflector The sound waves strike the curved surface of the and are directed at the microphone. then the rear. If you think of a small electric light bulb as consuming twenty-five watts of current. They are capable of raising the level of the microphone approximately 30 volume units. The parabolic microphones reflector is not a microphone. so both the pressure If the switch is set in the and velocity parts are utilized. If the switch velocity half of the ribbon is set so the connected in the circuit. Microphone amplifiers are used to step up the output of the microphone. then the microphone is sensitive in all directions. The microphone is mounted on a bracket facing diameter. may be playing on the opposite side of the field from where the micro- phone and radio equipment are located. but it is used with to pick up sound reflector is that is originating some distance away. covering an area of about 180 is degrees in front of the microphone. The reflector is shaped like a searchlight reflector. covering microphone is sensitive front and an area approxi- mately 90 degrees in each direction. This makes the 54 . and it is approximately three feet in The microphone used with this reflector is usually a unidirectional type. containing one radio tube and two small transformers. The amount of current small indeed less than the average microphone delivers is very one ten-millionth part of one watt. These units are quite small. a volume unit being one-hundredth part of one watt. third position. the reflector.Modern Radio it is sensitive in one direction only. you will realize what a small amount of current this is.
55 . it The reflector is quite direc- tional. so eliminates noises coming from other directions. This type of reflector is used principally for outdoor sports.Microphones microphone and reflector operate in the opposite way from the way a searchlight reflector works. in- cluding a good percentage of the crowd noise.
previously trol described.V Studio Control Room #22. enabling the engineer and director seated at their desks to see everyone in the studio. mounted in front is The front part of the desk quite low so does not interfere with his vision. of the studio. in the acting area. has a very modern con- room. floor of this The room is raised about three feet above the studio floor. The window is set at a vertical angle to eliminate reflections from overhead lights and this makes it easier for actors to see the engineer and production man in the control room. the equipment sides of the desk. The engineer's control desk is made is in the form of a U. As he and on both it faces the studio. is At SUDIO the side a large sound-proof double glass window. This part of the desk houses 56 . The control room is a small isolated sound-proof room which contains the engineer's control desk and the director's desk. Through this window you can see the engineer's control room.
S. CONTROL ROOM WINDOW AT RIGHT .Courtesy of C.B. STUDIO 21.
Each of these microphones con- nected by means of a cable to a special microphone outlet located in the studio wall. These volume controls are adjusted by a series of knobs which have indicating dials marked off in volume units. By means of the 58 . This can be quite different from the way you hear it in the studio because of the different microphone locations and the sound effects added after the studio microphones pick up the production.Modern Radio the volume controls. is and one for the announcer. Through this speaker he hears what being picked up by the all the various microphones in the studio. microphone switches. As these audio signals same frequency as coming from the micromicrophone amplifier to phone are is at a very low volume level. The electrical sound waves which the microphone sends out are called audio signals because they are of the audible sounds. one for the orchestra. is Thus all the equip- ment that he uses during the is show at his finger tips. a used in each incoming microphone line raise the volume level. indicating lights. may be two or more for the actors. so that he will hear program as you hear it in your home. These microphone outlets are wired individu- ally to the engineer's control desk. Each side of the desk slightly higher than the front panel is and houses equipment which pre-set before the program. and sound effects filter. For large radio shows from three There to six microphones are used. Then the audio signal goes to individual volume controls located on a sloping panel at the front of the control desk. is is Mounted above the engineer's control desk a monitor loud- speaker. talk- back microphone.
volume controls the engineer can increase or decrease the volume coming from any studio microphone. The volume controls are
really variable resistors especially designed for this purpose.
resistor is a unit
resists the flow of current in
increasing and decreasing the resistance in the line
they increase and decrease the volume. These units are also called
These controls enable the engineer
maintain the proper vol-
level of the studio microphones, beside producing other
On your own
made while an
radio you have probably heard an announcement
playing; the orchestra seems to fade
background while the announcer
neer accomplishes this by slowly turning the volume control
on the orchestra microphone while increasing the volume On the
announcer's microphone. There are
other fading effects he
can produce by manipulating these controls.
Beside the individual controls, he also has a master volume
control and this enables
to raise or lower
same time. This
volume of the
used primarily for mainis
taining the proper
entire program. This
he allows volume to get too high, he will over-
load the various amplifiers that the program passes through before
reaches the transmitter. Overloading
feeding an ampli-
more power than
can handle and
this causes distortion of
the audio signal or poor reproduction.
The engineer must
careful that the volume does not fall below a certain level, for
HOW ENGINEER CONTROLS VOLUME ON
not hear certain passages on the receiving end.
does not maintain the proper volume level by listening to
his loud-speaker, as
you might imagine.
done visually. There
a large illuminated meter located directly in front of the engiis
neer on the control desk. This meter
and percentage of
modulation. Every sound that
picked up by the microphones
causes the needle on the meter
indicate the intensity of the
audio signal. During a program
with every syllable of a word or note of a musical instrument.
The engineer watches
and makes the necessary
adjustments with his master volume control.
Between the front and the
wing of the control desk is a an electrical circuit containing cut in on the line, it filters out
the high or low frequencies, thus producing
two dials on
one for eliminating high frequencies, the
other for low frequencies.
They can be adjusted
the engineer. This filter
often used to produce
special voice effects for dramatic plays and comedies.
located on both the left and right wings of the
control console. These jack fields are similar to those used
by telephone operators for making their telephone connections. Each row of jacks consists of a bakelite strip containing holes behind which
are mounted electrical receptacles
these are called telephone
to the different amplifiers,
These receptacles are connected
effects filter, coils, outgoing-lines, etc.
using wire cords
with a plug on each end (known as patch-cords) these different
pieces of apparatus can be connected together in any desired
combination. This gives the control
great flexibility in select-
ing the necessary equipment for any particular show.
of the outgoing lines that appears on this jack field runs
in another part of the building.
an echo chamber, located
also a jack for the return line
echo chamber. The
used to produce the effect of people talking when
they are in a cave or calling from the bottom of a well, or any
other effect that calls for an echo.
The echo chamber
a long, narrow, U-shaped room, approxi-
mately 3 feet wide, 6 feet 6 inches high and 30 feet long, closed
at both ends.
all outside noise
interior walls are plastered to reflect sound.
At one end
a loud-speaker, and a microphone is usually located near the
using the jack
the engineer can connect lines
leading to and from the echo chamber.
this is done, the
being picked up by the
the echo chamber.
amplified and sent to the loud-speaker in
the loud-speaker reit
The sound coming from
verberates off the walls, floor, and ceiling as
long narrow room to the microphone. Then
picked up by the
microphone and travels back
to the engineer's control desk.
The echo chamber
really only adds reverberation to the sound.
accomplished by mixing the audio signal com-
ing from the echo chamber with the original audio signal.
example, we will imagine that we strike a note on the studio
TO ECHO CHAMBER ORIGINAL SOUND DIRECT TO TRANSMITTER SOUND FROM ECHO CHAMBER . SOUND TO AND FROM ECHO C.DELAYED .. TO TRANS.. t HOW MICROPHONE DELAYED BY ECHO CHAMBER TO PRODUCE ECHO EFFECT SIGNAL IS ..
130 feet a second. Part of the signal goes to the echo chamber and the rest passes through this control room equipment on its way to the is master control room. It is connected to outgoing lines. This handled by another engineer. but is a second late. The electrical impulses coming from the microphone are separated when they reach the control desk. During rehearsals the acoustivanes are adjusted director is satisfied with the reverberation in the studio. the engineer can keep a record of the acoustivanes' settings by jotting down the meter readings. It then goes back to the control room approximately a thirty-fifth of to join the original signal. Above the acoustivanes' push buttons are meters which indicate the position of the acoustivanes. side of the control desk are located the At the top of one control buttons for the acoustivanes. is until the As there usually a lapse of time between rehearsals and air-time. The impulse going to the echo chamber transferred back to a sound wave by a loud-speaker and the sound wave So we will say it travels at approximately 1. beside the regular control desk there is is a small control desk used for the public address system.Modern Radio piano and it is picked up by the studio microphone. It program has four volume controls and a volume indi66 . It is used to feed the program back to the audience loud-speakers. In large audience studios. takes about one thirty-fifth of a second to travel the length of the echo chamber and be picked up again by the echo chamber microphone. This produces two signals about a thirty-fifth of a is second apart and when they are reproduced the result like a sound an echo.
creates a howling sound as the sound keeps traveling from the microphones through equipment back to the studio is where it js picked up again by the microphones. so if is anyone should throw the switch by mistake while a program on the air it would fail to operate. is As the control room sound-proof and isolated from the studio. of the unit. tp cut in this equipment whenever man desires to talk to switches. They are reached by opening doors on the side These amplifiers are mounted on tracks so they slide file out of the unit like a drawer.Studio Control cator. 67 . provided to take care of Small microphones are built into the engineer's and production man's consoles and are connected through an amplifier to loud-speakers in the studio. During rehearsals is quite important for the engineer and the director to be able to talk to the actors. This public address system enables the audience to hear the program after the special effects it have been added. anyone in the foot-controlled Beside is the hand-operated a switch provided for the engineer. Switches are mounted on the control desks the engineer or production studio. Should this occur. These switches are electrically interlocked with the on-air switch. as this causes considerable trouble it is picked up by the studio microphones. The larger amplifiers are mounted in each side of the desk. Great care Room much volume to if it must be taken not to feed too the audience loud-speakers. This called feed-back. The microphone amplifiers are located under the front part of the control desk. as his hands are usually busy with the other controls. This simplifies the replacement of parts and the repairing of the equipment. audio facilities are this.
or 68 to rectify alternating current. submarine detectors. and many other radio devices would have been dreams or crude experiments today if the vacuum tube had not been invented. The vacuum tube is responsible for increasing the volume so that loud-speakers can be used and headphones are not necessary. Today thousands of different types of radio tubes are manu- factured for different purposes. All of them are used mainly for one of two purposes either to amplify an electrical signal. . radar. THE casting. It is the invention which has all made possible the tremen- dpus advancement of branches of radio. television. They range in size from the huge water-cooled or air-cooled types used in large broadcasting transmitters to the small types used in portable radio equipment. Certain types of these tubes are used in every radio set. Radio broad- international broadcasting. frequency modu- lation.VI How Radio Tubes Operate VACUUM tube (radio tube) is really the heart of radio. and without them we probably would still be using headphones as they did in the early days of radio.
B.Courtesy of C.000 WATT . HIGH VOLTAGE RECTIFIER TUBES USED TRANSMITTER IN 50.S.
rent is an The source can be a battery or a direct current generator. It it flows direction through the reaches a peak and then returns to zero. an alternating current its generator causes the electrical current to reverse It starts to direction. then stops and starts to flow in the opposite direction.C. In other words. A cycle is completed when it the current has flowed once in each direction. Alternating curIt is rent. This is called direct current (D. flow in one direction.C. is The time that takes for this to occur called the frequency.. an alternating current gen- erator does not generate a current continuously. There is a continuous flow of current from one terminal it to the other. This means takes either one-fiftieth or one-sixtieth of a second for the current to 70 . direction.C. at zero The current in one starts and gradually builds up as circuit. building up to a peak and then returning The volt- peak voltage to which the current builds up depends on what is age the generator capable of delivering.) does not flow in a single direction as direct current does. alternating current. Alternating current (A. When you flows turn on the current in a battery-operated flashlight.Modern Radio that is. usually it of a frequency of 50 or 60 cycles per second. flows in the opposite to zero. but changes the direction of flow intermittently. to change alternating current to direct current. is used to a great extent in homes today. A. That is. Direct curelectrical current flowing in a single direction.) as flows in a single direction. it The next time the current starts to flow. Batteries always supply direct current. whereas some generators are designed to supply direct current and others. it from one terminal of the battery through the filament to the other terminal.
C.A.Courtesy of R. WATER-COOLED POWER AMPLIFIER TUBE USED TRANSMITTERS IN RADIO .
fier tube. The rectifier tube is a simple type of is two elements. which usually surrounds the filament. This is the reason that radio tubes contain a high degree of vacuum.the called plate (anode).Modern Radio make one complete cycle. it is considered to be a positive electron. particularly trons tend to move toward when they are allowed to move through a space which has a high degree of vacuum. When ion. The vacuum tube can be used into a direct current. set contains is one of these tubes an A. which consists of positive and negative electrons. These negative electrons are used to con- trol the flow of current through a vacuum tube. . is a minute charged it much smaller than the positive electron. The filament is usually called a cathode and to it will emit large numbers of negative electrons when heated 72 / .C. In radio circuits. house cur- rent to direct current because some of the elements in the other tubes in your set require direct current. One of these elements respects is vacuum tube containing a filament which in some The similar to the filament in an electric light bulb. The negative eleca positive electrode. its loses one or more of negative electrons. to millions of cycles per You an will learn more about these higher frequencies in the chapter about the different types of transmitters. and travels at a much greater velocity. to change an alternating current this When it is used way it is called a rectiif it is Your radio set.C. is second element. the frequency of these oscillations can be anywhere from a few cycles per second second. The negative electron particle. operated This tube used to change the A.
If this alternating cur- FILAMENJ PLA7E GRID 'CONTROLS ELECTRONS SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW ELECTRONS TRAVEL AND ARE CONTROLLED IN THE TWO OR THREE ELEMENT VACUUM TUBE rent is applied to the plate of a rectifier tube the current will only to flow in be allowed one direction. During the time that the plate that are given off is positive attracts the electrons by the cathode.How Radio Tubes Operate the proper temperature by an electrical current. These electrons is positive. The reason for this is is that the plate current only becomes positive when the current it flowing in one direction. When reverses its direction it it becomes negative. are attracted to the plate when is the plate current An alternating current it constantly changing from positive to negative as changes its direction of flow. The current only flows through 73 .
This may be a weak audio your radio increase the power of a radio sigsignal coming from a microphone or a weak radio signal picked up by the receiving antenna on set. their operation depends on the plate attracting the elec- by the cathode. This is true of the small amplifier tubes in your radio set and the powerful amplifier tubes used in large commercial transmitters.C. The two-element tube just described is known as a diode. etc. heated by passing current through or a small cylinder which heated by an internal filament. The amplifier tube is used to nal. There are tions many other applica- and uses for this type and other types of rectifier tubes. or more electrodes. 74 . but the fundamental operating principles of the tube remain the same. tetrode. more complicated tubes where additional elements are added. which produces B. When plate the current starts to flow in the opposite direction so the becomes negative it repels the electrons so no current is al- lowed to flow in the plate circuit.Modern Radio this tube when the electrons pass from the cathode to the plate. If it is the tube contains three. This causes the current to flow in the plate circuit of the tube. It is also true of the television trons given off tubes which produce the picture in the television receiver. pentode. five. either a filament it. These two types are known as the filament Even in and heater-type cathodes respectively. In other words. called a triode. four. tube acts like a check-valve in a water line and only allows the current to flow in one direction. Hence the current is only allowed this to flow in one direction. which The cathode can be one of two is is types.
A.Courtesy of R. AIR-COOLED POWER AMPLIFIER TUBE USED IN RADIO TRANSMITTERS .C.
A small amount of current applied to the grid can control a rather large amount of current see in the plate circuit. We will imagine a 500 cycle tone is being picked up by the microphone. television amplifiers. This causes the current in the grid circuit of the tube to fluctuate at 500 cycles a second. The third electrode called a grid It located between the cathode and the plate (anode). In other words the grid current positive is changing from negative toward and back to negative at the rate of 500 cycles a second. three-electrode tube is used to a great extent in radio ampli- transmitters. These additional elements are used to control the flow of electrons be- tween the cathode and plate and influence the characteristics of the tube. is and many other places is where amplification and is needed. repels the electrons given off to pass by the cathode so that no electrons are allowed if the through the grid to the plate. 76 . it When grid is made negative with respect to the cathode. The microphone producing a very weak 500 cycle electrical signal.Modern Radio Most amplifier tubes contain that is. usuthis ally consists of an open spiral or mesh of fine wire. Now let's what occurs if a microphone is connected to the is grid circuit of a tube. However. one or two in addition to the cathode and plate. grid is made less negative (more positive) with respect to the cathode. The fiers. In this way the grid controls the number of electrons that can be attracted to the plate. thus controlling the current that flows in the plate circuit. at least three or four electrodes. the electrons will pass through the grid to the plate.
This type of tube is also used for proIt is form of an audio ducing the picture in a television receiver. Cathode-Raj Tubes This type of tube trical is used in an oscilloscope which is an elec- machine for the visual checking of the amplitude and wave signal. The output of one of these amplifiers can be coupled to a loud- speaker and the audio signal transferred back to a sound wave. This would be called a two-stage amplifier because the original signal has gone through two stages of amplification. it is When fier. The cathode-ray tube is a vacuum tube which 78 accelerates the . the electrical signal has been stepped up in power.Modern Radio This causes the quantity of electrons passing from the cathode through the grid to the plate to vary at the rate of 500 cycles a second. a vacuum tube is used in this manner called an ampli- This signal can be amplified again by another vacuum tube operating in the same manner. As these electrons cause a rather large plate current to vary at this frequency. These amplifiers vary in size from the small units used to amplify the audio signals in the studio to the large powerful amplifiers used in transmitters. An amplifier may contain from one to several stages of amplification.000 watts of power. The large amplifiers used in broadcasting transmitters can increase this signal until it represents 50. described in the chapter on television receivers and transmitters.
is a funnel-shaped glass container. form an electron and two anodes. beam and beam control The screen consists of a coating of special fluorescent material on the inside of the large end of the tube. It electrodes in the narrow end of this tube consists of a cathode. At the point where the tube widens there are two 79 sets . produced usu- upon the ingredients The gun. The first anode accelerates and narrows the beam. the narrow part of the tube containing the electrodes which form the it. fluorescent screen. The cathode supplies the electrons and the grid controls the intensity of the electron beam. grid. depending in the screen material. yellow. When the of elec- ELEMENTS IN CATHODE-RAY TUBE is Irons strikes the screen.How Radio Tubes Operate electrons given off by a cathode and transforms them into a beam The which tube is directed at a special translucent. the second anode further increases the velocity of the electrons in the beam. or blue. white. a spot of colored light ally green.
the return trace will be in- Many it is patterns of wave forms can be produced with this tube and used by engineers for studying alternating currents. This is called a horizontal sweeri voltage. coils are usually used instead of plates for deflect- ing and controlling the electron beam. close to the glass container. In larger tubes. the bright spot moves back and this forth in either a horizontal or vertical plane. is The time the spot takes to return to the left side of the screen called the fly-back time. and if the return sweep (fly-back time) short enough. moving spot appears is to be a continuous line. When a varying voltage applied to the horizontal plate.Modern Radio of deflecting plates. Now visible. you can 80 see the various frequencies of . the path of the When motion is sufficiently rapid. When varying voltages are applied to both sets of the deflectis ing plates and the frequency remains the same. strike the screen they create a it. When coils are used. the spot travels rapidly across the screen from left to right and then returns to the left side. connected into an audio circuit coming from When this tube is the studio microphones. they are mounted externally. Normally when the electrons . One set is used for deflecting the electron it beam horizontally and the other for deflecting vertically. the wave shape is is visible to the eye. small bright spot in the center of When varying voltages are applied to either the horizontal or vertical plates. the wave form traced over and over again as long as the amplitude of the signal and other conditions remain the same.
H o'w Radio Tubes Operate the sound waves being picked up by the microphone. If an or- chestra is playing. very rapid pace and are fascinating 81 . you can see the various frequencies produced by the different musical instruments. at a These frequencies seem to dance along the screen to watch.
This own for time because the programs only had local coverage. The cost of producing the programs the in half. Of 82 .VII Master Control Room THE early days of radio. one program would do for two transmit- you have the additional cost of the telephone line and an additional amount of overhead. This difficulty was overcome when local stations As the income of became affiliated with out-of-town stations and could exchange programs by sending them over telephone lines. But at the same time the course. any company controls the quality of material they produce. transmitters operated that is. Advertising firms would not pay a high price studios. as was then cut ters. radio programs in those days were not very interesting or entertaining. as the cost of producing a program was quite high considering the number of people it reached. more or less independently each station had one or two studios in INand their the programs consisted only of what they produced method was not very practical. In this way same program could be broadcast from two transmitters located in different cities.
Some cover the east coast. these various hookups are not permanent. others the west and there are national net- works that cover the entire country. cities. The system worked out advantageously all the way around. such as C. and other These companies also have what are known as basic networks. Of course. N.B. try were connected by telephone lines to form a chain of This is called a broadcasting network different and today there are many networks. San Francisco. producing the program in its may operate inde- own studios. Chicago. The advertisers were pleased fact that they this and because of the were reaching a better The public was pleased. A local station may be connected in on a national hook-up for fifteen it minutes.. then for the next fifteen minutes pendently.C. so twice the number of people hear the same program. with program changes occurring almost every fifteen minutes.. So this system grew and grew until stations all over the counstations.S. Most of the large broadcasting companies. advertisers are willing to pay a higher price. consisting of from twenty to fifty trans- 83 . some cover the coast.B. middle west. have transmitters and studios in New York. Los Angeles. for they received entertainment from local and distant points. Washington. Boston. during the short following fifteen minutes the program may come by this wave from Europe. The broadcasting company could afford to produce better programs and because of install better equipment. Because of this. In large broadcasting companies becomes quite complicated. larger audience. and the Blue Network.Master Control Room coverage has been doubled.
HflMpi >>W'.-. ::-.--Y:-..<-.. ' : S : .B.-.. FIELD EQUIPMENT ACCESSORIES .^yr^fc Courtesy of C.- : y.S. <:".-Y'.
among them are two large audi- ence studios. both local and out of town.Master Control Room mitting stations spreading over certain areas. mitters: for foreign broadcast. One of the large broadcasting companies in New York has twelve or more regular studios. and a number of 50 is just their setup for New York They also have additional studios and transmitters in Chicago. a kilowatt international transmitters. St. The larger stations to have agreements with the smaller companies in these areas transmit their programs at certain times. Louis. a television transmitter. frequency modulation transmitter. and as these setups change about every fifteen min- you can imagine what a busy place it is. which is being sent to the European transmitters. arid a special studio for news The same company has many different types of transa large 50 kilowatt transmitter for regular broadcast. At eight o'clock the program coming from Studio #21 and going to the local transmitter must be replaced by a program utes coming from Theater #3 which is to go out on a national hook-up. Charlotte. At the same time the foreign broadcast originating in short wave Studio #31. four theaters used as audience studios. so do all the out- going lines to the various transmitters. This City. Washington. two short wave studios broadcast. 85 . and All the lines that carry the various local programs from each studio terminate in the master control room. This room is where all the lines are connected for the vari- ous setups. Hollywood. The larger companies can arrange national networks consisting of well over a hundred stations.
TRANSMITTER DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW ALL PROGRAMS PASS THROUGH MASTER CONTROL ROOM .
is The dial at the bottom of each panel in the various studios really a rotating switch which cuts by an electrically operated switch or relay. a one of number appears on the indicator. At the same time. these are really small switches lights representing the various and above them are indicator outgoing lines that go to the dif- ferent transmitters and networks. This an imaginary setup. There also a program coming wants in by short wave from Europe that one of the executives is to hear in another studio. This sounds like an impossibility.Master Control Roo m must be switched so the program originating in short wave Studio #32 takes its place. Above this indicator are As you turn the This is the number of several rows of keys. not only takes care of all of these changes but handles them almost instantaneously. In the middle of a like a horseshoe. We will describe one of methods for master control switching. There are also two buttons on this panel one marked 87 . the studios. These panels extend twenty-four inches above the writing shelf which also extends around the curve of the horseshoe. At the bottom of each panel are a large dial and an indicator. but radio engineers have worked out sev- eral different the latest methods to accomplish it. room there is a large control desk shaped This desk consists of a series of sixteen narrow panels set side by side around the curve of the horseshoe. dial. but actually the changes that occur every fifteen minutes are often much more complicated than The master control room this. a program in Studio it #28 be must be sent to another locality in the city so that is may recorded and used the following day.
and the proper studio automatically connected to the proper outgoing line. the switching will actually take when he place. anis now set other group of panels used in a similar fashion. Now when the time is comes for program #1 to go on the air. the engineer presses the onair button on panel #2. pre-setting it for the next program. and he continues to do this until at least four programs are set up. the time Now when comes for the next program. showing which outgoing line he is connected to. and an indicating light goes on. First he presses the pre-set button on panel desired studio. This on-air button turns on electrical energy for the various electrically operated switches (relays). He then repeats the operation on panel #2. The engineers who operate this equipment have more to do than just to pre-set these panels and switch them at the proper time. He then presses down one of the key switches on top of the panel. so that presses the on-air button. quite confusing to the when he stands in layman the master control room and hears four or more It is 88 . This cuts out panel #1 and substitutes the setup on panel #2. all he has to do press the on-air button." This is how the engineer operates. #1 and turns the studio-indicating dial to the The studio number will show up green in the indi- cating slot above the dial. When another program is up for another progoing put at the same time.Modern Radio "Pre-set" and one marked "On the air. Panel #1 is gram. Actually he has not made connections at this time but has pre-set the panel. The pre-setting has already is determined which switches will operate. For each outgoing program they have a monitor loud-speaker so they can listen to the program.
A good many pro- broadcasts from night- and horse races. This type of pickup. level of each The volume in the incoming and outgoing line is checked is master control room with volume indicators. and other points of importance without relying on the public telephone system. a condenser going bad. addresses by government on-the-scene descriptions of notable events.Modern Radio programs at the same time. All this equipment is checked periodically and a running log is kept of everything that happens in the master control room. Even programs originating outside of grams do not originate in the studios clubs. transmitters. The equipment used for it varies considerably. a is in it faulty line. depending is upon the circumstances. and so on. boxing bouts officials. but the engineer has trained on which program it his ears so that he can detect the slightest trouble on any one of the pro- grams and can usually tell tell it is occurring. these programs To pick up to and send them over telephone lines master control requires special portable equipment. located and corrected in less than a minute. can usually be The master control room always contains spare equipment to replace any parts that may become defective. is called a remote pickup. etc. If the trouble some of the amplifier equipment in the master control room. a bad switch. studios are sent over telephone wires to the master control point. The room it also equipped with a private line telephone system so that can communicate with all studios. when it originates outside of the studio. This radio equipment especially designed 90 . Also he can whether is tube trouble.
7 IS Courtesy of C. FIELD TRANSMITTER .B.S.
He picks up the program with this receiver which connected to a telephone line in the is club house.Modern Radio to fit into luggage or trunks. The amplifiers are built into the same unit or into a separate portable unit. portable control are equipment which is is built into a suit- case is used. These units are usually designed to handle four or eight microphone positions. The control panel has a volume indicator mounted on and a receptacle for plugging in headphones. A short wave antenna is used to transmit the is program to the club house where another engineer stationed with a short wave is receiver. The amplifier unit supplies the signal to the 5 watt portable transmitter. This equipment operated either by batteries built into the unit or by local power. The telephone line carries the program to the master 92 . is A portable short wave transmitter in his mounted on the tractor. so it can be carried or shipped. Another cable connects the unit to a telephone line. and if then the pickup requires additional equipment. The microphones are equipped with long rubber cables which plug into the control equipment. facilities For dance bands. and the commentator carries hand a small microphone connected by means of a long microphone cable to an amplifier unit. In a good many cases no telephone facilities are available. broadcasting where telephone available. and the program monitored with head- phones. the sports commentator follows the players around on a tractor. For instance. This receiving unit equipped with a volume control is and volume indicator. we are covering a golf match. The engineer can stand the panel on a table and listen to the program it with the headphones.
who is equipped with a receiver as well as his transmitter.B. Descriptions of large planes on their maiden voyages have been broadcast. BROADCASTING FROM A PLANE This is used so that the engineer at the club house can communi- cate with the engineer in the field.Master Control Room control room where it is connected to the line going to the main transmitter or to out-ofrtown stations. This 93 . In cases of quite a distance before it is this type the program must be sent re- picked up and re-broadcast. Usually a second transmitter is used for this type of pickup. Courtesy of C.S.
Modern Radio quires a much larger short wave transmitter. and it must have a considerable amount of portable equipment. One hundred watt transmitters have been used for this purpose. ranging in size from a three watt transmitter hundred watt unit. 94 . The department pickups is known in a broadcasting station that handles remote as the field department. There may be as many or as ten portable short wave to a transmitters. and twenty more short wave receivers.
We will now find out what the transmitter does to these signals and how they are radiated by an antenna system. broadcasts on a different carrier wave frequency. in any one locality.000 cycles per second.600. The method that is used for coupling the microphone signals 95 . how they are amplified and sent over telephone lines to the transmitter. The main function of a transmitter is to generate a powerful wave which brings the sound wave frequencies to your receiver. The frequencies used for the carrier wave for commercial broadcasting may be anywhere between 550. This prevents stations from interfering with one another.VIII The Broadcasting Transmitter HAVE already discussed the way in which sound WE carrier is waves are changed by the microphone into electrical waves of the same frequency.000 cycles and 1. This carrier wave has a frequency of its own which is generated by the transmitter. Usually each transmitter. The frequency of the carrier wave much higher than the audio frequencies generated by the micro- phone.
M. will be discussed later on. The newer type. the ANTENNA CARRIER WAVE MODULATED BY SOUND WA V E AUDIO WAVES FROM STUDIO TO TRANSMITTER CARRIER WAVE DEVELOPED BY TRANSMITTER DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW MICROPHONE CARRIER WAVE SIGNAL AFFECTS frequency modulation (F. often called staticless radio.).Modern Radio to the carrier wave determines is the type of transmission. Ampli- tude modulation (A.M. The 96 . The transmitter generates a powerful carrier wave and also amplifies the microphone signal (audio signal) coming from the studio. The transmitter then combines the carrier wave and the audio signal by a method known as amplitude modulation.) and is the type we will method most widely used today discuss in this chapter.
approximately 186.000. rier is pure tone of 1. In radio work.000 miles a second. The power of is the wave by fluctucarrier wave is called amplitude. dissipated into space travels at the velocity of light. the wave power. This is the reason why this type of transmission called amplitude modulation. called audio signals. To review: the microphone converts sounds of various frequen- cies into electrical impulses of the same frequency. are sent over telephone lines to the transmitter. the velocity is usually expressed in meters per second ity in this case the veloc- being 300. then the car- wave varies in power at the rate of 1. where they are coupled to the carrier ating the carrier wave power. for example. is fluctuated at the frequency of the original sound wave. The carrier wave. The line that carries this carrier wave to the antenna system is called that it is a transmission line. large transmitters are 97 . is delivered to it The antenna actually radiates the energy by the transmitter. when by an antenna system. After the carrier wave has been generated and modulated by the audio signal. it travels over wires to the antenna system. If the original sound.000 cycles per second. These im- pulses.000 cycles per second.The Broadcasting Transmitter electrical circuits in the transmitter are designed so the audio signal varies the carrier In other words. This is power of the carrier wave called modulation. Small broadcasting transmitters may only supply the antenna system with a few hundred watts of power.000. The to electrical power that a transmitter is capable of supplying an antenna system determines how far away your receiver can be from the transmitter and still produce satisfactory reception.
B.I Courtesy of C. NEW YORK. TRANSMITTER CONTROL DESK .S. WABC.
You have read how radio tubes can be used to change alternat- ing current to direct current. it might interfere with other transmitters. This unit is called an oscillator." By connecting the output and the input of an amplifier tube in an electrical circuit containing other elements. and when a crystal 99 . Naturally. The circuit also used for creating these frequencies is called an oscillator circuit. at the re- Varying frequency would also cause poor reception ceiving end. The plate of a vacuum tube is usually called the "output" the grid of the tube being the "input. depending on the other elements in the circuit. if the frequency should vary. The transmitter not only must generate an alternating current of the proper frequency for the carrier wave but it must also maintain the frequency within narrow limits. is made to oscillate the current will keep fluctuating between the input and output at a certain frequency. Though mitters the electrical circuits may be different. circuits. There are many different types of oscillator but the type used in broadcast transmitters for producing the carrier wave is called a crystal oscillator.000 to 50. A three-element tube.000 watts of power. all and types of tubes in various transthe fundamental operating principles re- main the same for amplitude modulation transmitters.The Broadcasting Transmitter capable of supplying from 10. can it be arranged in an electrical circuit so that will produce alternating currents of various frequencies from direct current. the current in the circuit that is. Actually the carrier crystal wave frequencies are created by a vacuum tube and the is used for controlling the frequency.
the crystal will vi- brate mechanically with considerable amplitude at a certain fre- quency determined by the thickness of the at crystal. If an alternating current is applied.000 cycles per second. These frequencies may seem 100 . would say 550 kilocycles and 1. The frequency at which the crystal vibrates determines the frequency which the oscillator operates. provided the temperature of the crystal crystal is enclosed in a metal container is kept constant. The Federal Communications Commission is assigns the frequency at which each transmitter allowed to broadcast.M. So 88 on your receiving set dial would mean 880 kilocycles. so you kilocycles. The and an keep the electrical heater element and a thermostat are used to temperature constant. so that there will be no interference between transmitters.600 numbers generally used on receiving zero is These are the though the last usually left off for convenience. Thus by selecting properly cut crystals of the right thickness the frequency can be controlled within very narrow limits. broadcasting is between the frequencies of 550. The frequency to band assigned commercial A.000 cycles and 1. crystal that is used to control this oscillator is a quartz it is The crystal.Modern Radio is used in the circuit to control the frequency of the oscillations called a crystal oscillator. The carrier wave produced by the transmitter is at a single fre- quency though microphone this varies slightly when it is coupled with the signals.600. The same Commission also assigns bands of frequencies that may be used for each type of broadcasting. The word kilocycles is usually used for these frequencies. set dials.
In transmitters can supply 50. the plate is set in a water jacket through which cool water constantly circulates. Large. For this reason a coil of pipe is made out of some non-conductive material used to connect the water circu- 102 . frequency modulation. grid. so if is a poor con- the column of water to is long enough between the water jacket and the connection in the circulating system. the modulated carrier wave must be quite powerful. The other end fastened to a glass bulb through which the filament. both the wave and the microphone signal go through several stages of amplification. and television. little or copper water pipes no current can be carried back to the water system. used. the plate is at the When a water cooling sys- tem at is made is in the form of a copper tube closed one end. Water or air is used to keep the plate proper operating temperatures. powerful vacuum tubes are used throughout the transmitter to accomplish the nec- essary amplification. but actually they are low in comparison with the frequencies assigned to international broadcasting. Pure or distilled water ductor of electricity. Large broadcasting to the antenna system. When the tube is placed in the transmitter.Modern Radio high. In order to cover a large area with a transmitter. and plate connections are made. The grid is also tubular in shape and fits inside of the plate with the filament fitting inside of the grid. The large amounts of electrical energy passing through the plate (anode) of the tubes if would cause excessive temperatures they were not controlled.000 watts (50 kilowatts) of modulated carrier wave producing a carrier wave of this power.
or tantalum.C. In place is of the water jacket. two separate power feeders with an automatic changeover and a Diesel or gas engine generator as a standby unit. so if trouble occurs in the tubes that are operating. great care is taken in the design and construc- tion of commercial transmitters.Modern Radio lating system to the tube water jacket. When usually air is used for cooling the plate of the tube. a collar substituted containing radial coolfins ing fins. A stream of cool air passes through these usually at the rate of several hundred cubic feet a minute. large transformers and rectifier units are needed. where the power lines are carried on telegraph poles. The plate current necessary to operate these tubes may run as high as 20. without even slight interruptions. a new one may be switched in. The dimensions of this transformer would be approximately 4 by 5 by 9 feet.000 cubic feet of air a minute for cooling the tubes. These transformers are usually kept in a separate vault at the rear or in the basement of the trans- mitter building.000 pounds. A 50 kilowatt air-cooled transmitter may require as much as 10. In a great many cases extra tubes are mounted in the various units. This is necessary because the transmitters are usually located in the country. is of vital importance.000 volts D. As continuous service. In order to supply the different voltages necessary to operate these tubes. carbon. Quite often these large transmitters also have three sources of power avail- able switch. the plate is made out of molybdenum. The modulation transformer which is used in the output of the modulating unit may weigh as much as 16. 104 .
NOTE WIRING AND WATER-COOLED TUBE .S.000 WATT TRANSMITTER. INSIDE OF 50.B.Courtesy of C.
The engineer is it a highly trained ally spot the trouble before man and can usubecomes serious. This might seem peculiar. This equipment is is made automatic. and automatically records the time of the interruption and it how long lasted. and severe snow- storms which at times cause the service to be interrupted. The transmitter engineer is usually equipped with a control desk which contains a volume indicator (for checking the volume of the incoming microphone signals).Modern Radio and are. transmitter controls. and a microphone for making local an- nouncements. not only can detect trouble but also can usually tell is He what part it. on the contrary. The fact that this equipment is supplied does not mean that transmitters go off the air very often. failures rarely occur. (among the hundreds of parts) in the transmitter causing 106 . therefore. He can detect trouble when the aver- age person would think everything was functioning perfectly. and if to listen for defects only. exposed to lightning. clock. At certain intervals of time. he checks the meter readings on all of his equipment to see that everything tioning properly. He listens to his you asked him what the program was about he probably would answer that he was not listening to the program. ice. but he has trained his ear monitor loud-speaker. for the transmitter engineer too busy locating and removing the trouble to keep a record of the "outage" time. indicating lights. is func- Often transmitters are equipped with an automatic alarm sys- tem which rings a bell if the transmitter goes off the air.
Also to sometimes necessary is. they are coupled proper antenna system and are dissipated into space. They will then travel to the receiving sets within range. make the antenna system directional that to make it cover a great territory in certain directions. After the transmitter has generated and modulated the TRANSMITTERS to the powerful carrier waves. comparison with their height that you wonder what holds them up. Perhaps you have also noticed that the heights 107 .IX Broadcast Antennas are next to the last step in the transmission of radio waves. These are the fundamental problems behind designing an antenna system. or more into the air. As you probably mean any wire that to dissipate it is realize. the is proper antenna system does not strung between two poles. first An efficient anit tenna system must be designed for the frequency is going and then for mechanical strength and economy. 600 feet. You may have so thin in seen the tall broadcast transmitting antennas (radiators) stretching 500 feet.
The carrier wave. ond you only need it to know the frequency of the wave com- to determine the distance travels before a single wave is pleted. it is necessary to after it know more about the carrier wave. As radio waves travel at the rate of 300. The length it wave depends entirely upon the length of time takes to generate a single wave.000. This is the wave length. also that some transmitters use one tower. it three.000. and others The number of radiators used determines whether the directional or not. sys- tem is which operates. some two towers.Modern Radio of the antenna systems vary for different transmitter stations . If The height determines the frequency at you knew the exact height of an antenna system. The time that the distance it takes to gen- wave determines travels before the is wave is completed. The length of this wave plays an important part of the in the design of the antenna system. As an example. first is if a single wave dissipated by an antenna system. In other words. we will select a 1. you probably could estimate the frequency at which the station is operating. usually thought of as a radio wave. is has been dissipated into space by an antenna system. As an example.000 meters per secin space. is This means that the frequency of the carrier wave 108 1. the part of the wave travels a certain disit tance before the wave erate a single completed.000 kilocycle carrier wave. the length of the wave the distance a single wave travels in space while it is being formed. the time it As the frequency of the wave determines takes to generate a single wave it also determines the is wave length. In order to understand how antenna systems operate.000 .
soo c. The shape and dimensions of the tower also play an important 110 .4 feet) probably would have a tower approximately 496 feet high. string is The length of a piano one of the primary factors de- termining the frequency at which the string will vibrate and the /soo crufS 1000 c.000 meters by the wave frequency. HOW LENGTHS OF TUNING FORK AND HEIGHT OF frequency of the sound wave a similar principle generates.000.Modern Radio cycles per second. broadcast made %. IOOO /(C. or % of the length of the carrier wave they will broadcast. which they will radiate towers are For this reason. This means that a station operating on a wave length of 300 meters (983. In this case the answer would be 300 meters which is the wave length at this frequency. ^. or about one-half the wave length of the carrier wave. we get the length of a single wave. J5OO KC. carrier Now if we divide 300. &OO KC. Radio towers RADIO TOWERS BOTH GOVERN THE RADIATED FREQUENCIES it work on their length determining the frequency at efficiently.
B. NEW YORK.S. TRANSMITTER BUILDING AND TOP HAT ANTENNA .Courtesy of C. WABC.
tower (radiator) results are also one of the most though good obtained from tapered self-supporting towers. The bottom of the tower is to bot- pivoted on a single point. the charge may build up until it flashes across the base insulator or at some other point just before where equipment may be damaged. Quite often thunder storm. a static electricity flash across the is The charge 112 often so heavy that it can be heard blocks away. or welded together. the tower can be made less than a % or ^ wave length by adding a flat top to it. . The uniform cross-section guyed radiator is a tower made up of reinforced steel sections bolted.Modern Radio part in the way a tower radiates. The tower has the same cross-sectional dimensions from top tom. and lightning gaps are provided is to drain off the lightning or static electricity that gathered during a thunder If the static electricity is not drained off. is A uniform cross-section guyed efficient types. you can hear the insulators in the guys. insulator. It has been discovered that by adding a flat piece to the top of the antenna the height of the tower can be reduced. Large guy insulate the guys from the tower. These antenna systems are usually insulated from the ground by a huge storm. Antennas to which this flat top have been added are called top hat radiators. is The carrier wave energy usually fed into the bottom of the tower and the entire tower radiates or acts as an antenna system. In other words. The in- tower is kept in its vertical position sulators are used to by guy wires. Some of the latest towers are built in this fashion. riveted.
Wet soil is a better conductor HOW TRANSMITTING ANTENNA RADIATES GROUND AND SKY WAVE of electricity than dry soil. is Each approximately the length of a half wave. Ground waves travel over the surface of the earth. The sky wave travels upward until it strikes the ionosphere which bends it back toward the earth again. and sky waves travel at an angle toward the sky. This is the reason you often see trans- mitters placed in low wet soil or swamp land. is The ionosphere is an ionized region. the lower part of which 113 .Broadcast Antennas to The antennas usually have a ground system consisting of 90 120 radials made of copper wires buried around the antenna. this The waves radiated from an antenna system of divided into two types kind are ground waves and sky waves. is The type of ground on which a radiator important part in its located plays an operation.
wave plays an important part in sky wave transmission as you will learn in the chapter on short wave international transmitters. This is the reason why you get better long distance reception at night and can hear stations you cannot pick up dur- ing the day. the ionization and the waves are returned to the earth. This is because the ionosphere region which affects the carrier waves used for commercial broadcasting sun radiation during the daytime. The amount of energy dissipated near another tower which into space is by 50 kilowatt transmitters is considerable. as the sky wave signals are quite weak. depending upon the time of day and season of the year. consists of several layers of ionization Their height is affected by solar radiation. ized. During th when the sun's rays is less are not acting upon the ionosphere. ionosphere.Modern Radio approximately 70 miles from the earth's surface. The ionosphere and these layers vary in height. so very night. During the day the ground wave signals are the ones usually picked up by a receiver. If a radio tower is being constructed difficulties are enoperating^ great 114 . it is it is highly ionized by the highly ionlittle When this region is absorbs most of the carrier wave energy. These use the sky waves exclu- sively. The frequency of the radio. of returned to the earth. in the The ground waves which we pick up for good daytime do not travel a great distance before their intensity becomes too weak During the night the sky waves become stronger and cover a greater distance as they return from the reception.
and RENI Newsphoto Service WTOP.B. WASHINGTON. TRANSMITTER STATION AND THREE TOWER DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA SYSTEM .S.Courtesy of C.
picking up the energy radi- ated by the other tower. When eral a small transmitter wants to increase its power. The ing cables act as a receiving antenna. in order to eliminate the possibility of interference with another near-by station operating on approxi- mately the same frequency. Without a directional antenna. There are numerous types of directional antennas and they vary a great deal in construction. but uses a directional antenna system this difficulty is if one of them eliminated.Modern Radio countered. the two stations would interfere with each other. you can. 116 By varying . even though there is no electrical connection between the tower under construction and the one operating. The current steel cable burns rather than shocks. The directional effect of this type of antenna is accomplished the by using two or more properly spaced radiators. If a is hanging from the tower under construction allowed to rest against a piece of metal on the ground. depending on what frequency band they are designed for and the purpose for which they are to be used. when the cable a half or quarter wave length The men handling at these frequencies the cables often receive burns. actually hear the program from the other tower as the sparks arc across between the two pieces of metal. Large steel cables which are used for hoisting materials may be burned steel hoist- through by the electrical energy that they pick up. This is is particularly true long. the Fedit Communications Commission often requires to use a direc- tional antenna system. Here we will only discuss the directional antennas used for commercial broadcasting.
by the time it travels ^4 of a wave length to reach tower B. Let us look at a two-tower directional antenna system and analyze what occurs. Then the waves are one hundred and eighty degrees out of phase. This causes the waves to cancel one another.000 kilocycle carrier wave which has a wave length of 983. the energy that is radiated by the anto cover just the tenna system can be controlled. is it is said to be ninety it degrees out of phase. If the carrier wave starts from tower A 1/4 of a cycle late. Going back to the 1. If the carrier wave reaches tower B after it % of a cycle has reached tower A.85 feet from tower B. directional antennas can also extend the coverage in other areas. This station is located near the sea coast. is The antennas are usually arradiated inland and up and down The directional effect is accomplished by using two or three towers that are properly spaced. Therefore we will set tower 245.4 feet is 245. feet. particularly true when the ranged so the carrier wave the coast line. it can be made desired areas. The way the carrier wave is fed to the towers also affects the directional characteristics. If there a half cycle difference is one hundred and eighty degrees out of phase. let us work out the spac- We first want to space them ^4 wa ve length A ^4 of 983. traveling toward Now 117 the A starts ^ of a cycle ahead of the wave leaving tower B and wave leaving . apart.4 ing on the towers. so little or no energy is dissipated in this direction. it is a half cycle late.Broadcast Antennas spacing between the towers. Beside eliminating the coverage in certain areas. Naturally it is a great advantage to be able to is make the energy radiate in certain directions.85 feet.
WAVES ADD WAVES CANCEL PLAN SHOWING DIRECTIONAL EFFECT HOW DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA SYSTEM FUNCTIONS .
when designing radio engineers who specialize into account in this field can calculate the radiation of a given antenna system and predict within will be in fairly close limits just how strong the signal any locality within range of the transmitter. and they must be taken an antenna system. Of course. vari- ous directional affects can be produced. 119 . By the time it reaches A it has lost its ^4 cycle lead. large bodies of water. so the waves are now leaving tower in step (phase). and other geographical conditions affect the radiation. By varying the spacing or changing the phasing or both. mountains.Broadcast Antennas A. Nevertheless. This adds energy to the wave is A and the carrier wave strong in this direction.
Today most still of these people have no idea how a radio receiver functions and have long up thinking about it. it and the radio wave goes through several changes before reproduces the sound wave again. Practi- cally all of the transmitters in any one locality use a different is filled frequency for their carrier wave. These vari120 . they first radio re- marveled at them and racked their brains YEARS wondering how they worked. but this machine is actually one of the greatest and most fascisince given nating developments of our time. each carrying a different program. So the space around us with carrier waves. Today they accept their radio as a machine that brings high quality reception to their homes.X Broadcast Receivers ago when people purchased their ceivers. You have rier already learned how the electrical sound this wave (audio car- signal) modulates the carrier wave and how modulated wave is dissipated into space by an antenna system. Any radio receiver contains many electrical circuits.
So. so that the moving is its plates pass between the sta- tionary plates. you turn the dial on your reyou change the value of the condenser and tune the cir121 . you will notice that every other plate rotates. The first step is to select the desired carrier wave from It the vari- ous carrier waves that your antenna system picks up.Broadcast Receivers ous carrier waves are picked up by your receiving antenna and fed into your receiver. There are several taining it stages. to adjust the variations in the intensity of the different signals. and as you capacity. and to separate the audio signal from the carrier wave. as ceiver. Broad- cast receivers have a variable condenser for tuning This condenser is this circuit to the desired frequency. con- vacuum tubes which the signal must pass through before can supply your loud-speaker with the proper audio signal. As you turn the dial. you have probably noticed that the tuning dial mechanically con- nected to a device which consists of a stack of semi-circular metal plates. If you have ever looked at the inside of your radio is set. or circuits. circuit. is called the resonant frequency of this By varying the values of one or that more elements it is in this you can change the frequency tuned to. This affects the electrical you vary characteristics of the circuit. This circuit. has been discovered that a circuit containing a coil of wire and a condenser connected in series will cause the current flow to be greater at a certain frequency. the job your radio receiver has is to select Now rier the proper car- wave when you turn the dial. mechanically con- nected to the tuning dial on your receiver. This unit rotate the plates a variable condenser.
you "have tuned your set to 800 which is the fre- our OF TOWN STUD/ TRANSMITTER DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW PROGRAM TRAVELS FROM TO RADIO RECEIVER STUDIO quency of the station you desire.Modern Radio cuit to various frequencies. When the dial on your receiver reads kilocycles. 122 . This first stage is called the radio frequency section of the receiver. 80.
This presents a problem. you are also tuning the circuit that pro- duces currents of various frequencies. as that will increase the cast frequencies. The second stage in your receiver does just this it takes the frequency produced by it the oscillator just described and superimposes on the carrier wave selected to produce a third frequency. The quency of the current generated by this circuit is also controlled by a variable condenser. your receiver has an electrical circuit containing a vacuum tube which changes any selected carrier wave into a single pre-determined frequency. quite simple to design amplifiers operate at a single frequency. When two frequencies join in a is circuit. This third frequency the dif- ference between the two frequencies. as it is too weak at this stage for the audio signal to be extracted from the carrier wave. This variable condenser is usually on the same shaft with the tuning condenser. so as you tune to select the station you desire. Because of this.Broadcast Receivers After you have selected the carrier wave you desire by tuning. This new frequency lost. It to set is. an odd thing happens is a third frequency produced. it is necessary to amplify the signal. it is quite difficult to design an amplifier at the various broad- volume equally well however. 123 . it pro- duces a third frequency of 100 kilocycles. If an alternating current of 300 kilocycles is superimposed on a 200 kilocycle wave. is still modulated so the audio sig- nal has not been This is the way your receiver functions in order to change the frequency of the carrier wave: ceiver oscillates A vacuum tube circuit in the refre- and generates an alternating current.
loud-speaker and a microphone accomplish the opposite re- The loud-speaker produces sound waves from 124 the electrical . A sults. beat frequency the oscillator is still is 100 kilocycles. The difference between these two frequencies is is 100. as both tuning condensers are on the same shaft. it it has served purpose so may be canceled. A tube. which of your receiver. what happens. acting as a recti- changes the alternating current of the beat frequency to direct current. leaving the audio modulation which will fier. now your audio signal and. using arbitrary figures. and our beat frequency 100 kilocycles. and it it is used your receiver because is more readily amplified. This rectifier tube called the second detector and the first audio stage of your re- ceiver. kilocycles. so our kilocycles. The beat frequency contains the same modulation as the original carrier wave and may now be amplified by the use of an amplifier tube. Regardless of what frequency we select. If we tuned to 600 tuned at 500 kilocycles. later become a sound wave. when can be made to drive a loud-speaker which is produces the sound wave. We turn the dial to 80 and we have tuned 800 been At the same time the oscillator has automatically tuned to 700 kilocycles. is and leaves only the audio modulation. we will tune a radio. The audio modulation it amplified again.Modern Radio This third frequency in is called the beat frequency. As an and see in example. is called the intermediate frequency section Now its that the beat frequency has been amplified. Most sets manu- factured today operate on this principle. the beat frequency will always remain the same.
Many sets have tuning indicators. When sets are designed for both commercial broadcasting and short wave. is usually checked by the engineers of that particular a field-car equipped with a special antenna sta- They use and measuring equipment.Modern Radio impulses that are supplied to it. and gadgets added to the such as automatic volume control circuits which circuits sig- maintain a constant volume level even though the incoming nal may vary or fade in volume. in which the luminous area varies as you tune in different stations. There are also many other modern radio set. While there are a great many variations you understand these fundamentals you really know how a ing set operates. either electrical or mechanical. receiv- The carrier waves reaching your receiver naturally vary in The variation depends upon how powerful the station is and how far it is removed from the receiver. The strength of each strength. The microphone changes sound in receiving sets. the transmitter and plot field intensity These field intensity charts look a great deal like contour indi- maps. with irregular lines drawn around the transmitter to cate the intensity of the carrier wave at each location. they contain an extra set of tuning coils which are usually connected in the tuning circuit by means of a switch. signal tion. Sometimes this is a small cathode-ray tube. A great many sets today also include an automatic tuning device. if waves into electrical impulses. They measure the strength of their carrier wave for miles around charts. This allows you to tune your set to a higher band of frequencies called 126 .
your radio dealer will probably help you. to If you would like to make some of these additions If your the set. frequency modulation. This audio section in your set can be used for many purposes. him to make and model number he will tell you give you where make the necessary connections. Of course. and you can have a public address system. television. you can purchase receivers today which are comcovering commercial broadcasting. police calls. of the set. pickup into the audio amplifier section of the set and cut out the radio frequency section by means of a switch. 127 . These shorter wave bands are used for international broadcasting. for example. A microphone can be connected in the circuit at this point. They are really two or more sets built into and some of the tubes are used for more than one purpose. The radio and phonograph combinations feed the phonograph one. frequency modu- and television. pro- viding you have a recording-head on the pickup arm of your phonograph. and other types of communication.Broadcast Receivers short wave. bination sets lation. to utilize the It is also possible in some sets audio section for recording your own records.
As you more about F.M. This transmitter generates a carrier wave which quite different from the carrier wave we have previously discussed.XI Frequency Modulation day more people hear about frequency modulation (F.) and every day its popularity is increasing. power plants. it is necessary to turn the re- While certain static suppressors have been developed 128 . elevator ma- chinery. etc. At times this distortion of the signal becomes so objectionable that ceiver off. new type receivers.M. street cars.M. day commercial One of the main diffi- is that static resulting from storms. distorts the program con- siderably on the receiving end. field realized that present it For years the radio broadcasting was not all that culties with it could be. The radio EVERY stores in most of the large learn cities have sold a great will find many F. you that not only a new type is of receiver has been developed but a of transmitter required for is its use. Probably the easiest way to break the ice on this new development in radio is to discuss the reasons for its development..
The below 10.M. Once you it hear good reproduction you realize what a great difference can make.C. excellent reproduction can be accomplished. complish to this. F. juggling keys are very difficult sounds to reproduce because a great deal of the sound is in the high fre- quency range. For this reason F. The best A.000 reason for this is that voice frequencies are well 129 . When you hear an orchestra reproduced by F.. While this is a wider range than most inexpensive is still receiving sets can reproduce there room for improvement. (Amplitude Modulation) transmitters operating on the frequency band allowed them by the F.C. The second weak spot in present day broadcasting is the audio frequency range. whereas in systems that do not realistically reproduced that you feel as if have good frequency response the sound is muffled in comparison. is invaluable to music lovers. transmitter and receiver can acMany public F. Sawing wood. can only cover an audio range of approximately 50 to 10.M. planing wood.M. By going up to 15.M.000 cycles in the audio frequency range both on the transmitting and receiving end. this greater frequency range does not make a great deal of difference as far as soap operas and comedies are concerned. How- ever.000 cycles. you can pick is out the various instruments and each most distinct. good F.M. There are crispness and good definition in the sounds reproduced.M. At these demonstrations such sounds have been so you were in the room where the sound originates. demonstrations have been given this A show what improvement means to the listener. does eliminate practically all static.Frequency Modulation for standard receivers they have not been too successful.
is it While F. is so there a slight advantage even for these types of shows. In some localities where there are mountains near by.M. therefore. the greater the range of the transmitter. This limitation occurs because of the ultra-high frequencies that are used for the F. The antennas different that are used for these short waves look entirely There are many from the A. transmitters and antennas are usually located on the top of the tallest building in a city. The higher the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are. .M. carrier wave. travel in a straight line and they can be that light is. they are used for the transmitting point.M. definite advantages. sound effects and background music will sound better. fre- quency of the signal determines its characteristics. the receiver must be closer to the transmitter. broadcasting 130 radiators. broadcasting. has tions. reflected or refracted in somewhat the same way As these ultra-high frefol- quencies (short waves) travel in a straight line. Of course. The is. that a 500.M.M.000. For this reason F.000.Modern Radio cycles. they do not low the curvature of the earth the way the lower frequency ground wave does to in A. These waves cycles.M. nothing is gained by the high frequency range. This limits the distance between the transmitter and the receiver because of the curvature of the earth. For this reason it is necessary have the receiving antenna within the line of sight of the trans- mitting antenna.000 cycle wave.000 mega- and as the carrier wave gets closer to this frequency its behavior becomes quite similar to that of light waves. Light has a frequency of about 500. also has some limita- one of which that for F.- 000 cycle carrier wave behaves differently from a 80.
With a 10 kilowatt or 50 kilowatt transmitter and a good antenna system located on top of a 40 or 50 story building. The elements on some form a square. additional travel in the reflect the signal that would otherwise wrong direction. good F. This reflected signal also increases the power of the directed wave. but the carrier wave is constantly varying in frequency. While in A. but can be used for any system which operates at ultra-high frequencies. A 50 kilowatt F. What is the difference between amplitude modulation (the type of broadcasting transmitter previously discussed) and fre- quency modulation? The major difference is that the carrier wave in frequency modulation actually varies in frequency while the amplitude remains constant. There are other types that are made up in various forms. This type is also used to a great extent as a receiving antenna. called a two bay antenna system. reception can be had within a 50 or 60 mile radius of the transmitter. trans- it . When a directional effect desired.M. One of the simplest types consists of two short rods about ^4 wave different types of short length long (at these frequencies this may be 3 or 4 feet long) mounted in a horizontal plane. Four bays or more are quite is common elements today.M. it is When two sets of radiators are used one above the other.M. others form a circular arrangement.M. transmitter is always pumping out a 50 kilowatt carrier wave.Frequency Modulation wave antennas and they are usually mounted on a pole even when they are on top of a building. The type of antenna systems just discussed are not only used for F.
C. (67 milfrequency by as much as 75 AMPLITUDE MODULATION CARRIER WAVE FREQUENCY MODULATION CARRIER WAVE DIAGRAM SHOWING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY MODULATED CARRIER WAVE K.Modern Radio mission the carrier wave frequency remains constant but the power is constantly varying at the rate of the audio frequency. transmitter which operates on a frequency of lion cycles) may be varying this 67 M.M. The F. this carrier wave number of cycles then decreases a certain number of cycles and this occurs at a very rapid rate. In order to see what the audio signal does to the carrier wave 132 .000 cycles) plus or minus. The num- ber of cycles by which the carrier wave varies depends on the loudness (amplitude) of the audio signal. That increases a certain is.C. (75.
000. it is plain that the intensity (amplitude) of the carrier wave determines how much the wave varies You probably that every recall its from the discussion on audible sounds sound has own particular frequency.000 cycles that is. it may vary as much as 75. transmitter 133 in this form.000 cycles each side of its normal operating frequency. then the transcarrier wave of 67 M. So original sound in frequency.000 cycles (67 M. Now if we speak microphone in a normal tone of voice.M.M. carrier We first assume the transmitter is operating on a If the wave frequency of 67.). it will change at a back and forth from 67. the carrier wave may only increase and decrease by 10. As the sound we are producing is of a low intensity. we will forget about various amplifiers for the moment to the carrier and see what occurs wave as you talk into the micro- phone. If you speak in quite a loud voice. the frequency of the carrier wave will start to vary. It will in- crease and decrease its frequency rather rapidly.C.990.000 cycles rapid rate and it will keep swinging back and forth as long as we into the produce any sound.010. Let us see what the loudness of your voice does to the carrier wave. of the same frequency by the to the microphone and then go F.Frequency Modulation in F.C. Now if we whisper softly into the into the microphone or whistle very microphone.000 cycles plus and minus. is microphone mitter is not picking producing a up any sound waves. These sound waves are transformed into an electrical signal (audio signal). Now . and as we talk or create a sound we are transmitting air-borne sound waves of various frequencies. the frequency may vary as much as 50.000 cycles to 66.
it will distort to carry its on amplitude variation any carrier wave which relies message. transmitters rely on varying the power of wave to transport the various audio frequencies. determined by the The speed of these audio frequency. any- thing that interferes with the amplitude of the signal will cause distortion. so causes the carrier wave If the orig- vary frequency at the rate of 5.M. So it if static affects the amplitude of the incoming sig- nal. As we have previously one of the benefits gained by is using frequency modulation to transport audio frequencies it that eliminates static on the receiving end.M. carrier wave must also carry these various frequencies your F. The reason static causes distortion is because it varies the receiv- intensity of the various carrier waves picked up by your ing antenna. has little or no effect on the J34 . inal sound was 256 cycles then the carrier wave would vary at the rate of 256 times a second and so forth.- 960. used for transporting them.040.000 cycles and assume intensity that it is of such an causes the carrier wave to fluctuate 40.M. which does.Modern Radio the to is F. The audio freit quency to is its 5.000 cycles changes is at certain rates of speed.000 cycles to 66.000 cycles each side of its normal operating frequency. By picking out sounds of various frequencies we will be able to see quite clearly how the carrier select wave is affected.M. receiver even though a different method from A.000 cycles per second.000 per second. we will it an audible frequency of 5. the carrier As A. So this carrier wave is now changing back and forth from 67. While static will vary it the amplitude of incoming signals. stated. To keep it in round numbers.
This gives you an audio frequency range approximately 5.M. It does not depend on the variations in amplitude So static has little or no effect on it.M.M. however. and A. This is also true of studio microphones. The reason is that people living 100 miles or more from the transmitter would not be able tion to get satisfactory recep- from F. is transmitters can handle. so A. the audio signals have a greater frequency range.M. You might wonder why F. The same type of audio signals used between the microphone and transmitter. F. For F. A.M. the same program can be sent out to both types of transmitters. broadcasting are only good up when the same program is sent to F. not already replaced A. transmitters.M.000 cycles. While F. transmitters the amplifiers have to be transmitters as well as re-designed or replaced by amplifiers capable of this higher fre- quency range.000 cycles.000 cycles using type of carrier wave and still stay within the limits allowed by the Federal Communications Commission. transmitters could be installed all over the country. has broadcasting. It is to carry the audio signal. also possible to transmit audio frequencies this up to 15.M. actually uses the variation in frequency of the carrier wave to carry message.M. reception.M.M..M. but they can get good A. This means the same audio signal can be sent over the telephone lines to both F. The various audio amplifiers used must be capable of reproducing audio frequencies up to 15. Frequency Modulation its frequency of the carrier wave. The amplifiers that are generally used for to 10.M.000 cycles greater than that which A. transmitters.M. unless the 135 . If this is done.
traveling in a straight line similar to light. place A. carrier wave is not affected as much as an F. If it you take a flashlight bulb and connect to a battery without a reflector. for example.M. broadcasting.M. you wanted to send a program to a trans- mitter out of town and you did not want to use the telephone lines.M. F.M.M.M.M.M. may not reoff.M. transmitters have been installed in a good many large cities cities today and they will also be installed in some of the smaller in the near future.M.. has certain is is While A. not affected as much as F. is A link transmitter is a transmitter that used for carrying messages between different points. ground wave is by the terrain. in mountainous regions the A. Moreover. Therefore. it way an A. will not climb over mountains or hills the will. in the The sound as carrier wave is F. but that probably a long way F. A. is also used for link transmitters.M. the light will 136 . affected to a certain extent advantages as far as transmission concerned. is also used today in conjunction with television.M. In tele- vision two carrier waves are used one for the picture and one for the sound. transmitter.M. Of course this does not mean is that F.M. F. transmitter with a special antenna. we will discuss when we cover F. carrier would be.Modern Radio where they are installed the revenue received from advertisers would not be sufficient to pay for their population is fairly thick operation.M. and it functions same way any F. but this still leaves considerable ground to be covered by A.M. directional This type of directional antenna system works in a similar fashion to a flashlight. The picture carrier wave television. in years to come. you could use a low-powered F. If.
for link The antenna system used as the flashlight reflector. F.Frequency Modulation travel in all directions and it will be very if weak this in intensity at any point a few feet away.' it. as the this is desirable. link transmitter located on top of one of the tall build137 . Another type of reflector consists of a curved wire which has short copper wires attached to so that it it at right angles looks like a herringbone. By using this type of an antenna system a low-powered transit mitter can be used and single direction. But you take same bulb and and directed.M.M. In set at some cases two copper screens are to reflect the an angle behind radiator rods energy in the proper direction. transmitters. program to be rebroadcast. There are many ferent types of reflectors. will produce a strong carrier wave in a This type of short wave directional antenna system can also be used for short wave A. This type is called a herringbone reflector. transmitters is usually equipped with a reflector which operates on the same principle The energy is that would normally be produce a concendif- traveling in the trated radio wrong direction reflected to beam in the desired direction. is used for a link transmitter because it eliminates static and other is electrical interference and. One tween of these link transmitters has been used successfully be- New York City and Long Island this is in conjunction with an international transmitter and how the system operates: The program is sent over wires from the studio in the usual fashion to the F.M. This is set behind the radiators to reflect the energy. it put a reflector behind will so the light is collected produce a powerful beam in a given direction.
C.Courtesy of R. M. BAY TURNSTILE ANTENNA SYSTEM . F. 6.A.
M. receiver.Frequency Modulation ings in New York City. is As far as the F.M." The limiter circuit in an F. receiver. the signal being picked up by a short wave receiving antenna.M.000 watt international transmitter which re-broadcasts the program to While this link transmitter has been used successfully. receiver concerned. carrier wave is free from variations in amplitude when the signal leaves the transmitter.M. with their They can then hear monitor speaker and at the same time use Europe or Asia.M. This station picks up the carrier wave of the link transmitter and converts it into an audio signal with the F. These variations in amplitude must be eliminated before the frequency variations are changed back to an audio signal in order to prevent distortion. it is really only used as a standby unit in case of failure of telephone lines. Telephone lines generally are used because they are more reliable and free from interference. One is the "limiter" and the other is the "discriminator. there are two major differences from an A. receiver which is tuned to the frequency of the link transmitter. amplifier circuits in the receiver. The output connected to a directional antenna system which is aimed at the international transmitter located approxi- mately 37 air miles away. the program this signal to feed their 50.M. This international station has an F. wave to vary in and various other things can cause the carrier amplitude. re- ceiver removes any amplitude variation that might be present. While the F. This transmitter tall is is only about three feet square and six feet of this transmitter and its output is only 25 watts. static. This limiter 139 .
140 . is is con- stant and The discriminator the part of the receiver circuit which con- verts the variation in frequency back to the audio signal. which in turn is converted back to a sound wave by the loud-speaker.Modern Radio circuit removes the variations in amplitude so the signal varies only in frequency. The tuning and the audio amplifier in the receiver are similar to those used in standard broadcast receivers.
The development of international playing an increasingly important part in our local. We receive the music and various other forms of entertainment from them and they receive the same from us. The United States has a great number of international trans- 141 . of course.XII International Transmitters transmitters have been used between continents to carry messages for some time. is factor. we from all parts of receive programs all our own country and from over the world. Now. but it was not until the Second RLDIO World War that international broadcasting be- came such an important broadcasting lives. It is important that we know more about peous. ples' lives in these countries and that they know more about International broadcasting brings the important events in other countries to our homes. Faster boats and planes have brought us closer to the various foreign countries. until Only a short time ago radio programs were completely All we heard were programs originating in our own town network broadcasting was developed.
does not follow The only difficulty with the sky wave that the earth's curve but travels in a straight line toward the sky. This is because of short transmitters. As this wave travels along the surface of the earth. One of the major difficulties is that a tremendous amount of power would be required to send a ground wave as far as Europe.that is in contact with the earth's surface dissipates the carrier is rapidly absorbed by the ground. The ground wave that commercial broadcasting uses for transmission follows the curvature of the earth. in other words.Modern Radio mitters operating at the present time. most of them are However. the wave is bent back toward the earth by the ionosphere after it has traveled upward approximately one or two hundred miles. This power is needed to wave rapidly and an immense amount of transmit the wave any great distance. They are sending different types of programs to every part of the world. The causes of the phenomenon and broad - way in which the sky wave is utilized for long range 142 . The international transmitters are quite similar to commercial broadcast transmitters except that they are designed to operate at higher carrier frequencies. This refraction of the sky wave by the ionosphere makes its use possible for long range transmission this between various countries. the part. short wave antenna systems are quite different from the commercial type. Under certain conditions. A sky wave travels away from the earth and can travel it much greater distances before becomes too weak is to it be of any value. wave the frequency at which they operate and the problems involved in long range broadcasting.
<< w 55 < U 2 o ffi o g H c/3 CJ Q o ffi .
The ionosphere really consists of three layers of ionization. It consists of a rarefied gas containing free electrons and ions or electrified particles. The sun's rays act on the particles in the upper air to cause ionization. when the sun's rays act upon it. from the conditions at night when the sun's rays are not present. The lowest one 144 is called the E layer . The ionosphere is an ionized region in the outer portion of the earth's atmosphere. Sun spots also affect the ionosphere.Modern Radio casting are extremely interesting. So naturally the HOW IONOSPHERE IS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING conditions in the ionosphere change considerably during the day. and its behavior is quite different during the time when the spots are active. depending on the time of the day and the season of the year. These layers vary in height.
If the radio sky wave strikes the ionosphere at an angle it will be bent back toward the earth at an angle. Waves of higher frequency pass through the E layer and are turned back toward the earth by the F layers. 145 . is When their course altered by fog. Lower frequency waves are turned back toward the earth by the E layer. and the F-2 layer moves down the locality of the F-l layer. which is approximately two hundred miles from the earth. If the frequency is high enough. But when the proper frequencies are used.International Transmitters and is approximately seventy miles from the earth. the carrier wave will pass through the entire region and will not be returned frequency as high as this tists to the earth may be lost in space. A though some scienit believe that there are other regions which might cause to return. or some other substance. the rays are said object as light rays do to be refracted. They are only reflected when they rebound from an from a mirror. Above this hundred and forty miles up. the F-l layer about one to At night the F-l layer fades. so these two layers become one at night. by these ionized layers. Light rays normally travel in a straight line. The E layer stays in approximately the same location. These layers refract radio waves of certain frequencies. This means that the wave may return at some distance from the transmitter. water. except that they refract the waves instead of reflecting them. depending on the angle of radiation of the antenna system. the ionized layers act similarly to a mirror. This also applies to radio waves. and above is that during the daytime is the F-2 layer.
Of course. This m'ay occur a number comes too weak to be of any value. In this way a carrier wave skips across the country or ocean the way a properly cast stone skips across of times until the signal be- the water.Modern Radio You have sort of thing often seen a stone skip across water when it is thrown in just the right way. the signals may be received at any point along the line where they return to the earth. two. so they tell just what areas will be reached by the return wave. or three times between New York and England. The ionized layer returns same manner as before. Under normal conditions and a low angle of radiation. So these waves bounce back and forth between the earth and the ionized layers of the upper air as they travel around the earth. The ground also acts as a refractor. The angle of radiation determines how many times the wave may skip before it reaches its destination. The same happens to a carrier wave. Engineers have perfected long range radio communication to a high degree. on during the day or night just to They know wave what kind of an antenna system will radiate the sky proper angle. For continent to continent transmission various frequencies are 146 . when it the wave has been refracted downward by to the earth again in the is bent back towards the ionosphere again by it the earth. They know can just what beam width the antenna tem will have. and the ionosphere. ate They know just what frequencies they must operaccomplish certain results. these waves may skip one. so that it at the will return to the earth in the sys- right locality. Sometimes it skips several times.
thus compensating for the ionosphere movement. However. We if will assume for the moment that this so proportioned that the beam reaches the floor at the far end of the room. By changing the carrier wave frequency. you . depending change the angle of radiation to compensate for the movement of the ionosphere. If you can imagine a large room with you stood at one end of this room and at the. This to shift the it limits the frequencies that can be used on a given antenna system to a narrow band of frequencies. such as the ^ or ^ wave length broadcast antennas. In order frequency be- yond this narrow band.International Transmitters upon the time of day and the season of the year. Now of its the mirrored ceiling were moved down a few feet and you kept fall short the flashlight at the same angle. the vertical angle the antenna system radiates at can be changed.ceiling in the center of the this aimed a flashlight beam room. By using more than one antenna system the freto quency can be changed ionosphere. As a small scale example. the beam would former mark. the mirrored ceiling would bend beam back toward room is the floor. radiation is compensate for the movement of the As the frequency is changed. But if you changed the angle of the 147 flashlight. a mirrored ceiling. there is one thing common to all transmitter antennas the length of the antenna system must be some multiple of a wave length. the vertical angle of changed. The antenna systems used for international broadcasting do not look anything like a commercial broadcasting radiator. is necessary to have more than one antenna system. So it is possible to used.
The carrier will wave now fall short of its its mark.Modern Radio could again place the beam at the end of the room. the antenna vertical angle of radiation is fifteen degrees. So the transmitter changes frequencies to lower vertical angle of radiation. In antenna sysas radiators tems of number of wires are used 148 and . a it is called an array. and again the station will covering France and other near-by localities. vertical angle of So the antenna systems must change their radiation as the ionosphere moves. and this is done by changing is frequencies. The program is being received in France and other near-by localities. These antennas are usually of the directional type. As in the case of your receiving antenna. the F-2 layer which at this time. and this may be also require changing to another antenna. As we are using moves down so it is only one hundred and forty miles from the earth. This makes it possible to cover two different areas in different parts of the world with the same antenna system. There are two widely used types of antenna arrays side array the broad- and the end-fire array. a single wire is called an antenna. this type. When more than one wire is used as a radiator. This compensates for the movement in the ionosphere. suppose a transmitter operating in at the morning and feeding an antenna system beamed Europe. We will say the ionosphere is approximately two hundred miles from the earth night falls. some in a single direction. some operate in two directions. At the frequency they are using. For instance. There are types that are reversible so that they operate in one direction and by throwing a switch will operate in the other direction.
with the maximum radiation along the line of the array. known The V is antenna system neither broadside nor end-fire. The reflector consists of another V antenna. This type of array is used as a broadside array. a single curtain tains are used is used it fires in both directions. That the wires are spaced so that the waves cancel each other in cer- tain directions and add in other directions. The curtain array is another type which is used to a greater The wires are arranged in a vertical plane spaced one-half wave length apart. but is this also a popular type.International Transmitters coupled together to produce certain directional effects. and when extent for this international broadcasting. The an- tenna system operates on the same principle as the directional vertical radiators is. From an aerial view. When two cur- one behind the other. dissipated at is The end-fire array just the opposite. it looks like the spine of a fish. sys- There are a number of different arrangements for antenna tems. used in standard commercial broadcasting. is A considerable amount of energy also radiated in the opposite direction and for this reason reflectors are often used back of the antenna. the array being arranged in a horizontal plane. spaced an odd number of quarter- 149 . The maximum radiation with antenna system toward the open end of the V. is length apart direction. to form a curtain. spaced one-quarter wave they form a broadside array operating in a single as a uni-directional antenna system. The fishbone antenna array can be either a broadside or an end-fire array. The array is is called a broadside when the greatest amount of energy right angles to the line of the array. This type of antenna system will operate over quite a broad band of frequencies.
The wires are strung is form a diamond or rhom- bus. The angle of radiation toward the iono- sphere is not determined by tilting the antenna system but by the number of wave lengths used for each side and the angle at the is side of the diamond. This antenna does not require a reflector to increase its directional effect. the far end must be connected to some sort of a device for dissipating the energy which has not been radiated. This is accomplished by switching the transmission line feeding the antenna from one end to the other. the widest part of the V is pointed in the direction toward which you wish the energy to be dissipated. This type of antenna system directional in two planes horizontal and vertical. The energy ates is fed into one end of the diamond and the antenna radi- toward the far end. In a horizontal plane this antenna system directional along the longest dimension of the diamond. In this way a rhombic antenna that is beamed in at Europe it can be reversed to cover Mexico.Modern Radio lengths behind the main antenna. add in the desired direc- This type of antenna is in a horizontal plane. These antennas are usually strung on telegraph poles. to operates similarly to V antenna. The energy is fed into the narrow part of the V. with mounted the phasing arranged so the waves cancel in one direction and tion. Otherwise the antenna system will not function properly. The operating frequency determines the length of the wires and the height of the antenna above ground. When it is daytime Europe 150 . It The rhombic antenna the is another type. As with the V antenna. It can be arranged so that it will radiate in the opposite direction by feeding the energy to the opposite end of the antenna.
International Transmitters is nightime in Mexico. In the first place. These naturally require two outgoing lines to the transmitting station. we must have two studios and two announcers and two groups of actors. Master control must make separate setups for both programs. Each studio is connected by a separate line to the master control room. European time. so this works out well from a program schedule point of view. broadcasting. in the You can broadcast to Europe from ten ico morning to ten at night. So this antenna can be used for a dual purpose. At the transmitter station two complete transmitters will be used and two or more antenna systems. then switch to Mexwhere it is morning. . This is a very brief outline of what is involved in international it. There are many problems involved in international broadcast- ing. we to will follow an imaginary setup from studio to transmitter keep it as simple as possible we shall imagine we are broad- casting in just two languages. we must have announcers and If who can speak French and Italian. in order to cover the various countries you and must broadcast in several languages. Scripts must be written and checked in both languages. If we are going to broadcast to actors France and Italy. To see just what is required. There will also be two groups of operating personnel. the To get a better picture of we will select one of many international transmitters is volved. This station and discuss the equipment inoperated by Columbia Broadcasting System for the United States Government and 151 is located at Brentwood. both broadcasts are to go out at the same time. each one operating on a different frequency.
thus saving the time of tuning and switching antennas. You must be able any one of fourteen antennas to any one of the three transmitters in order to have complete flexibility. You can then switch any program to this radio frequency unit. The antenna switching to switch is quite complicated. transmitter used for international As we have mentioned. This station has a switching system to make this possible. and tune it to the frequency you are going to operate on. A transmitter switching arrangement to makes is it possible to switch any program any transmitter. You can connect the radio frequency section of the transmitter to the antenna system you are going to use next. There also an antenna switch- ing arrangement so the engineers can switch any one of the three transmitters to any one of fourteen antennas. a broadcasting operates on different frequencies at different times. By having complete flexibility in switching. This station has three 50. Y. depending on what country the broadcast is being sent to and the conditions of the ionosphere at the time. be tuned for the particular frequency This is it is done by large adjustable it coils and condensers.000 watt transmitters which can be operated simultaneously. The antennas are spread over a large area. Some of the transmission lines connecting the transmitters to the antenna systems are over a half mile long. This tuning takes place in the radio fre- quency end of the transmitter. N. The transmitter must going to operate on. and it also has an inter- 152 . rapid change-overs can be made. Even when these are power-operated. takes a certain amount of time to change frequencies.Modern Radio Long Island.
locking system so that two transmitters cannot be connected by
mistake to the same antenna. Each
set of switches is
hind a panel board; they are operated by a large hand wheel on
the front of the panel. There are also indicating lights on these
panels so the engineer can
exactly what switching setup
The room where
the transmitters are installed
very large and
rectangular in shape.
transmitter units are installed
on each side of the room, leaving a long corridor down the middle. Each unit is completely enclosed with meters, indicating
and controls on the front panels. On one side of the room the audio equipment is mounted in racks. This consists of audio
amplifiers and measuring equipment which
used to check
quency, modulation, and volume. This
where the telephone
in that carry the studio
program. From here the program
goes to the modulation units which are really nothing but powerful amplifiers for amplifying the audio signal. There are three
of these units on the opposite side of the room. Alongside the
modulators are three exciter units which generate the frequency
for the carrier wave. These contain several crystals for producing the various frequencies needed for this type of broadcasting.
feed the carrier wave frequency to the radio frequency amplifiers
or R.F. units, of which there are three.
capable of producing
50,000 watt carrier waves. Just as
in the broadcast transmitter
already explained, the output of these R.F. units
the audio signal
coming from the modulation
used for this type of broadcasting.
So there are three complete transmitters, each transmitter conthe modulator, the exciter, and the R.F. sisting of three units
switches are located at the end of the
the outgoing lines that feed the various antenna systems are located.
of the various transmitters goes to the antenna
switches at the end of the room. Here,
by means of large rotary
any one of the three transmitters can be connected
any one of the fourteen antenna systems.
for the large
number of antennas
that each one
operates only on a narrow band of frequencies. So in order to
have a large band of frequencies available, more than one antenna
necessary for any given direction. Three antennas are
Europe, for example, to provide various frequencies.
to the east coast of
Three are beamed
South America, three to the
west coast of South America, and three to Central America.
As we have
stated before, the reason for changing frequencies
because of the movement of the ionosphere layers.
ing frequencies the antenna vertical angle of radiation
compensates for the ionosphere movement.
stations usually operate twenty-four hours a
day because of the difference in time between various countries served. At
two engineers are on duty
at all times, not counting the
supervisor. This requires at least three shifts for the twenty-four
These engineers operate from a program schedule which
Courtesy of C.B,S.
ANTENNA SWITCHES USED FOR INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING AT C.B.S. BRENTWOOD STATION
them the time of the program, the country or countries to which the broadcast is to be made, and the carrier frequency that is to
be used. They usually operate only two transmitters at a time.
used as a standby unit. This permits them to
maintain the equipment and
make any necessary
repairs or re-
placement of tubes without interrupting the programs. While
are on the air,
checked. If any
parts have to be replaced or
any adjustments have
work can be done
at this time.
show the method by which programs are changed from one transmitter to another. The program on transmitter #1, which is now being broadcast to Europe, is to go to
the east coast of South America.
the antenna switching system to an antenna
tuned to the proper frequency. The
switch can then be
quite rapidly. This leaves the
mitter off the air and
now be overhauled and
tubes can be changed.
As we mentioned
previously, the individual
units can also be switched, which adds to the flexibility of the
the Pacific Coast engineers are
watt (200 kilowatt) international transmitters to be used principally for Asia and Australia. Because of the greater distance to
be covered more power
number of programs
broadcast simultaneously from the United States
to countries all over the world.
These new powerful international
the areas to which
transmitters will extend
be received directly by the people in the
various countries on their short wave receivers. The programs
can also be picked up by local stations in these countries and
which most of our programs coming
from other countries are received.
This may sound strange. The Federal Communications would Commission didn't want to standardize too soon. new Now scientists have perfected television receivers that can project the picture on a wall and a method for producing the pictures in color. To the bystander progress may seem slow. fearing that obsolete before a year would be was out. and years of research have already been spent on the development of this science. The pictures produced today are sharper and one contain more detail than they did a short time ago. as that 759 . The manufacturers were it afraid to put a receiver on the market.XIII Television Studio along with other electronic developments. In fact. The mechanical method of producing a picture used in a camera is quite different from the electrical method used in television. at ing ahead a rapid pace. but it is true. its of the things that held television back was rapid development. He does not see the many problems that are encountered and how difficult they are to overcome. has made great strides in the last ten years and is still its mov- TELEVISION.
as you have to consider the transmis- sion of the picture as well as the sound. Probably one of the most fascinating and colorful spots visit in to present day broadcasting is the television studio. also the operating principles of the receiver tube for both. It it is is a place where so just many things are going on that is difficult to tell what is taking place. At the same time the entertainment value of the pro- grams will be on the increase. Television broadcasting requires considerably and personnel reason for this in the studio than the is more equipment standard sound studio. but the circuits this principles of a television tube are not difficult to understand. musicals. So one of the reasons was not marketed some time ago was its rapid development. or any other type of performance where the television camera picks up the action directly from the stage and transmits 160 it to your home.Modern Radio have retarded the development of television. Shows where . and more people will be able to purchase them. The size of television studios varies. or the method of transmitting the pic- and their function are rather difficult. depending on the types of shows and the number of "live talent" shows being broadcast daily. The obvious. Live talent shows are dramas. The fundamental operating ture. as more and more sets are sold the cost of protelevision ducing them will decline. Naturally. For reason we shall only discuss the basic operating principles of the cameras for black and white pictures and color. This possible to set particularly true in large studios three sets at the where it is up two or same time. and transmitters will be popping % up all over the country.
live talent is not
used are produced from motion picture film or
television studios that are used for plays
not require the equipment or personnel needed in a large studio
that is equipped to put
on almost any type of show. The largest
television studio in the country
to broadcast either
black and white or colored television pictures. At the present time
the colored pictures are only being broadcast experimentally
cannot be received on the ordinary television receiver. This studio
can televise several different types of entertainment from live
talent shows. It
even possible to have several different scenes
to the other without interruption
and switch from one
wide by 83
feet long, but
designed that one wall can be removed, making a studio 56 feet
feet; the space
can also be divided into three studios ap-
proximately the size of the original one. At the present time the
lighting is arranged for one large acting area
and two smaller
area can be used
dance revues, boxing
matches, or other types of entertainment requiring a large stage.
The smaller areas can be used
or other kinds of shows that do not require as
In television studios large areas are needed outside of the acting area for cameras, lights, and telescoping microphone booms.
The microphone stand or boom
quite different from the type
used in sound broadcasting studios. The reason for this
microphone must be kept out of the picture, and
must be mobile
in order to follow the actors as they
ARRANGEMENT OF TELEVISION EQUIPMENT
the stage. These telescoping
microphone booms are designed
hold microphones over and in front of the actors' heads; at the
same time they can be mechanically controlled
phone up, down, sideways, back, or forward. The bases of the
microphone stands are equipped with large rubber casters so they can be moved easily around the stage. The base is usually four
or five feet high;
contains a vertical telescoping
can be raised or lowered by means of a crank. At the top of is a long horizontal arm which also telescopes.
The horizontal arm' is controlled by pulleys and a floating counterweight which compensates for the microphone and the boom,
extended. The arm, which can reach out across the
stage, is also controlled
by a crank back
at the base.
unit also pivots so the microphone
boom can be swung from
lever rotates the microphone on the end of the the boom-stand
The man who operates
a sound engineer
has been trained for this particular work.
boom man. Standing
at the base of the
microphone he can move
to all parts of the stage
by operating the cranks and
the base of the stand.
always necessary to have the microphone within a few feet
of the actors because the microphone sensitivity at all audible
frequencies depends upon the volume and the distance of the
sound source. Furthermore,
the sound source,
too far from
amplification; this tends also
amplify any foreign sounds caused by cameras being moved,
the shifting of lights, or
by the operating personnel as they move
around the scene.
a uni-directional microphone
usually used. In
an angle of about 45 degrees when
used over and in front of the actors' heads.
in front of the stage.
The microphone booms are operated from This entire area in the form of a semi-circle
in front of the stage
by the operating personnel who are responsible for cameras, spotlights, general illumination, sound, and all other
receive their instructions
manager who in turn receives his instructions from the direcThe director works from the control room which is at one end
of the studio and so situated that
overlooks all three stages.
The control room
about four feet above the stage
This permits the control
at all stage
down through operations. The director
communicates with his
manager over a microphone. The
manager is equipped with headphones, so the instructions he receives from the director are not audible in the studio.
about 40 feet long. Both picture and sound
are monitored here. The sound monitoring
handled in practi-
as in sound broadcasting studios.
difficult, as each
separately. This requires two, three, or
at the controls,
depending on how many cameras are used in the production. For each camera there is a monitor picture tube in the control room.
This picture tube
same type of tube as those used
ing sets. These tubes are set
below the control room win-
B. TELEVISION STUDIO CONTROL ROOM .S.Courtesy of C.
etc. such as brightness. lens to take in the entire stage while they The scenes picked up by these cameras are fed into the control room separately. The picture that each camera is taking appears on the picture tubes in the control room.Television Studio dow. After the introduction. So one picture is a close- up of the couple on the dance floor and the other is a long-shot taking in the entire stage. The control room engineers also take care of camera switching. camera and the To explain camera switching we will start with the cameras on the stage and work back to the control room. we will describe an actual television show in which dancing les- sons were given. who is in charge of all trans- technical operations occurring between the mitter. One camera was set up for close-up work. These adjustments are made by the various electrical controls on the desk. shading. which in turn transmits the picture to your home. By switching in the control room it is possible first to send out a 167 . the wide is angle camera used at the same time to take in the entire action. man taking the lessons and his danc- The second camera was equipped with a wide angle were dancing. the camera that shots is is used for close-up pivoted to follow the dancers around the stage. As an example. to cover the introduction of the ing partner. with the various picture controls on the tubes. They operate un- der the supervision of the chief engineer. The engineer can switch either of the pictures to the outgoing line carrying the picture impulses to the transmitter. This enables the control is flat panels in front of men to see what each camera picking up and to make any adjustments that may be neces- sary.
This used for dance-hall. particularly when outdoor scenes are neces- The projection room. or other types requir- ing a large area. On up the right and left sides of the studio smaller scenes can be set a living room. the is largest set is opposite on the* far side of the studio. scenes can also be taken from previously prepared film. or anything that may be required in the show. The lines that carry the picture impulses from these machines are it is also brought into the control desk to and monitored. They may require a numLooking out from the control room. In fact. Now it is possible to switch action from one scene to another without interruption. the switching between cameras adds interest and gives both an overall picture and interesting details at the same time. In a studio large enough to contain three sets at the same time quite large productions can be handled. the next chapter.Modern Radio close-up of the couple dancing and then a complete picture of the couple and the room they are dancing in. an entire show can be put on from film alone. where the television pictures are taken from film by means of a special camera described in sary in a play. street. When viewed at the television receiver. The cameras and other equipment are then set up in front of these various scenes. So possible make up some of the scenes on film and switch to these at the 168 . is located at the end of the control room. the interior of a railroad train. ber of changes in scene. Beside the pictures taken on the stage. by camera switch- ing in the control room. the cockpit of a plane. or ice-skating scenes. Recording certain scenes on film naturally has great advantages.
and who controls the The camera man actually operates the camera work. the of the camera man or men. who operate under the director. The floor manager is stationed in the stu- dio. and he must know the depth of focus of just the various camera lenses and what areas the various lenses take in. This gives television as much variation as motion pictures have. focuses. lights. The technical manager is in charge of scenes. and must also have a good knowledge of the various types of lenses used changes lenses. this is not true in in television motion picture work. and itself consist The operators on the stage be. usually from the control room where he can check on the outgoing picture and sound. 769 . and is work. props. as the case the technician may dolly man. flexibility in scene In order to control all the various stage and control activities it is room necessary to have quite a large staff of technically trained personnel. when he wants signals the a camera to back to away or move He boom man when it is move the microphone closer to the actor or raise it in danger of getting into the picture area. and directs He motions with his hands into a scene.Television Studio proper time. the lighting. He sets the camera angle. He is also in charge of the talent. boom man. he wears headphones to receive his instructions the various operations with his hands. and communicate with the floor manager. His assistant called the dolly man. The director stage activity. the floor man- ager. He must in this be an expert on photography and lighting. controls all and the sound engineer. the chief engineer.
Modern Radio The camera dolly is a platform. equipped with large rubber The platform can is be moved quickly and silently while a picture this is often being taken. This presents erate a great difficulties. on which the camera casters. the dolly man moves back area. So considerable required to operate the camera dolly. he may move The upon skill in too close and cut out an important part of the picture. and if done to produce trick effects. depending each particular camera. Television work requires a considerable amount of general lighting beside the spotlights. since high intensity lights usually gen- amount of heat. If he too far. filters used for this work absorb a great deal of For this reason. stage area covered the focal length of by each camera lens varies. he may take in more than the stage moves in for a close-up. the heat generated were used for this work on a large it by the bulbs would be actors to so intense that would be almost impossible for the work under them. If ordinary incandescent lights stage. more light must have especially designed ' One of the large broadcasting companies in New York City 170 . Naturally. and knowledge are hand who controls the stage lighting handles quite a problem. Color television The technician or stage requires even more light than black and white. as the color light. lights with- Small television stages can use special incandescent out running into too five or ten times much difficulty. But large stages that require lights. is mounted. a television stage equipped to produce both black and white and colored pictures must have more general illumination than is required for most motion picture work.
W I II .
Modern Radio uses two different types of specially designed lights for their large television stage. of course. Noris mally this is not visible unless an object moving quite rapidly. but flicker at the when used the lights frequency of the current. but there was still a need for additional lighting in certain areas. They use twenty-one lighting units for general illumination and two high intensity units for special effects. since this type of lighting gives more light for power consumed than most others. Beside these. The lights supply 7. Your fingers seem to have a jumpy moThis is called a stroboscopic effect and it eliminated in television. and move your hand must. They designed a fluorescent unit for general illumination.560 watts of general illumination for the stage. and are arranged to form a huge arc slightly in front of and over the acting area. So special fluorescent lights have been designed which operate on direct current and eliminate the stroboscopic effect completely. be sideways very rapidly. you hold your fingers about a foot front of your eyes. Just where the extra light was needed depended on the particular scene. one in front of the other. The reason for arcing these units is for each reflector. are used hung on chains as close together as possible. certain additional spotlights are used for some scenes. Two The tubes. This took care of the general lighting problem. Most this is fluorescent lights operate on alternating current. An entirely different type of light has been developed for this special 172 . Each unit contains twelve 30 watt fluorescent tubes and six reflectors. in away from your tion. units are to concentrate the lights on the acting area. You can detect the flickering if face.
000 watt mercury vapor water-cooled in lights each unit. The tube brass fitting on each end for its made of quartz and has a electrical connection. There is a water inlet on one end and an outlet at the other. kept a good distance from them and high over their heads. when a high voltage light. made in the tube. It consists of a of light mercury vapor water-cooled has been used for other purposes and it light. This unit supplies three thousand watts of high intensity light. The water con773 . sealed at both ends. So each water jacket. is This type efficient. very In order to have lighting flexibility. passed through This produces a very brilliant at it so intense that you cannot look directly for any length of it time without injuring your eyesight. The light is remote controlled. The heat generated by these have to light is placed inside a glass little lights is so great that they be water-cooled or they will burn out or explode. and can be directed at any area of the stage from the control position. The glass water jacket is about three inches long and about one inch in diameter. the hose and electrical is connections are made at each end. is To protect the actors' eyes. It will produce a bad sunburn if you stand under is it for any length of time.000 watt form of a light itself is quite small only about It is two inches long and smaller in diameter than a lead pencil.Television Studio use. The mercury current is inside of this tube vaporizes it. is and it contains a small quantity of mercury. There are three 1. For this reason special glass to used in front of the lights reduce the ultra-violet rays. a special unit was designed for television work. It so that it designed supports the light in the middle of the jacket. The 1.
a glass panel being the open end to reduce the ultra-violet rays. and control wiring. but it is such a small amount it. it does no harm. Since this coil is submerged in chilled water. even for a fraction of a second. This using a water circulating done by pump and is a heat exchanger. the heat from the returning water is is transferred to the chilled water system. The lights are mounted a few inches in front of the reflector and spaced about twelve inches apart. The switch the lights off if the water system fails even for an instant. Probably some current does pass through the water. and the electrical contacts at each end are submerged in the water. The copper coil con- nected to the water line returning from the lights. keeping it at the proper is temperature. 174 . is installed A flow switch cuts in the water system to prevent this. Chilled water a cop- constantly passed through the is tank from the air-conditioning system.Modern Radio stantly flows over the entire lighting tube. the lights would burn out immediately. Each three thousand watt flector lighting unit contains a curved re- about three feet long. If the water-circulating system should fail. is tied in To cool the water and re-circulate the water system is with the control room air-conditioning system. The reflector unit is mounted on a large hollow shaft about three feet long. which houses the flexible water connection. power wiring. The heat is exchanger consists of a small water tank inside of which per coil of tubing. The used over reflector is completely enclosed. Distilled water is used because distilled water a poor conductor of electricity. This why it is called a heat exchanger.
Small electric motors are used to rotate the lights and tip them up or down. one set for turning them on or off. one for twisting them clockwise or counter-clockwise. They can duce strong shadows on a stage wall for certain dramatic The push button controls for these lights are located at the side of the stage.Television Studio Usually two or three of these units are mounted above the stage. 775 . so they may be made to fall on any part of the stage also be turned to proeifects. that requires additional lighting. There are three sets of buttons for each light. and one for tipping them up or down.
the lenses. except that projects the picture on a mosaic screen or plate. for to example. Then you open the shutter and place a piece of dark cloth over your head and the back of the camera. so you can see the ground glass if in semi-darkness. The side that the picture is projected on consists of thousands of small particles of a photo- 176 . The lens system in a television it camera does the same thing.XIV The Television Camera TELEVISION camera in some respects is quite similar THE this to a still picture or motion picture camera. Lenses of this type collect light and project a picture on a light-sensitive film. you will see a picture of the object that is in focus. is This mosaic plate made in layers. You probably have seen photographers do this to check a picture before they insert the film. You can check by removing the back of any ordinary camera and placing a piece of ground glass where the film is normally located. are quite similar those used in all other cameras. This film is later developed through a chemical process to produce a negative picture.
The photosensitive material forms thousands of smalj condensers. ICON OSCOPE CAMERA LENS KINOSCOPE DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW PICTURE SCANNING IS ACCOMPLISHED IN TELEVISION CAMERA AND RECEIVER (Probably it you thought of these as thousands of minute batteries would be easier to visualize. which has been applied to a is mica or insulating The back side of this insulating plate covered with metal. plate.The Television Camera sensitive material. So you now have a picture made up of thousands of elec- 777 . The amount of the charge depends upon the intensity of the light that falls upon them.) These condensers become posiif tively charged when light falls upon them.
referred to as a frame. This is almost double the number of lines used in the earlier is days of television. a second. This type of scanning called interlacing. The iconoscope tube does form of by play- ing a stream of electrons on the photosensitive surface of the plate that contains the picture in the fine electrical particles. if form a Now we want to you could see them they would change this from a picture into a series of electrical impulses. Two is scanning operations. and the reason why the pictures today are sharper and have more definition. and picture. This operation is known as scan- ning. are accomf plished in approximately Vso tn picture field.Modern Radio trically charged particles. is discharged by the stream of electo another These impulses can be amplified and transmitted location. is producing a rush of current through the wire which attached to the back metal plate. If you have ever looked closely it at a picture in the newspaper you. This stream of electrons is played back and forth across the plate in the form of straight lines gradually traveling from top to bot- tom until the surface is covered. Today hundred and twenty-five lines are used to produce the pic- ture. causes it to discharge. As the stream of electrons strikes each electrically charged it particle forming the picture. will find that consists of thousands of small dots of black 178 . The first time the scanned every other line is scanned and this is called a The second scanning covers the lines which were not scanned is the five first time. so that the picture can be transthis mitted to another location. This creates a series of small electrical impulses as each particle on the screen trons.
and white and various shades of gray.
across the picture, starting
each row of dots
were laid in a single
you would have a very long
single line that mainly varied in de-
grees of gray. This line can be compared to the series of electrical
impulses produced by the picture dissector tube
really a long line of electrical impulses passis
ing along a wire and each one of the impulses
a part of a
Going back to the long line of dots, if you were to break this line up and reassemble it in its proper order, you would naturally
have your picture again.
The receiver tube does
simplify the explanation,
are going to leave out for the moment, all intermediate steps
between the camera tube and the television picture tube, and
imagine that these impulses from the camera tube are fed directly
into the receiver tube.
that produces the picture in the receiver is really a
cathode-ray tube, similar to the type described in one of the
This tube shoots a stream of electrons at a
fluorescent screen which covers the large end of a funnel-shaped
tube. This stream of electrons scans the screen in the end of the
same fashion as the camera
electron strikes the
screen and produces a bright spot and as the spot
across the screen
appears to be a white
moved rapidly As scanning the
entire screen only takes a fraction of a second,
eye as a white screen
the intensity of the dot did not
The Television Camera
intensity of the dot is varied, however,
by the impulses
supplied by the camera tube. The varying intensity or brightness
of the spot as each line
scanned produces the picture. In other
words, the camera really breaks the picture up into
and sends these parts out as electrical impulses. The receiver tube changes the impulses back into light and dark areas in the proper
sequences, thus producing a picture.
used as a screen radiates light when the electrons act upon
actually radiates light for a short time after the electron
has been removed. This means that the
not died out completely
part of the picture has
the last line
being scanned. One
called a frame. This
complete scanning operation
the equivalent of one frame of a motion picture.
Synchronizing the scanning with the impulses
portant. If this
were not done the picture could not be produced.
sent out at the
end of each scanning line
being dissected by the camera.
end of each frame. The receiver has an
electrical circuit for selecting these impulses,
line scanning synchronized with the picture impulses
and the framing. The camera tube and other associated
housed in a metal box or container. The lens system
on the front of the camera and the
front of the
designed so the lens
be removed and replaced with other lenses. This
wide angle and other types of lenses
desirable to have the camera quite
close to the scene
and the scene
quite broad. Telephoto lenses
are also used at times for television work. These lenses are used
principally for outdoor work. This type of lens
very useful for
and baseball games where the action
of the better television cameras use a double lens sysset
of lenses projects the picture on ground
glass in the back of the camera. This enables the
see the picture just as
be able to focus the
up for studio
on a pedestal so
can be raised or lowered. Some cameras are
raised and lowered by a hydraulic arrangement.
tipped by means of a long handle fastened on one side of the
handle also takes care of the focusing of some
cameras. In order to
mounted on a
large movable base equipped with large solid rubber or pneu-
can be produced when the
movable. For instance,
platform of a railroad train, the effect of a train actually in motion can be
produced by pulling the camera away while the scene
electrical connections are
made by means
of a long flexible
plugged into the wall outlets around the studio. Another type of television camera is used in connection with
producing television pictures from motion picture film. In this case a motion picture projection machine projects the picture on
the mosaic plate of the television camera tube.
The camera The
mounted a few
feet in front of the projection machine.
jection machine lens system
to focus a picture
the size of the dissecting tube plate directly on the plate of the
tube. Except for this, the
the type that
used in most
motion picture theaters. The camera tube operates on the same
fundamental principles as the camera tube previously discussed.
nothing more than a box that houses the
tube and other necessary electrical parts; the lens system
of the projection machine. In some cases this camera
with wheels which run on tracks. The tracks are mounted on the
wall in front of the projection machines. Grooved wheels on the
camera engage these tracks. This makes it possible to move the camera from one machine to the next one, and so one camera can
be used for two projection machines. If two projection machines
are used, one can be loaded with film while the other
ing. In this
of time between reels.
operator can switch from one machine to the other quite rapidly.
At the same time a technician can move the camera from one
to the next.
The scanning is different for film television cameras, as the number of frames per second used in motion picture work does
not correspond to the framing used in television. Motion pictures
use twenty-four frames per second, whereas television uses thirty
frames and scans each frame twice, producing sixty
second. In order to synchronize the scanning with the film, the
scanned twice and the
B. TELEVISION CAMERA IN OPERATION .S.Courtesy of C.
Film can be used for news events. stage can handle musical shows. film projector is The from the type normally used and is equipped with a rotating shutter which cuts the lights while the film is being moved. or news shots of fires. and synchronizes the and so forth. the third twice and the fourth three times. etc. dramas. boxing bouts. This reduces the number of stages required to produce continuous television shows. etc. animated cartoons. slightly different A The studio equipped to produce pictures from film or an actual stage production can provide quite a variety of entertainment. comedies. producing thirty-six fields. In this way motion picture or television standards do not have to be changed in order to synchronize the projection machine operation with the television scanning. There are twenty-four film frames per second. Television also uses field equipment for remote pickups such as baseball games. news broadcasts. as the film can be used stages are occupied with rehearsals or to fill in when is the when the scenery being changed. dance lessons. twelve are scanned three times. per second (60) as television normally uses. Television requires so casting of sound that it much more equipment than is the broadinto small rather difficult to build it 186 . and various other forms of entertainment. ship launchings. floods. This produces the same number of fields scanning to the film frames. twelve of these frames are scanned twice to produce twenty-four fields. a total of sixty fields per second. This works out very well.Modern Radio second frame three times. tennis matches.
1 w - tf CJ w tf o .
Part of this bus serves as a control room is where the pictures may be monitored. the television mobile unit engineers can watch can operate alongside the the action. main transmitter by a small near the They are then picked up by a receiver main transmitter and re-transmitted to your home. Tripods are usually used for the camera as they are television mobile unit so and easily portable. For this particular work. field so the control The cameras can be located back of home-plate or along the baseline. The mobile picture impulses are sent to the field transmitter. 188 . since the camera cannot be located on the playing field. In the case of baseball games.Modern Radio which can be carried by hand. a long range or telescopic lens picks up the players in the outfield. Small and compact monitor units are used for this work. This enables the engineer to view the action just as he does in a studio. locally to this mobile unit or its Power can be supplied own mobile gasoline or Diesel generator can be used. A separate mobile unit The unit is built with large glass windows at the sides or the rear. For baseball or football games. they are connected to the truck by cables. Also the cameras are rather bulky and heavy and because of all this the equipment is usually units built into a truck or bus. used for the transmitter. usually two or more cameras are used one for an overall picture of the light game and the other for closeups. This camera follows the various plays so that you receive a closeup picture of any action that takes place in the outfield or at the bases. Receptacles are provided in different locations around the camera cables can be plugged in from the outside.
The receiving antenna and the television receiver are located in the Empire is State Building in New York City where the main transmitter located. 189 .The Television Camera The mobile equipment designed by the Radio Corporation of America uses a separate truck for the field transmitter. top of The truck houses a 400 watt transmitter equipped with water-cooled tubes. This truck is equipped with a collapsible antenna system that folds down on it.
This based on the present standard of a 525-line picture. lar to A. that are larger range than the audio frequencies used for the transmission of speech and music.) only go up to around 15. The impulses The frequencies that are produced by the camera are really a produced by a picture cover a much combination of frequencies varying with the picture variations. Transmitting the picture presents a far greater problem than transmitting sound where the audio frequencies (even in F. each line must be is scanned in slightly less than a 15.000 cycles. (amplitude modulation) broadcasting mitters. In order to be able to scan an entire picture in one-thirtieth of a second.000th part of a second.M. though an entirely different type of antenna required because of the ultra-high frequency used for the car- The carrier wave is also modulated at a much higher frequency.XV The Television Transmitter TELEVISION transmitter is in some respects quite simitransis THE rier wave. This 190 terrific .M.
C. difficult to transmit.000 per ond.000 cycles per second.The Television Transmitter scanning speed determines the frequencies that are generated by each little dot in the picture. When carrier is. sec- the frequency of these impulses may exceed 4. The F. This is the reason why much higher carrier wave frequencies are used for television. By using a which practically absorbs one of the sidebands produced by tele- modulating the carrier wave.000. modulates 4.000 cycles each side of the carrier wave frequency.000. the Federal Communi- Commission set aside a certain band of frequencies to be is used by each transmitter. when they are transferred into an electrical impulse. This cies covered called a channel. has allowed a six megacycle (megacycle cycles) filter is one million band or channel for each television station. waves are modulated they they produce frequencies produce sideband frequencies. Frequencies as high as this are as the transmission losses are great. This would more than blanket all the frequencies assigned to commercial broadcasting. As each line represents hundreds of impulses.5 megacycles.C. Because of cations this. that at each side of the carrier wave frequency.000. it The frequenfre- by a carrier wave when is modulated by a quency of 4.000. So the frequencies produced are up around 4. the frequency covered by the vision picture can be kept down around 4.000 as it cycles. This 191 . Other transmitters interfer- must be kept clear from these sideband frequencies or ence will be encountered.000.000 cycles per second would be 8. A special electrical conductor has been developed for transmitting these high frequencies and it is used whenever they have to be carried over a line for any distance over a few feet.
000 WATT PICTURE TRANSMITTER . TELEVISION 4.A.C.Courtesy of R.
They are called video and audio Separate antennas are used for the picture and sound. is used for transmitting the sound. they are more difficult to build because of the problems encountered in amplifying these extremely high frequencies pro- duced in picture transmission. Carrier wave frequencies as high as this travel in a straight line arid are rarely reflected by the ionosphere. F. one for the picture and the other for sound. While television transmitters look similar to sound transmitters. transmitters. the this works same way as increasing your own elevation to see a greater distance. The elevation of the receiving antenna increase the distance the transmitter can be from also helps to the receiver. transmission of these frequencies the curvature of the earth they do not follow upon to reflect and the ionosphere cannot be relied the waves back to the earth. The distance to the horizon can be increased by elevating the transmitting point. As these waves travel in a straight line.The Television Transmitter leaves room for the sound carrier wave which is transmitted separately. In other words. wave frequencies assigned for television are from 44 megacycles to 108 megacycles and from 156 to 294 mega- The carrier cycles. As we have said before.M. they will only travel as far as the horizon before they start to depart from the earth. This makes the difficult. television antennas are usually located on tall buildings. Distances up to 65 miles can be covered with a transmitting an193 . the higher you go the farther away the horizon is. The television transmitter is really two transmitters. For this reason.
as desirable to keep the lines connecting the antenna system to the transmitter as short as possible. All manual controls used for tuning and adjusting voltages and current are also mounted on the front panel. tubes. For this reason the transmitters are usually on upper floors of the same building on which the antennas are located. and various other parts of the transmitter are located behind the front panel. where there are mountains and hills this area con- siderably reduced. The doors leading to this equipment have safety interlock is switches which operate as soon as the door opened. Jn front of this panel is the transmitter control desk. floors of As space on the upper most buildings is limited. This will cover the thickly populated suburban areas around almost any large is city.500 feet and a receiving antenna elevated to 200 feet. Of course. Meters are mounted on this panel for checking the voltage on the various transmitting tubes. transformers. so are pilot lights which indicate what part of the trans- mitter is in operation. In most cases the front metal panels of the transmitter form one wall of the transmitter room. or they are easily reached by opening small hinged access doors. Switches for turning on the various stages of the transmitter are located on this desk.Modern Radio tenna elevated to about 1. filter The transmitting condensers. So it is possible for a television transmitter to cover an area of about 13.000 square miles. the transmitters are designed to be as compact as possible. These 194 . The television transmitters are usually located close to the anit is tenna system.
.S.B. TELEVISION TRANSMITTER ROOM AND ANTENNA LAYOUT .AOOIO ANTENNA ^ VIDEO ANTENNA ._^^J INPUT AND COMPENSATING EQUIPMENT ROOM Courtesy of C.
A dipole is a stiff rod or tube made from copper on the roof or some other conductive metal. Monitoring or checking the television picture is at the transmitter usually done twice before the picture impulses reach the transmitter and after they modulate the carrier wave.Modern Radio switches automatically cut off all high voltage when the door is opened. This test pattern in front of the placed is camera in the studio. This prevents the operating personnel from entering when any of the equipment is in operation. It functioning prop- can be done visually by using a test pattern. This type of antenna can be purchased quite reasonably. This is also true of the receiving antenna for television. A simple receiving antenna consisting of two dipoles about 5 feet long can be used. This is done at the transmitter to make sure that the transmisis sion line between the studio and transmitter erly. The test pattern may be several circles of different sizes and lines which is radiate from the center of the screen. of your You can erect a pole home and mount the dipoles in a vertical position on this pole for a television receiving antenna. Separate transmission lines are used to connect the video and audio (picture and sound) transmitters to their respective antennas. At these ultra-high frequencies a wave length the antennas only have to be a few feet long. is so short that A one-half wave length antenna at these frequencies may be less than ten feet overall. and the pattern then checked at the picture is monitor tube in the control room to make sure everything functioning properly up to this point. It is 796 .
B.Courtesy of C.S. TELEVISION AND SOUND ANTENNA SYSTEM .
Minor adjustments can be made by . If a double image appears. This can be eliminated by moving or adjusting the antenna system. The test pattern previously described is also helpful in check- ing the picture at the receiving end. The name of the station and the call letters are usually incorporated in a test pattern. These ultra-high frequencies used for television are reflected by objects near the antenna system. they usually show up on the circles test pattern.the at the transmitter. such as increasing the brightness. Some of the straight lines may be wavy or the may not be round or the pattern may not be centered propcontrols erly on the screen.Modern Radio checked again If there are at the transmitter. The call letters of the trans- mitter are flashed on the television screen before and after a television program starts. or correcting the shading. any defects in transmission. The video out is carrier wave which the television transmitter sends modulated in the same manner as an amplitude-modulated is sound carrier wave. centering the picture. is usually an indication that the antenna is receiving a reflected signal. one slightly delayed. showing the and checking on the receiver operation. causing two images. The second image is called a ghost image. tells call letters of This immediately whether the antenna and receiver are it functioning properly. The major difference that the video carrier wave is modulated at extf emely high frequencies in order to trans- mit the picture impulses. 198 . This causes the antenna to receive two signals. The pattern tive design is a decora- the station and serves a dual purpose.
and sound. 9-inch and 12-inch tubes. It will probably be only a short time before television receivers in homes will be quite common. audio amplifier and speaker in your present cost of a television receiver somewhat.The Television Transmitter The size of the receiver picture tube controls the dimensions of the picture. a 12-inch tube produces a picture 7% by 9% inches. The three most popular sizes at the present time are 5-inch. which can be used in conjunction with your radio receiving set. a 9-inch tube will produce a picture by ?l/4 inches. however. Beside the tuning control. as separate amplifiers are generally used for sound and two addi- picture. The present day standards in television produce quite sharp pictures with good detail. A 5-inch tube gives you a pic- ture Sl/g 51/2 by 4% inches. conis manner to the volume control on a standard and the other trolling the brightness of the picture. This type of receiver. 199 . There Most television receivers supply both picture are receivers. The receiver is really two receivers. provided to adjust the contrasts of the picture. Television projector receivers have been developed by which the picture can be projected on a screen. they are designed to use the set. This reduces the The tuning dial on a television receiver usually tunes both picture and sound at the same time. that is. lar One operates in a simireceiver. There are very few people who have seen a present day television show who do not wish to buy a re- ceiver. Much larger tubes have been manufactured. has not been perfected but it may be at any time. there are usually tional controls for the picture adjustment.
XVI Colored Television and white extent that it television is is now developed to such an considered commercially sound. this easier to define small objects. Since then a good many technical men have been workmore roundness ing on this development. but the feasibility of transmitting and receiving colored pictures was proved. it beside making ing. The addition of color greatly improves the quality of the picture. Objects appear to have and their outline appears sharper. 200 Some engineers think . There have been many different schools of thought on how colit ored pictures should be transmitted. While engineers were working on black and white television other groups of engineers were working on colored television. As far back as July 1928 colored ceived. and is colored BLACK television not far behind. television pictures were being transmitted and re- The quality of the picture was not good at that time. Generally speakinteresting makes a more and life-like reproduction of any scene. This adds depth to the picture.
201 . Colored television has passed through a good stages in its many is of these development. This is at least of all these systems but there strated with very one which has been demon- good results. others work on three primary colors. to The system to which we are referring uses mechanical means colors. If you check the records on most great inventions you will find that the idea originated many years before the invention was perfected.Colored Television should be done by some electrical means. Each system has certain advantages and disadvantages as there are many difficulties to be overcome. this one system a point where the parts can be manufactured at a reasonable cost and assembled in a standard receiver. optical system. and it will produce good colored pictures. This does not mean that some of these other systems may not become equally in the near future. good or even better is at However. and it it is now rapidly approaching the not true place where can be turned over to the public. This system has overcome many defects which some of the others have not overcome. The three-color systems have an advantage as they reproduce the colors more accurately. others are working on a mechanical Some of these systems use two primary colors. Most new developments pass through a number of stages before the public is even aware that the experimentation is going on. break the picture down into various primary By considerable research certain standards have been es- tablished as to the number of lines and the method of scanning which produce the best results. others prefer using some type of system.
B.Courtesy of C. TELEVISION COLOR CAMERA .S.
The picture picture that is is. transmitted in the same way as a black and white to by coupling various impulses or frequencies that is generated the carrier wave by the television transmitter. are changed when color is added. system because has been widely demonstrated and quite a few receivers have been built which produce good results. 203 . the various control frequencies change because the number of lines per picture. This was established after considerable research work and it will be explained later on in this chapter. This system was developed by Dr.S.Colored Television This particular system filters to is a three-color system. The scanning accomplished just as it is in a standard camera tube except a different number of lines is used per frame and the interlacing is changed. using colored dissect the picture into its various color components. which had the proper electrical characteristics for color work. The basic operating principles of the camera tube are the same as those for black and white television. it We are discussing the C. The number of frames per colored picture also had to be changed to produce the best results. P. These filters are mounted on a disk or drum which can be rotated at a high speed.C. We will not all the various phases of the technical requirements to television. Of course.B. but its produce colored we will explain the fundamental principles back of operation. but the electrical require- ments are different. is The filters are driven by an electric motor which also electrically controlled. the details and other go into number of frames per second. L. A is special camera tube was developed by R.A.
each primary color transmitted separately to the receiver which re-constructs the picture in color by using color filters. green. After this is done.M.200 R. blue. blue. They also develthe Goldmark of oped two different receivers another type which uses a picture. blue. It is one which uses a flat filter disk and drum filter to reproduce the color generally known that any picture can be broken down into three primary colors even though other colors are present. are mounted on a drum which rotates at 1. The primary colors used were red. is The drum so arranged that the light passes first through the lens system filters. and green. and then through the The 204 light rays are directed at the . blue. The drum is approximately six inches in diameter and consists filters. the other colors are then reproduced by combining two or more pri- mary colors. and yellbw. made of a transparent plastic material. This differs from the colors normally used in art work. of a metal frame which holds the color The color filters form the side of the drum. The direct pick-up color camera filters.Modern Radio Columbia Broadcasting System and his television staff. and blue. green.P. This system uses transparent colored filters to break the picture down into the three is primary colors. yellow. They developed two different cameras one direct pickup camera and one for colored film or slides. which are red. Six filters are used and they are so arranged that in one revolution of the drum they pass a given point in this order: red. These colors were selected to after much research and were found primary colors be more suitable than the more commonly used red. red.
The same thing also occurs when the red filter is in front of the dissector. Now the receiving set also has a color wheel in front of the 206 . one picture-scanning operation completed. When the blue front of the camera tube. When blue filter is in front of the tube. in this case only the red colors are being dissected by the tube. As each filter passes in front of the tube. one scanning opera- tion is completed and one color is transmitted by the tube. Actually what the filter does is to allow more light to pass through light reaches the where blue is present. The filters are synchronized so that each time a is filter passes the the tube.200 R. This filter is also true of the green filter except that the green also takes care of the yellow in the picture. also any blue that contained in any other color. actually only the blue colors in the picture are being scanned. but in this case the impulses represent colors. This brings the light rays out at the side of the drum. The same thing occurs with red and green. all the blues in the picture are transmitted. as yellow is contained in green.M. So the color camera breaks the picture down into various colors and transmits each color separately.Modern Radio orthicon or camera pick-up tube by the means of a mirror set inside drum.P. Then the process is repeated. or twenty times a second. Actually the camera tube sends out electrical impulses just as it does with black and white pictures. When the blue filter passes. So the greatest amount of is camera tube where the blue filter is in most prominent. all the blue colors in the picture is are registered. The motor which drives the drum rotates at 1.
that an electrical filter impulse controls the speed of the motor driving the color in the receiver. The a disk instead only difference of a drum. the time being approximately is ^oth of a second. These go to the transmitter and are sent out by a carrier to your receiver. The is. as far as your vision concerned. the camera filter and the receiv- ing filters are kept in step with the picture scanning. This occurs so rapidly your eye cannot detect it. During the next operation the same thing occurs with the reds. So. The same is true of the red and green filters. filter placed in such a manner in front of the tube that each is passes the picture area as each picture scanned. filters are synchronized with the filters in the camera. This by an electric motor as the camera motor. but only the parts of the picture that contain blue. When the blue parts of the picture are being reproduced by the receiving tube. Your receiving tube converts these impulses back into a picture. each part of the picture that contains blue is sent out in the form of impulses via the transmitter to your receiver.Modern Radio picture tube. six filters It is is that the filters are is flat mounted on The disk and quite large in diameter. The same colors are used is rotated at the in same speed this filter. the blue filter is passing the screen. all the colors are present at all 208 . that is. By this means. lens system on the camera is projecting a scene on the dis- sector tube. and it has arranged in the same order as those in the camera. and then the greens are transmitted in a similar manner. Now The let's look at the entire operation and see what happens. A blue filter is filtering out all the blues so only the blues in the picture reach the camera tube.
the second scanning operation covers the lines which were not scanned the first time. first. first The time one color is scanned alternate lines in the picture are covered. purples. The entire operation which produces one color picture takes V2()th of a second. and in the picture. for colored motion picture film or slides oper- The camera used ates in a similar manner is as the direct color pick-up camera. oranges. As a matter of fact. since there are three colors. it takes six scanning operations to complete one colored picture. So there are twenty complete colored pictures pro- duced a second.Colored Television times. are present Each color is actually scanned twice by the camera and picture tube to produce one complete picture. is The in- major difference that a small flat color filter disk is used stead of a drum. first then blue and green are scanned for the are filled in by the second scanning operation which occurs in the same order. Light supplied by a standard motion picture is arc projector. then the lines tion occurs in this order: alternate lines of red are scanned. The light intensity used for this 209 . Because the scanning operation is split up in this way the complete scanning of any one color takes Y^^th of a is second. the colors blend together so you see all the other colors that browns. it The picture projected on the dissector tube after has passed through the filter. The complete scanning operatime. This interlaced scanning produces better results than scanning the entire picture in one operation. This called a color field. A single scanning operation for one color takes is %20 tn of a second. This called a color frame.
B. TELEVISION COLOR RECEIVER SHOWING COLOR DISC AT LEFT .S.Courtesy of C.
P. This color wheel has six the arranged in same order as those of the pick-up camera. therefore. There a constant flow of cool water through the vessel. The filters that are mounted on this wheel are peculiarly shaped. which much too fast for your eye to detect. instead of quite large 1. The receiver which uses a color that is. pass by the receiving tube at the rate of 120 per is The filters second. All the viewer sees is a life-like full color picture. The disk is rotated at the same speed as the camera drum 1. has been used more than the drum type. then the nine-inch receiving tube. drum for The disk type is simpler to construct and maintain and.200 R. Receivers have been designed to use either disk or color reproduction. The shape is developed by rotating the disk slowly and drawing the scanning lines in their proper order. the water being is by a water pump. made from metal with also been filter is cutouts and frames to hold the They have made out of trans- parent plastic such as lucite. placed in the slide. For a disk would be about twenty filters inches in diameter.P. The color disks have been filters.M. it drum instead of a colored disk has one advantage operates at 600 R.M.200 R.Colored Television machine slide. The heat by a small cooling unit and the water circulated extracted from the water is re-circulated. beam of light between the pro- jector and the film or The light passes through the vessel it and the water absorbs the heat before is reaches the film.M. the filter riveted on. The reason for this is that the drum is 211 .P. is so great that a water cell is used to protect the film or cell consists is The water This of a glass vessel with a water inlet and outlet.
the speed of the drum can be When a drum is used in the receiver. The drum rotates in a to vertical position so the filters pass the screen from top bottom. the screen facing the side of the drum. so one revolution. to television has been a great achievement. four blue. and many other types of. It contains four red. and many other qualities To be able to sit in your home and see musicals.Modern Radio in diameter and it contains twelve color filters instead of six. Color interest. feeling. twice as many filters number used in the disk. entertainment in full color would naturally appeal to almost anyone. This tube actually inside of the rotating drum. twelve pass by the tube instead of cut in half. and four green as the filters. a shorter picture fits tube is used. depth. Adding color adds to a picture. 212 . baseball games. definition. In six. dramas. football games.
Ra-(radio) d-(detection) a-(and) r-(ranging).X VII Radar The war accelerated the development of radar and found new uses for it. at the present field. time radar believe is it is not widely used in the radio broadcasting we will affect the development of radio in general. w While HEN we think of radar we naturally think of a war- time detection device developed primarily for airplane and developed long before the war. Unit. Radar has many applications in many fields and its full usefulness is yet to be discovered. we cannot its release technical information regarding but we can cover which is it fundamental operation principles and new be applied within a short time. We are constantly hearing of new applications of it in various engi- neering activities. is fields to may Radar radio equipment which used for radio detection and ranging. and that fortunately why we are discussing it here. but actually it was thought of detection. The discovery of the ionosphere and the measurements estab- 213 .
particularly short waves. One for the Navy was in 1938 when it was fighting for her life is installed on a ship and tried out at sea. Experiments proved that these radio waves could be used to detect objects at some distance. After this layer it above the earth was discovered.A. pilot with sufficient warning him to avoid The Army and Navy saw set the possibilities of this discovery finder. by measuring the time it took for a wave to be By specially designed electronic equipment they were it able to measure the time and establish the height. This equipment was capable of sending out radio waves and detecting the presence of mountains or other planes near by. saw a new use for this discovery in 1937 and designed a transmitter and receiver to be used on airplanes to prevent collisions. radar proved 214 its value. and dis- about developing this it equipment as a range They covered of the many uses for first installations and developed it to a high degree. had been discovered that certain radio waves. behave similarly to light. Knowing the speed of radio waves in space they could determine the height of the ionosphere reflected.Modern Radio lishing its height were the beginning of radar. R. Later on was its discovered that a plane equipped with radio could measure own It height by measuring the time interval of a wave. These ultra-short waves were ideal for certain uses as they were invisible and would pierce fog. During 1940 and 1941 when England was during the aerial blitz.C. There probably . scientists set about measuring its reflected radio height. The apparatus could detect these objects at night to enable and supply the an accident. and the fact that waves.
completely inbecause it was a dark night. Using it for a detection means is a recent development. The English the called their apparatus a radio-locator and used it to detect attacking planes. visible tion. this Radar certainly proved its by discovering Japanese air squadron more than seventy-five miles away. Navy sank a Japanese battleship by The Japanese ship was eight miles away. It off enabled them to get their ground ready for attack before the German bombers arrived. sea. This electronic machine scans the horizon or the sky to 215 . there are different types of radar equipair. At Pearl Harbor radar detected the attacking Japanese planes long before they reached the mainland. Unfortunately. Radar detected its exact locavessel sank the stories Our naval Jap battleship with its second salvo. it used on land. There are many such which show the value of radar. States found the value of radar in the very first The United engagement with the Japanese. Today is many ment. the officers mistook these planes for their own which were due about detecting ability that time. The fundamental principle back of radar is not new and has been known for some time in the radio field. Probably no apparatus as competent as radar has ever been developed in such a short space of time. and in the The this scientists of this country worked day and night to perfect apparatus which sends out very small high-powered radio beams.R a dar nothing that contributes more to the protection of England than radar. Later on the United States radar. This not only helped them to attack the invaders fighters but it saved their planes from being attacked on the ground.
HOW RADAR IS USED FOR AIRPLANE DETECTION .
if mile away since the sound has to 1/2 % mile and it m^e back.130 feet per second. You can do this with If an echo there is too. If you look at the second hand on your watch and note how many seconds pass before you hear the thunder. you can easily tell how far away the lightning is.000th of a second to receive 217 . it is. In this case if took 4. this has been accomplished and now the distance of the object reflecting the If wave can be determined. Going back took a 1. 1/2 the object travel would be only to the cliff to radar. However. so if it takes approximately 4. then the lightning is 1 mile away. When you realize the radio waves can travel 186 miles in a thousandth part of it is a second.7 seconds. This do. sound travels quite slowly. Sound travels at the rate of 1. you can use the same method to determine how far away You can shout and measure the time it takes for the echo to it return. is The light travels fast it at the same speed as radio waves is and so the time takes to reach you negligible. which would be 1 mile. One of the most important parts of radar is the machine which receives the reflected waves that and analyzes them. flash of light against the roll of you have ever checked the to thunder determine how far away the lightning is. to cause a cliff near by which sound waves an echo. to difficult to see how a machine could be developed measure the time elapsing between the transmitted and reflected wave.7 seconds between the flash of lightning and the time you hear the thunder. However. This is a closer parallel to the reflects way radar works. you have used quite easy to a means similar to radar to check distance.Radar detect and locate enemy ships or planes.
so de- signed that you can take a direct reading that eliminates the calculation of the height or the location of the plane. If you visualize works. Radar is capable of giving this information too. then the wave has traveled 186 miles. The plane but or ship reflecting the wave would then be 93 miles away. and you know the object is 93 miles away by timing difference. if you want its to attack the object with guns or planes you must know exact location. this radio beam as traveling in the it is form of a beam see of light similar to a searchlight beam. It has many applications.Modern Radio a reflected wave. which the enemy plane The shot this fact that ships have been sunk and that planes have been down by radar is only the beginning of the important part new scientific development will play in our lives. Now you can do the same thing in of thirty degrees a horizontal plane. At the time you can check the angle of ing this and the previously determined height of the plane you can spot its when you receive a reflected signal the beam from true north. a good many of them are yet to be discovered but 218 . then you check the angle of the beam in a horizontal and vertical position. It is valuable to know how far away the plane or ship is. it quite simple to until how You scan the sky with this beam you re- ceive a reflected signal . this You can tell almost immediately and you can determine the direction in is flying. In the case of a plane you not only want to its know location but the altitude at which it is flying. If the beam is at a vertical angle when you receive the reflected wave. By knowRadar equipment is exact location on a map. then you can easily calculate its height.
This could be done by scanning the shore line with a radar beam. Even though the pilot's visibility was buoys. In there were other fact. he 219 . and channel markers. The contour of the shore line could then be established and the pilot would know tell if exactly how far from shore the ship was. will be valuable to marine navigation in a number of It is quite possible that a ship with this equipment could sail into a harbor or river during the night its when there was a heavy fog. It could be used to detect icebergs and floating wreckage.Radar we do know Radar ways. Accidents such as the sinking of the Titanic could be eliminated. he could locate Railroads also will probably find a use for radar. This would enable the engi- neer to detect trouble at a great distance ahead and would give him time to slow down or stop before he was on top of the object. on a screen that The engineer would get an indication something was on the tracks ahead of him. ment could be mounted zero. He could also ships in the harbor and their locations. and anchor in radio stations for its proper location without contacting bearing. Radar could eliminate many collisions and accidents both at sea and in harbors and rivers. he could pull right up alongside of another ship even though it was not physically possible to see it. Fog and snowstorms might eliminate also handicap railroad lines is and are often so poor. the cause of serious accidents because visibility Radar many grade-crossing accidents where automobiles are stalled on the tracks. several that are being considered at the present time. lighthouses. The equipin the engine so that the radar beam would shoot out in front of the train.
is gas tanks. This might also eliminate accidents caused by stalled trains or rock slides. Radar all would give the aviator knowledge of mountains near by and their altitude with respect to the plane. it operates on air pressure which varying Radar can send high-powered ultra-short waves at almost any angle. such as radio towers. He could then slow down long before the o*bject became visible. tect a it It is quite possible that this machine could even de- bridge washed out. By shooting a wave directly beneath him the pilot can pick up the reflected wave and check his height above ( ground of at that point. the radar beam could be 220 would . It to would also enable him at all times.Modern Radio would also have an indicator to tell him just how far ahead it was. We tion. If the plane coming in for a land- will be quite easy for the pilot to steer clear of these objects even though they If the may not be visible. but still might be used to warn the engineer that he was approaching a curve. even planes coming in on a radio beam can get off their course and run into mountains or other objects. it tall buildings. have already mentioned the importance of radar to aviaWithout radar. still plane were traveling at a relatively high altitude but set so it below mountain peaks. know his exact height above the ground An is altim- eter only gives him his height above sea level. Of course. ing. he can tell what his height above the five ground will be when he reaches a point miles ahead. on curved sections of tracks it might not be practical. and this is not always accurate as at all times. Radar will also detect any high objects. etc. By sending the wave at a slight angle ahead him towards the ground.
Some landing hazardous in fields are located in valleys bad weather. and most of was good. This machine would enable the plane to fly right down the valley without fear. As more and more planes are used. the airports will become dangerous Here radar can be used to great advantage. This gave the airport complete control over incoming and outgoing planes around the port. Not so long ago the radio beam was perfected which enables planes to land in a dense fog. It may Even bad become is like a huge traffic jam around airports and if the visibility poor. As you probably know. the airport sends out a narrow radio beam which up and fly in on. it There were relatively was rare for planes to collide few planes then. the pilot could locate the mountain peaks and go around them with safety.Radar scan the area ahe. Later on radio communication was used at airports and this prevented accidents since the planes would receive word when they were to come for a these only flew the visibility when landing. In the early days of aviation in the air. the danger of collision becomes greater. Quite often ice or motor trouble will force the plane to fly at a lower altitude. to fly in away from weather. we may have a great it many collisions in mid-air. as the pilot would know the exact location of the mountains on both sides. In cases such as this. Planes equipped with radar could easily detect all planes around them whether 221 . when visibility and are particularly is low. Around airports the problem will be difficult even the pilot can pick though the planes can receive instructions from the field.ad.
below. or in front of them. As time goes on you will hear more and more about the wonders of radar when all the details about it can be released. capable of seeing in the densest fog or on the darkest night. to the side.Modern Radio they are above. This an eye. With this equipment it will be invisible beam will act like easier for the pilots to avoid accidents with other planes. 222 .
Every day radio equipment being improved. ask yourself what more can be done in radio broad- Radio engineers have a very different viewpoint. felt that But so way when they were young engineers entermany new developments are constantly beits made that they realize that radio is only in is childhood. . Every day engi- neers are discovering and gaining more knowledge about the be- havior of electrons. you may begin to wonder if its scientific development has not reached a peak. even though some of them ing the ing field. you are apt casting. particularly in the twenty years. Just what this all may lead to twenty years from now no one really knows. In the early days of television a rotating disk with a series of holes in it was used to scan and reproduce the television 223 picture. really here to When you realize that tele- and that colored television is not far behind.XVIII Radio Tomorrow you stop to think of the accomplishments that last WHEN vision is have been achieved in radio.
it is difficult is to determine the direction of the sound source. or what is called audi- tory perspective. Because our brains are capable of detecting 224 . There are new developments now that are in somewhat the same state that television was in when scientists were experimenting with mechanical scanning. Great strides have been to go. unless the origin of the sound directly in front of or behind us. Scientists are now working. it did prove that pic- Then the scientists discov- ered they could project a stream of electrons and control the stream by electrical means. This led to the development of present day television tubes. to achieve a better better repro- method for sound reproduction. If you put your hand over one ear and listen to any sound. Monaural reproduction is the type used at present. for instance. but tures could be transmitted electrically. but we still have a long way step closer to it Frequency modulation has brought us one is still but there a big step ahead. This probably one of the reasons why we are equipped with two ears. Monaural means hearing with one ear and binaural means hearing with two. it would be impossible to and the reproduc- the difference between the original sound tion.Modern Radio This did not produce very good results. tell we mean reproducing the original sounds more accuIf we had perfect reproduction. Probably practical solutions will be achieved for these new developments by electronic discoveries. made in this direction. When we speak of duction rately. left The reason for this is that sound waves reach our right and ears at slightly different times and with is different intensity. That is going from monaural to binaural reproduction.
etc. the drums in another location. You do piano being on one side of the stage. This spreads the sound out. Demonstrations have been given in certain engineering societies and they have been quite successful. It is very natural to think that all you have to do to overcome this problem is to install more than one speaker. the audience sat in front of a large stage with the cur- 225 . even if we could not they are standing eight or ten see them we would know their approximate location. all the sound comes from one location. When we use a single loud-speaker to reproduce sound. the orchestra sounds quite different from the way it sounds when you hear it coming from a single loud-speaker. This is not just a dream.Radio Tomorrow this difference we can tell from what direction the sound is coming. therefore. Engineers have realized the difficulties in our present system and have been working on binaural repro- duction for some time. the various players with their instruments are in different locations on the stage and. We do not get the illusion of the various sounds coming from different locations as we should. If we hear two people talking and feet apart. which helps to some degree. but you still do not get the true effect because both speakers are not get the illusion of the producing the same sounds. In one demonstration that was given. True binaural reproduction entire orchestra would do you would get the feeling of an playing on the stage and you could detect the location of the different instruments even though you did not see them. In the theater when we hear an orchestra playing. the saxophone this in another.
his side of the stage You could actually follow his footfirst Then the man walked back The to and the second man said he had found a golf across the stage. steps as he crossed the stage. to the if two loud-speakers on the stage.Modern Radio tain drawn curtain. I'll ball said. one on each side of the Apparently they were stage-hands. Then man walked across the stage to talk to the second worker about sawing a piece of wood. and the man the picked up and started to nail two boards together. and bounced it first stage-hand to "Wait a second and slide the hammer back you. This is had been accomplished a special hookup. you could not see what was going on behind the All you could do was listen to the various sounds being so reproduced. One man called to the other slid the it and asked him for a hammer." Just as he said this the curtain went up and there was nothing on the stage but two loud-speakers and then you heard the hammer slide back across the stage. you So forget about the amplifier system. These microphones were connected to individual amplifiers and then two separate lines were brought down from each amplifier This means. The sound in another part of how it was done: In another room in the building two microphones were set up and spaced a certain distance apart. The illusion of these men working and talking in various parts of the stage by the use of two loud-speakers in and action that the audience heard occurred the building. the second first man first hammer across the stage to him. Two people were talking behind the curtain stage. that each loud-speaker was directly connected to one of the microphones in the other room. if a person in the other room were talking 226 . to him.
would seem as an entire orchestra were stretched out across the room and you could detect the locations of the various instruments. If you listened to -an orchestra. Naturally. the number one speaker in the audience room would be louder than the number two speaker. then the volume on the number one speaker would gradually decrease as he walked. Several micro- phones were used up the orchestra and a separate recording was made of eaCh pick-up. The loud-speakers were placed 227 in approximately the same . there is more to creating an illusion of auditory perspective than merely changing the volume levels on two speakers. from one to the other. one on each side of the stage. You can naturally imagine what an improvement sit it would make in radio if in your home and hear the various actors' you could voices coming from across if different parts of the room and could tell when they moved it the stage. In one case it was used in conjunction with a to pick motion picture. When the recordings were reproduced. and the number two speaker would get louder as he approached the number two microphone. speakers. shifts you listen to two loudand the volume gradually as illusion of the you get an sound traveling across the stage.Radio Tomorrow number one microphone. Of course. and each speaker was supplied from one of the separate recordings that were previously made. but this demonstration was given to show what interest- ing and realistic effects could be accomplished. Other demonstrations of this have been given. several loud-speakers were used. closer to If he were talking in front of the number one microphone and walked toward the number two microphone.
Modern Radio positions as the microphones were with respect to the orchestra. for reproducing this effect are not The methods described here necessarily the only ways of accomplishing auditory perspective. discovery or development may make it practical at any For some time scientists have also been working on the repro- duction of three-dimensional pictures. Some new time. In present day colored motion pictures give you the feeling of a certain amount of depth. but it would require two or three transmitters operating on frequencies and a great deal of other equipment. then open- . Quite some studies field. so the objects in the picture appear to have roundness or depth instead of appearing flat. and would eliminate quite a few because the frequency band allowed broadcasting is alcostly it would be quite ready crowded. The third dimension gives depth to a picture. different As this stations. of a huge orchestra being on the stage. is not practical. As the same fundamental principles will describe a demonstration pictures. The engineers are working on other methods at the present time. while it served its purpose to demonstrate the possibilities of auditory perspective. You really had the effect This method. but we do not know how close they are to a practical solution. This demonstration was quite successful. could be applied to television that If we was given of three-dimensional motion you have ever experimented by closing one 228 eye. is entirely too costly to be used commercially. The same thing could be done in radio. have been made along these lines in the motion picture fact.
and both pictures were projected on a single screen. if Now way the it has been done: Two projection machines were used. Each of these projection machines was equipped with polaroid light filters. spaced same distance apart that the cameras were. you can see a three-dimensional motion picture. and adds depth to our you photograph a scene using two cameras spaced eye distance apart. one on top of the other. This makes the pictures overlap. When The this is done it produces which is said to be polarized. is projection machine polarized in is light coming from one one direction and the light filters in coming from the other machine opposite direction. is polarized by these the By wearing glasses in which the left eyeglass polarized in one direction and the right glass polarized in the opposite direction. so your right eye sees one picture and your left the other. Here is one do. you get the feeling of great depth. This illusion is caused by the fact that the right left eye sees the object from a slightly different angle than the eye. When you it is look at the picture with these glasses on. 229 . The reason for this is that each glass filters out one of the eye sees pictures. This enables us to judge distances vision. you probably have discovered that the object seemed to ing it shift its position. you are accomplishing the same thing that your eyes If you could reproduce these two pictures so your left eye would see one of the pictures and your right eye the other. then you would have a three-dimensional picture.Radio Tomorrow and closing the other while you concentrated on a single object. A train coming toward you gives the feeling that coming right out into the audience.
would be very expensive. all may lead to only time will 230 . Just what tell. making new it discoveries.Modern Radio This principle could be applied to television receivers were used. We have only mentioned two ideas which could be developed. it if two projection so Of course. but up to this time they have not discovered any practical solution. and finding additional uses for radio. possibilities. There are many other The radio field is constantly developing new apparatus. would not be considered Various engineers have been considering methods for producing three-dimensional television. this practical.
audio Auditory perspective.S. 130-31 inter- Arrays. 102 Amplifiers. 22-23 Acoustivane. use of radar. 107-19. 97 Amplitude modulation. 66 Amplification. 25-33. microphone. 123. 74.INDEX A. 151-57 '** 1 Broadcasts not in studios. 136-39. 54 Amplitude. 90 Broadcide arrays. amplitude Angle of radiation. See Modulation. 95-106. See Signals. 79.B. 100 Baseball and football television. 22. 148-51. 60 Audience loud-speakers. national transmission. 123-24 Brentwood station. 135. 148-51 231 .M. 116-19. See Frequency. directional. 79 Antennas.. 154. 67 Audio frequency. 108. C. 15. short-wave. 146-48 Anodes and cathodes. end-fire. amplitude Acoustics. 60. 148-51 Attenuators. 224-28 Aviation. 188 Beat frequency. 148-51. See Modulation. 72. 147-51. audio Audio signals. 220-22 Bands of frequency.
79 Chain stations. 149 Cycles. 151-52.C. 82 Channels.C. tuning. television. 124 Director. 121. 70 Curtain arrays. 203-12 Current. Brentwood station. 78-81 Cathodes and anodes. 88-90 Control equipment. 63-66 Electricity. field intensity. master. oscillator. 100 25.C." 139 Distortion. See Television Carrier waves. colored television system. See Static Echo chamber.B. 126 Circuit. 19 Design. See Television Charts. sound. 99 Clocks. 70 232 . 14-33 Detection device. 82-94 Crystal oscillator. 37. See Waves. 92 Control room. 41. 4. 56-67. 123 Control engineer. See Timing of broadcasts Coils. 151-57. 126 5. A. program. Condensers. portable. See Columbia Broadcasting System Camera.. carrier Cathode-ray tubes. and D. 6. Columbia Broadcasting System. studio. 11 "Discriminator.. 72-74. variable.S. See Radar Detector. current. and D. 56. A.Index C. 99.C. second.
electron. 135. 100. resonant. 188 Frames. sound. 191 Feed-back. audio. 122. sound effects. intermediate section. 108. 124. 76. See Short waves Future of radio. 12. 116. 224-30 Goldmark. 62 Fishbone antennae array. 134. sound. audio. program. 56-67.M. 121. volume. 178. control. 102 Ground and sky waves. 76 Electron gun. tuning. 72-74. 99. 79 Electrons. 60 Federal Communications Commission. See Modulation. See Sound. current. 144. beat. transmitter.Index Electrodes. 203-04 Grids. 79 Indicator. range. 6-7 Exciter units. 129. See Television % Frequency. 180-81 Engineers. 159. Doctor P. 62 "Input" and "output. modulation. high. 67 Field intensity charts. picture. 129-30. 88-90. 126 Filter. 79. See Television Frequencies. radio. 120." 99 233 .. 113 Gun. 135. 123-24. 76-78. Frequency Fading effects. L. 154 F. 129. 10-11. 126. 149 Football and baseball television. 106 Equipment room. 70. See Modulation. ultrahigh. 100.
154 Networks. program. and radio. 135-36. amplitude and frequency. 178 Ionosphere. 146-47 Loud-speakers. 155. See Transmission International transmitters. television. 7-8 Long-range communication. polarized. 48-55. and limi- 104 Modulators. 96.Index Intensity charts. international lonoscope tubes. 66 Kilocycles. waves. and boom 162-65 Modulation. field. 129-30. 83-87 234 . 229. 13032. for. C. advantages tations. 49. 72 Jack field. 67 Materials. frequency. acoustivane. See Transmitters. 16-17. definition. 130 television. 214. amplitude. 142*48. frequency. measurement of height. 136-39 Log. 10. 124-26. 100 Length. 128-40. audience. 213-14 Ions. 126 International transmission. "Limiter." 139 Link transmitter. 129. 62 Jacobs. 96-106. R. 124-26. wave. 97. See Television. 22. 217.. transformers. 108 Light. 193. 21-23 Microphone. use in velocity. frequency. acoustical. 113. 25-33. 97.
auditory. 66' R. 54 Personnel. 99-100. long-distance. 139 Reception. 48. audio frequency. Public address system. 224-28 Phase. 203. program. engineer. and F. 189. 114 235 . 120-27.A. 11. 11-12 Oscillator. 78 "Output" and "input. 213. 127 Pictures. See Radar Range. 146-48 Radiators. 32-33. angle of. three-dimensional." 99 Parabolic reflector. 217-18. 24-25 Polarized light. 117-19 Phonograph and radio combinations. tube.Index Orchestras. A. 10-11.M. personnel. meaning of name. log. 214 Radio Corporation of America.M. See Antennas Radio and light. use in studios. 92 Program. measurement of light and sound. timing.. 102-04 Plywood. 228-30 Plates. 8-9 Perspective. See Radio Corporation of America Radar. 124 Oscillator circuit. 12-13 director. 229 Portable control equipment. 129 Receiver. 7-8. 99 Oscilloscope. 213-22 Radiation. use and possibilities. 214 Radio-locator.C. 8-9.
145-46 Reflector. 224-28. 123. chain. perspective. 217. Resonant frequency. 17. engineers. 132-34 Sky and ground waves. antennas. 139. 23. 49-52. reverberation. 8-10. 150 Scanning. 120. for. 17. 21-22. 78. 12-13. 15. 58. 9-13 Resistors. 12. sound- proof. 4 Short waves. 33 Static.Index Rectifier tubes. speed. auditory. 193-94. 72-74 Reflection and refraction. 126-27. in. 82 172 Stroboscopic effect. 62. 15. 19. waves. 137. 46-47. 63. effects. 62. 196. 56-67. 32- 33. 145-46 Rehearsals. 134-35 Staticless radio. effects. 176-89. 60. phonograph records. cycles. See Modulation. 170. objectionable. Studios. 54 Refraction and reflection. 128. See Television Television. 96. filters. 14-33. 159-212. standing. and distortion. reproduction. 60 . 4-6. 19-21. 16. audible and inaudible. 62.. area covered. 14-33. 16-17. improvement 224-28. control room. parabolic. 25. design and construction. audio. frequencies. 95. frequency Stations. 236 . 121. See Television Scripts. isolators. cameras. filter 4. reverberation. 97. reverberation. waves. 194. See Sound Rhombic antennas. 63-66. 113 Sound. television. 15. baseball and football. 19. 130 Signals. effects. 121 Reverberation. checking. 5-6. 4. 19. 188. camera dolly. 44-45. 34-37. camera. echo chamber.
telephoto. A. See Television frequencies. dimensional. vacuum. R. dipoles. receiver. Towers. three- 160-75. colored. 180-81. 211-12 Television frequencies. video and audio. C. system. dissection. frames. 203. 186. test patterns. sideband. 170-75. 94-106. frequencies. cathode-ray. modulation. 136-39. colored. 12-13 Transformers. receivers for pictures and sound. 196-98. transmitters. double. 190-93. 196. 124. automatic. receivers. engineer. channels. 190-91. stations. 184-86. 141-58. 182. 193. 201-02. 102-04. 193. studios. 167-68. 188-99. control frequencies. 191. 198. 181. television. tube. 196. ionoscope.Ind e x switching. field. 186. 154 237 . "ghost" images. 199. 165-67. See Television Tubes. 209. 196 Three-dimensional pictures. colored. tube. 172. images. 68-81 Tuning devices. 178-81. 126 Uni-directional antennas. 204-12. 206. ultra-high. 179-81. 97. 200-12. See Antennas 7-8. personnel. 137-39. 211. 78-81. 208. transmitter. 199.. 5. frames. scanning in colored television. 136. 203-12. See Television. 72-74. 198 Television. 169-70. 196. 191. scanning. monitoring. tube. rectifier. See Television. lenses. video carrier wave. 106. exciter. 178. 193. light control. international problems. 203. 209. 10 Transmitters. line. 203. amplifier. 209. projector. modulation frequency. carrier wave in. 149 Units. 199. video and audio transmitters. 228-30 Timing of broadcasts. television. plates. 230. link. field for. 104 Transmission. receivers. stroboscopic three-color effect. 151-52. picture. picture. international. filters.
142. 126. 203. 126 indicator. 130-33. 120. 123. length. ground. 126-27.Ind ex V antennas. 191. carrier. sky. 142. 146. 113. 128. 121. 102. 49. See Sound 238 . ground and sky. 97 Voltage. horizontal-sweep. 80 Volume Volume control circuits. 147. 149-50 tubes. 190. 130. 68-81 Vacuum Velocity of light. 108. electric. 108. sound. short. 95. 193. 62 Waves.