1 narLaLez (2ŴManresa

)
kLÞU8LIC AC1 NoŦ 8293 Iune 6ţ 1997
AN AC1 ÞkLSCkI8ING 1nL IN1LLLLC1UAL ÞkCÞLk1¥ CCDL AND
LS1A8LISnING 1nL IN1LLLLC1UAL ÞkCÞLk1¥ CIIICLţ ÞkCVIDING
ICk I1S ÞCWLkS AND IUNC1ICNSţ AND ICk C1nLk ÞUkÞCSLS
ÞAk1 I
1nL IN1LLLLC1UAL ÞkCÞLk1¥ CIIICL
Sect|on 1Ŧ 1ltleŦ Ŵ 1hls AcL shall be known as Lhe ƍlnLellecLual
ÞroperLy Code of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦƍ
Sect|on 2Ŧ eclototloo of 5tote lollcyŦ Ŵ 1he SLaLe recognlzes LhaL
an effecLlve lnLellecLual and lndusLrlal properLy sysLem ls vlLal Lo
Lhe developmenL of domesLlc and creaLlve acLlvlLyţ faclllLaLes
Lransfer of Lechnologyţ aLLracLs forelgn lnvesLmenLsţ and ensures
markeL access for our producLsŦ lL shall proLecL and secure Lhe
excluslve rlghLs of sclenLlsLsţ lnvenLorsţ arLlsLs and oLher glfLed
clLlzens Lo Lhelr lnLellecLual properLy and creaLlonsţ parLlcularly
when beneflclal Lo Lhe peopleţ for such perlods as provlded ln Lhls
AcLŦ
1he use of lnLellecLual properLy bears a soclal funcLlonŦ 1o Lhls
endţ Lhe SLaLe shall promoLe Lhe dlffuslon of knowledge and
lnformaLlon for Lhe promoLlon of naLlonal developmenL and
progress and Lhe common goodŦ
lL ls also Lhe pollcy of Lhe SLaLe Lo sLreamllne admlnlsLraLlve
procedures of reglsLerlng paLenLsţ Lrademarks and copyrlghLţ Lo
llberallze Lhe reglsLraLlon on Lhe Lransfer of Lechnologyţ and Lo
enhance Lhe enforcemenL of lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs ln Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ (n)
Sect|on 3Ŧ otetootloool cooveotloos ooJ keclptocltyŦ Ŵ Any person
who ls a naLlonal or who ls domlclled or has a real and effecLlve
lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL ln a counLry whlch ls a parLy Lo any
convenLlonţ LreaLy or agreemenL relaLlng Lo lnLellecLual properLy
rlghLs or Lhe represslon of unfalr compeLlLlonţ Lo whlch Lhe
Þhlllpplnes ls also a parLyţ or exLends reclprocal rlghLs Lo naLlonals
of Lhe Þhlllpplnes by lawţ shall be enLlLled Lo beneflLs Lo Lhe exLenL
necessary Lo glve effecL Lo any provlslon of such convenLlonţ LreaLy
or reclprocal lawţ ln addlLlon Lo Lhe rlghLs Lo whlch any owner of
an lnLellecLual properLy rlghL ls oLherwlse enLlLled by Lhls AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on 4Ŧ efloltloosŦ Ŵ 4Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Lerm ƍlnLellecLual properLy rlghLsƍ
conslsLs ofť
a) CopyrlghL and 8elaLed 8lghLsŤ
b) 1rademarks and Servlce MarksŤ
c) Ceographlc lndlcaLlonsŤ
d) lndusLrlal ueslgnsŤ
e) ÞaLenLsŤ
f) LayouLŴueslgns (1opographles) of lnLegraLed ClrculLsŤ
and
g) ÞroLecLlon of undlsclosed lnformaLlon (nţ 18lÞS)Ŧ
4Ŧ2Ŧ 1he Lerm ƍLechnology Lransfer arrangemenLsƍ refers Lo
conLracLs or agreemenLs lnvolvlng Lhe Lransfer of sysLemaLlc
knowledge for Lhe manufacLure of a producLţ Lhe appllcaLlon of a
processţ or renderlng of a servlce lncludlng managemenL
conLracLsŤ and Lhe Lransferţ asslgnmenL or llcenslng of all forms of
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLsţ lncludlng llcenslng of compuLer
sofLware excepL compuLer sofLware developed for mass markeLŦ
4Ŧ3Ŧ 1he Lerm ƍCfflceƍ refers Lo Lhe lnLellecLual ÞroperLy Cfflce
creaLed by Lhls AcLŦ
4Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Lerm ƍlÞC CazeLLeƍ refers Lo Lhe gazeLLe publlshed by Lhe
Cfflce under Lhls AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on SŦ octloos of tbe otellectol ltopetty Offlce (lO)Ŧ Ŵ 3Ŧ1Ŧ
1o admlnlsLer and lmplemenL Lhe SLaLe pollcles declared ln Lhls
AcLţ Lhere ls hereby creaLed Lhe lnLellecLual ÞroperLy Cfflce (lÞC)
whlch shall have Lhe followlng funcLlonsť
a) Lxamlne appllcaLlons for granL of leLLers paLenL for
lnvenLlons and reglsLer uLlllLy models and lndusLrlal
deslgnsŤ
b) Lxamlne appllcaLlons for Lhe reglsLraLlon of marksţ
geographlc lndlcaLlonţ lnLegraLed clrculLsŤ
c) 8eglsLer Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLs and seLLle
dlspuLes lnvolvlng Lechnology Lransfer paymenLs
covered by Lhe provlslons of ÞarL llţ ChapLer lx on
volunLary Llcenslng and develop and lmplemenL
sLraLegles Lo promoLe and faclllLaLe Lechnology LransferŤ
d) ÞromoLe Lhe use of paLenL lnformaLlon as a Lool for
Lechnology developmenLŤ
e) Þubllsh regularly ln lLs own publlcaLlon Lhe paLenLsţ
marksţ uLlllLy models and lndusLrlal deslgnsţ lssued and
approvedţ and Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLs
reglsLeredŤ
f) AdmlnlsLraLlvely ad[udlcaLe conLesLed proceedlngs
affecLlng lnLellecLual properLy rlghLsŤ and
g) CoordlnaLe wlLh oLher governmenL agencles and Lhe
prlvaLe secLor efforLs Lo formulaLe and lmplemenL plans
and pollcles Lo sLrengLhen Lhe proLecLlon of lnLellecLual
properLy rlghLs ln Lhe counLryŦ
3Ŧ2Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall have cusLody of all recordsţ booksţ drawlngsţ
speclflcaLlonsţ documenLsţ and oLher papers and Lhlngs relaLlng Lo
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs appllcaLlons flled wlLh Lhe CfflceŦ (n)
Sect|on 6Ŧ 1be Otqoolzotloool 5ttctte of tbe lOŦ Ŵ 6Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce
shall be headed by a ulrecLor Ceneral who shall be asslsLed by Lwo



2 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
(2) uepuLles ulrecLor CeneralŦ
6Ŧ2Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall be dlvlded lnLo slx (6) 8ureausţ each of whlch
shall be headed by a ulrecLor and asslsLed by an AsslsLanL ulrecLorŦ
1hese 8ureaus areť
a) 1he 8ureau of ÞaLenLsŤ
b) 1he 8ureau of 1rademarksŤ
c) 1he 8ureau of Legal AffalrsŤ
d) 1he uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and 1echnology
1ransfer 8ureauŤ
e) 1he ManagemenL lnformaLlon SysLem and LuÞ
8ureauŤ and
f) 1he AdmlnlsLraLlveţ llnanclal and Þersonnel Servlces
8ureauŦ
6Ŧ3Ŧ 1he ulrecLor Ceneralţ uepuLles ulrecLor Ceneralţ ulrecLors
and AsslsLanL ulrecLors shall be appolnLed by Lhe ÞresldenLţ and
Lhe oLher offlcers and employees of Lhe Cfflce by Lhe SecreLary of
1rade and lndusLryţ conformably wlLh and under Lhe Clvll Servlce
LawŦ (n)
Sect|on 7Ŧ 1be ltectot Ceoetol ooJ eptles ltectot CeoetolŦ Ŵ
7Ŧ1Ŧ luncLlonsŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor Ceneral shall exerclse Lhe followlng
powers and funcLlonsť
a) Manage and dlrecL all funcLlons and acLlvlLles of Lhe
Cfflceţ lncludlng Lhe promulgaLlon of rules and
regulaLlons Lo lmplemenL Lhe ob[ecLlvesţ pollclesţ plansţ
programs and pro[ecLs of Lhe Cfflceť Þrovldedţ 1haL ln
Lhe exerclse of Lhe auLhorlLy Lo propose pollcles and
sLandards ln relaLlon Lo Lhe followlngť (1) Lhe effecLlveţ
efflclenLţ and economlcal operaLlons of Lhe Cfflce
requlrlng sLaLuLory enacLmenLŤ (2) coordlnaLlon wlLh
oLher agencles of governmenL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe
enforcemenL of lnLellecLual properLy rlghLsŤ (3) Lhe
recognlLlon of aLLorneysţ agenLsţ or oLher persons
represenLlng appllcanLs or oLher parLles before Lhe
CfflceŤ and (4) Lhe esLabllshmenL of fees for Lhe flllng
and processlng of an appllcaLlon for a paLenLţ uLlllLy
model or lndusLrlal deslgn or mark or a collecLlve markţ
geographlc lndlcaLlon and oLher marks of ownershlpţ
and for all oLher servlces performed and maLerlals
furnlshed by Lhe Cfflceţ Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral shall be
sub[ecL Lo Lhe supervlslon of Lhe SecreLary of 1rade and
lndusLryŤ
b) Lxerclse excluslve appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon over all
declslons rendered by Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrsţ Lhe
ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsţ Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarksţ and Lhe
ulrecLor of Lhe uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and
1echnology 1ransfer 8ureauŦ 1he declslons of Lhe
ulrecLor Ceneral ln Lhe exerclse of hls appellaLe
[urlsdlcLlon ln respecL of Lhe declslons of Lhe ulrecLor of
ÞaLenLsţ and Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarks shall be
appealable Lo Lhe CourL of Appeals ln accordance wlLh
Lhe 8ules of CourLŤ and Lhose ln respecL of Lhe declslons
of Lhe ulrecLor of uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and
1echnology 1ransfer 8ureau shall be appealable Lo Lhe
SecreLary of 1rade and lndusLryŤ and
c) Lxerclse orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon Lo resolve dlspuLes
relaLlng Lo Lhe Lerms of a llcense lnvolvlng Lhe auLhorƌs
rlghL Lo publlc performance or oLher communlcaLlon of
hls workŦ 1he declslons of Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral ln Lhese
cases shall be appealable Lo Lhe SecreLary of 1rade and
lndusLryŦ
7Ŧ2Ŧ CuallflcaLlonsŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor Ceneral and Lhe uepuLles
ulrecLor Ceneral musL be naLural born clLlzens of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ
aL leasL LhlrLyŴflve (33) years of age on Lhe day of Lhelr
appolnLmenLţ holders of a college degreeţ and of proven
compeLenceţ lnLegrlLyţ problLy and lndependenceť Þrovldedţ 1haL
Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral and aL leasL one (1) uepuLy ulrecLor Ceneral
shall be members of Lhe Þhlllpplne 8ar who have engaged ln Lhe
pracLlce of law for aL leasL Len (10) yearsť Þrovlded furLherţ 1haL ln
Lhe selecLlon of Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral and Lhe uepuLles ulrecLor
Ceneralţ conslderaLlon shall be glven Lo such quallflcaLlons as
would resulLţ as far as pracLlcableţ ln Lhe balanced represenLaLlon
ln Lhe ulrecLoraLe Ceneral of Lhe varlous flelds of lnLellecLual
properLyŦ
7Ŧ3Ŧ 1erm of CfflceŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor Ceneral and Lhe uepuLles
ulrecLor Ceneral shall be appolnLed by Lhe ÞresldenL for a Lerm of
flve (3) years and shall be ellglble for reappolnLmenL only onceť
Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe flrsL ulrecLor Ceneral shall have a flrsL Lerm of
seven (7) yearsŦ AppolnLmenL Lo any vacancy shall be only for Lhe
unexplred Lerm of Lhe predecessorŦ
7Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Cfflce of Lhe ulrecLor CeneralŦ Ŵ 1he Cfflce of Lhe ulrecLor
Ceneral shall conslsL of Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral and Lhe uepuLles
ulrecLor Ceneralţ Lhelr lmmedlaLe sLaff and such Cfflces and
Servlces LhaL Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral wlll seL up Lo supporL dlrecLly
Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ulrecLor CeneralŦ (n)
Sect|on 8Ŧ 1be 8teo of loteotsŦ Ŵ 1he 8ureau of ÞaLenLs shall
have Lhe followlng funcLlonsť
8Ŧ1Ŧ Search and examlnaLlon of paLenL appllcaLlons and Lhe granL
of paLenLsŤ
8Ŧ2Ŧ 8eglsLraLlon of uLlllLy modelsţ lndusLrlal deslgnsţ and
lnLegraLed clrculLsŤ and
8Ŧ3Ŧ ConducL sLudles and researches ln Lhe fleld of paLenLs ln order
Lo asslsL Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral ln formulaLlng pollcles on Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon and examlnaLlon of paLenLsŦ (n)
Sect|on 9Ŧ 1be 8teo of 1toJemotksŦ Ŵ 1he 8ureau of 1rademarks
shall have Lhe followlng funcLlonsť
9Ŧ1Ŧ Search and examlnaLlon of Lhe appllcaLlons for Lhe



3 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
reglsLraLlon of marksţ geographlc lndlcaLlons and oLher marks of
ownershlp and Lhe lssuance of Lhe cerLlflcaLes of reglsLraLlonŤ and
9Ŧ2Ŧ ConducL sLudles and researches ln Lhe fleld of Lrademarks ln
order Lo asslsL Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral ln formulaLlng pollcles on Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon and examlnaLlon of LrademarksŦ (n)
Sect|on 10Ŧ 1be 8teo of leqol AffoltsŦ Ŵ 1he 8ureau of Legal
Affalrs shall have Lhe followlng funcLlonsť
10Ŧ1Ŧ Pear and declde opposlLlon Lo Lhe appllcaLlon for
reglsLraLlon of marksŤ cancellaLlon of LrademarksŤ sub[ecL Lo Lhe
provlslons of SecLlon 64ţ cancellaLlon of paLenLsţ uLlllLy modelsţ
and lndusLrlal deslgnsŤ and peLlLlons for compulsory llcenslng of
paLenLsŤ
10Ŧ2Ŧ (a) Lxerclse orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon ln admlnlsLraLlve complalnLs
for vlolaLlons of laws lnvolvlng lnLellecLual properLy rlghLsť
Þrovldedţ 1haL lLs [urlsdlcLlon ls llmlLed Lo complalnLs where Lhe
LoLal damages clalmed are noL less Lhan 1wo hundred Lhousand
pesos (Þ200ţ000)ť Þrovlded furLherţ 1haL avallmenL of Lhe
provlslonal remedles may be granLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe 8ules
of CourLŦ 1he ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs shall have Lhe power Lo hold
and punlsh for conLempL all Lhose who dlsregard orders or wrlLs
lssued ln Lhe course of Lhe proceedlngsŦ (n)
(b) AfLer formal lnvesLlgaLlonţ Lhe ulrecLor for Legal
Affalrs may lmpose one (1) or more of Lhe followlng
admlnlsLraLlve penalLlesť
(l) 1he lssuance of a cease and deslsL order
whlch shall speclfy Lhe acLs LhaL Lhe
respondenL shall cease and deslsL from and
shall requlre hlm Lo submlL a compllance
reporL wlLhln a reasonable Llme whlch shall be
flxed ln Lhe orderŤ
(ll) 1he accepLance of a volunLary assurance of
compllance or dlsconLlnuance as may be
lmposedŦ Such volunLary assurance may
lnclude one or more of Lhe followlngť
(1) An assurance Lo comply wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhe lnLellecLual
properLy law vlolaLedŤ
(2) An assurance Lo refraln from
engaglng ln unlawful and unfalr acLs
and pracLlces sub[ecL of Lhe formal
lnvesLlgaLlonŤ
(3) An assurance Lo recallţ replaceţ
repalrţ or refund Lhe money value of
defecLlve goods dlsLrlbuLed ln
commerceŤ and
(4) An assurance Lo relmburse Lhe
complalnanL Lhe expenses and cosLs
lncurred ln prosecuLlng Lhe case ln
Lhe 8ureau of Legal AffalrsŦ
1he ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs may also requlre
Lhe respondenL Lo submlL perlodlc compllance
reporLs and flle a bond Lo guaranLee
compllance of hls underLaklngŤ
(lll) 1he condemnaLlon or selzure of producLs
whlch are sub[ecL of Lhe offenseŦ 1he goods
selzed hereunder shall be dlsposed of ln such
manner as may be deemed approprlaLe by Lhe
ulrecLor of Legal Affalrsţ such as by saleţ
donaLlon Lo dlsLressed local governmenLs or Lo
charlLable or rellef lnsLlLuLlonsţ exporLaLlonţ
recycllng lnLo oLher goodsţ or any comblnaLlon
Lhereofţ under such guldellnes as he may
provldeŤ
(lv) 1he forfelLure of paraphernalla and all real
and personal properLles whlch have been used
ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offenseŤ
(v) 1he lmposlLlon of admlnlsLraLlve flnes ln
such amounL as deemed reasonable by Lhe
ulrecLor of Legal Affalrsţ whlch shall ln no case
be less Lhan llve Lhousand pesos (Þ3ţ000) nor
more Lhan Cne hundred flfLy Lhousand pesos
(Þ130ţ000)Ŧ ln addlLlonţ an addlLlonal flne of
noL more Lhan Cne Lhousand pesos (Þ1ţ000)
shall be lmposed for each day of conLlnulng
vlolaLlonŤ
(vl) 1he cancellaLlon of any permlLţ llcenseţ
auLhorlLyţ or reglsLraLlon whlch may have been
granLed by Lhe Cfflceţ or Lhe suspenslon of Lhe
valldlLy Lhereof for such perlod of Llme as Lhe
ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs may deem reasonable
whlch shall noL exceed one (1) yearŤ
(vll) 1he wlLhholdlng of any permlLţ llcenseţ
auLhorlLyţ or reglsLraLlon whlch ls belng
secured by Lhe respondenL from Lhe CfflceŤ
(vlll) 1he assessmenL of damagesŤ
(lx) CensureŤ and
(x) CLher analogous penalLles or sancLlonsŦ
(SecsŦ 6ţ 7ţ 8ţ and 9ţ LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 913
ż1983Ža)
10Ŧ3Ŧ 1he ulrecLor Ceneral may by 8egulaLlons esLabllsh Lhe
procedure Lo govern Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls SecLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 11Ŧ 1be ocmeototlooţ ofotmotloo ooJ 1ecbooloqy
1toosfet 8teoŦ Ŵ 1he uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and



4 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
1echnology 1ransfer 8ureau shall have Lhe followlng funcLlonsť
11Ŧ1Ŧ SupporL Lhe search and examlnaLlon acLlvlLles of Lhe Cfflce
Lhrough Lhe followlng acLlvlLlesť
(a) MalnLaln and upkeep classlflcaLlon sysLems wheLher
Lhey be naLlonal or lnLernaLlonal such as Lhe
lnLernaLlonal ÞaLenL ClasslflcaLlon (lÞC) sysLemŤ
(b) Þrovlde advlsory servlces for Lhe deLermlnaLlon of
search paLLernsŤ
(c) MalnLaln search flles and search rooms and reference
llbrarlesŤ and
(d) AdapL and package lndusLrlal properLy lnformaLlonŦ
11Ŧ2Ŧ LsLabllsh neLworks or lnLermedlarles or reglonal
represenLaLlvesŤ
11Ŧ3Ŧ LducaLe Lhe publlc and bulld awareness on lnLellecLual
properLy Lhrough Lhe conducL of semlnars and lecLuresţ and oLher
slmllar acLlvlLlesŤ
11Ŧ4Ŧ LsLabllsh worklng relaLlons wlLh research and developmenL
lnsLlLuLlons as well as wlLh local and lnLernaLlonal lnLellecLual
properLy professlonal groups and Lhe llkeŤ
11Ŧ3Ŧ Þerform sLaLeŴofŴLheŴarL searchesŤ
11Ŧ6Ŧ ÞromoLe Lhe use of paLenL lnformaLlon as an effecLlve Lool Lo
faclllLaLe Lhe developmenL of Lechnology ln Lhe counLryŤ
11Ŧ7Ŧ Þrovlde Lechnlcalţ advlsoryţ and oLher servlces relaLlng Lo Lhe
llcenslng and promoLlon of Lechnologyţ and carry ouL an efflclenL
and effecLlve program for Lechnology LransferŤ and
11Ŧ8Ŧ 8eglsLer Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLsţ and seLLle
dlspuLes lnvolvlng Lechnology Lransfer paymenLsŦ (n)
Sect|on 12Ŧ 1be Moooqemeot ofotmotloo 5etvlces ooJ íl
8teoŦ Ŵ 1he ManagemenL lnformaLlon Servlces and LuÞ 8ureau
shallť
12Ŧ1Ŧ ConducL auLomaLlon plannlngţ research and developmenLţ
LesLlng of sysLemsţ conLracLs wlLh flrmsţ conLracLlngţ purchase and
malnLenance of equlpmenLţ deslgn and malnLenance of sysLemsţ
user consulLaLlonţ and Lhe llkeŤ and
12Ŧ2Ŧ Þrovlde managemenL lnformaLlon supporL and servlce Lo Lhe
CfflceŦ (n)
Sect|on 13Ŧ 1be AJmlolsttotlveţ loooclol ooJ nmoo kesotce
evelopmeot 5etvlce 8teoŦ Ŵ 13Ŧ1Ŧ 1he AdmlnlsLraLlve Servlce
shallť (a) Þrovlde servlces relaLlve Lo procuremenL and allocaLlon of
supplles and equlpmenLţ LransporLaLlonţ messengerlal workţ
cashlerlngţ paymenL of salarles and oLher Cfflceƌs obllgaLlonsţ
offlce malnLenanceţ proper safeLy and securlLyţ and oLher uLlllLy
servlcesŤ and comply wlLh governmenL regulaLory requlremenLs ln
Lhe areas of performance appralsalţ compensaLlon and beneflLsţ
employmenL records and reporLsŤ
(b) 8ecelve all appllcaLlons flled wlLh Lhe Cfflce and
collecL fees Lhereforţ and
(c) Þubllsh paLenL appllcaLlons and granLsţ Lrademark
appllcaLlonsţ and reglsLraLlon of marksţ lndusLrlal
deslgnsţ uLlllLy modelsţ geographlc lndlcaLlonţ and layŴ
ouLŴdeslgns of lnLegraLed clrculLs reglsLraLlonsŦ
13Ŧ2Ŧ 1he ÞaLenL and 1rademark AdmlnlsLraLlon Servlces shall
perform Lhe followlng funcLlons among oLhersť
(a) MalnLaln reglsLers of asslgnmenLsţ merglngsţ llcensesţ
and blbllographlc on paLenLs and LrademarksŤ
(b) CollecL malnLenance feesţ lssue cerLlfled coples of
documenLs ln lLs cusLody and perform slmllar oLher
acLlvlLlesŤ and
(c) Pold ln cusLody all Lhe appllcaLlons flled wlLh Lhe
offlceţ and all paLenL granLsţ cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlons
lssued by Lhe offlceţ and Lhe llkeŦ
13Ŧ3Ŧ 1he llnanclal Servlce shall formulaLe and manage a flnanclal
program Lo ensure avallablllLy and proper uLlllzaLlon of fundsŤ
provlde for an effecLlve monlLorlng sysLem of Lhe flnanclal
operaLlons of Lhe CfflceŤ and
13Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Puman 8esource uevelopmenL Servlce shall deslgn and
lmplemenL human resource developmenL plans and programs for
Lhe personnel of Lhe CfflceŤ provlde for presenL and fuLure
manpower needs of Lhe organlzaLlonŤ malnLaln hlgh morale and
favorable employee aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe organlzaLlon Lhrough
Lhe conLlnulng deslgn and lmplemenLaLlon of employee
developmenL programsŦ (n)
Sect|on 14Ŧ Dse of otellectol ltopetty klqbts ees by tbe lOŦ Ŵ
14Ŧ1Ŧ lor a more effecLlve and expedlLlous lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls
AcLţ Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral shall be auLhorlzed Lo reLalnţ wlLhouL
need of a separaLe approval from any governmenL agencyţ and
sub[ecL only Lo Lhe exlsLlng accounLlng and audlLlng rules and
regulaLlonsţ all Lhe feesţ flnesţ royalLles and oLher chargesţ
collecLed by Lhe Cfflce under Lhls AcL and Lhe oLher laws LhaL Lhe
Cfflce wlll be mandaLed Lo admlnlsLerţ for use ln lLs operaLlonsţ
llke upgradlng of lLs faclllLlesţ equlpmenL ouLlayţ human resource
developmenLţ and Lhe acqulslLlon of Lhe approprlaLe offlce spaceţ
among oLhersţ Lo lmprove Lhe dellvery of lLs servlces Lo Lhe publlcŦ
1hls amounLţ whlch shall be ln addlLlon Lo Lhe Cfflceƌs annual
budgeLţ shall be deposlLed and malnLalned ln a separaLe accounL
or fundţ whlch may be used or dlsbursed dlrecLly by Lhe ulrecLor
CeneralŦ
14Ŧ2Ŧ AfLer flve (3) years from Lhe comlng lnLo force of Lhls AcLţ Lhe
ulrecLor Ceneral shallţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval of Lhe SecreLary of
1rade and lndusLryţ deLermlne lf Lhe fees and charges menLloned



3 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
ln SubsecLlon 14Ŧ1 hereof LhaL Lhe Cfflce shall collecL are sufflclenL
Lo meeL lLs budgeLary requlremenLsŦ lf soţ lL shall reLaln all Lhe fees
and charges lL shall collecL under Lhe same condlLlons lndlcaLed ln
sald SubsecLlon 14Ŧ1 buL shall forLhwlLhţ cease Lo recelve any
funds from Lhe annual budgeL of Lhe naLlonal CovernmenLŤ lf noLţ
Lhe provlslons of sald SubsecLlon 14Ŧ1 shall conLlnue Lo apply unLll
such Llme when Lhe ulrecLor Ceneralţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval of
Lhe SecreLary of 1rade and lndusLryţ cerLlfles LhaL Lhe aboveŴsLaLed
fees and charges Lhe Cfflce shall collecL are enough Lo fund lLs
operaLlonsŦ (n)
Sect|on 1SŦ 5peclol 1ecbolcol ooJ 5cleotlflc AsslstooceŦ Ŵ 1he
ulrecLor Ceneral ls empowered Lo obLaln Lhe asslsLance of
Lechnlcalţ sclenLlflc or oLher quallfled offlcers and employees of
oLher deparLmenLsţ bureausţ offlcesţ agencles and
lnsLrumenLallLles of Lhe CovernmenLţ lncludlng corporaLlons
ownedţ conLrolled or operaLed by Lhe CovernmenLţ when deemed
necessary ln Lhe conslderaLlon of any maLLer submlLLed Lo Lhe
Cfflce relaLlve Lo Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLŦ
(SecŦ 3ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 16Ŧ 5eol of OfflceŦ Ŵ 1he Cfflce shall have a sealţ Lhe form
and deslgn of whlch shall be approved by Lhe ulrecLor CeneralŦ
(SecŦ 4ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 17Ŧ lbllcotloo of lows ooJ keqlotloosŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor
Ceneral shall cause Lo be prlnLed and make avallable for
dlsLrlbuLlonţ pamphleL coples of Lhls AcLţ oLher perLlnenL lawsţ
execuLlve orders and lnformaLlon clrculars relaLlng Lo maLLers
wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe CfflceŦ (SecŦ 3ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 18Ŧ 1be lO CozetteŦ Ŵ All maLLers requlred Lo be publlshed
under Lhls AcL shall be publlshed ln Lhe Cfflceƌs own publlcaLlon Lo
be known as Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ (n)
Sect|on 19Ŧ lspollflcotloo of Offlcets ooJ ímployees of tbe
OfflceŦ Ŵ All offlcers and employees of Lhe Cfflce shall noL apply or
acL as an aLLorney or paLenL agenL of an appllcaLlon for a granL of
paLenLţ for Lhe reglsLraLlon of a uLlllLy modelţ lndusLrlal deslgn or
mark nor acqulreţ excepL by heredlLary successlonţ any paLenL or
uLlllLy modelţ deslgn reglsLraLlonţ or mark or any rlghLţ LlLle or
lnLeresL Lhereln durlng Lhelr employmenL and for one (1) year
LhereafLerŦ (SecŦ 77ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
ÞAk1 II
1nL LAW CN ÞA1LN1S
CnAÞ1Lk I
GLNLkAL ÞkCVISICNS
Sect|on 20Ŧ efloltloo of 1etms DseJ lo lott ţ 1be low oo
loteotsŦ Ŵ As used ln ÞarL llţ Lhe followlng Lerms shall have Lhe
followlng meanlngsť
20Ŧ1Ŧ ƍ8ureauƍ means Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ
20Ŧ2Ŧ ƍulrecLorƍ means Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsŤ
20Ŧ3Ŧ ƍ8egulaLlonsƍ means Lhe 8ules of ÞracLlce ln ÞaLenL
Cases formulaLed by Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs and
promulgaLed by Lhe ulrecLor CeneralŤ
20Ŧ4Ŧ ƍLxamlnerƍ means Lhe paLenL examlnerŤ
20Ŧ3Ŧ ƍÞaLenL appllcaLlonƍ or ƍappllcaLlonƍ means an
appllcaLlon for a paLenL for an lnvenLlon excepL ln
ChapLers xll and xlllţ where ƍappllcaLlonƍ means an
appllcaLlon for a uLlllLy model and an lndusLrlal deslgnţ
respecLlvelyŤ and
20Ŧ6Ŧ ƍÞrlorlLy daLeƍ means Lhe daLe of flllng of Lhe
forelgn appllcaLlon for Lhe same lnvenLlon referred Lo ln
SecLlon 31 of Lhls AcLŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk II
ÞA1LN1A8ILI1¥
Sect|on 21Ŧ loteotoble oveotloosŦ Ŵ Any Lechnlcal soluLlon of a
problem ln any fleld of human acLlvlLy whlch ls newţ lnvolves an
lnvenLlve sLep and ls lndusLrlally appllcable shall be ÞaLenLableŦ lL
may beţ or may relaLe Loţ a producLţ or processţ or an
lmprovemenL of any of Lhe foregolngŦ (SecŦ 7ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 22Ŧ -ooŴloteotoble oveotloosŦ Ŵ 1he followlng shall be
excluded from paLenL proLecLlonť
22Ŧ1Ŧ ulscoverlesţ sclenLlflc Lheorles and maLhemaLlcal meLhodsŤ
22Ŧ2Ŧ Schemesţ rules and meLhods of performlng menLal acLsţ
playlng games or dolng buslnessţ and programs for compuLersŤ
22Ŧ3Ŧ MeLhods for LreaLmenL of Lhe human or anlmal body by
surgery or Lherapy and dlagnosLlc meLhods pracLlced on Lhe
human or anlmal bodyŦ 1hls provlslon shall noL apply Lo producLs
and composlLlon for use ln any of Lhese meLhodsŤ
22Ŧ4Ŧ ÞlanL varleLles or anlmal breeds or essenLlally blologlcal
process for Lhe producLlon of planLs or anlmalsŦ 1hls provlslon
shall noL apply Lo mlcroŴorganlsms and nonŴblologlcal and
mlcroblologlcal processesŦ
Þrovlslons under Lhls subsecLlon shall noL preclude Congress Lo
conslder Lhe enacLmenL of a law provldlng sul generls proLecLlon
of planL varleLles and anlmal breeds and a sysLem of communlLy
lnLellecLual rlghLs proLecLlonť
22Ŧ3Ŧ AesLheLlc creaLlonsŤ and
22Ŧ6Ŧ AnyLhlng whlch ls conLrary Lo publlc order or morallLyŦ (SecŦ
8ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 23Ŧ -oveltyŦ Ŧ Ŵ An lnvenLlon shall noL be consldered new lf
lL forms parL of a prlor arLŦ (SecŦ 9ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)



6 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
Sect|on 24Ŧ ltlot AttŦ Ŵ Þrlor arL shall conslsL ofť
24Ŧ1Ŧ LveryLhlng whlch has been made avallable Lo Lhe publlc
anywhere ln Lhe worldţ before Lhe flllng daLe or Lhe prlorlLy daLe
of Lhe appllcaLlon clalmlng Lhe lnvenLlonŤ and
24Ŧ2Ŧ 1he whole conLenLs of an appllcaLlon for a paLenLţ uLlllLy
modelţ or lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLraLlonţ publlshed ln accordance
wlLh Lhls AcLţ flled or effecLlve ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ wlLh a flllng or
prlorlLy daLe LhaL ls earller Lhan Lhe flllng or prlorlLy daLe of Lhe
appllcaLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe appllcaLlon whlch has valldly
clalmed Lhe flllng daLe of an earller appllcaLlon under SecLlon 31 of
Lhls AcLţ shall be prlor arL wlLh effecL as of Lhe flllng daLe of such
earller appllcaLlonť Þrovlded furLherţ 1haL Lhe appllcanL or Lhe
lnvenLor ldenLlfled ln boLh appllcaLlons are noL one and Lhe sameŦ
(SecŦ 9ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 2SŦ -ooŴltejJlclol lsclosteŦ Ŧ Ŵ 23Ŧ1Ŧ 1he dlsclosure of
lnformaLlon conLalned ln Lhe appllcaLlon durlng Lhe Lwelve (12)
monLhs precedlng Lhe flllng daLe or Lhe prlorlLy daLe of Lhe
appllcaLlon shall noL pre[udlce Lhe appllcanL on Lhe ground of lack
of novelLy lf such dlsclosure was made byť
(a) 1he lnvenLorŤ
(b) A paLenL offlce and Lhe lnformaLlon was conLalned (a)
ln anoLher appllcaLlon flled by Lhe lnvenLor and should
noL have been dlsclosed by Lhe offlceţ or (b) ln an
appllcaLlon flled wlLhouL Lhe knowledge or consenL of
Lhe lnvenLor by a Lhlrd parLy whlch obLalned Lhe
lnformaLlon dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from Lhe lnvenLorŤ or
(c) A Lhlrd parLy whlch obLalned Lhe lnformaLlon dlrecLly
or lndlrecLly from Lhe lnvenLorŦ
23Ŧ2Ŧ lor Lhe purposes of SubsecLlon 23Ŧ1ţ ƍlnvenLorƍ also means
any person whoţ aL Lhe flllng daLe of appllcaLlonţ had Lhe rlghL Lo
Lhe paLenLŦ (n)
Sect|on 26Ŧ oveotlve 5tepŦ Ŵ An lnvenLlon lnvolves an lnvenLlve
sLep lfţ havlng regard Lo prlor arLţ lL ls noL obvlous Lo a person
skllled ln Lhe arL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng daLe or prlorlLy daLe of Lhe
appllcaLlon clalmlng Lhe lnvenLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 27Ŧ oJsttlol AppllcobllltyŦ Ŵ An lnvenLlon LhaL can be
produced and used ln any lndusLry shall be lndusLrlally appllcableŦ
(n)
CnAÞ1Lk III
kIGn1 1C A ÞA1LN1
Sect|on 28Ŧ klqbt to o loteotŦ Ŵ 1he rlghL Lo a paLenL belongs Lo Lhe
lnvenLorţ hls helrsţ or asslgnsŦ When Lwo (2) or more persons have
[olnLly made an lnvenLlonţ Lhe rlghL Lo a paLenL shall belong Lo
Lhem [olnLlyŦ (SecŦ 10ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 29Ŧ ltst to lle kleŦ Ŵ lf Lwo (2) or more persons have
made Lhe lnvenLlon separaLely and lndependenLly of each oLherţ
Lhe rlghL Lo Lhe paLenL shall belong Lo Lhe person who flled an
appllcaLlon for such lnvenLlonţ or where Lwo or more appllcaLlons
are flled for Lhe same lnvenLlonţ Lo Lhe appllcanL who has Lhe
earllesL flllng daLe orţ Lhe earllesL prlorlLy daLeŦ (3rd senLenceţ SecŦ
10ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163aŦ)
Sect|on 30Ŧ oveotloos cteoteJ ltsoot to o commlsslooŦ Ŵ 30Ŧ1Ŧ
1he person who commlsslons Lhe work shall own Lhe paLenLţ
unless oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe conLracLŦ
30Ŧ2Ŧ ln case Lhe employee made Lhe lnvenLlon ln Lhe course of hls
employmenL conLracLţ Lhe paLenL shall belong Loť
(a) 1he employeeţ lf Lhe lnvenLlve acLlvlLy ls noL a parL of
hls regular duLles even lf Lhe employee uses Lhe Llmeţ
faclllLles and maLerlals of Lhe employerŦ
(b) 1he employerţ lf Lhe lnvenLlon ls Lhe resulL of Lhe
performance of hls regularlyŴasslgned duLlesţ unless
Lhere ls an agreemenLţ express or lmplledţ Lo Lhe
conLraryŦ (n)
Sect|on 31Ŧ klqbt of ltlotltyŦ Ŧ Ŵ An appllcaLlon for paLenL flled by
any person who has prevlously applled for Lhe same lnvenLlon ln
anoLher counLry whlch by LreaLyţ convenLlonţ or law affords
slmllar prlvlleges Lo llllplno clLlzensţ shall be consldered as flled as
of Lhe daLe of flllng Lhe forelgn appllcaLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haLť (a) Lhe
local appllcaLlon expressly clalms prlorlLyŤ (b) lL ls flled wlLhln
Lwelve (12) monLhs from Lhe daLe Lhe earllesL forelgn appllcaLlon
was flledŤ and (c) a cerLlfled copy of Lhe forelgn appllcaLlon
LogeLher wlLh an Lngllsh LranslaLlon ls flled wlLhln slx (6) monLhs
from Lhe daLe of flllng ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ (SecŦ 13ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
CnAÞ1Lk IV
ÞA1LN1 AÞÞLICA1ICN
Sect|on 32Ŧ 1be AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 32Ŧ1Ŧ 1he paLenL appllcaLlon shall be
ln llllplno or Lngllsh and shall conLaln Lhe followlngť
(a) A requesL for Lhe granL of a paLenLŤ
(b) A descrlpLlon of Lhe lnvenLlonŤ
(c) urawlngs necessary for Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe
lnvenLlonŤ
(d) Cne or more clalmsŤ and
(e) An absLracLŦ
32Ŧ2Ŧ no paLenL may be granLed unless Lhe appllcaLlon ldenLlfles
Lhe lnvenLorŦ lf Lhe appllcanL ls noL Lhe lnvenLorţ Lhe Cfflce may
requlre hlm Lo submlL sald auLhorlLyŦ (SecŦ 13ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 33Ŧ Appolotmeot of Aqeot ot kepteseototlveŦ Ŵ An
appllcanL who ls noL a resldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes musL appolnL and
malnLaln a resldenL agenL or represenLaLlve ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
upon whom noLlce or process for [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve



7 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
procedure relaLlng Lo Lhe appllcaLlon for paLenL or Lhe paLenL may
be servedŦ (SecŦ 11ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 34Ŧ 1be kepestŦ Ŵ 1he requesL shall conLaln a peLlLlon for
Lhe granL of Lhe paLenLţ Lhe name and oLher daLa of Lhe appllcanLţ
Lhe lnvenLor and Lhe agenL and Lhe LlLle of Lhe lnvenLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 3SŦ lscloste ooJ esctlptloo of tbe oveotlooŦ Ŵ 33Ŧ1Ŧ
ulsclosureŦ Ŵ 1he appllcaLlon shall dlsclose Lhe lnvenLlon ln a
manner sufflclenLly clear and compleLe for lL Lo be carrled ouL by a
person skllled ln Lhe arLŦ Where Lhe appllcaLlon concerns a
mlcroblologlcal process or Lhe producL Lhereof and lnvolves Lhe
use of a mlcroŴorganlsm whlch cannoL be sufflclenLly dlsclosed ln
Lhe appllcaLlon ln such a way as Lo enable Lhe lnvenLlon Lo be
carrled ouL by a person skllled ln Lhe arLţ and such maLerlal ls noL
avallable Lo Lhe publlcţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall be supplemenLed by a
deposlL of such maLerlal wlLh an lnLernaLlonal deposlLory
lnsLlLuLlonŦ
33Ŧ2Ŧ uescrlpLlonŦ Ŵ 1he 8egulaLlons shall prescrlbe Lhe conLenLs of
Lhe descrlpLlon and Lhe order of presenLaLlonŦ (SecŦ 14ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
Sect|on 36Ŧ 1be clolmsŦ Ŵ 36Ŧ1Ŧ 1he appllcaLlon shall conLaln one (1)
or more clalms whlch shall deflne Lhe maLLer for whlch proLecLlon
ls soughLŦ Lach clalm shall be clear and conclseţ and shall be
supporLed by Lhe descrlpLlonŦ
36Ŧ2Ŧ 1he 8egulaLlons shall prescrlbe Lhe manner of Lhe
presenLaLlon of clalmsŦ (n)
Sect|on 37Ŧ 1be AbsttoctŦ Ŵ 1he absLracL shall conslsL of a conclse
summary of Lhe dlsclosure of Lhe lnvenLlon as conLalned ln Lhe
descrlpLlonţ clalms and drawlngs ln preferably noL more Lhan one
hundred flfLy (130) wordsŦ lL musL be drafLed ln a way whlch
allows Lhe clear undersLandlng of Lhe Lechnlcal problemţ Lhe glsL
of Lhe soluLlon of LhaL problem Lhrough Lhe lnvenLlonţ and Lhe
prlnclpal use or uses of Lhe lnvenLlonŦ 1he absLracL shall merely
serve for Lechnlcal lnformaLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 38Ŧ Dolty of oveotlooŦ Ŵ 38Ŧ1Ŧ 1he appllcaLlon shall relaLe
Lo one lnvenLlon only or Lo a group of lnvenLlons formlng a slngle
general lnvenLlve concepLŦ
38Ŧ2Ŧ lf several lndependenL lnvenLlons whlch do noL form a slngle
general lnvenLlve concepL are clalmed ln one appllcaLlonţ Lhe
ulrecLor may requlre LhaL Lhe appllcaLlon be resLrlcLed Lo a slngle
lnvenLlonŦ A laLer appllcaLlon flled for an lnvenLlon dlvlded ouL
shall be consldered as havlng been flled on Lhe same day as Lhe
flrsL appllcaLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe laLer appllcaLlon ls flled wlLhln
four (4) monLhs afLer Lhe requlremenL Lo dlvlde becomes flnal or
wlLhln such addlLlonal Llmeţ noL exceedlng four (4) monLhsţ as may
be granLedť Þrovlded furLherţ 1haL each dlvlslonal appllcaLlon shall
noL go beyond Lhe dlsclosure ln Lhe lnlLlal appllcaLlonŦ
38Ŧ3Ŧ 1he facL LhaL a paLenL has been granLed on an appllcaLlon
LhaL dld noL comply wlLh Lhe requlremenL of unlLy of lnvenLlon
shall noL be a ground Lo cancel Lhe paLenLŦ (SecŦ 17ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 39Ŧ ofotmotloo coocetoloq cottespooJloq otelqo
Appllcotloo fot loteotsŦ Ŵ 1he appllcanL shallţ aL Lhe requesL of Lhe
ulrecLorţ furnlsh hlm wlLh Lhe daLe and number of any appllcaLlon
for a paLenL flled by hlm abroadţ hereafLer referred Lo as Lhe
ƍforelgn appllcaLlonţƍ relaLlng Lo Lhe same or essenLlally Lhe same
lnvenLlon as LhaL clalmed ln Lhe appllcaLlon flled wlLh Lhe Cfflce
and oLher documenLs relaLlng Lo Lhe forelgn appllcaLlonŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk V
ÞkCCLDUkL ICk GkAN1 CI ÞA1LN1
Sect|on 40Ŧ llloq ote kepltemeotsŦ Ŵ 40Ŧ1Ŧ 1he flllng daLe of a
paLenL appllcaLlon shall be Lhe daLe of recelpL by Lhe Cfflce of aL
leasL Lhe followlng elemenLsť
(a) An express or lmpllclL lndlcaLlon LhaL a Þhlllpplne
paLenL ls soughLŤ
(b) lnformaLlon ldenLlfylng Lhe appllcanLŤ and
(c) uescrlpLlon of Lhe lnvenLlon and one (1) or more
clalms ln llllplno or LngllshŦ
40Ŧ2Ŧ lf any of Lhese elemenLs ls noL submlLLed wlLhln Lhe perlod
seL by Lhe 8egulaLlonsţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall be consldered
wlLhdrawnŦ (n)
Sect|on 41Ŧ AccotJloq o llloq oteŦ Ŵ 1he Cfflce shall examlne
wheLher Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon saLlsfles Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe
granL of daLe of flllng as provlded ln SecLlon 40 hereofŦ lf Lhe daLe
of flllng cannoL be accordedţ Lhe appllcanL shall be glven an
opporLunlLy Lo correcL Lhe deflclencles ln accordance wlLh Lhe
lmplemenLlng 8egulaLlonsŦ lf Lhe appllcaLlon does noL conLaln all
Lhe elemenLs lndlcaLed ln SecLlon 40ţ Lhe flllng daLe should be LhaL
daLe when all Lhe elemenLs are recelvedŦ lf Lhe deflclencles are noL
remedled wlLhln Lhe prescrlbed Llme llmlLţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall be
consldered wlLhdrawnŦ (n)
Sect|on 42Ŧ otmollty íxomlootlooŦ Ŵ 42Ŧ1Ŧ AfLer Lhe paLenL
appllcaLlon has been accorded a flllng daLe and Lhe requlred fees
have been pald on Llme ln accordance wlLh Lhe 8egulaLlonsţ Lhe
appllcanL shall comply wlLh Lhe formal requlremenLs speclfled by
SecLlon 32 and Lhe 8egulaLlons wlLhln Lhe prescrlbed perlodţ
oLherwlse Lhe appllcaLlon shall be consldered wlLhdrawnŦ
42Ŧ2Ŧ 1he 8egulaLlons shall deLermlne Lhe procedure for Lhe reŴ
examlnaLlon and revlval of an appllcaLlon as well as Lhe appeal Lo
Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs from any flnal acLlon by Lhe examlnerŦ (SecŦ
16ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 43Ŧ closslflcotloo ooJ 5eotcbŦ Ŵ An appllcaLlon LhaL has
complled wlLh Lhe formal requlremenLs shall be classlfled and a
search conducLed Lo deLermlne Lhe prlor arLŦ (n)
Sect|on 44Ŧ lbllcotloo of loteot AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 44Ŧ1Ŧ 1he paLenL
appllcaLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe LogeLher wlLh a
search documenL esLabllshed by or on behalf of Lhe Cfflce clLlng
any documenLs LhaL reflecL prlor arLţ afLer Lhe explraLlon of



8 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
elghLeen ( 18) monLhs from Lhe flllng daLe or prlorlLy daLeŦ
44Ŧ2Ŧ AfLer publlcaLlon of a paLenL appllcaLlonţ any lnLeresLed
parLy may lnspecL Lhe appllcaLlon documenLs flled wlLh Lhe CfflceŦ
44Ŧ3Ŧ 1he ulrecLor Ceneral sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval of Lhe SecreLary
of 1rade and lndusLryţ may prohlblL or resLrlcL Lhe publlcaLlon of
an appllcaLlonţ lf ln hls oplnlonţ Lo do so would be pre[udlclal Lo
Lhe naLlonal securlLy and lnLeresLs of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ (n)
Sect|on 4SŦ cooflJeotlollty 8efote lbllcotlooŦ Ŵ A paLenL
appllcaLlonţ whlch has noL yeL been publlshedţ and all relaLed
documenLsţ shall noL be made avallable for lnspecLlon wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of Lhe appllcanLŦ (n)
Sect|on 46Ŧ klqbts coofetteJ by o loteot Appllcotloo Aftet
lbllcotlooŦ Ŵ 1he appllcanL shall have all Lhe rlghLs of a paLenLee
under SecLlon 76 agalnsL any person whoţ wlLhouL hls
auLhorlzaLlonţ exerclsed any of Lhe rlghLs conferred under SecLlon
71 of Lhls AcL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe lnvenLlon clalmed ln Lhe publlshed
paLenL appllcaLlonţ as lf a paLenL had been granLed for LhaL
lnvenLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe sald person hadť
46Ŧ1Ŧ AcLual knowledge LhaL Lhe lnvenLlon LhaL he was uslng was
Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a publlshed appllcaLlonŤ or
46Ŧ2Ŧ 8ecelved wrlLLen noLlce LhaL Lhe lnvenLlon LhaL he was uslng
was Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a publlshed appllcaLlon belng ldenLlfled
ln Lhe sald noLlce by lLs serlal numberť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe acLlon
may noL be flled unLll afLer Lhe granL of a paLenL on Lhe publlshed
appllcaLlon and wlLhln four (4) years from Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
acLs complalned ofŦ (n)
Sect|on 47Ŧ Obsetvotloo by 1bltJ lottlesŦ Ŵ lollowlng Lhe
publlcaLlon of Lhe paLenL appllcaLlonţ any person may presenL
observaLlons ln wrlLlng concernlng Lhe paLenLablllLy of Lhe
lnvenLlonŦ Such observaLlons shall be communlcaLed Lo Lhe
appllcanL who may commenL on LhemŦ 1he Cfflce shall
acknowledge and puL such observaLlons and commenL ln Lhe flle
of Lhe appllcaLlon Lo whlch lL relaLesŦ (n)
Sect|on 48Ŧ kepest fot 5bstootlve íxomlootlooŦ Ŵ 48Ŧ1Ŧ 1he
appllcaLlon shall be deemed wlLhdrawn unless wlLhln slx (6)
monLhs from Lhe daLe of publlcaLlon under SecLlon 41ţ a wrlLLen
requesL Lo deLermlne wheLher a paLenL appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe
requlremenLs of SecLlons 21 Lo 27 and SecLlons 32 Lo 39 and Lhe
fees have been pald on LlmeŦ
48Ŧ2Ŧ WlLhdrawal of Lhe requesL for examlnaLlon shall be
lrrevocable and shall noL auLhorlze Lhe refund of any feeŦ (n)
Sect|on 49Ŧ AmeoJmeot of AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ An appllcanL may amend
Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon durlng examlnaLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL such
amendmenL shall noL lnclude new maLLer ouLslde Lhe scope of Lhe
dlsclosure conLalned ln Lhe appllcaLlon as flledŦ (n)
Sect|on S0Ŧ Ctoot of loteotŦ Ŵ 30Ŧ1Ŧ lf Lhe appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe
requlremenLs of Lhls AcLţ Lhe Cfflce shall granL Lhe paLenLť
Þrovldedţ 1haL all Lhe fees are pald on LlmeŦ
30Ŧ2Ŧ lf Lhe requlred fees for granL and prlnLlng are noL pald ln due
Llmeţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall be deemed Lo be wlLhdrawnŦ
30Ŧ3Ŧ A paLenL shall Lake effecL on Lhe daLe of Lhe publlcaLlon of
Lhe granL of Lhe paLenL ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 18ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S1Ŧ kefsol of tbe AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 31Ŧ1Ŧ 1he flnal order of
refusal of Lhe examlner Lo granL Lhe paLenL shall be appealable Lo
Lhe ulrecLor ln accordance wlLh Lhls AcLŦ
31Ŧ2Ŧ 1he 8egulaLlons shall provlde for Lhe procedure by whlch an
appeal from Lhe order of refusal from Lhe ulrecLor shall be
underLakenŦ (n)
Sect|on S2Ŧ lbllcotloo Dpoo Ctoot of loteotŦ Ŵ 32Ŧ1Ŧ 1he granL of
Lhe paLenL LogeLher wlLh oLher relaLed lnformaLlon shall be
publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe wlLhln Lhe Llme prescrlbed by Lhe
8egulaLlonsŦ
32Ŧ2Ŧ Any lnLeresLed parLy may lnspecL Lhe compleLe descrlpLlonţ
clalmsţ and drawlngs of Lhe paLenL on flle wlLh Lhe CfflceŦ (SecŦ 18ţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S3Ŧ cooteots of loteotŦ Ŵ 1he paLenL shall be lssued ln Lhe
name of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes under Lhe seal of Lhe
Cfflce and shall be slgned by Lhe ulrecLorţ and reglsLered LogeLher
wlLh Lhe descrlpLlonţ clalmsţ and drawlngsţ lf anyţ ln books and
records of Lhe CfflceŦ (SecsŦ 19 and 20ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S4Ŧ 1etm of loteotŦ Ŵ 1he Lerm of a paLenL shall be LwenLy
(20) years from Lhe flllng daLe of Lhe appllcaLlonŦ (SecŦ 21ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
Sect|on SSŦ Aoool eesŦ Ŵ 33Ŧ1Ŧ 1o malnLaln Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon
or paLenLţ an annual fee shall be pald upon Lhe explraLlon of four
(4) years from Lhe daLe Lhe appllcaLlon was publlshed pursuanL Lo
SecLlon 44 hereofţ and on each subsequenL annlversary of such
daLeŦ ÞaymenL may be made wlLhln Lhree (3) monLhs before Lhe
due daLeŦ 1he obllgaLlon Lo pay Lhe annual fees shall LermlnaLe
should Lhe appllcaLlon be wlLhdrawnţ refusedţ or cancelledŦ
33Ŧ2Ŧ lf Lhe annual fee ls noL paldţ Lhe paLenL appllcaLlon shall be
deemed wlLhdrawn or Lhe paLenL consldered as lapsed from Lhe
day followlng Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod wlLhln whlch Lhe annual
fees were dueŦ A noLlce LhaL Lhe appllcaLlon ls deemed wlLhdrawn
or Lhe lapse of a paLenL for nonŴpaymenL of any annual fee shall
be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe and Lhe lapse shall be recorded ln
Lhe 8eglsLer of Lhe CfflceŦ
33Ŧ3Ŧ A grace perlod of slx (6) monLhs shall be granLed for Lhe
paymenL of Lhe annual feeţ upon paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed
surcharge for delayed paymenLŦ (SecŦ 22ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S6Ŧ 5tteoJet of loteotŦ Ŵ 36Ŧ1Ŧ 1he owner of Lhe paLenLţ
wlLh Lhe consenL of all persons havlng granLs or llcenses or oLher



9 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and Lo Lhe paLenL and Lhe lnvenLlon
covered Lherebyţ whlch have been recorded ln Lhe Cfflceţ may
surrender hls paLenL or any clalm or clalms formlng parL Lhereof Lo
Lhe Cfflce for cancellaLlonŦ
36Ŧ2Ŧ A person may glve noLlce Lo Lhe Cfflce of hls opposlLlon Lo
Lhe surrender of a paLenL under Lhls secLlonţ and lf he does soţ Lhe
8ureau shall noLlfy Lhe proprleLor of Lhe paLenL and deLermlne Lhe
quesLlonŦ
36Ŧ3Ŧ lf Lhe Cfflce ls saLlsfled LhaL Lhe paLenL may properly be
surrenderedţ he may accepL Lhe offer andţ as from Lhe day when
noLlce of hls accepLance ls publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeţ Lhe
paLenL shall cease Lo have effecLţ buL no acLlon for lnfrlngemenL
shall lle and no rlghL compensaLlon shall accrue for any use of Lhe
paLenLed lnvenLlon before LhaL day for Lhe servlces of Lhe
governmenLŦ (SecŦ 24ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S7Ŧ cottectloo of Mlstokes of tbe OfflceŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor
shall have Lhe power Lo correcLţ wlLhouL feeţ any mlsLake ln a
paLenL lncurred Lhrough Lhe faulL of Lhe Cfflce when clearly
dlsclosed ln Lhe records Lhereofţ Lo make Lhe paLenL conform Lo
Lhe recordsŦ (SecŦ 23ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on S8Ŧ cottectloo of Mlstoke lo tbe AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ Cn requesL
of any lnLeresLed person and paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeţ Lhe
ulrecLor ls auLhorlzed Lo correcL any mlsLake ln a paLenL of a
formal and clerlcal naLureţ noL lncurred Lhrough Lhe faulL of Lhe
CfflceŦ (SecŦ 26ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on S9Ŧ cbooqes lo loteotsŦ Ŵ 39Ŧ1Ŧ 1he owner of a paLenL shall
have Lhe rlghL Lo requesL Lhe 8ureau Lo make Lhe changes ln Lhe
paLenL ln order Loť
(a) LlmlL Lhe exLenL of Lhe proLecLlon conferred by lLŤ
(b) CorrecL obvlous mlsLakes or Lo correcL clerlcal errorsŤ
and
(c) CorrecL mlsLakes or errorsţ oLher Lhan Lhose referred
Lo ln leLLer (b)ţ made ln good falLhť Þrovldedţ 1haL where
Lhe change would resulL ln a broadenlng of Lhe exLenL of
proLecLlon conferred by Lhe paLenLţ no requesL may be
made afLer Lhe explraLlon of Lwo (2) years from Lhe
granL of a paLenL and Lhe change shall noL affecL Lhe
rlghLs of any Lhlrd parLy whlch has relled on Lhe paLenLţ
as publlshedŦ
39Ŧ2Ŧ no change ln Lhe paLenL shall be permlLLed under Lhls
secLlonţ where Lhe change would resulL ln Lhe dlsclosure conLalned
ln Lhe paLenL golng beyond Lhe dlsclosure conLalned ln Lhe
appllcaLlon flledŦ
39Ŧ3Ŧ lfţ and Lo Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Lhe Cfflce changes Lhe paLenL
accordlng Lo Lhls secLlonţ lL shall publlsh Lhe sameŦ (n)
Sect|on 60Ŧ otm ooJ lbllcotloo of AmeoJmeotŦ Ŵ An amendmenL
or correcLlon of a paLenL shall be accompllshed by a cerLlflcaLe of
such amendmenL or correcLlonţ auLhenLlcaLed by Lhe seal of Lhe
Cfflce and slgned by Lhe ulrecLorţ whlch cerLlflcaLe shall be
aLLached Lo Lhe paLenLŦ noLlce of such amendmenL or correcLlon
shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe and coples of Lhe paLenL kepL
or furnlshed by Lhe Cfflce shall lnclude a copy of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of
amendmenL or correcLlonŦ (SecŦ 27ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
CnAÞ1Lk VI
CANCLLLA1ICN CI ÞA1LN1S AND SU8S1I1U1ICN CI ÞA1LN1LL
Sect|on 61Ŧ coocellotloo of loteotsŦ Ŵ 61Ŧ1Ŧ Any lnLeresLed person
mayţ upon paymenL of Lhe requlred feeţ peLlLlon Lo cancel Lhe
paLenL or any clalm Lhereofţ or parLs of Lhe clalmţ on any of Lhe
followlng groundsť
(a) 1haL whaL ls clalmed as Lhe lnvenLlon ls noL new or
ÞaLenLableŤ
(b) 1haL Lhe paLenL does noL dlsclose Lhe lnvenLlon ln a
manner sufflclenLly clear and compleLe for lL Lo be
carrled ouL by any person skllled ln Lhe arLŤ or
(c) 1haL Lhe paLenL ls conLrary Lo publlc order or
morallLyŦ
61Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe grounds for cancellaLlon relaLe Lo some of Lhe
clalms or parLs of Lhe clalmţ cancellaLlon may be effecLed Lo such
exLenL onlyŦ (SecsŦ 28 and 29ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 62Ŧ kepltemeot of tbe letltlooŦ Ŵ 1he peLlLlon for
cancellaLlon shall be ln wrlLlngţ verlfled by Lhe peLlLloner or by any
person ln hls behalf who knows Lhe facLsţ speclfy Lhe grounds
upon whlch lL ls basedţ lnclude a sLaLemenL of Lhe facLs Lo be
relled uponţ and flled wlLh Lhe CfflceŦ Coples of prlnLed
publlcaLlons or of paLenLs of oLher counLrlesţ and oLher supporLlng
documenLs menLloned ln Lhe peLlLlon shall be aLLached LhereLoţ
LogeLher wlLh Lhe LranslaLlon Lhereof ln Lngllshţ lf noL ln Lhe
Lngllsh languageŦ (SecŦ 30ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 63Ŧ -otlce of neotloqŦ Ŵ upon flllng of a peLlLlon for
cancellaLlonţ Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs shall forLhwlLh serve
noLlce of Lhe flllng Lhereof upon Lhe paLenLee and all persons
havlng granLs or llcensesţ or any oLher rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and
Lo Lhe paLenL and Lhe lnvenLlon covered Lherebyţ as appears of
record ln Lhe Cfflceţ and of noLlce of Lhe daLe of hearlng Lhereon
on such persons and Lhe peLlLlonerŦ noLlce of Lhe flllng of Lhe
peLlLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 31ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
Sect|on 64Ŧ commlttee of 1bteeŦ Ŵ ln cases lnvolvlng hlghly
Lechnlcal lssuesţ on moLlon of any parLyţ Lhe ulrecLor of Legal
Affalrs may order LhaL Lhe peLlLlon be heard and declded by a
commlLLee composed of Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs as chalrman
and Lwo (2) members who have Lhe experlence or experLlse ln Lhe
fleld of Lechnology Lo whlch Lhe paLenL soughL Lo be cancelled
relaLesŦ 1he declslon of Lhe commlLLee shall be appealable Lo Lhe
ulrecLor CeneralŦ (n)
Sect|on 6SŦ coocellotloo of tbe loteotŦ Ŵ 63Ŧ1Ŧ lf Lhe CommlLLee



10 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
flnds LhaL a case for cancellaLlon has been provedţ lL shall order
Lhe paLenL or any speclfled clalm or clalms Lhereof cancelledŦ
63Ŧ2Ŧ lf Lhe CommlLLee flnds LhaLţ Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe
amendmenL made by Lhe paLenLee durlng Lhe cancellaLlon
proceedlngsţ Lhe paLenL and Lhe lnvenLlon Lo whlch lL relaLes meeL
Lhe requlremenL of Lhls AcLţ lL may declde Lo malnLaln Lhe paLenL
as amendedť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe fee for prlnLlng of a new paLenL ls
pald wlLhln Lhe Llme llmlL prescrlbed ln Lhe 8egulaLlonsŦ
63Ŧ3Ŧ lf Lhe fee for Lhe prlnLlng of a new paLenL ls noL pald ln due
Llmeţ Lhe paLenL should be revokedŦ
63Ŧ4Ŧ lf Lhe paLenL ls amended under SubsecLlon 63Ŧ2 hereofţ Lhe
8ureau shallţ aL Lhe same Llme as lL publlshes Lhe menLlon of Lhe
cancellaLlon declslonţ publlsh Lhe absLracLţ represenLaLlve clalms
and drawlngs lndlcaLlng clearly whaL Lhe amendmenLs conslsL ofŦ
(n)
Sect|on 66Ŧ íffect of coocellotloo of loteot ot clolmŦ Ŵ 1he rlghLs
conferred by Lhe paLenL or any speclfled clalm or clalms cancelled
shall LermlnaLeŦ noLlce of Lhe cancellaLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe
lÞC CazeLLeŦ unless resLralned by Lhe ulrecLor Ceneralţ Lhe
declslon or order Lo cancel by ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs shall be
lmmedlaLely execuLory even pendlng appealŦ (SecŦ 32ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
CnAÞ1Lk VII
kLMLDILS CI A ÞLkSCN WI1n A kIGn1 1C A ÞA1LN1
Sect|on 67Ŧ loteot Appllcotloo by letsoos -ot novloq tbe klqbt to
o loteotŦ Ŧ Ŵ 67Ŧ1Ŧ lf a person referred Lo ln SecLlon 29 oLher Lhan
Lhe appllcanLţ ls declared by flnal courL order or declslon as havlng
Lhe rlghL Lo Lhe paLenLţ such person mayţ wlLhln Lhree (3) monLhs
afLer Lhe declslon has become flnalť
(a) ÞrosecuLe Lhe appllcaLlon as hls own appllcaLlon ln
place of Lhe appllcanLŤ
(b) llle a new paLenL appllcaLlon ln respecL of Lhe same
lnvenLlonŤ
(c) 8equesL LhaL Lhe appllcaLlon be refusedŤ or
(d) Seek cancellaLlon of Lhe paLenLţ lf one has already
been lssuedŦ
67Ŧ2Ŧ 1he provlslons of SubsecLlon 38Ŧ2 shall apply muLaLls
muLandls Lo a new appllcaLlon flled under SubsecLlon 67Ŧ 1(b)Ŧ (n)
Sect|on 68Ŧ kemeJles of tbe 1te ooJ Actol oveototŦ Ŵ lf a personţ
who was deprlved of Lhe paLenL wlLhouL hls consenL or Lhrough
fraud ls declared by flnal courL order or declslon Lo be Lhe Lrue and
acLual lnvenLorţ Lhe courL shall order for hls subsLlLuLlon as
paLenLeeţ or aL Lhe opLlon of Lhe Lrue lnvenLorţ cancel Lhe paLenLţ
and award acLual and oLher damages ln hls favor lf warranLed by
Lhe clrcumsLancesŦ (SecŦ 33ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 69Ŧ lbllcotloo of tbe cott OtJetŦ Ŵ 1he courL shall furnlsh
Lhe Cfflce a copy of Lhe order or declslon referred Lo ln SecLlons 67
and 68ţ whlch shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe wlLhln Lhree
(3) monLhs from Lhe daLe such order or declslon became flnal and
execuLoryţ and shall be recorded ln Lhe reglsLer of Lhe CfflceŦ (n)
Sect|on 70Ŧ 1lme to lle Actloo lo cottŦ Ŵ 1he acLlons lndlcaLed ln
SecLlons 67 and 68 shall be flled wlLhln one (1) year from Lhe daLe
of publlcaLlon made ln accordance wlLh SecLlons 44 and 31ţ
respecLlvelyŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk VIII
kIGn1S CI ÞA1LN1LLS AND INIkINGLMLN1 CI ÞA1LN1S
Sect|on 71Ŧ klqbts coofetteJ by loteotŦ Ŵ 71Ŧ1Ŧ A paLenL shall
confer on lLs owner Lhe followlng excluslve rlghLsť
(a) Where Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a paLenL ls a producLţ Lo
resLralnţ prohlblL and prevenL any unauLhorlzed person
or enLlLy from maklngţ uslngţ offerlng for saleţ selllng or
lmporLlng LhaL producLŤ
(b) Where Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a paLenL ls a processţ Lo
resLralnţ prevenL or prohlblL any unauLhorlzed person or
enLlLy from uslng Lhe processţ and from manufacLurlngţ
deallng lnţ uslngţ selllng or offerlng for saleţ or lmporLlng
any producL obLalned dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from such
processŦ
71Ŧ2Ŧ ÞaLenL owners shall also have Lhe rlghL Lo asslgnţ or Lransfer
by successlon Lhe paLenLţ and Lo conclude llcenslng conLracLs for
Lhe sameŦ (SecŦ 37ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 72Ŧ llmltotloos of loteot klqbtsŦ Ŵ 1he owner of a paLenL
has no rlghL Lo prevenL Lhlrd parLles from performlngţ wlLhouL hls
auLhorlzaLlonţ Lhe acLs referred Lo ln SecLlon 71 hereof ln Lhe
followlng clrcumsLancesť
72Ŧ1Ŧ uslng a paLenLed producL whlch has been puL on Lhe markeL
ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes by Lhe owner of Lhe producLţ or wlLh hls express
consenLţ lnsofar as such use ls performed afLer LhaL producL has
been so puL on Lhe sald markeLŤ
72Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe acL ls done prlvaLely and on a nonŴcommerclal
scale or for a nonŴcommerclal purposeť Þrovldedţ 1haL lL does noL
slgnlflcanLly pre[udlce Lhe economlc lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe
paLenLŤ
72Ŧ3Ŧ Where Lhe acL conslsLs of maklng or uslng excluslvely for Lhe
purpose of experlmenLs LhaL relaLe Lo Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe
paLenLed lnvenLlonŤ
72Ŧ4Ŧ Where Lhe acL conslsLs of Lhe preparaLlon for lndlvldual
casesţ ln a pharmacy or by a medlcal professlonalţ of a medlclne ln
accordance wlLh a medlcal prescrlpLlon or acLs concernlng Lhe
medlclne so preparedŤ
72Ŧ3Ŧ Where Lhe lnvenLlon ls used ln any shlpţ vesselţ alrcrafLţ or



11 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
land vehlcle of any oLher counLry enLerlng Lhe LerrlLory of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes Lemporarlly or accldenLallyť Þrovldedţ 1haL such
lnvenLlon ls used excluslvely for Lhe needs of Lhe shlpţ vesselţ
alrcrafLţ or land vehlcle and noL used for Lhe manufacLurlng of
anyLhlng Lo be sold wlLhln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ (SecsŦ 38 and 39ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 73Ŧ ltlot DsetŦ Ŵ 73Ŧ1Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng SecLlon 72 hereofţ
any prlor userţ whoţ ln good falLh was uslng Lhe lnvenLlon or has
underLaken serlous preparaLlons Lo use Lhe lnvenLlon ln hls
enLerprlse or buslnessţ before Lhe flllng daLe or prlorlLy daLe of Lhe
appllcaLlon on whlch a paLenL ls granLedţ shall have Lhe rlghL Lo
conLlnue Lhe use Lhereof as envlsaged ln such preparaLlons wlLhln
Lhe LerrlLory where Lhe paLenL produces lLs effecLŦ
73Ŧ2Ŧ 1he rlghL of Lhe prlor user may only be Lransferred or
asslgned LogeLher wlLh hls enLerprlse or buslnessţ or wlLh LhaL parL
of hls enLerprlse or buslness ln whlch Lhe use or preparaLlons for
use have been madeŦ (SecŦ 40ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 74Ŧ Dse of oveotloo by CovetomeotŦ Ŵ 74Ŧ1Ŧ A CovernmenL
agency or Lhlrd person auLhorlzed by Lhe CovernmenL may explolL
Lhe lnvenLlon even wlLhouL agreemenL of Lhe paLenL owner
whereť
(a) 1he publlc lnLeresLţ ln parLlcularţ naLlonal securlLyţ
nuLrlLlonţ healLh or Lhe developmenL of oLher secLorsţ as
deLermlned by Lhe approprlaLe agency of Lhe
governmenLţ so requlresŤ or
(b) A [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve body has deLermlned LhaL
Lhe manner of explolLaLlonţ by Lhe owner of Lhe paLenL
or hls llcensee ls anLlŴcompeLlLlveŦ
74Ŧ2Ŧ 1he use by Lhe CovernmenLţ or Lhlrd person auLhorlzed by
Lhe CovernmenL shall be sub[ecLţ muLaLls muLandlsţ Lo Lhe
condlLlons seL forLh ln SecLlons 93 Lo 97 and 100 Lo 102Ŧ (SecŦ 41ţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 7SŦ íxteot of ltotectloo ooJ otetptetotloo of clolmsŦ Ŵ
73Ŧ1Ŧ 1he exLenL of proLecLlon conferred by Lhe paLenL shall be
deLermlned by Lhe clalmsţ whlch are Lo be lnLerpreLed ln Lhe llghL
of Lhe descrlpLlon and drawlngsŦ
73Ŧ2Ŧ lor Lhe purpose of deLermlnlng Lhe exLenL of proLecLlon
conferred by Lhe paLenLţ due accounL shall be Laken of elemenLs
whlch are equlvalenL Lo Lhe elemenLs expressed ln Lhe clalmsţ so
LhaL a clalm shall be consldered Lo cover noL only all Lhe elemenLs
as expressed Lherelnţ buL also equlvalenLsŦ (n)
Sect|on 76Ŧ clvll Actloo fot oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ 76Ŧ1Ŧ 1he maklngţ uslngţ
offerlng for saleţ selllngţ or lmporLlng a paLenLed producL or a
producL obLalned dlrecLly or lndlrecLly from a paLenLed processţ or
Lhe use of a paLenLed process wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe
paLenLee consLlLuLes paLenL lnfrlngemenLŦ
76Ŧ2Ŧ Any paLenLeeţ or anyone possesslng any rlghLţ LlLle or
lnLeresL ln and Lo Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlonţ whose rlghLs have been
lnfrlngedţ may brlng a clvll acLlon before a courL of compeLenL
[urlsdlcLlonţ Lo recover from Lhe lnfrlnger such damages susLalned
Lherebyţ plus aLLorneyƌs fees and oLher expenses of llLlgaLlonţ and
Lo secure an ln[uncLlon for Lhe proLecLlon of hls rlghLsŦ
76Ŧ3Ŧ lf Lhe damages are lnadequaLe or cannoL be readlly
ascerLalned wlLh reasonable cerLalnLyţ Lhe courL may award by
way of damages a sum equlvalenL Lo reasonable royalLyŦ
76Ŧ4Ŧ 1he courL mayţ accordlng Lo Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe caseţ
award damages ln a sum above Lhe amounL found as acLual
damages susLalnedť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe award does noL exceed
Lhree (3) Llmes Lhe amounL of such acLual damagesŦ
76Ŧ3Ŧ 1he courL mayţ ln lLs dlscreLlonţ order LhaL Lhe lnfrlnglng
goodsţ maLerlals and lmplemenLs predomlnanLly used ln Lhe
lnfrlngemenL be dlsposed of ouLslde Lhe channels of commerce or
desLroyedţ wlLhouL compensaLlonŦ
76Ŧ6Ŧ Anyone who acLlvely lnduces Lhe lnfrlngemenL of a paLenL or
provldes Lhe lnfrlnger wlLh a componenL of a paLenLed producL or
of a producL produced because of a paLenLed process knowlng lL
Lo be especlally adopLed for lnfrlnglng Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon and
noL sulLable for subsLanLlal nonŴlnfrlnglng use shall be llable as a
conLrlbuLory lnfrlnger and shall be [olnLly and severally llable wlLh
Lhe lnfrlngerŦ (SecŦ 42ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 77Ŧ oftloqemeot Actloo by o otelqo -otlooolŦ Ŵ Any
forelgn naLlonal or [urldlcal enLlLy who meeLs Lhe requlremenLs of
SecLlon 3 and noL engaged ln buslness ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Lo whlch
a paLenL has been granLed or asslgned under Lhls AcLţ may brlng
an acLlon for lnfrlngemenL of paLenLţ wheLher or noL lL ls llcensed
Lo do buslness ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes under exlsLlng lawŦ (SecŦ 41ŴAţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 78Ŧ ltocess loteotsŤ 8tJeo of ltoof Ŧ Ŵ lf Lhe sub[ecL
maLLer of a paLenL ls a process for obLalnlng a producLţ any
ldenLlcal producL shall be presumed Lo have been obLalned
Lhrough Lhe use of Lhe paLenLed process lf Lhe producL ls new or
Lhere ls subsLanLlal llkellhood LhaL Lhe ldenLlcal producL was made
by Lhe process and Lhe owner of Lhe paLenL has been unable
desplLe reasonable efforLsţ Lo deLermlne Lhe process acLually usedŦ
ln orderlng Lhe defendanL Lo prove LhaL Lhe process Lo obLaln Lhe
ldenLlcal producL ls dlfferenL from Lhe paLenLed processţ Lhe courL
shall adopL measures Lo proLecLţ as far as pracLlcableţ hls
manufacLurlng and buslness secreLsŦ (n)
Sect|on 79Ŧ llmltotloo of Actloo fot omoqesŦ Ŵ no damages can be
recovered for acLs of lnfrlngemenL commlLLed more Lhan four (4)
years before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe acLlon for lnfrlngemenLŦ (SecŦ
43ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 80Ŧ omoqesţ kepltemeot of -otlceŦ Ŵ uamages cannoL
be recovered for acLs of lnfrlngemenL commlLLed before Lhe
lnfrlnger had knownţ or had reasonable grounds Lo know of Lhe
paLenLŦ lL ls presumed LhaL Lhe lnfrlnger had known of Lhe paLenL lf
on Lhe paLenLed producLţ or on Lhe conLalner or package ln whlch
Lhe arLlcle ls supplled Lo Lhe publlcţ or on Lhe adverLlslng maLerlal
relaLlng Lo Lhe paLenLed producL or processţ are placed Lhe words
ƍÞhlllpplne ÞaLenLƍ wlLh Lhe number of Lhe paLenLŦ (SecŦ 44ţ 8ŦAŦ



12 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 81Ŧ efeoses lo Actloo fot oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ ln an acLlon for
lnfrlngemenLţ Lhe defendanLţ ln addlLlon Lo oLher defenses
avallable Lo hlmţ may show Lhe lnvalldlLy of Lhe paLenLţ or any
clalm Lhereofţ on any of Lhe grounds on whlch a peLlLlon of
cancellaLlon can be broughL under SecLlon 61 hereofŦ (SecŦ 43ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 163)
Sect|on 82Ŧ loteot ooJ ovollJ Moy be coocelleJŦ Ŵ ln an acLlon
for lnfrlngemenLţ lf Lhe courL shall flnd Lhe paLenL or any clalm Lo
be lnvalldţ lL shall cancel Lhe sameţ and Lhe ulrecLor of Legal
Affalrs upon recelpL of Lhe flnal [udgmenL of cancellaLlon by Lhe
courLţ shall record LhaL facL ln Lhe reglsLer of Lhe Cfflce and shall
publlsh a noLlce Lo LhaL effecL ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 46ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
Sect|on 83Ŧ Assessot lo oftloqemeot ActlooŦ Ŵ 83Ŧ1Ŧ 1wo (2) or
more assessors may be appolnLed by Lhe courLŦ 1he assessors shall
be possessed of Lhe necessary sclenLlflc and Lechnlcal knowledge
requlred by Lhe sub[ecL maLLer ln llLlgaLlonŦ LlLher parLy may
challenge Lhe flLness of any assessor proposed for appolnLmenLŦ
83Ŧ2Ŧ Lach assessor shall recelve a compensaLlon ln an amounL Lo
be flxed by Lhe courL and advanced by Lhe complalnlng parLyţ
whlch shall be awarded as parL of hls cosLs should he prevall ln Lhe
acLlonŦ (SecŦ 47ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 84Ŧ ctlmlool Actloo fot kepetltloo of oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ lf
lnfrlngemenL ls repeaLed by Lhe lnfrlnger or by anyone ln
connlvance wlLh hlm afLer flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe courL
agalnsL Lhe lnfrlngerţ Lhe offenders shallţ wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe
lnsLlLuLlon of a clvll acLlon for damagesţ be crlmlnally llable
Lherefor andţ upon convlcLlonţ shall suffer lmprlsonmenL for Lhe
perlod of noL less Lhan slx (6) monLhs buL noL more Lhan Lhree (3)
years and/or a flne of noL less Lhan Cne hundred Lhousand pesos
(Þ100ţ000) buL noL more Lhan 1hree hundred Lhousand pesos
(Þ300ţ000)ţ aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courLŦ 1he crlmlnal acLlon
hereln provlded shall prescrlbe ln Lhree (3) years from daLe of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlmeŦ (SecŦ 48ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
CnAÞ1Lk Ik
VCLUN1Ak¥ LICLNSING
Sect|on 8SŦ Iolototy llceose coottoctŦ Ŵ 1o encourage Lhe
Lransfer and dlssemlnaLlon of Lechnologyţ prevenL or conLrol
pracLlces and condlLlons LhaL may ln parLlcular cases consLlLuLe an
abuse of lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs havlng an adverse effecL on
compeLlLlon and Lradeţ all Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLs shall
comply wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhls ChapLerŦ (n)
Sect|on 86Ŧ tlsJlctloo to 5ettle lsptes oo koyoltlesŦ Ŵ 1he
ulrecLor of Lhe uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and 1echnology
1ransfer 8ureau shall exerclse quaslŴ[udlclal [urlsdlcLlon ln Lhe
seLLlemenL of dlspuLes beLween parLles Lo a Lechnology Lransfer
arrangemenL arlslng from Lechnology Lransfer paymenLsţ lncludlng
Lhe flxlng of approprlaLe amounL or raLe of royalLyŦ (n)
Sect|on 87Ŧ ltoblblteJ closesŦ Ŵ LxcepL ln cases under SecLlon 91ţ
Lhe followlng provlslons shall be deemed prlma facle Lo have an
adverse effecL on compeLlLlon and Lradeť
87Ŧ1Ŧ 1hose whlch lmpose upon Lhe llcensee Lhe obllgaLlon Lo
acqulre from a speclflc source caplLal goodsţ lnLermedlaLe
producLsţ raw maLerlalsţ and oLher Lechnologlesţ or of
permanenLly employlng personnel lndlcaLed by Lhe llcensorŤ
87Ŧ2Ŧ 1hose pursuanL Lo whlch Lhe llcensor reserves Lhe rlghL Lo flx
Lhe sale or resale prlces of Lhe producLs manufacLured on Lhe basls
of Lhe llcenseŤ
87Ŧ3Ŧ 1hose LhaL conLaln resLrlcLlons regardlng Lhe volume and
sLrucLure of producLlonŤ
87Ŧ4Ŧ 1hose LhaL prohlblL Lhe use of compeLlLlve Lechnologles ln a
nonŴexcluslve Lechnology Lransfer agreemenLŤ
87Ŧ3Ŧ 1hose LhaL esLabllsh a full or parLlal purchase opLlon ln favor
of Lhe llcensorŤ
87Ŧ6Ŧ 1hose LhaL obllgaLe Lhe llcensee Lo Lransfer for free Lo Lhe
llcensor Lhe lnvenLlons or lmprovemenLs LhaL may be obLalned
Lhrough Lhe use of Lhe llcensed LechnologyŤ
87Ŧ7Ŧ 1hose LhaL requlre paymenL of royalLles Lo Lhe owners of
paLenLs for paLenLs whlch are noL usedŤ
87Ŧ8Ŧ 1hose LhaL prohlblL Lhe llcensee Lo exporL Lhe llcensed
producL unless [usLlfled for Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe leglLlmaLe
lnLeresL of Lhe llcensor such as exporLs Lo counLrles where
excluslve llcenses Lo manufacLure and/or dlsLrlbuLe Lhe llcensed
producL(s) have already been granLedŤ
87Ŧ9Ŧ 1hose whlch resLrlcL Lhe use of Lhe Lechnology supplled afLer
Lhe explraLlon of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLţ excepL ln
cases of early LermlnaLlon of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL
due Lo reason(s) aLLrlbuLable Lo Lhe llcenseeŤ
87Ŧ10Ŧ 1hose whlch requlre paymenLs for paLenLs and oLher
lndusLrlal properLy rlghLs afLer Lhelr explraLlonţ LermlnaLlon
arrangemenLŤ
87Ŧ11Ŧ 1hose whlch requlre LhaL Lhe Lechnology reclplenL shall noL
conLesL Lhe valldlLy of any of Lhe paLenLs of Lhe Lechnology
suppllerŤ
87Ŧ12Ŧ 1hose whlch resLrlcL Lhe research and developmenL
acLlvlLles of Lhe llcensee deslgned Lo absorb and adapL Lhe
Lransferred Lechnology Lo local condlLlons or Lo lnlLlaLe research
and developmenL programs ln connecLlon wlLh new producLsţ
processes or equlpmenLŤ
87Ŧ13Ŧ 1hose whlch prevenL Lhe llcensee from adapLlng Lhe
lmporLed Lechnology Lo local condlLlonsţ or lnLroduclng lnnovaLlon
Lo lLţ as long as lL does noL lmpalr Lhe quallLy sLandards prescrlbed
by Lhe llcensorŤ



13 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
87Ŧ14Ŧ 1hose whlch exempL Lhe llcensor for llablllLy for nonŴ
fulfllmenL of hls responslblllLles under Lhe Lechnology Lransfer
arrangemenL and/or llablllLy arlslng from Lhlrd parLy sulLs broughL
abouL by Lhe use of Lhe llcensed producL or Lhe llcensed
LechnologyŤ and
87Ŧ13Ŧ CLher clauses wlLh equlvalenL effecLsŦ (SecŦ 33ŴC (2)ţ 8ŦA
163a)
Sect|on 88Ŧ MooJototy ltovlsloosŦ Ŵ 1he followlng provlslons shall
be lncluded ln volunLary llcense conLracLsť
88Ŧ1Ŧ 1haL Lhe laws of Lhe Þhlllpplnes shall govern Lhe
lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe same and ln Lhe evenL of llLlgaLlonţ Lhe venue
shall be Lhe proper courL ln Lhe place where Lhe llcensee has lLs
prlnclpal offlceŤ
88Ŧ2Ŧ ConLlnued access Lo lmprovemenLs ln Lechnlques and
processes relaLed Lo Lhe Lechnology shall be made avallable durlng
Lhe perlod of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLŤ
88Ŧ3Ŧ ln Lhe evenL Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL shall
provlde for arblLraLlonţ Lhe Þrocedure of ArblLraLlon of Lhe
ArblLraLlon Law of Lhe Þhlllpplnes or Lhe ArblLraLlon 8ules of Lhe
unlLed naLlons Commlsslon on lnLernaLlonal 1rade Law
(unCl18AL) or Lhe 8ules of ConclllaLlon and ArblLraLlon of Lhe
lnLernaLlonal Chamber of Commerce (lCC) shall apply and Lhe
venue of arblLraLlon shall be Lhe Þhlllpplnes or any neuLral
counLryŤ and
88Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Þhlllpplne Laxes on all paymenLs relaLlng Lo Lhe
Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL shall be borne by Lhe llcensorŦ
(n)
Sect|on 89Ŧ klqbts of llceosotŦ Ŵ ln Lhe absence of any provlslon Lo
Lhe conLrary ln Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLţ Lhe granL of
a llcense shall noL prevenL Lhe llcensor from granLlng furLher
llcenses Lo Lhlrd person nor from explolLlng Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of
Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL hlmselfŦ (SecŦ 33Ŵ8ţ 8ŦAŦ
163a)
Sect|on 90Ŧ klqbts of llceoseeŦ Ŵ 1he llcensee shall be enLlLled Lo
explolL Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL
durlng Lhe whole Lerm of Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenLŦ
(SecŦ 33ŴC (1)ţ 8ŦAŦ 163a)
Sect|on 91Ŧ íxceptloool cosesŦ Ŵ ln excepLlonal or merlLorlous cases
where subsLanLlal beneflLs wlll accrue Lo Lhe economyţ such as
hlgh Lechnology conLenLţ lncrease ln forelgn exchange earnlngsţ
employmenL generaLlonţ reglonal dlspersal of lndusLrles and/or
subsLlLuLlon wlLh or use of local raw maLerlalsţ or ln Lhe case of
8oard of lnvesLmenLsţ reglsLered companles wlLh ploneer sLaLusţ
exempLlon from any of Lhe above requlremenLs may be allowed by
Lhe uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and 1echnology 1ransfer 8ureau
afLer evaluaLlon Lhereof on a case by case baslsŦ (n)
Sect|on 92Ŧ -ooŴkeqlsttotloo wltb tbe ocmeototlooţ ofotmotloo
ooJ 1ecbooloqy 1toosfet 8teoŦ Ŵ 1echnology Lransfer
arrangemenLs LhaL conform wlLh Lhe provlslons of SecLlons 86 and
87 need noL be reglsLered wlLh Lhe uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon
and 1echnology 1ransfer 8ureauŦ nonŴconformance wlLh any of
Lhe provlslons of SecLlons 87 and 88ţ howeverţ shall auLomaLlcally
render Lhe Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL unenforceableţ
unless sald Lechnology Lransfer arrangemenL ls approved and
reglsLered wlLh Lhe uocumenLaLlonţ lnformaLlon and 1echnology
1ransfer 8ureau under Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 91 on excepLlonal
casesŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk k
CCMÞULSCk¥ LICLNSING
Sect|on 93Ŧ CtooJs fot complsoty llceosloqŦ Ŵ 1he ulrecLor of
Legal Affalrs may granL a llcense Lo explolL a paLenLed lnvenLlonţ
even wlLhouL Lhe agreemenL of Lhe paLenL ownerţ ln favor of any
person who has shown hls capablllLy Lo explolL Lhe lnvenLlonţ
under any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLancesť
93Ŧ1Ŧ naLlonal emergency or oLher clrcumsLances of exLreme
urgencyŤ
93Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe publlc lnLeresLţ ln parLlcularţ naLlonal securlLyţ
nuLrlLlonţ healLh or Lhe developmenL of oLher vlLal secLors of Lhe
naLlonal economy as deLermlned by Lhe approprlaLe agency of Lhe
CovernmenLţ so requlresŤ or
93Ŧ3Ŧ Where a [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve body has deLermlned LhaL
Lhe manner of explolLaLlon by Lhe owner of Lhe paLenL or hls
llcensee ls anLlŴcompeLlLlveŤ or
93Ŧ4Ŧ ln case of publlc nonŴcommerclal use of Lhe paLenL by Lhe
paLenLeeţ wlLhouL saLlsfacLory reasonŤ
93Ŧ3Ŧ lf Lhe paLenLed lnvenLlon ls noL belng worked ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes on a commerclal scaleţ alLhough capable of belng
workedţ wlLhouL saLlsfacLory reasonť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe
lmporLaLlon of Lhe paLenLed arLlcle shall consLlLuLe worklng or
uslng Lhe paLenLŦ (SecsŦ 34ţ 34ŴAţ 34Ŵ8ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 94Ŧ letloJ fot llloq o letltloo fot o complsoty llceoseŦ Ŵ
94Ŧ1Ŧ A compulsory llcense may noL be applled for on Lhe ground
sLaLed ln SubsecLlon 93Ŧ3 before Lhe explraLlon of a perlod of four
(4) years from Lhe daLe of flllng of Lhe appllcaLlon or Lhree (3)
years from Lhe daLe of Lhe paLenL whlchever perlod explres lasLŦ
94Ŧ2Ŧ A compulsory llcense whlch ls applled for on any of Lhe
grounds sLaLed ln SubsecLlons 93Ŧ2ţ 93Ŧ3ţ and 93Ŧ4 and SecLlon 97
may be applled for aL any Llme afLer Lhe granL of Lhe paLenLŦ (SecŦ
34(1)ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 9SŦ kepltemeot to Obtolo o llceose oo keosoooble
commetclol 1etmsŦ Ŵ 93Ŧ1Ŧ 1he llcense wlll only be granLed afLer
Lhe peLlLloner has made efforLs Lo obLaln auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe
paLenL owner on reasonable commerclal Lerms and condlLlons buL
such efforLs have noL been successful wlLhln a reasonable perlod
of LlmeŦ
93Ŧ2Ŧ 1he requlremenL under SubsecLlon 93Ŧ1 shall noL apply ln Lhe



14 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
followlng casesť
(a) Where Lhe peLlLlon for compulsory llcense seeks Lo
remedy a pracLlce deLermlned afLer [udlclal or
admlnlsLraLlve process Lo be anLlŴcompeLlLlveŤ
(b) ln slLuaLlons of naLlonal emergency or oLher
clrcumsLances of exLreme urgencyŤ
(c) ln cases of publlc nonŴcommerclal useŦ
93Ŧ3Ŧ ln slLuaLlons of naLlonal emergency or oLher clrcumsLances
of exLreme urgencyţ Lhe rlghL holder shall be noLlfled as soon as
reasonably pracLlcableŦ
93Ŧ4Ŧ ln Lhe case of publlc nonŴcommerclal useţ where Lhe
governmenL or conLracLorţ wlLhouL maklng a paLenL searchţ knows
or has demonsLrable grounds Lo know LhaL a valld paLenL ls or wlll
be used by or for Lhe governmenLţ Lhe rlghL holder shall be
lnformed prompLlyŦ (n)
Sect|on 96Ŧ complsoty llceosloq of loteots ovolvloq 5emlŴ
cooJctot 1ecbooloqyŦ Ŵ ln Lhe case of compulsory llcenslng of
paLenLs lnvolvlng semlŴconducLor Lechnologyţ Lhe llcense may only
be granLed ln case of publlc nonŴcommerclal use or Lo remedy a
pracLlce deLermlned afLer [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve process Lo be
anLlŴcompeLlLlveŦ (n)
Sect|on 97Ŧ complsoty llceose 8oseJ oo otetJepeoJeoce of
loteotsŦ Ŵ lf Lhe lnvenLlon proLecLed by a paLenLţ hereafLer
referred Lo as Lhe ƍsecond paLenLţƍ wlLhln Lhe counLry cannoL be
worked wlLhouL lnfrlnglng anoLher paLenLţ hereafLer referred Lo as
Lhe ƍflrsL paLenLţƍ granLed on a prlor appllcaLlon or beneflLlng from
an earller prlorlLyţ a compulsory llcense may be granLed Lo Lhe
owner of Lhe second paLenL Lo Lhe exLenL necessary for Lhe
worklng of hls lnvenLlonţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe followlng condlLlonsť
97Ŧ1Ŧ 1he lnvenLlon clalmed ln Lhe second paLenL lnvolves an
lmporLanL Lechnlcal advance of conslderable economlc
slgnlflcance ln relaLlon Lo Lhe flrsL paLenLŤ
97Ŧ2Ŧ 1he owner of Lhe flrsL paLenL shall be enLlLled Lo a crossŴ
llcense on reasonable Lerms Lo use Lhe lnvenLlon clalmed ln Lhe
second paLenLŤ
97Ŧ3Ŧ 1he use auLhorlzed ln respecL of Lhe flrsL paLenL shall be nonŴ
asslgnable excepL wlLh Lhe asslgnmenL of Lhe second paLenLŤ and
97Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Lerms and condlLlons of SecLlons 93ţ 96 and 98 Lo 100 of
Lhls AcLŦ (SecŦ 34ŴCţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 98Ŧ otm ooJ cooteots of letltlooŦ Ŵ 1he peLlLlon for
compulsory llcenslng musL be ln wrlLlngţ verlfled by Lhe peLlLloner
and accompanled by paymenL of Lhe requlred flllng feeŦ lL shall
conLaln Lhe name and address of Lhe peLlLloner as well as Lhose of
Lhe respondenLsţ Lhe number and daLe of lssue of Lhe paLenL ln
connecLlon wlLh whlch compulsory llcense ls soughLţ Lhe name of
Lhe paLenLeeţ Lhe LlLle of Lhe lnvenLlonţ Lhe sLaLuLory grounds
upon whlch compulsory llcense ls soughLţ Lhe ulLlmaLe facLs
consLlLuLlng Lhe peLlLlonerƌs cause of acLlonţ and Lhe rellef prayed
forŦ (SecŦ 34Ŵuţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 99Ŧ -otlce of neotloqŦ Ŵ 99Ŧ1Ŧ upon flllng of a peLlLlonţ Lhe
ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs shall forLhwlLh serve noLlce of Lhe flllng
Lhereof upon Lhe paLenL owner and all persons havlng granLs or
llcensesţ or any oLher rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and Lo Lhe paLenL
and lnvenLlon covered Lhereby as appears of record ln Lhe Cfflceţ
and of noLlce of Lhe daLe of hearlng Lhereonţ on such persons and
peLlLlonerŦ 1he resldenL agenL or represenLaLlve appolnLed ln
accordance wlLh SecLlon 33 hereofţ shall be bound Lo accepL
servlce of noLlce of Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon wlLhln Lhe meanlng of
Lhls SecLlonŦ
99Ŧ2Ŧ ln every caseţ Lhe noLlce shall be publlshed by Lhe sald Cfflce
ln a newspaper of general clrculaLlonţ once a week for Lhree (3)
consecuLlve weeks and once ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLe aL appllcanLƌs
expenseŦ (SecŦ 34ŴLţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 100Ŧ 1etms ooJ cooJltloos of complsoty llceoseŦ Ŵ 1he
baslc Lerms and condlLlons lncludlng Lhe raLe of royalLles of a
compulsory llcense shall be flxed by Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs
sub[ecL Lo Lhe followlng condlLlonsť
100Ŧ1Ŧ 1he scope and duraLlon of such llcense shall be llmlLed Lo
Lhe purpose for whlch lL was auLhorlzedŤ
100Ŧ2Ŧ 1he llcense shall be nonŴexcluslveŤ
100Ŧ3Ŧ 1he llcense shall be nonŴasslgnableţ excepL wlLh LhaL parL of
Lhe enLerprlse or buslness wlLh whlch Lhe lnvenLlon ls belng
explolLedŤ
100Ŧ4Ŧ use of Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe llcense shall be devoLed
predomlnanLly for Lhe supply of Lhe Þhlllpplne markeLť Þrovldedţ
1haL Lhls llmlLaLlon shall noL apply where Lhe granL of Lhe llcense ls
based on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe paLenLeeƌs manner of explolLlng Lhe
paLenL ls deLermlned by [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve processţ Lo be
anLlŴcompeLlLlveŦ
100Ŧ3Ŧ 1he llcense may be LermlnaLed upon proper showlng LhaL
clrcumsLances whlch led Lo lLs granL have ceased Lo exlsL and are
unllkely Lo recurť Þrovldedţ 1haL adequaLe proLecLlon shall be
afforded Lo Lhe leglLlmaLe lnLeresL of Lhe llcenseeŤ and
100Ŧ6Ŧ 1he paLenLee shall be pald adequaLe remuneraLlon Laklng
lnLo accounL Lhe economlc value of Lhe granL or auLhorlzaLlonţ
excepL LhaL ln cases where Lhe llcense was granLed Lo remedy a
pracLlce whlch was deLermlned afLer [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve
processţ Lo be anLlŴcompeLlLlveţ Lhe need Lo correcL Lhe anLlŴ
compeLlLlve pracLlce may be Laken lnLo accounL ln flxlng Lhe
amounL of remuneraLlonŦ (SecŦ 33Ŵ8ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 101Ŧ AmeoJmeotţ coocellotlooţ 5tteoJet of complsoty
llceoseŦ Ŵ 101Ŧ1Ŧ upon Lhe requesL of Lhe paLenLee or Lhe llcenseeţ
Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs may amend Lhe declslon granLlng Lhe
compulsory llcenseţ upon proper showlng of new facLs or



13 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
clrcumsLances [usLlfylng such amendmenLŦ
101Ŧ2Ŧ upon Lhe requesL of Lhe paLenLeeţ Lhe sald ulrecLor may
cancel Lhe compulsory llcenseť
(a) lf Lhe ground for Lhe granL of Lhe compulsory llcense
no longer exlsLs and ls unllkely Lo recurŤ
(b) lf Lhe llcensee has nelLher begun Lo supply Lhe
domesLlc markeL nor made serlous preparaLlon LhereforŤ
(c) lf Lhe llcensee has noL complled wlLh Lhe prescrlbed
Lerms of Lhe llcenseŤ
101Ŧ3Ŧ 1he llcensee may surrender Lhe llcense by a wrlLLen
declaraLlon submlLLed Lo Lhe CfflceŦ
101Ŧ4Ŧ 1he sald ulrecLor shall cause Lhe amendmenLţ surrenderţ or
cancellaLlon ln Lhe 8eglsLerţ noLlfy Lhe paLenLeeţ and/or Lhe
llcenseeţ and cause noLlce Lhereof Lo be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC
CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 33Ŵuţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 102Ŧ llceoseeƌs íxemptloo ftom llobllltyŦ Ŵ Any person who
works a paLenLed producLţ subsLance and/or process under a
llcense granLed under Lhls ChapLerţ shall be free from any llablllLy
for lnfrlngemenLť Þrovlded howeverţ 1haL ln Lhe case of volunLary
llcenslngţ no colluslon wlLh Lhe llcensor ls provenŦ 1hls ls wlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe rlghLful owner of Lhe paLenL Lo
recover from Lhe llcensor whaLever he may have recelved as
royalLles under Lhe llcenseŦ (SecŦ 33ŴLţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
CnAÞ1Lk kI
ASSIGNMLN1 AND 1kANSMISSICN CI kIGn1S
Sect|on 103Ŧ 1toosmlssloo of klqbtsŦ Ŵ 103Ŧ1Ŧ ÞaLenLs or
appllcaLlons for paLenLs and lnvenLlon Lo whlch Lhey relaLeţ shall
be proLecLed ln Lhe same way as Lhe rlghLs of oLher properLy
under Lhe Clvll CodeŦ
103Ŧ2Ŧ lnvenLlons and any rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and Lo paLenLs
and lnvenLlons covered Lherebyţ may be asslgned or LransmlLLed
by lnherlLance or bequesL or may be Lhe sub[ecL of a llcense
conLracLŦ (SecŦ 30ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 104Ŧ Asslqomeot of oveotloosŦ Ŵ An asslgnmenL may be of
Lhe enLlre rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and Lo Lhe paLenL and Lhe
lnvenLlon covered Lherebyţ or of an undlvlded share of Lhe enLlre
paLenL and lnvenLlonţ ln whlch evenL Lhe parLles become [olnL
owners LhereofŦ An asslgnmenL may be llmlLed Lo a speclfled
LerrlLoryŦ (SecŦ 31ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 10SŦ otm of AsslqomeotŦ Ŵ 1he asslgnmenL musL be ln
wrlLlngţ acknowledged before a noLary publlc or oLher offlcer
auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLh or perform noLarlal acLsţ and
cerLlfled under Lhe hand and offlclal seal of Lhe noLary or such
oLher offlcerŦ (SecŦ 32ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 106Ŧ kecotJloqŦ Ŵ 106Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall record
asslgnmenLsţ llcenses and oLher lnsLrumenLs relaLlng Lo Lhe
Lransmlsslon of any rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL ln and Lo lnvenLlonsţ and
paLenLs or appllcaLlon for paLenLs or lnvenLlons Lo whlch Lhey
relaLeţ whlch are presenLed ln due form Lo Lhe Cfflce for
reglsLraLlonţ ln books and records kepL for Lhe purposeŦ 1he
orlglnal documenLs LogeLher wlLh a slgned dupllcaLe Lhereof shall
be flledţ and Lhe conLenLs Lhereof should be kepL confldenLlalŦ lf
Lhe orlglnal ls noL avallableţ an auLhenLlcaLed copy Lhereof ln
dupllcaLe may be flledŦ upon recordlngţ Lhe Cfflce shall reLaln Lhe
dupllcaLeţ reLurn Lhe orlglnal or Lhe auLhenLlcaLed copy Lo Lhe
parLy who flled Lhe same and noLlce of Lhe recordlng shall be
publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ
106Ŧ2Ŧ Such lnsLrumenLs shall be vold as agalnsL any subsequenL
purchaser or morLgagee for valuable conslderaLlon and wlLhouL
noLlceţ unlessţ lL ls so recorded ln Lhe Cfflceţ wlLhln Lhree (3)
monLhs from Lhe daLe of sald lnsLrumenLţ or prlor Lo Lhe
subsequenL purchase or morLgageŦ (SecŦ 33ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 107Ŧ klqbts of olot OwoetsŦ Ŵ lf Lwo (2) or more persons
[olnLly own a paLenL and Lhe lnvenLlon covered Lherebyţ elLher by
Lhe lssuance of Lhe paLenL ln Lhelr [olnL favor or by reason of Lhe
asslgnmenL of an undlvlded share ln Lhe paLenL and lnvenLlon or
by reason of Lhe successlon ln LlLle Lo such shareţ each of Lhe [olnL
owners shall be enLlLled Lo personally makeţ useţ sellţ or lmporL
Lhe lnvenLlon for hls own proflLť Þrovldedţ howeverţ 1haL nelLher
of Lhe [olnL owners shall be enLlLled Lo granL llcenses or Lo asslgn
hls rlghLţ LlLle or lnLeresL or parL Lhereof wlLhouL Lhe consenL of
Lhe oLher owner or ownersţ or wlLhouL proporLlonally dlvldlng Lhe
proceeds wlLh such oLher owner or ownersŦ (SecŦ 34ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
CnAÞ1Lk kII
kLGIS1kA1ICN CI U1ILI1¥ MCDLLS
Sect|on 108Ŧ Appllcoblllty of ltovlsloos kelotloq to loteotsŦ Ŵ 108Ŧ1Ŧ
Sub[ecL Lo SecLlon 109ţ Lhe provlslons governlng paLenLs shall
applyţ muLaLls muLandlsţ Lo Lhe reglsLraLlon of uLlllLy modelsŦ
108Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe rlghL Lo a paLenL confllcLs wlLh Lhe rlghL Lo a
uLlllLy model reglsLraLlon ln Lhe case referred Lo ln SecLlon 29ţ Lhe
sald provlslon shall apply as lf Lhe word ƍpaLenLƍ were replaced by
Lhe words ƍpaLenL or uLlllLy model reglsLraLlonƍŦ (SecŦ 33ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
Sect|on 109Ŧ 5peclol ltovlsloos kelotloq to Dtlllty MoJelsŦ Ŵ 109Ŧ1Ŧ
(a) An lnvenLlon quallfles for reglsLraLlon as a uLlllLy model lf lL ls
new and lndusLrlally appllcableŦ
(b) SecLlon 21ţ ƍÞaLenLable lnvenLlonsƍţ shall apply
excepL Lhe reference Lo lnvenLlve sLep as a condlLlon of
proLecLlonŦ
109Ŧ2Ŧ SecLlons 43 Lo 49 shall noL apply ln Lhe case of appllcaLlons
for reglsLraLlon of a uLlllLy modelŦ
109Ŧ3Ŧ A uLlllLy model reglsLraLlon shall explreţ wlLhouL any
posslblllLy of renewalţ aL Lhe end of Lhe sevenLh year afLer Lhe
daLe of Lhe flllng of Lhe appllcaLlonŦ



16 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
109Ŧ4Ŧ ln proceedlngs under SecLlons 61 Lo 64ţ Lhe uLlllLy model
reglsLraLlon shall be canceled on Lhe followlng groundsť
(a) 1haL Lhe clalmed lnvenLlon does noL quallfy for
reglsLraLlon as a uLlllLy model and does noL meeL Lhe
requlremenLs of reglsLrablllLyţ ln parLlcular havlng regard
Lo SubsecLlon 109Ŧ1 and SecLlons 22ţ 23ţ 24 and 27Ť
(b) 1haL Lhe descrlpLlon and Lhe clalms do noL comply
wlLh Lhe prescrlbed requlremenLsŤ
(c) 1haL any drawlng whlch ls necessary for Lhe
undersLandlng of Lhe lnvenLlon has noL been furnlshedŤ
(d) 1haL Lhe owner of Lhe uLlllLy model reglsLraLlon ls noL
Lhe lnvenLor or hls successor ln LlLleŦ (SecsŦ 33ţ 36ţ and
37ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 110Ŧ coovetsloo of loteot Appllcotloos ot Appllcotloos fot
Dtlllty MoJel keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ 110Ŧ1Ŧ AL any Llme before Lhe granL or
refusal of a paLenLţ an appllcanL for a paLenL mayţ upon paymenL
of Lhe prescrlbed feeţ converL hls appllcaLlon lnLo an appllcaLlon
for reglsLraLlon of a uLlllLy modelţ whlch shall be accorded Lhe
flllng daLe of Lhe lnlLlal appllcaLlonŦ An appllcaLlon may be
converLed only onceŦ
110Ŧ2Ŧ AL any Llme before Lhe granL or refusal of a uLlllLy model
reglsLraLlonţ an appllcanL for a uLlllLy model reglsLraLlon mayţ upon
paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeţ converL hls appllcaLlon lnLo a
paLenL appllcaLlonţ whlch shall be accorded Lhe flllng daLe of Lhe
lnlLlal appllcaLlonŦ (SecŦ 38ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 111Ŧ ltoblbltloo oqolost llloq of lotollel AppllcotloosŦ Ŵ An
appllcanL may noL flle Lwo (2) appllcaLlons for Lhe same sub[ecLţ
one for uLlllLy model reglsLraLlon and Lhe oLher for Lhe granL of a
paLenL wheLher slmulLaneously or consecuLlvelyŦ (SecŦ 39ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
163a)
CnAÞ1Lk kIII
INDUS1kIAL DLSIGN
Sect|on 112Ŧ efloltloo of oJsttlol eslqoŦ Ŵ An lndusLrlal deslgn
ls any composlLlon of llnes or colors or any LhreeŴdlmenslonal
formţ wheLher or noL assoclaLedŴwlLh llnes or colorsť Þrovldedţ
1haL such composlLlon or form glves a speclal appearance Lo and
can serve as paLLern for an lndusLrlal producL or handlcrafLŦ (SecŦ
33ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 113Ŧ 5bstootlve cooJltloos fot ltotectlooŦ Ŵ 113Ŧ1Ŧ Cnly
lndusLrlal deslgns LhaL are new or orlglnal shall beneflL from
proLecLlon under Lhls AcLŦ
113Ŧ2Ŧ lndusLrlal deslgns dlcLaLed essenLlally by Lechnlcal or
funcLlonal conslderaLlons Lo obLaln a Lechnlcal resulL or Lhose LhaL
are conLrary Lo publlc orderţ healLh or morals shall noL be
proLecLedŦ (n)
Sect|on 114Ŧ cooteots of tbe AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 114Ŧ1Ŧ Lvery appllcaLlon
for reglsLraLlon of an lndusLrlal deslgn shall conLalnť
(a) A requesL for reglsLraLlon of Lhe lndusLrlal deslgnŤ
(b) lnformaLlon ldenLlfylng Lhe appllcanLŤ
(c) An lndlcaLlon of Lhe klnd of arLlcle of manufacLure or
handlcrafL Lo whlch Lhe deslgn shall be applledŤ
(d) A represenLaLlon of Lhe arLlcle of manufacLure or
handlcrafL by way of drawlngsţ phoLographs or oLher
adequaLe graphlc represenLaLlon of Lhe deslgn as
applled Lo Lhe arLlcle of manufacLure or handlcrafL whlch
clearly and fully dlscloses Lhose feaLures for whlch
deslgn proLecLlon ls clalmedŤ and
(e) 1he name and address of Lhe creaLorţ or where Lhe
appllcanL ls noL Lhe creaLorţ a sLaLemenL lndlcaLlng Lhe
orlgln of Lhe rlghL Lo Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLraLlonŦ
114Ŧ2Ŧ 1he appllcaLlon may be accompanled by a speclmen of Lhe
arLlcle embodylng Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn and shall be sub[ecL Lo Lhe
paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeŦ(n)
Sect|on 11SŦ 5evetol oJsttlol eslqos lo Ooe AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 1wo
(2) or more lndusLrlal deslgns may be Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe same
appllcaLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhey relaLe Lo Lhe same subŴclass of Lhe
lnLernaLlonal ClasslflcaLlon or Lo Lhe same seL or composlLlon of
arLlclesŦ (n)
Sect|on 116Ŧ íxomlootlooŦ Ŵ 116Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall accord as Lhe
flllng daLe Lhe daLe of recelpL of Lhe appllcaLlon conLalnlng
lndlcaLlons allowlng Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe appllcanL Lo be esLabllshed
and a represenLaLlon of Lhe arLlcle embodylng Lhe lndusLrlal
deslgn or a plcLorlal represenLaLlon LhereofŦ
116Ŧ2Ŧ lf Lhe appllcaLlon does noL meeL Lhese requlremenLs Lhe
flllng daLe should be LhaL daLe when all Lhe elemenLs speclfled ln
SecLlon 103 are flled or Lhe mlsLakes correcLedŦ CLherwlse lf Lhe
requlremenLs are noL complled wlLhln Lhe prescrlbed perlodţ Lhe
appllcaLlon shall be consldered wlLhdrawnŦ
116Ŧ3Ŧ AfLer Lhe appllcaLlon has been accorded a flllng daLe and
Lhe requlred fees pald on Llmeţ Lhe appllcanL shall comply wlLh Lhe
requlremenLs of SecLlon 114 wlLhln Lhe prescrlbed perlodţ
oLherwlse Lhe appllcaLlon shall be consldered wlLhdrawnŦ
116Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall examlne wheLher Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn
complles wlLh requlremenLs of SecLlon 112 and SubsecLlons 113Ŧ2
and 113Ŧ3Ŧ (n)
Sect|on 117Ŧ keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ 117Ŧ1Ŧ Where Lhe Cfflce flnds LhaL Lhe
condlLlons referred Lo ln SecLlon 113 are fulfllledţ lL shall order
LhaL reglsLraLlon be effecLed ln Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLer and
cause Lhe lssuance of an lndusLrlal deslgn cerLlflcaLe of
reglsLraLlonţ oLherwlseţ lL shall refuse Lhe appllcaLlonŦ
117Ŧ2Ŧ 1he form and conLenLs of an lndusLrlal deslgn cerLlflcaLe



17 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
shall be esLabllshed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe name
and address of Lhe creaLor shall be menLloned ln every caseŦ
117Ŧ3Ŧ 8eglsLraLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe form and wlLhln Lhe
perlod flxed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsŦ
117Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall record ln Lhe reglsLer any change ln Lhe
ldenLlLy of Lhe proprleLor of Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn or hls
represenLaLlveţ lf proof Lhereof ls furnlshed Lo lLŦ A fee shall be
paldţ wlLh Lhe requesL Lo record Lhe change ln Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe
proprleLorŦ lf Lhe fee ls noL paldţ Lhe requesL shall be deemed noL
Lo have been flledŦ ln such caseţ Lhe former proprleLor and Lhe
former represenLaLlve shall remaln sub[ecL Lo Lhe rlghLs and
obllgaLlons as provlded ln Lhls AcLŦ
117Ŧ3Ŧ Anyone may lnspecL Lhe 8eglsLer and Lhe flles of reglsLered
lndusLrlal deslgns lncludlng Lhe flles of cancellaLlon proceedlngsŦ
(n)
Sect|on 118Ŧ 1be 1etm of oJsttlol eslqo keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ 118Ŧ1
1he reglsLraLlon of an lndusLrlal deslgn shall be for a perlod of flve
(3) years from Lhe flllng daLe of Lhe appllcaLlonŦ
118Ŧ2Ŧ 1he reglsLraLlon of an lndusLrlal deslgn may be renewed for
noL more Lhan Lwo (2) consecuLlve perlods of flve (3) years eachţ
by paylng Lhe renewal feeŦ
118Ŧ3Ŧ 1he renewal fee shall be pald wlLhln Lwelve (12) monLhs
precedlng Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod of reglsLraLlonŦ Poweverţ a
grace perlod of slx (6) monLhs shall be granLed for paymenL of Lhe
fees afLer such explraLlonţ upon paymenL of a surcharge
118Ŧ4Ŧ 1he 8egulaLlons shall flx Lhe amounL of renewal feeţ Lhe
surcharge and oLher requlremenLs regardlng Lhe recordlng of
renewals of reglsLraLlonŦ
Sect|on 119Ŧ Appllcotloo of Otbet 5ectloos ooJ cboptetsŦ Ŵ 119Ŧ1Ŧ
1he followlng provlslons relaLlng Lo paLenLs shall apply muLaLls
muLandls Lo an lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLraLlonť
SecLlon 21 Ŵ novelLyť
SecLlon 24 Ŵ Þrlor arLť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe dlsclosure
SecLlon 23 Ŵ nonŴpre[udlclal ulsclosureŤ
SecLlon 27 Ŵ lnvenLlons CreaLed ÞursuanL Lo a Com
SecLlon 28 Ŵ 8lghL Lo a ÞaLenLŤ
SecLlon 29 Ŵ llrsL Lo llle 8uleŤ
SecLlon 31
Ŵ
8lghL of ÞrlorlLyť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe ap
monLhs from Lhe earllesL flllng daLe of
SecLlon 33 Ŵ AppolnLmenL of AgenL or 8epresenLaL
SecLlon 31 Ŵ 8efusal of Lhe AppllcaLlonŤ
SecLlons 36 Lo Ŵ Surrenderţ CorrecLlon of and Changes
60
CPAÞ1L8 vll Ŵ 8emedles of a Þerson wlLh a 8lghL Lo ÞaLenLŤ
CPAÞ1L8 vlll Ŵ 8lghLs of ÞaLenLees and lnfrlngemenL of ÞaLenLsŤ and
CPAÞ1L8 xl Ŵ AsslgnmenL and 1ransmlsslon of 8lghLsŦ
119Ŧ2Ŧ lf Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of an lndusLrlal deslgn whlch ls Lhe
sub[ecL of an appllcaLlon have been obLalned from Lhe creaLlon of
anoLher person wlLhouL hls consenLţ proLecLlon under Lhls ChapLer
cannoL be lnvoked agalnsL Lhe ln[ured parLyŦ (n)
Sect|on 120Ŧ coocellotloo of eslqo keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ 120Ŧ1Ŧ AL any
Llme durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn reglsLraLlonţ any
person upon paymenL of Lhe requlred feeţ may peLlLlon Lhe
ulrecLor of Legal Affalrs Lo cancel Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn on any of
Lhe followlng groundsť
(a) lf Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn ls noL
reglsLrable wlLhln Lhe Lerms of SecLlons 112 and 113Ť
(b) lf Lhe sub[ecL maLLer ls noL newŤ or
(c) lf Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe lndusLrlal deslgn exLends
beyond Lhe conLenL of Lhe appllcaLlon as orlglnally flledŦ
120Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe grounds for cancellaLlon relaLe Lo a parL of Lhe
lndusLrlal deslgnţ cancellaLlon may be effecLed Lo such exLenL onlyŦ
1he resLrlcLlon may be effecLed ln Lhe form of an alLeraLlon of Lhe
effecLed feaLures of Lhe deslgnŦ (n)
ÞAk1 III
1nL LAW CN 1kADLMAkkSţ SLkVICL MAkkS AND 1kADL NAMLS
Sect|on 121Ŧ efloltloosŦ Ŵ As used ln ÞarL lllţ Lhe followlng Lerms
have Lhe followlng meanlngsť
121Ŧ1Ŧ ƍMarkƍ means any vlslble slgn capable of dlsLlngulshlng Lhe
goods (Lrademark) or servlces (servlce mark) of an enLerprlse and
shall lnclude a sLamped or marked conLalner of goodsŤ (SecŦ 38ţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
121Ŧ2Ŧ ƍCollecLlve markƍ means any vlslble slgn deslgnaLed as such
ln Lhe appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon and capable of dlsLlngulshlng Lhe
orlgln or any oLher common characLerlsLlcţ lncludlng Lhe quallLy of
goods or servlces of dlfferenL enLerprlses whlch use Lhe slgn under
Lhe conLrol of Lhe reglsLered owner of Lhe collecLlve markŤ (SecŦ
40ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
121Ŧ3Ŧ ƍ1rade nameƍ means Lhe name or deslgnaLlon ldenLlfylng or
dlsLlngulshlng an enLerprlseŤ (SecŦ 38ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
121Ŧ4Ŧ ƍ8ureauƍ means Lhe 8ureau of 1rademarksŤ
121Ŧ3Ŧ ƍulrecLorƍ means Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarksŤ



18 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
121Ŧ6Ŧ ƍ8egulaLlonsƍ means Lhe 8ules of ÞracLlce ln 1rademarks
and Servlce Marks formulaLed by Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarks and
approved by Lhe ulrecLor CeneralŤ and
121Ŧ7Ŧ ƍLxamlnerƍ means Lhe Lrademark examlnerŦ (SecŦ 38ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 122Ŧ now Motks ote AcplteJŦ Ŵ 1he rlghLs ln a mark shall
be acqulred Lhrough reglsLraLlon made valldly ln accordance wlLh
Lhe provlslons of Lhls lawŦ (SecŦ 2ŴAţ 8 AŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 123Ŧ keqlsttobllltyŦ Ŵ 123Ŧ1Ŧ A mark cannoL be reglsLered lf
lLť
(a) ConslsLs of lmmoralţ decepLlve or scandalous maLLerţ
or maLLer whlch may dlsparage or falsely suggesL a
connecLlon wlLh personsţ llvlng or deadţ lnsLlLuLlonsţ
bellefsţ or naLlonal symbolsţ or brlng Lhem lnLo
conLempL or dlsrepuLeŤ
(b) ConslsLs of Lhe flag or coaL of arms or oLher lnslgnla
of Lhe Þhlllpplnes or any of lLs pollLlcal subdlvlslonsţ or of
any forelgn naLlonţ or any slmulaLlon LhereofŤ
(c) ConslsLs of a nameţ porLralL or slgnaLure ldenLlfylng a
parLlcular llvlng lndlvldual excepL by hls wrlLLen consenLţ
or Lhe nameţ slgnaLureţ or porLralL of a deceased
ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ durlng Lhe llfe of hls wldowţ
lf anyţ excepL by wrlLLen consenL of Lhe wldowŤ
(d) ls ldenLlcal wlLh a reglsLered mark belonglng Lo a
dlfferenL proprleLor or a mark wlLh an earller flllng or
prlorlLy daLeţ ln respecL ofť
(l) 1he same goods or servlcesţ or
(ll) Closely relaLed goods or servlcesţ or
(lll) lf lL nearly resembles such a mark as Lo be
llkely Lo decelve or cause confuslonŤ
(e) ls ldenLlcal wlLhţ or confuslngly slmllar Loţ or
consLlLuLes a LranslaLlon of a mark whlch ls consldered
by Lhe compeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe Þhlllpplnes Lo be wellŴ
known lnLernaLlonally and ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ wheLher or
noL lL ls reglsLered hereţ as belng already Lhe mark of a
person oLher Lhan Lhe appllcanL for reglsLraLlonţ and
used for ldenLlcal or slmllar goods or servlcesť Þrovldedţ
1haL ln deLermlnlng wheLher a mark ls wellŴknownţ
accounL shall be Laken of Lhe knowledge of Lhe relevanL
secLor of Lhe publlcţ raLher Lhan of Lhe publlc aL largeţ
lncludlng knowledge ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes whlch has been
obLalned as a resulL of Lhe promoLlon of Lhe markŤ
(f) ls ldenLlcal wlLhţ or confuslngly slmllar Loţ or
consLlLuLes a LranslaLlon of a mark consldered wellŴ
known ln accordance wlLh Lhe precedlng paragraphţ
whlch ls reglsLered ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes wlLh respecL Lo
goods or servlces whlch are noL slmllar Lo Lhose wlLh
respecL Lo whlch reglsLraLlon ls applled forť Þrovldedţ
1haL use of Lhe mark ln relaLlon Lo Lhose goods or
servlces would lndlcaLe a connecLlon beLween Lhose
goods or servlcesţ and Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered markť
Þrovlded furLherţ 1haL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe
reglsLered mark are llkely Lo be damaged by such useŤ
(g) ls llkely Lo mlslead Lhe publlcţ parLlcularly as Lo Lhe
naLureţ quallLyţ characLerlsLlcs or geographlcal orlgln of
Lhe goods or servlcesŤ
(h) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns LhaL are generlc for Lhe
goods or servlces LhaL Lhey seek Lo ldenLlfyŤ
(l) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns or of lndlcaLlons LhaL have
become cusLomary or usual Lo deslgnaLe Lhe goods or
servlces ln everyday language or ln bona flde and
esLabllshed Lrade pracLlceŤ
([) ConslsLs excluslvely of slgns or of lndlcaLlons LhaL may
serve ln Lrade Lo deslgnaLe Lhe klndţ quallLyţ quanLlLyţ
lnLended purposeţ valueţ geographlcal orlglnţ Llme or
producLlon of Lhe goods or renderlng of Lhe servlcesţ or
oLher characLerlsLlcs of Lhe goods or servlcesŤ
(k) ConslsLs of shapes LhaL may be necesslLaLed by
Lechnlcal facLors or by Lhe naLure of Lhe goods
Lhemselves or facLors LhaL affecL Lhelr lnLrlnslc valueŤ
(l) ConslsLs of color aloneţ unless deflned by a glven
formŤ or
(m) ls conLrary Lo publlc order or morallLyŦ
123Ŧ2Ŧ As regards slgns or devlces menLloned ln paragraphs ([)ţ (k)ţ
and (l)ţ noLhlng shall prevenL Lhe reglsLraLlon of any such slgn or
devlce whlch has become dlsLlncLlve ln relaLlon Lo Lhe goods for
whlch reglsLraLlon ls requesLed as a resulL of Lhe use LhaL have
been made of lL ln commerce ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ 1he Cfflce may
accepL as prlma facle evldence LhaL Lhe mark has become
dlsLlncLlveţ as used ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe appllcanLƌs goods or
servlces ln commerceţ proof of subsLanLlally excluslve and
conLlnuous use Lhereof by Lhe appllcanL ln commerce ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes for flve (3) years before Lhe daLe on whlch Lhe clalm of
dlsLlncLlveness ls madeŦ
123Ŧ3Ŧ 1he naLure of Lhe goods Lo whlch Lhe mark ls applled wlll
noL consLlLuLe an obsLacle Lo reglsLraLlonŦ (SecŦ 4ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 124Ŧ kepltemeots of AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ 124Ŧ1Ŧ 1he appllcaLlon
for Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark shall be ln llllplno or ln Lngllsh and
shall conLaln Lhe followlngť
(a) A requesL for reglsLraLlonŤ
(b) 1he name and address of Lhe appllcanLŤ



19 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
(c) 1he name of a SLaLe of whlch Lhe appllcanL ls a
naLlonal or where he has domlclleŤ and Lhe name of a
SLaLe ln whlch Lhe appllcanL has a real and effecLlve
lndusLrlal or commerclal esLabllshmenLţ lf anyŤ
(d) Where Lhe appllcanL ls a [urldlcal enLlLyţ Lhe law
under whlch lL ls organlzed and exlsLlngŤ
(e) 1he appolnLmenL of an agenL or represenLaLlveţ lf Lhe
appllcanL ls noL domlclled ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
(f) Where Lhe appllcanL clalms Lhe prlorlLy of an earller
appllcaLlonţ an lndlcaLlon ofť
l) 1he name of Lhe SLaLe wlLh whose naLlonal
offlce Lhe earller appllcaLlon was flled or lf flled
wlLh an offlce oLher Lhan a naLlonal offlceţ Lhe
name of LhaL offlceţ
ll) 1he daLe on whlch Lhe earller appllcaLlon
was flledţ and
lll) Where avallableţ Lhe appllcaLlon number of
Lhe earller appllcaLlonŤ
(g) Where Lhe appllcanL clalms color as a dlsLlncLlve
feaLure of Lhe markţ a sLaLemenL Lo LhaL effecL as well as
Lhe name or names of Lhe color or colors clalmed and an
lndlcaLlonţ ln respecL of each colorţ of Lhe prlnclpal parLs
of Lhe mark whlch are ln LhaL colorŤ
(h) Where Lhe mark ls a LhreeŴdlmenslonal markţ a
sLaLemenL Lo LhaL effecLŤ
(l) Cne or more reproducLlons of Lhe markţ as prescrlbed
ln Lhe 8egulaLlonsŤ
([) A LransllLeraLlon or LranslaLlon of Lhe mark or of some
parLs of Lhe markţ as prescrlbed ln Lhe 8egulaLlonsŤ
(k) 1he names of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch Lhe
reglsLraLlon ls soughLţ grouped accordlng Lo Lhe classes
of Lhe nlce ClasslflcaLlonţ LogeLher wlLh Lhe number of
Lhe class of Lhe sald ClasslflcaLlon Lo whlch each group of
goods or servlces belongsŤ and
(l) A slgnaLure byţ or oLher selfŴldenLlflcaLlon ofţ Lhe
appllcanL or hls represenLaLlveŦ
124Ŧ2Ŧ 1he appllcanL or Lhe reglsLranL shall flle a declaraLlon of
acLual use of Lhe mark wlLh evldence Lo LhaL effecLţ as prescrlbed
by Lhe 8egulaLlons wlLhln Lhree (3) years from Lhe flllng daLe of
Lhe appllcaLlonŦ CLherwlseţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall be refused or Lhe
mark shall be removed from Lhe 8eglsLer by Lhe ulrecLorŦ
124Ŧ3Ŧ Cne (1) appllcaLlon may relaLe Lo several goods and/or
servlcesţ wheLher Lhey belong Lo one (1) class or Lo several classes
of Lhe nlce ClasslflcaLlonŦ
124Ŧ4Ŧ lf durlng Lhe examlnaLlon of Lhe appllcaLlonţ Lhe Cfflce flnds
facLual basls Lo reasonably doubL Lhe veraclLy of any lndlcaLlon or
elemenL ln Lhe appllcaLlonţ lL may requlre Lhe appllcanL Lo submlL
sufflclenL evldence Lo remove Lhe doubLŦ (SecŦ 3ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 12SŦ kepteseototlooŤ AJJtess fot 5etvlceŦ Ŵ lf Lhe appllcanL
ls noL domlclled or has no real and effecLlve commerclal
esLabllshmenL ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ he shall deslgnaLe by a wrlLLen
documenL flled ln Lhe Cfflceţ Lhe name and address of a Þhlllpplne
resldenL who may be served noLlces or process ln proceedlngs
affecLlng Lhe markŦ Such noLlces or servlces may be served upon
Lhe person so deslgnaLed by leavlng a copy Lhereof aL Lhe address
speclfled ln Lhe lasL deslgnaLlon flledŦ lf Lhe person so deslgnaLed
cannoL be found aL Lhe address glven ln Lhe lasL deslgnaLlonţ such
noLlce or process may be served upon Lhe ulrecLorŦ (SecŦ 3ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 126Ŧ lsclolmetsŦ Ŵ 1he Cfflce may allow or requlre Lhe
appllcanL Lo dlsclalm an unreglsLrable componenL of an oLherwlse
reglsLrable mark buL such dlsclalmer shall noL pre[udlce or affecL
Lhe appllcanLƌs or ownerƌs rlghLs Lhen exlsLlng or LhereafLer arlslng
ln Lhe dlsclalmed maLLerţ nor such shall dlsclalmer pre[udlce or
affecL Lhe appllcanLƌs or ownerƌs rlghL on anoLher appllcaLlon of
laLer daLe lf Lhe dlsclalmed maLLer became dlsLlncLlve of Lhe
appllcanLƌs or ownerƌs goodsţ buslness or servlcesŦ (SecŦ 13ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 127Ŧ llloq oteŦ Ŵ 127Ŧ1Ŧ 8equlremenLsŦ Ŵ 1he flllng daLe of
an appllcaLlon shall be Lhe daLe on whlch Lhe Cfflce recelved Lhe
followlng lndlcaLlons and elemenLs ln Lngllsh or llllplnoť
(a) An express or lmpllclL lndlcaLlon LhaL Lhe reglsLraLlon
of a mark ls soughLŤ
(b) 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe appllcanLŤ
(c) lndlcaLlons sufflclenL Lo conLacL Lhe appllcanL or hls
represenLaLlveţ lf anyŤ
(d) A reproducLlon of Lhe mark whose reglsLraLlon ls
soughLŤ and
(e) 1he llsL of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch Lhe
reglsLraLlon ls soughLŦ
127Ŧ2Ŧ no flllng daLe shall be accorded unLll Lhe requlred fee ls
paldŦ (n)
Sect|on 128Ŧ 5loqle keqlsttotloo fot CooJs ooJ/ot 5etvlcesŦ Ŵ
Where goods and/or servlces belonglng Lo several classes of Lhe
nlce ClasslflcaLlon have been lncluded ln one (1) appllcaLlonţ such
an appllcaLlon shall resulL ln one reglsLraLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 129Ŧ lvlsloo of AppllcotlooŦ Ŵ Any appllcaLlon referrlng Lo
several goods or servlcesţ hereafLer referred Lo as Lhe ƍlnlLlal
appllcaLlonţƍ may be dlvlded by Lhe appllcanL lnLo Lwo (2) or more
appllcaLlonsţ hereafLer referred Lo as Lhe ƍdlvlslonal appllcaLlonsţƍ
by dlsLrlbuLlng among Lhe laLLer Lhe goods or servlces referred Lo



20 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
ln Lhe lnlLlal appllcaLlonŦ 1he dlvlslonal appllcaLlons shall preserve
Lhe flllng daLe of Lhe lnlLlal appllcaLlon or Lhe beneflL of Lhe rlghL of
prlorlLyŦ (n)
Sect|on 130Ŧ 5lqootte ooJ Otbet Meoos of 5elfŴJeotlflcotlooŦ Ŵ
130Ŧ1Ŧ Where a slgnaLure ls requlredţ Lhe Cfflce shall accepLť
(a) A handŴwrlLLen slgnaLureŤ or
(b) 1he use of oLher forms of slgnaLureţ such as a prlnLed
or sLamped slgnaLureţ or Lhe use of a seal lnsLead of a
handŴwrlLLen slgnaLureť Þrovldedţ 1haL where a seal ls
usedţ lL should be accompanled by an lndlcaLlon ln
leLLers of Lhe name of Lhe slgnaLoryŦ
130Ŧ2Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall accepL communlcaLlons Lo lL by Lelecoplerţ
or by elecLronlc means sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlons or requlremenLs
LhaL wlll be prescrlbed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsŦ When communlcaLlons
are made by Lelefacslmlleţ Lhe reproducLlon of Lhe slgnaLureţ or
Lhe reproducLlon of Lhe seal LogeLher wlLhţ where requlredţ Lhe
lndlcaLlon ln leLLers of Lhe name of Lhe naLural person whose seal
ls usedţ appearsŦ 1he orlglnal communlcaLlons musL be recelved by
Lhe Cfflce wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from daLe of recelpL of Lhe
LelefacslmlleŦ
130Ŧ3Ŧ no aLLesLaLlonţ noLarlzaLlonţ auLhenLlcaLlonţ legallzaLlon or
oLher cerLlflcaLlon of any slgnaLure or oLher means of selfŴ
ldenLlflcaLlon referred Lo ln Lhe precedlng paragraphsţ wlll be
requlredţ excepLţ where Lhe slgnaLure concerns Lhe surrender of a
reglsLraLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 131Ŧ ltlotlty klqbtŦ Ŵ 131Ŧ1Ŧ An appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon
of a mark flled ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes by a person referred Lo ln SecLlon
3ţ and who prevlously duly flled an appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of
Lhe same mark ln one of Lhose counLrlesţ shall be consldered as
flled as of Lhe day Lhe appllcaLlon was flrsL flled ln Lhe forelgn
counLryŦ
131Ŧ2Ŧ no reglsLraLlon of a mark ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes by a person
descrlbed ln Lhls secLlon shall be granLed unLll such mark has been
reglsLered ln Lhe counLry of orlgln of Lhe appllcanLŦ
131Ŧ3Ŧ noLhlng ln Lhls secLlon shall enLlLle Lhe owner of a
reglsLraLlon granLed under Lhls secLlon Lo sue for acLs commlLLed
prlor Lo Lhe daLe on whlch hls mark was reglsLered ln Lhls counLryť
Þrovldedţ 1haLţ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe foregolngţ Lhe owner of a
wellŴknown mark as deflned ln SecLlon 123Ŧ1(e) of Lhls AcLţ LhaL ls
noL reglsLered ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ mayţ agalnsL an ldenLlcal or
confuslngly slmllar markţ oppose lLs reglsLraLlonţ or peLlLlon Lhe
cancellaLlon of lLs reglsLraLlon or sue for unfalr compeLlLlonţ
wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo avalllng hlmself of oLher remedles provlded
for under Lhe lawŦ
131Ŧ4Ŧ ln llke manner and sub[ecL Lo Lhe same condlLlons and
requlremenLsţ Lhe rlghL provlded ln Lhls secLlon may be based
upon a subsequenL regularly flled appllcaLlon ln Lhe same forelgn
counLryť Þrovldedţ 1haL any forelgn appllcaLlon flled prlor Lo such
subsequenL appllcaLlon has been wlLhdrawnţ abandonedţ or
oLherwlse dlsposed ofţ wlLhouL havlng been lald open Lo publlc
lnspecLlon and wlLhouL leavlng any rlghLs ouLsLandlngţ and has noL
servedţ nor LhereafLer shall serveţ as a basls for clalmlng a rlghL of
prlorlLyŦ (SecŦ 37ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 132Ŧ Appllcotloo -mbet ooJ llloq oteŦ Ŵ 132Ŧ1Ŧ 1he
Cfflce shall examlne wheLher Lhe appllcaLlon saLlsfles Lhe
requlremenLs for Lhe granL of a flllng daLe as provlded ln SecLlon
127 and 8egulaLlons relaLlng LhereLoŦ lf Lhe appllcaLlon does noL
saLlsfy Lhe flllng requlremenLsţ Lhe Cfflce shall noLlfy Lhe appllcanL
who shall wlLhln a perlod flxed by Lhe 8egulaLlons compleLe or
correcL Lhe appllcaLlon as requlredţ oLherwlseţ Lhe appllcaLlon
shall be consldered wlLhdrawnŦ
132Ŧ2 Cnce an appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe flllng requlremenLs of SecLlon
127ţ lL shall be numbered ln Lhe sequenLlal orderţ and Lhe
appllcanL shall be lnformed of Lhe appllcaLlon number and Lhe
flllng daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon wlll be deemed Lo have been
abandonedŦ (n)
Sect|on 133Ŧ íxomlootloo ooJ lbllcotlooŦ Ŵ 133Ŧ1Ŧ Cnce Lhe
appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe flllng requlremenLs of SecLlon 127ţ Lhe
Cfflce shall examlne wheLher Lhe appllcaLlon meeLs Lhe
requlremenLs of SecLlon 124 and Lhe mark as deflned ln SecLlon
121 ls reglsLrable under SecLlon 123Ŧ
133Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe Cfflce flnds LhaL Lhe condlLlons referred Lo ln
SubsecLlon 133Ŧ1 are fulfllledţ lL shall upon paymenL of Lhe
prescrlbed feeţ forLhwlLh cause Lhe appllcaLlonţ as flledţ Lo be
publlshed ln Lhe prescrlbed mannerŦ
133Ŧ3Ŧ lf afLer Lhe examlnaLlonţ Lhe appllcanL ls noL enLlLled Lo
reglsLraLlon for any reasonţ Lhe Cfflce shall advlse Lhe appllcanL
Lhereof and Lhe reasons LhereforŦ 1he appllcanL shall have a perlod
of four (4) monLhs ln whlch Lo reply or amend hls appllcaLlonţ
whlch shall Lhen be reŴexamlnedŦ 1he 8egulaLlons shall deLermlne
Lhe procedure for Lhe reŴexamlnaLlon or revlval of an appllcaLlon
as well as Lhe appeal Lo Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarks from any flnal
acLlon by Lhe LxamlnerŦ
133Ŧ4Ŧ An abandoned appllcaLlon may be revlved as a pendlng
appllcaLlon wlLhln Lhree (3) monLhs from Lhe daLe of
abandonmenLţ upon good cause shown and Lhe paymenL of Lhe
requlred feeŦ
133Ŧ3Ŧ 1he flnal declslon of refusal of Lhe ulrecLor of 1rademarks
shall be appealable Lo Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral ln accordance wlLh Lhe
procedure flxed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsŦ (SecŦ 7ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 134Ŧ OpposltlooŦ Ŵ Any person who belleves LhaL he would
be damaged by Lhe reglsLraLlon of a mark mayţ upon paymenL of
Lhe requlred fee and wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days afLer Lhe publlcaLlon
referred Lo ln SubsecLlon 133Ŧ2ţ flle wlLh Lhe Cfflce an opposlLlon
Lo Lhe appllcaLlonŦ Such opposlLlon shall be ln wrlLlng and verlfled
by Lhe opposlLor or by any person on hls behalf who knows Lhe
facLsţ and shall speclfy Lhe grounds on whlch lL ls based and
lnclude a sLaLemenL of Lhe facLs relled uponŦ Coples of cerLlflcaLes
of reglsLraLlon of marks reglsLered ln oLher counLrles or oLher
supporLlng documenLs menLloned ln Lhe opposlLlon shall be flled
LherewlLhţ LogeLher wlLh Lhe LranslaLlon ln Lngllshţ lf noL ln Lhe



21 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
Lngllsh languageŦ lor good cause shown and upon paymenL of Lhe
requlred surchargeţ Lhe Llme for flllng an opposlLlon may be
exLended by Lhe ulrecLor of Legal Affalrsţ who shall noLlfy Lhe
appllcanL of such exLenslonŦ 1he 8egulaLlons shall flx Lhe
maxlmum perlod of Llme wlLhln whlch Lo flle Lhe opposlLlonŦ (SecŦ
8ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163a)
Sect|on 13SŦ -otlce ooJ neotloqŦ Ŵ upon Lhe flllng of an
opposlLlonţ Lhe Cfflce shall serve noLlce of Lhe flllng on Lhe
appllcanLţ and of Lhe daLe of Lhe hearlng Lhereof upon Lhe
appllcanL and Lhe opposlLor and all oLher persons havlng any rlghLţ
LlLle or lnLeresL ln Lhe mark covered by Lhe appllcaLlonţ as appear
of record ln Lhe CfflceŦ (SecŦ 9ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 136Ŧ ssooce ooJ lbllcotloo of cettlflcoteŦ Ŵ When Lhe
perlod for flllng Lhe opposlLlon has explredţ or when Lhe ulrecLor
of Legal Affalrs shall have denled Lhe opposlLlonţ Lhe Cfflce upon
paymenL of Lhe requlred feeţ shall lssue Lhe cerLlflcaLe of
reglsLraLlonŦ upon lssuance of a cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlonţ noLlce
Lhereof maklng reference Lo Lhe publlcaLlon of Lhe appllcaLlon
shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 10ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 137Ŧ keqlsttotloo of Motk ooJ ssooce of o cettlflcote to
tbe Owoet ot bls AsslqoeeŦ Ŵ 137Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall malnLaln a
8eglsLer ln whlch shall be reglsLered marksţ numbered ln Lhe order
of Lhelr reglsLraLlonţ and all LransacLlons ln respecL of each markţ
requlred Lo be recorded by vlrLue of Lhls lawŦ
137Ŧ2Ŧ 1he reglsLraLlon of a mark shall lnclude a reproducLlon of
Lhe mark and shall menLlonť lLs numberŤ Lhe name and address of
Lhe reglsLered owner andţ lf Lhe reglsLered ownerƌs address ls
ouLslde Lhe counLryţ hls address for servlce wlLhln Lhe counLryŤ Lhe
daLes of appllcaLlon and reglsLraLlonŤ lf prlorlLy ls clalmedţ an
lndlcaLlon of Lhls facLţ and Lhe numberţ daLe and counLry of Lhe
appllcaLlonţ basls of Lhe prlorlLy clalmsŤ Lhe llsL of goods or servlces
ln respecL of whlch reglsLraLlon has been granLedţ wlLh Lhe
lndlcaLlon of Lhe correspondlng class or classesŤ and such oLher
daLa as Lhe 8egulaLlons may prescrlbe from Llme Lo LlmeŦ
137Ŧ3Ŧ A cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon of a mark may be lssued Lo Lhe
asslgnee of Lhe appllcanLť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe asslgnmenL ls
recorded ln Lhe CfflceŦ ln case of a change of ownershlpţ Lhe Cfflce
shall aL Lhe wrlLLen requesL slgned by Lhe ownerţ or hls
represenLaLlveţ or by Lhe new ownerţ or hls represenLaLlve and
upon a proper showlng and Lhe paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeţ
lssue Lo such asslgnee a new cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon of Lhe sald
mark ln Lhe name of such asslgneeţ and for Lhe unexplred parL of
Lhe orlglnal perlodŦ
137Ŧ4Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall record any change of addressţ or address
for servlceţ whlch shall be noLlfled Lo lL by Lhe reglsLered ownerŦ
137Ŧ3Ŧ ln Lhe absence of any provlslon Lo Lhe conLrary ln Lhls AcLţ
communlcaLlons Lo be made Lo Lhe reglsLered owner by vlrLue of
Lhls AcL shall be senL Lo hlm aL hls lasL recorded address andţ aL
Lhe sameţ aL hls lasL recorded address for servlceŦ (SecŦ 19ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 138Ŧ cettlflcotes of keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ A cerLlflcaLe of
reglsLraLlon of a mark shall be prlma facle evldence of Lhe valldlLy
of Lhe reglsLraLlonţ Lhe reglsLranLƌs ownershlp of Lhe markţ and of
Lhe reglsLranLƌs excluslve rlghL Lo use Lhe same ln connecLlon wlLh
Lhe goods or servlces and Lhose LhaL are relaLed LhereLo speclfled
ln Lhe cerLlflcaLeŦ (SecŦ 20ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 139Ŧ lbllcotloo of keqlsteteJ MotksŤ ospectloo of
keqlstetŦ Ŵ 139Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall publlshţ ln Lhe form and wlLhln
Lhe perlod flxed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsţ Lhe marks reglsLeredţ ln Lhe
order of Lhelr reglsLraLlonţ reproduclng all Lhe parLlculars referred
Lo ln SubsecLlon 137Ŧ2Ŧ
139Ŧ2Ŧ Marks reglsLered aL Lhe Cfflce may be lnspecLed free of
charge and any person may obLaln coples Lhereof aL hls own
expenseŦ 1hls provlslon shall also be appllcable Lo LransacLlons
recorded ln respecL of any reglsLered markŦ (n)
Sect|on 140Ŧ coocellotloo poo Appllcotloo by keqlsttootŤ
AmeoJmeot ot lsclolmet of keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ upon appllcaLlon of
Lhe reglsLranLţ Lhe Cfflce may permlL any reglsLraLlon Lo be
surrendered for cancellaLlonţ and upon cancellaLlon Lhe
approprlaLe enLry shall be made ln Lhe records of Lhe CfflceŦ upon
appllcaLlon of Lhe reglsLranL and paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeţ
Lhe Cfflce for good cause may permlL any reglsLraLlon Lo be
amended or Lo be dlsclalmed ln parLť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe
amendmenL or dlsclalmer does noL alLer maLerlally Lhe characLer
of Lhe markŦ ApproprlaLe enLry shall be made ln Lhe records of Lhe
Cfflce upon Lhe cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon orţ lf sald cerLlflcaLe ls
losL or desLroyedţ upon a cerLlfled copy Lhereof (SecŦ 14ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
166)
Sect|on 141Ŧ 5eoleJ ooJ cettlfleJ coples os ívlJeoceŦ Ŵ Coples of
any recordsţ booksţ papersţ or drawlngs belonglng Lo Lhe Cfflce
relaLlng Lo marksţ and coples of reglsLraLlonsţ when auLhenLlcaLed
by Lhe seal of Lhe Cfflce and cerLlfled by Lhe ulrecLor of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlveţ llnanclal and Puman 8esource uevelopmenL
Servlce 8ureau or ln hls name by an employee of Lhe Cfflce duly
auLhorlzed by sald ulrecLorţ shall be evldence ln all cases whereln
Lhe orlglnals would be evldenceŤ and any person who applles and
pays Lhe prescrlbed fee shall secure such coplesŦ (n)
Sect|on 142Ŧ cottectloo of Mlstokes MoJe by tbe OfflceŦ Ŵ
Whenever a maLerlal mlsLake ln a reglsLraLlon lncurred Lhrough
Lhe faulL of Lhe Cfflce ls clearly dlsclosed by Lhe records of Lhe
Cfflceţ a cerLlflcaLe sLaLlng Lhe facL and naLure of such mlsLake
shall be lssued wlLhouL chargeţ recorded and a prlnLed copy
Lhereof shall be aLLached Lo each prlnLed copy of Lhe reglsLraLlonŦ
Such correcLed reglsLraLlon shall LhereafLer have Lhe same effecL
as Lhe orlglnal cerLlflcaLeŤ or ln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe ulrecLor of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlveţ llnanclal and Puman 8esource uevelopmenL
Servlce 8ureau a new cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon may be lssued
wlLhouL chargeŦ All cerLlflcaLes of correcLlon hereLofore lssued ln
accordance wlLh Lhe 8egulaLlons and Lhe reglsLraLlon Lo whlch
Lhey are aLLached shall have Lhe same force and effecL as lf such
cerLlflcaLes and Lhelr lssuance had been auLhorlzed by Lhls AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on 143Ŧ cottectloo of Mlstokes MoJe by AppllcootŦ Ŵ
Whenever a mlsLake ls made ln a reglsLraLlon and such mlsLake
occurred ln good falLh Lhrough Lhe faulL of Lhe appllcanLţ Lhe
Cfflce may lssue a cerLlflcaLe upon Lhe paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed



22 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
feeť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe correcLlon does noL lnvolve any change ln
Lhe reglsLraLlon LhaL requlres republlcaLlon of Lhe markŦ (n)
Sect|on 144Ŧ closslflcotloo of CooJs ooJ 5etvlcesŦ Ŵ 144Ŧ1Ŧ Lach
reglsLraLlonţ and any publlcaLlon of Lhe Cfflce whlch concerns an
appllcaLlon or reglsLraLlon effecLed by Lhe Cfflce shall lndlcaLe Lhe
goods or servlces by Lhelr namesţ grouped accordlng Lo Lhe classes
of Lhe nlce ClasslflcaLlonţ and each group shall be preceded by Lhe
number of Lhe class of LhaL ClasslflcaLlon Lo whlch LhaL group of
goods or servlces belongsţ presenLed ln Lhe order of Lhe classes of
Lhe sald ClasslflcaLlonŦ
144Ŧ2Ŧ Coods or servlces may noL be consldered as belng slmllar or
dlsslmllar Lo each oLher on Lhe ground LhaLţ ln any reglsLraLlon or
publlcaLlon by Lhe Cfflceţ Lhey appear ln dlfferenL classes of Lhe
nlce ClasslflcaLlonŦ (SecŦ 6ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 14SŦ totlooŦ Ŵ A cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon shall remaln ln
force for Len (10) yearsť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe reglsLranL shall flle a
declaraLlon of acLual use and evldence Lo LhaL effecLţ or shall show
valld reasons based on Lhe exlsLence of obsLacles Lo such useţ as
prescrlbed by Lhe 8egulaLlonsţ wlLhln one (1) year from Lhe flfLh
annlversary of Lhe daLe of Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe markŦ CLherwlseţ
Lhe mark shall be removed from Lhe 8eglsLer by Lhe CfflceŦ (SecŦ
12ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 146Ŧ keoewolŦ Ŵ 146Ŧ1Ŧ A cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon may be
renewed for perlods of Len (10) years aL lLs explraLlon upon
paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed fee and upon flllng of a requesLŦ 1he
requesL shall conLaln Lhe followlng lndlcaLlonsť
(a) An lndlcaLlon LhaL renewal ls soughLŤ
(b) 1he name and address of Lhe reglsLranL or hls
successorŴlnŴlnLeresLţ hereafLer referred Lo as Lhe ƍrlghL
holderƍŤ
(c) 1he reglsLraLlon number of Lhe reglsLraLlon
concernedŤ
(d) 1he flllng daLe of Lhe appllcaLlon whlch resulLed ln
Lhe reglsLraLlon concerned Lo be renewedŤ
(e) Where Lhe rlghL holder has a represenLaLlveţ Lhe
name and address of LhaL represenLaLlveŤ
(f) 1he names of Lhe recorded goods or servlces for
whlch Lhe renewal ls requesLed or Lhe names of Lhe
recorded goods or servlces for whlch Lhe renewal ls noL
requesLedţ grouped accordlng Lo Lhe classes of Lhe nlce
ClasslflcaLlon Lo whlch LhaL group of goods or servlces
belongs and presenLed ln Lhe order of Lhe classes of Lhe
sald ClasslflcaLlonŤ and
(g) A slgnaLure by Lhe rlghL holder or hls represenLaLlveŦ
146Ŧ2Ŧ Such requesL shall be ln llllplno or Lngllsh and may be
made aL any Llme wlLhln slx (6) monLhs before Lhe explraLlon of
Lhe perlod for whlch Lhe reglsLraLlon was lssued or renewedţ or lL
may be made wlLhln slx (6) monLhs afLer such explraLlon on
paymenL of Lhe addlLlonal fee hereln prescrlbedŦ
146Ŧ3Ŧ lf Lhe Cfflce refuses Lo renew Lhe reglsLraLlonţ lL shall noLlfy
Lhe reglsLranL of hls refusal and Lhe reasons LhereforŦ
146Ŧ4Ŧ An appllcanL for renewal noL domlclled ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
shall be sub[ecL Lo and comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of Lhls AcLŦ
(SecŦ 13ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 147Ŧ klqbts coofetteJŦ Ŵ 147Ŧ1Ŧ 1he owner of a reglsLered
mark shall have Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo prevenL all Lhlrd parLles noL
havlng Lhe ownerƌs consenL from uslng ln Lhe course of Lrade
ldenLlcal or slmllar slgns or conLalners for goods or servlces whlch
are ldenLlcal or slmllar Lo Lhose ln respecL of whlch Lhe Lrademark
ls reglsLered where such use would resulL ln a llkellhood of
confuslonŦ ln case of Lhe use of an ldenLlcal slgn for ldenLlcal goods
or servlcesţ a llkellhood of confuslon shall be presumedŦ
147Ŧ2Ŧ 1he excluslve rlghL of Lhe owner of a wellŴknown mark
deflned ln SubsecLlon 123Ŧ1(e) whlch ls reglsLered ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnesţ shall exLend Lo goods and servlces whlch are noL
slmllar Lo Lhose ln respecL of whlch Lhe mark ls reglsLeredť
Þrovldedţ 1haL use of LhaL mark ln relaLlon Lo Lhose goods or
servlces would lndlcaLe a connecLlon beLween Lhose goods or
servlces and Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered markť Þrovlded furLherţ
1haL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark are llkely Lo
be damaged by such useŦ (n)
Sect|on 148Ŧ Dse of oJlcotloos by 1bltJ lottles fot ltposes Otbet
tboo tbose fot wblcb tbe Motk ls DseJŦ Ŵ 8eglsLraLlon of Lhe mark
shall noL confer on Lhe reglsLered owner Lhe rlghL Lo preclude Lhlrd
parLles from uslng bona flde Lhelr namesţ addressesţ pseudonymsţ
a geographlcal nameţ or exacL lndlcaLlons concernlng Lhe klndţ
quallLyţ quanLlLyţ desLlnaLlonţ valueţ place of orlglnţ or Llme of
producLlon or of supplyţ of Lhelr goods or servlcesť Þrovldedţ 1haL
such use ls conflned Lo Lhe purposes of mere ldenLlflcaLlon or
lnformaLlon and cannoL mlslead Lhe publlc as Lo Lhe source of Lhe
goods or servlcesŦ (n)
Sect|on 149Ŧ Asslqomeot ooJ 1toosfet of Appllcotloo ooJ
keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ 149Ŧ1Ŧ An appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of a markţ or
lLs reglsLraLlonţ may be asslgned or Lransferred wlLh or wlLhouL Lhe
Lransfer of Lhe buslness uslng Lhe markŦ (n)
149Ŧ2Ŧ Such asslgnmenL or Lransfer shallţ howeverţ be null and vold
lf lL ls llable Lo mlslead Lhe publlcţ parLlcularly as regards Lhe
naLureţ sourceţ manufacLurlng processţ characLerlsLlcsţ or
sulLablllLy for Lhelr purposeţ of Lhe goods or servlces Lo whlch Lhe
mark ls applledŦ
149Ŧ3Ŧ 1he asslgnmenL of Lhe appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of a markţ
or of lLs reglsLraLlonţ shall be ln wrlLlng and requlre Lhe slgnaLures
of Lhe conLracLlng parLlesŦ 1ransfers by mergers or oLher forms of
successlon may be made by any documenL supporLlng such
LransferŦ
149Ŧ4Ŧ AsslgnmenLs and Lransfers of reglsLraLlons of marks shall be



23 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
recorded aL Lhe Cfflce on paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed feeŤ
asslgnmenL and Lransfers of appllcaLlons for reglsLraLlon shallţ on
paymenL of Lhe same feeţ be provlslonally recordedţ and Lhe markţ
when reglsLeredţ shall be ln Lhe name of Lhe asslgnee or
LransfereeŦ
149Ŧ3Ŧ AsslgnmenLs and Lransfers shall have no effecL agalnsL Lhlrd
parLles unLll Lhey are recorded aL Lhe CfflceŦ (SecŦ 31ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
166a)
Sect|on 1S0Ŧ llceose coottoctsŦ Ŵ 130Ŧ1Ŧ Any llcense conLracL
concernlng Lhe reglsLraLlon of a markţ or an appllcaLlon Lhereforţ
shall provlde for effecLlve conLrol by Lhe llcensor of Lhe quallLy of
Lhe goods or servlces of Lhe llcensee ln connecLlon wlLh whlch Lhe
mark ls usedŦ lf Lhe llcense conLracL does noL provlde for such
quallLy conLrolţ or lf such quallLy conLrol ls noL effecLlvely carrled
ouLţ Lhe llcense conLracL shall noL be valldŦ
130Ŧ2Ŧ A llcense conLracL shall be submlLLed Lo Lhe Cfflce whlch
shall keep lLs conLenLs confldenLlal buL shall record lL and publlsh a
reference LhereLoŦ A llcense conLracL shall have no effecL agalnsL
Lhlrd parLles unLll such recordlng ls effecLedŦ 1he 8egulaLlons shall
flx Lhe procedure for Lhe recordlng of Lhe llcense conLracLŦ (n)
Sect|on 1S1Ŧ coocellotlooŦ Ŵ 131Ŧ1Ŧ A peLlLlon Lo cancel a
reglsLraLlon of a mark under Lhls AcL may be flled wlLh Lhe 8ureau
of Legal Affalrs by any person who belleves LhaL he ls or wlll be
damaged by Lhe reglsLraLlon of a mark under Lhls AcL as followsť
(a) WlLhln flve (3) years from Lhe daLe of Lhe reglsLraLlon
of Lhe mark under Lhls AcLŦ
(b) AL any Llmeţ lf Lhe reglsLered mark becomes Lhe
generlc name for Lhe goods or servlcesţ or a porLlon
Lhereofţ for whlch lL ls reglsLeredţ or has been
abandonedţ or lLs reglsLraLlon was obLalned fraudulenLly
or conLrary Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLţ or lf Lhe
reglsLered mark ls belng used byţ or wlLh Lhe permlsslon
ofţ Lhe reglsLranL so as Lo mlsrepresenL Lhe source of Lhe
goods or servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch Lhe
mark ls usedŦ lf Lhe reglsLered mark becomes Lhe generlc
name for less Lhan all of Lhe goods or servlces for whlch
lL ls reglsLeredţ a peLlLlon Lo cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon for
only Lhose goods or servlces may be flledŦ A reglsLered
mark shall noL be deemed Lo be Lhe generlc name of
goods or servlces solely because such mark ls also used
as a name of or Lo ldenLlfy a unlque producL or servlceŦ
1he prlmary slgnlflcance of Lhe reglsLered mark Lo Lhe
relevanL publlc raLher Lhan purchaser moLlvaLlon shall be
Lhe LesL for deLermlnlng wheLher Lhe reglsLered mark
has become Lhe generlc name of goods or servlces on or
ln connecLlon wlLh whlch lL has been usedŦ (n)
(c) AL any Llmeţ lf Lhe reglsLered owner of Lhe mark
wlLhouL leglLlmaLe reason falls Lo use Lhe mark wlLhln
Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ or Lo cause lL Lo be used ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes by vlrLue of a llcense durlng an unlnLerrupLed
perlod of Lhree (3) years or longerŦ
131Ŧ2Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe foregolng provlslonsţ Lhe courL or Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency vesLed wlLh [urlsdlcLlon Lo hear and
ad[udlcaLe any acLlon Lo enforce Lhe rlghLs Lo a reglsLered mark
shall llkewlse exerclse [urlsdlcLlon Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhe
reglsLraLlon of sald mark may be cancelled ln accordance wlLh Lhls
AcLŦ 1he flllng of a sulL Lo enforce Lhe reglsLered mark wlLh Lhe
proper courL or agency shall exclude any oLher courL or agency
from assumlng [urlsdlcLlon over a subsequenLly flled peLlLlon Lo
cancel Lhe same markŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ Lhe earller flllng of
peLlLlon Lo cancel Lhe mark wlLh Lhe 8ureau of Legal Affalrs shall
noL consLlLuLe a pre[udlclal quesLlon LhaL musL be resolved before
an acLlon Lo enforce Lhe rlghLs Lo same reglsLered mark may be
decldedŦ (SecŦ 17ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 1S2Ŧ -ooŴse of o Motk wbeo íxcseJŦ Ŵ 132Ŧ1Ŧ nonŴuse of
a mark may be excused lf caused by clrcumsLances arlslng
lndependenLly of Lhe wlll of Lhe Lrademark ownerŦ Lack of funds
shall noL excuse nonŴuse of a markŦ
132Ŧ2Ŧ 1he use of Lhe mark ln a form dlfferenL from Lhe form ln
whlch lL ls reglsLeredţ whlch does noL alLer lLs dlsLlncLlve characLerţ
shall noL be ground for cancellaLlon or removal of Lhe mark and
shall noL dlmlnlsh Lhe proLecLlon granLed Lo Lhe markŦ
132Ŧ3Ŧ 1he use of a mark ln connecLlon wlLh one or more of Lhe
goods or servlces belonglng Lo Lhe class ln respecL of whlch Lhe
mark ls reglsLered shall prevenL lLs cancellaLlon or removal ln
respecL of all oLher goods or servlces of Lhe same classŦ
132Ŧ4Ŧ 1he use of a mark by a company relaLed wlLh Lhe reglsLranL
or appllcanL shall lnure Lo Lhe laLLerƌs beneflLţ and such use shall
noL affecL Lhe valldlLy of such mark or of lLs reglsLraLlonť Þrovldedţ
1haL such mark ls noL used ln such manner as Lo decelve Lhe
publlcŦ lf use of a mark by a person ls conLrolled by Lhe reglsLranL
or appllcanL wlLh respecL Lo Lhe naLure and quallLy of Lhe goods or
servlcesţ such use shall lnure Lo Lhe beneflL of Lhe reglsLranL or
appllcanLŦ (n)
Sect|on 1S3Ŧ kepltemeots of letltlooŤ -otlce ooJ neotloqŦ Ŵ
lnsofar as appllcableţ Lhe peLlLlon for cancellaLlon shall be ln Lhe
same form as LhaL provlded ln SecLlon 134 hereofţ and noLlce and
hearlng shall be as provlded ln SecLlon 133 hereofŦ
Sect|on 1S4Ŧ coocellotloo of keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ lf Lhe 8ureau of Legal
Affalrs flnds LhaL a case for cancellaLlon has been made ouLţ lL shall
order Lhe cancellaLlon of Lhe reglsLraLlonŦ When Lhe order or
[udgmenL becomes flnalţ any rlghL conferred by such reglsLraLlon
upon Lhe reglsLranL or any person ln lnLeresL of record shall
LermlnaLeŦ noLlce of cancellaLlon shall be publlshed ln Lhe lÞC
CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 19ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 1SSŦ kemeJlesŤ oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ Any person who shallţ
wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered markť
133Ŧ1Ŧ use ln commerce any reproducLlonţ counLerfelLţ copyţ or
colorable lmlLaLlon of a reglsLered mark or Lhe same conLalner or a
domlnanL feaLure Lhereof ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe saleţ offerlng for
saleţ dlsLrlbuLlonţ adverLlslng of any goods or servlces lncludlng
oLher preparaLory sLeps necessary Lo carry ouL Lhe sale of any



24 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
goods or servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch such use ls llkely
Lo cause confuslonţ or Lo cause mlsLakeţ or Lo decelveŤ or
133Ŧ2Ŧ 8eproduceţ counLerfelLţ copy or colorably lmlLaLe a
reglsLered mark or a domlnanL feaLure Lhereof and apply such
reproducLlonţ counLerfelLţ copy or colorable lmlLaLlon Lo labelsţ
slgnsţ prlnLsţ packagesţ wrappersţ recepLacles or adverLlsemenLs
lnLended Lo be used ln commerce upon or ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe
saleţ offerlng for saleţ dlsLrlbuLlonţ or adverLlslng of goods or
servlces on or ln connecLlon wlLh whlch such use ls llkely Lo cause
confuslonţ or Lo cause mlsLakeţ or Lo decelveţ shall be llable ln a
clvll acLlon for lnfrlngemenL by Lhe reglsLranL for Lhe remedles
herelnafLer seL forLhť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe lnfrlngemenL Lakes place
aL Lhe momenL any of Lhe acLs sLaLed ln SubsecLlon 133Ŧ1 or Lhls
subsecLlon are commlLLed regardless of wheLher Lhere ls acLual
sale of goods or servlces uslng Lhe lnfrlnglng maLerlalŦ (SecŦ 22ţ
8ŦAŦ no 166a)
Sect|on 1S6Ŧ Actloosţ ooJ omoqes ooJ ojoctloo fot
oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ 136Ŧ1Ŧ 1he owner of a reglsLered mark may recover
damages from any person who lnfrlnges hls rlghLsţ and Lhe
measure of Lhe damages suffered shall be elLher Lhe reasonable
proflL whlch Lhe complalnlng parLy would have madeţ had Lhe
defendanL noL lnfrlnged hls rlghLsţ or Lhe proflL whlch Lhe
defendanL acLually made ouL of Lhe lnfrlngemenLţ or ln Lhe evenL
such measure of damages cannoL be readlly ascerLalned wlLh
reasonable cerLalnLyţ Lhen Lhe courL may award as damages a
reasonable percenLage based upon Lhe amounL of gross sales of
Lhe defendanL or Lhe value of Lhe servlces ln connecLlon wlLh
whlch Lhe mark or Lrade name was used ln Lhe lnfrlngemenL of Lhe
rlghLs of Lhe complalnlng parLyŦ (SecŦ 23ţ flrsL parŦţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
136Ŧ2Ŧ Cn appllcaLlon of Lhe complalnanLţ Lhe courL may lmpound
durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe acLlonţ sales lnvolces and oLher
documenLs evldenclng salesŦ (n)
136Ŧ3Ŧ ln cases where acLual lnLenL Lo mlslead Lhe publlc or Lo
defraud Lhe complalnanL ls shownţ ln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courLţ
Lhe damages may be doubledŦ (SecŦ 23ţ flrsL parŦţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166)
136Ŧ4Ŧ 1he complalnanLţ upon proper showlngţ may also be
granLed ln[uncLlonŦ (SecŦ 23ţ second parŦţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 1S7Ŧ lowet of cott to OtJet oftloqloq Motetlol
esttoyeJŦ Ŵ 137Ŧ1 ln any acLlon arlslng under Lhls AcLţ ln whlch a
vlolaLlon of any rlghL of Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark ls
esLabllshedţ Lhe courL may order LhaL goods found Lo be lnfrlnglng
beţ wlLhouL compensaLlon of any sorLţ dlsposed of ouLslde Lhe
channels of commerce ln such a manner as Lo avold any harm
caused Lo Lhe rlghL holderţ or desLroyedŤ and all labelsţ slgnsţ
prlnLsţ packagesţ wrappersţ recepLacles and adverLlsemenLs ln Lhe
possesslon of Lhe defendanLţ bearlng Lhe reglsLered mark or Lrade
name or any reproducLlonţ counLerfelLţ copy or colorable lmlLaLlon
Lhereofţ all plaLesţ moldsţ maLrlces and oLher means of maklng Lhe
sameţ shall be dellvered up and desLroyedŦ
137Ŧ2Ŧ ln regard Lo counLerfelL goodsţ Lhe slmple removal of Lhe
Lrademark afflxed shall noL be sufflclenL oLher Lhan ln excepLlonal
cases whlch shall be deLermlned by Lhe 8egulaLlonsţ Lo permlL Lhe
release of Lhe goods lnLo Lhe channels of commerceŦ (SecŦ 24ţ 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 1S8Ŧ omoqesŤ kepltemeot of -otlceŦ Ŵ ln any sulL for
lnfrlngemenLţ Lhe owner of Lhe reglsLered mark shall noL be
enLlLled Lo recover proflLs or damages unless Lhe acLs have been
commlLLed wlLh knowledge LhaL such lmlLaLlon ls llkely Lo cause
confuslonţ or Lo cause mlsLakeţ or Lo decelveŦ Such knowledge ls
presumed lf Lhe reglsLranL glves noLlce LhaL hls mark ls reglsLered
by dlsplaylng wlLh Lhe mark Lhe words ƌƍ8eglsLered Markƍ or Lhe
leLLer 8 wlLhln a clrcle or lf Lhe defendanL had oLherwlse acLual
noLlce of Lhe reglsLraLlonŦ (SecŦ 21ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 1S9Ŧ llmltotloos to Actloos fot oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ
noLwlLhsLandlng any oLher provlslon of Lhls AcLţ Lhe remedles
glven Lo Lhe owner of a rlghL lnfrlnged under Lhls AcL shall be
llmlLed as followsť
139Ŧ1Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 133 hereofţ a
reglsLered mark shall have no effecL agalnsL any person whoţ ln
good falLhţ before Lhe flllng daLe or Lhe prlorlLy daLeţ was uslng Lhe
mark for Lhe purposes of hls buslness or enLerprlseť Þrovldedţ 1haL
hls rlghL may only be Lransferred or asslgned LogeLher wlLh hls
enLerprlse or buslness or wlLh LhaL parL of hls enLerprlse or
buslness ln whlch Lhe mark ls usedŦ
139Ŧ2Ŧ Where an lnfrlnger who ls engaged solely ln Lhe buslness of
prlnLlng Lhe mark or oLher lnfrlnglng maLerlals for oLhers ls an
lnnocenL lnfrlngerţ Lhe owner of Lhe rlghL lnfrlnged shall be
enLlLled as agalnsL such lnfrlnger only Lo an ln[uncLlon agalnsL
fuLure prlnLlngŦ
139Ŧ3Ŧ Where Lhe lnfrlngemenL complalned of ls conLalned ln or ls
parL of pald adverLlsemenL ln a newspaperţ magazlneţ or oLher
slmllar perlodlcal or ln an elecLronlc communlcaLlonţ Lhe remedles
of Lhe owner of Lhe rlghL lnfrlnged as agalnsL Lhe publlsher or
dlsLrlbuLor of such newspaperţ magazlneţ or oLher slmllar
perlodlcal or elecLronlc communlcaLlon shall be llmlLed Lo an
ln[uncLlon agalnsL Lhe presenLaLlon of such adverLlslng maLLer ln
fuLure lssues of such newspapersţ magazlnesţ or oLher slmllar
perlodlcals or ln fuLure Lransmlsslons of such elecLronlc
communlcaLlonsŦ 1he llmlLaLlons of Lhls subparagraph shall apply
only Lo lnnocenL lnfrlngersť Þrovldedţ 1haL such ln[uncLlve rellef
shall noL be avallable Lo Lhe owner of Lhe rlghL lnfrlnged wlLh
respecL Lo an lssue of a newspaperţ magazlneţ or oLher slmllar
perlodlcal or an elecLronlc communlcaLlon conLalnlng lnfrlnglng
maLLer where resLralnlng Lhe dlssemlnaLlon of such lnfrlnglng
maLLer ln any parLlcular lssue of such perlodlcal or ln an elecLronlc
communlcaLlon would delay Lhe dellvery of such lssue or
Lransmlsslon of such elecLronlc communlcaLlon ls cusLomarlly
conducLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe sound buslness pracLlceţ and
noL due Lo any meLhod or devlce adopLed Lo evade Lhls secLlon or
Lo prevenL or delay Lhe lssuance of an ln[uncLlon or resLralnlng
order wlLh respecL Lo such lnfrlnglng maLLerŦ (n)
Sect|on 160Ŧ klqbt of otelqo cotpototloo to 5e lo 1toJemotk ot
5etvlce Motk íofotcemeot ActlooŦ Ŵ Any forelgn naLlonal or
[urldlcal person who meeLs Lhe requlremenLs of SecLlon 3 of Lhls
AcL and does noL engage ln buslness ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes may brlng a
clvll or admlnlsLraLlve acLlon hereunder for opposlLlonţ



23 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
cancellaLlonţ lnfrlngemenLţ unfalr compeLlLlonţ or false deslgnaLlon
of orlgln and false descrlpLlonţ wheLher or noL lL ls llcensed Lo do
buslness ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes under exlsLlng lawsŦ (SecŦ 21ŴAţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
166a)
Sect|on 161Ŧ Atbotlty to etetmloe klqbt to keqlsttotlooŦ Ŵ ln any
acLlon lnvolvlng a reglsLered markţ Lhe courL may deLermlne Lhe
rlghL Lo reglsLraLlonţ order Lhe cancellaLlon of a reglsLraLlonţ ln
whole or ln parLţ and oLherwlse recLlfy Lhe reglsLer wlLh respecL Lo
Lhe reglsLraLlon of any parLy Lo Lhe acLlon ln Lhe exerclse of LhlsŦ
!udgmenL and orders shall be cerLlfled by Lhe courL Lo Lhe
ulrecLorţ who shall make approprlaLe enLry upon Lhe records of
Lhe 8ureauţ and shall be conLrolled LherebyŦ (SecŦ 23ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
166a)
Sect|on 162Ŧ Actloo fot olse ot toJleot eclototlooŦ Ŵ Any
person who shall procure reglsLraLlon ln Lhe Cfflce of a mark by a
false or fraudulenL declaraLlon or represenLaLlonţ wheLher oral or
ln wrlLlngţ or by any false meansţ shall be llable ln a clvll acLlon by
any person ln[ured Lhereby for any damages susLalned ln
consequence Lhereof (SecŦ 26ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166)
Sect|on 163Ŧ tlsJlctloo of cottŦ Ŵ All acLlons under SecLlons 130ţ
133ţ 164ţ and 166 Lo 169 shall be broughL before Lhe proper
courLs wlLh approprlaLe [urlsdlcLlon under exlsLlng lawsŦ (SecŦ 27ţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 166)
Sect|on 164Ŧ -otlce of llloq 5lt Clveo to tbe ltectotŦ Ŵ lL shall be
Lhe duLy of Lhe clerks of such courLs wlLhln one (1) monLh afLer Lhe
flllng of any acLlonţ sulLţ or proceedlng lnvolvlng a mark reglsLered
under Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLţ Lo noLlfy Lhe ulrecLor ln wrlLlng
seLLlng forLhť Lhe names and addresses of Lhe llLlganLs and
deslgnaLlng Lhe number of Lhe reglsLraLlon or reglsLraLlons and
wlLhln one (1) monLh afLer Lhe [udgmenL ls enLered or an appeal ls
Lakenţ Lhe clerk of courL shall glve noLlce Lhereof Lo Lhe Cfflceţ and
Lhe laLLer shall endorse Lhe same upon Lhe fllewrapper of Lhe sald
reglsLraLlon or reglsLraLlons and lncorporaLe Lhe same as a parL of
Lhe conLenLs of sald fllewrapperŦ (n)
Sect|on 16SŦ 1toJe -omes ot 8sloess -omesŦ Ŵ 163Ŧ1Ŧ A name or
deslgnaLlon may noL be used as a Lrade name lf by lLs naLure or
Lhe use Lo whlch such name or deslgnaLlon may be puLţ lL ls
conLrary Lo publlc order or morals and lfţ ln parLlcularţ lL ls llable Lo
decelve Lrade clrcles or Lhe publlc as Lo Lhe naLure of Lhe
enLerprlse ldenLlfled by LhaL nameŦ
163Ŧ2Ŧ(a) noLwlLhsLandlng any laws or regulaLlons provldlng for
any obllgaLlon Lo reglsLer Lrade namesţ such names shall be
proLecLedţ even prlor Lo or wlLhouL reglsLraLlonţ agalnsL any
unlawful acL commlLLed by Lhlrd parLlesŦ
(b) ln parLlcularţ any subsequenL use of Lhe Lrade name
by a Lhlrd parLyţ wheLher as a Lrade name or a mark or
collecLlve markţ or any such use of a slmllar Lrade name
or markţ llkely Lo mlslead Lhe publlcţ shall be deemed
unlawfulŦ
163Ŧ3Ŧ 1he remedles provlded for ln SecLlons 133 Lo 136 and
SecLlons 166 and 167 shall apply muLaLls muLandlsŦ
163Ŧ4Ŧ Any change ln Lhe ownershlp of a Lrade name shall be made
wlLh Lhe Lransfer of Lhe enLerprlse or parL Lhereof ldenLlfled by
LhaL nameŦ 1he provlslons of SubsecLlons 149Ŧ2 Lo 149Ŧ4 shall
apply muLaLls muLandlsŦ
Sect|on 166Ŧ CooJs 8eotloq oftloqloq Motks ot 1toJe -omesŦ Ŵ no
arLlcle of lmporLed merchandlse whlch shall copy or slmulaLe Lhe
name of any domesLlc producLţ or manufacLurerţ or dealerţ or
whlch shall copy or slmulaLe a mark reglsLered ln accordance wlLh
Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLţ or shall bear a mark or Lrade name
calculaLed Lo lnduce Lhe publlc Lo belleve LhaL Lhe arLlcle ls
manufacLured ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ or LhaL lL ls manufacLured ln any
forelgn counLry or locallLy oLher Lhan Lhe counLry or locallLy where
lL ls ln facL manufacLuredţ shall be admlLLed Lo enLry aL any
cusLomhouse of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ ln order Lo ald Lhe offlcers of Lhe
cusLoms servlce ln enforclng Lhls prohlblLlonţ any person who ls
enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhls AcLţ may requlre LhaL hls name and
resldenceţ and Lhe name of Lhe locallLy ln whlch hls goods are
manufacLuredţ a copy of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon of hls mark
or Lrade nameţ Lo be recorded ln books whlch shall be kepL for Lhls
purpose ln Lhe 8ureau of CusLomsţ under such regulaLlons as Lhe
CollecLor of CusLoms wlLh Lhe approval of Lhe SecreLary of llnance
shall prescrlbeţ and may furnlsh Lo Lhe sald 8ureau facslmlles of
hls nameţ Lhe name of Lhe locallLy ln whlch hls goods are
manufacLuredţ or hls reglsLered mark or Lrade nameţ and
Lhereupon Lhe CollecLor of CusLoms shall cause one (1) or more
coples of Lhe same Lo be LransmlLLed Lo each collecLor or Lo oLher
proper offlcer of Lhe 8ureau of CusLomsŦ (SecŦ 33ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166)
Sect|on 167Ŧ collectlve MotksŦ Ŵ 167Ŧ1Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo SubsecLlons
167Ŧ2 and 167Ŧ3ţ SecLlons 122 Lo 164 and 166 shall apply Lo
collecLlve marksţ excepL LhaL references Lhereln Lo ƍmarkƍ shall be
read as ƍcollecLlve markƍŦ
167Ŧ2Ŧ(a) An appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of a collecLlve mark shall
deslgnaLe Lhe mark as a collecLlve mark and shall be accompanled
by a copy of Lhe agreemenLţ lf anyţ governlng Lhe use of Lhe
collecLlve markŦ
(b) 1he reglsLered owner of a collecLlve mark shall noLlfy
Lhe ulrecLor of any changes made ln respecL of Lhe
agreemenL referred Lo ln paragraph (a)Ŧ
167Ŧ3Ŧ ln addlLlon Lo Lhe grounds provlded ln SecLlon 149ţ Lhe
CourL shall cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon of a collecLlve mark lf Lhe
person requesLlng Lhe cancellaLlon proves LhaL only Lhe reglsLered
owner uses Lhe markţ or LhaL he uses or permlLs lLs use ln
conLravenLlon of Lhe agreemenLs referred Lo ln SubsecLlon 166Ŧ2
or LhaL he uses or permlLs lLs use ln a manner llable Lo decelve
Lrade clrcles or Lhe publlc as Lo Lhe orlgln or any oLher common
characLerlsLlcs of Lhe goods or servlces concernedŦ
167Ŧ4Ŧ 1he reglsLraLlon of a collecLlve markţ or an appllcaLlon
Lherefor shall noL be Lhe sub[ecL of a llcense conLracLŦ (SecŦ 40ţ
8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 168Ŧ Dofolt competltlooţ klqbtsţ keqlotloo ooJ
kemeJlesŦ Ŵ 168Ŧ1Ŧ A person who has ldenLlfled ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe
publlc Lhe goods he manufacLures or deals lnţ hls buslness or



26 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
servlces from Lhose of oLhersţ wheLher or noL a reglsLered mark ls
employedţ has a properLy rlghL ln Lhe goodwlll of Lhe sald goodsţ
buslness or servlces so ldenLlfledţ whlch wlll be proLecLed ln Lhe
same manner as oLher properLy rlghLsŦ
168Ŧ2Ŧ Any person who shall employ decepLlon or any oLher means
conLrary Lo good falLh by whlch he shall pass off Lhe goods
manufacLured by hlm or ln whlch he dealsţ or hls buslnessţ or
servlces for Lhose of Lhe one havlng esLabllshed such goodwlllţ or
who shall commlL any acLs calculaLed Lo produce sald resulLţ shall
be gullLy of unfalr compeLlLlonţ and shall be sub[ecL Lo an acLlon
LhereforŦ
168Ŧ3Ŧ ln parLlcularţ and wlLhouL ln any way llmlLlng Lhe scope of
proLecLlon agalnsL unfalr compeLlLlonţ Lhe followlng shall be
deemed gullLy of unfalr compeLlLlonť
(a) Any personţ who ls selllng hls goods and glves Lhem
Lhe general appearance of goods of anoLher
manufacLurer or dealerţ elLher as Lo Lhe goods
Lhemselves or ln Lhe wrapplng of Lhe packages ln whlch
Lhey are conLalnedţ or Lhe devlces or words Lhereonţ or
ln any oLher feaLure of Lhelr appearanceţ whlch would
be llkely Lo lnfluence purchasers Lo belleve LhaL Lhe
goods offered are Lhose of a manufacLurer or dealerţ
oLher Lhan Lhe acLual manufacLurer or dealerţ or who
oLherwlse cloLhes Lhe goods wlLh such appearance as
shall decelve Lhe publlc and defraud anoLher of hls
leglLlmaLe Lradeţ or any subsequenL vendor of such
goods or any agenL of any vendor engaged ln selllng such
goods wlLh a llke purposeŤ
(b) Any person who by any arLlflceţ or devlceţ or who
employs any oLher means calculaLed Lo lnduce Lhe false
bellef LhaL such person ls offerlng Lhe servlces of anoLher
who has ldenLlfled such servlces ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe
publlcŤ or
(c) Any person who shall make any false sLaLemenL ln Lhe
course of Lrade or who shall commlL any oLher acL
conLrary Lo good falLh of a naLure calculaLed Lo dlscredlL
Lhe goodsţ buslness or servlces of anoLherŦ
168Ŧ4Ŧ 1he remedles provlded by SecLlons 136ţ 137 and 161 shall
apply muLaLls muLandlsŦ (SecŦ 29ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 166a)
Sect|on 169Ŧ olse eslqootloos of OtlqloŤ olse esctlptloo ot
kepteseototlooŦ Ŵ 169Ŧ1Ŧ Any person whoţ on or ln connecLlon wlLh
any goods or servlcesţ or any conLalner for goodsţ uses ln
commerce any wordţ Lermţ nameţ symbolţ or devlceţ or any
comblnaLlon Lhereofţ or any false deslgnaLlon of orlglnţ false or
mlsleadlng descrlpLlon of facLţ or false or mlsleadlng
represenLaLlon of facLţ whlchť
(a) ls llkely Lo cause confuslonţ or Lo cause mlsLakeţ or Lo
decelve as Lo Lhe afflllaLlonţ connecLlonţ or assoclaLlon of
such person wlLh anoLher personţ or as Lo Lhe orlglnţ
sponsorshlpţ or approval of hls or her goodsţ servlcesţ or
commerclal acLlvlLles by anoLher personŤ or
(b) ln commerclal adverLlslng or promoLlonţ
mlsrepresenLs Lhe naLureţ characLerlsLlcsţ quallLlesţ or
geographlc orlgln of hls or her or anoLher personƌs
goodsţ servlcesţ or commerclal acLlvlLlesţ shall be llable
Lo a clvll acLlon for damages and ln[uncLlon provlded ln
SecLlons 136 and 137 of Lhls AcL by any person who
belleves LhaL he or she ls or ls llkely Lo be damaged by
such acLŦ
169Ŧ2Ŧ Any goods marked or labelled ln conLravenLlon of Lhe
provlslons of Lhls SecLlon shall noL be lmporLed lnLo Lhe Þhlllpplnes
or admlLLed enLry aL any cusLomhouse of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ 1he
ownerţ lmporLerţ or conslgnee of goods refused enLry aL any
cusLomhouse under Lhls secLlon may have any recourse under Lhe
cusLoms revenue laws or may have Lhe remedy glven by Lhls AcL ln
cases lnvolvlng goods refused enLry or selzedŦ (SecŦ 30ţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
166a)
Sect|on 170Ŧ leooltlesŦ Ŵ lndependenL of Lhe clvll and
admlnlsLraLlve sancLlons lmposed by lawţ a crlmlnal penalLy of
lmprlsonmenL from Lwo (2) years Lo flve (3) years and a flne
ranglng from llfLy Lhousand pesos (Þ30ţ000) Lo 1wo hundred
Lhousand pesos(Þ200ţ000)ţ shall be lmposed on any person who ls
found gullLy of commlLLlng any of Lhe acLs menLloned ln SecLlon
133ţ SecLlon 168 and SubsecLlon 169Ŧ1Ŧ (ArLsŦ 188 and 189ţ
8evlsed Þenal Code)
ÞAk1 IV
1nL LAW CN CCÞ¥kIGn1
CnAÞ1Lk I
ÞkLLIMINAk¥ ÞkCVISICNS
Sect|on 171Ŧ efloltloosŦ Ŵ lor Lhe purpose of Lhls AcLţ Lhe
followlng Lerms have Lhe followlng meanlngť
171Ŧ1Ŧ ƍAuLhorƍ ls Lhe naLural person who has creaLed Lhe workŤ
171Ŧ2Ŧ A ƍcollecLlve workƍ ls a work whlch has been creaLed by Lwo
(2) or more naLural persons aL Lhe lnlLlaLlve and under Lhe
dlrecLlon of anoLher wlLh Lhe undersLandlng LhaL lL wlll be
dlsclosed by Lhe laLLer under hls own name and LhaL conLrlbuLlng
naLural persons wlll noL be ldenLlfledŤ
171Ŧ3Ŧ ƍCommunlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlcƍ or ƍcommunlcaLe Lo Lhe
publlcƍ means Lhe maklng of a work avallable Lo Lhe publlc by wlre
or wlreless means ln such a way LhaL members of Lhe publlc may
access Lhese works from a place and Llme lndlvldually chosen by
LhemŤ
171Ŧ4Ŧ A ƍcompuLerƍ ls an elecLronlc or slmllar devlce havlng
lnformaLlonŴprocesslng capablllLlesţ and a ƍcompuLer programƍ ls
a seL of lnsLrucLlons expressed ln wordsţ codesţ schemes or ln any
oLher formţ whlch ls capable when lncorporaLed ln a medlum LhaL
Lhe compuLer can readţ of causlng Lhe compuLer Lo perform or
achleve a parLlcular Lask or resulLŤ
171Ŧ3Ŧ ƍÞubllc lendlngƍ ls Lhe Lransfer of possesslon of Lhe orlglnal
or a copy of a work or sound recordlng for a llmlLed perlodţ for



27 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
nonŴproflL purposesţ by an lnsLlLuLlon Lhe servlces of whlch are
avallable Lo Lhe publlcţ such as publlc llbrary or archlveŤ
171Ŧ6Ŧ ƍÞubllc performanceƍţ ln Lhe case of a work oLher Lhan an
audlovlsual workţ ls Lhe reclLaLlonţ playlngţ danclngţ acLlng or
oLherwlse performlng Lhe workţ elLher dlrecLly or by means of any
devlce or processŤ ln Lhe case of an audlovlsual workţ Lhe showlng
of lLs lmages ln sequence and Lhe maklng of Lhe sounds
accompanylng lL audlbleŤ andţ ln Lhe case of a sound recordlngţ
maklng Lhe recorded sounds audlble aL a place or aL places where
persons ouLslde Lhe normal clrcle of a famlly and LhaL famllyƌs
closesL soclal acqualnLances are or can be presenLţ lrrespecLlve of
wheLher Lhey are or can be presenL aL Lhe same place and aL Lhe
same Llmeţ or aL dlfferenL places and/or aL dlfferenL Llmesţ and
where Lhe performance can be percelved wlLhouL Lhe need for
communlcaLlon wlLhln Lhe meanlng of SubsecLlon 171Ŧ3Ť
171Ŧ7Ŧ ƍÞubllshed worksƍ means worksţ whlchţ wlLh Lhe consenL of
Lhe auLhorsţ are made avallable Lo Lhe publlc by wlre or wlreless
means ln such a way LhaL members of Lhe publlc may access Lhese
works from a place and Llme lndlvldually chosen by Lhemť
Þrovldedţ 1haL avallablllLy of such coples has been suchţ as Lo
saLlsfy Lhe reasonable requlremenLs of Lhe publlcţ havlng regard Lo
Lhe naLure of Lhe workŤ
171Ŧ8Ŧ ƍ8enLalƍ ls Lhe Lransfer of Lhe possesslon of Lhe orlglnal or a
copy of a work or a sound recordlng for a llmlLed perlod of Llmeţ
for proflLŴmaklng purposesŤ
171Ŧ9Ŧ ƍ8eproducLlonƍ ls Lhe maklng of one (1) or more coples of a
work or a sound recordlng ln any manner or form (SecŦ 41 (L)ţ ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 49 a)Ť
171Ŧ10Ŧ A ƍwork of applled arLƍ ls an arLlsLlc creaLlon wlLh
uLlllLarlan funcLlons or lncorporaLed ln a useful arLlcleţ wheLher
made by hand or produced on an lndusLrlal scaleŤ
171Ŧ11Ŧ A ƍwork of Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnesƍ ls a work
creaLed by an offlcer or employee of Lhe Þhlllpplne CovernmenL or
any of lLs subdlvlslons and lnsLrumenLallLlesţ lncludlng
governmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons as a parL of hls
regularly prescrlbed offlclal duLlesŦ
CnAÞ1Lk II
CkIGINAL WCkkS
Sect|on 172Ŧ lltetoty ooJ Attlstlc wotksŦ Ŵ 172Ŧ1Ŧ LlLerary and
arLlsLlc worksţ herelnafLer referred Lo as ƍworksƍţ are orlglnal
lnLellecLual creaLlons ln Lhe llLerary and arLlsLlc domaln proLecLed
from Lhe momenL of Lhelr creaLlon and shall lnclude ln parLlcularť
(a) 8ooksţ pamphleLsţ arLlcles and oLher wrlLlngsŤ
(b) Þerlodlcals and newspapersŤ
(c) LecLuresţ sermonsţ addressesţ dlsserLaLlons prepared
for oral dellveryţ wheLher or noL reduced ln wrlLlng or
oLher maLerlal formŤ
(d) LeLLersŤ
(e) uramaLlc or dramaLlcoŴmuslcal composlLlonsŤ
choreographlc works or enLerLalnmenL ln dumb showsŤ
(f) Muslcal composlLlonsţ wlLh or wlLhouL wordsŤ
(g) Works of drawlngţ palnLlngţ archlLecLureţ sculpLureţ
engravlngţ llLhography or oLher works of arLŤ models or
deslgns for works of arLŤ
(h) Crlglnal ornamenLal deslgns or models for arLlcles of
manufacLureţ wheLher or noL reglsLrable as an lndusLrlal
deslgnţ and oLher works of applled arLŤ
(l) lllusLraLlonsţ mapsţ plansţ skeLchesţ charLs and LhreeŴ
dlmenslonal works relaLlve Lo geographyţ Lopographyţ
archlLecLure or sclenceŤ
([) urawlngs or plasLlc works of a sclenLlflc or Lechnlcal
characLerŤ
(k) ÞhoLographlc works lncludlng works produced by a
process analogous Lo phoLographyŤ lanLern slldesŤ
(l) Audlovlsual works and clnemaLographlc works and
works produced by a process analogous Lo
clnemaLography or any process for maklng audloŴvlsual
recordlngsŤ
(m) ÞlcLorlal lllusLraLlons and adverLlsemenLsŤ
(n) CompuLer programsŤ and
(o) CLher llLeraryţ scholarlyţ sclenLlflc and arLlsLlc worksŦ
172Ŧ2Ŧ Works are proLecLed by Lhe sole facL of Lhelr creaLlonţ
lrrespecLlve of Lhelr mode or form of expresslonţ as well as of Lhelr
conLenLţ quallLy and purposeŦ (SecŦ 2ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk III
DLkIVA1IVL WCkkS
Sect|on 173Ŧ etlvotlve wotksŦ Ŵ 173Ŧ1Ŧ 1he followlng derlvaLlve
works shall also be proLecLed by copyrlghLť
(a) uramaLlzaLlonsţ LranslaLlonsţ adapLaLlonsţ
abrldgmenLsţ arrangemenLsţ and oLher alLeraLlons of
llLerary or arLlsLlc worksŤ and
(b) CollecLlons of llLeraryţ scholarly or arLlsLlc worksţ and
compllaLlons of daLa and oLher maLerlals whlch are
orlglnal by reason of Lhe selecLlon or coordlnaLlon or
arrangemenL of Lhelr conLenLsŦ (SecŦ 2ţ żÞŽ and żCŽţ ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 49)
173Ŧ2Ŧ 1he works referred Lo ln paragraphs (a) and (b) of



28 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
SubsecLlon 173Ŧ1 shall be proLecLed as new worksť Þrovlded
howeverţ 1haL such new work shall noL affecL Lhe force of any
subslsLlng copyrlghL upon Lhe orlglnal works employed or any parL
Lhereofţ or be consLrued Lo lmply any rlghL Lo such use of Lhe
orlglnal worksţ or Lo secure or exLend copyrlghL ln such orlglnal
worksŦ (SecŦ 8ţ ÞŦuŦ 49Ť ArLŦ 10ţ 18lÞS)
Sect|on 174Ŧ lbllsbeJ íJltloo of wotkŦ Ŵ ln addlLlon Lo Lhe rlghL Lo
publlsh granLed by Lhe auLhorţ hls helrsţ or asslgnsţ Lhe publlsher
shall have a copyrlghL conslsLlng merely of Lhe rlghL of
reproducLlon of Lhe Lypographlcal arrangemenL of Lhe publlshed
edlLlon of Lhe workŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk IV
WCkkS NC1 ÞkC1LC1LD
Sect|on 17SŦ DoptotecteJ 5bject MottetŦ Ŵ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe
provlslons of SecLlons 172 and 173ţ no proLecLlon shall exLendţ
under Lhls lawţ Lo any ldeaţ procedureţ sysLemţ meLhod or
operaLlonţ concepLţ prlnclpleţ dlscovery or mere daLa as suchţ
even lf Lhey are expressedţ explalnedţ lllusLraLed or embodled ln a
workŤ news of Lhe day and oLher mlscellaneous facLs havlng Lhe
characLer of mere lLems of press lnformaLlonŤ or any offlclal LexL of
a leglslaLlveţ admlnlsLraLlve or legal naLureţ as well as any offlclal
LranslaLlon Lhereof (n)
Sect|on 176Ŧ wotks of tbe CovetomeotŦ Ŵ 176Ŧ1Ŧ no copyrlghL shall
subslsL ln any work of Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
Poweverţ prlor approval of Lhe governmenL agency or offlce
whereln Lhe work ls creaLed shall be necessary for explolLaLlon of
such work for proflLŦ Such agency or offlce mayţ among oLher
Lhlngsţ lmpose as a condlLlon Lhe paymenL of royalLlesŦ no prlor
approval or condlLlons shall be requlred for Lhe use of any purpose
of sLaLuLesţ rules and regulaLlonsţ and speechesţ lecLuresţ
sermonsţ addressesţ and dlsserLaLlonsţ pronouncedţ read or
rendered ln courLs of [usLlceţ before admlnlsLraLlve agenclesţ ln
dellberaLlve assemblles and ln meeLlngs of publlc characLerŦ (SecŦ
9ţ flrsL parŦţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
176Ŧ2Ŧ 1he auLhor of speechesţ lecLuresţ sermonsţ addressesţ and
dlsserLaLlons menLloned ln Lhe precedlng paragraphs shall have
Lhe excluslve rlghL of maklng a collecLlon of hls worksŦ (n)
176Ŧ3Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe foregolng provlslonsţ Lhe CovernmenL
ls noL precluded from recelvlng and holdlng copyrlghLs Lransferred
Lo lL by asslgnmenLţ bequesL or oLherwlseŤ nor shall publlcaLlon or
republlcaLlon by Lhe CovernmenL ln a publlc documenL of any
work ln whlch copyrlghL ls subslsLlng be Laken Lo cause any
abrldgmenL or annulmenL of Lhe copyrlghL or Lo auLhorlze any use
or approprlaLlon of such work wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
copyrlghL ownerŦ (SecŦ 9ţ Lhlrd parŦţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk V
CCÞ¥kIGn1 Ck LCCNCMIC kIGn1S
Sect|on 177Ŧ copytlqbt ot ícooomlc klqbtsŦ Ŵ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe
provlslons of ChapLer vlllţ copyrlghL or economlc rlghLs shall
conslsL of Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo carry ouLţ auLhorlze or prevenL Lhe
followlng acLsť
177Ŧ1Ŧ 8eproducLlon of Lhe work or subsLanLlal porLlon of Lhe
workŤ
177Ŧ2Ŧ uramaLlzaLlonţ LranslaLlonţ adapLaLlonţ abrldgmenLţ
arrangemenL or oLher LransformaLlon of Lhe workŤ
177Ŧ3Ŧ 1he flrsL publlc dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe orlglnal and each copy of
Lhe work by sale or oLher forms of Lransfer of ownershlpŤ
177Ŧ4Ŧ 8enLal of Lhe orlglnal or a copy of an audlovlsual or
clnemaLographlc workţ a work embodled ln a sound recordlngţ a
compuLer programţ a compllaLlon of daLa and oLher maLerlals or a
muslcal work ln graphlc formţ lrrespecLlve of Lhe ownershlp of Lhe
orlglnal or Lhe copy whlch ls Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe renLalŤ (n)
177Ŧ3Ŧ Þubllc dlsplay of Lhe orlglnal or a copy of Lhe workŤ
177Ŧ6Ŧ Þubllc performance of Lhe workŤ and
177Ŧ7Ŧ CLher communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc of Lhe workŦ (SecŦ 3ţ ÞŦ
uŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk VI
CWNLkSnIÞ CI CCÞ¥kIGn1
Sect|on 178Ŧ kles oo copytlqbt OwoetsblpŦ Ŵ CopyrlghL ownershlp
shall be governed by Lhe followlng rulesť
178Ŧ1 Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls secLlonţ ln Lhe case of
orlglnal llLerary and arLlsLlc worksţ copyrlghL shall belong Lo Lhe
auLhor of Lhe workŤ
178Ŧ2Ŧ ln Lhe case of works of [olnL auLhorshlpţ Lhe coŴauLhors shall
be Lhe orlglnal owners of Lhe copyrlghL and ln Lhe absence of
agreemenLţ Lhelr rlghLs shall be governed by Lhe rules on coŴ
ownershlpŦ lfţ howeverţ a work of [olnL auLhorshlp conslsLs of parLs
LhaL can be used separaLely and Lhe auLhor of each parL can be
ldenLlfledţ Lhe auLhor of each parL shall be Lhe orlglnal owner of
Lhe copyrlghL ln Lhe parL LhaL he has creaLedŤ
178Ŧ3Ŧ ln Lhe case of work creaLed by an auLhor durlng and ln Lhe
course of hls employmenLţ Lhe copyrlghL shall belong Loť
(a) 1he employeeţ lf Lhe creaLlon of Lhe ob[ecL of
copyrlghL ls noL a parL of hls regular duLles even lf Lhe
employee uses Lhe Llmeţ faclllLles and maLerlals of Lhe
employerŦ
(b) 1he employerţ lf Lhe work ls Lhe resulL of Lhe
performance of hls regularlyŴasslgned duLlesţ unless
Lhere ls an agreemenLţ express or lmplledţ Lo Lhe
conLraryŦ
178Ŧ4Ŧ ln Lhe case of a work commlssloned by a person oLher Lhan
an employer of Lhe auLhor and who pays for lL and Lhe work ls
made ln pursuance of Lhe commlsslonţ Lhe person who so
commlssloned Lhe work shall have ownershlp of Lhe workţ buL Lhe
copyrlghL LhereLo shall remaln wlLh Lhe creaLorţ unless Lhere ls a



29 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
wrlLLen sLlpulaLlon Lo Lhe conLraryŤ
178Ŧ3Ŧ ln Lhe case of audlovlsual workţ Lhe copyrlghL shall belong
Lo Lhe producerţ Lhe auLhor of Lhe scenarloţ Lhe composer of Lhe
muslcţ Lhe fllm dlrecLorţ and Lhe auLhor of Lhe work so adapLedŦ
Poweverţ sub[ecL Lo conLrary or oLher sLlpulaLlons among Lhe
creaLorsţ Lhe producer shall exerclse Lhe copyrlghL Lo an exLenL
requlred for Lhe exhlblLlon of Lhe work ln any mannerţ excepL for
Lhe rlghL Lo collecL performlng llcense fees for Lhe performance of
muslcal composlLlonsţ wlLh or wlLhouL wordsţ whlch are
lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe workŤ and
178Ŧ6Ŧ ln respecL of leLLersţ Lhe copyrlghL shall belong Lo Lhe wrlLer
sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of ArLlcle 723 of Lhe Clvll CodeŦ (SecŦ 6ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 179Ŧ Aoooymos ooJ lseJooymos wotksŦ Ŵ lor
purposes of Lhls AcLţ Lhe publlshers shall be deemed Lo represenL
Lhe auLhors of arLlcles and oLher wrlLlngs publlshed wlLhouL Lhe
names of Lhe auLhors or under pseudonymsţ unless Lhe conLrary
appearsţ or Lhe pseudonyms or adopLed name leaves no doubL as
Lo Lhe auLhorƌs ldenLlLyţ or lf Lhe auLhor of Lhe anonymous works
dlscloses hls ldenLlLyŦ (SecŦ 7ţ ÞŦuŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk VII
1kANSILk Ck ASSIGNMLN1 CI CCÞ¥kIGn1
Sect|on 180Ŧ klqbts of AsslqoeeŦ Ŵ 180Ŧ1Ŧ 1he copyrlghL may be
asslgned ln whole or ln parLŦ WlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe asslgnmenLţ
Lhe asslgnee ls enLlLled Lo all Lhe rlghLs and remedles whlch Lhe
asslgnor had wlLh respecL Lo Lhe copyrlghLŦ
180Ŧ2Ŧ 1he copyrlghL ls noL deemed asslgned lnLer vlvos ln whole
or ln parL unless Lhere ls a wrlLLen lndlcaLlon of such lnLenLlonŦ
180Ŧ3Ŧ 1he submlsslon of a llLeraryţ phoLographlc or arLlsLlc work
Lo a newspaperţ magazlne or perlodlcal for publlcaLlon shall
consLlLuLe only a llcense Lo make a slngle publlcaLlon unless a
greaLer rlghL ls expressly granLedŦ lf Lwo (2) or more persons
[olnLly own a copyrlghL or any parL Lhereofţ nelLher of Lhe owners
shall be enLlLled Lo granL llcenses wlLhouL Lhe prlor wrlLLen
consenL of Lhe oLher owner or ownersŦ (SecŦ 13ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 181Ŧ copytlqbt ooJ Motetlol ObjectŦ Ŵ 1he copyrlghL ls
dlsLlncL from Lhe properLy ln Lhe maLerlal ob[ecL sub[ecL Lo lLŦ
ConsequenLlyţ Lhe Lransfer or asslgnmenL of Lhe copyrlghL shall
noL lLself consLlLuLe a Lransfer of Lhe maLerlal ob[ecLŦ nor shall a
Lransfer or asslgnmenL of Lhe sole copy or of one or several coples
of Lhe work lmply Lransfer or asslgnmenL of Lhe copyrlghLŦ (SecŦ 16ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 182Ŧ llloq of Asslqomeot ot llceoseŦ Ŵ An asslgnmenL or
excluslve llcense may be flled ln dupllcaLe wlLh Lhe naLlonal
Llbrary upon paymenL of Lhe prescrlbed fee for reglsLraLlon ln
books and records kepL for Lhe purposeŦ upon recordlngţ a copy of
Lhe lnsLrumenL shall be reLurned Lo Lhe sender wlLh a noLaLlon of
Lhe facL of recordŦ noLlce of Lhe record shall be publlshed ln Lhe
lÞC CazeLLeŦ (SecŦ 19ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 183Ŧ eslqootloo of 5ocletyŦ Ŵ 1he copyrlghL owners or
Lhelr helrs may deslgnaLe a socleLy of arLlsLsţ wrlLers or composers
Lo enforce Lhelr economlc rlghLs and moral rlghLs on Lhelr behalfŦ
(SecŦ 32ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk VIII
LIMI1A1ICNS CN CCÞ¥kIGn1
Sect|on 184Ŧ llmltotloos oo copytlqbtŦ Ŵ 184Ŧ1Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng
Lhe provlslons of ChapLer vţ Lhe followlng acLs shall noL consLlLuLe
lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghLť
(a) 1he reclLaLlon or performance of a workţ once lL has
been lawfully made accesslble Lo Lhe publlcţ lf done
prlvaLely and free of charge or lf made sLrlcLly for a
charlLable or rellglous lnsLlLuLlon or socleLyŤ (SecŦ 10(1)ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
(b) 1he maklng of quoLaLlons from a publlshed work lf
Lhey are compaLlble wlLh falr use and only Lo Lhe exLenL
[usLlfled for Lhe purposeţ lncludlng quoLaLlons from
newspaper arLlcles and perlodlcals ln Lhe form of press
summarlesť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe source and Lhe name of
Lhe auLhorţ lf appearlng on Lhe workţ are menLlonedŤ
(SecŦ 11ţ Lhlrd parŦţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
(c) 1he reproducLlon or communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc by
mass medla of arLlcles on currenL pollLlcalţ soclalţ
economlcţ sclenLlflc or rellglous Loplcţ lecLuresţ
addresses and oLher works of Lhe same naLureţ whlch
are dellvered ln publlc lf such use ls for lnformaLlon
purposes and has noL been expressly reservedť Þrovldedţ
1haL Lhe source ls clearly lndlcaLedŤ (SecŦ 11ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
(d) 1he reproducLlon and communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc of
llLeraryţ sclenLlflc or arLlsLlc works as parL of reporLs of
currenL evenLs by means of phoLographyţ
clnemaLography or broadcasLlng Lo Lhe exLenL necessary
for Lhe purposeŤ (SecŦ 12ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
(e) 1he lncluslon of a work ln a publlcaLlonţ broadcasLţ or
oLher communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlcţ sound recordlng or
fllmţ lf such lncluslon ls made by way of lllusLraLlon for
Leachlng purposes and ls compaLlble wlLh falr useť
Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe source and of Lhe name of Lhe
auLhorţ lf appearlng ln Lhe workţ are menLlonedŤ
(f) 1he recordlng made ln schoolsţ unlverslLlesţ or
educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons of a work lncluded ln a
broadcasL for Lhe use of such schoolsţ unlverslLles or
educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlonsť Þrovldedţ 1haL such recordlng
musL be deleLed wlLhln a reasonable perlod afLer Lhey
were flrsL broadcasLť Þrovldedţ furLherţ 1haL such
recordlng may noL be made from audlovlsual works
whlch are parL of Lhe general clnema reperLolre of
feaLure fllms excepL for brlef excerpLs of Lhe workŤ
(g) 1he maklng of ephemeral recordlngs by a
broadcasLlng organlzaLlon by means of lLs own faclllLles



30 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
and for use ln lLs own broadcasLŤ
(h) 1he use made of a work by or under Lhe dlrecLlon or
conLrol of Lhe CovernmenLţ by Lhe naLlonal Llbrary or by
educaLlonalţ sclenLlflc or professlonal lnsLlLuLlons where
such use ls ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL and ls compaLlble wlLh
falr useŤ
(l) 1he publlc performance or Lhe communlcaLlon Lo Lhe
publlc of a workţ ln a place where no admlsslon fee ls
charged ln respecL of such publlc performance or
communlcaLlonţ by a club or lnsLlLuLlon for charlLable or
educaLlonal purpose onlyţ whose alm ls noL proflL
maklngţ sub[ecL Lo such oLher llmlLaLlons as may be
provlded ln Lhe 8egulaLlonsŤ (n)
([) Þubllc dlsplay of Lhe orlglnal or a copy of Lhe work noL
made by means of a fllmţ slldeţ Lelevlslon lmage or
oLherwlse on screen or by means of any oLher devlce or
processť Þrovldedţ 1haL elLher Lhe work has been
publlshedţ orţ LhaL Lhe orlglnal or Lhe copy dlsplayed has
been soldţ glven away or oLherwlse Lransferred Lo
anoLher person by Lhe auLhor or hls successor ln LlLleŤ
and
(k) Any use made of a work for Lhe purpose of any
[udlclal proceedlngs or for Lhe glvlng of professlonal
advlce by a legal pracLlLlonerŦ
184Ŧ2Ŧ 1he provlslons of Lhls secLlon shall be lnLerpreLed ln such a
way as Lo allow Lhe work Lo be used ln a manner whlch does noL
confllcL wlLh Lhe normal explolLaLlon of Lhe work and does noL
unreasonably pre[udlce Lhe rlghL holderƌs leglLlmaLe lnLeresLsŦ
Sect|on 18SŦ olt Dse of o copytlqbteJ wotkŦ Ŵ 183Ŧ1Ŧ 1he falr use
of a copyrlghLed work for crlLlclsmţ commenLţ news reporLlngţ
Leachlng lncludlng mulLlple coples for classroom useţ scholarshlpţ
researchţ and slmllar purposes ls noL an lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghLŦ
uecompllaLlonţ whlch ls undersLood here Lo be Lhe reproducLlon
of Lhe code and LranslaLlon of Lhe forms of Lhe compuLer program
Lo achleve Lhe lnLerŴoperablllLy of an lndependenLly creaLed
compuLer program wlLh oLher programs may also consLlLuLe falr
useŦ ln deLermlnlng wheLher Lhe use made of a work ln any
parLlcular case ls falr useţ Lhe facLors Lo be consldered shall
lncludeť
(a) 1he purpose and characLer of Lhe useţ lncludlng
wheLher such use ls of a commerclal naLure or ls for nonŴ
proflL educaLlonal purposesŤ
(b) 1he naLure of Lhe copyrlghLed workŤ
(c) 1he amounL and subsLanLlallLy of Lhe porLlon used ln
relaLlon Lo Lhe copyrlghLed work as a wholeŤ and
(d) 1he effecL of Lhe use upon Lhe poLenLlal markeL for
or value of Lhe copyrlghLed workŦ
183Ŧ2Ŧ 1he facL LhaL a work ls unpubllshed shall noL by lLself bar a
flndlng of falr use lf such flndlng ls made upon conslderaLlon of all
Lhe above facLorsŦ
Sect|on 186Ŧ wotk of AtcbltectteŦ Ŵ CopyrlghL ln a work of
archlLecLure shall lnclude Lhe rlghL Lo conLrol Lhe erecLlon of any
bulldlng whlch reproduces Lhe whole or a subsLanLlal parL of Lhe
work elLher ln lLs orlglnal form or ln any form recognlzably derlved
from Lhe orlglnalť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe copyrlghL ln any such work
shall noL lnclude Lhe rlghL Lo conLrol Lhe reconsLrucLlon or
rehablllLaLlon ln Lhe same sLyle as Lhe orlglnal of a bulldlng Lo
whlch LhaL copyrlghL relaLesŦ (n)
Sect|on 187Ŧ keptoJctloo of lbllsbeJ wotkŦ Ŵ 187Ŧ1Ŧ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslon of SecLlon 177ţ and sub[ecL Lo Lhe
provlslons of SubsecLlon 187Ŧ2ţ Lhe prlvaLe reproducLlon of a
publlshed work ln a slngle copyţ where Lhe reproducLlon ls made
by a naLural person excluslvely for research and prlvaLe sLudyţ
shall be permlLLedţ wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe owner of
copyrlghL ln Lhe workŦ
187Ŧ2Ŧ 1he permlsslon granLed under SubsecLlon 187Ŧ1 shall noL
exLend Lo Lhe reproducLlon ofť
(a) A work of archlLecLure ln Lhe form of bulldlng or
oLher consLrucLlonŤ
(b) An enLlre bookţ or a subsLanLlal parL Lhereofţ or of a
muslcal work ln graphlc form by reprographlc meansŤ
(c) A compllaLlon of daLa and oLher maLerlalsŤ
(d) A compuLer program excepL as provlded ln SecLlon
189Ť and
(e) Any work ln cases where reproducLlon would
unreasonably confllcL wlLh a normal explolLaLlon of Lhe
work or would oLherwlse unreasonably pre[udlce Lhe
leglLlmaLe lnLeresLs of Lhe auLhorŦ (n)
Sect|on 188Ŧ keptoqtopblc keptoJctloo by llbtotlesŦ Ŵ 188Ŧ1Ŧ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslons of SubsecLlon 177Ŧ6ţ any llbrary or
archlve whose acLlvlLles are noL for proflL mayţ wlLhouL Lhe
auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe auLhor of copyrlghL ownerţ make a slngle copy
of Lhe work by reprographlc reproducLlonť
(a) Where Lhe work by reason of lLs fraglle characLer or
rarlLy cannoL be lenL Lo user ln lLs orlglnal formŤ
(b) Where Lhe works are lsolaLed arLlcles conLalned ln
composlLe works or brlef porLlons of oLher publlshed
works and Lhe reproducLlon ls necessary Lo supply Lhemţ
when Lhls ls consldered expedlenLţ Lo persons requesLlng
Lhelr loan for purposes of research or sLudy lnsLead of
lendlng Lhe volumes or bookleLs whlch conLaln LhemŤ
and
(c) Where Lhe maklng of such a copy ls ln order Lo



31 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
preserve andţ lf necessary ln Lhe evenL LhaL lL ls losLţ
desLroyed or rendered unusableţ replace a copyţ or Lo
replaceţ ln Lhe permanenL collecLlon of anoLher slmllar
llbrary or archlveţ a copy whlch has been losLţ desLroyed
or rendered unusable and coples are noL avallable wlLh
Lhe publlsherŦ
188Ŧ2Ŧ noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe above provlslonsţ lL shall noL be
permlsslble Lo produce a volume of a work publlshed ln several
volumes or Lo produce mlsslng Lomes or pages of magazlnes or
slmllar worksţ unless Lhe volumeţ Lome or parL ls ouL of sLockť
Þrovldedţ 1haL every llbrary whlchţ by lawţ ls enLlLled Lo recelve
coples of a prlnLed workţ shall be enLlLledţ when speclal reasons so
requlreţ Lo reproduce a copy of a publlshed work whlch ls
consldered necessary for Lhe collecLlon of Lhe llbrary buL whlch ls
ouL of sLockŦ (SecŦ 13ţ ÞŦuŦ 49a)
Sect|on 189Ŧ keptoJctloo of comptet ltoqtomŦ Ŵ 189Ŧ1Ŧ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 177ţ Lhe reproducLlon ln
one (1) backŴup copy or adapLaLlon of a compuLer program shall
be permlLLedţ wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe auLhor ofţ or oLher
owner of copyrlghL lnţ a compuLer programţ by Lhe lawful owner
of LhaL compuLer programť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe copy or adapLaLlon
ls necessary forť
(a) 1he use of Lhe compuLer program ln con[uncLlon wlLh
a compuLer for Lhe purposeţ and Lo Lhe exLenLţ for whlch
Lhe compuLer program has been obLalnedŤ and
(b) Archlval purposesţ andţ for Lhe replacemenL of Lhe
lawfully owned copy of Lhe compuLer program ln Lhe
evenL LhaL Lhe lawfully obLalned copy of Lhe compuLer
program ls losLţ desLroyed or rendered unusableŦ
189Ŧ2Ŧ no copy or adapLaLlon menLloned ln Lhls SecLlon shall be
used for any purpose oLher Lhan Lhe ones deLermlned ln Lhls
SecLlonţ and any such copy or adapLaLlon shall be desLroyed ln Lhe
evenL LhaL conLlnued possesslon of Lhe copy of Lhe compuLer
program ceases Lo be lawfulŦ
189Ŧ3Ŧ 1hls provlslon shall be wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe appllcaLlon
of SecLlon 183 whenever approprlaLeŦ (n)
Sect|on 190Ŧ mpottotloo fot letsoool ltposesŦ Ŵ 190Ŧ1Ŧ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslon of SubsecLlon 177Ŧ6ţ buL sub[ecL Lo
Lhe llmlLaLlon under Lhe SubsecLlon 183Ŧ2ţ Lhe lmporLaLlon of a
copy of a work by an lndlvldual for hls personal purposes shall be
permlLLed wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe auLhor ofţ or oLher
owner of copyrlghL lnţ Lhe work under Lhe followlng
clrcumsLancesť
(a) When coples of Lhe work are noL avallable ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes andť
(l) noL more Lhan one (1) copy aL one Llme ls
lmporLed for sLrlcLly lndlvldual use onlyŤ or
(ll) 1he lmporLaLlon ls by auLhorlLy of and for
Lhe use of Lhe Þhlllpplne CovernmenLŤ or
(lll) 1he lmporLaLlonţ conslsLlng of noL more
Lhan Lhree (3) such coples or llkenesses ln any
one lnvolceţ ls noL for sale buL for Lhe use only
of any rellglousţ charlLableţ or educaLlonal
socleLy or lnsLlLuLlon duly lncorporaLed or
reglsLeredţ or ls for Lhe encouragemenL of Lhe
flne arLsţ or for any sLaLe schoolţ collegeţ
unlverslLyţ or free publlc llbrary ln Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ
(b) When such coples form parLs of llbrarles and
personal baggage belonglng Lo persons or famllles
arrlvlng from forelgn counLrles and are noL lnLended for
saleť Þrovldedţ 1haL such coples do noL exceed Lhree (3)Ŧ
190Ŧ2Ŧ Coples lmporLed as allowed by Lhls SecLlon may noL lawfully
be used ln any way Lo vlolaLe Lhe rlghLs of owner Lhe copyrlghL or
annul or llmlL Lhe proLecLlon secured by Lhls AcLţ and such
unlawful use shall be deemed an lnfrlngemenL and shall be
punlshable as such wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe proprleLorƌs rlghL of
acLlonŦ
190Ŧ3Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval of Lhe SecreLary of llnanceţ Lhe
Commlssloner of CusLoms ls hereby empowered Lo make rules and
regulaLlons for prevenLlng Lhe lmporLaLlon of arLlcles Lhe
lmporLaLlon of whlch ls prohlblLed under Lhls SecLlon and under
LreaLles and convenLlons Lo whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes may be a parLy
and for selzlng and condemnlng and dlsposlng of Lhe same ln case
Lhey are dlscovered afLer Lhey have been lmporLedŦ (SecŦ 30ţ ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk Ik
DLÞCSI1 AND NC1ICL
Sect|on 191Ŧ keqlsttotloo ooJ eposlt wltb -otloool llbtoty ooJ
tbe 5pteme cott llbtotyŦ Ŵ AfLer Lhe flrsL publlc dlssemlnaLlon of
performance by auLhorlLy of Lhe copyrlghL owner of a work falllng
under SubsecLlons 172Ŧ1ţ 172Ŧ2 and 172Ŧ3 of Lhls AcLţ Lhere shallţ
for Lhe purpose of compleLlng Lhe records of Lhe naLlonal Llbrary
and Lhe Supreme CourL Llbraryţ wlLhln Lhree (3) weeksţ be
reglsLered and deposlLed wlLh lLţ by personal dellvery or by
reglsLered mall Lwo (2) compleLe coples or reproducLlons of Lhe
work ln such form as Lhe dlrecLors of sald llbrarles may prescrlbeŦ
A cerLlflcaLe of deposlL shall be lssued for whlch Lhe prescrlbed fee
shall be collecLed and Lhe copyrlghL owner shall be exempL from
maklng addlLlonal deposlL of Lhe works wlLh Lhe naLlonal Llbrary
and Lhe Supreme CourL Llbrary under oLher lawsŦ lfţ wlLhln Lhree
(3) weeks afLer recelpL by Lhe copyrlghL owner of a wrlLLen
demand from Lhe dlrecLors for such deposlLţ Lhe requlred coples
or reproducLlons are noL dellvered and Lhe fee ls noL paldţ Lhe
copyrlghL owner shall be llable Lo pay a flne equlvalenL Lo Lhe
requlred fee per monLh of delay and Lo pay Lo Lhe naLlonal Llbrary
and Lhe Supreme CourL Llbrary Lhe amounL of Lhe reLall prlce of
Lhe besL edlLlon of Lhe workŦ Cnly Lhe above menLloned classes of
work shall be accepLed for deposlL by Lhe naLlonal Llbrary and Lhe
Supreme CourL LlbraryŦ (SecŦ 26ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 192Ŧ -otlce of copytlqbtŦ Ŵ Lach copy of a work publlshed
or offered for sale may conLaln a noLlce bearlng Lhe name of Lhe
copyrlghL ownerţ and Lhe year of lLs flrsL publlcaLlonţ andţ ln coples



32 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
produced afLer Lhe creaLorƌs deaLhţ Lhe year of such deaLhŦ (SecŦ
27ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk k
MCkAL kIGn1S
Sect|on 193Ŧ 5cope of Motol klqbtsŦ Ŵ 1he auLhor of a work shallţ
lndependenLly of Lhe economlc rlghLs ln SecLlon 177 or Lhe granL
of an asslgnmenL or llcense wlLh respecL Lo such rlghLţ have Lhe
rlghLť
193Ŧ1Ŧ 1o requlre LhaL Lhe auLhorshlp of Lhe works be aLLrlbuLed Lo
hlmţ ln parLlcularţ Lhe rlghL LhaL hls nameţ as far as pracLlcableţ be
lndlcaLed ln a promlnenL way on Lhe coplesţ and ln connecLlon
wlLh Lhe publlc use of hls workŤ
193Ŧ2Ŧ 1o make any alLeraLlons of hls work prlor Loţ or Lo wlLhhold
lL from publlcaLlonŤ
193Ŧ3Ŧ 1o ob[ecL Lo any dlsLorLlonţ muLllaLlon or oLher modlflcaLlon
ofţ or oLher derogaLory acLlon ln relaLlon Loţ hls work whlch would
be pre[udlclal Lo hls honor or repuLaLlonŤ and
193Ŧ4Ŧ 1o resLraln Lhe use of hls name wlLh respecL Lo any work
noL of hls own creaLlon or ln a dlsLorLed verslon of hls workŦ (SecŦ
34ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 194Ŧ 8teocb of coottoctŦ Ŵ An auLhor cannoL be compelled
Lo perform hls conLracL Lo creaLe a work or for Lhe publlcaLlon of
hls work already ln exlsLenceŦ Poweverţ he may be held llable for
damages for breach of such conLracLŦ (SecŦ 33ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 19SŦ wolvet of Motol klqbtsŦ Ŵ An auLhor may walve hls
rlghLs menLloned ln SecLlon 193 by a wrlLLen lnsLrumenLţ buL no
such walver shall be valld where lLs effecLs ls Lo permlL anoLherť
193Ŧ1Ŧ 1o use Lhe name of Lhe auLhorţ or Lhe LlLle of hls workţ or
oLherwlse Lo make use of hls repuLaLlon wlLh respecL Lo any
verslon or adapLaLlon of hls work whlchţ because of alLeraLlons
Lherelnţ would subsLanLlally Lend Lo ln[ure Lhe llLerary or arLlsLlc
repuLaLlon of anoLher auLhorŤ or
193Ŧ2Ŧ 1o use Lhe name of Lhe auLhor wlLh respecL Lo a work he
dld noL creaLeŦ (SecŦ 36ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 196Ŧ coottlbtloo to collectlve wotkŦ Ŵ When an auLhor
conLrlbuLes Lo a collecLlve workţ hls rlghL Lo have hls conLrlbuLlon
aLLrlbuLed Lo hlm ls deemed walved unless he expressly reserves
lLŦ (SecŦ 37ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 197Ŧ íJltloqţ Attooqloq ooJ AJoptotloo of wotkŦ Ŵ ln Lhe
absence of a conLrary sLlpulaLlon aL Lhe Llme an auLhor llcenses or
permlLs anoLher Lo use hls workţ Lhe necessary edlLlngţ arranglng
or adapLaLlon of such workţ for publlcaLlonţ broadcasLţ use ln a
moLlon plcLureţ dramaLlzaLlonţ or mechanlcal or elecLrlcal
reproducLlon ln accordance wlLh Lhe reasonable and cusLomary
sLandards or requlremenLs of Lhe medlum ln whlch Lhe work ls Lo
be usedţ shall noL be deemed Lo conLravene Lhe auLhorƌs rlghLs
secured by Lhls chapLerŦ nor shall compleLe desLrucLlon of a work
uncondlLlonally Lransferred by Lhe auLhor be deemed Lo vlolaLe
such rlghLsŦ (SecŦ 38ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 198Ŧ 1etm of Motol klqbtsŦ Ŵ 198Ŧ1Ŧ 1he rlghLs of an auLhor
under Lhls chapLer shall lasL durlng Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe auLhor and
for flfLy (30) years afLer hls deaLh and shall noL be asslgnable or
sub[ecL Lo llcenseŦ 1he person or persons Lo be charged wlLh Lhe
posLhumous enforcemenL of Lhese rlghLs shall be named ln wrlLlng
Lo be flled wlLh Lhe naLlonal LlbraryŦ ln defaulL of such person or
personsţ such enforcemenL shall devolve upon elLher Lhe auLhorƌs
helrsţ and ln defaulL of Lhe helrsţ Lhe ulrecLor of Lhe naLlonal
LlbraryŦ
198Ŧ2Ŧ lor purposes of Lhls SecLlonţ ƍÞersonƍ shall mean any
lndlvldualţ parLnershlpţ corporaLlonţ assoclaLlonţ or socleLyŦ 1he
ulrecLor of Lhe naLlonal Llbrary may prescrlbe reasonable fees Lo
be charged for hls servlces ln Lhe appllcaLlon of provlslons of Lhls
SecLlonŦ (SecŦ 39ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 199Ŧ íofotcemeot kemeJlesŦ Ŵ vlolaLlon of any of Lhe rlghLs
conferred by Lhls ChapLer shall enLlLle Lhose charged wlLh Lhelr
enforcemenL Lo Lhe same rlghLs and remedles avallable Lo a
copyrlghL ownerŦ ln addlLlonţ damages whlch may be avalled of
under Lhe Clvll Code may also be recoveredŦ Any damage
recovered afLer Lhe creaLorƌs deaLh shall be held ln LrusL for and
remlLLed Lo hls helrsţ and ln defaulL of Lhe helrsţ shall belong Lo
Lhe governmenLŦ (SecŦ 40ţ Þ u noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk kI
kIGn1S 1C ÞkCCLLDS IN SU8SLÇULN1 1kANSILkS
Sect|on 200Ŧ 5ole ot leose of wotkŦ Ŵ ln every sale or lease of an
orlglnal work of palnLlng or sculpLure or of Lhe orlglnal manuscrlpL
of a wrlLer or composerţ subsequenL Lo Lhe flrsL dlsposlLlon
Lhereof by Lhe auLhorţ Lhe auLhor or hls helrs shall have an
lnallenable rlghL Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe gross proceeds of Lhe sale or
lease Lo Lhe exLenL of flve percenL (3Ʒ)Ŧ 1hls rlghL shall exlsL durlng
Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe auLhor and for flfLy (30) years afLer hls deaLhŦ
(SecŦ 31ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 201Ŧ wotks -ot coveteJŦ Ŵ 1he provlslons of Lhls ChapLer
shall noL apply Lo prlnLsţ eLchlngsţ engravlngsţ works of applled arLţ
or works of slmllar klnd whereln Lhe auLhor prlmarlly derlves galn
from Lhe proceeds of reproducLlonsŦ (SecŦ 33ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk kII
kIGn1S CI ÞLkICkMLkSţ ÞkCDUCLkS CI SCUNDS kLCCkDINGS
AND 8kCADCAS1ING CkGANI2A1ICNS
Sect|on 202Ŧ efloltloosŦ Ŵ lor Lhe purpose of Lhls AcLţ Lhe
followlng Lerms shall have Lhe followlng meanlngsť
202Ŧ1Ŧ ƍÞerformersƍ are acLorsţ slngersţ muslclansţ dancersţ and
oLher persons who acLţ slngţ declalmţ play lnţ lnLerpreLţ or
oLherwlse perform llLerary and arLlsLlc workŤ
202Ŧ2Ŧ ƍSound recordlngƍ means Lhe flxaLlon of Lhe sounds of a
performance or of oLher soundsţ or represenLaLlon of soundţ oLher



33 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
Lhan ln Lhe form of a flxaLlon lncorporaLed ln a clnemaLographlc or
oLher audlovlsual workŤ
202Ŧ3Ŧ An ƍaudlovlsual work or flxaLlonƍ ls a work LhaL conslsLs of a
serles of relaLed lmages whlch lmparL Lhe lmpresslon of moLlonţ
wlLh or wlLhouL accompanylng soundsţ suscepLlble of belng made
vlslble andţ where accompanled by soundsţ suscepLlble of belng
made audlbleŤ
202Ŧ4Ŧ ƍllxaLlonƍ means Lhe embodlmenL of soundsţ or of Lhe
represenLaLlons Lhereofţ from whlch Lhey can be percelvedţ
reproduced or communlcaLed Lhrough a devlceŤ
202Ŧ 3Ŧ ƍÞroducer of a sound recordlngƍ means Lhe personţ or Lhe
legal enLlLyţ who or whlch Lakes Lhe lnlLlaLlve and has Lhe
responslblllLy for Lhe flrsL flxaLlon of Lhe sounds of a performance
or oLher soundsţ or Lhe represenLaLlon of soundsŤ
202Ŧ6Ŧ ƍÞubllcaLlon of a flxed performance or a sound recordlngƍ
means Lhe offerlng of coples of Lhe flxed performance or Lhe
sound recordlng Lo Lhe publlcţ wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe rlghL
holderť Þrovldedţ 1haL coples are offered Lo Lhe publlc ln
reasonable quallLyŤ
202Ŧ7Ŧ ƍ8roadcasLlngƍ means Lhe Lransmlsslon by wlreless means
for Lhe publlc recepLlon of sounds or of lmages or of
represenLaLlons LhereofŤ such Lransmlsslon by saLelllLe ls also
ƍbroadcasLlngƍ where Lhe means for decrypLlng are provlded Lo
Lhe publlc by Lhe broadcasLlng organlzaLlon or wlLh lLs consenLŤ
202Ŧ8Ŧ ƍ8roadcasLlng organlzaLlonƍ shall lnclude a naLural person
or a [urldlcal enLlLy duly auLhorlzed Lo engage ln broadcasLlngŤ and
202Ŧ9 ƍCommunlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc of a performance or a sound
recordlngƍ means Lhe Lransmlsslon Lo Lhe publlcţ by any medlumţ
oLherwlse Lhan by broadcasLlngţ of sounds of a performance or
Lhe represenLaLlons of sounds flxed ln a sound recordlngŦ lor
purposes of SecLlon 209ţ ƍcommunlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlcƍ lncludes
maklng Lhe sounds or represenLaLlons of sounds flxed ln a sound
recordlng audlble Lo Lhe publlcŦ
Sect|on 203Ŧ 5cope of letfotmetsƌ klqbtsŦ Ŵ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe
provlslons of SecLlon 212ţ performers shall en[oy Lhe followlng
excluslve rlghLsť
203Ŧ1Ŧ As regards Lhelr performancesţ Lhe rlghL of auLhorlzlngť
(a) 1he broadcasLlng and oLher communlcaLlon Lo Lhe
publlc of Lhelr performanceŤ and
(b) 1he flxaLlon of Lhelr unflxed performanceŦ
203Ŧ2Ŧ 1he rlghL of auLhorlzlng Lhe dlrecL or lndlrecL reproducLlon
of Lhelr performances flxed ln sound recordlngsţ ln any manner or
formŤ
203Ŧ3Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 206ţ Lhe rlghL of
auLhorlzlng Lhe flrsL publlc dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe orlglnal and coples of
Lhelr performance flxed ln Lhe sound recordlng Lhrough sale or
renLal or oLher forms of Lransfer of ownershlpŤ
203Ŧ4Ŧ 1he rlghL of auLhorlzlng Lhe commerclal renLal Lo Lhe publlc
of Lhe orlglnal and coples of Lhelr performances flxed ln sound
recordlngsţ even afLer dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhem byţ or pursuanL Lo Lhe
auLhorlzaLlon by Lhe performerŤ and
203Ŧ3Ŧ 1he rlghL of auLhorlzlng Lhe maklng avallable Lo Lhe publlc
of Lhelr performances flxed ln sound recordlngsţ by wlre or
wlreless meansţ ln such a way LhaL members of Lhe publlc may
access Lhem from a place and Llme lndlvldually chosen by LhemŦ
(SecŦ 42ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 204Ŧ Motol klqbts of letfotmetsŦ Ŵ 204Ŧ1Ŧ lndependenLly of
a performerƌs economlc rlghLsţ Lhe performerţ shallţ as regards hls
llve aural performances or performances flxed ln sound
recordlngsţ have Lhe rlghL Lo clalm Lo be ldenLlfled as Lhe
performer of hls performancesţ excepL where Lhe omlsslon ls
dlcLaLed by Lhe manner of Lhe use of Lhe performanceţ and Lo
ob[ecL Lo any dlsLorLlonţ muLllaLlon or oLher modlflcaLlon of hls
performances LhaL would be pre[udlclal Lo hls repuLaLlonŦ
204Ŧ2Ŧ 1he rlghLs granLed Lo a performer ln accordance wlLh
SubsecLlon 203Ŧ1 shall be malnLalned and exerclsed flfLy (30) years
afLer hls deaLhţ by hls helrsţ and ln defaulL of helrsţ Lhe
governmenLţ where proLecLlon ls clalmedŦ (SecŦ 43ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 20SŦ llmltotloo oo klqbtŦ Ŵ 203Ŧ1Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons
of SecLlon 206ţ once Lhe performer has auLhorlzed Lhe
broadcasLlng or flxaLlon of hls performanceţ Lhe provlslons of
SecLlons 203 shall have no furLher appllcaLlonŦ
203Ŧ2Ŧ 1he provlslons of SecLlon 184 and SecLlon 183 shall apply
muLaLls muLandls Lo performersŦ (n)
Sect|on 206Ŧ AJJltloool kemoetotloo fot 5bsepeot
commolcotloos ot 8tooJcostsŦ Ŵ unless oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe
conLracLţ ln every communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc or broadcasL of a
performance subsequenL Lo Lhe flrsL communlcaLlon or broadcasL
Lhereof by Lhe broadcasLlng organlzaLlonţ Lhe performer shall be
enLlLled Lo an addlLlonal remuneraLlon equlvalenL Lo aL leasL flve
percenL (3Ʒ) of Lhe orlglnal compensaLlon he or she recelved for
Lhe flrsL communlcaLlon or broadcasLŦ (n)
Sect|on 207Ŧ coottoct 1etmsŦ Ŵ noLhlng ln Lhls ChapLer shall be
consLrued Lo deprlve performers of Lhe rlghL Lo agree by conLracLs
on Lerms and condlLlons more favorable for Lhem ln respecL of any
use of Lhelr performanceŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk kIII
ÞkCDUCLkS CI SCUND kLCCkDINGS
Sect|on 208Ŧ 5cope of klqbtŦ Ŵ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of SecLlon
212ţ producers of sound recordlngs shall en[oy Lhe followlng
excluslve rlghLsť
208Ŧ1Ŧ 1he rlghL Lo auLhorlze Lhe dlrecL or lndlrecL reproducLlon of



34 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
Lhelr sound recordlngsţ ln any manner or formŤ Lhe placlng of
Lhese reproducLlons ln Lhe markeL and Lhe rlghL of renLal or
lendlngŤ
208Ŧ2Ŧ 1he rlghL Lo auLhorlze Lhe flrsL publlc dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe
orlglnal and coples of Lhelr sound recordlngs Lhrough sale or renLal
or oLher forms of Lransferrlng ownershlpŤ and
208Ŧ3Ŧ 1he rlghL Lo auLhorlze Lhe commerclal renLal Lo Lhe publlc
of Lhe orlglnal and coples of Lhelr sound recordlngsţ even afLer
dlsLrlbuLlon by Lhem by or pursuanL Lo auLhorlzaLlon by Lhe
producerŦ (SecŦ 46ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 209Ŧ commolcotloo to tbe lbllcŦ Ŵ lf a sound recordlng
publlshed for commerclal purposesţ or a reproducLlon of such
sound recordlngţ ls used dlrecLly for broadcasLlng or for oLher
communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlcţ or ls publlcly performed wlLh Lhe
lnLenLlon of maklng and enhanclng proflLţ a slngle equlLable
remuneraLlon for Lhe performer or performersţ and Lhe producer
of Lhe sound recordlng shall be pald by Lhe user Lo boLh Lhe
performers and Lhe producerţ whoţ ln Lhe absence of any
agreemenL shall share equallyŦ (SecŦ 47ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 210Ŧ llmltotloo of klqbtŦ Ŵ SecLlons 184 and 183 shall apply
muLaLls muLandls Lo Lhe producer of sound recordlngsŦ (SecŦ 48ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk kIV
8kCADCAS1ING CkGANI2A1ICNS
Sect|on 211Ŧ 5cope of klqbtŦ Ŵ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of SecLlon
212ţ broadcasLlng organlzaLlons shall en[oy Lhe excluslve rlghL Lo
carry ouLţ auLhorlze or prevenL any of Lhe followlng acLsť
211Ŧ1Ŧ 1he rebroadcasLlng of Lhelr broadcasLsŤ
211Ŧ2Ŧ 1he recordlng ln any mannerţ lncludlng Lhe maklng of fllms
or Lhe use of vldeo Lapeţ of Lhelr broadcasLs for Lhe purpose of
communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc of Lelevlslon broadcasLs of Lhe sameŤ
and
211Ŧ3Ŧ 1he use of such records for fresh Lransmlsslons or for fresh
recordlngŦ (SecŦ 32ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk kV
LIMI1A1ICNS CN ÞkC1LC1ICN
Sect|on 212Ŧ llmltotloos oo klqbtsŦ Ŵ SecLlons 203ţ 208 and 209
shall noL apply where Lhe acLs referred Lo ln Lhose SecLlons are
relaLed Loť
212Ŧ1Ŧ 1he use by a naLural person excluslvely for hls own personal
purposesŤ
212Ŧ2Ŧ uslng shorL excerpLs for reporLlng currenL evenLsŤ
212Ŧ3Ŧ use solely for Lhe purpose of Leachlng or for sclenLlflc
researchŤ and
212Ŧ4Ŧ lalr use of Lhe broadcasL sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlons under
SecLlon 183Ŧ (SecŦ 44ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk kVI
1LkM CI ÞkC1LC1ICN
Sect|on 213Ŧ 1etm of ltotectlooŦ Ŵ 213Ŧ1Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons
of SubsecLlons 213Ŧ2 Lo 213Ŧ3ţ Lhe copyrlghL ln works under
SecLlons 172 and 173 shall be proLecLed durlng Lhe llfe of Lhe
auLhor and for flfLy (30) years afLer hls deaLhŦ 1hls rule also applles
Lo posLhumous worksŦ (SecŦ 21ţ flrsL senLenceţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
213Ŧ2Ŧ ln case of works of [olnL auLhorshlpţ Lhe economlc rlghLs
shall be proLecLed durlng Lhe llfe of Lhe lasL survlvlng auLhor and
for flfLy (30) years afLer hls deaLhŦ (SecŦ 21ţ second senLenceţ ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 49)
213Ŧ3Ŧ ln case of anonymous or pseudonymous worksţ Lhe
copyrlghL shall be proLecLed for flfLy (30) years from Lhe daLe on
whlch Lhe work was flrsL lawfully publlshedť Þrovldedţ 1haL whereţ
before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe sald perlodţ Lhe auLhorƌs ldenLlLy ls
revealed or ls no longer ln doubLţ Lhe provlslons of SubsecLlons
213Ŧ1Ŧ and 213Ŧ2 shall applyţ as Lhe case may beť Þrovldedţ furLherţ
1haL such works lf noL publlshed before shall be proLecLed for flfLy
(30) years counLed from Lhe maklng of Lhe workŦ (SecŦ 23ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ
49)
213Ŧ4Ŧ ln case of works of applled arL Lhe proLecLlon shall be for a
perlod of LwenLyŴflve (23) years from Lhe daLe of maklngŦ (SecŦ
24(8)ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
213Ŧ3Ŧ ln case of phoLographlc worksţ Lhe proLecLlon shall be for
flfLy (30) years from publlcaLlon of Lhe work andţ lf unpubllshedţ
flfLy (30) years from Lhe maklngŦ (SecŦ 24(C)ţ ÞŦuŦ 49a)
213Ŧ6Ŧ ln case of audloŴvlsual works lncludlng Lhose produced by
process analogous Lo phoLography or any process for maklng
audloŴvlsual recordlngsţ Lhe Lerm shall be flfLy (30) years from daLe
of publlcaLlon andţ lf unpubllshedţ from Lhe daLe of maklngŦ (SecŦ
24(C)ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 214Ŧ colclotloo of 1etmŦ Ŵ 1he Lerm of proLecLlon
subsequenL Lo Lhe deaLh of Lhe auLhor provlded ln Lhe precedlng
SecLlon shall run from Lhe daLe of hls deaLh or of publlcaLlonţ buL
such Lerms shall always be deemed Lo begln on Lhe flrsL day of
!anuary of Lhe year followlng Lhe evenL whlch gave rlse Lo LhemŦ
(SecŦ 23ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 21SŦ 1etm of ltotectloo fot letfotmetsţ ltoJcets ooJ
8tooJcostloq OtqoolzotloosŦ Ŵ 213Ŧ1Ŧ 1he rlghLs granLed Lo
performers and producers of sound recordlngs under Lhls law shall
explreť
(a) lor performances noL lncorporaLed ln recordlngsţ
flfLy (30) years from Lhe end of Lhe year ln whlch Lhe
performance Look placeŤ and
(b) lor sound or lmage and sound recordlngs and for



33 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
performances lncorporaLed Lherelnţ flfLy (30) years from
Lhe end of Lhe year ln whlch Lhe recordlng Look placeŦ
213Ŧ2Ŧ ln case of broadcasLsţ Lhe Lerm shall be LwenLy (20) years
from Lhe daLe Lhe broadcasL Look placeŦ 1he exLended Lerm shall
be applled only Lo old works wlLh subslsLlng proLecLlon under Lhe
prlor lawŦ (SecŦ 33ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
CnAÞ1Lk kVII
INIkINGLMLN1
Sect|on 216Ŧ kemeJles fot oftloqemeotŦ Ŵ 216Ŧ1Ŧ Any person
lnfrlnglng a rlghL proLecLed under Lhls law shall be llableť
(a) 1o an ln[uncLlon resLralnlng such lnfrlngemenLŦ 1he
courL may also order Lhe defendanL Lo deslsL from an
lnfrlngemenLţ among oLhersţ Lo prevenL Lhe enLry lnLo
Lhe channels of commerce of lmporLed goods LhaL
lnvolve an lnfrlngemenLţ lmmedlaLely afLer cusLoms
clearance of such goodsŦ
(b) Þay Lo Lhe copyrlghL proprleLor or hls asslgns or helrs
such acLual damagesţ lncludlng legal cosLs and oLher
expensesţ as he may have lncurred due Lo Lhe
lnfrlngemenL as well as Lhe proflLs Lhe lnfrlnger may
have made due Lo such lnfrlngemenLţ and ln provlng
proflLs Lhe plalnLlff shall be requlred Lo prove sales only
and Lhe defendanL shall be requlred Lo prove every
elemenL of cosL whlch he clalmsţ orţ ln lleu of acLual
damages and proflLsţ such damages whlch Lo Lhe courL
shall appear Lo be [usL and shall noL be regarded as
penalLyŦ
(c) uellver under oaLhţ for lmpoundlng durlng Lhe
pendency of Lhe acLlonţ upon such Lerms and condlLlons
as Lhe courL may prescrlbeţ sales lnvolces and oLher
documenLs evldenclng salesţ all arLlcles and Lhelr
packaglng alleged Lo lnfrlnge a copyrlghL and
lmplemenLs for maklng LhemŦ
(d) uellver under oaLh for desLrucLlon wlLhouL any
compensaLlon all lnfrlnglng coples or devlcesţ as well as
all plaLesţ moldsţ or oLher means for maklng such
lnfrlnglng coples as Lhe courL may orderŦ
(e) Such oLher Lerms and condlLlonsţ lncludlng Lhe
paymenL of moral and exemplary damagesţ whlch Lhe
courL may deem properţ wlse and equlLable and Lhe
desLrucLlon of lnfrlnglng coples of Lhe work even ln Lhe
evenL of acqulLLal ln a crlmlnal caseŦ
216Ŧ2Ŧ ln an lnfrlngemenL acLlonţ Lhe courL shall also have Lhe
power Lo order Lhe selzure and lmpoundlng of any arLlcle whlch
may serve as evldence ln Lhe courL proceedlngsŦ (SecŦ 28ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ
49a)
Sect|on 217Ŧ ctlmlool leooltlesŦ Ŵ 217Ŧ1Ŧ Any person lnfrlnglng any
rlghL secured by provlslons of ÞarL lv of Lhls AcL or aldlng or
abeLLlng such lnfrlngemenL shall be gullLy of a crlme punlshable
byť
(a) lmprlsonmenL of one (1) year Lo Lhree (3) years plus a
flne ranglng from llfLy Lhousand pesos (Þ30ţ000) Lo Cne
hundred flfLy Lhousand pesos (Þ130ţ000) for Lhe flrsL
offenseŦ
(b) lmprlsonmenL of Lhree (3) years and one (1) day Lo
slx (6) years plus a flne ranglng from Cne hundred flfLy
Lhousand pesos (Þ130ţ000) Lo llve hundred Lhousand
pesos (Þ300ţ000) for Lhe second offenseŦ
(c) lmprlsonmenL of slx (6) years and one (1) day Lo nlne
(9) years plus a flne ranglng from flve hundred Lhousand
pesos (Þ300ţ000) Lo Cne mllllon flve hundred Lhousand
pesos (Þ1ţ300ţ000) for Lhe Lhlrd and subsequenL
offensesŦ
(d) ln all casesţ subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ln cases of
lnsolvencyŦ
217Ŧ2Ŧ ln deLermlnlng Lhe number of years of lmprlsonmenL and
Lhe amounL of flneţ Lhe courL shall conslder Lhe value of Lhe
lnfrlnglng maLerlals LhaL Lhe defendanL has produced or
manufacLured and Lhe damage LhaL Lhe copyrlghL owner has
suffered by reason of Lhe lnfrlngemenLŦ
217Ŧ3Ŧ Any person who aL Lhe Llme when copyrlghL subslsLs ln a
work has ln hls possesslon an arLlcle whlch he knowsţ or oughL Lo
knowţ Lo be an lnfrlnglng copy of Lhe work for Lhe purpose ofť
(a) Selllngţ leLLlng for hlreţ or by way of Lrade offerlng or
exposlng for saleţ or hlreţ Lhe arLlcleŤ
(b) ulsLrlbuLlng Lhe arLlcle for purpose of Lradeţ or for
any oLher purpose Lo an exLenL LhaL wlll pre[udlce Lhe
rlghLs of Lhe copyrlghL owner ln Lhe workŤ or
(c) 1rade exhlblL of Lhe arLlcle ln publlcţ shall be gullLy of
an offense and shall be llable on convlcLlon Lo
lmprlsonmenL and flne as above menLlonedŦ (SecŦ 29ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 218Ŧ AfflJovlt ívlJeoceŦ Ŵ 218Ŧ1Ŧ ln an acLlon under Lhls
ChapLerţ an affldavlL made before a noLary publlc by or on behalf
of Lhe owner of Lhe copyrlghL ln any work or oLher sub[ecL maLLer
and sLaLlng LhaLť
(a) AL Lhe Llme speclfled Lherelnţ copyrlghL subslsLed ln
Lhe work or oLher sub[ecL maLLerŤ
(b) Pe or Lhe person named Lhereln ls Lhe owner of Lhe
copyrlghLŤ and
(c) 1he copy of Lhe work or oLher sub[ecL maLLer
annexed LhereLo ls a Lrue copy Lhereofţ shall be
admlLLed ln evldence ln any proceedlngs for an offense
under Lhls ChapLer and shall be prlma facle proof of Lhe



36 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
maLLers Lhereln sLaLed unLll Lhe conLrary ls provedţ and
Lhe courL before whlch such affldavlL ls produced shall
assume LhaL Lhe affldavlL was made by or on behalf of
Lhe owner of Lhe copyrlghLŦ
218Ŧ2Ŧ ln an acLlon under Lhls ChapLerť
(a) CopyrlghL shall be presumed Lo subslsL ln Lhe work or
oLher sub[ecL maLLer Lo whlch Lhe acLlon relaLes lf Lhe
defendanL does noL puL ln lssue Lhe quesLlon wheLher
copyrlghL subslsLs ln Lhe work or oLher sub[ecL maLLerŤ
and
(b) Where Lhe subslsLence of Lhe copyrlghL ls
esLabllshedţ Lhe plalnLlff shall be presumed Lo be Lhe
owner of Lhe copyrlghL lf he clalms Lo be Lhe owner of
Lhe copyrlghL and Lhe defendanL does noL puL ln lssue
Lhe quesLlon of hls ownershlpŦ
(c) Where Lhe defendanLţ wlLhouL good falLhţ puLs ln
lssue Lhe quesLlons of wheLher copyrlghL subslsLs ln a
work or oLher sub[ecL maLLer Lo whlch Lhe acLlon relaLesţ
or Lhe ownershlp of copyrlghL ln such work or sub[ecL
maLLerţ Lhereby occaslonlng unnecessary cosLs or delay
ln Lhe proceedlngsţ Lhe courL may dlrecL LhaL any cosLs
Lo Lhe defendanL ln respecL of Lhe acLlon shall noL be
allowed by hlm and LhaL any cosLs occasloned by Lhe
defendanL Lo oLher parLles shall be pald by hlm Lo such
oLher parLlesŦ (n)
Sect|on 219Ŧ ltesmptloo of AtbotsblpŦ Ŵ 219Ŧ1Ŧ 1he naLural
person whose name ls lndlcaLed on a work ln Lhe usual manner as
Lhe auLhor shallţ ln Lhe absence of proof Lo Lhe conLraryţ be
presumed Lo be Lhe auLhor of Lhe workŦ 1hls provlslon shall be
appllcable even lf Lhe name ls a pseudonymţ where Lhe
pseudonym leaves no doubL as Lo Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe auLhorŦ
219Ŧ2Ŧ 1he person or body corporaLe whose name appears on a
audloŴvlsual work ln Lhe usual manner shallţ ln Lhe absence of
proof Lo Lhe conLraryţ be presumed Lo be Lhe maker of sald workŦ
(n)
Sect|on 220Ŧ otetootloool keqlsttotloo of wotksŦ Ŵ A sLaLemenL
concernlng a workţ recorded ln an lnLernaLlonal reglsLer ln
accordance wlLh an lnLernaLlonal LreaLy Lo whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls
or may become a parLyţ shall be consLrued as Lrue unLll Lhe
conLrary ls proved excepLť
220Ŧ1Ŧ Where Lhe sLaLemenL cannoL be valld under Lhls AcL or any
oLher law concernlng lnLellecLual properLyŦ
220Ŧ2Ŧ Where Lhe sLaLemenL ls conLradlcLed by anoLher sLaLemenL
recorded ln Lhe lnLernaLlonal reglsLerŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk kVIII
SCCÞL CI AÞÞLICA1ICN
Sect|on 221Ŧ lolots of Attocbmeot fot wotks oJet 5ectloos 172
ooJ 17JŦ Ŵ 221Ŧ1Ŧ 1he proLecLlon afforded by Lhls AcL Lo
copyrlghLable works under SecLlons 172 and 173 shall apply Loť
(a) Works of auLhors who are naLlonals ofţ or have Lhelr
hablLual resldence lnţ Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
(b) AudloŴvlsual works Lhe producer of whlch has hls
headquarLers or hablLual resldence ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
(c) Works of archlLecLure erecLed ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes or
oLher arLlsLlc works lncorporaLed ln a bulldlng or oLher
sLrucLure locaLed ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
(d) Works flrsL publlshed ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ and
(e) Works flrsL publlshed ln anoLher counLry buL also
publlshed ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes wlLhln LhlrLy daysţ
lrrespecLlve of Lhe naLlonallLy or resldence of Lhe
auLhorsŦ
221Ŧ2Ŧ 1he provlslons of Lhls AcL shall also apply Lo works LhaL are
Lo be proLecLed by vlrLue of and ln accordance wlLh any
lnLernaLlonal convenLlon or oLher lnLernaLlonal agreemenL Lo
whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls a parLyŦ (n)
Sect|on 222Ŧ lolots of Attocbmeot fot letfotmetsŦ Ŵ 1he provlslons
of Lhls AcL on Lhe proLecLlon of performers shall apply Loť
222Ŧ1Ŧ Þerformers who are naLlonals of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
222Ŧ2Ŧ Þerformers who are noL naLlonals of Lhe Þhlllpplnes buL
whose performancesť
(a) 1ake place ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ or
(b) Are lncorporaLed ln sound recordlngs LhaL are
proLecLed under Lhls AcLŤ or
(c) Whlch has noL been flxed ln sound recordlng buL are
carrled by broadcasL quallfylng for proLecLlon under Lhls
AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on 223Ŧ lolots of Attocbmeot fot 5ooJ kecotJloqsŦ Ŵ 1he
provlslons of Lhls AcL on Lhe proLecLlon of sound recordlngs shall
apply Loť
223Ŧ1Ŧ Sound recordlngs Lhe producers of whlch are naLlonals of
Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ and
223Ŧ2Ŧ Sound recordlngs LhaL were flrsL publlshed ln Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ (n)
Sect|on 224Ŧ lolots of Attocbmeot fot 8tooJcostsŦ Ŵ 224Ŧ1Ŧ 1he
provlslons of Lhls AcL on Lhe proLecLlon of broadcasLs shall apply
Loť
(a) 8roadcasLs of broadcasLlng organlzaLlons Lhe



37 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
headquarLers of whlch are slLuaLed ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
and
(b) 8roadcasLs LransmlLLed from LransmlLLers slLuaLed ln
Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
224Ŧ2Ŧ 1he provlslons of Lhls AcL shall also apply Lo performers
whoţ and Lo producers of sound recordlngs and broadcasLlng
organlzaLlons whlchţ are Lo be proLecLed by vlrLue of and ln
accordance wlLh any lnLernaLlonal convenLlon or oLher
lnLernaLlonal agreemenL Lo whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls a parLyŦ (n)
CnAÞ1Lk kIk
INS1I1U1ICN CI AC1ICNS
Sect|on 22SŦ tlsJlctlooŦ Ŵ WlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe provlslons of
SubsecLlon 7Ŧ1(c)ţ acLlons under Lhls AcL shall be cognlzable by Lhe
courLs wlLh approprlaLe [urlsdlcLlon under exlsLlng lawŦ (SecŦ 37ţ
ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49a)
Sect|on 226Ŧ omoqesŦ Ŵ no damages may be recovered under Lhls
AcL afLer four (4) years from Lhe Llme Lhe cause of acLlon aroseŦ
(SecŦ 38ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
CnAÞ1Lk kk
MISCLLLANLCUS ÞkCVISICNS
Sect|on 227Ŧ Owoetsblp of eposlt ooJ osttmeotsŦ Ŵ All coples
deposlLed and lnsLrumenLs ln wrlLlng flled wlLh Lhe naLlonal
Llbrary and Lhe Supreme CourL Llbrary ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhls AcL shall become Lhe properLy of Lhe
CovernmenLŦ (SecŦ 60ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 228Ŧ lbllc kecotJsŦ Ŵ 1he secLlon or dlvlslon of Lhe
naLlonal Llbrary and Lhe Supreme CourL Llbrary charged wlLh
recelvlng coples and lnsLrumenLs deposlLed and wlLh keeplng
records requlred under Lhls AcL and everyLhlng ln lL shall be
opened Lo publlc lnspecLlonŦ 1he ulrecLor of Lhe naLlonal Llbrary ls
empowered Lo lssue such safeguards and regulaLlons as may be
necessary Lo lmplemenL Lhls SecLlon and oLher provlslons of Lhls
AcLŦ (SecŦ 61ţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 49)
Sect|on 229Ŧ copytlqbt lvlslooŤ eesŦ Ŵ 1he CopyrlghL SecLlon of
Lhe naLlonal Llbrary shall be classlfled as a ulvlslon upon Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhls AcLŦ 1he naLlonal Llbrary shall have Lhe power Lo
collecLţ for Lhe dlscharge of lLs servlces under Lhls AcLţ such fees as
may be promulgaLed by lL from Llme Lo Llme sub[ecL Lo Lhe
approval of Lhe ueparLmenL PeadŦ (SecŦ 62ţ ÞŦuŦ 49a)
ÞAk1 V
IINAL ÞkCVISICNS
Sect|on 230Ŧ ípltoble ltloclples to Coveto ltoceeJloqsŦ Ŵ ln all
lnLer parLes proceedlngs ln Lhe Cfflce under Lhls AcLţ Lhe equlLable
prlnclples of lachesţ esLoppelţ and acqulescence where appllcableţ
may be consldered and applledŦ (SecŦ 9ŴAţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 163)
Sect|on 231Ŧ kevetse keclptoclty of otelqo lowsŦ Ŵ Any condlLlonţ
resLrlcLlonţ llmlLaLlonţ dlmlnuLlonţ requlremenLţ penalLy or any
slmllar burden lmposed by Lhe law of a forelgn counLry on a
Þhlllpplne naLlonal seeklng proLecLlon of lnLellecLual properLy
rlghLs ln LhaL counLryţ shall reclprocally be enforceable upon
naLlonals of sald counLryţ wlLhln Þhlllpplne [urlsdlcLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 232Ŧ AppeolsŦ Ŵ 232Ŧ1Ŧ Appeals from declslons of regular
courLs shall be governed by Lhe 8ules of CourLŦ unless resLralned
by a hlgher courLţ Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe Lrlal courL shall be
execuLory even pendlng appeal under such Lerms and condlLlons
as Lhe courL may prescrlbeŦ
232Ŧ2Ŧ unless expressly provlded ln Lhls AcL or oLher sLaLuLesţ
appeals from declslons of admlnlsLraLlve offlclals shall be provlded
ln Lhe 8egulaLlonsŦ (n)
Sect|on 233Ŧ Otqoolzotloo of tbe OfflceŤ íxemptloo ftom tbe 5oloty
5tooJotJlzotloo low ooJ tbe Atttltloo lowŦ Ŵ 233Ŧ1Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall
be organlzed wlLhln one (1) year afLer Lhe approval of Lhls AcLŦ lL
shall noL be sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of 8epubllc AcL noŦ 7430Ŧ
233Ŧ2Ŧ 1he Cfflce shall lnsLlLuLe lLs own compensaLlon sLrucLureť
Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe Cfflce shall make lLs own sysLem conform as
closely as posslble wlLh Lhe prlnclples provlded for under 8epubllc
AcL noŦ 6738Ŧ (n)
Sect|on 234Ŧ Abolltloo of tbe 8teo of loteotsţ 1toJemotksţ ooJ
1ecbooloqy 1toosfetŦ Ŵ 1he 8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ 1rademarksţ and
1echnology 1ransfer under Lhe ueparLmenL of 1rade and lndusLry
ls hereby abollshedŦ All unexpended funds and feesţ flnesţ
royalLles and oLher charges collecLed for Lhe calendar yearţ
properLlesţ equlpmenL and records of Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ
1rademarks and 1echnology 1ransferţ and such personnel as may
be necessary are hereby Lransferred Lo Lhe CfflceŦ Þersonnel noL
absorbed or Lransferred Lo Lhe Cfflce shall en[oy Lhe reLlremenL
beneflLs granLed under exlsLlng lawţ oLherwlseţ Lhey shall be pald
Lhe equlvalenL of one monLh baslc salary for every year of servlceţ
or Lhe equlvalenL nearesL fracLlons Lhereof favorable Lo Lhem on
Lhe basls of Lhe hlghesL salary recelvedŦ(n)
Sect|on 23SŦ Appllcotloos leoJloq oo íffectlve ote of ActŦ Ŵ 233Ŧ1Ŧ
All appllcaLlons for paLenLs pendlng ln Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ
1rademarks and 1echnology 1ransfer shall be proceeded wlLh and
paLenLs Lhereon granLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe AcLs under whlch
sald appllcaLlons were flledţ and sald AcLs are hereby conLlnued Lo
be enforcedţ Lo Lhls exLenL and for Lhls purpose onlyţ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe foregolng general repeal Lhereofť Þrovldedţ
1haL appllcaLlons for uLlllLy models or lndusLrlal deslgns pendlng aL
Lhe effecLlve daLe of Lhls AcLţ shall be proceeded wlLh ln
accordance wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLţ unless Lhe appllcanLs
elecL Lo prosecuLe sald appllcaLlons ln accordance wlLh Lhe AcLs
under whlch Lhey were flledŦ
233Ŧ2Ŧ All appllcaLlons for reglsLraLlon of marks or Lrade names
pendlng ln Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ 1rademarks and 1echnology
1ransfer aL Lhe effecLlve daLe of Lhls AcL may be amendedţ lf
pracLlcable Lo brlng Lhem under Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLŦ 1he
prosecuLlon of such appllcaLlons so amended and Lhe granL of
reglsLraLlons Lhereon shall be proceeded wlLh ln accordance wlLh



38 narLaLez (2ŴManresa)
Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcLŦ lf such amendmenLs are noL madeţ Lhe
prosecuLlon of sald appllcaLlons shall be proceeded wlLh and
reglsLraLlons Lhereon granLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe AcLs under
whlch sald appllcaLlons were flledţ and sald AcLs are hereby
conLlnued ln force Lo Lhls exLenL for Lhls purpose onlyţ
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe foregolng general repeal Lhereof (n)
Sect|on 236Ŧ ltesetvotloo of íxlstloq klqbtsŦ Ŵ noLhlng hereln shall
adversely affecL Lhe rlghLs on Lhe enforcemenL of rlghLs ln paLenLsţ
uLlllLy modelsţ lndusLrlal deslgnsţ marks and worksţ acqulred ln
good falLh prlor Lo Lhe effecLlve daLe of Lhls AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on 237Ŧ -otlflcotloo oo 8etoe AppeoJlxŦ Ŵ 1he Þhlllpplnes shall
by proper compllance wlLh Lhe requlremenLs seL forLh under Lhe
Appendlx of Lhe 8erne ConvenLlon (Þarls AcLţ 1971) avall lLself of
Lhe speclal provlslons regardlng developlng counLrlesţ lncludlng
provlslons for llcenses granLable by compeLenL auLhorlLy under Lhe
AppendlxŦ (n)
Sect|on 238Ŧ ApptoptlotloosŦ Ŵ 1he funds needed Lo carry ouL Lhe
provlslons of Lhls AcL shall be charged Lo Lhe approprlaLlons of Lhe
8ureau of ÞaLenLsţ 1rademarksţ and 1echnology 1ransfer under
Lhe currenL Ceneral ApproprlaLlons AcL and Lhe feesţ flnesţ
royalLles and oLher charges collecLed by Lhe 8ureau for Lhe
calendar year pursuanL Lo SecLlons 14Ŧ1 and 234 of Lhls AcLŦ
1hereafLer such sums as may be necessary for lLs conLlnued
lmplemenLaLlons shall be lncluded ln Lhe annual Ceneral
ApproprlaLlons AcLŦ (n)
Sect|on 239Ŧ kepeolsŦ Ŵ 239Ŧ1Ŧ All AcLs and parLs of AcLs
lnconslsLenL herewlLhţ more parLlcularly 8epubllc AcL noŦ 163ţ as
amendedŤ 8epubllc AcL noŦ 166ţ as amendedŤ and ArLlcles 188 and
189 of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal CodeŤ ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 49ţ
lncludlng ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 283ţ as amendedţ are hereby
repealedŦ
239Ŧ2Ŧ Marks reglsLered under 8epubllc AcL noŦ 166 shall remaln ln
force buL shall be deemed Lo have been granLed under Lhls AcL
and shall be due for renewal wlLhln Lhe perlod provlded for under
Lhls AcL andţ upon renewal shall be reclasslfled ln accordance wlLh
Lhe lnLernaLlonal ClasslflcaLlonŦ 1rade names and marks reglsLered
ln Lhe SupplemenLal 8eglsLer under 8epubllc AcL noŦ 166 shall
remaln ln force buL shall no longer be sub[ecL Lo renewalŦ
239Ŧ3Ŧ 1he provlslons of Lhls AcL shall apply Lo works ln whlch
copyrlghL proLecLlon obLalned prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhls AcL ls
subslsLlngť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhls AcL shall noL
resulL ln Lhe dlmlnuLlon of such proLecLlonŦ (n)
Sect|on 240Ŧ 5epotobllltyŦ Ŵ lf any provlslon of Lhls AcL or Lhe
appllcaLlon of such provlslon Lo any clrcumsLances ls held lnvalldţ
Lhe remalnder of Lhe AcL shall noL be affecLed LherebyŦ (n)
Sect|on 241Ŧ íffectlvltyŦ Ŵ 1hls AcL shall Lake effecL on 1 !anuary
1998Ŧ (n)
Approvedť !une 6ţ 1997



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9@I 9@-@99.

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9@I 9.

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9@I .

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9@I @9@-@---.-@9@-@  n° –¾.

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€ .

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f° ¾f%  ½ n f€  n f ¾ f   f€¾n f % n   9  - f% .-ff % .

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° °.

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 ¯ff¾  n  ° f¯f–   n  f€  n f ¾ f¾f   °¾€f°   ¯ ¾ ¾ f° ° €f€  ¾ ¾f °–  – °¯ ° % n  9- % .

9@O @@9.

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°fn@ ¯¾  -°–°¾.

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9@O 9D.

D-.

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9@OI .

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9@OI .@@--9@.

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% 9  - f%  n° .

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% 9  f%    .

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½–¾°  ¾  @ .

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 D° ¾¾ ¾f°  f– n  © –¯ °€ fn¾f   n  °½ ° °–f½½ f° ¾n ¯¾f° n° °¾ f¾ n¯f½ ¾n    D° ¾¾ ½ ¾¾½ °¾n ¾f ¾  f½½ f¾€¯ n¾°¾€f ¯°¾f €€nf¾¾f ½  °  –f°¾ %°%  n° –f°f°€ €€n  ¯½°€¯ ff f° f f°ff°  °f    @ €€n ¾f –f° °° %% ff€  f½½f€¾n  ¾f° ¾ © n ½¾°¾€ ½ nn-     @ €€n ¾f°¾ ¾°n¯½ °¾f°¾n  9 @f €€n ¾f¯f ¾°¾¾ ¯n°€¯f¾ n¾ f¾½¾¾   ½°n½ ¾½ €°  ½ n n-  %°%  n°  °€   f€9f °¾ @f ¯f¾ f°  @ n°–@f°¾€   @   f€9f °¾ @f ¯f¾ f°  @ n°–@f°¾€ °   ½f¯ °€@f f° ° ¾ ¾  f ¾ ° ½ ° €° ¾f° € ¾ €° ¾  f ¾f°  nf– ¾n n € nf ° f f  ½½  ¾  ½¯ °f°  n ¾€   f€9f °¾  @f ¯f¾f° @ n°–@f°¾€  f° ¾n½ ¾°° f¾¯f ° n ¾¾ff   f°¾€   €€n 9 ¾°° ° f ¾ f°¾€   €€n ¾f °©   ¯ ° ° €¾–f° °  ¾°–f  ¾  ¾f ½f    f °€° ¯° f¾n¾ff€   f€¾ n    f °° f ¾€fn°¾  €€ff   ¯°   f¾¾€ – ¾¾ff n  %°%  n° ½½nf°¾9 ° °–°€€ n f €n     f½½nf°¾€½f °¾½ ° °–°   f€9f °¾  @f ¯f¾f° @ n°–@f°¾€ ¾f ½n f°  ½f °¾  °–f° °fnn f°n  n¾° n ¾f f½½nf°¾  € f° ¾f n¾f   n°°   °€n ¾  °f° €¾½½¾ °  °¾f° °– € –°–– ° f ½ f  € 9  @ff½½nf°¾€¯ ¾° ¾f ¾–°¾½ ° °–f   €€ n  f €¾n ¾f ½n ° fnn f°n  ½¾°¾€¾n ° ¾¾ f½½nf°¾  n½¾ n ¾f f½½nf°¾°fnn f°n  n¾ ° n   €    f½½nf°¾€ –¾f°€¯f¾f °f¯ ¾ ½ ° °–°   f€9f °¾ @f ¯f¾f° @ n°– @f°¾€ f  €€ n  f €¾n¯f f¯ ° € ½fnnf   °– ¯°  ½¾°¾€¾n @  ½¾ n°€¾nf½½nf°¾¾f¯ ° f°  –f°€  –¾f°¾  °¾f ½n °fnn f°n     .

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 9 ¾ °f n -   °n °–9 ¾ °f n -  f¾f¯ ° f     ½ f    .f¾ –¾  °  ½ nn- ¾f ¯f°° €n  ¾f  ¯ f  °–f° ° ¾n f° ¾f   € ° f° ½  ½ €°  ¾nf° ½° ° f¾f  nf¾¾€ °fnn f°n   ° °f°f.

f¾¾€nf° @f °f¯ ¾f° ¯f¾ –¾   ° ½½ ¯ °f –¾ °  ½ nn- ¾f  ¯f°°€n  ¾f°°–  ¾ © n ° f    @ ½¾°¾€¾n¾ff½½¾°n n½–½ n° f° ½  €€ n€¾n¾ ¾ ¾¾°– 9 @f f½½nf°€¾n¾f°  ¾°  ¯°°€¾n½ n° %°%  n°  ½ff   €f°½¾°€¾n  f½½nf°€¾n½¾°f°nn¯¾f°n ¾¾  °f    ¯f° € n¾f° f€€ n    %°%  n° €€ n  @¾n¾ff  €€ n°f°f  %°% ½½ °       .

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