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2

bñÉêÅáëÉ=P^=EéKTNF 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 n) 2 = n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .

3

1. Let P(n) be the proposition When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 2 2 = 4

2

n R.H.S. = (1)(1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 4

1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3n − 2) = (3n − 1) . 3

2 ∴ P(1) is true.

When n = 1, L.H.S. = 1

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

1 2

R.H.S. = [3(1) − 1] = 1 i.e. 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 k )2 = k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)

2 3

∴ P(1) is true. Then 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 k )2 + [2( k + 1)]2

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 2

= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + 4( k + 1)2

k 3

i.e. 1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3k − 2) = (3k − 1) 2

2 = ( k + 1)[k (2 k + 1) + 6( k + 1)]

Then 1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3k − 2) + [3( k + 1) − 2] 3

2

k

= (3k − 1) + (3k + 1) = ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6)

2 3

2

3k 2 k = ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6)

= − + 3k + 1 3

2 2 2

3k − k + 6k + 2

2 = ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3)

= 3

2 2

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1]

3k 2 + 5k + 2 3

= Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

2

( k + 1)(3k + 2) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

= mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

2

k +1 positive integers n.

= [3( k + 1) − 1]

2 4. Let P(n) be the proposition

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2 d ) + L + [a + (n − 1)d ]

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of n

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = [2 a + (n − 1)d ].

positive integers n. 2

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = a

1

2. Let P(n) be the proposition R.H.S. = [2 a + (1 − 1)d ] = a

2

2 3 + 4 3 + 6 3 + L + (2 n)3 = 2 n 2 (n + 1)2 . ∴ P(1) is true.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 2 3 = 8 i.e. a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2 d ) + L + [a + ( k − 1)d ]

R.H.S. = 2(1)2 (1 + 1)2 = 8 k

= [2 a + ( k − 1)d ]

∴ P(1) is true. 2

Then

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

a + ( a + d ) + L + [a + ( k − 1)d ] + {a + [( k + 1) − 1]d}

i.e. 2 3 + 4 3 + 6 3 + L + (2 k )3 = 2 k 2 ( k + 1)2 k

= (2 a + ( k − 1)d ] + ( a + kd )

Then 2 3 + 4 3 + L + (2 k )3 + [2( k + 1)]3 2

1

= 2 k 2 ( k + 1)2 + 8( k + 1)3 = [2 ka + k ( k − 1)d + 2 a + 2 kd ]

2

= 2( k + 1)2 ( k 2 + 4 k + 4) 1

= [( k + 1)2 a + k 2 d − kd + 2 kd ]

= 2( k + 1)2 ( k + 2)2 2

1

= 2( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 1]2 = [( k + 1)2 a + k ( k + 1)d ]

2

Thus assuming P( k ) is true for any positive 1

= ( k + 1)(2 a + kd )

integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 2

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k +1

positive integers n. = {2 a + [( k + 1) − 1]d}

2

52 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 3 = 3

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of (2 − 1)31+1 + 3

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all R.H.S. = =3

positive integers n. 4

∴ P(1) is true.

5. Let P(n) be the proposition Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 n)(3n) i.e. 1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + k ⋅ 3k

= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .

(2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = (2)(3) = 6 =

4

R.H.S. = (1)(1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 6 Then 1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + k ⋅ 3k + ( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1

∴ P(1) is true. (2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. = + ( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1

4

i.e. 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 k )(3k ) 1

= [(2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3 + 4( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1 ]

= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) 4

Then 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 k )(3k ) (2 k − 1 + 4 k + 4)3k +1 + 3

=

+ [2( k + 1)][3( k + 1)] 4

= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + 6( k + 1)2 (6k + 3) ⋅ 3k +1 + 3

=

= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6) 4

(2 k + 1) ⋅ 3k + 2 + 3

= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6) =

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3) 4

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1] [2( k + 1) − 1]3( k +1) +1 + 3

=

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer 4

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

positive integers n. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n.

6. Let P(n) be the proposition

1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + 3 ⋅ 10 + L + n(3n + 1) = n(n + 1)2 . 8. Let P(n) be the proposition

1 1 1 1 n

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 4 = 4 + + +L+ = .

1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 3 ⋅ 4 n(n + 1) n + 1

R.H.S. = (1 + 1)2 = 4 1 1

∴ P(1) is true. When n = 1 , L.H.S. = =

1⋅ 2 2

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 1 1

R.H.S. = =

i.e. 1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + 3 ⋅ 10 + L + k (3k + 1) = k ( k + 1)2 1+1 2

Then ∴ P(1) is true.

1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + L + k (3k + 1) + ( k + 1) + [3( k + 1) + 1] Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

= k ( k + 1)2 + ( k + 1)(3k + 4) i.e. 1 + 1 + 1 + L + 1

=

k

= ( k + 1)( k 2 + k + 3k + 4) 1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1) k + 1

Then

= ( k + 1)( k 2 + 4 k + 4) 1 1 1 1

+ +L+ +

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)2 1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 k ( k + 1) ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]2 =

k

+

1

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2)

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of k ( k + 2) + 1

=

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all ( k + 1)( k + 2)

positive integers n.

( k + 1)2

=

7. Let P(n) be the proposition ( k + 1)( k + 2)

k +1

1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + n ⋅ 3n =

k+2

(2 n − 1)3n +1 + 3 k +1

= . =

4 ( k + 1) + 1

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 53

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer ∴ P(1) is true.

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

1 1 1

positive integers n. i.e. + + +L+

1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9

9. Let P(n) be the proposition 1 k ( k + 2)

=

1 1 1 1 (2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3) 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)

+ + +L+

2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3n − 1)(3n + 2) Then

n

= . 1

+

1

+

1

+L+

6n + 4 1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9

1 1

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = = 1

2 ⋅ 5 10 (2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)

1 1 1

R.H.S. = = +

6 + 4 10 [2( k + 1) − 1][2( k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 3]

∴ P(1) is true. k ( k + 2) 1

= +

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3) (2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

1 1 1 1 k ( k + 2)(2 k + 5) + 3

i.e. + + +L+ =

2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3k − 1)(3k + 2) 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

k 2 k 3 + 9k 2 + 10 k + 3

= =

6k + 4 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

Then

1

+

1

+

1

+L+

1 ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 3)

2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3k − 1)(3k + 2) =

3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

+

1 ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)( k + 3)

[3( k + 1) − 1][3( k + 1) + 2] =

3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

=

k

+

1 ( k + 1)( k + 3)

6k + 4 (3k + 2)(3k + 5) =

3(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)

k (3k + 5) + 2 ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 2]

= =

2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) 3[2( k + 1) + 1][(2( k + 1) + 3]

3k 2 + 5k + 2 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

=

2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

(3k + 2)( k + 1) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

=

2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) positive integers n.

k +1

=

2(3k + 5) 11. Let P(n) be the proposition

k +1

= 1 1 1 1

6( k + 1) + 4 + + +L+

1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3n − 5)(3n − 2)

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of n −1

= .

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 3n − 2

positive integers n. 1 1

When n = 2 , L.H.S. = =

1× 4 4

10. Let P(n) be the proposition

2 −1 1

1 1 1 R.H.S. = =

+ + +L+ 3×2 −2 4

1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9

1 n( n + 2 ) ∴ P(2) is true.

= .

(2 n − 1)(2 n + 1)(2 n + 3) 3(2 n + 1)(2 n + 3) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k ≥ 2 .

1 1 1 1 1 1

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = = i.e. + + +L+

1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 15 1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3k − 5)(3k − 2)

(1 + 2) 1 k −1

R.H.S. = = =

3(2 + 1)(2 + 3) 15 3k − 2

54 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

1

+

1

+

1

+L+

1 1 × 1! +2 × 2! + L + n × n! = (n + 1)! −1 .

1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3k − 5)(3k − 2) When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 × 1! = 1

1

+ R.H.S. = (1 + 1)! −1 = 1

[3( k + 1) − 5][3( k + 1) − 2]

k −1 1 ∴ P(1) is true.

= +

3k − 2 (3k − 2)(3k + 1) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

1 ( k − 1)(3k + 1) + 1 i.e. 1 × 1! + 2 × 2! + L + k × k! = ( k + 1)! −1

= [ ]

3k − 2 3k + 1 Then 1 × 1! +2 × 2! + L + k × k! + ( k + 1) × ( k + 1)!

1 k (3k − 2)

= ⋅ = ( k + 1)! −1 + ( k + 1) × ( k + 1)!

3k − 2 3k + 1 = ( k + 1)!(1 + k + 1) − 1

k

= = ( k + 1)!( k + 2) − 1

3k + 1 = ( k + 2)! −1

( k + 1) − 1

= = [( k + 1) + 1]! −1

3( k + 1) − 2

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive integers n.

positive integers n ≥ 2 .

14. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.

12. Let P(n) be the proposition question because of the copyright reasons.

4 4 4 2n + 1

(1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]= . 15. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

9 25 (2 n − 1) 2 3(2 n − 1)

1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + n(2 n + 1)2

4 5

When n = 2 , L.H.S. = 1 − = 1

= n(n + 1)(6n 2 + 14n + 7) .

9 9 6

2( 2 ) + 1 5 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 32 = 9

R.H.S. = =

3[2(2) − 1] 9 1

R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(6 + 14 + 7) = 9

∴ P(2) is true. 6

∴ P(1) is true.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k ≥ 2 .

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

4 4 4 2k + 1

i.e. (1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]= i.e. 1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + k (2 k + 1)2

9 25 (2 k − 1)2 3(2 k − 1) 1

= k ( k + 1)(6k 2 + 14 k + 7)

Then 6

4 4 4 4 Then

(1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]{1 − }

9 25 (2 k − 1)2 [2( k + 1) − 1]2 1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + k (2 k + 1)2

2k + 1 4 + ( k + 1)[2( k + 1) + 1]2

= (1 − )

3(2 k − 1) (2 k + 1)2 1

= k ( k + 1)(6k 2 + 14 k + 7) + ( k + 1)(2 k + 3)2

(2 k + 1)[(2 k + 1)2 − 4] 6

= 1

3(2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)2 = ( k + 1)[k (6k 2 + 14 k + 7) + 6(2 k + 3)2 ]

(2 k − 1)(2 k + 3) 6

= 1

3(2 k − 1)(2 k + 1) = ( k + 1)(6k 3 + 14 k 2 + 7k + 24 k 2 + 72 k + 54)

6

2k + 3

= 1

= ( k + 1)(6k 3 + 38k 2 + 79k + 54)

3(2 k + 1) 6

2( k + 1) + 1

= 1

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(6k 2 + 26k + 27)

3[2( k + 1) − 1)] 6

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer 1

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(6k 2 + 12 k + 6 + 14 k + 14 + 7)

k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 6

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 1

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][6( k + 1)2 + 14( k + 1) + 7]

positive integers n ≥ 2 . 6

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 55

integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the

− 2(12 + 2 2 + L + n 2 )

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is

1 1

true for all positive integers n. = n(n + 1)(n 2 + 5n + 2) − 2 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)

(b) 11 ⋅ 232 + 12 ⋅ 252 + 13 ⋅ 272 + L + 20 ⋅ 412 4 6

1 1

1 = n(n + 1)(n + 5n + 2) − n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)

2

= (20)(21)(2 400 + 280 + 7) 4 3

6 1

1 = n(n + 1)(3n + 15n + 6 − 8n − 4)

2

− (10)(11)(600 + 140 + 7) (By (a)) 12

6 1

= 188 090 − 13 695 = n(n + 1)(3n 2 + 7n + 2)

12

= 174 395 1

= n(n + 1)(n + 2)(3n + 1)

12

16. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + n 2 (n + 3) 17. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

1 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 4 + L + n(n + 1)

= n(n + 1)(n 2 + 5n + 2) .

4 1

= n(n + 1)(n + 2) .

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 12 ⋅ 4 = 4 3

1

R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(1 + 5 + 2) = 4 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 2 = 2

4

1

∴ P(1) is true. R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 2

3

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. ∴ P(1) is true.

i.e. 12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + k 2 ( k + 3) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

1

= k ( k + 1)( k 2 + 5k + 2) i.e. 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 4 + L + k ( k + 1)

4

1

Then = k ( k + 1)( k + 2)

3

12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + k 2 ( k + 3) Then

+ ( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 3] 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + k ( k + 1) + ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]

1 1

= k ( k + 1)( k 2 + 5k + 2) + ( k + 1)2 ( k + 4) = k ( k + 1)( k + 2) + ( k + 1)( k + 2)

4 3

1 1

= ( k + 1)( k 3 + 5k 2 + 2 k + 4 k 2 + 20 k + 16) = ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

4 3

1 1

= ( k + 1)( k 3 + 9k 2 + 22 k + 16) = ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2)

4 3

1

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k 2 + 7k + 8) Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive

4 integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the

1

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k 2 + 2 k + 1 + 5k + 5 + 2) principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is

4 true for all positive integers n.

1

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1)2 + 5( k + 1) + 2] (b) (i) 51 ⋅ 52 + 52 ⋅ 53 + L + 100 ⋅ 101

4

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive = 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + 100 ⋅ 101

integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the − (1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + 50 ⋅ 51)

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is 1 1

= (100)(101)(102) − (50)(51)(52)

true for all positive integers n. 3 3

= 343 400 − 44 200

(b) 12 ⋅ 2 + 2 2 ⋅ 3 + L + n 2 (n + 1) = 299 200

= 12 ( 4 − 2) + 2 2 (5 − 2) + 32 (6 − 2)

(ii) The nth term of the series

+ L + n 2 [(n + 3) − 2]

= 1+ 2 +L+ n

= 12 ⋅ 4 − 12 ⋅ 2 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 − 2 2 ⋅ 2 + 32 ⋅ 6 − 32 ⋅ 2

1

+ L + n 2 (n + 3) − n 2 ⋅ 2 = n(n + 1)

2

56 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

=

1 1 1

(1)(2) + (2)(3) + L + n(n + 1) = 12 + 2 2 + L + 40 2

2 2 2 − 2(2 2 + 4 2 + L + 40 2 )

1

= [(1)(2) + (2)(3) + L + n(n + 1)] 1 2

2 = ( 40)( 41)(81) − 2 ⋅ (20)(21)( 41)

1 1 6 3

= ⋅ n(n + 1)(n + 2) = 22 140 − 22 960

2 3 = −820

1

= n(n + 1)(n + 2) (c) 1 ⋅ 1 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 5 + L + n(2 n − 1)

6

= 1 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 1 − 1) + 2 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 2 − 1)

∴ 1 + (1 + 2) + L + (1 + 2 + L + 100) + 3(2 ⋅ 3 − 1) + L + n(2 n − 1)

1

= (100)(101)(102) = 2 ⋅ 12 − 1 + 2 ⋅ 2 2 − 2 + 2 ⋅ 32

6

= 171 700 − 3 + L + 2n 2 − n

= 2(12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 )

− (1 + 2 + 3 + L + n)

18. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

1 1

= 2 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) − n(n + 1) (By (a))

1 6 2

12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 = n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .

6 1 1

= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) − n(n + 1)

When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 12 = 1 3 2

1

1 = n(n + 1)( 4n + 2 − 3)

R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 1 6

6 1

= n(n + 1)( 4n − 1)

∴ P(1) is true. 6

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

bñÉêÅáëÉ=P_=EéKTRF

i.e. 12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + k 2

1 1. Let P(n) be the proposition 9 n − 2 n is divisible

= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)

6 by 7.

Then When n = 1, 9 − 2 = 7 which is divisible by 7.

12 + 2 2 + L + k 2 + ( k + 1)2 ∴ P(1) is true.

1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + ( k + 1)2

6 i.e. 9 k − 2 k = 7 N where N is an integer.

1

= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6) Then 9 k +1 − 2 k +1

6

1 = 9 ⋅ 9k − 2 ⋅ 2 k

= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6)

6 = 9(7n + 2 k ) − 2 ⋅ 2 k

1 = 9(7 N ) + 7 ⋅ 2 k

= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3)

6

1 = 7(9 N + 2 k )

= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1]

6 which is divisible by 7.

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any

integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the positive integer k. By the principle of

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

true for all positive integers n. positive integers n.

= 4(12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 ) by 3.

1 When n = 1, 2 2 − 1 = 3 which is divisible by 3.

= 4 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)

6 ∴ P(1) is true.

2

= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

3

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 57

divisible by 5.

Then 2 2( k +1) − 1

When n = 1, 6 − 5 + 4 = 5 which is divisible by 5.

= 22k ⋅ 22 − 1

= 4(3 N + 1) − 1 ∴ P(1) is true.

= 4( 3 N ) + 3 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

= 3( 4 N + 1) i.e. 6 k − 5k + 4 = 5 N where N is an integer.

which is divisible by 3. Then

Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any 6 k +1 − 5( k + 1) + 4

positive integer k. By the principle of

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = 6 ⋅ 6 k − 5k − 1

positive integers n. = 6(5 N + 5k − 4) − 5k − 1

= 30 N + 25k − 25

3. Let P(n) be the proposition 9 n − 4 n is divisible = 5(6 N + 5k − 5)

by 5. which is divisible by 5.

When n = 1, 9 − 4 = 5 which is divisible by 5. Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any

∴ P(1) is true. positive integer k. By the principle of

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. positive integers n.

i.e. 9 k − 4 k = 5 N where N is an integer.

Then 9 k +1 − 4 k +1 6. Let P(n) be the proposition n(n + 1)(n + 2) is

= 9⋅9 − 4⋅4

k k divisible by 3.

= 9(5 N + 4 k ) − 4 ⋅ 4 k When n = 1, (1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 6 which is divisible

by 3.

= 9(5 N ) + 5 ⋅ 4 k

∴ P(1) is true.

= 5(9 N + 4 k )

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

which is divisible by 5. i.e. k ( k + 1)( k + 2) = 3 N where N is an integer.

Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any Then

positive integer k. By the principle of

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

positive integers n. = k ( k + 1)( k + 2) + 3( k + 1)( k + 2)

= 3 N + 3( k + 1)( k + 2)

= 3[ N + ( k + 1)( k + 2)]

4. Let P(n) be the proposition 23n + 10 is divisible which is divisible by 3.

by 11.

Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any

W h e n n = 1 , 231 + 10 = 33 = 11(3) w h i c h i s positive integer k. By the principle of

divisible by 11. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

∴ P(1) is true. positive integers n.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

i.e. 23k + 10 = 11N where N is an integer. 7. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.

question because of the copyright reasons.

Then 23k +1 + 10

= 23(11N − 10) + 10

= 23(11N ) − 220 8. Let P(n) be the proposition 4 n + 5n is divisible

= 11(23 N − 20) by 9.

which is divisible by 11. When n = 1, 4 + 5 = 9 which is divisible by 9.

Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any ∴ P(1) is true.

positive integer k. By the principle of Assume P(k) is true for any positive odd number

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k.

positive integers n.

i.e. 4 k + 5k = 9 N where N is an integer.

58 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Then 4 k + 2 + 5k + 2 25.

= 4 k ⋅ 16 + 5k ⋅ 25 ∴ 4 ⋅ 9 − (5n + 4) ⋅ 4 n is divisible by 25.

= 16(9 N − 5k ) + 25 ⋅ 5k (ii) By (a), put x = 7, y = 4

= 16( 4 k + 5k ) + 9 ⋅ 5k 7 n − n(7)4 n −1 + (n − 1)4 n

= 16(9 N ) + 9 ⋅ 5 k

= 7 n − (7n − 4n + 4)4 n −1

= 9(16 N + 5 ) k

= 7 n − (3n + 4) ⋅ 4 n −1

which is divisible by 9.

is divisible by (7 − 4)2 .

Hence P( k + 2) is true for any positive odd

number k. By the principle of mathematical ∴ 7 n − (3n + 4) ⋅ 4 n −1 is divisible by 9.

induction, P(n) is true for all positive odd numbers

n.

1

10. Let P(n) be the proposition an = n(n − 1) + 1.

2

9. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

When n = 1, L.H.S. = a1 = 1

x n − nxy n −1 + (n − 1) y n is divisible by

1

( x − y)2 . R.H.S. = (1)(1 − 1) + 1 = 1

2

When n = 2, x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 = ( x − y)2 which ∴ P(1) is true.

is divisible by ( x − y)2 . Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

∴ P(2) is true. 1

i.e. ak = k ( k − 1) + 1

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer 2

k ≥ 2. Then

i.e. x k − kxy k −1 + ( k − 1) y k = ( x − y)2 N a k +1 = a k + k

where N is a polynomial. 1

= k ( k − 1) + 1 + k

Then 2

1

= k (k − 1 + 2) + 1

x k +1 − ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 2

= x ⋅ x k − ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 1

= k ( k + 1) + 1

= x[( x − y)2 N + kxy k −1 − ( k − 1) y k ] 2

1

− ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 = ( k + 1)[(k + 1) − 1] + 1

2

= x ( x − y)2 N + kx 2 y k −1 − ( k − 1) xy k Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

− kxy k − xy k + ky k +1 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

= x ( x − y)2 N + ky k −1 ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 )

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n.

= x ( x − y)2 N + ( x − y)2 ky k −1

= ( x − y)2 ( xN + ky k −1 ) 11. Let P(n) be the proposition an = 2 n − 1.

which is divisible by ( x − y)2 . When n = 1,

Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any L.H.S. = a1 = 1

positive integer k ≥ 2 . By the principle of R.H.S. = 2(1) − 1 = 1

mathematical induction, P(k) is true for all

∴ P(1) is true.

positive integers n ≥ 2 .

When n = 2,

(b) (i) By (a), put x = 9, y = 4

L.H.S. = a2 = 3

∴ 9 n − n(9)4 n −1 + (n − 1)4 n is divisible R.H.S. = 2(2) − 1 = 3

by (9 − 4)2 . ∴ P(2) is true.

4 ⋅ 9 n − 9n ⋅ 4 n + (n − 1)4 n +1 is divisible Assume P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any positive

by 25. integer k.

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 59

ak +1 = 2( k + 1) − 1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

Then ak + 2 = 2 ak +1 − ak a(r k − 1)

= 2[2( k + 1) − 1] − (2 k − 1) i.e. a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar k −1 =

r −1

= 4k + 4 − 2 − 2k + 1 Then a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar k −1 + ar k

= 2k + 3

a(r k − 1)

= 2( k + 2 ) − 1 = + ar k

r −1

Thus assuming P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any

ar k − a + ar k +1 − ar k

positive integer k, P( k + 2) is also true. By the =

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true r −1

for all positive integers n. a(r k +1 − 1)

=

r −1

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

oÉîáëáçå=bñÉêÅáëÉ=P=EéKTSF k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

1. Let P(n) be the proposition 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n.

( 4n − 1)5n +1 + 5

+ L + n ⋅ 5n = .

16 3. Let P(n) be the proposition

When n = 1, L.H.S. = 5 1 1 1 1

+ + +L+

( 4 − 1)52 + 5 1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5 n(n + 1)(n + 2)

R.H.S. = =5

16 n(n + 3)

= .

∴ P(1) is true. 4(n + 1)(n + 2)

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 1 1

When n = 1,L.H.S. = =

i.e. 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 + L + k ⋅ 5k 1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 6

(1 + 3) 1

( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5 R.H.S. = =

= 4(1 + 1)(1 + 2) 6

16

∴ P(1) is true.

Then 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 + L + k ⋅ 5k + ( k + 1) ⋅ 5k +1

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5

= + ( k + 1) ⋅ 5k +1 1 1 1

16 i.e. + +L+

1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1)( k + 2)

( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5 + 16( k + 1)5k +1

= k ( k + 3)

16 =

4( k + 1)( k + 2)

( 4 k − 1 + 16k + 16)5k +1 + 5

= 1 1 1

16 Then + +L+

1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1)( k + 2)

(20 k + 15)5k +1 + 5

= 1

16 +

( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2]

( 4 k + 3)5( k +1) +1 + 5 k ( k + 3)

= = +

1

16 4( k + 1)( k + 2) ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

[ 4( k + 1) − 1]5( k +1) +1 + 5

= k ( k + 3)2 + 4

16 =

4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of k 3 + 6k 2 + 9k + 4

=

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

positive integers n. ( k + 1)2 ( k + 4)

=

2. Let P(n) be the proposition 4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)

( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 3]

a(r n − 1) =

a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar n −1 = . 4[( k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2]

r −1

When n = 1, L.H.S. = a Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

a(r1 − 1)

R.H.S. = =a mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

r −1 positive integers n.

60 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

n −1 2 question because of the copyright reasons.

1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + L + ( −1) n

2 2 2 2

1

= ( −1) n −1 n(n + 1) .

2 8. Let P(n) be the proposition 8n + 2 ⋅ 7 n − 1 is

When n = 1,L.H.S. = 12 = 1 divisible by 7.

1 When n = 1, 8 + 2 ⋅ 7 − 1 = 21 = 7 ⋅ 3 which is

R.H.S. = ( −1)0 (1 + 1) = 1

2 divisible by 7.

∴ P(1) is true. ∴ P(1) is true.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

1

i.e. 12 − 2 2 + L + ( −1) k −1 k 2 = ( −1) k −1 k ( k + 1) i.e. 8k + 2 ⋅ 7 k − 1 = 7 N where N is an integer.

2

Then

Then 8k +1 + 2 ⋅ 7 k +1 − 1

k −1 2 ( k +1) −1

1 − 2 + L + ( −1) k + ( −1)

2 2

( k + 1)

2

= 8 ⋅ 8k + 14 ⋅ 7 k − 1

k −1 1

= ( −1) k ( k + 1) + ( −1) ( k + 1)

k 2

= 8(7 N − 2 ⋅ 7 k + 1) + 14 ⋅ 7 k − 1

2

1 = 7(8 N ) − 2 ⋅ 7 k + 7

= ( −1) k ( k + 1)( − k + 2 k + 2)

2 = 7(8 N − 2 ⋅ 7 k −1 + 1)

k 1

= ( −1) ( k + 1)( k + 2) which is divisible by 7.

2

1

= ( −1)( k +1) −1 ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

2 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of positive integers n.

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 9. Let P(n) be the proposition 6 n + 2 + 72 n +1 is

divisible by 43.

5. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. When n = 1, 6 3 + 73 = 559 = 43 × 13 which is

question because of the copyright reasons. divisible by 43.

∴ P(1) is true.

6. Let P(n) be the proposition

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

n(n + 1)(n + 5)

T1 + T2 + L + Tn = .

3 i.e. 6 k + 2 + 72 k +1 = 43 N where N is an integer.

When n = 1,L.H.S. = T1 = 12 + 3(1) = 4 Then 6 k + 3 + 72 k + 3

R.H.S. =

(1 + 1)(1 + 5)

=4 = 6 ⋅ 6 k + 2 + 49 ⋅ 72 k +1

3 = 6( 43 N − 72 k +1 ) + 49 ⋅ 72 k +1

∴ P(1) is true.

= 6( 43 N ) + 43 ⋅ 72 k +1

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

k ( k + 1)( k + 5) = 43(6 N + 72 k +1 )

i.e. T1 + T2 + L + Tk = which is divisible by 43.

3

T

Then 1 2 + T + L + Tk + T k +1 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

k ( k + 1)( k + 5) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

= + ( k + 1)2 + 3( k + 1) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

3

k +1 positive integers n.

= [k ( k + 5) + 3( k + 1) + 9]

3

k +1 10. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition

= [( k + 6)( k + 2)]

3 1

13 + 2 3 + 33 + L + n 3 = n 2 (n + 1)2 .

( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 5] 4

=

3 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 13 = 1

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

1

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of R.H.S. = (1 + 1)2 = 1

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 4

positive integers n. ∴ P(1) is true.

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 61

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 13. Let P(n) be the proposition f (n) = 32 n − 1 is

1 divisible by 8.

i.e. 13 + 2 3 + L + k 3 = k 2 ( k + 1)2

4 When n = 1, f (1) = 32 − 1 = 8 which is divisible

Then 13 + 2 3 + L + k 3 + ( k + 1)3 by 8.

1 ∴ P(1) is true.

= k 2 ( k + 1)2 + ( k + 1)3

4

1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

= ( k + 1)2 ( k 2 + 4 k + 4)

4 i.e. f ( k ) = 32 k − 1 = 8 N where N is an integer.

1

= ( k + 1)2 ( k + 2)2 Then f ( k + 1) = 32( k +1) − 1

4

1

= ( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 1]2 = 32 k ⋅ 9 − 1

4 = (8 N + 1)9 − 1

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive = 8N ⋅ 9 + 8

integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the = 8(9 N + 1)

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is which is divisible by 8.

true for all positive integers n. Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

(b) (13 − 1) + (2 3 − 2) + L + (n 3 − n) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

= 13 + 2 3 + L + n 3 − (1 + 2 + L + n) positive integers n.

1 1

= n 2 (n + 1)2 − n(n + 1)

4 2 14 − 16. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.

1

= n(n + 1)[n(n + 1) − 2] questions because of the copyright reasons.

4

1

= n(n + 1)(n 2 + n − 2)

4 båêáÅÜãÉåí=P=EéKTUF

1 1. (a) Tn = Tn −1 + 1 for n ≥ 3

= (n − 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2)

4

Let P(n) be the proposition Tn = n .

11. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. When n = 2 ,

question because of the copyright reasons.

L.H.S. = T2 = 2

12. Let P(n) be the proposition a − b is divisible

n n R.H.S. = 2

by a − b . ∴ P(2) is true.

When n = 1, a1 − b1 = a − b which is divisible by Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer

a − b. k ≥ 2.

∴ P(1) is true. i.e. Tk = k

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. Then Tk +1 = Tk + 1 = k + 1

i.e. a − b = ( a − b) N where N is a polynomial.

k k

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive

k +1 k +1 integer k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the

Then a −b

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is

= a ⋅ ak − b ⋅ bk true for all positive integers n ≥ 2 .

= a[( a − b) N + b k ] − b ⋅ b k

(b) Q n = Q n −1+ (n − 1) for n ≥ 3

= a( a − b ) N + a ⋅ b k − b ⋅ b k

= a( a − b ) N + ( a − b ) b k n(n − 1)

Let P(n) be the proposition Q n = .

= ( a − b)( aN + b ) k 2

When n = 2 ,

which is divisible by ( a − b) .

L.H.S. = Q 2 = 1

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 2(2 − 1)

R.H.S. = =1

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 2

positive integers n. ∴ P(2) is true.

62 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer Assume P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any

k ≥ 2. positive integer k ≥ 2 .

k ( k − 1)

i.e. Q k = i.e. ak =

1

(α k − β k )

2 5

Then Qk +1 = Qk + [( k + 1 − 1)] 1

a k +1 = ( α k +1 − β k +1 )

k ( k − 1) 5

= +k

2 Then ak + 2

k ( k − 1) + 2 k = a k +1 + a k

=

2 1 1

k ( k − 1 + 2) = ( α k +1 − β k +1 ) + (α k − β k )

= 5 5

2 1

k ( k + 1) = ( α k +1 − β k +1 + α k − β k )

= 5

2 1

= [α k (α + 1) − β k (β + 1)]

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive 5

integer k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the 1 1+ 5 1− 5

principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is = [α k ( + 1) − β k ( + 1)]

5 2 2

true for all positive integers n ≥ 2 .

1 3+ 5 3− 5

= [α k ( ) − βk ( )]

5 2 2

2. (a) x 2 − x − 1 = 0 1 1+ 5 2 1− 5 2

= [α k ( ) − βk ( ) ]

−( −1) ± ( −1)2 − 4(1)( −1) 1 ± 5 5 2 2

x= = 1

2(1) 2 = (α k ⋅ α 2 − β k ⋅ α 2 )

Q α>β 5

1

1+ 5 1− 5 = (α k + 2 − β k + 2 )

∴ α= , β= 5

2 2

Thus assuming P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for

(b) Let P(n) be the proposition any positive integer k, P( k + 2) is also true.

1 By the principle of mathematical induction,

an = (α n − β n ) . P(n) is true for all positive integers n.

5

When n = 1 , 3. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.

L.H.S. = a1 = 1 question because of the copyright reasons.

1

R.H.S. = (α − β )

5 `ä~ëëïçêâ=N=EéKSUF

1 1+ 5 1− 5

= [( )−( )] Let P(n) be the proposition

5 2 2

1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 n − 1) = n 2 .

=1

∴ P(1) is true. When n = 1,

When n = 2 , L.H.S. = 1

L.H.S. = a2 = 1 R.H.S. = 12 = 1

R.H.S. ∴ P(1) is true.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

1

= (α 2 − β 2 ) i.e. 1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 k − 1) = k 2

5

1 1+ 5 2 1− 5 2 Then 1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 k − 1) + [2( k + 1) − 1]

= [( ) −( ) ]

5 2 2 = k 2 + (2 k + 1)

1 1+ 5 1− 5 1+ 5 1− 5 = ( k + 1)2

= ( + )( − )]

5 2 2 2 2 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer

=1 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

∴ P(2) is true. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n.

Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 63

positive integer k. By the principle of

(a) Let P(n) be the proposition mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 n − 1)3 = n 2 (2 n 2 − 1) . positive integers n.

When n = 1, L.H.S. = 13 = 1

R.H.S. = 12 [2(1)2 − 1] = 1 2. Let P(n) be the proposition a 2 n −1 + b 2 n −1 is

∴ P(1) is true. divisible by a + b .

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. When n = 1, a1 + b1 = a + b which is divisible by

a + b.

i.e. 13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 k − 1)3 = k 2 (2 k 2 − 1) ∴ P(1) is true.

Then 13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 k − 1)3 + [2( k + 1) − 1]3 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

= k 2 (2 k 2 − 1) + (2 k + 1)3 i.e. a 2 k −1 + b 2 k −1 = ( a + b) N , w h e r e N i s a

= 2 k − k + 8k + 12 k + 6k + 1

4 2 3 2 polynomial.

= 2 k 4 + 8k 3 + 11k 2 + 6k + 1 Then a 2( k +1) −1 + b 2( k +1) −1

= ( k + 1) (2 k + 4 k + 1)

2 2

= a 2 k +1 + b 2 k +1

= ( k + 1) [(2 k + 4 k + 2) − 1]

2 2

= a 2 k −1+ 2 + b 2 k −1+ 2

= ( k + 1) [2( k + 2 k + 1) − 1]

2 2

= a 2 k −1 ⋅ a 2 + b 2 k −1 ⋅ b 2

= ( k + 1) [2( k + 1) − 1]

2 2

= [( a + b) N − b 2 k −1 ]a 2 + b 2 k −1 ⋅ b 2

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer = a 2 ( a + b) N − a 2 b 2 k −1 + b 2 b 2 k −1

k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of

mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = a 2 ( a + b) N + b 2 k −1 (b 2 − a 2 )

positive integers n. = a 2 ( a + b) N + b 2 k −1 (b − a)(b + a)

(b) 2 3 + 6 3 + 10 3 + L + 383 = ( a + b)[a 2 N + (b − a)b 2 k −1 ]

= (2 ⋅ 1)3 + (2 ⋅ 3)3 + (2 ⋅ 5)3 + L + (2 ⋅ 19)3 which is divisible by a + b .

= 2 3 ⋅ 13 + 2 3 ⋅ 33 + 2 3 ⋅ 53 + L + 2 3 ⋅ 193 Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any

positive integer k. By the principle of

= 8(13 + 33 + 53 + L + 193 ) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

= 8[10 2 (2 ⋅ 10 2 − 1)] positive integers n.

= 8[100(200 − 1)]

= 159 200

`ä~ëëïçêâ=P=EéKTQF

divisible by 9.

When n = 1, 71 + 3(1) + 8 = 18 = 9 ⋅ 2 which is

divisible by 9.

∴ P(1) is true.

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.

i.e. 7 k + 3k + 8 = 9 N , where N is an integer.

Then 7 k +1 + 3( k + 1) + 8

= 7 k ⋅ 7 + 3k + 3 + 8

= (9 N − 3k − 8)7 + 3k + 3 + 8

= 63 N − 21k − 56 + 3k + 11

= 63 N − 18k − 45

= 9(7 N − 2 k − 5)

which is divisible by 9.

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