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Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 51

CHAPTER 3 3. Let P(n) be the proposition


2
bñÉêÅáëÉ=P^=EéKTNF  2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 n) 2 = n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .
3
1. Let P(n) be the proposition When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 2 2 = 4
2
n R.H.S. = (1)(1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 4
 1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3n − 2) = (3n − 1) . 3
2 ∴ P(1) is true.
When n = 1, L.H.S. = 1
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
1 2
R.H.S. = [3(1) − 1] = 1 i.e. 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 k )2 = k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)
2 3
∴ P(1) is true. Then 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 k )2 + [2( k + 1)]2
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 2
= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + 4( k + 1)2
k 3
i.e. 1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3k − 2) = (3k − 1) 2
2 = ( k + 1)[k (2 k + 1) + 6( k + 1)]
Then 1 + 4 + 7 + L + (3k − 2) + [3( k + 1) − 2] 3
2
k
= (3k − 1) + (3k + 1) = ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6)
2 3
2
3k 2 k = ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6)
= − + 3k + 1 3
2 2 2
3k − k + 6k + 2
2 = ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3)
= 3
2 2
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1]
3k 2 + 5k + 2 3
= Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
2
( k + 1)(3k + 2) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
= mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
2
k +1 positive integers n.
= [3( k + 1) − 1]
2 4. Let P(n) be the proposition
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer  a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2 d ) + L + [a + (n − 1)d ]
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of n
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = [2 a + (n − 1)d ].
positive integers n. 2
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = a
1
2. Let P(n) be the proposition R.H.S. = [2 a + (1 − 1)d ] = a
2
 2 3 + 4 3 + 6 3 + L + (2 n)3 = 2 n 2 (n + 1)2 . ∴ P(1) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 2 3 = 8 i.e. a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2 d ) + L + [a + ( k − 1)d ]
R.H.S. = 2(1)2 (1 + 1)2 = 8 k
= [2 a + ( k − 1)d ]
∴ P(1) is true. 2
Then
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
a + ( a + d ) + L + [a + ( k − 1)d ] + {a + [( k + 1) − 1]d}
i.e. 2 3 + 4 3 + 6 3 + L + (2 k )3 = 2 k 2 ( k + 1)2 k
= (2 a + ( k − 1)d ] + ( a + kd )
Then 2 3 + 4 3 + L + (2 k )3 + [2( k + 1)]3 2
1
= 2 k 2 ( k + 1)2 + 8( k + 1)3 = [2 ka + k ( k − 1)d + 2 a + 2 kd ]
2
= 2( k + 1)2 ( k 2 + 4 k + 4) 1
= [( k + 1)2 a + k 2 d − kd + 2 kd ]
= 2( k + 1)2 ( k + 2)2 2
1
= 2( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 1]2 = [( k + 1)2 a + k ( k + 1)d ]
2
Thus assuming P( k ) is true for any positive 1
= ( k + 1)(2 a + kd )
integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 2
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k +1
positive integers n. = {2 a + [( k + 1) − 1]d}
2
52 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 3 = 3
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of (2 − 1)31+1 + 3
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all R.H.S. = =3
positive integers n. 4
∴ P(1) is true.
5. Let P(n) be the proposition Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 n)(3n) i.e. 1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + k ⋅ 3k
= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .
(2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = (2)(3) = 6 =
4
R.H.S. = (1)(1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 6 Then 1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + k ⋅ 3k + ( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1
∴ P(1) is true. (2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. = + ( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1
4
i.e. 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 k )(3k ) 1
= [(2 k − 1)3k +1 + 3 + 4( k + 1) ⋅ 3k +1 ]
= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) 4
Then 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 6 ⋅ 9 + L + (2 k )(3k ) (2 k − 1 + 4 k + 4)3k +1 + 3
=
+ [2( k + 1)][3( k + 1)] 4
= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + 6( k + 1)2 (6k + 3) ⋅ 3k +1 + 3
=
= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6) 4
(2 k + 1) ⋅ 3k + 2 + 3
= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6) =
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3) 4
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1] [2( k + 1) − 1]3( k +1) +1 + 3
=
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer 4
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
positive integers n. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n.
6. Let P(n) be the proposition
 1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + 3 ⋅ 10 + L + n(3n + 1) = n(n + 1)2 . 8. Let P(n) be the proposition
1 1 1 1 n
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 4 = 4  + + +L+ = .
1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 3 ⋅ 4 n(n + 1) n + 1
R.H.S. = (1 + 1)2 = 4 1 1
∴ P(1) is true. When n = 1 , L.H.S. = =
1⋅ 2 2
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 1 1
R.H.S. = =
i.e. 1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + 3 ⋅ 10 + L + k (3k + 1) = k ( k + 1)2 1+1 2
Then ∴ P(1) is true.
1 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 7 + L + k (3k + 1) + ( k + 1) + [3( k + 1) + 1] Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
= k ( k + 1)2 + ( k + 1)(3k + 4) i.e. 1 + 1 + 1 + L + 1
=
k
= ( k + 1)( k 2 + k + 3k + 4) 1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1) k + 1
Then
= ( k + 1)( k 2 + 4 k + 4) 1 1 1 1
+ +L+ +
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)2 1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 k ( k + 1) ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]2 =
k
+
1
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2)
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of k ( k + 2) + 1
=
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all ( k + 1)( k + 2)
positive integers n.
( k + 1)2
=
7. Let P(n) be the proposition ( k + 1)( k + 2)
k +1
 1 ⋅ 3 + 2 ⋅ 32 + 3 ⋅ 33 + L + n ⋅ 3n =
k+2
(2 n − 1)3n +1 + 3 k +1
= . =
4 ( k + 1) + 1
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 53

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer ∴ P(1) is true.
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
1 1 1
positive integers n. i.e. + + +L+
1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9
9. Let P(n) be the proposition 1 k ( k + 2)
=
1 1 1 1 (2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3) 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)
 + + +L+
2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3n − 1)(3n + 2) Then
n
= . 1
+
1
+
1
+L+
6n + 4 1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9
1 1
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = = 1
2 ⋅ 5 10 (2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)
1 1 1
R.H.S. = = +
6 + 4 10 [2( k + 1) − 1][2( k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 3]
∴ P(1) is true. k ( k + 2) 1
= +
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3) (2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
1 1 1 1 k ( k + 2)(2 k + 5) + 3
i.e. + + +L+ =
2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3k − 1)(3k + 2) 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
k 2 k 3 + 9k 2 + 10 k + 3
= =
6k + 4 3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
Then
1
+
1
+
1
+L+
1 ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 3)
2 ⋅ 5 5 ⋅ 8 8 ⋅ 11 (3k − 1)(3k + 2) =
3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
+
1 ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)( k + 3)
[3( k + 1) − 1][3( k + 1) + 2] =
3(2 k + 1)(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
=
k
+
1 ( k + 1)( k + 3)
6k + 4 (3k + 2)(3k + 5) =
3(2 k + 3)(2 k + 5)
k (3k + 5) + 2 ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 2]
= =
2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) 3[2( k + 1) + 1][(2( k + 1) + 3]
3k 2 + 5k + 2 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
=
2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
(3k + 2)( k + 1) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
=
2(3k + 2)(3k + 5) positive integers n.
k +1
=
2(3k + 5) 11. Let P(n) be the proposition
k +1
= 1 1 1 1
6( k + 1) + 4  + + +L+
1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3n − 5)(3n − 2)
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of n −1
= .
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 3n − 2
positive integers n. 1 1
When n = 2 , L.H.S. = =
1× 4 4
10. Let P(n) be the proposition
2 −1 1
1 1 1 R.H.S. = =
 + + +L+ 3×2 −2 4
1⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 5 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 9
1 n( n + 2 ) ∴ P(2) is true.
= .
(2 n − 1)(2 n + 1)(2 n + 3) 3(2 n + 1)(2 n + 3) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k ≥ 2 .
1 1 1 1 1 1
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = = i.e. + + +L+
1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 15 1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3k − 5)(3k − 2)
(1 + 2) 1 k −1
R.H.S. = = =
3(2 + 1)(2 + 3) 15 3k − 2
54 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Then 13. Let P(n) be the proposition


1
+
1
+
1
+L+
1  1 × 1! +2 × 2! + L + n × n! = (n + 1)! −1 .
1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 (3k − 5)(3k − 2) When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 × 1! = 1
1
+ R.H.S. = (1 + 1)! −1 = 1
[3( k + 1) − 5][3( k + 1) − 2]
k −1 1 ∴ P(1) is true.
= +
3k − 2 (3k − 2)(3k + 1) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
1 ( k − 1)(3k + 1) + 1 i.e. 1 × 1! + 2 × 2! + L + k × k! = ( k + 1)! −1
= [ ]
3k − 2 3k + 1 Then 1 × 1! +2 × 2! + L + k × k! + ( k + 1) × ( k + 1)!
1 k (3k − 2)
= ⋅ = ( k + 1)! −1 + ( k + 1) × ( k + 1)!
3k − 2 3k + 1 = ( k + 1)!(1 + k + 1) − 1
k
= = ( k + 1)!( k + 2) − 1
3k + 1 = ( k + 2)! −1
( k + 1) − 1
= = [( k + 1) + 1]! −1
3( k + 1) − 2
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive integers n.
positive integers n ≥ 2 .
14. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
12. Let P(n) be the proposition question because of the copyright reasons.
4 4 4 2n + 1
 (1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]= . 15. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
9 25 (2 n − 1) 2 3(2 n − 1)
 1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + n(2 n + 1)2
4 5
When n = 2 , L.H.S. = 1 − = 1
= n(n + 1)(6n 2 + 14n + 7) .
9 9 6
2( 2 ) + 1 5 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 32 = 9
R.H.S. = =
3[2(2) − 1] 9 1
R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(6 + 14 + 7) = 9
∴ P(2) is true. 6
∴ P(1) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k ≥ 2 .
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
4 4 4 2k + 1
i.e. (1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]= i.e. 1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + k (2 k + 1)2
9 25 (2 k − 1)2 3(2 k − 1) 1
= k ( k + 1)(6k 2 + 14 k + 7)
Then 6
4 4 4 4 Then
(1 − )(1 − ) L[1 − ]{1 − }
9 25 (2 k − 1)2 [2( k + 1) − 1]2 1 ⋅ 32 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 72 + L + k (2 k + 1)2
2k + 1 4 + ( k + 1)[2( k + 1) + 1]2
= (1 − )
3(2 k − 1) (2 k + 1)2 1
= k ( k + 1)(6k 2 + 14 k + 7) + ( k + 1)(2 k + 3)2
(2 k + 1)[(2 k + 1)2 − 4] 6
= 1
3(2 k − 1)(2 k + 1)2 = ( k + 1)[k (6k 2 + 14 k + 7) + 6(2 k + 3)2 ]
(2 k − 1)(2 k + 3) 6
= 1
3(2 k − 1)(2 k + 1) = ( k + 1)(6k 3 + 14 k 2 + 7k + 24 k 2 + 72 k + 54)
6
2k + 3
= 1
= ( k + 1)(6k 3 + 38k 2 + 79k + 54)
3(2 k + 1) 6
2( k + 1) + 1
= 1
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(6k 2 + 26k + 27)
3[2( k + 1) − 1)] 6
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer 1
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(6k 2 + 12 k + 6 + 14 k + 14 + 7)
k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 6
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 1
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][6( k + 1)2 + 14( k + 1) + 7]
positive integers n ≥ 2 . 6
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 55

Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive = [12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + n 2 (n + 3)]


integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the
− 2(12 + 2 2 + L + n 2 )
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is
1 1
true for all positive integers n. = n(n + 1)(n 2 + 5n + 2) − 2 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)
(b) 11 ⋅ 232 + 12 ⋅ 252 + 13 ⋅ 272 + L + 20 ⋅ 412 4 6
1 1
1 = n(n + 1)(n + 5n + 2) − n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)
2
= (20)(21)(2 400 + 280 + 7) 4 3
6 1
1 = n(n + 1)(3n + 15n + 6 − 8n − 4)
2
− (10)(11)(600 + 140 + 7) (By (a)) 12
6 1
= 188 090 − 13 695 = n(n + 1)(3n 2 + 7n + 2)
12
= 174 395 1
= n(n + 1)(n + 2)(3n + 1)
12
16. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
 12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + n 2 (n + 3) 17. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
1  1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 4 + L + n(n + 1)
= n(n + 1)(n 2 + 5n + 2) .
4 1
= n(n + 1)(n + 2) .
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 12 ⋅ 4 = 4 3
1
R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(1 + 5 + 2) = 4 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 1 ⋅ 2 = 2
4
1
∴ P(1) is true. R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 2
3
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. ∴ P(1) is true.
i.e. 12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + k 2 ( k + 3) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
1
= k ( k + 1)( k 2 + 5k + 2) i.e. 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 4 + L + k ( k + 1)
4
1
Then = k ( k + 1)( k + 2)
3
12 ⋅ 4 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 + 32 ⋅ 6 + L + k 2 ( k + 3) Then
+ ( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 3] 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + k ( k + 1) + ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]
1 1
= k ( k + 1)( k 2 + 5k + 2) + ( k + 1)2 ( k + 4) = k ( k + 1)( k + 2) + ( k + 1)( k + 2)
4 3
1 1
= ( k + 1)( k 3 + 5k 2 + 2 k + 4 k 2 + 20 k + 16) = ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
4 3
1 1
= ( k + 1)( k 3 + 9k 2 + 22 k + 16) = ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2)
4 3
1
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k 2 + 7k + 8) Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive
4 integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the
1
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k 2 + 2 k + 1 + 5k + 5 + 2) principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is
4 true for all positive integers n.
1
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1)2 + 5( k + 1) + 2] (b) (i) 51 ⋅ 52 + 52 ⋅ 53 + L + 100 ⋅ 101
4
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive = 1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + 100 ⋅ 101
integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the − (1 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 + L + 50 ⋅ 51)
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is 1 1
= (100)(101)(102) − (50)(51)(52)
true for all positive integers n. 3 3
= 343 400 − 44 200
(b) 12 ⋅ 2 + 2 2 ⋅ 3 + L + n 2 (n + 1) = 299 200
= 12 ( 4 − 2) + 2 2 (5 − 2) + 32 (6 − 2)
(ii) The nth term of the series
+ L + n 2 [(n + 3) − 2]
= 1+ 2 +L+ n
= 12 ⋅ 4 − 12 ⋅ 2 + 2 2 ⋅ 5 − 2 2 ⋅ 2 + 32 ⋅ 6 − 32 ⋅ 2
1
+ L + n 2 (n + 3) − n 2 ⋅ 2 = n(n + 1)
2
56 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Sum of the first n term: (ii) 12 − 2 2 + 32 − 4 2 + L − 40 2


=
1 1 1
(1)(2) + (2)(3) + L + n(n + 1) = 12 + 2 2 + L + 40 2
2 2 2 − 2(2 2 + 4 2 + L + 40 2 )
1
= [(1)(2) + (2)(3) + L + n(n + 1)] 1 2
2 = ( 40)( 41)(81) − 2 ⋅ (20)(21)( 41)
1 1 6 3
= ⋅ n(n + 1)(n + 2) = 22 140 − 22 960
2 3 = −820
1
= n(n + 1)(n + 2) (c) 1 ⋅ 1 + 2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 5 + L + n(2 n − 1)
6
= 1 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 1 − 1) + 2 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 2 − 1)
∴ 1 + (1 + 2) + L + (1 + 2 + L + 100) + 3(2 ⋅ 3 − 1) + L + n(2 n − 1)
1
= (100)(101)(102) = 2 ⋅ 12 − 1 + 2 ⋅ 2 2 − 2 + 2 ⋅ 32
6
= 171 700 − 3 + L + 2n 2 − n
= 2(12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 )
− (1 + 2 + 3 + L + n)
18. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
1 1
= 2 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) − n(n + 1) (By (a))
1 6 2
 12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 = n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) .
6 1 1
= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) − n(n + 1)
When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 12 = 1 3 2
1
1 = n(n + 1)( 4n + 2 − 3)
R.H.S. = (1 + 1)(2 + 1) = 1 6
6 1
= n(n + 1)( 4n − 1)
∴ P(1) is true. 6
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
bñÉêÅáëÉ=P_=EéKTRF
i.e. 12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + k 2
1 1. Let P(n) be the proposition 9 n − 2 n is divisible
= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1)
6 by 7.
Then When n = 1, 9 − 2 = 7 which is divisible by 7.
12 + 2 2 + L + k 2 + ( k + 1)2 ∴ P(1) is true.
1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
= k ( k + 1)(2 k + 1) + ( k + 1)2
6 i.e. 9 k − 2 k = 7 N where N is an integer.
1
= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + k + 6k + 6) Then 9 k +1 − 2 k +1
6
1 = 9 ⋅ 9k − 2 ⋅ 2 k
= ( k + 1)(2 k 2 + 7k + 6)
6 = 9(7n + 2 k ) − 2 ⋅ 2 k
1 = 9(7 N ) + 7 ⋅ 2 k
= ( k + 1)( k + 2)(2 k + 3)
6
1 = 7(9 N + 2 k )
= ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2( k + 1) + 1]
6 which is divisible by 7.
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any
integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the positive integer k. By the principle of
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
true for all positive integers n. positive integers n.

(b) (i) 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + L + (2 n)2 2. Let P(n) be the proposition 2 2n − 1 is divisible


= 4(12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2 ) by 3.
1 When n = 1, 2 2 − 1 = 3 which is divisible by 3.
= 4 ⋅ n(n + 1)(2 n + 1)
6 ∴ P(1) is true.
2
= n(n + 1)(2 n + 1) Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
3
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 57

i.e. 2 2k − 1 = 3 N where N is an integer. 5. Let P(n) be the proposition  6 n − 5n + 4 is


divisible by 5.
Then 2 2( k +1) − 1
When n = 1, 6 − 5 + 4 = 5 which is divisible by 5.
= 22k ⋅ 22 − 1
= 4(3 N + 1) − 1 ∴ P(1) is true.
= 4( 3 N ) + 3 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
= 3( 4 N + 1) i.e. 6 k − 5k + 4 = 5 N where N is an integer.
which is divisible by 3. Then
Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any 6 k +1 − 5( k + 1) + 4
positive integer k. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = 6 ⋅ 6 k − 5k − 1
positive integers n. = 6(5 N + 5k − 4) − 5k − 1
= 30 N + 25k − 25
3. Let P(n) be the proposition 9 n − 4 n is divisible = 5(6 N + 5k − 5)
by 5. which is divisible by 5.
When n = 1, 9 − 4 = 5 which is divisible by 5. Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any
∴ P(1) is true. positive integer k. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. positive integers n.
i.e. 9 k − 4 k = 5 N where N is an integer.
Then 9 k +1 − 4 k +1 6. Let P(n) be the proposition  n(n + 1)(n + 2) is
= 9⋅9 − 4⋅4
k k divisible by 3.
= 9(5 N + 4 k ) − 4 ⋅ 4 k When n = 1, (1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 6 which is divisible
by 3.
= 9(5 N ) + 5 ⋅ 4 k
∴ P(1) is true.
= 5(9 N + 4 k )
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
which is divisible by 5. i.e. k ( k + 1)( k + 2) = 3 N where N is an integer.
Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any Then
positive integer k. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
positive integers n. = k ( k + 1)( k + 2) + 3( k + 1)( k + 2)
= 3 N + 3( k + 1)( k + 2)
= 3[ N + ( k + 1)( k + 2)]
4. Let P(n) be the proposition 23n + 10 is divisible which is divisible by 3.
by 11.
Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any
W h e n n = 1 , 231 + 10 = 33 = 11(3) w h i c h i s positive integer k. By the principle of
divisible by 11. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
∴ P(1) is true. positive integers n.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
i.e. 23k + 10 = 11N where N is an integer. 7. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
question because of the copyright reasons.
Then 23k +1 + 10
= 23(11N − 10) + 10
= 23(11N ) − 220 8. Let P(n) be the proposition 4 n + 5n is divisible
= 11(23 N − 20) by 9.
which is divisible by 11. When n = 1, 4 + 5 = 9 which is divisible by 9.
Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any ∴ P(1) is true.
positive integer k. By the principle of Assume P(k) is true for any positive odd number
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all k.
positive integers n.
i.e. 4 k + 5k = 9 N where N is an integer.
58 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

For n = k + 2 4 ⋅ 9 n − (9n − 4n + 4) ⋅ 4 n is divisible by


Then 4 k + 2 + 5k + 2 25.
= 4 k ⋅ 16 + 5k ⋅ 25 ∴ 4 ⋅ 9 − (5n + 4) ⋅ 4 n is divisible by 25.
= 16(9 N − 5k ) + 25 ⋅ 5k (ii) By (a), put x = 7, y = 4
= 16( 4 k + 5k ) + 9 ⋅ 5k 7 n − n(7)4 n −1 + (n − 1)4 n
= 16(9 N ) + 9 ⋅ 5 k
= 7 n − (7n − 4n + 4)4 n −1
= 9(16 N + 5 ) k
= 7 n − (3n + 4) ⋅ 4 n −1
which is divisible by 9.
is divisible by (7 − 4)2 .
Hence P( k + 2) is true for any positive odd
number k. By the principle of mathematical ∴ 7 n − (3n + 4) ⋅ 4 n −1 is divisible by 9.
induction, P(n) is true for all positive odd numbers
n.
1
10. Let P(n) be the proposition an = n(n − 1) + 1.
2
9. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
When n = 1, L.H.S. = a1 = 1
 x n − nxy n −1 + (n − 1) y n is divisible by
1
( x − y)2 . R.H.S. = (1)(1 − 1) + 1 = 1
2
When n = 2, x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 = ( x − y)2 which ∴ P(1) is true.
is divisible by ( x − y)2 . Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
∴ P(2) is true. 1
i.e. ak = k ( k − 1) + 1
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer 2
k ≥ 2. Then
i.e. x k − kxy k −1 + ( k − 1) y k = ( x − y)2 N a k +1 = a k + k
where N is a polynomial. 1
= k ( k − 1) + 1 + k
Then 2
1
= k (k − 1 + 2) + 1
x k +1 − ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 2
= x ⋅ x k − ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 1
= k ( k + 1) + 1
= x[( x − y)2 N + kxy k −1 − ( k − 1) y k ] 2
1
− ( k + 1) xy k + ky k +1 = ( k + 1)[(k + 1) − 1] + 1
2
= x ( x − y)2 N + kx 2 y k −1 − ( k − 1) xy k Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
− kxy k − xy k + ky k +1 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
= x ( x − y)2 N + ky k −1 ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 )
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n.
= x ( x − y)2 N + ( x − y)2 ky k −1
= ( x − y)2 ( xN + ky k −1 ) 11. Let P(n) be the proposition  an = 2 n − 1.
which is divisible by ( x − y)2 . When n = 1,
Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any L.H.S. = a1 = 1
positive integer k ≥ 2 . By the principle of R.H.S. = 2(1) − 1 = 1
mathematical induction, P(k) is true for all
∴ P(1) is true.
positive integers n ≥ 2 .
When n = 2,
(b) (i) By (a), put x = 9, y = 4
L.H.S. = a2 = 3
∴ 9 n − n(9)4 n −1 + (n − 1)4 n is divisible R.H.S. = 2(2) − 1 = 3
by (9 − 4)2 . ∴ P(2) is true.
4 ⋅ 9 n − 9n ⋅ 4 n + (n − 1)4 n +1 is divisible Assume P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any positive
by 25. integer k.
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 59

i.e. ak = 2 k − 1 ∴ P(1) is true.


ak +1 = 2( k + 1) − 1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
Then ak + 2 = 2 ak +1 − ak a(r k − 1)
= 2[2( k + 1) − 1] − (2 k − 1) i.e. a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar k −1 =
r −1
= 4k + 4 − 2 − 2k + 1 Then a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar k −1 + ar k
= 2k + 3
a(r k − 1)
= 2( k + 2 ) − 1 = + ar k
r −1
Thus assuming P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any
ar k − a + ar k +1 − ar k
positive integer k, P( k + 2) is also true. By the =
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true r −1
for all positive integers n. a(r k +1 − 1)
=
r −1
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
oÉîáëáçå=bñÉêÅáëÉ=P=EéKTSF k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
1. Let P(n) be the proposition 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n.
( 4n − 1)5n +1 + 5
+ L + n ⋅ 5n = .
16 3. Let P(n) be the proposition
When n = 1, L.H.S. = 5 1 1 1 1
 + + +L+
( 4 − 1)52 + 5 1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5 n(n + 1)(n + 2)
R.H.S. = =5
16 n(n + 3)
= .
∴ P(1) is true. 4(n + 1)(n + 2)
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 1 1
When n = 1,L.H.S. = =
i.e. 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 + L + k ⋅ 5k 1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 6
(1 + 3) 1
( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5 R.H.S. = =
= 4(1 + 1)(1 + 2) 6
16
∴ P(1) is true.
Then 5 + 2 ⋅ 52 + 3 ⋅ 53 + L + k ⋅ 5k + ( k + 1) ⋅ 5k +1
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5
= + ( k + 1) ⋅ 5k +1 1 1 1
16 i.e. + +L+
1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1)( k + 2)
( 4 k − 1)5k +1 + 5 + 16( k + 1)5k +1
= k ( k + 3)
16 =
4( k + 1)( k + 2)
( 4 k − 1 + 16k + 16)5k +1 + 5
= 1 1 1
16 Then + +L+
1⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 k ( k + 1)( k + 2)
(20 k + 15)5k +1 + 5
= 1
16 +
( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2]
( 4 k + 3)5( k +1) +1 + 5 k ( k + 3)
= = +
1
16 4( k + 1)( k + 2) ( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
[ 4( k + 1) − 1]5( k +1) +1 + 5
= k ( k + 3)2 + 4
16 =
4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of k 3 + 6k 2 + 9k + 4
=
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
positive integers n. ( k + 1)2 ( k + 4)
=
2. Let P(n) be the proposition 4( k + 1)( k + 2)( k + 3)
( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 3]
a(r n − 1) =
 a + ar + ar 2 + L + ar n −1 = . 4[( k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 2]
r −1
When n = 1, L.H.S. = a Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
a(r1 − 1)
R.H.S. = =a mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
r −1 positive integers n.
60 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

4. Let P(n) be the proposition 7. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


n −1 2 question because of the copyright reasons.
 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + L + ( −1) n
2 2 2 2

1
= ( −1) n −1 n(n + 1) .
2 8. Let P(n) be the proposition 8n + 2 ⋅ 7 n − 1 is
When n = 1,L.H.S. = 12 = 1 divisible by 7.
1 When n = 1, 8 + 2 ⋅ 7 − 1 = 21 = 7 ⋅ 3 which is
R.H.S. = ( −1)0 (1 + 1) = 1
2 divisible by 7.
∴ P(1) is true. ∴ P(1) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
1
i.e. 12 − 2 2 + L + ( −1) k −1 k 2 = ( −1) k −1 k ( k + 1) i.e. 8k + 2 ⋅ 7 k − 1 = 7 N where N is an integer.
2
Then
Then 8k +1 + 2 ⋅ 7 k +1 − 1
k −1 2 ( k +1) −1
1 − 2 + L + ( −1) k + ( −1)
2 2
( k + 1)
2
= 8 ⋅ 8k + 14 ⋅ 7 k − 1
k −1 1
= ( −1) k ( k + 1) + ( −1) ( k + 1)
k 2
= 8(7 N − 2 ⋅ 7 k + 1) + 14 ⋅ 7 k − 1
2
1 = 7(8 N ) − 2 ⋅ 7 k + 7
= ( −1) k ( k + 1)( − k + 2 k + 2)
2 = 7(8 N − 2 ⋅ 7 k −1 + 1)
k 1
= ( −1) ( k + 1)( k + 2) which is divisible by 7.
2
1
= ( −1)( k +1) −1 ( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1]
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
2 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of positive integers n.
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 9. Let P(n) be the proposition 6 n + 2 + 72 n +1 is
divisible by 43.
5. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. When n = 1, 6 3 + 73 = 559 = 43 × 13 which is
question because of the copyright reasons. divisible by 43.
∴ P(1) is true.
6. Let P(n) be the proposition
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
n(n + 1)(n + 5)
 T1 + T2 + L + Tn = .
3 i.e. 6 k + 2 + 72 k +1 = 43 N where N is an integer.
When n = 1,L.H.S. = T1 = 12 + 3(1) = 4 Then 6 k + 3 + 72 k + 3
R.H.S. =
(1 + 1)(1 + 5)
=4 = 6 ⋅ 6 k + 2 + 49 ⋅ 72 k +1
3 = 6( 43 N − 72 k +1 ) + 49 ⋅ 72 k +1
∴ P(1) is true.
= 6( 43 N ) + 43 ⋅ 72 k +1
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
k ( k + 1)( k + 5) = 43(6 N + 72 k +1 )
i.e. T1 + T2 + L + Tk = which is divisible by 43.
3
T
Then 1 2 + T + L + Tk + T k +1 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
k ( k + 1)( k + 5) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
= + ( k + 1)2 + 3( k + 1) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
3
k +1 positive integers n.
= [k ( k + 5) + 3( k + 1) + 9]
3
k +1 10. (a) Let P(n) be the proposition
= [( k + 6)( k + 2)]
3 1
 13 + 2 3 + 33 + L + n 3 = n 2 (n + 1)2 .
( k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][(k + 1) + 5] 4
=
3 When n = 1 , L.H.S. = 13 = 1
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
1
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of R.H.S. = (1 + 1)2 = 1
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 4
positive integers n. ∴ P(1) is true.
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 61

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. 13. Let P(n) be the proposition f (n) = 32 n − 1 is
1 divisible by 8.
i.e. 13 + 2 3 + L + k 3 = k 2 ( k + 1)2
4 When n = 1, f (1) = 32 − 1 = 8 which is divisible
Then 13 + 2 3 + L + k 3 + ( k + 1)3 by 8.
1 ∴ P(1) is true.
= k 2 ( k + 1)2 + ( k + 1)3
4
1 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
= ( k + 1)2 ( k 2 + 4 k + 4)
4 i.e. f ( k ) = 32 k − 1 = 8 N where N is an integer.
1
= ( k + 1)2 ( k + 2)2 Then f ( k + 1) = 32( k +1) − 1
4
1
= ( k + 1)2 [( k + 1) + 1]2 = 32 k ⋅ 9 − 1
4 = (8 N + 1)9 − 1
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive = 8N ⋅ 9 + 8
integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the = 8(9 N + 1)
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is which is divisible by 8.
true for all positive integers n. Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
(b) (13 − 1) + (2 3 − 2) + L + (n 3 − n) k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
= 13 + 2 3 + L + n 3 − (1 + 2 + L + n) positive integers n.
1 1
= n 2 (n + 1)2 − n(n + 1)
4 2 14 − 16. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
1
= n(n + 1)[n(n + 1) − 2] questions because of the copyright reasons.
4
1
= n(n + 1)(n 2 + n − 2)
4 båêáÅÜãÉåí=P=EéKTUF
1 1. (a) Tn = Tn −1 + 1 for n ≥ 3
= (n − 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2)
4
Let P(n) be the proposition Tn = n .
11. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. When n = 2 ,
question because of the copyright reasons.
L.H.S. = T2 = 2
12. Let P(n) be the proposition a − b is divisible
n n R.H.S. = 2
by a − b . ∴ P(2) is true.
When n = 1, a1 − b1 = a − b which is divisible by Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer
a − b. k ≥ 2.
∴ P(1) is true. i.e. Tk = k
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. Then Tk +1 = Tk + 1 = k + 1
i.e. a − b = ( a − b) N where N is a polynomial.
k k
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive
k +1 k +1 integer k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the
Then a −b
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is
= a ⋅ ak − b ⋅ bk true for all positive integers n ≥ 2 .
= a[( a − b) N + b k ] − b ⋅ b k
(b) Q n = Q n −1+ (n − 1) for n ≥ 3
= a( a − b ) N + a ⋅ b k − b ⋅ b k
= a( a − b ) N + ( a − b ) b k n(n − 1)
Let P(n) be the proposition Q n = .
= ( a − b)( aN + b ) k 2
When n = 2 ,
which is divisible by ( a − b) .
L.H.S. = Q 2 = 1
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of 2(2 − 1)
R.H.S. = =1
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all 2
positive integers n. ∴ P(2) is true.
62 Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction

Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer Assume P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for any
k ≥ 2. positive integer k ≥ 2 .
k ( k − 1)
i.e. Q k = i.e. ak =
1
(α k − β k )
2 5
Then Qk +1 = Qk + [( k + 1 − 1)] 1
a k +1 = ( α k +1 − β k +1 )
k ( k − 1) 5
= +k
2 Then ak + 2
k ( k − 1) + 2 k = a k +1 + a k
=
2 1 1
k ( k − 1 + 2) = ( α k +1 − β k +1 ) + (α k − β k )
= 5 5
2 1
k ( k + 1) = ( α k +1 − β k +1 + α k − β k )
= 5
2 1
= [α k (α + 1) − β k (β + 1)]
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive 5
integer k ≥ 2 , P( k + 1) is also true. By the 1 1+ 5 1− 5
principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is = [α k ( + 1) − β k ( + 1)]
5 2 2
true for all positive integers n ≥ 2 .
1 3+ 5 3− 5
= [α k ( ) − βk ( )]
5 2 2
2. (a) x 2 − x − 1 = 0 1 1+ 5 2 1− 5 2
= [α k ( ) − βk ( ) ]
−( −1) ± ( −1)2 − 4(1)( −1) 1 ± 5 5 2 2
x= = 1
2(1) 2 = (α k ⋅ α 2 − β k ⋅ α 2 )
Q α>β 5
1
1+ 5 1− 5 = (α k + 2 − β k + 2 )
∴ α= , β= 5
2 2
Thus assuming P(k) and P( k + 1) are true for
(b) Let P(n) be the proposition any positive integer k, P( k + 2) is also true.
1 By the principle of mathematical induction,
 an = (α n − β n ) . P(n) is true for all positive integers n.
5
When n = 1 , 3. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
L.H.S. = a1 = 1 question because of the copyright reasons.
1
R.H.S. = (α − β )
5 `ä~ëëïçêâ=N=EéKSUF
1 1+ 5 1− 5
= [( )−( )] Let P(n) be the proposition
5 2 2
 1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 n − 1) = n 2 .
=1
∴ P(1) is true. When n = 1,
When n = 2 , L.H.S. = 1
L.H.S. = a2 = 1 R.H.S. = 12 = 1
R.H.S. ∴ P(1) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
1
= (α 2 − β 2 ) i.e. 1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 k − 1) = k 2
5
1 1+ 5 2 1− 5 2 Then 1 + 3 + 5 + L + (2 k − 1) + [2( k + 1) − 1]
= [( ) −( ) ]
5 2 2 = k 2 + (2 k + 1)
1 1+ 5 1− 5 1+ 5 1− 5 = ( k + 1)2
= ( + )( − )]
5 2 2 2 2 Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer
=1 k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
∴ P(2) is true. mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n.
Chapter 3 Mathematical Induction 63

`ä~ëëïçêâ=O=EéKTNF Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any


positive integer k. By the principle of
(a) Let P(n) be the proposition mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
 13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 n − 1)3 = n 2 (2 n 2 − 1) . positive integers n.
When n = 1, L.H.S. = 13 = 1
R.H.S. = 12 [2(1)2 − 1] = 1 2. Let P(n) be the proposition a 2 n −1 + b 2 n −1 is
∴ P(1) is true. divisible by a + b .
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. When n = 1, a1 + b1 = a + b which is divisible by
a + b.
i.e. 13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 k − 1)3 = k 2 (2 k 2 − 1) ∴ P(1) is true.
Then 13 + 33 + 53 + L + (2 k − 1)3 + [2( k + 1) − 1]3 Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
= k 2 (2 k 2 − 1) + (2 k + 1)3 i.e. a 2 k −1 + b 2 k −1 = ( a + b) N , w h e r e N i s a
= 2 k − k + 8k + 12 k + 6k + 1
4 2 3 2 polynomial.
= 2 k 4 + 8k 3 + 11k 2 + 6k + 1 Then a 2( k +1) −1 + b 2( k +1) −1
= ( k + 1) (2 k + 4 k + 1)
2 2
= a 2 k +1 + b 2 k +1
= ( k + 1) [(2 k + 4 k + 2) − 1]
2 2
= a 2 k −1+ 2 + b 2 k −1+ 2
= ( k + 1) [2( k + 2 k + 1) − 1]
2 2
= a 2 k −1 ⋅ a 2 + b 2 k −1 ⋅ b 2
= ( k + 1) [2( k + 1) − 1]
2 2
= [( a + b) N − b 2 k −1 ]a 2 + b 2 k −1 ⋅ b 2
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer = a 2 ( a + b) N − a 2 b 2 k −1 + b 2 b 2 k −1
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all = a 2 ( a + b) N + b 2 k −1 (b 2 − a 2 )
positive integers n. = a 2 ( a + b) N + b 2 k −1 (b − a)(b + a)
(b) 2 3 + 6 3 + 10 3 + L + 383 = ( a + b)[a 2 N + (b − a)b 2 k −1 ]
= (2 ⋅ 1)3 + (2 ⋅ 3)3 + (2 ⋅ 5)3 + L + (2 ⋅ 19)3 which is divisible by a + b .
= 2 3 ⋅ 13 + 2 3 ⋅ 33 + 2 3 ⋅ 53 + L + 2 3 ⋅ 193 Hence P( k + 1) is true if P(k) is true for any
positive integer k. By the principle of
= 8(13 + 33 + 53 + L + 193 ) mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
= 8[10 2 (2 ⋅ 10 2 − 1)] positive integers n.
= 8[100(200 − 1)]
= 159 200

`ä~ëëïçêâ=P=EéKTQF

1. Let P(n) be the proposition 7 n + 3n + 8 is


divisible by 9.
When n = 1, 71 + 3(1) + 8 = 18 = 9 ⋅ 2 which is
divisible by 9.
∴ P(1) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k.
i.e. 7 k + 3k + 8 = 9 N , where N is an integer.
Then 7 k +1 + 3( k + 1) + 8
= 7 k ⋅ 7 + 3k + 3 + 8
= (9 N − 3k − 8)7 + 3k + 3 + 8
= 63 N − 21k − 56 + 3k + 11
= 63 N − 18k − 45
= 9(7 N − 2 k − 5)
which is divisible by 9.