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Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 75

CHAPTER 5 2 π 7π
5. (a) a = π − =
9 9
Exercise 5A (p.105)
5π π
π (b) b = π − =
1. (a) 36.9° = 36.9( ) 6 6
180
π π 3π
= 0.644 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) (c) c = − =
2 8 8
π
(b) 132.5° = 132.5( ) π π π
180 (d) d = − =
= 2.31 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 2 3 6
π
(c) 214° = 214( ) π π π
180 6. ∠R = π − − =
= 3.74 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 3 6 2
π
(d) 316.3° = 316.3( )
180 1 100 2 π rad.
7. (a) 33 rev./min. = ⋅
= 5.52 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 3 3 60s
π π 10 π
2. (a) 45° = 45( )= = rad./s
180 4 9

π π angle
(b) 90° = 90( )= (b) Time =
180 2 angular speed
9
π 7π = 45π × s
(c) 210° = 210( )= 10 π
180 6 = 40.5 s
π 5π
(d) 300° = 300( )= π
180 3 8. 30° = 30( )
180
180° π
3. (a) 0.21c = 0.21( ) =
π 6
= 12.03° (corr. to 2 d.p.) Distance travelled by the train = arc length
π
180° = ( 450 m )( )
(b) 0.546 c = 0.546( ) 6
π = 75π m
= 31.28° (corr. to 2 d.p.) distance
Time =
π π 180° speed
(c) = ( )
8 8 π 75π
= 22.5° = s
24
5π 5π 180° = 9.82 s (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
(d) = ( )
12 12 π π
= 75° 9. 24° = 24( )
180
π 2π
4. (a) sin =
2 =
4 2 15

π 1 Length of arc AB = (6.8 cm )( )
(b) cos = 15
3 2 = 2.85 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
π 1
(c) sin = 1 2π
6 2 Area of sector OAB = (6.8)2 ( ) cm 2
2 15
π
(d) tan = 1 = 9.68 cm 2 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
4
π π
(e) cos = 0 10. 120° = 120( )
2 180
π 2π
(f) tan = 3 =
3 3
76 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

42.6 (c) A = 5 x − x 2
(a) Radius = 2 π cm
(3) = −( x 2 − 5 x )
= 20.3 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 5 5
= −[ x 2 − 5 x + ( )2 − ( )2 ]
2 2
(b) Area of sector OCD 5 25
1 42.6 2 2 π = −( x − ) 2 +
= ( ) ( ) cm 2 2 4
2 23π 3 5
( x − )2 ≥ 0
= 433 cm 2 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 2
5
(c) D −( x − ) 2 ≤ 0
2
5 2 25 25
−( x − ) + ≤0+
E 2 4 4
25
A≤
120° 4
O C 25
∴ The greatest value of A is .
∠EOC = ∠EOD 4
= 60°
13. OD = OE = a
EC = OC sin 60°
1 π
= 20.3 sin 60° cm Area of ∆ABC = (2 a)2 sin = 3a 2
2 3
CD = EC + DE
= 2 EC 1 π 3 2
Area of ∆ADO = a 2 sin = a
= 2 × (20.3 sin 60°) cm 2 3 4
= 35.2 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 3 2
Area of ∆BOE = Area of ∆ADO = a
4
11. (a) (i) Area of ∆OAB =
1 2
r sin θ 1 π π
2 Area of sector DOE = a 2 ( ) = a 2
2 3 6
1 2 ∴ Area of the shaded region
(ii) Area of sector OAB = r θ
2 3 π
= 3 a 2 − 2( ) a 2 − a 2
(iii) BC = r tan θ 4 6
1 3 2 π 2
Area of ∆OBC = r (r tan θ) = a − a
2 2 6
1 2
= r 2 tan θ =
a
(3 3 − π )
2 6
(b) Area of ∆OAB < Area of sector OAB <
Area of ∆OBC
Exercise 5B (p.115)
1 2 1 1
r sin θ < r 2 θ < r 2 tan θ
2 2 2 1. y
sin θ < θ < tan θ

12. (a) x + x + xθ = 10 5
3 θ
10 − 2 x
θ= x
x 4 O
10
= −2
x 3 4 3
sin θ = , cos θ = − , tan θ = − ,
1 2 5 5 4
(b) A = x θ
2 5 5
1 10 sec θ = − , csc θ =
= x 2 ( − 2) 4 3
2 x
= 5x − x 2
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 77

25 7 y cos(360° − A)sin(90° − A) tan( A − 180°)


2. csc A + cot A = − − 6.
24 24 A sin( − A)sin(180° + A) cot( − A)
7
32 x cos A cos A tan A
=− =
24 O
( − sin A)( − sin A)( − cot A)
=−
4 24 = −1
3 25
tan( 32π − A) + cot( A + π) cot A + cot A
7. =
π 1 + ( − cot A)( − cot A)
3. (a) sin 120° = sin(180° − 60°) = sin 60° =
3 1 + tan( A − ) cot( π − A)
2 2
2 cot A 2 cot A
3 = =
(b) cos 210° = cos(180° + 30°) = − cos 30° = − 1 + cot A csc 2 A
2
2 2 cos A sin 2 A
1 = ⋅
(c) cos 300° = cos(360° − 60°) = cos 60° = sin A 1
2 = 2 sin A cos A

(d) tan 120° = tan(180° − 60°) = − tan 60° = − 3


sin( A + C ) cos( B + C ) − cos A sin B
8.
(e) tan 315° = tan(360° − 45°) = − tan 45° = −1 cos( B + C ) cos B + cos A cos( A + C )
sin(180° − B) cos(180° − A) − cos A sin B
=
2π π π 1 cos(180° − A) cos B + cos A cos(180° − B)
4. (a) cos = cos( π − ) = − cos = − sin B( − cos A) − cos A sin B
3 3 3 2 =
( − cos A) cos B + cos A( − cos B)
5π π π
(b) tan = tan( π + ) = tan = 1 −2 cos A sin B
4 4 4 =
3π −2 cos A cos B
(c) sin = −1 = tan B
2
(d) cos π = −1
1 − cos A 1 − cos A 1 + cos A
9. = ⋅
(e) tan 2 π = 0 sin A sin A 1 + cos A
1 − cos 2 A
=
5. (a) cos( −120°) sin A(1 + cos A)
1 sin 2 A
= cos 120° = cos(180° − 60°) = − cos 60° = − =
2 sin A(1 + cos A)
(b) sin( −315°) = − sin 315° sin A
= − sin(360° − 45°) =
1 + cos A
= −( − sin 45°)
2
= 10.
tan A
=
tan A
=
sin A
cos 2 A = sin A cos A
2
1 + tan 2 A sec 2 A cos A
3π 3π
(c) tan( − ) = − tan
4 4
π 11. cos θ = −
3
= − tan( π − ) 5
(quadrant II) y
4
π 4
= −( − tan ) (a) sin θ =
4 5 5
=1 4
θ
4
π π (b) tan θ = − x
(d) sec( − ) = sec = 2 3 3 O
3 3
3
(e) sin( −210°) = − sin 210° (c) sin(270° − θ) = − cos θ =
= − sin(180° + 30°) 5
= −( − sin 30°) 3
1 (d) tan(90° + θ) = − cot θ =
= 4
2
78 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

8 y 1
12. tan θ = − (quadrant IV) sin θ = −1 or sin θ =
15 2
3π π 5π
∴ sin θ = − ,
8 15
x θ= or θ= ,
θ 2 6 6
17 O
8 π 5π 3π
15 17 ∴ θ= , ,
cos θ = 6 6 2
17

2 sin( π + θ) − sin( π2 − θ) 3. tan θ + 2 cot θ = 3


sec(2 π − θ) + 2 tan( π + θ) tan 2 θ + 2 = 3 tan θ (tan θ ≠ 0)
−2 sin θ − cos θ tan 2 θ − 3 tan θ + 2 = 0
=
sec θ + 2 tan θ (tan θ − 1)(tan θ − 2) = 0
−2( − 178 ) − 15
tan θ = 1 or tan θ = 2
= 17 17
+ 2 ( − 8) π 5π
15 15 θ= , or θ = 1.11, 4.25 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
1 15 4 4
= ⋅
17 1 π 5π
∴ θ = , 1.11, , 4.25
15 4 4
=
17
13. sin θ(tan θ + cot θ) 4. 2 sec 2 θ = 5 tan θ
sin θ cos θ 2(1 + tan 2 θ) = 5 tan θ
= sin θ( + )
cos θ sin θ 2 tan 2 θ − 5 tan θ + 2 = 0
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ (2 tan θ − 1)(tan θ − 2) = 0
= sin θ( )
cos θ sin θ 1
1 tan θ = or tan θ = 2
= 2
cos θ θ = 0.46, 3.61 or θ = 1.11, 4.25 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
= sec θ
∴ θ = 0.46, 1.11, 3.61, 4.25
1 − sec x 1 − cos x
14. +
1 + sec x 1 + cos x 5. sin 2 θ + 2 sin θ cos θ = 3 cos 2 θ
1 − cos1 x 1 − cos x
= + tan 2 θ + 2 tan θ − 3 = 0
1 + cos1 x 1 + cos x (tan θ − 1)(tan θ + 3) = 0
cos x − 1 1 − cos x tan θ = 1 or tan θ = −3
= +
cos x + 1 1 + cos x π 5π
θ= , or θ = 1.89, 5.05 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
=0 4 4
π 5π
∴ θ = , 1.89, , 5.03
Exercise 5C (p.119) 4 4
1. 4 sin 2 x = 1
6. 7 sin θ cos θ + cos 2 θ = 2
4 sin 2 x − 1 = 0
7 tan θ + 1 = 2 sec 2 θ
(2 sin x + 1)(2 sin x − 1) = 0
1 1 7 tan θ + 1 = 2(1 + tan 2 θ)
sin x = − or sin x = 2 tan 2 θ − 7 tan θ + 1 = 0
2 2
7π 11π π 5π 7 ± 7 2 − 4( 2 )
x= , or x= , tan θ =
6 6 6 6 4
π 5π 7π 11π 7 ± 41
∴ x= , , , =
6 6 6 6 4
7 + 41 7 − 41
2 cos 2 θ = 1 + sin θ tan θ = or tan θ =
2. 4 4
2(1 − sin 2 θ) = 1 + sin θ θ = 1.28, 4.42 or θ = 0.15, 3.29
(corr. to 2 d.p.) (corr. to 2 d.p.)
2 sin 2 θ + sin θ − 1 = 0
(sin θ + 1)(2 sin θ − 1) = 0 ∴ θ = 0.15, 1.28, 3.29, 4.42
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 79


7. sin θ − 3 cos θ = 2 (ii) When θ = ,
6
sin θ − 2 = 3 cos θ
1 3
sin 2 θ − 2 2 sin θ + 2 = 3 cos 2 θ L.H.S. = 2( − − ) = −1 − 3 ≠ R.H.S.
2 2
4 sin 2 θ − 2 2 sin θ − 1 = 0 7π
∴ is not a solution.
2 2 − 24 2 2 + 24 6
sin θ = − or sin θ = − π
8 8 (iii) When θ = ,
θ = 3.40, 6.02 or θ = 1.31, 1.83 3
3 1
(corr. to 2 d.p.) (corr. to 2 d.p.) L.H.S. = 2( + ) = 1 + 3 = R.H.S.
Check: 2 2
π
(i) When θ = 3.40 , ∴ is a solution.
3
L.H.S. = sin 3.40 − 3 cos 3.40 = 2 = R.H.S. 4π
(iv) When θ = ,
∴ 3.40 is a solution. 3
− 3 1
(ii) When θ = 6.02 , L.H.S. = 2( − ) = − 3 − 1 ≠ R.H.S.
2 2
L.H.S. = sin 6.02 − 3 cos 6.02 = −1.93 ≠ R.H.S. 4π
∴ 6.02 is not a solution. ∴ is not a solution.
3
(iii) When θ = 1.31 , π π
θ= ,
L.H.S. = sin 1.31 − 3 cos 1.31 = 0.5 ≠ R.H.S. 6 3
∴ 1.31 is not a solution.
9. 6 tan 2 θ − 4 sin 2 θ = 1
(iv) When θ = 1.83 ,
6 sin 2 θ − 4 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ − cos 2 θ = 0
L.H.S. = sin 1.83 − 3 cos 1.83 = 2 = R.H.S.
6(1 − cos θ) − 4(1 − cos 2 θ) cos 2 θ − cos 2 θ = 0
2
∴ 1.83 is a solution.
4 cos 4 θ − 11 cos 2 θ + 6 = 0
θ = 1.83, 3.40
( 4 cos 2 θ − 3)(cos 2 θ − 2) = 0

2(sin θ + cos θ) = 3 + 1 3
8. cos 2 θ = or cos 2 θ = 2 (rejected)
4
4(sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + cos θ) = 3 + 2 3 + 1
2 2
3
4(1 + 2 sin θ cos θ) = 4 + 2 3 cos θ = ±
2
3 π 5π 7π 11π
1 + 2 sin θ cos θ = 1 + θ= , , ,
2 6 6 6 6
3
2 sin θ cos θ =
2 10. tan 2 θ = 2 + 4 cos 2 θ
4 tan θ = 3 sec 2 θ
sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ + 4 cos 4 θ
4 tan θ = 3 (1 + tan θ)
2
4 cos 4 θ + 3 cos 2 θ − 1 = 0
3 tan 2 θ − 4 tan θ + 3 = 0
( 4 cos 2 θ − 1)(cos 2 θ + 1) = 0
( 3 tan θ − 1)(tan θ − 3 ) = 0
1
1 cos 2 θ = or cos 2 θ = −1 (rejected)
tan θ = or tan θ = 3 4
3 1
π 7π π 4π cos θ = ±
θ= , or θ = , 2
6 6 3 3 π 2 π 4 π 5π
θ= , , ,
Check: 3 3 3 3
π
(i) When θ = ,
6
Exercise 5D (p.126)
1 3
L.H.S. = 2( + ) = 1 + 3 = R.H.S.
2 2 1. (a) sin 450° = sin(360° + 90°)
π = sin 90°
∴ is a solution.
6 =1
80 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

43 3π Combining the above results,


(b) cot π = cot(10 π + )
4 4 2
sin[180 k ° + ( −1) k 45°] =
3π 2
= cot
4
π π π 2 3
= − cot (d) sec(2 kπ + ) = sec =
4 6 6 3
= −1 5π
(e) csc[kπ + ( −1) k ]
(c) sec 1 110° = sec(3 × 360° + 30°) 6
= sec 30° If k is even, let k = 2 m, then
2 3 5π 5π π
= csc[2 mπ + ( −1)2 m ] = csc = csc = 2
3 6 6 6
(d) csc 480° = csc(360° + 120°) If k is odd, let k = 2 m + 1, then
= csc 120° 5π
csc[(2 m + 1)π + ( −1)2 m +1 ]
= csc 60° 6
2 3 5π
= = csc[2 mπ + π + ( −1) ]
3 6

26 π 2π = csc( π − )
(e) tan = tan(8π + ) 6
3 3 π
2π = csc
= tan 6
3 =2
π
= − tan Combining the above results,
3 5π
=− 3 csc[kπ + ( −1) k ]=2
6

3. y = 3 cos θ
2. (a) cos(360 k° ± 120°)
= cos(360 k ° + 120°) or cos(360 k° − 120°) Q −1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 for all values of θ.
= cos120° or cos( −120°) When cos θ = 1 , 3 cos θ is maximum.
= − cos 60° or cos120° ∴ The maximum value is 3 .
1 When cos θ = −1 , 3 cos θ is minimum.
=−
2
∴ The minimum value is −3 .
1 π
(b) tan(kπ + π) = tan = 1
4 4 1 π
4. y = 1 −sin(2 x + )
(c) sin[180 k ° + ( −1) 45°]
k 2 3
π
If k is even, let k = 2 m, then Q −1 ≤ sin(2 x + ) ≤ 1 for all values of x.
3
sin[180 k ° + ( −1) k 45°]
π
= sin[180(2 m)° + ( −1)2 m 45°] When sin(2 x + ) = −1 , y is maximum.
3
= sin[180(2 m)° + 45°] 3
= sin 45° ∴ The maximum value is .
2
2
= π
2 When sin(2 x + ) = 1 , y is minimum.
3
If k is odd, let k = 2 m + 1, then 1
∴ The minimum value is .
sin[180 k ° + ( −1) k 45°] 2
= sin[180(2 m + 1)° + ( −1)2 m +1 45°]
= sin[360 m° + (180° − 45°)] 5. 3 x 2 − 2 x + k = 0
= sin(180° − 45°) 2
= sin 45° Sum of the roots = sin θ + cos θ = .............(1)
3
2
= k
Product of the roots = sin θ cos θ = ...........(2)
2 3
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 81

From (1),
3. y
2
sin θ + cos θ =
3 1 y = 2 cos x − 1
4
sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + cos θ =
2 2
9 x
O π π 3π
k 4 2π
1 + 2( ) = −1
2 2
3 9
5 −2
k=−
6
−3

6. x 2 + 2 x + k = 0
Q sin θ is a root of the equation.
4. y
∴ sin 2 θ + 2 sin θ + k = 0
x
y = 4 sin
−2 ± 4 − 4 k 4 2
sin θ =
2
3
sin θ = −1 ± 1 − k
2
Q −1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1
∴ −1 ≤ −1 ± 1 − k ≤ 1 1

0 ≤ ± 1− k ≤ 2 x
π π
0 ≤1− k ≤ 4 O 3π 2π
2 2
−1 ≤ − k ≤ 3
−3 ≤ k ≤ 1
5. y

π
Exercise 5E (p.132) 2 y = 2 cos(2x − )
3
1
1. y
x
O π π 3π 2π
1 π 2 2
y = sin(x + ) −1
6
−2
x
O π π 3π 2π
2 2
6. y
−1
4
y = 3 sin 2x + 1
3
2. y
π 2
y = tan(x + )
2 4
1
1
x
O π π 3π 2π
x 2
O π π 3π π 5π 3π 7π 2π −1 2
4 2 4 4 2 4
−1
−2
−2
82 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

7. y Revision Exercise 5 (p.136)


1. Area bounded
3
= area of equilateral triangle − areas of 3 sectors
y = −2 cos x + 1
2
1 1 π
= (2 r )( 3r ) − 3( r 2 ⋅ )
1 2 2 3
2 1
x = 3r − πr 2
O π π 3π 2π 2
π 2
−1 2 2 = ( 3 − )r
2

8. y 2.
P
1 y = cos x
y = sin x
2α α
B A
O
x
O π π 3π 2π Let O be the centre.
2 2 Join OP, then ∠POB = 2α .
−1 Let r be the radius, then
1 2 1 1 1 2
r (2α ) + r 2 sin( π − 2α ) = ( πr )
3π 2 2 2 2
When ≤ θ ≤ 2 π , i.e. in quadrant IV, sin θ and 1 1 2
2 r α + r 2 sin 2α =
2
πr
cos θ both increase as θ increases. 2 4
π
2α + sin 2α =
2
9. By observation,
5 − ( −3)
amplitude = =4 3. [tan(270° + A) tan(180° + A)] ÷ [sin(90° + A)
2
cos(360° − A) + cos( A − 90°)sin(180° + A)]
distance shift along y-axis = 1 unit upwards
( − cot A)(tan A)
period = π =
(cos A)(cos A) + (sin A)( − sin A)
distance shift along x-axis = 0 −1
=
∴ The given curve represents cos A − sin 2 A
2
x 1
y = 4 sin + 1 =
2 sin A − cos 2 A
2
∴ A = 4, B = 1, m = 2, φ = 0

π
4. 2 cos π + 3 cos 2 ( π − A) − 1 + tan 2 π sin
10. By observation, 2
2 − ( −2) = 2( −1) + 3 cos 2 A − 1 + 0(1)
amplitude = =2
2 = −3 + 3 cos 2 A
distance shift along y-axis = 0
= −3 sin 2 A
period = 3π
distance shift along x-axis = 0
∴ The given curve represents 5. sin 4 x + cos 4 x
2 = (sin 4 x + 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x + cos 4 x )
y = 2 cos x
3 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
2
∴ A = 2, B = 0, m = , φ = 0 = (sin 2 x + cos 2 x )2 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
3 = 1 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 83

1 1
6. sec 2 θ + csc 2 θ = + 2 sin 2 θ 9
cos θ sin θ
2 =
cos θ2 16
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ
= tan 2 θ =
9
cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 16
=
1 3 3π
tan θ = (Q π < θ < , ∴ tan θ > 0 )
cos θ sin 2 θ
2
4 2
= sec 2 θ csc 2 θ 3 4
∴ sin θ = − , cos θ = −
5 5
7. ( A sec x + B tan x ) − ( A tan x + B sec x )
2 2
sin θ − 35
= =1
= ( A2 sec 2 x + 2 AB sec x tan x + B2 tan 2 x ) 1 + 2 cos θ 1 + 2( − 45 )
− ( A2 tan 2 x + 2 AB tan x sec x + B2 sec 2 x )
= A2 (sec 2 x − tan 2 x ) + B2 (tan 2 x − sec 2 x ) 11. Q The equation has equal roots.
=A −B2 2 ∴ D=0
( 4 cos θ)2 − 4(2)(3 sin θ) = 0
8. (a) tan(180k° + α ) = tan α 16 cos 2 θ − 24 sin θ = 0
(b) cos(360k° ± α )
2 cos 2 θ − 3 sin θ = 0
= cos(360k ° + α ) or cos(360k° − α )
= cos α 2(1 − sin 2 θ) − 3 sin θ = 0
2 sin 2 θ + 3 sin θ − 2 = 0
(c) sin[180 k ° + ( −1) k α ]
(2 sin θ − 1)(sin θ + 2) = −1
If k is even, let k = 2m,
2 sin θ − 1 = 0 or sin θ + 2 = 0
sin[180(2 m)° + ( −1)2 m α ] = sin(360 m° + α ) 1
= sin α sin θ = or sin θ = −2 (rejected)
2
If k is odd, let k = 2m + 1, 5π π
sin[180(2 m + 1)° + ( −1)2 m +1 α ] θ= or (rejected)
6 3
= sin[(360 m° + 180°) + ( −1)α ]
= sin[360 m° + (180° − α )]
= sin(180° − α )
12. (a) 2 sin 2 θ ≤ 1
= sin α 1
sin 2 θ ≤
Combining the above results, 2
1
sin[180 k ° + ( −1) k α ] = sin α (sin θ − ) ≤ 0
2
2
1 1
9. Q The equation has equal roots. (sin θ + )(sin θ − )≤0
2 2
∴ D=0 1 1
4 − 4(2 sin φ)( − cos φ) = 0 − ≤ sin θ ≤
2 2
1 + 2 sin φ cos φ = 0 y
sin 2 φ + 2 sin φ cos φ + cos 2 φ = 0
1
(sin φ + cos φ) = 0 1 y = sin θ y=
sin φ = − cos φ 2
tan φ = −1 5π 7π
π 3π 4 4
∴ φ=π− = x
4 4 O π 3π π 2π
4 4

sin 2 θ 3
10. = −1 y=−
1
1 + 2 cos θ 19
2
2
19 sin 2 θ = 3 + 6 cos 2 θ
π 3π 5π 7 π
19 sin 2 θ = 3 sin 2 θ + 3 cos 2 θ + 6 cos 2 θ ∴ 0≤θ≤ , ≤θ≤ , ≤ θ ≤ 2π
4 4 4 4
16 sin 2 θ = 9 cos 2 θ
84 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

(b) sin 2θ + cos θ < 0 sin θ cos θ


(b) +
sin 2θ < − cos θ 1 − cot θ 1 − tan θ
y sin θ cos θ
= θ
+ sin θ
y = sin 2θ 1 − sin θ 1 − cos
cos
θ
1 sin θ cos θ
= sin θ − cos θ + cos θ − sin θ
11π sin θ cos θ
6
sin θ
2
cos 2 θ
π
x = −
O 7π 3π 2π sin θ − cos θ sin θ − cos θ
2 6 2
(sin θ + cos θ)(sin θ − cos θ)
=
−1 y = −cos θ sin θ − cos θ
= sin θ + cos θ
4
The graph of y = − cos θ lies above =
3
the graph y = sin 2θ when
π 7π 3π 11π 15. (a) ∠OAB = ∠OBA
<θ< , <θ<
2 6 2 6 1
= (180° − 36°) (base ∠s, isos ∆)
2
13. sin θ and sec θ are roots of 2 x 2 + kx + 1 = 0 = 72°
k ∠BCA = 72° (base ∠s, isos ∆)
Sum of the roots = sin θ + sec θ = − ...........(1)
2 ∠ABC + 2(72°) = 180° (∠sum of ∆)
1 ∠ABC = 36° = ∠BOA
Product of the roots = sin θ sec θ = ...........(2)
2 ∆OAB ~ ∆BAC (A.A.A.)
From (2),
AB AC
tan θ =
1 ∴ =
2 OA AB
1 5 π ( AB)2 = (OA)( AC )
sin θ = , sec = (Q 0 < θ < )
5 2 2 (b) ∠OBC = ∠BCA − ∠BOC = 72° − 36° = 36°
∴ From (1),
∴ ∆OCB is an isosceles triangle.
1 5 k
+ =− OC = BC = AB
5 2 2
(c) AB = x
2 + ( 5 )2 k
=− x 2 = (1)( AC ) (by (a))
2 5 2
∴ AC = x 2
2+5 7 7 5
k = ( −2) =− =− OC + CA = OA
2 5 5 5
x + x2 = 1

14. (a) sin θ and cos θ are roots of 3 x 2 − 4 x + k = 0 x2 = 1 − x


4
Sum of the roots = sin θ + cos θ = ......(1) (d) x 2 + x − 1 = 0 (by (c))
3
−1 ± 1 + 4 −1 ± 5
k x= =
Product of the roots = sin θ cos θ = ....(2) 2 2
3
From (1), −1 + 5
Since x > 0 , x =
16 2
(sin θ + cos θ)2 =
9 5 −1
16 AB = cm
sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + cos θ =
2 2 2
9
k 16 AB = 2(1)sin 18° cm
1 + 2( ) =
3 9 5 −1
2k 7 2 sin 18° =
= 2
3 9 5 −1
7 sin 18° =
k= 4
6
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 85

Enrichment 5 (p.138) 1
y is minimum when ( a − )2 is minimum.
2
α 2 − 4α sin θ − 2 = 0................(1) 1 2 1
1. (a) Q  2 ( a − ) is minimum when ( a − )2 = 0 .
α − 4α cos θ + 2 = 0...............(2) 2 2
(1) − (2), ∴ The minimum value of y
3
4α cos θ − 4α sin θ − 4 = 0 = + (0)
α(cos θ − sin θ) = 1 4
3
1 =
α= 4
cos θ − sin θ
1
(b) Substitute α = into (1), 3. Q sin θ − cos θ = m
cos θ − sin θ
1 1 ∴ (sin θ − cos θ)2 = m 2
( ) 2 − 4( )sin θ − 2 = 0
cos θ − sin θ cos θ − sin θ sin 2 θ − 2 sin θ cos θ + cos 2 θ = m 2
1 − 4 sin θ(cos θ − sin θ) − 2(cos θ − sin θ)2 = 0 1 − 2 sin θ cos θ = m 2
1 − 4 sin θ cos θ + 4 sin θ 2
1 − m2
− 2(cos 2 θ − 2 sin θ cos θ + sin 2 θ) = 0 sin θ cos θ =
2
1 + 4 sin 2 θ − 2(1) = 0 (a) sin θ − cos θ
3 3

4 sin 2 θ = 1 = (sin θ − cos θ)(sin 2 θ + sin θ cos θ + cos 2 θ)


1 1 − m2
sin 2 θ = = ( m)(1 + )
4 2
2. (a) y = sin 6 x + 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x + cos 6 x 2 + 1 − m2
= m( )
2
= (sin 2 x )3 + (cos 2 x )3 + 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x 1
= m (3 − m 2 )
= (sin 2 x + cos 2 x )(sin 4 x − sin 2 x cos 2 x 2
+ cos 4 x ) + 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x (b) Product of the roots
= (sin 4 x + cos 4 x ) + sin 2 x cos 2 x
= (sin 3 θ)( − cos3 θ)
= (sin 2 x + cos 2 x )2 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
= −(sin θ cos θ)3
+ sin 2 x cos 2 x
1 − m2 3
= 1 − sin x cos x
2 2 = −( )
2
(b) (i) Let a = sin 2 x . 1
= − (1 − 3m 2 + 3m 4 − m 6 )
y = 1 − a(1 − a) 8
= 1 − a + a2 Sum of the roots
1 1 = sin 3 θ + ( − cos3 θ)
= a 2 − a + ( )2 − ( )2 + 1
2 2
3 1 2 = sin 3 θ + ( − cos3 θ)
= + (a − ) = sin 3 θ − cos3 θ
4 2
1 1
(ii) y i s m a x i m u m w h e n ( a − )2 i s = m(3 − m 2 ) (by (a))
2 2
maximum. Q A quadratic equation with roots sin 3 θ
1 and − cos3 θ is
( a − )2 i s m a x i m u m w h e n a i s
2 1
maximum. x 2 − m (3 − m 2 ) x
2
Q 0 ≤ a = sin 2 x ≤ 1 1
− (1 − 3m 2 + 3m 4 − m 6 ) = 0
∴ The maximum value of y 8
3 1 8 x 2 − 4 m (3 − m 2 ) x
= + (1 − )2 −(1 − 3m 2 + 3m 4 − m 6 ) = 0
4 2
=1
86 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

sec 2 x − tan x 1 + tan 2 x − tan x π


4. (a) (i) y= = (b) 150° = 150 ×
sec 2 x + tan x 1 + tan 2 x + tan x 180

1 + t2 − t t2 − t + 1 =
Let t = tan x , y = = 6
1 + t2 + t t2 + t + 1
1 1 180°
(ii) t 2 + t + 1 = t 2 + t + ( )2 − ( )2 + 1 3. (a) 4.69 c = 4.69 ×
2 2 π
1 2 3 = 269° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
= (t + ) +
6 π 180°
(b) 6 π rad. =
2 4
1 2 ×
(t + ) ≥ 0 5 5 π
2 = 216°
1 2 3 3
(t + ) + ≥ 0 +
2 4 4
3
t + t + 1 ≥ > 0 for all t
2 Classwork 2 (p.103)
4
t2 − t + 1 1 revolution = 2π radians
(b) y = 2
t + t +1 1 minute = 60 seconds
y(t + t + 1) = t 2 − t + 1
2 2π
(a) 60 rev./min. = 60 ⋅ rad./s
( y − 1)t 2 + ( y + 1)t + ( y − 1) = 0 60
= 2π rad./s
Since t is real.
angle rotated
∴ D≥0 (b) Angular speed =
time
∴ ( y + 1)2 − 4( y − 1)2 ≥ 0 15π
( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − 4( y 2 − 2 y + 1) ≥ 0 =
time
y2 + 2 y + 1 − 4 y2 + 8y − 4 ≥ 0 1
The time required = 15π ⋅ s
−3 y 2 + 10 y − 3 ≥ 0 2π
3 y 2 − 10 y + 3 ≤ 0 = 7.5 s
( y − 3)(3 y − 1) ≤ 0
y−3≤ 0 y−3≥ 0 Classwork 3 (p.104)
 or 
3 y − 1 ≥ 0 3 y − 1 ≤ 0
1.
1 Degree
≤y≤3 or no solution Measure 10° 60° 80° 150° 225° 330° 390° 645°
3
1 π π
∴ ≤y≤3 Radian 4π 5π 5π 11π 13π 43π
3 Measure 18 3 9 6 4 6 6 12
1 sec 2 x − tan x
i.e. ≤ ≤ 3 for all x ≠ kπ .
3 sec 2 x + tan x
2. θ(c) r (cm) s (cm) A (cm2)
Classwork 1 (p.102) π 2π 2π
2
3
π 3 3
1. (a) 69.3° = 69.3 × 5π 5π 15π
180 6
3
2 4
= 1.21 (corr. to 2 d.p.) 5π 5 25π 125π
π 18 2 36 144
(b) 138.7° = 138.7 × 5π 4 4π 8π
180
3 5 3 15
= 2.42 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
2π 4 8π 16π
π
2. (a) 60° = 60 ×
180
π
=
3
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 87

Classwork 4 (p.105) 2. (a) sin( −150°) = − sin 150°


BC = − sin(180° − 30°)
(a) cos 30° = = − sin 30°
20 cm
BC = 20 cos 30° cm 1
=−
= 17.3 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 2
1 (b) sec( −60°) = sec 60° = 2
(b) Area of ∆OAB = ( BC )(OA)
2
1 π π
= (20 cos 30°)(20) cm 2 (c) cot( − ) = − cot = −1
2 4 4
= 200 cos 30° cm 2
∠BOC = 180° − 90° − 30° = 60° Classwork 7 (p.114)
reflex ∠BOC = 360° − 60° = 300°
1. sin(90° + θ) − cos θ = cos θ − cos θ = 0
Area of major sector OBA
1
= r 2θ 2. cos 2 (180° − θ) + cos 2 (270° − θ)
2
1 π = ( − cos θ)2 + ( − sin θ)2
= × (20)2 (300 × ) cm 2
2 180 = cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ
1 000 π =1
= cm 2
3
∴ The area of the major segment cut off by AB 3. cos(90° − θ) tan(90° + θ) = (sin θ)( − cot θ)
1 000 π cos θ
=( + 200 cos 30°) cm 2 = sin θ( − )
3 sin θ
= 1 220 cm 2 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) = − cos θ

4. 1 + tan 2 (270° + θ) = 1 + ( − cot θ)2


Classwork 5 (p.112) = 1 + cot 2 θ
θ
Quadrant
sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ
= csc 2 θ
of Angle θ

85° I + + + + + + cot(180° + θ)sin( −θ) (cot θ)( − sin θ)


5. =
3π sec(360° − θ) cos (180° − θ) (sec θ)( − cos θ)2
2
II + − − + − −
4 (cot θ)( − sin θ)
=
13π
III − − + − − + (cos θ)
9
= (cot θ)( − tan θ)
300° IV − + − − + − = −1

III − − + − − +
6
15π
− + − − + −
Classwork 8 (p.115)
IV
8
sin θ 1 1
1. tan θ csc θ = ⋅ = = sec θ
cos θ sin θ cos θ
Classwork 6 (p.113)
2. sin(90° + θ)sec(90° − θ) = (cos θ)(csc θ)
1
1. (a) sin 150° = sin(180° − 30°) = sin 30° = 1
2 = cos θ
sin θ
= cot θ
(b) tan 300° = tan(360° − 60°) = − tan 60° = − 3

5 π π 2 sec 2 θ − 1 tan 2 θ sin 2 θ


(c) cos( π) = cos( π + ) = − cos = − 3. = = ⋅ cos 2 θ = sin 2 θ
4 4 4 2 tan 2 θ + 1 sec 2 θ cos 2 θ
88 Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions

Classwork 9 (p.119) Check:


π
(i) When θ = ,
1. 2 cos θ + 3 = 0 2
3 L.H.S. = 1 + 2 (0) = 1 = R.H.S.
cos θ = −
2
5π 7 π π
θ= , ∴ is a solution.
6 6 2

2. sin θ = 4 cos θ (ii) When θ = ,
2
tan θ = 4
θ = 1.33, 4.47 (corr. to 2 d.p.) L.H.S. = −1 + 2 (0) = −1 ≠ R.H.S.

∴ is not a solution.
3. sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ + tan θ = 0 2
(1 + tan 2 θ) − tan 2 θ + tan θ = 0 (iii) When θ = 0.34 ,
tan θ = −1
3π 7π L.H.S. = sin 0.34 + 2 cos 0.34 = 1.67 ≠ R.H.S.
θ= , ∴ 0.34 is not a solution.
4 4
(iv) When θ = 5.94 ,
4. sin 2 θ + 2 cos θ − 2 = 0
L.H.S. = sin 5.94 + 2 cos 5.94 = 1 = R.H.S.
(1 − cos 2 θ) + 2 cos θ − 2 = 0
∴ 5.94 is a solution.
cos 2 θ − 2 cos θ + 1 = 0
π
(cos θ − 1)2 = 0 ∴ θ= , 5.94
2
cos θ = 1
θ=0

5. (1 + 3 )sin 2 θ + (1 + 3 )sin θ cos θ + 2 cos 2 θ = 1 Classwork 10 (p.126)


sin 2 θ + 3 sin 2 θ + (1 + 3 )sin θ cos+ 2 cos 2 θ = 1 1. (a) sin 90° = 1
3 sin 2 θ + (1 + 3 )sin θ cos+ cos 2 θ = 0 (b) tan 570° = tan(360° + 210°)
( 3 sin θ + cos θ)(sin θ + cos θ) = 0 = tan 210°
= tan 30°
3 sin θ + cos θ = 0 or sin θ + cos θ = 0
3
tan θ = −
1
or tan θ = −1 =
3 3
5π 11π 3π 7π 14 π 2π
θ= , or θ = , (c) cos = cos[2(2 π) + ]
6 6 4 4 3 3

3π 5π 7π 11π = cos
∴ θ= , , , 3
4 6 4 6 π
= − cos
6. sin θ + 2 cos θ = 1 3
1
sin θ = 1 − 2 cos θ =−
2
sin 2 θ = 1 − 2 2 cos θ + 2 cos 2 θ 23π 5π
1 − cos 2 θ = 1 − 2 2 cos θ + 2 cos 2 θ (d) sec = sec[3(2 π) + ]
3 3
3 cos 2 θ − 2 2 cos θ = 0 5π
= sec
cos θ(3 cos θ − 2 2 ) = 0 3
π
= sec(2 π − )
cos θ = 0 or 3 cos θ − 2 2 = 0 3
π 3π π
θ= , or θ = 0.34, 5.94 (corr. to 2 d.p.) = sec
2 2 3
=2
Chapter 5 Trigonometric Functions 89

3 Classwork 11 (p.132)
2. (a) y = sin x
2 1. (a) y = 2 cos x
Q −1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 for all values of x. period = 2π
3
When sin x = 1 , sin x is maximum. x
2 (b) y = sin
2
∴ The maximum value is
3
. period = 4π
2
(c) y = tan 4 x
3
When sin x = −1 , sin x is minimum. π
2 period =
4
3
∴ The minimum value is − . 2x
2 (d) y = sec
3
1 x
(b) y = − cos period = 3π
4 2
x
Q −1 ≤ cos
≤ 1 for all values of x.
2 2. (a)
x 1 x y
When cos = −1, − cos is maximum.
2 4 2 y = 2cos x
1 2
∴ The maximum value is .
4
1
x 1 x
When cos = 1 , − cos is minimum. x
2 4 2 O π π 3π 2π
1
∴ The minimum value is − . −1 2 2
4
x −2
(c) y = 2 cos 2 ( π + )
2
x
Q 0 ≤ cos 2 ( π + ) ≤ 1 for all values of x. (b)
2 y
x x
When cos ( π + ) = 1, 2 cos 2 ( π + ) is
2
2 2 2
maximum. π
y = sin( +x)
∴ The maximum value is 2 . 1 2

x x x
When cos 2 ( π + ) = 0 , 2 cos 2 ( π + ) is O π π 3π 2π
2 2 2
minimum. −1 2

∴ The minimum value is 0 . −2

x
(d) y = 4 sin 2 ( ) − 3
2
x
Q 0 ≤ sin 2 ( ) ≤ 1 for all values of x.
2
2 x x
When sin ( ) = 1, 4 sin 2 ( ) − 3 is maximum.
2 2
∴ The maximum value is 1 .
x x
When sin 2 ( ) = 0 , 4 sin 2 ( ) − 3 is minimum.
2 2
∴ The minimum value is −3 .