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90 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

CHAPTER 6 A + B = 45° or 225° (rejected)


2
Exercise 6A (p.147) sin( A + B) =
2
1. (a) sin 105° = sin(60° + 45°) 4. y
= sin 60° cos 45° + cos 60° sin 45°
3 2 1 2
= ⋅ + ⋅ 5
4
2 2 2 2 A
6+ 2 x
= O 3
4
3 4
(b) tan 165° = tan(180° − 15°) cos A = , sin A =
= − tan 15° 5 5
= − tan( 45° − 30°) y
tan 45° − tan 30°
=−
1 + tan 45° tan 30°
1− 1 3 −1
3 13
=− =− 12
1+ 1 3 +1 B
3 x
O 5
= 3−2
5 12
(c) cos 285° = cos(360° − 75°) cos B = , sin B =
13 13
= cos 75°
= cos( 45° + 30°) sin( A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
= cos 45° cos 30° − sin 45° sin 30° 4 5 3 12
= ⋅ + ⋅
5 13 5 13
2 3 2 1
= ⋅ − ⋅ =
56
2 2 2 2 65
6− 2
= cos( A − B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
4 3 5 4 12
= ⋅ + ⋅
5 13 5 13
2. (a) sin 3 A cos A − cos 3 A sin A = sin(3 A − A) 63
= sin 2 A =
65
(b) sin 40° cos 20° + cos 40° sin 20°
= sin( 40° + 20°) 5. cot A = 2 , cot B = 2 , cot C = 8
= sin 60° 1 1 1
tan A = , tan B = , tan C =
3 2 5 8
= 1+1
2 tan B + tan C 1
tan( B + C ) = = 5 1 81 =
(c) cos 2 A cos A + sin 2 A sin A = cos(2 A − A) 1 − tan B tan C 1 − 5 ⋅ 8 3
= cos A tan( B + C ) > 0 , ∴ B + C is still acute
(d) cos B cos 45° − sin B sin 45° = cos( B + 45°) tan( A + B + C )
(e) cos( A + B) + cos( A − B) tan A + tan( B + C ) + 1 1

= cos A cos B − sin A sin B = = 2 1 31 = 1


1 − tan A tan( B + C ) 1 − 2 ⋅ 3
+ cos A cos B + sin A sin B
= 2 cos A cos B ∴ A + B + C = 45°

(f) sin(α + β) cos β − cos(α + β)sin β


sin A sin B
= sin[(α + β) − β] 6. tan A + tan B = +
= sin α cos A cos B
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
=
+1 1 cos A cos B
tan A + tan B sin( A + B)
3. tan( A + B) = = 2 1 31 = 1 =
1 − tan A tan B 1 − 2 ⋅ 3 cos A cos B
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 91

13. tan x + tan 3 x = 3 − 3 tan x tan 3 x


7. sin( x + y)sin( x − y) tan x + tan 3 x = 3 (1 − tan x tan 3 x )
= (sin x cos y + cos x sin y)(sin x cos y − cos x sin y) tan x + tan 3 x
= 3
= (sin x cos y)2 − (cos x sin y)2 1 − tan x tan 3 x
= sin 2 x (1 − sin 2 y) − (1 − sin 2 x )sin 2 y tan( x + 3 x ) = 3
= sin 2 x − sin 2 y tan 4 x = 3
π 4 π 7π 10 π 13π 16 π 19π 22 π
8. sin x cos( x − y) − cos x sin( x − y) = sin[ x − ( x − y)] 4x = , , , , , , ,
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
= sin y π π 7π 5π 13π 4 π 19π 11π
x= , , , , , , ,
12 3 12 6 12 3 12 6
sin B + sin A cos( A + B)
9. 5π 11π
cos B − sin A sin( A + B) Q tan 3( ) and tan 3( ) are undefined.
6 6
sin[( A + B) − A] + sin A cos( A + B) π π 7π 13π 4 π 19π
= ∴ x= , , , , ,
cos[( A + B) − A] − sin A sin( A + B) 12 3 12 12 3 12
= [sin( A + B) cos A − cos( A + B)sin A
+ sin A cos( A + B)] ÷ [cos( A + B) cos A
π π
+ sin( A + B)sin A − sin A sin( A + B)] 14. (sin x + cos x )2 = 2 sin( + x )sin( − x )
sin( A + B) cos A 4 4
= sin 2 x + 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x
cos( A + B) cos A π π
= tan( A + B) = 2(sin cos x + cos sin x )
4 4
π π
1 (sin cos x − cos sin x )
10. cot( A + B) = 4 4
tan( A + B)
2 π π
1 − tan A tan B = 2(sin cos x − cos 2 sin 2 x )
2
= 4 4
tan A + tan B 1 1 2
1 − cot A1cot B = 2( cos x − sin x )
2
= 1 2 2
+ 1
cot A cot B = cos 2 x − sin 2 x
cot A cot B −1 ∴ 2 sin 2 x + 2 sin x cos x = 0
= cot A cos B
cot A + cos B sin x (sin x + cos x ) = 0
cot A cot B ∴ sin x = 0 or tan x = −1
cot A cot B − 1
= 3 7
cot A + cot B x = 0, π or x = π, π
4 4
3π 7π
1 ∴ x = 0, , π,
11. cos 3 x cos x + sin 3 x sin x = 4 4
2
1
cos(3 x − x ) = 15. AD = 3 DE , BD = 2 DE
2
DE 1 DE 1
cos 2 x =
1 tan a = = , tan b = =
2 AD 3 BD 2
1+1
tan a + tan b
π 5π 7π 11π tan( a + b) = = 3 1 2 1 = 1;
2x = , , , 1 − tan a tan b 1 − ( 3 )( 2 )
3 3 3 3
Q a and b are both acute.
π 5π 7π 11π
x= , , , ∴ a + b = 45°
6 6 6 6 DE
tan c = = 1, c = 45°
CD
12. (sin 2 x − 1) cos x = cos 2 x sin x ∴ a + b + c = 90°
sin 2 x cos x − cos 2 x sin x = cos x
16. (a) sin A = sin[180° − ( B + C )]
sin(2 x − x ) = cos x = sin( B + C )
sin x = cos x = sin B cos C + cos B sin C
tan x = 1
(b) cos A = cos[180° − ( B + C )]
π 5π
x= , = − cos( B + C )
4 4 = −(cos B cos C − sin B sin C )
= sin B sin C − cos B cos C
92 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

17. (a) sin(α + β) = k sin(α − β) (c) Since α, β are obtuse and tan(α + β) > 0 ,
sin α cos β + cos α sin β (α + β) must lie on quadrant III.
= k (sin α cos β − cos α sin β)
cos α sin β + k cos α sin β θ+β
= k sin α cos β − sin α cos β 5
( k + 1) cos α sin β = ( k − 1)sin α cos β
12
k + 1 sin α cos β 13
=
k − 1 cos α sin β
tan α
=
tan β
k +1 Therefore, sin(α + β) , cos(α + β) are both
∴ tan α = tan β negative.
k −1
12
π 2π π ∴ sin(α + β) = −
(b) sin(θ + ) = 3 sin( + θ) = 3 sin( − θ) 13
3 3 3 5
π 3 +1 cos(α + β) = −
∴ tan = tan θ (by (a)) 13
3 3 −1 One required quadratic equation is
2 π 3
tan θ = tan = 12 5
4 3 2 ( x + )( x + ) = 0
∴ θ = 0.713 7 or 3.855 3 (corr. to 4 d.p.) 13 13
(13 x + 12)(13 x + 5) = 0
18. (a) Sum of the roots = tan A + tan B = 4 169 x 2 + 221x + 60 = 0

Product of the roots = tan A tan B = 2


21. Sum of the roots = tan α + tan β = 3
tan A + tan B 4
(b) tan( A + B) = = = −4
1 − tan A tan B 1 − 2 Product of the roots = tan α tan β = −3
(c) cot A + cot B tan α + tan β 3
∴ tan(α + β) = =
1 1 tan A + tan B 4 1 − tan α tan β 4
= + = = =2
tan A tan B tan A tan B 2 ∴ sin 2 (α + β) − 3 sin(α + β) cos(α + β)

1 −3 cos 2 (α + β)
19. tan α tan β = sin 2 (α + β)
4 = cos 2 (α + β)[
tan α + tan β cos 2 (α + β)
tan(α + β) = =2
1 − tan α tan β sin(α + β)
−3 − 3]
1 3 cos(α + β)
∴ tan α + tan β = 2(1 − ) =
4 2 tan 2 (α + β) − 3 tan(α + β) − 3
∴ They are the roots of the equation =
1 + tan 2 (α + β)
3 1 1 3 3
x2 − x + = 0 = [( )2 − 3( ) − 3]
2 4 1 + ( 43 )2 4 4
i.e. 4 x − 6 x + 1 = 0
2
= −3

20. (a) Sum of the roots = tan α + tan β = −12


22. (a) A + B + C = 180°
Product of the roots = tan α tan β = 6
A B C
Since their sum is negative and their product ∴ = 90° − ( + )
is positive, they must be both negative. 2 2 2
Therefore α, β are both obtuse. A B C B C
∴ cot = cot[90° − ( + )] = tan( + )
tan α + tan β 2 2 2 2 2
(b) tan(α + β) =
1 − tan α tan β (b) (i) cot A = tan( B + C ) (by (a))
−12 2 2 2
= tan B2 + tan C2
1− 6 =
=
12 1 − tan B2 tan C2
5
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 93

A tan B2 + tan C2 (a) when tan x > 0


(ii) cot = sin x and cos x have the same sign.
2 1 − tan B2 tan C2
1 + 1 1 2 4
B C sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x = 2( ± )( ± )=
cot cot 5 5 5
= 2 2
1 − 1 B 1C (b) cos 2 x = cos 2 x − sin 2 x
cot cot
2 2 2 2 1 2
= (± ) − (± )
cot B2 + cot C2 5 5
= 3
cot B2 cot C2 − 1 =
A B C B C 5
cot (cot cot − 1) = cot + cot (c) sin 4x = 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
2 2 2 2 2
4 3
A B
∴ cot cot cot
C = 2( )( ) (by (a), (b))
2 2 2 5 5
A B C 24
= cot + cot + cot =
2 2 2 25
(d) cos 6 x
tan A + tan B = cos( 4 x + 2 x )
23. tan( A + B) =
1 − tan A tan B = cos 4 x cos 2 x − sin 4 x sin 2 x
sin α + a sin α
= a − cossinαα 1−aasin
cos α = (cos 2 2 x − sin 2 2 x ) cos 2 x − sin 4 x sin 2 x
1 − a − cos α 1− a cosαα 3 4 3 24 4
= [( )2 − ( )2 ]( ) − ( )( )
sin α(1 − a cos α ) + a sin α( a − cos α ) 5 5 5 25 5
= 117
( a − cos α )(1 − a cos α ) − a sin 2 α =−
125
sin α − a sin α cos α + a 2 sin α − a sin α cos α
=
a − cos α − a 2 cos α + a cos 2 α − a sin 2 α
1
sin α − 2 a sin α cos α + a 2 sin α 4. cos 4θ =
= 4
− cos α − a 2 cos α + a cos 2 α + a(1 − sin 2 α ) 1
2 cos 2θ − 1 =
2
sin α(1 − 2 a cos α + a 2 ) 4
=
− cos α(1 − 2 a cos α + a 2 ) cos 2θ =
2 5
= − tan α 8
5 3
sin 2 2θ = 1 − =
Exercise 6B (p.152) 8 8
(a) cos 4 θ − sin 4 θ
3 7
1. cos 2 x = 1 − 2 sin 2 x = 1 − 2( )2 = = (cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ)(cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ)
5 25
= cos 2θ
3 5
2. cos x = y =±
2 8
1 10
sin x = =±
2 2 4
1
sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x x
x (b) cos 4 + sin 4 θ
1 3 O 3
= 2( )( ) = (cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ)2 − 2 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ
2 2 1
3 = 1 − sin 2 2θ
= 2
2 1 3
= 1− ( )
2 8
1 1
3. ∴ tan x = , then sin x = ± , =
13
2 5 5
1 16
2 x
cos x = ± 2
5
94 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

11. tan( 45° + x ) − tan( 45° − x )


sin 3θ cos 3θ
5. (a) − 1 + tan x 1 − tan x
sin θ cos θ = −
sin 3θ cos θ − cos 3θ sin θ 1 − tan x 1 + tan x
= (1 + tan x )2 − (1 − tan x )2
sin θ cos θ =
sin(3θ − θ) (1 + tan x )(1 − tan x )
= 1 (1 + tan x − 1 + tan x )(1 + tan x + 1 − tan x )
2
sin 2θ =
sin 2θ 1 − tan 2 x
= 1 2(2 tan x )
sin 2θ =
2 1 − tan 2 x
=2 = 2 tan 2 x
cos3 θ − cos 3θ sin 3 θ + sin 3θ
(b) + 12. 3 − 4 cos 2θ + cos 4θ
cos θ sin θ
cos 3θ sin 3θ = 3 − 4 cos 2θ + (2 cos 2 2θ − 1)
= cos θ −
2
+ sin 2 θ +
cos θ sin θ = 2 cos 2 2θ − 4 cos 2θ + 2
sin 3θ cos 3θ
= 1+ − = 2(cos 2θ − 1)2
sin θ cos θ
= 2[(1 − 2 sin 2 θ) − 1)]2
= 1 + 2 (by (a))
=3 = 2( −2 sin 2 θ)2
= 8 sin 4 θ
6. 1 − cos 2 x = 1 − (1 − 2 sin x )
2

1 + cos 2 x 1 + (2 cos x − 1)
2
1
2 sin 2 x 13. tan θ − cot θ = tan θ −
= tan θ
2 cos 2 x tan 2 θ − 1
= tan 2 x =
tan θ
1 − tan 2 θ
7. sin 4 x + cos 4 = −2 ⋅
2 tan θ
= (sin 2 x + cos 2 x )2 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x = −2 ⋅
1
1 tan 2θ
= 1 − sin 2 2 x = −2 cot 2θ
2

1 1 (1 + tan x ) − (1 − tan x ) 1 + sin 2 x − cos 2 x


8. − = 14.
1 − tan x 1 + tan x (1 − tan x )(1 + tan x ) 1 + sin 2 x + cos 2 x
=
2 tan x 1 + 2 sin x cos x − (1 − 2 sin 2 x )
=
1 − tan 2 x 1 + 2 sin x cos x + (2 cos 2 x − 1)
= tan 2 x 2 sin x (cos x + sin x )
=
2 cos x (sin x + cos x )
9. 2 sin x + sin 2 x = 2 sin x + 2 sin x cos x = tan x
= 2 sin x (1 + cos x )
(1 − cos 2 x )
= 2 sin x 15. 3 cos 2 x + 5 sin x = 4
1 − cos x
2 sin 3 x 3(1 − 2 sin 2 x ) + 5 sin x = 4
=
1 − cos x 6 sin 2 x − 5 sin x + 1 = 0
(2 sin x − 1)(3 sin x − 1) = 0
sin x + sin 2 x sin x + 2 sin x cos x sin x =
1
or sin x =
1
10. =
1 + cos x + cos 2 x 1 + cos x + (2 cos 2 x − 1) 2 3
x = 30°, 150° or x = 19.5°, 160.5°
sin x (1 + 2 cos x )
= (corr. to 1 d.p.)
cos x (1 + 2 cos x )
= tan x ∴ x = 19.5°, 30°, 150°, 160.5°
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 95

16. 3(1 − sin x ) = 1 + cos 2 x (cos 2 x − sin 2 x )(cos x + sin x ) = cos x + sin x
3 − 3 sin x = 1 + (1 − 2 sin x )2 (cos x − sin x )(cos 2 x − 1) = 0
2 sin 2 x − 3 sin x + 1 = 0 cos x + sin x = 0 or cos 2 x = 1
(2 sin x − 1)(sin x − 1) = 0 tan x = −1 or 2 x = 0°, 360°
1 x = 135°, 315° x = 0°, 180°
sin x = or sin x = 1 or
2
x = 30°, 150° or ∴ x = 0°, 135°, 180°, 315°
x = 90°
∴ x = 30°, 90°, 150° 1
21. sin 4 x + cos 4 x = sin 2 x
2
17. 2 sin 2 x + sin 2 2 x = 2 1
(sin 2 x + cos 2 x )2 − 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x = sin 2 x
2 sin 2 x + (2 sin x cos x )2 = 2 2
1 2 1
sin 2 x + 2 sin 2 x (1 − sin 2 x ) = 1 1 − sin 2 x = sin 2 x
2 2
2 sin 4 x − 3 sin 2 x + 1 = 0
sin 2 2 x + sin 2 x − 2 = 0
(2 sin 2 x − 1)(sin 2 x − 1) = 0 (sin 2 x − 1)(sin 2 x + 2) = 0
1
sin 2 x = or sin 2 x = 1 sin 2 x = 1 or sin 2 x = −2 (rejected)
2
1 2 x = 90°, 450°
sin x = ± or sin x = ±1
2 x = 45°, 225°
x = 45°, 135°, 225°, 315° or x = 90°, 270°
22. cos 4 x + sin 2 x = 0
∴ x = 45°, 90°, 135°, 225°, 270°, 315°
(2 cos 2 x − 1) + sin 2 x = 0
2

(1 − 2 sin 2 2 x ) + sin 2 x = 0
18. 2 sin 2 x − sin 2 x = 2
2 sin 2 2 x − sin 2 x − 1 = 0
2(1 − sin 2 x ) + sin 2 x = 0
(2 sin 2 x + 1)(sin 2 x − 1) = 0
2 cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 0 1
sin 2 x = − or sin 2 x = 1
2 cos x + 2 sin x cos x = 0
2
2
cos x (cos x + sin x ) = 0 2 x = 210°, 330°, 570°, 690° or 2 x = 90°, 450°
cos x = 0 or tan x = −1 x = 45°, 105°, 165°, 225°, 285°, 345°
x = 90°, 270° or x = 135°, 315°
∴ x = 90°, 135°, 270°, 315° 1 + cos 2 x sin 2 x
23. =
2 cos x 1 − cos 2 x
19. sin x + cos x + sin 2 x + cos 2 x + 1 = 0 1 + cos 2 x sin 2 x
− =0
sin x + cos x + 2 sin x cos x + 2 cos 2 x = 0 2 cos x 1 − cos 2 x
sin x (1 + 2 cos x ) + cos x (1 + 2 cos x ) = 0 2 cos 2 x 2 sin x cos x
(sin x + cos x )(1 + 2 cos x ) = 0 − =0
2 cos x 2 sin 2 x
sin x + cos x = 0 or 1 + 2 cos x = 0 sin 2 x cos 2 x − sin x cos 2 x
1 =0
tan x = −1 or cos x = − cos x sin 2 x
2
sin x cos 2 x (sin x − 1)
x = 135°, 315° or x = 120°, 240° =0
cos x sin 2 x
∴ x = 120°, 135°, 240°, 315°
∴ sin x = 1 for sin x ≠ 0 , cos x ≠ 0
20. (1 − tan x )(1 + sin 2 x ) = 1 + tan x x = 90°
sin x sin x
(1 − )(1 + 2 sin x cos x ) = 1 +
cos x cos x 24. (a) y = sec 2 θ csc 2 θ − 2
cos x − sin x cos x + sin x
( )(1 + 2 sin x cos x ) = =
1
−2
cos x cos x sin θ cos 2 θ
2
(cos x − sin x )(1 + 2 sin x cos x ) = cos x + sin x 4
(cos x − sin x )(cos 2 x + sin 2 x + 2 sin x cos x ) = −2
4 sin θ cos 2 θ
2
= cos x + sin x 4
= −2
(cos x − sin x )(cos x + sin x )2 = cos x + sin x sin 2 2θ
96 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

(b) y is minimum when sin 2 2θ = 1 . (2) sin α


, =1
∴ The minimum value of y is (1) cos α
4 tan α = 1,
−2= 4−2=2 π
1 α = (α is an acute angle)
4
2 tan x
25. = tan 2 x = tan 45° = 1 (1) + (2) ,
2 2
1 − tan 2 x
1 1
∴ 2 tan x = 1 − tan 2 x r 2 cos 2 α + r 2 sin 2 α = +
4 4
tan 2 x + 2 tan x − 1 = 0 1
r 2 (cos 2 α + sin 2 α ) =
2
−2 ± 2 2 − 4 ⋅ 1 ⋅ ( −1)
tan x = 1
2 ⋅1 r=±
2
−2 ± 8
= 1 1
2 = or − (rejected)
2 2
= −1 ± 2
1 1
tan 22.5° = 2 − 1 (Q positive) ∴ y= + sin(2 x − α )
2 2
26. (a) Let y = cos θ cos 2θ cos 4θ 1 2 π
= + sin(2 x − )
2 2 4
∴ y sin θ = sin θ cos θ cos 2θ cos 4θ
1
= sin 2θ cos 2θ cos 4θ (b) y is maximum when sin(2x − α ) is maximum.
2 y is minimum when sin(2x − α ) is minimum.
1
= ( )2 sin 4θ cos 4θ −1 ≤ sin(2 x − α ) ≤ 1
2
1 ∴ The maximum value of y
= ( )3 sin 8θ
2 1 2 1+ 2
1 = + (1) =
∴ y = sin 8θ csc θ 2 2 2
8
(b) Let θ = 20° , The minimum value of y
1
∴ y = sin 160° csc 20° 1 2 1− 2
= + ( −1) =
8 2 2 2
1 sin(180° − 20°)
= ⋅
8 sin 20°
1 sin 20°
= ⋅ Exercise 6C (p.156)
8 sin 20°
1 1. 12 cos θ + 5 sin θ
= 13
8 12 5 5
= 13( cos θ + sin θ)
13 13 α
27. (a) y = sin 2 x + sin x cos x = 13(cos α cos θ + sin α sin θ) 12
5
1 1
= (1 − cos 2 x ) + sin 2 x = 13 cos(θ − α ) where tan α = .
2 2 12
Since −1 ≤ cos(θ − α ) ≤ 1
1
= (1 + sin 2 x − cos 2 x ) ∴ −13 ≤ 13 cos(θ − α ) ≤ 13
2
1 1 1
= + sin 2 x − cos 2 x ∴ The maximum value is 13 .
2 2 2
The minimum value is −13 .
p + r sin(2 x − α )
= p + r sin 2 x cos α − r sin α cos 2 x
2. 15 sin θ − 8 cos θ
1
p= 15 8 17
2 = 17( sin θ − cos θ) 8
17 17 α
r cos α = 1 ..................(1)
 = 17(cos α sin θ − sin α cos θ) 15
2 8
 1 = 17sin(θ − α ) where tan α = .
− r sin α = − ..............(2) 15
 2
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 97

Since −1 ≤ sin(θ − α ) ≤ 1 6. cos x + sin x = 2


∴ −17 ≤ 17 sin(θ − α ) ≤ 17 2(
1
cos x +
1
sin x ) = 2
2
1
∴ The maximum value is 17 . 2 2 45°

The minimum value is −17 . 2 (cos 45° cos x + sin 45° sin x ) = 2 1
cos( x − 45°) = 1
3. 5 cos θ + 3 cos(θ + 60°) x − 45° = 0°
= 5 cos θ + 3 cos θ cos 60° − 3 sin θ sin 60° x = 45°
3 3 3 7. 4 cos x + 6 sin x = 5
= 5 cos θ + cos θ − sin θ
2 2 4 6
13 3 3 52 ( cos x + sin x ) = 5 52 6
= cos θ − sin θ 52 52
α
2 2 52 (cos α cos x + sin α sin x ) = 5
14 4
14 13 3 3 13
= ( cos θ − sin θ) 5 6 3
2 14 14 cos( x − α ) = where tan α = = .
α 52 4 2
14
= (sin α cos θ − cos α sin θ) 3 3 x − 56.31°
2
13 = −46.102°, 46.102°
= 7sin(α − θ) where tan α = . = 10.21°, 102.4° (corr.to 4 sig. fig.)
3 3
Since −1 ≤ sin(α − θ) ≤ 1
∴ −7 ≤ 7 sin(α − θ) ≤ 7 8. 2(sin x + cos x ) = 3 + 1
∴ The maximum value is 7 . 1 1 2
2 2( sin x + cos x ) 1
The minimum value is −7 . 2 2 45°
= 3 +1 1
4. (2 cos θ + 3 sin θ)2
13
2 2 (cos 45° sin x + sin 45° cos x ) = 3 + 1
2 3
= [ 13 ( cos θ + sin θ)]2 2 3 +1
13 13 α sin( x + 45°) =
2 2
= [ 13 (sin α cos θ + cos α sin θ)]2 3
x + 45° = 75°, 105°
= [ 13 sin(α + θ)]2 x = 30°, 60°
2
= 13 sin 2 (α + θ) where tan α = .
3
Since 0 ≤ sin 2 (α + θ) ≤ 1 9. sin x − 3 cos x = 2
∴ 0 ≤ 13 sin (α + θ) ≤ 13
2 1 3
2( sin x − cos x ) = 2
2 2 2 3
∴ The maximum value is 13 .
2(cos 60° sin x − sin 60° cos x ) = 2
The minimum value is 0 . 60°
2 sin( x − 60°) = 2 1
2
5. sin θ − 2 cos θ sin( x − 60°) =
1 2 2
= 5( sin θ − cos θ) 5
2 x − 60° = 45°, 135°
5 5
α x = 105°, 195°
= 5 (cos α sin θ − sin α cos θ)
1
= 5 sin(θ − α ) where tan α = 2 . 10. cos x = 3 (1 − sin x )
1 1 cos x + 3 cos x = 3
∴ = 2
(sin θ − 2 cos θ) 2
5 sin (θ − α )
2 1 3 3
2( cos x + sin x ) = 3
Since 0 ≤ sin (θ − α ) ≤ 1
2 2 2 60°
2(cos 60° cos x + sin 60° sin x ) = 3
0 ≤ 5 sin (θ − α ) ≤ 5
2 1
3
1

1 cos( x − 60°) =
5 sin (θ − α ) 5
2 2
x − 60° = −30°, 30°
1 1 x = 30°, 90°
∴ The minimum value of = .
(sin θ − 2 cos θ) 2 5
98 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

2 sin x − 1 2 tan B = tan[( A + B) − A]


11. = tan( A + B) − tan A
1 + 4 cos x 3 =
6 sin x − 3 = 2 + 8 cos x 10 8
1 + tan( A + B) tan A
6 sin x − 8 cos x = 5 α
24 − 3
6 8 = 7 24 4 3
10( sin x − cos x ) = 5 6 1+ 7 ⋅ 4
10 10 96 − 21
10(cos α sin x − sin α cos x ) = 5 =
28 + 72
1 8 4 75
sin( x − α ) = where tan α = = . =
2 6 3 100
x − 53.10° = 30°, 150° 3
x = 83.13°, 203.1° (corr. to 4 sig. fig.) =
4
= tan A
12. (a) r cos(θ − α ) = r (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α ) A and B are both acute and tan A = tan B ,
= r cos θ cos α + r sin θ sin α ∴ A=B
As 5 cos θ + 12 sin θ = r cos(θ − α )
3. A + B + C = 90°
∴ r cos α = 5 , r sin α = 12
A + B = 90° − C
r = 52 + 12 2 tan( A + B) = tan(90° − C )
= 13 tan A + tan B 1
=
12 1 − tan A tan B tan C
tan α = , α = 1.176 (corr. to 4 sig. fig.) tan C(tan A + tan B) = 1 − tan A tan B
5
∴ 5 cos θ + 12 sin θ = 13 cos(θ − 1.176) tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1

(b) f (θ) 4. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


= (5 cos θ + 12 sin θ)2 + 10 cos θ + 24 sin θ + 1 question because of the copyright reasons.
= (5 cos θ + 12 sin θ)2 + 2(5 cos θ + 12 sin θ) + 1
= [(5 cos θ + 12 sin θ) + 1]2 2 − cos x − sin x
5. sec 2 x = for 1 − sin x ≠ 0
= [13 cos(θ − 1.176) + 1] 2 1 − sin x
1 2 − cos x − sin x
Since [13 cos(θ − 1.176) + 1]2 ≥ 0 =
2
cos x 1 − sin x
∴ The minimum value of f (θ) = 0 1 2 − cos x − sin x
=
f (θ) is maximum when cos(θ − 1.176) = 1 (1 − sin x )(1 + sin x ) 1 − sin x
i.e. The maximum value of f (θ) (1 + sin x )(2 − cos x − sin x ) = 1
= [13(1) + 1] = 14 = 196
2 2 cos x − sin x + sin x cos x + sin 2 x = 1
cos x − sin x + sin x cos x + (1 − cos 2 x ) = 1
cos x (1 − cos x ) − sin x (1 − cos x ) = 0
Revision Exercise 6 (p.157) (cos x − sin x )(1 − cos x ) = 0
cos x − sin x = 0 or 1 − cos x = 0
1 + 13
1. tan( A + B) = 2 =1 tan x = 1 or cos x = 1
1 − 12 ⋅ 13
x = 45°, 225° or x = 0°
∴ A + B = 45°
∴ x = 0°, 45°, 225°
tan C = 1 , ∴ C = 45°
A + B + C = 90°
cos( A + B + C ) = 0 6. Let P(n) be the proposition
sin 2 n +1 θ
°ßcos 2θ cos 2 2 θ L cos 2 n θ = °®.
3 2 n sin 2θ
2. Since sin A = and A is acute, When n = 1,
5
3 L.H.S. = cos 2θ
∴ tan A =
4
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 99

∴ The maximum value of f ( x ) = 1.


sin 21+1 θ
R.H.S. = 1
2 sin 2θ The minimum value of f ( x ) = .
sin 4θ 4
=
2 sin 2θ
2 sin 2θ cos 2θ 8. (a) L.H.S. = cot θ + tan θ
= 1
2 sin 2θ = + tan θ
= cos 2θ tan θ
= L.H.S. 1 + tan 2 θ
=
∴ P(1) is true. tan θ
Assume P(k) is true for any positive integer k. sec 2 θ
=
sin 2 k +1 θ tan θ
i.e. cos 2θ cos 2 2 θ L cos 2 k θ = 1 cos θ
2 k sin 2θ = ⋅
k +1 cos θ sin θ
2
Then cos 2θ cos 2 θ L cos 2 θ ⋅ cos 2 θ
2 k
1
=
sin 2 k +1 θ sin θ cos θ
= k cos 2 k +1 θ 2
2 sin 2θ =
2 sin 2 k +1 θ cos 2 k +1 θ 2 sin θ cos θ
= 2
2 k +1 sin 2θ =
sin 2θ
sin 2(2 k +1 θ) = 2 csc 2θ
= k +1
2 sin 2θ = R.H.S.
sin 2 k + 2 θ (b) (cot θ + tan θ)2 = 4
= k +1
2 sin 2θ (2 csc 2θ)2 = 4 (by (a))
sin 2 ( k +1) +1 θ csc 2 2θ = 1
= k +1
2 sin 2θ (csc 2 2θ − 1) = 0
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any positive integer (csc 2θ + 1)(csc 2θ − 1) = 0
k, P( k + 1) is also true. By the principle of
mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all csc 2θ = −1 or csc 2θ = 1
positive integers n. sin 2θ = −1 or sin 2θ = 1
2θ = 270° or 2θ = 90°
7. f ( x ) = sin 6 x + cos 6 x θ = 135° or θ = 45°
= (sin 2 x + cos 2 x ) ∴ θ = 45°, 135°
(sin 4 x − sin 2 x cos 2 x + cos 4 x )
= sin 4 x + 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x 5π π π 1+ 1 3 +1
3
9. (a) tan = tan( + ) = =
+ cos x − 3 sin x cos x
4 2 2
12 4 6 1 − 1⋅ 1 3 −1
3
= (cos 2 x + sin 2 x )2 − 3 sin 2 x cos 2 x
(b) 3(cos θ + sin θ) + (cos θ − sin θ)
= 1 − 3 sin 2 x cos 2 x = R sin(θ + φ)
3
= 1 − sin 2 2 x ( 3 − 1)sin θ + ( 3 + 1) cos θ
4
3 = R(sin θ cos φ + cos θ sin φ)
= 1 − (1 − cos 4 x ) = ( R cos φ)sin θ + ( R sin φ) cos θ
8
5 3  R cos φ = 3 − 1
= + cos 4 x
8 8 ∴ 
 R sin φ = 3 + 1
Since −1 ≤ cos 4 x ≤ 1
R 2 = ( 3 − 1)2 + ( 3 + 1)2 = 8
3 3 3
− ≤ cos 4 x ≤
8 8 8 ∴ R=2 2
3 5 5 3 3 5
− + ≤ + cos 4 x ≤ +
8 8 8 8 8 8 3 +1 5π
tan φ = ,∴ φ= (by (a))
1 5 3
≤ + cos 4 x ≤ 1 3 −1 12
4 8 8
100 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

10. (a) cos x − 3 sin x ≡ r cos( x + α ) 12. (a) A + B + C = 180°


cos x − 3 sin x ≡ r ( cos x cos α − sin x sin α ) A + B = 180° − C
tan( A + B) = tan(180° − C )
cos x − 3 sin x ≡ r cos x cos α − r sin x sin α
tan A + tan B
r cos α = 1 , r sin α = 3 = − tan C
1 − tan A tan B
r 2 = 12 + ( 3 )2 = 4 tan A + tan B = − tan C + tan A tan B tan C
tan α = 3 tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C
(b) Let tan A = k , tan B = 2 k , tan C = −6k ,
(b) r = 2 or −2 (rejected)
then k + 2 k − 6k = ( k )(2 k )( −6k ) (by (a))
tan α = 3 , α = 60°
−3k = −12 k 3
cos x − 3 sin x = 1 12 k 3 − 3k = 0
2 cos( x + 60°) = 1
3k ( 4 k 2 − 1) = 0
1
cos( x + 60°) = 4k 2 − 1 = 0
2
x + 60° = 60° , − 60° k2 =
1
x = 0°, − 120° 4
1
1 1 k=±
(c) = 2
(cos x − 3 sin x ) 2
[2 cos( x + 60°)]2 1 1
1 When k = , tan A = , tan B = 1, tan C = −3 ,
= 2 2
4 cos ( x + 60°)
2
A = 26.6° , B = 45° , C = 108.4°
1
is minimum 1
(cos x − 3 sin x )2 When k = − , A, B are both obtuse,
2
which is impossible for any triangle.
when cos 2 ( x + 60°) = 1.
1
∴ The least value of is 13. (a) sin x + cos x
(cos x − 3 sin x )2
1 1
1 = 2 ( cos x + sin x ) 2
1
. 2 2 π
4 π 4
= 2 cos( x − ) 1
4
11. (a) 6 cos x + 8 sin x = r cos( x − α )
= r cos x cos α + r sin x sin α (b) Let y = f ( x )
r cos α = 6 = sin x + cos x
∴ 
r sin α = 8 π
= 2 cos( x − )
r 2 = 6 2 + 82 = 100 4
r = 10 or r = −10 (rejected) y
8 4
tan α = = y = sin x + cos x
6 3 2
α = 53.13° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
1
(b) By (a),
6 cos x + 8 sin x + 13 = 10 cos( x − 53.13°) + 13
−1 ≤ cos( x − 53.13°) ≤ 1 x
−10 ≤ 10 cos( x − 53.13°) ≤ 10 O π 3π π 2π
4
−10 + 13 ≤ 10 cos( x − 53.13°) + 13 ≤ 10 + 13 4
3 ≤ 6 cos x + 8 sin x + 13 ≤ 23
−1
1 1 1
≤ ≤ − 2
23 6 cos x + 8 sin x + 13 3
1 1
∴ ≤y≤
23 3
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 101

(c) sin x + cos x = 1 16. (a) A + B + C = π


π 1 ∴ A = π − ( B + C)
cos( x − ) =
4 2 sin A = sin[π − ( B + C )] = sin( B + C )
π π cos( B − C )
cos( x − )=
1
or cos( x − )=−
1 (b) (i) tan B =
4 2 4 2 sin A − sin( B − C )
cos( B − C )
π π π π 3π =
x− = , − or x− = sin( B + C ) − sin( B − C )
4 4 4 4 4 = cos B cos C + sin B sin C
π ÷ [(sin B cos C + sin C cos B)
∴ x = 0, , π
2 − (sin B cos C − sin C cos B)]
sin B cos B cos C + sin B sin C
∴ =
14. 4(cos θ − sin θ) + k sin θ = 5 cos B 2 cos B sin C
4 cos θ + ( k − 4)sin θ = 5
4 k−4 r cos 2 B cos C − sin B cos B sin C = 0
r ( cos θ + sin θ) = 5 k−4
cos B(cos B cos C − sin B sin C ) = 0
r r
r (cos α cos θ + sin α sin θ) = 5
α cos B cos( B + C ) = 0
r cos(θ − α ) = 5 4 (ii) As cos B cos( B + C ) = 0
cos(θ − α ) =
5 ∴ cos B = 0 or cos( B + C ) = 0
r A s cos B ≠ 0 ( o t h e r w i s e tan B i s
5
cos (θ − α ) = ( )2
2
undefined), cos( B + C ) = 0 .
r π
It has no solution, the condition is Also, 0 < B + C < π , ∴ B + C =
5 2
( )2 > 1 π
r ∴ A = π − ( B + C) =
2
52 > r 2
17. (a) cos(θ + α ) = p
( k − 4 ) 2 + 4 2 < 52 cos θ cos α − sin θ sin α = p.....................(1)
16 + k 2 − 8k + 16 < 25 sin(θ + β) = q
k 2 − 8k + 7 < 0 sin θ cos β + sin β cos θ = q ......................(2)
( k − 1)( k − 7) < 0
(1) × cosβ , cos θ cos α cos β − sin θ sin α cos β
1< k < 7
= p cosβ .............................(3)
tan θ + tan φ (2) × sin α , sin α sin θ cos β + sin α sin β cos θ
15. tan(θ + φ) =
1 − tan θ tan φ = q sin α .............................(4)
tan θ + tan φ (3) + (4), cos θ cos α cos β + sin α sin β cos θ
1=
1 − tan θ tan φ = p cos β + q sin α
1 − tan θ tan φ = tan θ + tan φ cos θ(cos α cos β + sin α sin β)
tan φ + tan θ tan φ = 1 − tan θ = p cos β + q sin α
1 − tan θ p cos β + q sin α
tan φ = cos θ =
1 + tan θ cos(α − β)
(1 + tan θ)(1 + tan θ)
= 1 + tan θ + tan φ + tan θ tan φ (1) × sin β , sin β cos θ cos α − sin β sin θ sin α
= 1 + tan θ + (1 − tan θ) = p sin β .............................(5)
=2 (2) × cos α , cos α sin θ cos β + cos α sin β cos θ
π = q cos α ............................(6)
Let θ = φ = ,
8 (6) − (5), cos α sin θ cos β + sin β sin θ sin α
π 2
∴ (1 + tan ) = 2 = q cos α − p sin β
8 sin θ(cos α cos β + sin α sin β)
π π
1 + tan = 2 (since 1 + tan > 0 ) = q cos α − p sin β
8 8
π q cos α − p sin β
tan = 2 − 1 sin θ =
8 cos(α − β)
102 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

(b) sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 (b)


y
(q cos α − p sin β)2 + ( p cos β + q sin α )2
= cos 2 (α − β)
2
q 2 cos 2 α − 2 pq sin β cos α + p 2 sin 2 β
1
+ p 2 cos 2 β + 2 pq sin α cos β + q 2 sin 2 α (ii) y = cos θ

= cos (α − β)
2

∴ p 2 + q 2 + 2 pq(sin α cos β − cos α sin β) x


O π π 3π 2π
= cos (α − β)
2
2 2
p 2 + q 2 + 2 pq sin(α − β) = cos 2 (α − β) (i) y = sin θ
−1
− 2
18. (a) (sin x + cos x + 1)(sin x + cos x − 1) (iii) f (θ) = sin θ + cos θ
= sin x + 2 sin x cos x + cos x − 1
2 2

= 2 sin x cos x (c) (i) y = 4 sin θ + 4 cos θ − 3


(b) (i) f ( x) = 4(sin θ + cos θ) − 3
= sec x + csc x + sec x csc x π
= 4 2 cos(θ − ) − 3
1 1 1 4
= + + π
cos x sin x cos x sin x Q cos(θ − ) ≤ 1
sin x + cos x + 1 4
= π
cos x sin x 4 2 cos(θ − ) ≤ 4 2
= [(sin x + cos x + 1) ⋅ (sin x + cos x − 1)] 4
÷ [cos x sin x (sin x + cos x − 1)] π
4 2 cos(θ − ) − 3 ≤ 4 2 − 3
2 sin x cos x 4
=
cos x sin x (sin x + cos x − 1) ∴ The maximum value of y is 4 2 − 3 .
2
= (ii) When y attains its maximum,
sin x + cos x − 1 π
2 cos(θ − ) = 1
(ii) f ( x ) = 4
sin x + cos x − 1 π
2 θ− =0
= 4
π π
2 sin( x + ) − 1 θ=
4 4
π π
When 0 < x < , 1 ≤ 2 sin( x + ) ≤ 2
2 4
π Enrichment 6 (p.160)
∴ f ( x ) is minimum when x = .
4
2 1. (a) cos( A + B + C )
The minimum value of f ( x ) =
2 −1 = cos[ A + ( B + C )]
= cos A cos( B + C ) − sin A sin( B + C )
= cos A(cos B cos C − sin B sin C )
19. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. − sin A(sin B cos C + sin C cos B)
question because of the copyright reasons. = cos A cos B cos C − sin A sin B cos C
− sin A cos B sin C − cos A sin B sin C
20. (a) f (θ) (b) If A + B + C = 90° ,
= sin θ + cos θ 2
1 cos 90° = cos A cos B cos C − sin A sin B cos C
π
= 2(
1
sin θ +
1
cos θ) 4
− sin A cos B sin C − cos A sin B sin C
2 2 1 0 = cos A cos B cos C − sin A sin B cos C
π π − sin A cos B sin C − cos A sin B sin C
= 2 (sin sin θ + cos cos θ)
4 4 cos A cos B cos C
π = sin A sin B cos C
= 2 cos(θ − )
4 + sin A cos B sin C + cos A sin B sin C
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 103

sin θ cos θ (e) From (d),


2. (a) tan θ + cot θ = +
cos θ sin θ 1 + sin 18°
cos 36° =
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ 1 + 2 sin 18°
= 1 + sin 18°
sin θ cos θ 1 − 2 sin 18° =
2
2 1 + 2 sin 18°
=
2 sin θ cos θ Let s = sin18° ,
2
= (1 − 2 s 2 )(1 + 2 s) = 1 + s
sin 2θ
1 + 2s − 2s 2 − 4s3 = 1 + s
(b) Let x1 and x2 be the roots of the equation.
s − 2s 2 − 4s3 = 0
∴ x1 + x2 = tan θ + cot θ
4 s 2 + 2 s − 1 = 0 (Q s ≠ 0 )
x1 x2 = 1
As 2 − 3 is a root, let x1 = 2 − 3 . ∴ 4 sin 2 18° + 2 sin 18° − 1 = 0

1 2+ 3 (f) From (e),


∴ x2 = = =2+ 3
2− 3 4−3 4s 2 + 2s − 1 = 0
∴ x1 + x2 = 4 = tan θ + cot θ
−2 ± (2)2 − 4 ⋅ 4( −1)
=
2 s=
sin 2θ 2( 4 )
1 −1 ± 5
∴ sin 2θ = =
2 4
2 1
cos 4θ = 1 − 2 sin 2 2θ = 1 − = 5 −1 − 5 −1
4 2 sin18° = or (rejected)
4 4
3. (a) AB = BE (given)
∠BAE = ∠BEA (base ∠s, isos ∆) 4. (a) (i) OM = OP cos θ = 10 cos θ
1 π π
= (180° − 36°) ON = OP cos( − θ) = 10 cos( − θ)
2 3 3
= 72°
(ii) OM + ON
AC = AE (given)
π
∠ACE = ∠BEA (base ∠s, isos ∆) = 10 cos θ + 10 cos( − θ)
= 72° 3
π
∠ABC + ∠BAC = ∠ACE (ext. ∠ of ∆) = 10[cos θ + cos( − θ)]
3
∠BAC = 72° − 36° π π
= 36° = 10(cos θ + cos cos θ + sin sin θ)
3 3
(b) BD = BC + CD = BC + AC cos 72° 1
= 10(cos θ + cos θ +
3
sin θ)
= AC + AC cos 72° 2 2
= AC(1 + cos 72°) 3 3
= 10( cos θ + sin θ)
= AE[1 + cos(90° − 72°)] 2 2
= y(1 + sin 18°) 3 3
(c) BC = AC = AE = y Let r sin α = , r cos α =
2 2
CE = 2 DE = 2 y cos 72° = 2 y sin 18° 3 3
AB = BE = BC + CE r 2 = ( )2 + ( )2
2 2
= y + 2 y sin 18° 9 3
= y(1 + 2 sin 18°) = +
4 4
BD 12
(d) In ∆ABD, cos 36° = =
AB 4
y(1 + sin 18°) =3
=
y(1 + 2 sin 18°) r= 3
1 + sin 18° 3 3
= r sin α = 3 sin α = , sin α =
1 + 2 sin 18° 2 2
104 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

3 1 (b) tan 75° = tan( 45° + 30°)


r cos α = 3 cos α = , cos α = tan 45° + tan 30°
2 2 =
π 1 − tan 45° tan 30°
∴ α= 1+ 1
3 = 3
∴ OM + ON 1 − (1)( 1 )
3
= 10 3 (sin α cos θ + cos α sin θ) 3 +1
= 10 3 sin(α + θ) 3
=
π 3 −1
= 10 3 sin( + θ) 3
3
3 +1
π 3 π =
As 0 ≤ θ ≤ , ≤ sin( + θ) ≤ 1 3 −1
3 2 3
∴ OM + ON is maximum when ( 3 + 1)2
=
π 2
sin( + θ) = 1 .
3 =2+ 3
π (c) cos 105° = cos(60° + 45°)
i.e. θ =
6 = cos 60° cos 45° − sin 60° sin 45°
Maximum of (OM + ON ) = 10 3 1 2 3 2
= ( )( ) − ( )( )
π 2 2 2 2
(b) (i) PN = 10 sin( − θ)
3 2− 6
=
PM = 10 sin θ 4
(ii) PN + PM
π 2. (a) sin 2 A cos A − cos 2 A sin A
= 10 sin( − θ) + 10 sin θ = sin(2 A − A)
3
π π = sin A
= 10(sin cos θ − sin θ cos ) + 10 sin θ
3 3 (b) sin A sin B − cos A cos B
3 1 = −(cos A cos B − sin A sin B)
= 10( cos θ − sin θ) + 10 sin θ = − cos( A + B)
2 2
3 1 (c) sin(θ − φ) cos φ + cos(θ − φ)sin φ
= 10( cos θ + sin θ) 1 3
2 2 π 2 = sin[(θ − φ) + φ]
π 3 = sin θ
= 10 sin( + θ) 1
3
π 2 cos 2 A − sin 2 A
As 0 ≤ θ ≤ , (d)
3 cos 3 A cos A + sin 3 A sin A
∴ PN + PM is maximum when cos 2 A − sin 2 A
=
π cos(3 A − A)
sin( + θ) = 1 .
3 cos 2 A − sin 2 A
π =
i.e. θ = cos 2 A
6 cos 2 A − sin 2 A
Maximum of ( PN + PM ) = 10 =
cos 2 A − sin 2 A
=1
Classwork 1 (p.145)
5 12 5 π
3. sin α = , cos α = , tan α = (0<α< )
1. (a) cos 15° = cos( 45° − 30°) 13 13 12 2
= cos 45° cos 30° + sin 45° sin 30° y
2 3 2 1
=( )( ) + ( )( )
2 2 2 2 13
6+ 2 5
= α
4 x
O 12
Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles 105

4 3
sin β = , cosβ = − , 3. sin 2θ cos θ + cos 2θ sin θ =
1
5 5 2
4 π 1
tan β = − ( < β < π ) sin(2θ + θ) =
3 2 2
y 1
sin 3θ =
2
3θ = 30°, 150°, 390°, 510°
5
4 θ = 10°, 50°, 130°, 170°
β
x
O

12 4 Classwork 3 (p.152)
(a) cos α = , sin β =
13 5 3 2 2 7
1. tan x = , cos x = = ,
2 7 7
(b) cos(α − β)
3 21
= cos α cos β + sin α sin β sin x = =
7 7
12 3 5 4
= ( )( − ) + ( )( ) y
13 5 13 5
16
=− 7
65 3
x
(c) tan(α − β) O 2
x
tan α − tan β
=
1 + tan α tan β (a) cos x =
2 7
5 − (− 4 ) 7
= 12 5 3 4
1 + ( 12 )( − 3 ) (b) cos 2 x = cos 2 x − sin 2 x
63 2 7 2 21 2
= =( ) −( )
16 7 7
7
=
49
Classwork 2 (p.147) 1
=
7
1. sin(30° + x ) + cos(60° + x ) − cos x
= sin 30° cos x + sin x cos 30° 2 tan x 2( 23 )
+ cos 60° cos x − sin 60° sin x − cos x (c) tan 2 x = = =4 3
1 − tan 2 x 1 − ( 3 )2
1 3 1 2
= cos x + sin x + cos x (d) tan 3 x = tan(2 x + x )
2 2 2
tan 2 x + tan x

3
sin x − cos x =
2 1 − tan 2 x tan x
=0 4 3 +( 3
)
= 2
3
1 − (4 3 )( 2 )
2. cos 2 ( A − B) − cos 2 ( A + B)
= [cos( A − B) − cos( A + B)] =−
9 3
[cos( A − B) + cos( A + B)] 10
= [(cos A cos B + sin A sin B)
− (cos A cos B − sin A sin B)] sin 2 A 2 sin A cos A
[(cos A cos B + sin A sin B) 2. (a) =
1 − cos 2 A 1 − (1 − 2 sin 2 A)
+ (cos A cos B − sin A sin B)] 2 sin A cos A
= (2 sin A sin B)(2 cos A cos B) =
= 4 sin A sin B cos A cos B 2 sin 2 A
cos A
= (2 sin A cos A)(2 sin B cos B) =
= sin 2 A sin 2 B sin A
= cot A
106 Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Compound Angles

(b) tan 2 A − 2 tan A


2 tan A 3. Consider a right-angled triangle
= − 2 tan A
1 − tan 2 A r2 = 1 + 3
r
1
2 tan A − 2 tan A(1 − tan 2 A) ∴ r=2 α
=
1 − tan 2 A and α = tan −1 (
1
)
3
2 tan A tan 2 A 3
= = 30°
1 − tan 2 A
2 tan A ∴ 2 sin 30° = 1
= tan 2 A ⋅
1 − tan 2 A 2 cos 30° = 3
= tan A tan 2 A
2
∴ The equation becomes
2 cos 30° cos θ − 2 sin 30° sin θ = 1
3 2 cos(30° + θ) = 1
3. sin x cos x = 0° ≤ x < 360° 1
4 cos(30° + θ) =
1 3 2
sin 2 x = 30° + θ = 60°, 300°
2 4
3 θ = 30°, 270°
sin 2 x =
2
2 x = 60°, 120°, 420°, 480° π
4. (a) r > 0 , 0 ≤ α <
x = 30°, 60°, 210°, 240° 2
r sin(θ − α ) = r (sin θ cos α − sin α cos θ)
= r sin θ cos α − r sin α cos θ
Classwork 4 (p.155) As 3 sin θ − cos θ = r sin(θ − α )
1. r sin(θ + α ) = r (sin θ cos α + cos θ sin α ) ∴ r cos α = 3 , r sin α = 1
= r sin θ cos α + r cos θ sin α
r = 3 +1 = 2
= 2 sin θ + 4 cos θ
1
Let r cos α = 2 , r sin α = 4 . tan α =
3
π
∴ r = 22 + 42 r=2 5
4 α=
6
=2 5 α π
4 2 ∴ 3 sin θ − cos θ = 2 sin(θ − )
tan α = = 2 6
2 π
α = 63.43° (corr. to 2 d.p.) (b) Let y = 3 sin θ − cos θ = 2 sin(θ − )
6
∴ 2 sin θ + 4 cos θ = 2 5 sin(θ + 63.43°) π
Since −1 ≤ sin(θ − ) ≤1
6
2. Let r > 0 and 0 ≤ α < 90° . π
∴ −2 ≤ 2 sin(θ − ) ≤ 2
r cos(θ − α ) = r (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α ) 6
= r cos θ cos α + r sin θ sin α ∴ The maximum value of y is 2 .
As 5 sin θ + 12 cos θ = r cos(θ − α ) The minimum value of y is −2 .
∴ r sin α = 5 , r cos α = 12 (c) 3 sin θ − cos θ = 1
π
r = 52 + 12 2 2 sin(θ − ) = 1
6
= 13 π 1
sin(θ − ) =
5 6 2
tan α =
12 π π 5π
θ− = ,
α = 22.62° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 6 6 6
∴ 5 sin θ + 12 cos θ = 13 cos(θ − 22.62°) π
θ= , π
3