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Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 129

CHAPTER 9 3. C

Exercise 9A (p.200)
14
81° A
1. C
9
B
B 50°
27° c sin A 9 sin 81°
12 sin C = =
A a 14
C = 180° − A − B C = 39.42° (corr. to 2 d.p.) or
= 180° − 27° − 50° C = 140.58° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
= 103° Case 1:
If C = 39.42°
c sin A 12 sin 27°
a= = = 5.59 (corr. to 2 d.p.) B = 180° − A − C
sin C sin 103° = 180° − 81° − 39.42°
c sin B 12 sin 50° = 59.58° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
b= = = 9.43 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
sin C sin 103° a sin B
b=
sin A
2. C 14 sin 59.58°
=
sin 81°
5.8 6.8 = 12.22 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
Case 2:
57°
B A If C = 140.58°
B = 180° − A − C
b sin A 6.8 sin 57° = 180° − 81° − 140.58°
sin B = =
a 5.8 = −41.58° (rejected)
B = 79.50° (corr. to 2 d.p.) or  B = 59.58°
B = 100.50° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 
∴ C = 39.42°
Case 1: b = 12.22

If B = 79.50°
C = 180° − A − B
B
= 180° − 57° − 79.50° 4.
= 43.50°
5
b sin C
c= 30°
sin B A C
6.8 sin 43.50° 12
=
sin 79.5° b sin A 12 sin 30° 6
sin B = = =
= 4.76 (corr. to 2 d.p.) a 5 5
Case 2: Since sin B > 1 , it is impossible to construct the
triangle.
If B = 100.50°
C = 180° − A − B
= 180° − 57° − 100.50° 5. C
= 22.50°
b sin C 46
c=
sin B
6.8 sin 22.50° B 82°
=
sin 100.50° 28
A
= 2.65 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
 B = 79.50°  B = 100.50° b = a + c − 2 ac cos B
2 2 2

  = 46 2 + 282 − 2( 46)(28) cos 82°


∴ C = 43.50° or C = 22.50°
c = 4.76 c = 2.65 b = 50.41 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
 
130 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

c sin B 28 sin 82° A


sin C = = 7.
b 50.41
C = 33.37° (corr. to 2 d.p.) or
C = 146.63° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 35°
B C
Case 1: 5

If C = 33.37° a2 + c2 − b2
A = 180° − B − C cos B =
2 ac
= 180° − 82° − 33.37°
5 + c 2 − (10 − c)2
2
= 64.63° (corr. to 2 d.p.) cos 35° =
2(5)(c)
Case 2:
8.20c = 25 + c − 100 + 20c − c 2
2
If C = 146.63° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
A = 180° − 82° − 146.63° c = 6.35 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
= −48.63° (rejected) b = 10 − c
 A = 64.63° = 10 − 6.35
 = 3.65 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
∴ C = 33.37°
b = 50.41 b2 + c2 − a2
 cos A =
2 bc
3.649 2 + 6.3512 − 52
6. C
=
2(3.649)(6.351)
A = 51.82° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
C = 180° − A − B
19 20
= 180° − 35° − 51.82°
= 93.18° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
B 11 A  A = 51.82°
C = 93.18°
a 2 + c 2 − b 2 19 2 + 112 − 20 2 ∴ 
cos B = = b = 3.65
2 ac 2(19)(11) 
 c = 6.35
B = 78.69° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
c sin B 11 sin 78.69°
sin C = = 8. ∠ACB = 180° − 37° − 67° = 76°
b 20
C = 32.64° (corr. to 2 d.p.) or ∠BCT = ∠CAB = 37° ( ∠ s in alt. segment)
C = 147.36° (corr. to 2 d.p.) ∠T = 67° − 37° = 30° (ext. ∠ of ∆ )
Case 1: 10 sin 67°
AC =
If C = 32.64° sin 76°
A = 180° − B − C AC sin 37°
CT =
= 180° − 78.687° − 32.637° sin 30°
= 68.68° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 10 sin 67° sin 37°
=
sin 76° sin 30°
Case 2: = 11.4 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
If C = 147.36°
A = 180° − B − C 9. Let θ be the largest angle.
= 180° − 78.687° − 147.363°
= −46.05° (rejected) ( p 2 + q 2 + pq )2 = p 2 + q 2 − 2 pq cos θ
 A = 68.68° p 2 + q 2 + pq = p 2 + q 2 − 2 pq cos θ

∴  B = 78.69° 1
C = 32.64° cos θ = −
 2

θ=
3
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 131

10. b cos C + c cos B ∴ c 2 + a 2 − b 2 = 2 ac cos B ............(1)


a +b −c
2 2 2
a +c −b 2 2 2
c 2 + b 2 − a 2 = 2 bc cos A ............(2)
= b( ) + c( )
2 ab 2 ac (1) ÷ (2),
1
= [( a 2 + b 2 − c 2 ) + ( a 2 + c 2 − b 2 )] c2 + a2 − b2
2a ∴
1 c2 + b2 − a2
= (2 a 2 ) a cos B
2a =
=a b cos A
=6 2 R sin A cos B (by sine formula)
=
2 R sin B cos A
sin A cos B
11. A 1
C = ⋅
1 α 3 cos A sin B
tan A
B
β D =
tan B
AB = AC = 1
13. (a) In ∆BCD , by the cosine formula,
∠ABC = ∠ACB = α (base ∠ s, isos. ∆ )
∠BAC = 180° − 2α BD2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2 bc cos C
∠CDB = α − β (ext. ∠ of ∆ ) = b 2 + c 2 − 2 bc cos( π − θ)
= b 2 + c 2 + 2 bc cos θ ................(1)
1 BC
In ∆ABC , = (b) In ∆ABD, by the cosine formula,
sin α sin(180° − 2α )
=
BC BD2 = a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos θ ...............(2)
sin 2α By (1) and (2),
BC
= b 2 + c 2 + 2 bc cos θ = a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos θ
2 sin α cos α
BC = 2 cos α 2( ad + bc) cos θ = a 2 + d 2 − b 2 − c 2
In ∆BCD ,
3
=
BC a2 + d 2 − b2 − c2
sin β sin(α − β) cos θ =
2( ad + bc)
3 2 cos α
=
sin β sin α cos β − sin β cos α
3 sin α cos β − 3 sin β cos α = 2 cos α sin β 14. (a) Let N be a point on CB such that AN⊥CB ,
3 sin α cos β = 5 sin β cos α CN = b cos C
sin α 5 sin β NB = c cos B
=
cos α 3 cos β CN + NB = b cos C + c cos B
5
tan α = tan β a = b cos C + c cos B
3 (b) A = 180° − B − C = 180° − 45° − 60° = 75°
12. (a) By the sine formula, CN = 2 cos 60° = 1
a
=
b
=
c
= 2R AN = 2 sin 60° = 3
sin A sin B sin C NB = 3
a b c
∴ sin A + sin B + sin C = + + (i) a = CN + NB = 3 + 1
2R 2R 2R
1 c = AB = 3 ⋅ 2 = 6
= ( a + b + c)
2R
( a + b + c)sin A (ii) a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2 bc cos 75°
=
a ( 3 + 1)2
( a + b + c)sin B 2
= = 2 2 + 6 − 2 × 2 × 6 cos 75°
b
( a + b + c)sin C 4 + 2 3 = 10 − 4 6 cos 75°
=
c 4 6 cos 75° = 6 − 2 3
(b) By the cosine formula, 6− 2
cos 75° =
b 2 = c 2 + a 2 − 2 ac cos B 4
132 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

15. (a) h km L a sin(90° + α )


C
In ∆ACM , AM =
sin 30°
a cos α
AM = 1
β
α 2
A d km AM = 2 a cos α
θ B (b) By (a)(i) and (ii),
∠LBA = θ + β a sin(α + 20°)
= 2 a cos α
∠LAB = 180° − (α + θ) sin 20°
∠ALB = 180° − [180° − (α + θ)] − (θ + β) sin(α + 20°) = 2 cos α sin 20°
= α −β sin α cos 20° + sin 20° cos α = 2 cos α sin 20°
sin α cos 20° − sin 20° cos α = 0
In ∆ALB ,
sin(α − 20°) = 0
AL d
= Q α is an acute angle,
sin(θ + β) sin(α − β)
d sin(θ + β) α − 20° = 0°
AL = α = 20°
sin(α − β)
In ∆ACL , h = AL sin α
d sin(θ + β)sin α 17. (a) ∠CPB = 30°
= ∠BPA = 45°
sin(α − β)
d sin α(sin θ cos β + sin β cos θ) In ∆PBC ,
= 100 sin(60° − θ)
sin α cos β − sin β cos α PB =
d tan α(sin θ cos β + sin β cos θ) sin 30°
= = 200 sin(60° − θ) ............(1)
tan α cos β − sin β
d tan α(sin θ + cos θ tan β) In ∆ABP ,
=
tan α − tan β 100 sin(θ + 45°)
PB =
(b) From (a), sin 45°
d tan α(sin θ + cos θ tan β) 200
h= = sin(θ + 45°) ............(2)
tan α − tan β 2
d tan α(sin θ tan α + cos θ tan α tan β) By (1) and (2),
= 200
tan 2 α − tan α tan β 200 sin(60° − θ) = sin(θ + 45°)
2
π
d tan α[sin θ tan α + cos θ tan α tan( − α )] sin 60° cos θ − sin θ cos 60°
= 2 1
π = (sin θ cos 45° + sin 45° cos θ)
tan α − tan α tan( − α )
2
2
2
d tan α(sin θ tan α + cos θ tan α cot α ) 3 1
cos θ − sin θ
=
tan 2 α − tan α cot α 2 2
d tan α(sin θ tan α + cos θ) 1 2 2
= = ( sin θ + cos θ)
tan 2 α − 1 2 2 2
3 1 1 2 2
− tan θ = ( tan θ + )
16. (a) (i) ∠ABM = 180° − (α + 20°) 2 2 2 2 2
3 −1
In ∆ABM , tan θ =
2
a sin[180° − (α + 20°)]
AM =
sin 20° 3 −1
a sin(α + 20°) (b) tan θ =
= 2
sin 20° θ = 20.10° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
(ii) ∠CAM = 60° − α In ∆APC ,
∠ACM = 180° − 30° − (60° − α ) 200 sin(60° − θ)
= 90° + α PA =
sin 75°
= 132.80 m (corr. to 2 d.p.)
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 133

The shortest distance from P to the line ABC, AB = BC = 10 cm


i.e. PB, is perpendicular to AC.
AC = 10 2 + 10 2 = 10 2 cm
∴ In ∆ABP ,
AM = MC = 5 2 cm
PB
= sin( 45° + θ)
PA VM = VA2 − AM 2
PB = 120 m (corr. to the nearest metre)
= 64 − 50
∴ The shortest distance is 120 m .
= 14
= 3.74 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
Exercise 9B (p.209) ∴ The height is 3.74 cm .
AM 5 2
1. (a) AC = 2 , HC = 1 (b) cos ∠VAM = =
VA 8
1
tan ∠HAC = ∠VAM = 27.9° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
2
∴ The required angle is 27.9° .
∠HAC = 35.3° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ The required angle is 35.3° . (c) NM = 5 cm
VM 14
(b) BH = 2 , AB = 1 tan ∠VNM = =
NM 5
AH = AF 2 + FH 2 = 12 + ( 2 )2 = 3 ∠VNM = 36.8° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
By the cosine formula, ∴ The required angle is 36.8° .
AB2 + AH 2 − BH 2 (d) Let E be the mid-point of BC, F be a point on
cos ∠BAH =
2( AB)( AH ) V B s u c h t h a t AF⊥VB , CF⊥VB a n d
1+ 3− 2 ∠AFC = α .
=
2(1)( 3 ) V
∠BAH = 54.7° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ The required angle is 54.7° .
3
(c) AM = MH = BM = ME =
2 D C
A D M F E
B C
A B
M
F E
The angle between two adjacent slant faces
VAB and VBC is α.
G H
By the cosine formula, VE 2 = VM 2 + ME 2
AM 2 + BM 2 − AB2 = ( 14 )2 + 52
cos ∠AMB =
2( AM )( BM ) VE = 39 cm
3 + 3 −1 VE
= 4 4 ∴ ∠VBE = tan −1 ( )
BE
2( 23 )( 23 )
39
∠AMB = 70.5° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) = tan −1 ( )
5
∴ The required angle is 70.5° . = 51.32° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
2. (a) V Consider ∆CBF , CF = BC sin ∠VBE
In ∆CFA ,
α CM 2
sin = =
D C
2 CF 10 sin 51.32°
M α = 130° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ The required angle is 130° .
A N B
134 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

d
3. tan 26° =
θ h b
d = b tan 26°
a
b d
19° tan 37° =
a
11° d = a tan 37°
h b tan 26° = a tan 37°
sin 19° = a tan 37°
b b=
h = b sin 19° tan 26°
h a tan 37°
sin 11° = b tan 37°
a tan α == tan 26° =
a a tan 26°
h = a sin 11° α = 57.1° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
b sin 19° = a sin 11°
∴ The required angle is 57.1° .
a sin 11°
b=
sin 19°
a sin 11° AC l l
b sin 11° 6. In ∆ABC , = =
cos θ = = sin 19° = sin β sin[180° − (α + β)] sin(α + β)
a a sin 19° l sin β
θ = 54.1° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) AC =
sin(α + β)
∴ The required angle is 54.1° .
PC
In ∆ACP , tan θ =
AC
4. N
PC = AC tan θ
a
l tan θ sin β
=
d 22°
sin(α + β)
64° β c b l tan θ sin β
∴ The height is .
E sin(α + β)
a
tan 22° =
b
a = b tan 22° 7. Let h m be the height of the pole.
a TF h
tan β = In ∆XTF , tan 23° = =
c XF XF
a = c tan β h = XF tan 23°
b tan 22° = c tan β TF h
c tan β In ∆TFY , tan 20° = =
b= FY FY
tan 22° h = FY tan 20°
c tan β
d b tan β XF tan 23° = FY tan 20°
cos 64° = = = tan 22° =
c c c tan 22° FY tan 20°
XF = = 0.86 FY (corr. to 2 d.p.)
tan β = tan 22° cos 64° tan 23°
β = 10.0° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) In ∆XFY ,
∴ The inclination is 10.0° . XF 2 + FY 2 − XY 2
cos( 46° + 10°) =
2( XF )( FY )
(0.86 FY )2 + FY 2 − 582
5. A cos 56° =
2(0.86 FY )( FY )
52° 0.96 FY = (0.86 FY )2 + FY 2 − 582
2

b
FY = 65.83 m (corr. to 2 d.p.)
B α h = 65.83 tan 20°
P
a 74° = 24.0 m (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
d
∴ The height is 24.0 m .
C
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 135

120 10. (a) ∠BOC = 90°


8. In ∆ACQ , tan 10° =
AC BC = 32 + 4 2 = 5
120
AC = ∠AOC = 90°
tan 10°
PB AC = 32 + 4 2 = 5
In ∆ABP , tan 20° =
BA Q AC = BC = 5
PB
BA = ∴ ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle.
tan 20°
In ∆ABC , (b) AC 2 = OA2 + OC 2
AC BA = 16 + 9
=
sin(180° − 65° − 45°) sin 40° = 25
120 PB ∴ AC = 5 cm ,
=
sin 75° tan 10° sin 40° tan 20° BC = AC = 5 cm
PB = 165 m (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ D is the mid-point of AB.

9. (a) In ∆ABE and ∆ADE , AB2 = 4 2 + 4 2 = 32


AB = AD (given) AB = 4 2 cm
BE = ED (given) ∴ AD = 2 2 cm
AE = AE (common) ∴ CD2 = AC 2 − AD2
∴ ∆ABE ≅ ∆ADE (S.S.S.) = 25 − 8
= 17
∴ ∠AED = ∠AEB = 90°
CD = 17
Similarly, ∠CED = 90°
= 4.12 cm (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
AE = AD sin 60° (c) OD⊥AB
∴ CE = CD sin 60°
∴ The angle between planes ABC and OAB
= AD sin 60°
is ∠CDO .
= AE
Q CO⊥ plane OAB
(b) (i) A
OC
F ∴ ∠CDO = sin −1 (
)
CD
B C = 46.7° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
E ∴ The required angle is 46.7° .
D

Construct EF⊥AC . 11. N


B
Let AC = x
14 m

x B'
∴ FC =
2 72°
EC = x sin 60° 15°
CF D
∴ cos ∠ACE = A 80°
E
EC
1 In ∆ABD, ∠ABD = 15°
=
2 sin 60° BD
∠ACE = 54.7° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) cos15° = , BD = 14 cos 15°
14
∴ The required angle is 54.7° .
AD
(ii) The required angle sin15° = , AD = 14 sin 15°
14
= ∠AEC In ∆BB' D , tan 72° =
BD
= 180° − 2∠ACE B' D
= 70.5° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 14 cos 15°
B' D =
tan 72°
136 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

In ∆AB' D , 15. D

∠B' DA = 180° − 80° = 100° (int. ∠ s, AN // DB' ) h


AB' = AD + B' D − 2( AD)( B' D) cos ∠B' DA
2 2 2
X
14 cos 15° 2 k
= (14 sin 15°)2 + ( ) C
β α A
tan 72°
14 cos 15° M θ a
− 2(14 sin 15°)( ) cos 100°
tan 72° B
AB' = 6.16 m (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
(a) Let M be the mid-point of BC.
∴ The length of the shadow that the pole casts
∴ AM = a sin θ
is 6.16 m .
k = AM tan α = a sin θ tan α
k
∴ tan α = ..............(1)
12. A a sin θ
h + k = AM tan(α + β)
θ = a sin θ tan(α + β)
h+k
tan(α + β) = .............(2)
O a sin θ
h+k
B D C (b) tan(α + β) =
a sin θ
360° tan α + tan β h+k
∠BOC = = 60° = ........(3)
6 1 − tan α tan β a sin θ
OB = OC = 1 m (radius)
Substitute (1) into (3),
∆OBC is an equilateral triangle k
∴ BC = 1 m ∴ ( + tan β)a sin θ
a sin θ
1 k
CD 2 = (h + k )(1 − ⋅ tan β)
In ∆ACD , sin θ = = a sin θ
AC 3
1 a 2 sin 2 θ + k (h + k )
angle between strings = 2 sin −1 ( 2 ) [ ]tan β = h
a sin θ
3 ah sin θ
−1 1 ∴ tan β = 2 2
= 2 sin ( ) a sin θ + k (h + k )
6
= 19.2° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
16. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
question because of the copyright reasons.
13. In ∆RST , ∠RTS = 180° − 33° − 70° = 77°
RS ST RS sin 33°
= , ST = Revision Exercise 9 (p.215)
sin 77° sin 33° sin 77°
QS 1. The smallest angle is ∠A .
In ∆QST , ST =
tan 21° b2 + c2 − a2
RS sin 33° QS cos A =
∴ = 2 bc
sin 77° tan 21° 2 2 + ( 3 + 1)2 − ( 2 )2
QS sin 77° =
RS = 2(2)( 3 + 1)
sin 33° tan 21°
300 sin 77° 6+2 3
PQ = =
sin 33° tan 21° 4( 3 + 1)
= 1 398 m 2 3 ( 3 + 1)
1 398 m =
Speed = 4( 3 + 1)
5 min.
= 4.66 m/s (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) =
3
2
A = 30°
14. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
question because of the copyright reasons.
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 137

2. b + c = 4 k (b) From the result of (a),


c + a = 5k c b cos A a cos B
a + b = 6k = +
ab ab ab
gives a = 3.5k , b = 2.5k , c = 1.5k
cos A cos B c
a:b:c=7:5:3 ∴ + =
a b ab
b2 + c2 − a2
cos A =
2 bc
5. a = 2.5 + 2 = 4.5 , b = 3 + 2 = 5 , c = 3 + 2.5 = 5.5
(5k )2 + (3k )2 − (7k )2
= cos A
2(5k )(3k )
1 b 2 + c 2 − a 2 10 2 + 112 − 9 2 140 7
=− = = = =
2 2 bc 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 11 220 11
A = 120°
cos B
3. a : b : c = 4 : 5 : 6 c 2 + a 2 − b 2 112 + 9 2 − 10 2 102 17
= = = =
b2 + c2 − a2 2ca 2 ⋅ 11 ⋅ 9 198 33
cos A =
2 bc cos C
( 5k ) 2 + ( 6 k ) 2 − ( 4 k ) 2 a 2 + b 2 − c 2 9 2 + 10 2 − 112 60 1
= = = = =
2(5k )(6k ) 2 ab 2 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 10 180 3
45
= 1
60 Area of ∆ABC = ab sin C
3 2
= 1 1
4 = ( 4.5)(5) 1 − ( )2
a2 + c2 − b2 2 3
cos B = = 10.606 6 (corr. to 4 d.p.)
2 ac
( 4 k )2 + (6k )2 − (5k )2 Area of 3 sectors
=
2( 4 k )(6k ) 1 2 1 1
= (3) ⋅ A + (2.5)2 ⋅ B + (2)2 C
27 2 2 2
=
9 −1 7 −1 17 1
48 = cos ( ) + 3.125 cos ( ) + 2 cos −1 ( )
9 2 11 33 3
=
16 = 9.644 (corr. to 3 d.p.)
a2 + b2 − c2
cos C = Area of the shaded part
2 ab
= 10.606 6 − 9.644
( 4 k ) 2 + ( 5k ) 2 − ( 6 k ) 2
= = 0.963 cm 2 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
2( 4 k )(5k )
5 6. (a) In ∆ABC , by the cosine formula,
=
40 AC 2 = AB2 + BC 2 − 2( AB)( BC ) cos ∠B
1
= 26 2 = 252 + 172 − 2(25)(17) cos ∠B
8
3 9 1 238 7
cos A : cos B : cos C = : : cos ∠B = =
4 16 8 850 25
= 12 : 9 : 2 252 − 72 24
∴ sin ∠B = =
25 25
b2 + c2 − a2 c2 + a2 − b2 24
4. (a) cos A = , cos B = ∴ AP = 25( ) = 24
2 bc 2 ac 25
b cos A + a cos B YA
(b) (i) ∠YBA = tan −1 ( )
b2 + c2 − a2 c2 + a2 − b2 AB
∴ = +
2c 2c = 35.8° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
b + c − a + c + a2 − b2
2 2 2 2 ∴ The required angle is 35.8° .
=
2c
=c
138 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

10. (a) ∠BOC = 2 A


(ii) As YB2 = YA2 + AB2
( ∠ at center twice ∠ at circumference)
= YA2 + AP 2 + PB2
In ∆BOC ,
= YP 2 + PB2
OB = OC = R (radius)
∴ YP⊥BC
1
∴ The required angle is ∠OBC = (180° − 2 A) = 90° − A
2
YA
∠YPA = tan −1 ( ) a
=
R
AP sin 2 A sin(90° − A)
= 36.9° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) a R
=
2 sin A cos A cos A
7 − 8. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E. a
questions because of the copyright reasons. = 2R
sin A
b c
9. (a) PQ 2 = 12 + 2 2 − 2(1)(2) cos 2θ (b) (i) Similarly, = = 2R
sin B sin C
= 5 − 4 cos 2θ
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
(b) (i) Area of ∆APQ a b c
= ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2
= Area of ∆AOQ + Area of ∆OPQ 2R 2R 2R
1 1 a2 + b2 + c2
= (1)(1)sin( π − 2θ) + (1)(2)sin(2θ) =
2 2 4 R2
3 8 R2
= sin 2θ =
2 4 R2
1 π =2
Area of ∆PQR = PQ 2 sin
2 3 (ii) cos A cos B cos C
3 1
= (5 − 4 cos 2θ) = cos A{ [cos( B + C ) + cos( B − C )]}
4 2
3 3 1
∴ S= (5 − 4 cos 2θ) + sin 2θ = cos A{ [cos( π − A) + cos( B − C )]}
4 2 2
1 1
=
5 3 3
+ sin 2θ − 3 cos 2θ = − cos 2 A + cos A cos( B − C )
4 2 2 2
1 1
3 2 21 = − cos A + cos( π − B − C )
2
(ii) Let r = ( ) + ( 3 )2 = 2 2
2 2 cos( B − C )
3 1 1 1
r cos α = , r sin α = 3 = − cos 2 A + { [cos( π − 2C )
2 2 2 2
∴ S = r (sin 2θ cos α − cos 2θ sin α ) + cos( π − 2 B)]}
1 1 1
5 3 = − cos 2 A − cos 2C − cos 2 B
+ 2 4 4
4 1 1
5 3 = − (1 − sin A) − (1 − 2 sin 2 C )
2
= r sin(2θ − α ) + 2 4
4 1
− (1 − 2 sin B) 2
S is maximum when sin(2θ − α ) = 1 . 4
π 1 1 1
=− − −
i.e. 2θ − α =
2 2 4 4
π α 1
+ (sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C )
θ= +
4 2 2
3 2 3 =0
As α = cos −1 ( ⋅ ) = cos −1 ( ) (iii) From (b)(ii),
2 21 21
∴ θ = 1.21 cos A cos B cos C = 0
5 3 21 5 3 cos A = 0 or cos B = 0 or cos C = 0
Maximum of S = r + = + π π π
4 2 4 A= or B= or C=
= 4.46 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 2 2 2
∴ ∆ABC is right-angled.
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 139

1 (b) From (a),


11. (a) K = ( ad sin A + bc sin C )
2 m( 3 + tan β)
(b) BD2 = a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos A = 3 + tan α
= 3 + tan(60° − β)
BD = a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos A
(Q ∠EDF = 360° − 90° − 90° − 30° − 30°
= 180° − 60°
Also, BD = b + c − 2 bc cos C
2 2
= 120°
(c) From (b), ∴ α + β = 180° − ∠EDF = 60° )
a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos A = b 2 + c 2 − 2 bc cos C 3 − tan β
= 3+
a 2 + d 2 − b 2 − c 2 = 2 ad cos A − 2 bc cos C 1 + 3 tan β
∴ 16k 2 + ( a 2 + d 2 − b 2 − c 2 )2 2 3 + 2 tan β
=
1 + 3 tan β
= 4( ad sin A + bc sin C )2
2( 3 + tan β)
+ 4( ad cos A − bc cos C )2 =
1 + 3 tan β
= 4 a 2 d 2 (sin 2 A + cos 2 A)
2
+ 4b 2 c 2 (sin 2 C + cos 2 C ) ∴ m= (∴ 3 + tan β ≠ 0 )
1 + 3 tan β
+ 8abcd (sin A sin C − cos A cos C )
= 4( a 2 d 2 + b 2 c 2 ) − 8abcd cos( A + C ) m(1 + 3 tan β) = 2
m + 3m tan β = 2
(d) For maximum area, cos( A + C ) = −1
3m tan β = 2 − m
A + C = 180° .
2−m
Hence the quadrilateral is cyclic. tan β =
3m
2 From (a),
16 K max
= 4( ad + bc)2 − ( a 2 + d 2 − b 2 − c 2 )2 m( 3 + tan β) = 3 + tan α
= [2 ad + 2 bc + a + d − b − c ] ⋅
2 2 2 2 m[ 3 + tan(60° − α )] = 3 + tan α
[2 ad + 2 bc − a 2 − d 2 + b 2 + c 2 ] 3 − tan α
m( 3 + )= 3 + tan α
= [( a + d )2 − (b − c)2 ] ⋅ 1 + 3 tan α
[(b + c)2 − ( a − d )2 ] 2( 3 + tan α )
m[ ]= 3 + tan α
= ( a + d + b − c)( a + d − b + c) 1 + 3 tan α
(b + c + a − d )(b + c − a + d ) 1 + 3 tan α (∴
∴ m= 3 + tan α ≠ 0 )
1 2
K max = [(b + c + d − a)(c + d + a − b) ⋅
4 2 m = 1 + 3 tan α
1 2m − 1
tan α =
( d + a + b − c)( a + b + c − d )] 2 3
1 (c) BC = BD + DC
Let s = ( a + b + c + d ).
2 = a 2 + BE 2 + a 2 + CF 2
Then the maximum area is
= a 2 + a 2 tan 2 α + a 2 + a 2 tan 2 β
( s − a)( s − b)( s − c)( s − d ) .
4m 2 − 4m + 1
= a 1+
3
12. (a) AB = AE + AB
= a tan 60° + a tan α 4 − 4m + m 2
+ a 1+
= a( 3 + tan α ) 3m 2
2 am m 2 − m + 1 + 2 a m 2 − m + 1
Similarly, AC = a( 3 + tan β) =
3m
AB 3 + tan α 2 a( m + 1) m 2 − m + 1
m= = =
AC 3 + tan β 3m
140 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

13. (a) (i) ∠BAC = 180° − 4α (c) From the results of (a) and (b),
AD a a
In ∆ABD, = ∴
sin α sin(180° − 4α ) h(cot α + cot γ )
a sin α a 2 + h 2 (cot 2 α − cot 2 β)
AD = =
sin(180° − 4α ) 2 ah cot α
(ii) ∠BDC = 180° − 3α
In ∆BDC , Substitute a = 3, α = 30° , β = 45°, γ = 60°
BC a into the above equation,
= 3 3 + h 2 (3 − 1)
sin(180° − 3α ) sin 2α ∴ =
a sin(180° − 3α ) h ( 3 +1 ) 2( 3 )( 3 )h
BC = 3
sin 2α 3 3 + 2h 2
(b) Q AD + BD = BC =
4h 6h
a sin α a sin(180° − 3α )
+a= 18 = 12 + 8h 2
sin(180° − 4α ) sin 2α 3
a sin α + a sin 4α a sin 3α ∴ h2 =
= 4
sin 4α sin 2α
sin α sin 2α + sin 2α sin 4α = sin 3α sin 4α 3
h= (as h > 0 )
2
(c) sin x sin 2 x + sin 2 x sin 4 x
3
1 Substitute h = into the result of (a),
= sin 3 x sin 4 x − (cos 3 x − cos x ) 2
2
1 3
− (cos 6 x − cos 2 x ) ∴ cos θ =
3
2 2
( 3+ 1 )
1 3
= − (cos 7 x − cos x ) 3
2 =
cos 3 x + cos 6 x = cos 7 x + cos 2 x 2
9 3 9 5 ∴ θ = 30° (as 0 < θ < 90° )
2 cos x cos x = 2 cos x cos x
2 2 2 2
9 3 5 15 − 18. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
cos x (cos x − cos x ) = 0
2 2 2 questions because of the copyright reasons.
9 3 5
cos x = 0 or cos x − cos x = 0 (rejected)
2 2 2
9
Enrichment 9 (p.220)
x = 90°, 270°
2 1. (a) (i) Consider ∆ABD, by the cosine formula,
x = 20°, 60°
BD2 = AB2 + DA2 − 2( AB)( DA) cos A
(d) Q α < 45°
q 2 = a 2 + d 2 − 2 ad cos A ...............(1)
∴ α = 20°
For ∆CBD ,

14. (a) (i) AK = h cot α , BK = h cot β , CK = h cot γ q 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2 bc cos( π − A)


= b 2 + c 2 + 2 bc cos A...................(2)
(ii) AC = AK + KC (ii) (1) × bc
= h(cot α + cot γ ) (By (a)(i))
bcq 2 = bc( a 2 + d 2 ) − 2 abcd cos A .....(3)
Q ∠ABC = 90° (AC is diameter)
(2) × ad
a
∴ cos θ = adq 2 = ad (b 2 + c 2 ) + 2 abcd cos A .....(4)
h(cot α + cot γ )
(b) In ∆ABK , by the cosine formula, (3) + (4), (bc + ad )q 2
BK = AK + AB − 2( AK )( AB) cos θ
2 2 2
= bc( a 2 + d 2 ) + ad (b 2 + c 2 )
∴ h 2 cot 2 β = a 2 bc + bcd 2 + ab 2 d + ac 2 d
= h cot α + a − 2(h cot α )( a) cos θ
2 2 2 = ( ab + cd )( ac + bd )
( ab + cd )( ac + bd )
a 2 + h 2 (cot 2 α − cot 2 β) ∴ q2 =
∴ cos θ = bc + ad
2 ah cot α
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 141

(b) Let ∠ABC = B , consider ∆ABC and ∆ACD . 3. PD = h cot α , PE = h cot β , PF = h cot γ
p = a + b − 2 ab cos C ........................(5)
2 2 2 x 2 + (h cot β)2 − (h cot α )2
(a) cos ∠DEP =
2 x (h cot β)
p 2 = c 2 + d 2 − 2cd cos( π − C )
x 2 + h 2 (cot 2 β − cot 2 α )
=
= c + d + 2cd cos C ........................(6)
2 2
2 xh cot β
By eliminating cos C from (5) and (6), we x 2 + (h cot β)2 − (h cot γ )2
have cos ∠FEP =
2 x (h cot β)
( ac + bd )( ad + bc)
p2 = x 2 + h 2 (cot 2 β − cot 2 γ )
ab + cd =
2 xh cot β
(c) ∴ p2 q 2
(b) ∠DEP + ∠FEP = 180°
( ac + bd )( ad + bc) ( ab + cd )( ac + bd )
= ⋅ ∴ ∠DEP = 180° − ∠FEP
ab + cd bc + ad
= ( ac + bd )2 cos ∠DEP = cos(180° − ∠FEP)
= − cos ∠FEP
∴ pq = ac + bd (as a, b, c, d , p, q > 0 )
cos ∠DEP + cos ∠FEP = 0
2. (a) (i) AC = ( a + b) cos θ x 2 + h 2 (cot 2 β − cot 2 α )
BC = ( a + b)sin θ + x 2 + h 2 (cot 2 β − cot 2 γ ) = 0
(ii) DC = AC tan 60° h 2 (cot 2 α + cot 2 γ − 2 cot 2 β) = 2 x 2
= 3 ( a + b) cos θ 4. (a) (i) ∠ADE = ∠ACD = ∠CBF = θ
DC = BC tan 30°
1 ∴ DE = a cos θ
= ( a + b) cos θ BF = a cos θ
3
(ii) AE = a sin θ
( a + b)sin θ
∴ 3 ( a + b) cos θ = CF = a sin θ
3 (iii) EF = AC − AE − CF
tan θ = 3 , cos θ =
1 = 2 2 − 2 a sin θ
10
(b) BD2 = DE 2 + EB2
(b) (i) MC 2 = AC 2 + AM 2 − 2( AC )( AM ) cos θ = DE 2 + EF 2 + BF 2
= ( a + b)2 cos 2 θ + a 2 5 = a 2 cos 2 θ + (2 2 − 2 a sin θ)2 + a 2 cos 2 θ
− 2( a + b) cos θ( a) cos θ 5 = 2 a 2 cos 2 θ + (2 2 − 2 a sin θ)2
= ( a + b)2 cos 2 θ + a 2 As a = AC sin θ = 2 2 sin θ , substitute this
− 2 a( a + b) cos 2 θ result into the above equation,
= a 2 + ( a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 ∴ 5 = 2(2 2 sin θ)2 cos 2 θ
− 2 a 2 − 2 ab) cos 2 θ + [2 2 − 2(2 2 sin θ)sin θ]2
∴ MC 2 = a 2 + (b 2 − a 2 ) cos 2 θ = 2(8 sin 2 θ)(1 − sin 2 θ)
(ii) Q DC = MC tan γ , b = 2 a + (2 2 − 4 2 sin 2 θ)2
( a + b) cos θ tan 60° 5 = 16 sin 2 θ − 16 sin 4 θ + 8
∴ tan γ =
− 32 sin 2 θ + 32 sin 4 θ
a 2 + (b 2 − a 2 ) cos 2 θ
1 ∴ 16 sin 4 θ − 16 sin 2 θ + 3 = 0
3a ⋅ ⋅ 3
10 Since AB ≥ BC , ∴ 0° < θ ≤ 45°
=
a 2 + 3a 2 ⋅ 10
1
(c) 16 sin 4 θ − 16 sin 2 θ + 3 = 0 ( 0° < θ ≤ 45° )

=
3 3 10
⋅ ( 4 sin 2 θ − 3)( 4 sin 2 θ − 1) = 0
10 13
3 1
27 ∴ sin 2 θ = or sin 2 θ =
= 4 4
13
142 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

As 0° ≤ θ ≤ 45° , 6. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


1 question because of the copyright reasons.
∴ sin θ = and θ = 30°
2
∴ AB = AC cos θ = 6 Classwork 1 (p.195)
BC = AC sin θ = 2 1. C = 180° − A − B
= 180° − 30° − 90°
= 60°
5. (a) x2 + y − x
b a
( x 2 + y − x )( x 2 + y + x ) =
= sin B sin A
x2 + y + x a sin B
b=
( x 2 + y) − x 2 sin A
= 2 sin 90°
x2 + y + x =
sin 30°
y =4
= > 0 (as x > 0, y > 0)
x2 + y + x a
=
c
h sin A sin C
(b) (i) tan θ = a sin C
AB c=
h sin A
tan α = 2 sin 60°
AH =
sin 30°
h
AB = =2 3
tan θ
AH = AB2 + a 2
2. A = 180° − B − C
h 2
= ( ) + a2 = 180° − 75° − 70°
tan θ = 35°
h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ a b
= =
tan θ sin A sin B
tan θ − tan α b=
a sin B
h h sin A
= − 7 sin 75°
AB AH =
( AH )h − ( AB)h sin 35°
= = 11.79 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
( AB)( AH )
a c
h h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ h2
− tan =
= tan θ θ sin A sin C
h ⋅ h + a tan θ a sin C
2 2 2

tan θ tan θ c=
sin A
(tan θ)h( h + a tan θ − h)
2 2 2 7 sin 70°
= =
h h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ sin 35°
= 11.47 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ − h
= tan θ( )
h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ a b
3. =
(ii) By (a), sin A sin B
a sin B 3 sin 20°
sin A = =
h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ − h > 0 and b 2
A = 46.51° or 133.49° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
h 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ > 0 , Case 1:
and θ is an acute angle, i.e. tan θ > 0 . If A = 46.51° ,
∴ tan θ − tan α > 0 C = 180° − A − B
tan θ > tan α = 180° − 46.51° − 20°
Slope of AF > Slope of AG = 113.49° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 143

b c Case 2:
=
sin B sin C If B = 116.67°
b sin C A = 180° − B − C
c=
sin B = 180° − 116.67° − 70°
2 sin 113.49° = −6.67° (rejected)
=
sin 20°  A = 46.67°
= 3.79 (corr. to 2 d.p.) 
Case 2:
∴  B = 63.33°
c = 45.22
If A = 133.49° , 

C = 180° − A − B b2 + c2 − a2
(b) cos A =
= 180° − 133.49° − 20° 2 bc
= 26.51° 30 + 452 − 20 2
2
=
b c 2(30)( 45)
= A = 20.74° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
sin B sin C
c=
b sin C c2 + a2 − b2
cos B =
sin B 2ca
2 sin 26.51° 452 + 20 2 − 30 2
= =
sin 20° 2( 45)(20)
= 1.85 B = 32.09° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
 A = 46.51°  A = 133.49° C = 180° − A − B
  = 180° + 20.74° − 32.09°
∴ C = 113.49° or C = 26.51°
c = 3.79 c = 1.85 = 127.17°
 
 A = 20.74°

b c ∴  B = 32.09°
4. = C = 127.17°
sin B sin C 
b sin C
sin B =
c 2. (a) By the sine formula,
9.3 sin 65°
sin B = a
=
b
=
c
= 2R
4 sin A sin B sin C
sin B = 2.11 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
∴ a = 2R sin A , b = 2 R sin B , c = 2 R sin C
Since sin B > 1 , it is impossible to construct the
ab + ac
triangle. ∴ = [(2 R sin A)(2 R sin B)
bc + (2 R sin A)(2 R sin C )]
÷ (2 R sin B)(2 R sin C )
Classwork 2 (p.199)
sin A sin B + sin A sin C
=
1. (a) c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2 ab cos C sin B sin C
= 352 + 432 − 2(35)( 43) cos 70° 1 1
= sin A( + )
c = 45.22 (corr. to 2 d.p.) sin C sin B
c b = sin A(csc B + csc C )
= (b) By the cosine formula,
sin C sin B
b sin C 43 sin 70° b2 + c2 − a2
sin B = = b cos A =
c 45.22 2c
B = 63.33° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
c + a2 − b2
2
or a cos B =
B = 116.67° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 2c
a cos B + b cos A
Case 1:
b2 + c2 − a2 c2 + a2 − b2
If B = 63.33° = +
2c 2c
A = 180° − B − C 2
2c
= 180° − 63.33° − 70° =
= 46.67° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 2c
=c
144 Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles

(c) By the sine formula, (ii) CM = MD


a b c By the cosine formula,
= = = 2R
sin A sin B sin C cos ∠DMC
a b c
sin A = , sin B = , sin C = DM 2 + CM 2 − CD2
2R 2R 2R =
2( DM )(CM )
sin 2 A + sin 2 B − sin 2 C
∴ ( 25 )2 + ( 25 )2 − 1
2 sin A + sin B =
( 2 R )2 + ( 2bR )2 − ( 2cR )2
a 2( 25 )( 25 )
=
2( 2aR )( 2bR ) = 53.1° (corr. to the nearest 0.1° )
The required angle is 53.1° .
a2 + b2 − c2
=
2 ab (iii) ST = MT = 1
= cos C ∠SMT = 45°
E S H
3. In ∆AMC ,
m2 + a2 − c2
cos ∠AMC = D T C
2 am
2 am cos ∠AMC = m 2 + a 2 − c 2
In ∆AMB ,
m2 + a2 − c2 M
cos ∠AMB =
2 am The required angle is 45° .
2 am cos( π − ∠AMC) = m 2 + a 2 − c 2
−2 am cos ∠AMC = m 2 + a 2 − c 2
Classwork 4 (p.209)
−( m 2 + a 2 − b 2 ) = m 2 + a 2 − c 2
∴ 2m 2 + 2a2 = b 2 + c 2 (a) In ∆ATD ,
TD
tan 30° =
AD
Classwork 3 (p.207) AD = 3h m
1. (a) B In ∆BDT ,
(b) AB TD
tan 45° =
(c) ∠BMP BD
BD = h m
(d) ∠ABC
(e) ∠APB In ∆ACD ,
TD
tan 60° =
CD
2. (a) (i) D
3h
(ii) DB CD = m
3
(iii) AM
(b) In ∆BCD , using the cosine formula,
1
(b) (i) AM = MB = 3h 2
2 ( ) = h 2 + 50 2 − 2 h(50) cos φ
1 5 3
CM = 1 + ( )2 =
2
h2
2 2 = h 2 + 2 500 − 100 h cos φ
In ∆CMH , 3
tan ∠MHC = CM 2 h 2 + 7 500 − 300 h cos φ = 0
5 h 2 = 150 h cos φ − 3 750
tan ∠MHC =
2 (c) (i) cos ∠ABD = cos( π − φ)
∠MHC = 48.2° (corr. to the nearest 0.1° ) = − cos φ
The required angle is 48.2° .
Chapter 9 Solution of Triangles 145

(ii) In ∆ABD, using the cosine formula,


60 2 + h 2 + 2(60)(h) cos φ = 3h 2
2 h 2 = 120 h cos φ + 3 600
h 2 = 60 h cos φ + 1 800
(iii) From (b),

h 2 + 3 750
cos φ =
150 h
From (c),

h 2 − 1 800
cos φ =
60 h
h + 3 750 h 2 − 1 800
2
∴ =
150 h 60 h
5h 2 − 9 000 = 2 h 2 + 7 500
h = 74.2 m (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ The height is 74.2 m .