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# Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 153

Solutions to
Reference Chapter for
Chapter 18
154 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NU^=EéKRUF
∫ x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1 = ∫ ( x − 1)
8. dx −3
dx

1
( x + 6) 7 dx = ( x + 6)8 + C
( x − 1) −2
1.
8 = +C
−2
1
= − ( x − 1) −2 + C
∫ (5 x − 2 )
1
2. 4
dx = (5 x − 2 ) 5 + C 2
25

∫x ∫
1
(8 x − 1)3 +1 9. x 2 − 1dx = x 2 − 1d ( x 2 − 1)
∫ (8 x − 1) dx = +C
3 2
3.
8(3 + 1) 3

=
1
(8 x − 1) 4 + C 1 ( x 2 − 1) 2
= ⋅ 3
+C
32 2 2
3
1 2
= ( x − 1) 2 + C
∫ ( x + 2) 4 = ∫ ( x + 2)
dx −4 3
4. dx

( x + 2) −3
= +C
∫x ∫
−3 1
10. 3
1 + x 4 dx = 1 + x 4 d (1 + x 4 )
1 4
= − ( x + 2) −3 + C 3
3
1 (1 + x 4 ) 2
= 3
+C
4 2

∫ (1 − x )3 dx = 4∫ (1 − x )
4 −3 3
5. dx 1
= (1 + x 4 ) 2 + C
6
4(1 − x ) −2
= +C
( −1)( −2)
= 2(1 − x ) −2 + C
∫ (1 − x ∫
1
11. ) x dx = −
3 2 2
(1 − x 3 )2 d (1 − x 3 )
3
1 (1 − x 3 )3

1 =− +C
∫ ∫
dx 3 3
6. = (2 x − 3) 2 dx 1
2x − 3 = − (1 − x 3 )3 + C
1 9
1 (2 x − 3) 2
= 1
+C
2 2
∫ ( x 2 + 3)3 = 2 ∫ ( x
xdx 1
= 2x − 3 + C 12. 2
+ 3) −3 d ( x 2 + 3)

1 ( x 2 + 3) −2
= +C
1 2 −2

∫ ∫
x x 1
7. 3− dx = (3 − ) 2 dx = − ( x 2 + 3) −2 + C
2 2 4
3
(3 − 2 )
x 2
= −2 ⋅ +C
∫ (x ∫
− x )3 (2 x − 1)dx = ( x 2 − x )3 d ( x 2 − x )
3 2
2
13.
3 1 2
=
4
− (3 − ) 2
x
+C = ( x − x )4 + C
3 2 4
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 155

( x + 1)dx
14. ∫ x + 2x + 3
2
19.

3 x (3 x − 2 )
(3 x − 1)2
dx =∫
(3 x − 1)2 − 1
(3 x − 1)2
dx

= ∫ [1 − (3 x − 1) −2 ]dx
1

1
= (x2 + 2x + 3) 2 d ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)
2
= ∫ dx − ∫ (3 x − 1) −2 dx
= x2 + 2x + 3 + C
(3 x − 1) −1
=x− +C
3( −1)
1 d (8 x 2 ) =x+
1
+C
∫ ∫
4 xdx
15. = 4
3(3 x − 1)
1 − 8x 2 1 − 8x 2
1

1
=− (1 − 8 x 2 ) 2 d (1 − 8 x 2 ) 12 x 2 + 36 x + 1 3(2 x + 3)2 − 26
4
1
20. ∫ (2 x + 3)2
dx = ∫ (2 x + 3)2
dx

(1 − 8 x 2 ) 2

1 26
=− +C = [3 − ]dx
4 1 (2 x + 3)2
2
1 = 3∫ dx − 26 ∫ (2 x + 3) −2 dx
1
= − (1 − 8 x 2 ) 2 + C
2 (2 x + 3) −1
= 3 x − 26 ⋅ +C
2( −1)
13
= 3x + +C
2x + 1 d ( x 2 + x + 1) 2x + 3
16. ∫ ( x 2 + x + 1)2
dx = ∫
( x 2 + x + 1)2
1 3 x 3 + 27 x 2 + 81x + 21
=− 2
x + x +1
+C 21. ∫ ( x + 3)3
dx

3( x + 3)3 − 60
= ∫ ( x + 3)3
dx
x 2 − 6 x + 11 ( x − 3)2 + 2
17.
∫ x2 − 6x + 9
dx = ∫ ( x − 3)2
dx

= [3 −
60
]dx
( x + 3)3

2
= [1 + ]dx = 3∫ dx − 60 ∫ ( x + 3) −3 dx
( x − 3)2
= ∫ dx + 2 ∫ ( x − 3) −2 dx = 3x +
30
+C
( x + 3)2
2
=x− +C
x−3
(2 x − 1)2 − 1
22.
∫ 4 x ( x − 1)(2 x − 1) −2 dx =∫ (2 x − 1)2
dx

4x2 − 4x + 9 (1 − 2 x )2 + 8 1
= [1 −
∫ ∫ (1 − 2 x )2 dx
18. dx = ]dx
(1 − 2 x )2 (2 x − 1)2
= ∫ dx − ∫ (2 x − 1) −2 dx
= ∫ [1 +
8
]dx
(1 − 2 x )2 1
=x+ +C
= ∫ dx + 8∫ (1 − 2 x ) −2 dx 2(2 x − 1)

(1 − 2 x ) −1
= x + 8[ ]+ C
( −2)( −1)
∫ ( x + 1)( x + 2 x − 3)dx
23. 2
4
=x+ +C
= ∫ ( x 2 + 2 x − 3)d ( x 2 + 2 x − 3)
1
1 − 2x
4 2
=x− +C 1 ( x 2 + 2 x − 3)2
2x − 1 = +C
2 2
1
= ( x 2 + 2 x − 3)2 + C
4
156 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

## 24. Let u = 1 − x , then 1

u = 1− x 2
∫ ∫
x ( x − 2) 3 dx = (u 3 + 2) ⋅ u(3u 2 du)
2udu = − dx
= ∫ (3u 6 + 6u 3 )du
∫ x 1 − xdx
2
3 7 3 4
= u + u +C
= ∫ (1 − u 2 )2 u( −2udu)
7 2
7 4
3 3
= ∫ ( −2u 2 + 4u 4 − 2u 6 )du = ( x − 2) 3 + ( x − 2) 3 + C
7 2
u3 u5 u7
= −2 ⋅ + 4⋅ − 2⋅ +C
3 5 7 28. Let u = 1 − x 2 , then
2 4 2
= − u3 + u5 − u 7 + C u2 = 1 − x 2
3 5 7
3 5 7 2udu = −2 xdx
2 4 2
= − (1 − x ) 2 + (1 − x ) 2 − (1 − x ) 2 + C
∫x 1 − x 2 dx = ∫ x 1 − x xdx
3 2 2
3 5 7
= ∫ (1 − u 2 ) ⋅ u( −udu)
25. Let u = 6 x − 1 , then 1 5 1 3
= u − u +C
u = 6x − 1
2 5 3
2udu = 6 dx 1 1
5 3
1 1 = (1 − x 2 ) 2 − (1 − x 2 ) 2 + C
(u 2 + 1) ⋅ udu 5 3
∫ ∫
xdx
= 6 3
6x − 1 u

1
= (u + 1)du
2 29. Let u = 1 + x 2 , then
18
1 2 xdx xdx
1 u3 du = ⋅ = ;
= ( + u) + C 2 1 + x2 1 + x2
18 3
1 1
3 1 u2 = 1 + x 2
= (6 x − 1) 2 + (6 x − 1) 2 + C
54 18 x 2 = u2 − 1
x 3 dx x 2 xdx
26. Let u = (2 x
1 ∫ 1 + x2
= ∫ 1 + x2
− 1) 2, then
u2 = 2 x − 1 = ∫ (u 2 − 1)du
2udu = 2 dx
u3
1 (u 2 + 1) ⋅ udu = −u+C
∫ ∫
xdx
= 2 3
3 u3 3 1
(2 x − 1) 2 =
1
(1 + x 2 ) 2 − (1 + x 2 ) 2 + C
3

1
= (1 + u −2 )du
2
1
(u − u −1 ) + C
1
= 30. Let u = , then
2 x
1 2 du
= (u − 1) + C dx = − 2
2u u
2( x − 1)
= +C 1− 1
2 2x − 1 1 − x2
∫ ∫
u2 1
dx = (− du)
x −1 x4 1
u2
= +C u4
2x − 1

1

= − u u 2 − 1 du

1
27. Let u = ( x − 2) 3, then =− u 2 − 1 d (u 2 − 1)
2
u3 = x − 2 1
3

3u du = dx
2 = − (u 2 − 1) 2 + C
3
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 157

3 5 − 4x 5 − 4x
∫ cos(
3
1 1 8. )dx = − sin( )+C
= − ( 2 − 1) 2 + C 3 4 3
3 x
3
1
=− (1 − x 2 ) 2 + C
∫ (sin 3x + cos 4 )dx = ∫ sin 3xdx + ∫ cos 4 dx
x x
3x 3 9.
1 x
= − cos 3 x + 4 sin + C
31. (a) A(1 + x 2 )2 + Bx (1 − x )2 3 4
= A(1 + 2 x 2 + x 4 ) + Bx (1 − 2 x + x 2 )
∫ (2 sin 2 − 3 cos 2 x )dx
x
10.
= Ax 4 + Bx 3 + (2 A − 2 B) x 2 + Bx + A
= 2 ∫ sin dx − 3∫ cos 2 xdx
= −x 4 + 2x3 − 6x2 + 2x − 1 x
2
By comparing the coefficients of both sides, x 3
A = −1 , B = 2 = −4 cos − sin 2 x + C
2 2
−x 4 + 2x3 − 6x2 + 2x − 1
(b)
∫ (1 − x )2 (1 + x 2 )2
dx
∫ sec 2 x tan 2 xdx = 2 sec 2 x + C
1
11.
− dx
∫ ∫
2 xdx
= +
(1 − x ) 2
(1 + x 2 )2
d (1 − x ) d (1 + x 2 )
∫ csc
1
∫ ∫ 5 xdx = − cot 5 x + C
2
= + 12.
(1 − x )2 (1 + x 2 )2 5
−1 1
= − +C
1 − x 1 + x2
∫x ∫
1
13. 2
sec 2 ( x 3 )dx = sec 2 ( x 3 )d ( x 3 )
−x2 + x − 2 3
= +C 1
(1 − x )(1 + x 2 ) = tan( x 3 ) + C
3

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NU_=EéKSRF
∫ tan ∫
x x
14. 2
( + 1)dx = [sec 2 ( + 1) − 1]dx
2 2

1
1. sin 4 xdx = − cos 4 x + C x
4 = 2 tan( + 1) − x + C
2

## ∫ cos 2 xdx = 2 sin 2 x + C

1 1
∫ x sin(3 − x ∫
2. 1
15. 2
)dx = − sin(3 − x 2 )d (3 − x 2 )
2
1
= − [ − cos(3 − x 2 )] + C
∫ cos 2 xdx = 2 sin 2 x + C
1 2
3.
1
= cos(3 − x 2 ) + C
2

∫ sin 7 dx = −7 cos 7 + C
x x
4.
∫ sin 2 x cos 3xdx = 2 ∫ [sin 5x + sin(− x )]dx
1
16.
1 1
= cos x − cos 5 x + C

1
5. cos( 4 x − 7)dx = sin( 4 x − 7) + C 2 10
4

## ∫ sin( 9 − 7)dx = −9 cos( 9 − 7) + C

x x
∫ cos 4 x sin 5xdx = 2 ∫ [sin 9 x − sin(− x )]dx
6. 1
17.
1 1
=− cos 9 x − cos x + C
18 2
∫ sin(−
6x 5 6x
7. + 8)dx = cos( − + 8) + C
5 6 5
158 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

∫ sin 2 x cos ∫
1
∫ ∫
1 2
2 xdx = sin 2 x cos 2 2 xd (2 x )
18. sin x sin 3 xdx = (cos 2 x − cos 4 x )dx 26.
2 2

1 1 1
= sin 2 x − sin 4 x + C =− cos 2 2 xd (cos 2 x )
4 8 2
1 1
= − ( cos3 2 x ) + C
2 3
∫ cos 4 x cos 5xdx = ∫ 2 (cos 9 x + cos x )dx
1 1
19. = − cos3 2 x + C
6
1 1
= sin 9 x + sin x + C
18 2
∫ sin ∫
x cos 2 xdx = sin 2 x cos 2 x ⋅ sin xdx
27. 3

20.
∫ cos 3 x cos 2 xdx =
1
2 ∫
(cos 5 x + cos x )dx ∫
= − (1 − cos 2 x )cos 2 xd (cos x )

=
1 1
sin 5 x + sin x + C ∫
= (cos 4 x − cos 2 x )d (cos x )
10 2 1 1
= cos 5 x − cos3 x + C
5 3

## ∫ (sin x − cos x ) dx = ∫ (1 − sin 2 x )dx

2
21.
∫ sin xdx
4
1 28.
= x + cos 2 x + C
2 = ∫ (sin 2 x )2 dx

= ∫ [ (1 − cos 2 x )]2 dx
1
1
− 2
∫ ∫
cos xdx
22. = (sin x ) 2 d (sin x )
= ∫ (1 − cos 2 x )2 dx
1
sin x
1 4
= ∫ (1 − 2 cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x )dx
(sin x ) 2 1
= 1
+C 4
= ∫ dx − ∫ cos 2 xdx + ∫ cos 2 2 xdx
2 1 1 1
= 2 sin x + C 4 2 4
= x − sin 2 x + ∫ (cos 4 x + 1)dx
1 1 1
4 4 8
∫ cos3 2 x dx = −2∫ (cos 2 x )
4 sin 2 x −3
23. d (cos 2 x )
= x − sin 2 x + ∫ cos 4 xdx + x + C
1 1 1 1
4 4 8 8
(cos 2 x ) −2 3 1 1
= −2 ⋅ +C = x − sin 2 x + sin 4 x + C
−2 8 4 32
= sec 2 2 x + C

∫ cos ∫
x 1
29. 4
dx = [ (1 + cos x )]2 dx
2 2
sin 3 x 1 − cos 2 x
24. ∫ 2
cos x
dx = − ( ∫
cos 2 x
)d (cos x ) =
1
4 ∫
(1 + 2 cos x + cos 2 x )dx

= [1 − (cos x ) −2 ]d (cos x ) =
1
4 ∫
1
[1 + 2 cos x + (1 + cos 2 x )]dx
2
(cos x ) −1

3 1 1
= cos x − +C = ( + cos x + cos 2 x ) dx
−1 8 2 8
= cos x + sec x + C 3 1 1
= x + sin x + sin 2 x + C
8 2 16

∫ sin ∫
x cos xdx = sin 3 xd (sin x )
3
25.
∫ cos ∫
1
1 30. 3
2 xdx = cos 2 2 x cos 2 xd (2 x )
= sin 4 x + C 2
4

1
= (1 − sin 2 2 x )d (sin 2 x )
2
1 1
= sin 2 x − sin 3 2 x + C
2 6
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 159

## ∫ sin 2 x cos 2 xdx ∫ sec ∫

2 3 1
31. 37. 4
2 xdx = sec 2 2 xd (tan 2 x )
2
= ∫ sin 2 2 x cos 2 2 xd (sin 2 x )
1

1
= (tan 2 2 x + 1)d (tan 2 x )
2 2
= ∫ (sin 2 2 x − sin 4 2 x )d (sin 2 x )
1 1 1
= tan 2 x + tan 3 2 x + C
2 2 6
1 3 1
= sin 2 x − sin 5 2 x + C
6 10
∫ csc ∫
xdx = − csc 4 xd (cot x )
38. 6

## = − ∫ (cot 2 x + 1)2 d (cot x )

∫ sin 2 x cos 2 xdx
3 4
32.

## = ∫ sin 2 2 x cos 4 2 xd ( − cos 2 x )

1 = − ∫ (1 + 2 cot 2 x + cot 4 x )d (cot x )
2
2 1
= ∫ (cos 6 2 x − cos 4 2 x )d (cos 2 x )
1 = − cot x − cot 3 x − cot 5 x + C
2 3 5
1 1
= cos 7 2 x − cos 5 2 x + C
∫ tan ∫
14 10
39. 3
x sec 4 xdx = tan 3 x sec 2 xd (tan x )

## = ∫ (tan 3 x + tan 5 x )d (tan x )

∫ tan ∫
x sec 2 xdx = tan 5 xd (tan x )
5
33.
1 1
1 = tan 4 x + tan 6 x + C
= tan 6 x + C 4 6
6

## ∫ tan x sec xdx

40. 2 6

∫ ∫
x x x x
34. cot 4 csc 2 dx = −2 cot 4 d (cot )
= ∫ tan 2 x sec 4 xd (tan x )
2 2 2 2
2 x
= − cot 5 + C
5 2 = ∫ (tan 2 x + 2 tan 4 x + tan 6 x )d (tan x )
1 2 1
35.
∫ tan 6 xdx =
3
tan 3 x + tan 5 x + tan 7 x + C
5 7

= tan 4 x (sec 2 x − 1)dx

## ∫ tan 2 x sec 2 xdx

3 3
= ∫ tan 4 x sec 2 xdx − ∫ tan 4 xdx 41.

## = ∫ tan 2 2 x sec 2 2 xd (sec 2 x )

1
= ∫ tan 4 xd (tan x ) − ∫ tan 2 x (sec 2 x − 1)dx 2
= ∫ (sec 4 2 x − sec 2 2 x )d (sec 2 x )
1
= tan 5 x − ∫ tan 2 x sec 2 xdx + ∫ tan 2 xdx
1
5 2
1 1
= tan 5 x − ∫ tan 2 xd (tan x ) + ∫ (sec 2 x − 1)dx
1 = sec 5 2 x − sec3 2 x + C
5 10 6
1 1
= tan 5 x − tan 3 x + tan x − x + C
5 3
∫ cot 3x csc ∫
1
42. 4
3 xdx = csc3 3 xd ( − csc 3 x )
3

∫ cot 2 xdx
1
36. 4
= − csc 4 3 x + C
12
= ∫ cot 2 2 x (csc 2 2 x − 1)dx

## = ∫ cot 2 2 x csc 2 2 xdx − ∫ cot 2 2 xdx ∫ cot ∫

x csc3 xdx = − cot 2 x csc 2 xd (csc x )
3
43.

## = − ∫ cot 2 2 xd (cot 2 x ) − ∫ (csc 2 2 x − 1)dx

1
2

= (csc 2 x − csc 4 x )d (csc x )
1 1
1 1
= − cot 3 2 x + cot 2 x + x + C = csc3 x − csc 5 x + C
6 2 3 5
1 1
= x + cot 2 x − cot 3 2 x + C
2 6
160 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NU`=EéKSVF
∫ cot ∫
x csc 4 xdx = − cot 2 x csc3 xd (csc x )
3
44.
1. Let x = 3sin θ , then

= (csc3 x − csc 5 x )d (csc x )
dx = 3 cos θdθ ;
1 1
= csc 4 x − csc 6 x + C
4 6 9 − x 2 = 3 cos θ
3 cos θdθ
∫ ∫
dx
=
3 cos θ
∫ sin 4 x cos x cos 3xdx 9− x
45. 2

## = ∫ (sin 5 x + sin 3 x ) cos 3 xdx

1
2
= dθ∫
=θ+C
= ∫ sin 5 x cos 3 xdx + ∫ sin 3 x cos 3 xdx
1 1
x
2 2 = sin −1 +C
3
= ∫ (sin 8 x + sin 2 x )dx + ∫ sin 6 xdx
1 1
4 4
1 1 1 1 cos 6 x 2. Let x = 2 tan θ , then
= ( − cos 8 x − cos 2 x ) + ( − )+C
4 8 2 4 6 dx = 2 sec 2 θdθ;
1 1 1
= − cos 8 x − cos 2 x − cos 6 x + C 4 + x 2 = 4 sec 2 θ
32 8 24
2 sec 2 θdθ
∫ ∫
dx
=
4+x 2
4 sec 2 θ
46. Let u = tan θ , then 1
dθ = θ+C
du = sec 2 θdθ = ; 2
cos 2 θ 1 x
1 1 = tan −1 + C
= csc 2 θ = 1 + cot 2 θ = 1 + 2 2 2
sin θ
2
u

∫ ∫
1 3. Let 2x = sin θ , then
= (1 + 2 )du
sin 2 θ cos 2 θ u
2dx = cos θdθ ; 1 − 4 x 2 = cos θ
1
= u + (− ) + C
∫ ∫
1
u 1 − 4 x 2 dx = cos θ ⋅ cos θdθ
= tan θ − cot θ + C 2

1
= cos θdθ
2

## 47. Let u = sin θ , then 2

1
du = cos θdθ = (1 + cos 2θ)dθ
4
sin 2θdθ 2 sin θ cos θdθ
∫ 3 sin 2 θ + 3 = ∫
1 1
3
= θ + sin 2θ + C
sin 2 θ + 3 4 8
1 1
= θ + sin θ cos θ + C
∫ 3 u2 + 3
2udu
= 4 4
1 −1 x
= sin 2 x + 1 − 4x2 + C
d (u 2 + 3)
∫ 3 u2 + 3
= 4 2

## 2 4. Let 5 x = 4 sin θ , then

3(u 2 + 3) 3
= +C 5dx = 4 cos θdθ;
2
3 2
= (sin 2 θ + 3) 3 + C 16 − 25 x 2 = 4 cos θ
2 4
cos θdθ
∫ ∫
dx
= 5
16 − 25 x 2 4 cos θ
1
= θ+C
5
1 5x
= sin −1 +C
5 4
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 161

## 5. Let x = 2 sin θ , then

8. Let u = 1 + x 2 , then
dx = 2 cos θdθ ; 4 − x = 2 cos θ 2
u 2 = 1 + x 2 ; 2udu = 2 xdx
2 cos θdθ
∫ ∫
dx
=
3
(4 − x 2 ) 2
(2 cos θ)3 ∫x ∫
1 + x 2 dx = u ⋅ udu

= ∫ u 2 du

1
= sec 2 θdθ
4 1 3
1 = u +C
= tan θ + C 3
4 3
1
=
x
+C = (1 + x 2 ) 2 + C
3
4 4 − x2

## 9. Let x = a sin θ , then

6. Let x = 3 tan θ , then
dx = 3 sec 2 θdθ ; 9 + x 2 = 3 sec θ dx = a cos θdθ ; a 2 − x 2 = a cos θ
a cos θdθ
∫ x2 ∫ (a sin θ)2 a cos θ
3 sec 2 θdθ dx
=
∫ ∫ (3 sec θ)3
dx
=
3 a −x
2 2
(9 + x 2 ) 2
∫ csc
1
= 2
θdθ
∫ a2
1
= cos θdθ
9 1
1 =− cot θ + C
= sin θ + C a2
9
a2 − x 2
=
x
+C =− +C
a2 x
9 9 + x2

## 10. Let x = a tan θ , then

7. Let x = 3sin θ , then
dx = a sec 2 θdθ ; x 2 + a 2 = a sec θ
dx = 3 cos θdθ ; 9 − x 2 = 3 cos θ
a sec 2 θdθ
∫ x2 ∫
dx
∫ x 2 9 − x 2 dx
x 2 + a2
=
( a tan θ)2 a sec θ

= (3 sin θ) 3 cos θ(3 cos θdθ) 1 sec θdθ
2
= 2
a ∫tan 2 θ

= 81 sin 2 θ cos 2 θdθ

1
= 2 csc θ cot θdθ

81 a
= sin 2 2θdθ
4 1
= − 2 csc θ + C

81 a
= (1 − cos 4θ)dθ
8 x 2 + a2
81 81 =− +C
= θ− sin 4θ + C a2 x
8 32
81 −1 x 81
= sin − sin θ cos θ(1 − 2 sin 2 θ) + C
8 3 8 11. Let x = 5sec θ , then
81 x 81 x 9 − x 2 2x2
= sin −1 − (1 − )+C dx = 5sec θ tan θdθ ; x 2 − 25 = 5 tan θ
8 3 8 3 3 9
5 sec θ tan θdθ
∫x ∫ (5 sec θ)(5 tan θ)
dx
81 −1
= sin
x 1
− x (9 − 2 x 2 ) 9 − x 2 + C =
8 3 8 ( x − 25)
2

1
= θ+C
5
1 x
= sec −1 + C
5 5
162 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

## 12. Let x = sec θ , then 16. Let x − 2 = 2 sin θ , then

dx = sec θ tan θdθ ; x 2 − 1 = tan θ dx = 2 cos θdθ

∫ ∫
dx dx
x2 − 1 tan θ =
∫ x
dx = ∫
sec θ
sec θ tan θdθ 4x − x2 4 − ( x − 2)2
2 cos θdθ

= tan 2 θdθ = ∫2 cos θ
= ∫ (sec 2 θ − 1)dθ

= dθ
= tan θ − θ + C =θ+C
−1 x−2
= x − 1 − sec x+C = sin −1 (
2
)+C
2

## 13. Let u = x 2 − 2 , then

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NUa=EéKTNF
u 2 = x 2 − 2 ; 2udu = 2 xdx
∫ cot θdθ
n
∫ ∫
1. (a)
x 3 x 2 − 2 dx = x 2 x 2 − 2 xdx
= ∫ cot n − 2 θ cot 2 θdθ
= ∫ (u 2 + 2)u(udu)
= − ∫ cot n − 2 θd (cot θ) − ∫ cot n − 2 θdθ
= ∫ (u 4 + 2u 2 )du
cot n −1 θ
=
1 5 2 3
u + u +C =− − ∫ cot n − 2 θdθ
5 3 n −1
cot θ
∫ cot ∫
5 3
1 2 2 (b) 2
θdθ = − − dθ
= ( x − 2) 2 + ( x 2 − 2) 2 + C 1
5 3 = − cot θ − θ + C
cot 3 θ
14. Let u = 2 x 2 − 5 , then ∫ cot 4 θdθ = −
3
− cot 2 θdθ∫
u = 2 x − 5 ; 2udu = 4 xdx
2 2
cot 3 θ
=− + cot θ + θ + C
x 3 dx
1 (u 2 + 5) ⋅ 12 udx 3
∫ 2x2 − 5
= ∫ 2
u
3
d n

1 x (1 + x ) 2
= (u 2 + 5)du 2. (a)
4 dx
1 3 5 3 1
= u + u+C 3
= nx n −1 (1 + x ) 2 + x n ( )(1 + x ) 2
12 4 2
1
= u(u + 15) + C
2
3 n
1 1
12 = x (1 + x ) 2 + nx n −1 (1 + x )(1 + x ) 2
1 2
= 2 x 2 − 5[2( x 2 + 5)] + C 1 1
12 3 + 2n n
1 = x (1 + x ) 2 + nx n −1 (1 + x ) 2
= ( x 2 + 5) 2 x 2 − 5 + C 2
6
(b) Applying the definition of indefinite
15. Let x + 1 = tan θ , then integral to the result of (a),
3
dx = sec 2 θdθ x n (1 + x ) 2
∫ ∫ ( x + 1)2 + 1
dx dx
= 3 + 2n
1 1
x + 2x + 2
∫ ∫
x n (1 + x ) 2 dx + n x n −1 (1 + x ) 2 dx
2
=
sec 2 θdθ 2
= ∫
sec 2 θ =
3 + 2n
2
In + nIn −1
= dθ∫ ∴ In =
2
3
x n (1 + x ) 2 −
2n
In −1
=θ+C 3 + 2n 3 + 2n
= tan −1 ( x + 1) + C
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 163

∫ x 1 + xdx
d
(c) I0 = sec n − 2 θ tan θ
0
4. (a)

= ∫ 1 + xdx = sec n − 2 θ sec 2 θ
3 + (n − 2)sec n −3 θ(sec θ tan θ)(tan θ)
2
= (1 + x ) 2 + C = sec n θ + (n − 2)sec n − 2 θ tan 2 θ
3
3 = sec n θ + (n − 2)sec n − 2 θ(sec 2 θ − 1)
2 2
I1 = x (1 + x ) 2 − I0 = (n − 1)sec n θ − (n − 2)sec n − 2 θ
3+2 3+2
3 3 (b) Applying the definition of indefinite integral to
2 4
= x (1 + x ) 2 − (1 + x ) 2 + C1 the result of (a),
5 15
3 sec n − 2 θ tan θ
2 2 4
I2 =
7
x (1 + x ) 2 − I1
7 ∫ ∫
= (n − 1) sec n θdθ − (n − 2) sec n − 2 θdθ

2 2
3
8
3 = (n − 1) J n − (n − 2) J n − 2
= x (1 + x) 2 − x (1 + x) 2 1 n−2
7 35 ∴ Jn = sec n − 2 θ tan θ + Jn − 2
3 n −1 n −1
16
+ (1 + x ) 2 + C2
105 ∫
(c) J2 = sec 2 θdθ = tan θ + C1
∴ ∫x 1 + xdx = I2 1 2
2
J4 = sec 2 θ tan θ + J2
3 3
3 3 3
2 2 8 16 1 2
= x (1 + x ) 2 − x (1 + x ) 2 + (1 + x ) 2 + C = sec 2 θ tan θ + tan θ + C2
7 35 105 3 3

∫ sec θdθ
6

3. (a)
d
tan n −1 x = (n − 1) tan n − 2 x (sec 2 x ) = J6
dx 1 4
= sec 4 θ tan θ + J 4
= (n − 1) tan n − 2 x (1 + tan 2 x ) 5 5
= (n − 1) tan n x + (n − 1) tan n − 2 x 1
= sec θ tan θ
4
5
(b) Applying the definition of indefinite integral to the 4 1 2
+ ( sec 2 θ tan θ + tan θ + C2 )
result of (a), 5 3 3

tan n −1 x = (n − 1) tan n xdx + (n − 1) tan n − 2 xdx ∫
1 4 8
= sec θ tan θ + sec 2 θ tan θ + tan θ + C
4
5 15 15

∫ ∫
1
tan n −1 x = tan n xdx + tan n − 2 xdx
n −1
1 5. (a) cos(n − 1) x − cos nx cos x
tan n −1 x = In + In − 2 = cos(nx − x ) − cos nx cos x
n −1
1 = cos nx cos x + sin nx sin x − cos nx cos x
In = tan n −1 x − In − 2 = sin x sin nx
n −1
d

(c) I2 = tan 2 xdx (b)
dx
cos m x sin nx
= tan x − I0 = cos m x (n) cos nx + m cos m −1 x ( − sin x )sin nx
= tan x − x + C1
= n cos m x cos nx − m cos m −1 x sin x sin nx
∫ tan xdx = I4
4
= n cos m x cos nx − m cos m −1 x[cos(n − 1) x
1 − cos nx cos x ] (By (a))
= tan 3 x − I2
3 = n cos m x cos nx − m cos m −1 x cos(n − 1) x
1
= tan 3 x − tan x + x + C + m cos m x cos nx
3
= ( m + n) cos m x cos nx − m cos m −1 x cos(n − 1) x
164 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

(c) By the result of (b), for any integer n ≥ 1 , (b) Applying the definition of indefinite
d integral to the result of (a),
cos n x sin nx = (n + n) cos n x cos nx
nx n −1
1
dx 2n + 1 x n
− n cos n −1 x cos(n − 1) x x n (1 + x ) 2 = ∫ 1+ x
dx +
2 ∫ 1+ x
dx

cos x sin nx = 2 n cos x cos nxdx 2n + 1
n n
= nIn −1 + In
2

− n cos n −1 x cos(n − 1) xdx
∴ In =
2
1
[ x n (1 + x ) 2 − nIn −1 ]
n −1
2 n ∫ cos n x cos nxdx = n ∫ cos x cos(n − 1) xdx 2n + 1
2 2n
= xn 1 + x − In −1
+ cos n x sin nx 1 + 2n 1 + 2n

∫ ∫
1
cos n x cos nxdx = cos n −1 x cos(n − 1) xdx
2
1 oÉîáëáçå=bñÉêÅáëÉ=NU=EéKTPF
+ cos n x sin nx
2n 1
(d) By (c),
∫ ∫
3 x + 7 dx = (3 x + 7) 4
4
1. dx

## ∫ cos3 x cos 3 xdx

(3 x + 7) 4
5

1 1 = +C
= cos 2 x cos 2 xdx + cos3 x sin 3 x
2 6 3( 45 )

1 1 1 5
= ( cos x cos xdx + cos 2 x sin 2 x ) 4
2 2 4 = (3 x + 7) 4 + C
1 15
+ cos x sin 3 x
3
6 1

∫ ∫
4 dx

1 1 1
= cos 2 xdx + cos 2 x sin 2 x + cos3 x sin 3 x 2. = 4 (3 + 2 x ) 2 dx
4 8 6 3 + 2x

1 1 1 1
= (1 + cos 2 x )dx + cos x sin 2 x
2
4 2 8 4( 3 + 2 x ) 2
1 = +C
+ cos x sin 3 x
3 2( 12 )
6 1

∫ ∫
1 1 1
= dx + cos 2 xdx + cos 2 x sin 2 x = 4( 3 + 2 x ) 2 + C
8 8 8
1
+ cos x sin 3 x
3
6 3. Let u = 3 x 4 + 5 , then
x 1 1
= + sin 2 x + cos 2 x sin 2 x
8 16 8 u 2 = 3 x 4 + 5 ; 2udu = 12 x 3 dx

∫ ∫
1 1
+ cos3 x sin 3 x + C x 3 3 x 4 + 5 dx = u ⋅ udu
6 6

1 2
= u du
1
6

d n 1
6. (a) x (1 + x ) 2 = u3 + C
dx 18
1 1 3
1 n − 1
= nx n −1 (1 + x ) 2 + x (1 + x ) 2 = (3 x 4 + 5) 2 + C
2 18
n −1
nx (1 + x ) xn
= +
1+ x 2 1+ x 9x2 − 6x (3 x − 1)2 − 1
=
nx n −1
+
(2 n + 1) x n
4.
∫ (3 x − 1)2
dx = ∫ (3 x − 1)2
dx
1+ x 2 1+ x
= ∫ [1 − (3 x − 1) −2 ]dx
1
=x+ +C
3(3 x − 1)
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 165

8x 2 + 8x + 9 2(2 x + 1)2 + 7
∫ sin 2 3x dx = ∫ csc 3x cot 3xdx
cos 3 x
5. ∫ 4x2 + 4x + 1
dx = ∫ (2 x + 1)2
dx 12.
1
= ∫ [2 + 7(2 x + 1) −2 ]dx = − csc 3 x + C
3
7
= 2x − +C
2(2 x + 1)
csc 2 4 x
13. ∫ 7
cot 4 x ∫
dx = tan 5 4 x sec 2 4 xdx
6. Let u = x − 3 , then

1
= tan 5 4 xd (tan 4 x )
du = dx 4
1
∫ x( x − 3) ∫
dx = (u + 3)u 5 du = tan 6 4 x + C
5
24
= ∫ (u 6 + 3u 5 )du

## ∫ sin 3x cos 7xdx = 2 ∫ (sin 10 x − sin 4 x )dx

1
1 1 14.
= u7 + u6 + C
7 2 1 1
1 1 =− cos 10 x + cos 4 x + C
= ( x − 3) 7 + ( x − 3)6 + C 20 8
7 2

## ∫ cos 2 x cos 4 xdx = 2 ∫ (cos 6 x + cos 2 x )dx

1
7. Let u = 2 x + 1 , then 15.
1 1
u 2 = 2 x + 1 ; 2udu = 2 dx = sin 6 x + sin 2 x + C
12 4
2x − 3 u2 − 4
∫ 2x + 1
dx = ∫ u
udu

## ∫ sin 2 x sin 9 xdx = − 2 ∫ (cos11x − cos 7x )dx

1
= ∫ (u 2 − 4)du
16.
1 1
=
1 3
u − 4u + C =− sin 11x + sin 7 x + C
3 22 14
1
= u(u 2 − 12) + C
∫ cos ∫
3 1
1 17. 4
xdx = [ (1 + cos 2 x )]2 dx
= (2 x − 11) 2 x + 1 + C 2

3 1
= (1 + 2 cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x )dx
4

1 1
8. ∫ (5 sin 2 x − 6 cos 7x )dx =
4
[1 + 2 cos 2 x + (1 + cos 4 x )]dx
2

5 6 1 3 1
=− cos 2 x − sin 7 x + C = ( + 2 cos 2 x + cos 4 x )dx
2 7 4 2 2
3 1 1
= x + sin 2 x + sin 4 x + C
8 4 32
∫ [7 sin( 2 + 2) + 4 cos(4 x + 1)]dx
x
9.

∫ sin
x 18. 5
= −14 cos( + 2) + sin( 4 x + 1) + C 2 xdx
2

1
=− sin 4 2 xd (cos 2 x )
2
10. ∫ sec(2 − 3x ) tan(2 − 3x )dx =−
1
2 ∫
(1 − cos 2 2 x )2 d (cos 2 x )
1
= − sec(2 − 3 x ) + C

1
3 =− (1 − 2 cos 2 2 x + cos 4 2 x )d (cos 2 x )
2
1 1 1
= − cos 2 x + cos3 2 x − cos 5 2 x + C
4x + 5 2 3 10
∫ csc
11. 2
()dx
7
7 4x + 5
= − cot( )+C
4 7
166 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

4 x 2 x 25. 3 2
19.

## = ∫ (1 − cos x )sin 2 xdx

1 = ∫ sin 3 2 x (cos 2 x ) −2 dx
8
1 sin 2 2 x
=− ∫
∫ (1 − cos 2 x )dx − ∫ sin 2 xd (sin x )
1 1
= d (cos 2 x )
16 8 2 cos 2 2 x
= − ∫( 2
1 1 1 1 1
= x− sin 2 x − sin 3 x + C − 1)d (cos 2 x )
16 32 24 2 cos 2 x
1 1
= sec 2 x + cos 2 x + C
2 2
∫ sin x cos xdx
20. 5 2

## = − ∫ (cos 2 x − 2 cos 4 x + cos 6 x )d (cos x )

26. ∫ ∫
tan 2 x sec 4 xdx = tan 2 x sec 2 xd (tan x )
3 7
1 2 1
= − cos3 x + cos 5 x − cos 7 x + C ∫
= (tan 2 x + tan 2 x )d (tan x )
3 5 7 5 9
2 2
= tan 2 x + tan 2 x + C
5 9
∫ sin x cos xdx
3 5
21.
= − ∫ (1 − cos 2 x ) cos 5 xd (cos x )
∫ ( tan x ) ∫
sec x 4
27. dx = csc 4 xdx
= ∫ (cos 7 x − cos 5 x )d (cos x )
1 1 ∫
= − csc 2 xd (cot x )
= cos8 x − cos 6 x + C
8 6 = − ∫ (cot 2 x + 1)d (cot x )
1
= − cot 3 x − cot x + C
∫ sin x cos xdx 3
3 3
22.

= ∫ ( sin 2 x )3 dx
1
2 28. Let u = sec x , then
= ∫ sin 2 xdx ⋅ (1 − cos 4 x )dx
1 1
u 2 = sec x ; 2udu = sec x tan xdx
8 2

16 ∫ ∫ ∫
1 sec x tan xdx
= (sin 2 x − sin 2 x cos 4 x )dx tan x sec xdx =
sec x

16 ∫
1 1

2udu
= [sin 2 x − (sin 6 x − sin 2 x )]dx =
2 u
= 2u + C
16 ∫ 2
1 3 1
= ( sin 2 x − sin 6 x )dx
2 = 2 sec x + C
3 1
=− cos 2 x + cos 6 x + C
64 192
cot 3 x cos3 x
29. ∫ csc x
dx = ∫
sin 2 x
dx

∫ ∫
1
23. tan 2 x sec 2 xdx =
5 2
tan 5 2 xd (tan 2 x ) cos 2 x
2
1
= ∫
sin 2 x
d (sin x )
= tan 6 2 x + C
1 − sin 2 x

12
= d (sin x )
sin 2 x
24.
∫ csc
7
3 x cot 3 xdx = −
1
3 ∫
csc 6 3 xd (csc 3 x ) ∫
= [(sin x ) −2 − 1]d (sin x )
= − csc x − sin x + C
1
= − csc 7 3 x + C
21
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 167

∫ ∫
x 34. Let u = x 2 − 4 , then
30. 1 + cos xdx = 1 + 2 cos 2 − 1 dx
2
u 2 = x 2 − 4 ; 2udu = 2 xdx
=∫
x
2 cos dx
2 x3
x
= 2 2 sin + C ∫ x2 − 4
dx
2
(u 2 + 4 )
= ∫ u
udu

∫ ∫
cot x cot xdx
31.
1 − cos 2 x
dx =
1 − 1 + 2 sin 2 x ∫
= (u 2 + 4)du
1 3
= u + 4u + C

cot xdx
= 3
2 sin x
3 1

1 cos x 1 2
= dx = ( x − 4 ) 2 + 4( x 2 − 4 ) 2 + C
2 sin 2 x 3

1 d (sin x )
=
2 sin 2 x
1 35. Let x = a sec θ , then
=− +C
2 sin x dx = a sec θ tan θdθ ; x 2 − a 2 = a tan θ
1
=− csc x + C x 2 − a2
2
∫ x
dx
a tan θ
32. Let u = 1 − x 2 , then
= ∫
a sec θ
a sec θ tan θdθ

u 2 = 1 − x 2 ; 2udu = −2 xdx ∫
= a tan 2 θdθ

∫ ∫
( x 3 − x ) 1 − x 2 dx = ( x 2 − 1) 1 − x 2 xdx ∫
= a sec 2 θdθ − adθ ∫
= a tan θ − aθ + C
= ∫ ( −u 2 )u( −udu) x
= x 2 − a 2 − a sec −1 +C
a
= ∫ u 4 du
1 5 sec 2 ( x )
= u +C
5 36. (a) ∫ x ∫
dx = 2 sec 2 ( x )d ( x )
5
1 = 2 tan( x ) + C
= (1 − x 2 ) 2 +C
5
tan 2 ( x ) sec 2 ( x ) − 1
33. Let u = x 2 + 4 , then
(b)
∫ x
dx = ∫ x
dx

sec 2 ( x )
∫ ∫
dx
u 2 = x 2 + 4 ; 2udu = 2 xdx = dx −
x x
5
= 2 tan( x ) − 2 x + C

x
dx
x2 + 4
(u 2 − 4 ) 2
= ∫ u
udu 37. (a) x 2 − 1 = ( x + 1)( x − 1)
x +1

= (u 4 − 8u 2 + 16)du = ( x − 1)
x −1
1 5 8 3
= u − u + 16u + C
∫ ( x 2 − 1)
dx
5 3 ∴ I=
x +1
5 3 1
1 8 x −1
= ( x 2 + 4) 2 − ( x 2 + 4) 2 + 16( x 2 + 4) 2 + C
5 3
168 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

x +1
∫ cos x sin 3xdx
(d) 3
(b) Let u = , then
x −1
cos3 x cos 3 x
= ∫ cos 2 x sin 2 xdx −
1
u2 + 1
x= 2 2 6
u −1 cos 2 x cos 2 x

1 1
4u 2 −4u = ( cos x sin xdx − )
x2 − 1 = 2 , dx = 2 du 2 2 4
(u − 1) 2
(u − 1)2 cos3 x cos 3 x

∫ ( x 2 − 1)
dx 6
∴ I=
x +1 cos 2 x cos 2 x

1 1
x −1 = sin 2 xdx −
4 2 8
(u 2 − 1)2 1 −4u
=∫ 4u 2
⋅ ⋅ 2
u (u − 1)2
du

cos3 x cos 3 x
6

du
= 1 1
= − cos 2 x − cos 2 x cos 2 x
−u 2 16 8
−1
=u +C 1
− cos3 x cos 3 x + C
x −1 6
= +C
x +1
d
38. (a) sin(n − 1) x = sin nx cos x − cos nx sin x
39. (a) (nx n −1 sin x − x n cos x )
dx
∴ sin x cos nx = sin nx cos x − sin(n − 1) x = nx n −1 cos x + n(n − 1) x n − 2 sin x
for all integers n + x n sin x − nx n −1 cos x
d = x n sin x + n(n − 1) x n − 2 sin x
(b) cos m x cos nx
dx
(b) By (a),
= cos m x ( − sin nx )(n)
+ m cos m −1 x ( − sin x ) cos nx nx n −1 sin x − x n cos x
= − n cos m x sin nx − m cos m −1 x sin x cos nx = ∫x ∫
sin xdx + n(n − 1) x n − 2 sin xdx
n

m −1
= − n cos x sin nx − m cos
∫x
m n
x sin nx cos x sin xdx
m −1
+ m cos x sin(n − 1) x
= nx n −1 sin x − x n cos x
= m cos m −1 x sin(n − 1) x
− ( m + n) cos m x sin nx for any integer m ≥ 2 ∫
− n(n − 1) x n − 2 sin xdx
n −1
In = nx sin x − x n cos x − n(n − 1) In − 2
(c) By the result of (b), for any integer n ≥ 2 ,
cos m x cos nx
∫x
(c) 4
sin xdx

m −1
= m cos x sin(n − 1) xdx = I4
= 4 x 3 sin x − x 4 cos x − 4(3) I2

− ( m + n) cos m x sin nxdx
= 4 x 3 sin x − x 4 cos x
∫ cos
m
x sin nxdx − 12[2 x sin x − x 2 cos x − 2(1) I0 ]
= 4 x 3 sin x − x 4 cos x − 24 x sin x

m
= cos m −1 x sin(n − 1) xdx
m+n

1
cos m x cos nx

+ 12 x 2 cos x + 24 sin xdx

4 3

When m = n ,

## ∫ cos x sin nxdx

n

cos n x cos nx
= ∫ cos n −1 x sin(n − 1) xdx −
1
2 2n
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 169

d 5 7 7
40. (a) x ( x 2 + 1) n (b) Let x − = sin θ ; dx = cos θdθ
dx 2 2 2
= xn( x 2 + 1) n −1 (2 x ) + ( x 2 + 1) n 7 5 7
( )2 − ( x − )2 = ( )2 cos 2 θ
= ( x 2 + 1) n −1[2 nx 2 + ( x 2 + 1)] 2 2 2
= ( x 2 + 1) n −1[(2 n + 1)( x 2 + 1) − 2 n] 7
= (2 n + 1)( x 2 + 1) n − 2 n( x 2 + 1) n −1 2
x− 5
(b) By (a), 2
θ
x ( x 2 + 1) n
6 + 5x − x 2
∫ ∫
= (2 n + 1) ( x 2 + 1) n dx − 2 n ( x 2 + 1) n −1 dx

∫ ∫
dx dx
=

(2 n + 1) ( x + 1) dx 2 n 3 3
(6 + 5 x − 2 2
x ) [( 2 ) − ( x − 2 ) ]
7 2 5 2 2

= 2 n ( x 2 + 1) n −1 dx + x ( x 2 + 1) n 7 cos θdθ
= ∫ 2
( 27 )3 cos3 θ
∫ ( x 2 + 1) n dx

2 2
x ( x 2 + 1) n = ( ) sec θdθ 2

2n
= ( x 2 + 1) n −1 dx + 7
2n + 1 2n + 1 2 2
= ( ) tan θ + C
2n x ( x 2 + 1) n 7
In = In −1 + x − 25
2n + 1 2n + 1 =
4
⋅ +C
49 6 + 5 x − x 2
x3
(c) (i) ∫
I1 = ( x 2 + 1)dx =
3
+ x + C1
=
4 x − 10
+C
49 6 + 5 x − x 2
∫ (x + 1)3 dx
(ii) 2

## = I3 2. (a) sin 3θ = sin(2θ + θ)

6 x ( x 2 + 1)3 = sin 2θ cos θ + sin θ cos 2θ
= I2 +
7 7 = 2 sin θ cos 2 θ + sin θ(2 cos 2 θ − 1)
6 4 x ( x 2 + 1)2 x ( x 2 + 1)3 = sin θ(2 cos 2 θ + 2 cos 2 θ − 1)
= [ I1 + ]+
7 5 5 7
= sin θ( 4 cos 2 θ − 1)
24 x 3
6 x ( x + 1) 2 2
= ( + x + C1 ) + sin 3θ
35 3
x ( x 2 + 1)3
35 (b) I =
∫ 1 + cos2 θ dθ
+ 4 cos 2 θ − 1
8 3 24
7
x ( x 2 + 1)3
= ∫
1 + cos 2 θ
sin θdθ
= x + x+ 4 cos 2 θ − 1
35 35 7 =− ∫
1 + cos 2 θ
d (cos θ)
6 x ( x 2 + 1)2
+ +C Let cos θ = u ; du = sec 2 θdθ
35

∫ 1 + cos2 θ )d(cos θ)
5
∴ I = ( −4 +

= ∫ ( −4 +
båêáÅÜãÉåí=NU=EéKTRF 5
) du
1 + u2
1. (a) 6 + 5 x − x 2 = 6 − ( x 2 − 5 x ) = −4u + 5 tan −1 u + C
= 6 − ( x 2 − 5x +
25 25
)+ = −4 cos θ + 5 tan −1 (cos θ) + C
4 4
49 5
= − ( x − )2
4 2
7 5
= ( )2 − ( x − )2
2 2
170 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

∫x
d 3
3. (a) sin( x 2 ) = 2 x cos( x 2 ) (ii) cos( x 2 )dx
dx
d = C3
cos( x 2 ) = −2 x sin( x 2 ) 1
dx = x 2 sin( x 2 ) − S1

1 2
(i) x sin( x 2 )dx = − cos( x 2 ) + C

1
2 = x 2 sin( x 2 ) − x sin( x 2 )dx
2

1 1 1
(ii) x cos( x 2 )dx = sin( x 2 ) + C = x 2 sin( x 2 ) + cos( x 2 ) + C
2 2 2
dy d n −1
(b) = x sin( x 2 )
dx dx 4. (a) For any integer n ≥ 2 ,
= x n −1 ⋅ 2 x cos( x 2 ) + (n − 1) x n − 2 sin( x 2 )
d x2 + 1
= 2 x n cos( x 2 ) + (n − 1) x n − 2 sin( x 2 )
dx x n −1
dz d n −1 1 1
= x cos( x 2 ) = [ x n −1 ⋅ (2 x ) − (n − 1) x n − 2
dx dx 2 x +1
2
= x n −1[ −2 x sin( x 2 )] + (n − 1) x n − 2 cos( x 2 )
x 2 + 1 ] ÷ ( x n −1 )2
= (n − 1) x n − 2 cos( x 2 ) − 2 x n sin( x 2 )
xn − (n − 1) x n − 2 x 2 + 1
x 2 +1
(c) By the results of (b), for any integer n ≥ 2 , =
x 2n − 2

n −1 n−2
x cos( x ) = (n − 1) x
2 2
cos( x )dx 1 x2 + 1
= + (1 − n)
x n−2 x 2 + 1 xn

− 2 x n sin( x 2 )dx
1 x2 + 1
= + (1 − n)

1 n −1
x n sin( x 2 )dx = − x cos( x 2 )
2 x n−2 x 2 + 1 xn x2 + 1
n − 1 n−2

1
+ x cos( x 2 )dx =
2 x n−2 x 2 + 1
1 n −1 n −1 1 1
∴ Sn = − x cos( x 2 ) + Cn − 2 + (1 − n)[ + ]
n−2
2 2 x x +12
x n
x2 + 1

x n −1 sin( x 2 ) = 2 x n cos( x 2 )dx
(b) Let In = ∫ xn
dx
, therefore, by the result
∫ x2 + 1
n−2
+ (n − 1) x 2
sin( x )dx
of (a), for any integer n ≥ 2 ,

∫x
1
n
cos( x 2 )dx = x n −1 sin( x 2 ) x2 +1
∫ x n−2
dx
2 = + (1 − n)
n − 1 n−2 x n −1 x2 +1

2
x ∫sin( x 2 )dx

∫ x n−2 ∫ xn
dx dx
1 n −1 ⋅[ + ]
∴ Cn = x n −1 sin( x 2 ) − Sn − 2 x +1 2
x2 +1
2 2
= In − 2 + (1 − n)( In − 2 + In )
∫x
3
(d) (i) sin( x 2 )dx = (2 − n) In − 2 + (1 − n) In
= S3
1 x2 + 1 n−2
= − x 2 cos( x 2 ) + C1 ∴ In = n −1
+ In − 2
2 (1 − n) x 1 −n

1
= − x 2 cos( x 2 ) + x cos( x 2 )dx
∫ x2
dx
2 (c) (i) = I2
1 1 x2 + 1
= − x 2 cos( x 2 ) + sin( x 2 ) + C
2 2 x2 + 1
=− + C1
x
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 171

`ä~ëëïçêâ=O=EéKRUF
∫ x4
dx
(ii)
1+ x 2
1. Let u = 1 + x , then x = u 2 − 1 and dx = 2udu .
= I4
u2 − 1
∫ ∫
x
dx = ⋅ 2udu
x2 + 1 2 1+ x u
= + I2

(1 − 4) x

3 3 = 2 (u 2 − 1)du
x2 + 1 2 x2 + 1 2
=− 3
− (− ) + C2 = u 3 − 2u + C
3x 3 x 3
3 1
x2 + 1 2 x2 + 1 2
=− + + C2 = (1 + x ) 2 − 2(1 + x ) 2 + C
3x 3 3x 3

u2 − 1
`ä~ëëïçêâ=N=EéKRSF 2. Let u = 2 x + 1 , then x = and dx = udu .
2

∫x ∫
1
∫ (3x + 2) dx = 3 ⋅ 6 (3x + 2)
1 1 2 x + 1 dx = (u 2 − 1) ⋅ u ⋅ udu
1. 5 6
+C
2

1 1
= (3 x + 2 ) 6 + C = (u 4 − u 2 )du
18 2
1 5 1 3
= u − u +C
10 6
1
− 5 3
∫ ∫
dx
2. = (1 − 2 x ) 2 dx =
1 1
(2 x + 1) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 + C
1 − 2x 10 6
1
1
=− ⋅ 2(1 − 2 x ) 2 + C
2
`ä~ëëïçêâ=P=EéKSNF
= − 1 − 2x + C

## ∫ cos(4 x − 7)dx = 4 sin(4 x − 7) + C

1
1.
d (1 + x ) 2
∫ (1 + x 2 )2 dx = ∫ (1 + x 2 )2
2x
3.

1 1
=− +C 2.
1 + x2

## ∫ (2 sin 2 − 3 cos 2 x )dx = ∫ 2 sin 2 dx − ∫ 3 cos 2 xdx

x x
4x2 + 4x − 1 4x2 + 4x − 1
∫ ∫
3.
4. dx = dx
(2 x + 1)2 4x2 + 4x + 1 x 3
= −4 cos − sin 2 x + C
=∫
2
(1 − 2 ) dx 2 2
4x + 4x + 1
=∫ ∫
2 dx
dx −
∫ sin 2 x cos 2 xdx = 2 ∫ sin 4 xdx
1
(2 x + 1)2 4.
d (2 x + 1)
= x− ∫(2 x + 1)2
1
= − cos 4 x + C
8
1
= x+ +C
2x + 1
5.
∫ sin 2 x sin 3xdx
= ∫ [cos(2 x − 3 x ) − cos(2 x + 3 x )]dx
1
2
= ∫ (cos x − cos 5 x )dx
1
2
= ∫ cos xdx − ∫ cos 5 xdx
1 1
2 2
1 1
= sin x − sin 5 x + C
2 10
172 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

`ä~ëëïçêâ=Q=EéKSOF
∫ sin ∫
1
3. 2
2 x cos 2 2 xdx = (2 sin 2 x cos 2 x )2 dx
4
1. ∫ ∫
sin 2 x cos xdx = sin 2 xd (sin x )
=
1
∫sin 2 4 xdx
1 4
= sin 3 x + C

1
3 = (1 − cos 8 x )dx
8

∫ ∫
1 1
= dx − cos 8 xdx
d (1 + sin 2 x ) 8 8
∫ ∫
cos 2 x 1
2. dx = 1 1
(1 + sin 2 x ) 2 2 (1 + sin 2 x )2 = x− sin 8 x + C
1 8 64
=− +C
2(1 + sin 2 x )
`ä~ëëïçêâ=S=EéKSRF

## ∫ sin ∫ 2 (1 − cos 2 x )dx

1
xdx =
∫ tan x sec ∫
2
3. 1. 3
xdx = sec 2 x ⋅ tan x sec xdx

= ∫ dx − ∫ cos 2 xdx
1 1 = ∫ sec 2 xd (sec x )
2 2
1 1 1 3
= x − sin 2 x + C = sec x + C
2 4 3

## ∫ sin 2 xdx ∫ tan ∫

3 1
4. 2. 2
3 x sec 2 3 xdx = tan 2 3 x sec 2 3 xd (3 x )
3
= ∫ (sin 2 x )(sin 2 2 x )dx

1
= tan 2 3 xd (tan 3 x )
3
= − ∫ sin 2 2 xd (cos 2 x )
1 1
2 = tan 3 3 x + C
9
= − ∫ (1 − cos 2 2 x )d (cos 2 x )
1
2
∫ tan x sec ∫
1
= − ∫ d (cos 2 x ) + ∫ cos 2 2 xd (cos 2 x )
1 1
3. 2
xdx = tan xd (tan x ) = tan 2 x + C
2 2 2
1 1
=− cos 2 x + cos3 2 x + C
2 6
`ä~ëëïçêâ=T=EéKSUF

## `ä~ëëïçêâ=R=EéKSPF 1. Let x = sin θ , then dx = cos θdθ and

1 − x 2 = cos θ .
∫ sin ∫
x cos xdx = sin x cos x ⋅ cos xdx
1. 3 3 3 2

## = ∫ sin 3 x (1 − sin 2 x )d (sin x ) 1

x
= ∫ (sin 3 x − sin 5 x )d (sin x )
θ
1 4 1
= sin x − sin 6 x + C
4 6 1 − x2

∫ 1 − x 2 dx
∫ sin 3x cos 3xdx
3 2
2.

## = ∫ sin 2 3 x cos 2 3 x sin 3 xd (3 x )

1 ∫
= cos θ cos θdθ

= ∫ cos 2 θdθ
3
= − ∫ (1 − cos 2 3 x ) cos 2 3 xd (cos 3 x )
1
3
= ∫ (1 + cos 2θ)dθ
1
= − ∫ (cos 2 3 x − cos 4 3 x )d (cos 3 x )
1 2
3
= ∫ dθ + ∫ cos 2θdθ
1 1
1 1
= − cos3 3 x + cos 5 3 x + C 2 2
9 15
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 173

`ä~ëëïçêâ=U=EéKTNF

1 1
= θ+ cos 2θd (2θ)
2 4 (a) For any integer n ≥ 2 ,
1 1
= θ + sin 2θ + C d
sin n −1 θ cos θ
2 4 dθ
= (n − 1)sin n − 2 θ cos 2 θ + sin n −1 θ( − sin θ)
1 1
= θ + sin θ cos θ + C
2 2
= (n − 1)sin n − 2 θ(1 − sin 2 θ) − sin n θ
1 −1 1
= sin x + x 1 − x 2 + C = (n − 1)sin n − 2 θ − n sin n θ
2 2
(b) By the result of (a), for any integer n ≥ 2 ,
2. Let x = tan θ , then dx = sec 2 θdθ and
sin n −1 θ cos θ
1 + x = sec θ .
2
∫ ∫
= (n − 1) sin n − 2 θdθ − n sin n θdθ
= (n − 1) In − 2 − nIn
1 + x2
x nIn = (n − 1) In − 2 − sin n −1 θ cos θ
n −1 1
θ ∴ In = In − 2 − sin n −1 θ cos θ
n n
1

x3
dx
(c) (i) ∫
I1 = sin θdθ = − cos θ + C1
1+ x 2
1 1
I2 = I0 − sin θ cos θ
tan 3 θ
= ∫sec θ
sec 2 θdθ 2
1 1
2
= θ − sin θ cos θ + C2

= tan 3 θ sec θdθ 2 2

∫ sin θdθ
(ii) 3

## = ∫ (sec 2 θ − 1)d (sec θ) = I3

2 1
=
1
sec3 θ − sec θ + C = I1 − sin 2 θ cos θ
3 3 3
2 1
1
3 1 = − cos θ − sin 2 θ cos θ + C
= (1 + x 2 ) 2 − (1 + x 2 ) 2 + C 3 3
3

∫ sin θdθ
4
3. Let x = sec θ , then dx = tan θ sec θdθ and
= I4
x 2 − 1 = tan θ .
3 1
= I2 − sin 3 θ cos θ
4 4
3θ 3 1
x
x2 − 1
= − sin θ cos θ − sin 3 θ cos θ + C
8 8 4
θ
1
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=N=EéKRQF
∫ x x − 1dx
2
Let u = 4x + 7, then du = 4dx.

∫ ∫
1

= sec θ tan θ tan θ sec θdθ ( 4 x + 7)5 dx =
4
( 4 x + 7)5 ( 4 dx )

## = ∫ tan 2 θ ⋅ sec 2 θdθ

1
= u 5 du
4
= ∫ tan 2 θd (tan θ) 1 u6
= ⋅ +C
1 4 6
= tan 3 θ + C
3 ( 4 x + 7)6
3
= +C
1 24
= ( x 2 − 1) 2 + C
3
174 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=O=EéKRQF ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=S=EéKRSF
Let u = 3 − 2 x , then du = −4xdx.
2

∫ x 7 + x 4 dx
∫ ∫
1
x 3 − 2 x 2 dx = − 3 − 2 x 2 ( −4 xdx ) 1
4
= (x∫ + 1) 2 x 2 dx
1 3

1
=− u 2 du 1
4

1
3 = ( x 3 + 1) 2 d ( x 3 + 1)
3
1 2u 2
=− ⋅ +C 1 2
3
4 3 = ⋅ ( x 3 + 1) 2 + C
3 3 3
1
= − (3 − 2 x 2 ) 2 + C 2 3
3
6 = ( x + 1) 2 + C
9
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=P=EéKRQF
Let u = 4 x 3 − 2 x − 1 , then du = (12 x 2 − 2)dx . ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=T=EéKRSF
6(6 x − 1)
2
(12 x − 2)dx
2
Let u = x − 2, then du = dx and x = u + 2.
∫ (4 x 3 − 2 x − 1)2 dx = 3∫ (4 x 3 − 2 x − 1)2
∫ ( x − 1)( x − 2) dx
4
= 3∫ u −2 du
= ∫ (u + 2 − 1)u 4 dx
u −1
= 3⋅ +C
−1 = ∫ (u 5 + u 4 )du
3
=− 3 +C 1 6 1 5
4x − 2x − 1 = u + u +C
6 5
1 1
= ( x − 2)6 + ( x − 2)5 + C
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=Q=EéKRRF 6 5
x2 − 2x + 4
∫x2 − 2x + 1
dx

x2 − 2x + 1
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=U=EéKRTF

3
= ( 2 + 2 )dx
x − 2x + 1 x − 2x + 1 1 2
Let u = 2 x − 1 , then x = (u + 1) and dx = udu.

3
= [1 + ]dx 2
( x − 1)2
∫ x 2 x − 1dx
2
= ∫ dx + 3∫ ( x − 1) −2 dx
= ∫ (u 2 + 1)2 ⋅ u ⋅ udu
1
3
=x− +C 4
x −1
= ∫ (u 6 + 2u 4 + u 2 )du
1
4
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=R=EéKRRF 1 1 7 2 5 1 3
= ( u + u + u )+C
4 7 5 3
x4
∫ 4 x 5 + 2 dx =
1 1
7 5
1
(2 x − 1) 2 + (2 x − 1) 2 + (2 x − 1) 2 + C
3

28 10 12
∫ 4 x 5 + 2 (5 x
1 1
= 4
dx )
5
1

1
= ( x 5 + 2) 4 d ( x 5 + 2)
5
3
1 4
= ⋅ ( x 5 + 2) 4 + C
5 3
3
4 5
= ( x + 2) 4 + C
15
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 175

^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=V=EéKRUF ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NP=EéKSNF
Let u = 4 x + 2 , then x = u 4 − 2 and dx = 4u 3 du .
∫ cos x sin xdx
2
x +1
∫ 4
x+2
dx
= ∫ (sin x cos x )sin xdx
u4 − 2 + 1
∫ = ∫ sin 2 x sin xdx
= ⋅ 4u 3 du 1
u 2

= 4 (u 4 − 1)u 2 du = − ∫ [cos(2 x + x ) − cos(2 x − x )]dx
1
4
= 4 ∫ (u 6 − u 2 )du
= − ∫ (cos 3 x − cos x )dx
1
1 1 4
= 4( u 7 − u 3 ) + C
= − ∫ cos 3 xdx + ∫ cos xdx
1 1
7 3
7 3 4 4
= − ∫ cos 3 xd (3 x ) + ∫ cos xdx
4 4 1 1
= ( x + 2) 4 − ( x + 2) 4 + C
7 3 12 4
1 1
=− sin 3 x + sin x + C
12 4
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NM=EéKSMF

## ∫ [2 sin 2 x − 3 cos( x − 2)]dx ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NQ=EéKSNF

= 2 ∫ sin 2 xdx − 3∫ cos( x − 2)dx

sin 2 x
dx
= ∫ sin 2 xd (2 x ) − 3∫ cos( x − 2)d ( x − 2) 2 cos 2 x − 1
−4 sin 2 x

= − cos 2 x − 3 sin( x − 2) + C 1
=− dx
4 2 cos 2 x − 1
1 d (2 cos 2 x − 1)
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NN=EéKSMF
=−
4 ∫2 cos 2 x − 1
1 1
= − ⋅ 2 ⋅ (2 cos 2 x − 1) 2 + C
∫ cos x cos 2 xdx 4
1 1
= − (2 cos 2 x − 1) 2 + C
= ∫ [cos( x + 2 x ) + cos( x − 2 x )]dx
1
2
2
= ∫ (cos 3 x + cos x )dx
1
2
= ∫ cos 3 xdx + ∫ cos xdx
1 1 ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NR=EéKSOF
2 2
= ∫ cos 3 xd (3 x ) + ∫ cos xdx ∫ sin (2 x )dx
1 1 2
6 2
= ∫ (1 − cos 4 x )dx
1 1 1
= sin 3 x + sin x + C 2
6 2
= ∫ dx − ∫ cos 4 xdx
1 1
2 2
= ∫ dx − ∫ cos 4 xd ( 4 x )
1 1
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NO=EéKSMF
2 8
∫ cos 5x sin 3xdx =
1
2
1
x − sin 4 x + C
8
= ∫ [sin(5 x + 3 x ) − sin(5 x − 3 x )]dx
1
2
= ∫ sin 8 xdx − ∫ sin 2 xdx
1 1
2 2
= ∫ sin 8 xd (8 x ) − ∫ sin 2 xd (2 x )
1 1
16 4
1 1
=− cos 8 x + cos 2 x + C
16 4
176 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NS=EéKSOF ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NV=EéKSPF

5 2 4

## = ∫ sin 2 2 x ⋅ (1 + cos 2 x )dx

1 1
= ∫ cos 4 xd (sin x )
4 2
= ∫ (1 − sin 2 x )2 d (sin x ) = ∫ sin 2 xdx + ∫ sin 2 2 x cos 2 xdx
1 2 1
8 8
= ∫ (1 − 2 sin 2 x + sin 4 x )d (sin x ) = ∫ (1 − cos 4 x )dx + ∫ sin 2 2 x cos 2 xd (2 x )
1 1 1
8 2 16
2 1
= sin x − sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C
16 ∫
(1 − cos 4 x )dx + ∫ sin 2 2 xd (sin 2 x )
1 1
3 5 =
16
1 1 1 1
= ( x − sin 4 x ) + ( sin 3 2 x ) + C
16 4 16 3
1 1 1
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NT=EéKSOF = x− sin 4 x + sin 3 2 x + C
16 64 48

4 3

## ∫ tan x sec xdx

3 4
= ∫ sin 4 x (1 − sin 2 x )d (sin x )

## = ∫ (sin 4 x − sin 6 x )d (sin x ) = ∫ tan 2 x sec3 x ⋅ sec x tan xdx

1 1
= sin 5 x − sin 7 x + C = ∫ (sec 2 x − 1)sec3 xd (sec x )
5 7
= ∫ (sec 5 x − sec3 x )d (sec x )
1 1
= sec 6 x − sec 4 x + C
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=NU=EéKSPF 6 4

## ∫ sin 3x cos 3xdx

4 3
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=ON=EéKSQF
= ∫ sin 4 3 x cos 2 3 x cos 3 xdx
∫ tan x sec xdx
5 2

## = ∫ sin 4 3 x cos 2 3 x cos 3 xd (3 x )

1
3 = ∫ tan 5 xd (tan x )
= ∫ sin 4 3 x (1 − sin 2 3 x )d (sin 3 x )
1 1
3 = tan 6 x + C
6
= ∫ (sin 4 3 x − sin 6 3 x )d (sin 3 x )
1
3
1 1 ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OO=EéKSQF
= sin 5 3 x − sin 7 3 x + C
15 21
∫ sec xdx
4

## = ∫ tan 2 xd (tan x ) + ∫ d (tan x )

1 3
= tan x + tan x + C
3
Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18 177

^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OP=EéKSTF ^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OR=EéKSUF
3 3
Let x = sinθ, then dx = cosθdθ and 1 − x 2 = cosθ . Let x = secθ, then dx = sec θ tan θdθ and
4 4
16 x 2 − 9 = 3 tan θ .
1
x
4x
16x 2 − 9
θ
1 − x2 θ
3
∫ x2
dx
3

x
1 − x2 dx
cos θdθ 16 x 2 − 9
= ∫
sin 2 θ cos θ ( 43 )3 sec3 θ ⋅ 43 sec θ tan θdθ

= csc 2 θdθ
= ∫ 3 tan θ

27
= − cot θ + C = sec θdθ
4
256
1− x 2

27
=− +C = sec 2 θd (tan θ)
x 256

27
= (tan 2 θ + 1)d (tan θ)
256
9 27
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OQ=EéKSTF = tan 3 θ + tan θ + C
256 256
3 1
Let x = tanθ, then dx = sec 2 θdθ and 1 + x 2 = secθ . 1 9
= (16 x 2 − 9) 2 + (16 x 2 − 9) 2 + C
768 256

1 + x2
x
^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OS=EéKSUF
θ 4 4
Let x = secθ, then dx = sec θ tan θdθ and
1 3 3
9 x 2 − 16 = 4 tan θ .
∫ x 3 1 + x 2 dx

= tan 3 θ sec θ ⋅ sec 2 θdθ
3x
= ∫ tan 2 θ sec 2 θd (sec θ) 9x 2 − 16

## = ∫ (sec 2 θ − 1)sec 2 d (sec θ) θ

4
= ∫ (sec 4 θ − sec 2 θ)d (sec θ)
9 x 2 − 16
1 1
= sec 5 θ − sec3 θ + C ∫ x
dx
5 3 4
5 3 4 tan θ ⋅ sec θ tan θdθ
=
1
5
1
(1 + x 2 ) 2 − (1 + x 2 ) 2 + C
3
= ∫ 3
4
sec θ
3

= 4 tan 2 θdθ

= 4 ∫ (sec 2 θ − 1)dθ
= 4 tan θ − 4θ + C
9 x 2 − 16 3x
= 4( ) − 4 sec −1 ( ) + C
4 4
−1 3 x
= 9 x − 16 − 4 sec ( ) + C
2
4
178 Solutions to Reference Chapter for Chapter 18

^ÇÇáíáçå~ä=bñ~ãéäÉ=OT=EéKTMF
d
(a) cot n −1 θ

= (n − 1)cot n − 2 θ ⋅ ( − csc 2 θ)
= (1 − n)cot n − 2 θ(1 + cot 2 θ)
= (1 − n)cot n − 2 θ + (1 − n)cot n θ
(b) According to the definition of indefinite integral,
the result of (a) can be written as

cot n −1 θ = [(1 − n) cot n − 2 θ + (1 − n) cot n θ]dθ

∫ ∫
= (1 − n) cot n − 2 θdθ + (1 − n) cot n θdθ
= (1 − n) In − 2 + (1 − n) In
∴ (1 − n) In = cot n −1 θ − (1 − n) In − 2
1
In = cot n −1 θ − In − 2
1− n

(c) I0 = cot 0 θdθ

= ∫ dθ
= θ + C1
1
I2 = cot 2 −1 θ − I0
1− 2
= − cot θ − θ + C2
1
I4 = cot 4 −1 θ − I2
1− 4
1
= − cot 3 θ + cot θ + θ + C
3
∴ ∫cot 4 θdθ
1
= θ + cot θ − cot 3 θ + C
3