MGT 519 Operations Management

To study the procedural methodology of production & control of the sugar industry

Submitted to: Mr. Nitin Dhir

Submitted by: Ashish Suman Roll No. RS1904 A10 Reg. No. 10905868

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valuable support and encouragement at every step of preparing this term paper.ACKNOWLEGMENT It is our immense pleasure to present the Term Paper on To Study the Procedural Methodology of Production Planning & Central of The Sugar Industry Here we would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our Respected faculty Asst Proff. without such help this report would not have been possible. We would also like to thank our lecturers. faculty members and all those persons who have directly or indirectly helped us in providing the books and amenities which have helped in development of this term paper. 3|P a ge . Nitin Dhir For his timely guidance.

Yeilds Seasonal Nature Of Production Setting up Sugar Factory Operation & mangment Plant layout Industrial Process Based Classification of Sugar Manufactring Process of Raw Sugar Manufactring Process Precaution to be taken during manufacturing of raw sugar : : : : : : : : : : 05 05 05 06 06 07 08 10 08 09 10 12 : : 9. References : : : : : 13 18 22 23 26 4|P a ge . 4. 7. Sequence of steps in sugar production 11. 3. 8. Introduction Indian Sugar Industry Global Sugar Industry 2.CONTENTS 1. Significance of polluted Genreted 13. 6. 5. Manufacturing Of refined Sugar 10. Cleaner technologies 12.

Indian sugar industry has been a focal point for socio-economic development in the rural areas. Government of India).7 MMT in 2003-2004. According to ISO. With 453 operating sugar mills in different parts of the country. Tamil Nadu. nearly 5 MMT of surplus sugar are expected to have been removed from the world sugar balance. Global Sugar Industry Brazil and India are the largest sugar producing countries followed by China. The world consumption is projected to grow to 160. Maharashtra. Further.1 MMT by 2015. since October 2003. the stock/ consumption ratio to less than 42%. Pakistan.4 MMT in 2002-2003 and then declined to 143.INTRODUCTION Indian Sugar Industry India is the largest consumer and second largest producer of sugar in the world (Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service). 500 billion per annum and it contributes almost Rs.1 MMT in 19951996 to 142. Mexico. hence sugar Companies have been established in large sugarcane growing states like Uttar Pradesh. The Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro-industry located in the rural India. Australia. where greater emphasis has been laid on larger capacity of sugar plants.5 billion to the central and state ex-chequer as tax. an ecology friendly and renewable energy for blending with petrol. and 176. Thailand.8 MMT in 2003-2004.88 MMT in 1995-1996 to 149. Global sugar production increased from approximately 125. France and Germany. USA. resulting in a deficit of around 2 MMT in 2004-2005. and Andhra Pradesh. 5|P a ge .7 MMT in 2010. The sugar industry in the country uses only sugarcane as input. The industry not only generates power for its own requirement but surplus power for export to the grid based on byproduct bagasse. These six states contribute more than 85% of total sugar production in the country. Indian sugar industry has grown horizontally with large number of small sized sugar plants set up throughout the country as opposed to the consolidation of capacity in the rest of the important sugar producing countries. Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra together contribute more than 57% of total production. the world sugar output is forecasted to reach 145. whereas consumption increased steadily from 118. Gujarat.0 MMT in 2004-2005. It is the second largest agroprocessing industry in the country after cotton textiles. The Indian sugar industry has a turnover of Rs. Karnataka. 22. It also produces ethanol. and excise duty every year (Source: Ministry of Food.0 MMT and consumption to reach 147.

in itself a function of the prices paid to cane growers. High quality cane Juice per 100kg of cane % sugar in juice Gur per 100kg of cane 50kg 22 10kg Poor quality cane 40kg 17 7kg High quality cane has a good juice content with high sugar levels (20%+). Higher acreage under sugarcane in a season of normal monsoons and higher yields results in higher sugarcane and sugar production.Yields are also improved by careful control of the boiling process. Poor quality cane or cane that has been harvested early may have similar juice content but the sugar levels will be reduced. Seasonal nature of production Sugarcane and sugar production is seasonal with more than 90% of sugarcane and sugar production in the winter months of November-March. Boiling should be completed as rapidly as possible and the conditions kept as clean as possible. This is due to variations in climatic conditions. Both area and production of sugarcane fluctuate considerably from year to year.4 millionha in the early-sixties to about 4. The simple three roller crushers used by most artisanal producers will never extract more than 50kg of juice from each 100kg of cane. fluctuations in prices of gur and khandsari and changes in returns from competing crops.Yields The yield of gur from sugar cane depends mostly on the quality of the cane and the efficiency of the extraction of juice. Sugarcane and sugar production is partly dependent on monsoons. the vulnerability of areas cultivated under rain fed conditions. The sugarcane crushing season lasts on an average of 100-150 days per annum depending on the region. irrigation and cultivation practices as well as cane availability. The efficiency with which juice can be extracted from the cane is limited by the technology used.3 million ha at present 6|P a ge . weather. The average area of sugarcane cultivation increased from 2. Despite this instability. The table below gives some extreme values. both area and production of sugarcane have increased considerably over the past three decades.

Independent sugar factoryThe factory buys in sugar cane and is then responsible for all aspects of preparation. In both cases the factory farms the land in accordance with its needs. It is usual for the estate to provide the bulk of their requirements and occasionally to contract local growers to produce certain amounts of cane for them. all of which add to the cost of the process. The farmers can then rent the furnace or build their own close to the crusher site and produce syrup or jaggery. fertiliser. This type of system is relatively low-cost and is suited to small scale production of up to 50 TCD in areas where cane is grown during short seasons on small plots spread out over a wide area. growers and merchants provide the raw material for processing and packaging. 7|P a ge . it is important that the suppliers are contracted to supply cane at given times. This type of business needs a reliable and constant supply of cane of acceptable quality.Operating and managing an operation of this magnitude requires resources such as tractors. Although the factory could grow its own cane it is more usual for it to buy in cane from various sources including: y y y direct from individual farmers/growers agricultural co-operatives or groups private traders or companies Because the cane quality deteriorates quickly after harvest. keeping control of the quality of the product. pesticides and transport. The processors charge a rate per unit of cane crushed or juice processed payable either in cash or percentage of the output or both. They take the risk of poor preparation and problems associated with inadequate storage and packaging. The estates can be fully owned by the factory or leased from the farmers in the area. ploughs and harvesting equipment as well as a skilled workforce. providing all equipment. Farmers.Setting up a sugar factory Types of sugar factory Service extraction All is required is a site for the crusher and a space to build the furnace. This enables the factory to work continually while minimising the time harvested cane is allowed to stand.This type of factory is suitable for medium scale production of between 50 and 500 TCD where cane is available all year round or for a substantial part of the year. Sugar estatesThe sugar estate takes control of all aspects of sugar production from growing cane to processing and marketing. processing and marketing the product. They could return to the farm and process the juice there or could pay others to process the juice for them.

transport and marketing. Most VP factories are self-sufficient. it is often difficult to obtain enough bagasse. is a complex business which requires skilled people to manage and supervise all aspects of the production. especially with open pan systems. If these skills are not available locally then they will have to be brought in to set up the business and to train staff. as developed for OPS factories. an additional energy source is required. The costs involved with any sugar factory need to be taken into account. 8|P a ge . even at the small scale. to ensure that sufficient bagasse is available. In most cases sugar factories rely on bagasse as the main fuel for the boiling process and care is required. Using forced-draught shell furnaces. such as OPS. With careful management and using modern. centrifuges and other powered equipment. it still requires substantial investment. crystallisers. highly efficient bagasse-fired boilers it is possible to produce more electricity than is required by the factory. For most small to medium-scale single or multi-pan factories producing lump sugars or syrups there is usually sufficient bagasse. It may be possible to sell this excess electricity to the grid or other users. from the collection of cane to the delivery of sugar to the market place. Small service extraction factories are the cheapest option but will require a crusher. generating another source of income for the factory. Although OPS is a low-cost option compared to large-scale production plants. both of which add to the total cost. In larger multi-pan factories producing granular sugars. If electricity from the grid is not available then it will be necessary to generate power at the factory. This means the installation of diesel powered generators requiring a reliable supply of diesel fuel and engine spares. EnergySugar production uses a great deal of energy to boil the juice as well as that required to operate crushers and other equipment. producing their own electricity and heating for both the process and the factory as a whole. In these situations additional fuel is required which may be bagasse obtained from another factory or wood. there would be costs involved with operation. To operate the crushers. boiling pan and furnace and some means of driving the crusher.Operation and management Costs Sugar production. This may be electricity or diesel. maintenance. it is possible to obtain a fuel balance for the boiling operation (first sugar only) using bagasse. which will add cost to the project. In addition.

Several options are available to the factory: provide its own spares buy spares from local suppliers import from outside the region or country. maintenance and operating costs must be added to the cost of the product. crushers and permanently sited furnaces will all need routine maintenance if they are to operate efficiently. Because of local conditions and circumstances it may not be possible to grow the best type of cane and so a compromise will have to be made. Sugar caneSuitable sugar cane must be available if a factory is to be efficiently operated. There may also be costs associated with the loss of the draft animal to other duties. Because of the rapid rate of deterioration of the harvested cane. If animal powered transport is used then hire charges and feed costs are also applicable. it must be used with twenty four hours. After selecting a suitable variety it will be necessary to test it to ensure that it will succeed under local conditions. Crusher rollers will wear with time and require re-machining which necessitates access to a workshop with a lathe. Engines. Chemical fertiliser may be required Most medium-scale factories will require a set minimum amount of cane each day. if possible. However. If motor vehicles are used then capital. Therefore spare rolls or facilities for refacing old rolls will be required. Usually. rolls can only be re-machined once after which they will be too small for effective crushing. Other spares such as bearings and gears may also be required. Investigatory work can be undertaken with local agricultural research centres or.Transportation :Transport may be required to bring cane from the fields to the factory and also to take the product to market. Farmer may not wish to invest in a new variety of cane until a market is assured. electric motors. Therefore due consideration must be given to the provision of maintenance. introducing a new variety of cane into an area may have a number of problems including: Farming practises may have to change to enable the new cane type to be grown successfully and on a sufficient scale. MaintenanceEquipment cannot be operated effectively without proper maintenance and repair. established sugar factories which will already have undertaken research into varieties suitable for processing. In 9|P a ge .

In return the farmer will receive a guaranteed income per unit weight of cane from the factory and can often claim part of the payment in advance. However. the growing season may be shorter than the operational period of a factory and so farmers may have to grow cane over a longer period to meet demand. Therefore it may be necessary for farmers to change their farming practices to allow for a longer season and staggered harvests. Plant Layout 10 | P a g e .addition. the factory retains quality control and usually has the right to reduce payment if the condition of the cane falls below that required.

Non-centrifugal sugar: This sugar is gur. It is then sent to the vacuum pan. 14% fiber. where the thickened syrup is boiled 3-4 times as per purity inorder to extract the sucrose content on the crystals. most of the mill sugar produced and consumed in India is plantation white. The concentrated syrup from the evaporator is again bleached by passing SO2 through and the pH of the syrup drops down to about 5. weighed and sent to the milling plant. which includes the molasses. and noncentrifugal sugar. White sugar: In developed countries. Juice is extracted in the milling plant and heated and treated by double sulphitation process in most of the factories in India.Industrial process based classification of sugar Sugarcane is brought to the factory. Sugarcane contains 70% water.4. In this double sulphitation process. Gur is not a close substitute for sugar. There are various degrees of refining and the consequent purity and consistency of sugar crystals. 13. In Northwestern India. Raw sugar: It is brown sugar. Sugar beet has a water content of 75%. most white sugar is sugar that has undergone one further refining process.7% soluble impurities. and is mainly consumed by low income rural people as a food stuff rather than as a sweetening agent. The various types of sugar include raw sugar. 11 | P a g e . there is also very substantial production of khandsari . white refined sugar. As in other developing countries. Raw sugars are produced in the processing of cane juice but only as intermediates en route to white sugar. which includes molasses and various impurities at the stage before it is crystallized. mainly in UP.3% saccarose (about 10 to 15% sucrose). It is produced by primitive artisanal processes and mostly consumed in rural areas. meaning sugar that has undergone a first stage of refining at the mill. which is a type of sugar produced by small scale country mills with the use of a centrifuge. juice is heated to 75o C and treated with lime and sulphur dioxide (SO2). but which is less refined than the refined white sugar consumed in developed countries. and the saccarose concentration is approximately 17 %. centrifugal sugar. Centrifugal sugar: This is raw sugar which has been crystallized and most of the molasses spun off by the use of a centrifuge. and 2.

bumper crop of sugarcane has resulted in the huge stock of sugar after meeting the domestic consumption.Manufacturing process of raw sugar Production of very high polarity raw sugar The study on world sugar export market reveals that at any given point of time.12 0. 35-40% is refined sugar and 10-15% is plantation white sugar. The Government therefore. Global Tradable Surplus is about 500-600 lakh tones out of which 50% is raw sugar. allowed export of sugar by announcing transport subsidy to sugar units.15 100 150 max 75 max 12 | P a g e .10 0. insurance and subdued sugar prices.12 0.0 99.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Colour (Icu) Pol % Moisture (%) Ash (%) RS% Starch (ppm) Dextran (ppm) VHP Raw Sugar 600-1200 99. burden of interest.12 0. financial conditions of the sugar factories would have gravely affected.20 0. As the new sugar refineries have come up many sugar mills turn to production of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar for the refineries. The sugar mills would have to face storage problem. In the year 2007-08 due to good monsoon.30 0. Table VHP Raw Sugar Production S.

13 | P a g e .  There massecuite boiling system is followed as that of white sugar. 10-17 parts per million (ppm) of quarternary ammonium compound base effective biocide is used.  Addition of 1 to 3 ppm of mud setting and colourant is added to get brilliant colour.2 to 7.6.  Screening of raw juice is carried with double stage DSM screen having 0. Conveying Raw sugar conveyed in sugar hoppers blowing hot and cold air. juice is heated up to 102o C to 103oC and clarified. Grading Mesh/screen fitted on top side for separation of rotary and for other deck that is. 6.  B m/c single cured seed taken for A m/c as a footing partially melted  C m/c double cured melted  B & C melt taken for A m/c boiling Curing A m/c is cured in steep cone machine of 38 x 49 machine Time cycle of A m/c is adjusted according to quality of dropping sugar without any lumps.Manufacturing process  To avoid bacterial contamination and to control dextran. steam/hot water washing is carried twice in a shift.7 millimetre (mm) aperture.  Juice or syrup sulphitation is not required.10 mm mesh serves the purpose for bottom side with any type of plate having 2 mm thickness or tarpaulin/plastic paper no difficulty is experienced at grading.  Raw juice is heated to 76 to 78oC  Simple detection process is followed only by adding milk of lime 60 to 80 brix to maintain the pH in the range of 7.6/0.8.  Mixed juice phosphate level is kept 300 to 325 milligrams per litre mg/L by addition of phosphoric acid of A Grade.

 Drying and cooling of raw sugar is strictly followed.Figure 3-6: Clarification Process in Raw Sugar Manufacturing Clarification Process in Raw Sugar Manufacturing Precautions to be taken during the manufacturing of raw sugar        Supply of clean. fresh cane to keep dextran within the limits Elimination of maximum suspended bagacillo Mill sanitation pH of limed juice and clear juice to avoid distraction of reducing sugars Phosphate level is to be maintained 300-350 ppm Production of hard uniform grain having equal size in the range of 600-1200 micron. Viscosity is to be reduced by utilizing hot water condensate at the end of strike of A. & C m/c boiling. 14 | P a g e .B.

Process Flow Chart of Three Stage Boiling System Manufacturing of refined sugar There are 10 discrete stages of the refining process with various options available at each stage:       Raw sugar delivery Melting Clarification Filtration Decolorization Ion exchange resin column .Melt concentration 15 | P a g e .

This raw sugar will be melted in a specially designed horizontal melter with sweet water received from the decolorization station and hot water with controlled brix.     . Raw sugar delivery In raw sugar handling the mechanized system is advisable as it would help in reducing the loss of sugar handling from port to factory. expensive and time consuming as well as losses are high. Raw sugar melting and screening Raw sugar from raw sugar centrifugal machine will be conveyed to the melter through a screw conveyer. Double screened melt will be pumped to the buffer tank for clarification. The present sugar handling systems are crude. B. labourintensive. storage and packaging Recovery house (Raw sugar house would be as recovery house) A. C. Ion exchange resin process brief 16 | P a g e .Brine recovery system Scum desweetening Crystallization Centrifugation Drying.

sodium hydroxide. is desweetened by back flushing vigorously with hot. organic spiral . and water can easily cross the membrane (permeate). decolorization of the melt is required through ion exchange resins. In this process. Brine recovery system This recovery process is based on the concentration of COD and colouring material in the retentate. In this process each effluent from caustic brine regeneration is processed in a cross-flow filtration skid equipped with spiral nano-filtration membranes. The resin. Typically the heating surface of each falling film would be around 500 m2.wound NF membranes are being used with high concentration factor of effluent. Regeneration is carried out with 10% sodium chloride solution having 2% concentration of sodium hydroxide. Melt concentration The fine liquor is concentrated in the evaporator to brix 74-76° to save energy and to maintain the product quality by stabilizing the brix of the evaporated fine liquor. In this recovery system. the decolorization is effected by passing the clear melt through a styrene based resin. after completing the duty cycle. 17 | P a g e . Operation sequence:        Sweeten on Service run Sweeten off Back wash Regeneration Displacement Descaling i. Under a pressure of 20 bars. Two stage decolorizing process for this particular application is recommended. ii. while smaller molecules such as sodium chloride. which is normally of 16-24 hrs. which would be used for the next regeneration cycle. The spiral-wound membranes are much cheaper to tubular type.For the production of refined sugar. soft water to disperse the bed and to remove any suspended matter which may have collected during the duty cycle. the spent brine would be highly purified to give a new load of recovered brine. A thin-film falling filmtype double effect evaporator would be used for concentration of fine liquor.

form a complex system.that have been available for the purpose. The three stage scum desweetening process followed by specially designed pressure filtration is an advanced and proven process of extracting the sugar from the scum. Scum de-sweetening station Flotation scums. either in actual expense or through loss of sucrose in the course of the recovery treatment. decolorized Liquor 150 200 IU 60 62 deg 99+ Refined Sugar Grades of refined sugar would be EEC-I. filtered. Process description It is the process in which sugar is crystallized from concentrated fine liquor obtained by water evaporation under vacuum. 18 | P a g e . being a suspension of tricalcium phosphate floe. Crystallization . These often make the operation costly. The process flow is clearly illustrated in the Figure . These characteristics adversely affect the two basic methods-filtration and centrifugal separation . The separation of floe and impurities from the solution inorder to recover sugar presents a number of difficulties. the operation is carried out under vacuum to prevent the sugar from burning or decomposing by heat and to obtain the crystals of the adequate size. E. The problems encountered in treatment of scum for sugar recovery arise out of the slimy and gelatinous character of the floe and the impurities occluded in it. D. EEC-II 85 mill white sugar.refined massecuite boiling Table : Process brief of Crystallization of Refined Sugar Inlet Colour Brix Purity Outlet Clarified.The membranes are easy to clean and the efficiency of resin regeneration with nano.filtration brine would be about 70-80% and it can be further increased by installing brine concentrator. floated off impurities and air bubbles in concentrated sugar liquor.

5-98%. Crystallization occurs in a saturated/supersaturated solution. color removal is at least 90%. This cured sugar is dried and cooled into drier before weighing & bagging. The screened sugar is sent to the silos as per the grain size classifications. Lower purity massecuites like B & C exhibits less color removal of 95. After this. It is then dried in a rotary dryer a large rotating drum where the sugar dries upon coming into contact with the air. They have little or nothing to do with color removal but more with secondary color formation and/or sugar contamination. and mal-adjusted washing nozzles to mention a few of the key parameters of centrifugal work can destroy good results obtained in crystallization.5% and up to 80% (75 . Centrifugation Centrifugation requires greatest attention as it ensures the effective crystallization. badly cleaned screens. When the boiling is complete around 89 brix.The most-effective decolorization is achieved by crystallization. The dry and cooled refined sugar passes over a vibrating screen to separate lumps of sugar. 19 | P a g e . storage and packaging These three steps should not be forgotten. Back boiling or mixed boiling system will be followed for producing refined sugar of single quality.95. pan is dropped into crystallizer and cured in batch centrifugal machine. F. The sugar comes out humid from the centrifugal process.80%) respectively. which may be formed during the drying and cooling process. but can go as high as 97. This aspect is necessary for hygienic handling of the sugar as a human food. For high quality massecuites like A and refined sugar. Color is removed by crystallization. which also means that crystals are always surrounded by a liquid phase. Inadequate mode of operation. it is transported by belt conveyor/ hopper and elevator to the top of the conditioning sugar silos where the sugar is separated by a set of vibrating screens. Drying. assuming the syrup separation is executed well.

Process Flow Diagram of Raw Sugar Refining 20 | P a g e .

a thick material called sugar syrup and used in cattle feed preparations. Series of boiling and other processes are followed to get the maximum sugar out of those liquors.Recovery house The recovery house is the dirty end of the sugar refinery where. the refiner tries to recover as much as possible of the sugar in any residual liquors before rejecting them as the molasses.6-0. as the name implies. Beet and cane sugar manufacturing are typically located adjacent to the sources of raw materials to reduce costs and transportation time. Washing and extraction of cane 21 | P a g e . A. evaporation. crystallization centrifugation. and producing at the end. Cane and beet processing facilities typically have substantial areas to stock enough raw materials to facilitate continuous production. Maximum sugar must be recovered from runoffs to get the optimum yield of the refinery. The beet production line runs continuously at full capacity. storing. The yield performance of any sugar refinery depends upon the performance of the recovery house.63% Capacity utilization is increased by 6 to 8% Sulphur is not used in the process reduction in lime consumption by 58% Scale formation rate is very low and soft in nature Reduction in molasses % cane by 0. whereas the sugarcane production line usually has to stop every 14 days (approximately) to facilitate removal of encrustations on heating surfaces. cleaning. and to ensure fresh raw material. juice clarification. Reception of beet and cane Beet and cane are unloaded from the transportation vehicles after a sample has been taken for assessment of sugar and dirt content. and packing stages as illustrated in Figure 3-9. drying.9 % Massecuite % cane is reduced by 5 to 6% Sequence of steps in sugar production Beet and cane sugar production processes are similar. B. Both involve reception. extraction. Advantage achieved in raw sugar production over to the white sugarto the process point of view        Rise in recovery percent cane by 0.

returning leaves to the field where the crop residue promotes soil conservation. During washing. the bagasse may be used for further processing in the cellulose industry.Traditionally. The remains of the cane stalk is called bagasse. The current trend is to harvest green unburned cane. Cane juice extraction may also be achieved by a diffusion leaching process. as gravel for the construction industry. soil. Sugar Manufacturing Process 22 | P a g e . stone and leaves are separated from the beet. which can result in higher rates of extraction with 50% lesser energy consumption than a mechanical mill. known as diffusion juice . where the slices are mixed with hot extraction water to form a sugar solution. Extraction of the sugar juice is achieved with roller mills which press out the juice. The juice is extracted by a diffuser. for example. C. Where fuel is available from another source. Washing and extraction of beet Washing of sugar beet is water-intensive and washwater is typically recirculated. Separated stone can be used. cane has been burned in the field before transport to processing facilities to remove any leaves from the cane stalk. which contains cellulose fiber. The spent beet cossettes in the beet pulp are then pressed and dried to produce animal feed. Disintegration of the beet is accomplished by cutting into slices (cossettes). This is mostly used in the process facility as fuel for energy supply.

evaporation. after which it is filtered to remove the mud. The burnt limestone is used to generate milk of lime and the CO2 is also added to the liquid in a process called carbonation. melting. E. Clarification. The main outputs are burnt limestone and carbon dioxide (CO2). crystallization. Because large quantities of milk of lime and gas are needed. bind other components. and other materials. such as protein. this is a continuous process. the lime is produced from limestone. These substances are added to the juice and. and finishing. evaporation. Decolorization methods use granular activated carbon. Sugar refining The refining of sugar involves affination (mingling and centrifugation). clarification. In beet-based sugar production. in the process of carbonation. which is combusted in a specially designed lime kiln. and crystallization The juice resulting from the extraction process is clarified by mixing it with milk of lime. decolorization.Comparison of Sugar Manufacture from Cane and Beet D. to the 23 | P a g e . ion exchange resins. powdered activated carbon.

molasses. The final syrup. and this is achieved through evaporation. Sugar crystals are then dried and stored (e. is called molasses. and dried for use as a soil conditioning agent in agriculture. it is rarely used in the cane industry because of the investment required and a general lack of the main raw material. which contains 50% sugar. Material Balance for 100 Tonnes Sugar Unit 24 | P a g e . which is generated in rela tively high volumes. limestone. the thin juice has a sugar content of approximately 15%. This thick juice is further evaporated until sugar crystals form. The resultant clear solution of juice is called thin juice. Cane processing facilities typically purchase ready-made burnt limestone powder and use this to generate milk of lime.lime particles. resulting in lime sludge.g. in silos). Although the carbonation process gives good results. Water is removed from the thin juice in a series of evaporating vessels until syrup with a dry matter content of 68 72% is obtained. or a combination of these products. The basis for the distillery can be sugar juice. The lime is then filtered. Molasses can be used as cattle fodder or as raw material in the fermentation industry. To facilitate the use of the molasses. and the crystals and the accompanying syrup are then centrifuged to separate the two components. Molasses is the most important by product of the sugar production. sugar factories may be combined with distillation plants (see below). After clarification. Concentrations greater than 68% are needed to allow sugar crystallization.

followed by distillation. the following technologies may be classified as cleanertechnologies for sugar waste management. Anaerobic digestion of this waste is used to produce biogas. (NOTE: In all the above cases oil & grease trap (preferably mechanical). Waste from the distillation process is known as vinasse or spent wash. This ethanol can be used in other industries or further processed and blended with gasoline.  Segregation of concentrated and dilute waste streams and adopt Composting for concentrated wastes and Stabilization ponds for dilute wastes.  Anaerobic Digestion/ Anaerobic lagoon/Anaerobic filter as primary treatment followed single stage aeration. Screen and V notch or continuous flow recorder is a must) 25 | P a g e . to produce ethanol with a purity of 95%. Cleaner technologies Based on the site visits and study.E.  Anaerobic pond + Facultative pond + aerobic pond  Equalization tank + Monthly washing Holding Tank + Single/ two stage aeration + clarifier. Distillery An associated distillery may employ batch or continuous fermentation. which can be utilized for the production of boiler fuel for the distillery or to fuel combined heat and power engines. Remaining waste can be returned to agricultural fields and / or used in the composting of organic solids emanating from processing.

especially from tank overflows. and reduce breakage during collection and transport through use of rubber mats and lined containers. settleable solids. Process wastewater treatment Techniques for treating industrial process wastewater in sugar industries include:  preliminary treatment for separating floating.Significance of Pollutants Generated Environmental issues in sugar manufacturing projects primarily include the following:     Molasses Wastewater Solid waste and by-products Emissions to air Molasses Final molasses is produced in the last steps of operation of separation of sugar from the mother liquor in centrifuges. equipment. It has been found that average production of molasses is 4.2% of the cane crushed. beet parts) entering the wastewater to prevent direct runoff to watercourses. oil & grease  flow & load equalization  sedimentation for suspended solids reduction using clarifiers 26 | P a g e . Molasses has very high pollution characteristics.g. and production areas before wet cleaning  Allow beet to dry on field if possible.. Wastewater Prevention strategies for wastewater management Recommended wastewater management includes the following prevention strategies:  Segregate non-contaminated wastewater streams from contaminated streams  Reduce the organic load of wastewater by preventing the entry of solid wastes and concentrated liquids into the wastewater stream  Implement dry pre-cleaning of raw material. But there is quite a large fluctuation in this. Use dry techniques to unload beet  Fit and use floor drains and collection channels with grids and screens or traps to reduce the amount of solids (e.

etc Air pollution control equipment At present. for reductio of soluble organic matter (BOD)  biological nutrient removal for reduction in nitrogen & phosphorus  chlorination of effluent when disinfection is required  dewatering and disposal of residuals. and lime solids from the juice clarification). Such dust fall leads to the problem of cleaning. Air pollution from sugar industries The burning of bagasse produces particulate like unburnt fibers. In addition. leaves from cane or beet. Wet-Scrubbers (Sugar Units without Co-generation) 2. odour emissions are generated from beet processing activities and storage facilities.g. The amount of waste generated depends on the quality of the raw materials themselves and on the initial cleaning in the field. typically anaerobic followed by aerobic treatment. bagasse fiber from the cane. biological treatment. the heavier particles slowly settle down in the surrounding area. carbon particles. reduction in property value. These equipment may not satisfy the emission standards prescribed by the State Boards as 150 mg/Nm3 to 350 mg/Nm3. It is therefore suggested to replace the Multicyclones with 1. dust from unpaved access roads and areas. Electrostatic Precipitator (Sugar Units with co-generation 27 | P a g e .. effect on vegetation. and sugar drying or packing activities. and ash and gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrogen. molasses from the final crystallization. water vapour and other compounds of the particulate waste. press mud or cachaza. most of the industries have installed multicyclones. in some instances composting or land application of wastewater treatment residuals of acceptable quality may be possible Solid waste and by-product management Sugar industry activities generate large quantities of organic solid waste and by-products (e. Emissions to air Air emissions in sugar manufacturing are primarily related to particulate matter generated from bagasse-fired steam boilers. mud and soil arriving at the plant with the raw material.

http://www.13:8080/ssdn1/jspfiles/doc/Sugar.htm 7. tical_Action_Technical_Brief%29 Websites 1.cd3wd.html 3. http://www.100.pdf 5.GIF Books 1. Operationa Mangment By Stevenson 28 | P a g e 6. www. http://en. http://www.

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