You are on page 1of 6

Frist year

Chemistry Laboratory Report

Ndando Sume Metuge Alex Bur Bill Henderson


THEORY C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 -------------.6 degrees Fairly high boiling pint 1.OBJECT This experiment has two purposes which includes the following   Making aspirin by an acid catalyzed reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride.]When this small molecule is water. colorless or white crystalline powder Melting point 159 degrees high -73 degrees Low melting point 136 degree Fairly high Density Boiling point 4. or acetic acid. Determining the percentage yield of aspirin from the reaction. The word "condensation" suggests a process in which two or more things are brought "together" (Latin "con") to form .2 illustrates this more. Acetic Anhydride and Acetylsalicylic Acid Phase at room temp White to off white crystalline powder Colorless liquid with pungent smell Odorless. Table. A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional group) combine to form one single molecule.8 Higher boiling point than water 139.1 Compounds Salicylic acid The Physical Properties of Salicylic acid.C9H8O4 +CH3COOH Table. together with the loss of a small molecule. methanol. it is known as a dehydration reaction.39 140 degrees Decomposes near melting point Acetic anhydride 3. other possible small molecules lost are hydrogen chloride. We then calculate the percentage yield by dividing the actual yield of ASA by the theoretical yield of ASA then multiply by a hundred. Resulting to form a 1:1:1 ratio.5 Acetylsalicylic acid From the understanding of stoichiometry we can thus say one mole of salicylic acid reacts with one mole of acetic anhydride to from one mole acetylsalicylic acid.

you need to determine the limiting reactant which is that reactant which runs out first. The absolute yield can be given as the weight in grams or in moles (molar yield). which makes things easier. chemical reaction. Basically. is calculated by dividing the amount of the obtained product by the theoretical yield (the unit of measure for both must be the same): Based on your balanced equation. Yield also referred to as chemical yield and reaction yield. There are various methods of purification that may be attempted. One fragment of the target molecule (or parent molecule) gains a hydrogen ion (H+) from the split water molecule. Also you can get the actual yield by simply measuring the amount of aspirin you produced grams. Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of a target substance is split into two parts by the addition of molecules of water which is also split before or during splitting of the target substance molecule. In chemistry.something "dense". The other portion of the target molecule collects the hydroxyl group (OH−) of the split water molecule. and is not the primary or service being produced. Since it is a 1:1 ratio thus the number moles of salicylic acid equals the number of moles of aspirin that is (for every 1 mole of acetic anhydride that you use up produces one mole of aspirin)cause the mole ratio is 1:1. There are also different recrystallization techniques that can be used. however. recrystallization is a procedure for purifying compounds the most typical situation is that a desired "compound A" is contaminated by a small amount of "impurity B". or percentage yield. relative yield. this does not imply. is the amount of product obtained in chemical reaction. a by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process. like in condensation from gaseous to liquid state of matter. There is a one to one mole ration between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. which serves to measure the effectiveness of a synthetic procedure. . which includes recrystallization. that condensation reaction products have greater density than reactants. Finally calculate the percentage yield of aspirin by dividing the actual yield of aspirin by the theoretical yield multiplied by a hundred. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered product waste. we can easily calculate theoretical yield. in this case the limiting reagent is the one with the least number of moles (acetic anhydride) Theoretical yield of aspirin is gotten by dividing the number of moles by the relative atomic mass of aspirin. The fractional yield.

which is nothing but a byproduct of acetic acid. Resulting to an increase in the percentage yield.Considering the fact that acetic anhydride is the limiting reactant the following might cause the percentage to be low or high. HIGH    An increase in the amount of reactants(limiting reactant) might cause percentage yield to increase since more of the reactants will be available to form products If all of the mixture completely dissolved to form a solution. Incidentally. CALCULATIONS: Moles of SA = Mass/Molar mass = 2.98(g )/ 138. The absence of any contaminants will also increase the percentage yield since no side reactions occur LOW    A decrease in the quantity of reactants particularly the limiting reactants causes the percentage yield to drop due to less reactants are available to form products. it gradually reacts with the moisture present in the air. then more of the compounds are thus reacting to form products. The resultant chemical process is aspirin. Salicylic acid and acetic acid are released due to the breaking down of ASA. If the salicylic acid and the acid anhydride don’t react completely (dissolve) then less aspirin will be formed thus reducing the percentage yield. This process is continues thus releasing the characteristic odor of acetic acid. Also the presence of any contaminants can also decrease the yield due the possibility of side reaction interfering with the initial reaction. Aspirin tablets that have high concentrations of acetic acid undergo a reverse reaction when exposed to wet surrounding or kept past their expiration date.0216 mol .12(g/mol) = 0. When aspirin becomes old. This because acetic acid is formed as a by-product from this reaction thus when acetylsalicylic acid reacts with moisture in air it breaks down releasing acetic acid. vinegar too has acetic acid as its most important component. producing a smell identifiable with vinegar. The splitting up process is continuous.

0216mol / / / / / / / / / 180.25% .89) * 100 = 99.8913g Mass = moles * molar mass The actual yield is got by simply measuring the mass of aspirin produced which was 0.89g 0.12g/mol 2.157g/mol / 0.01g / 3.157 g/mol = 3.0216mol 3.0216 (mol of ASA)* 1mol (ASA) / 1 mol (SA) = 0.actual yield / theoretical) * 100 = (3.2 Experimental Observations for Percentage Yield SA + AA ------ASA Molar mass Mass SA used (g) 3g to nearest 0.01g 0.Moles of ASA = 0.0216 mol * 180.74% Table.01g Percentage error = (theoretical yield .98g 0.89g – 0.0216 moles of ASA Theoritical yield of ASA (g) = 0.01g Moles Theoretical yield of ASA Actual ASA Yield(g) Actual ASA yield(g)/ x 100 138.

These show that there was low yield of aspirin due to either of the reasons discussed in the theory of this report. . the percentage yield was measured to 0. Furthermore. Showing why the percentage yield of aspirin is low due to a relatively high degree of errors in the production process of aspirin. the percentage error gives more proof as to the low yield of aspirin.74%.25% while the percentage error was found to be 99.Theoretical ASA yield(g) (%) CONCLUSION : To conclude.

CONCLUSION : To conclude. Furthermore.25% while the percentage error was found to be 99. Showing why the percentage yield of aspirin is low due to a relatively high degree of errors in the production process of aspirin. . These show that there was low yield of aspirin due to either of the reasons discussed in the theory of this report. the percentage error gives more proof as to the low yield of aspirin. the percentage yield was measured to 0.74%.