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Submitted by Kavinder Kumar 0833231404
As part of industrial training to
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Maharaja Agarsain Institute of Technology
NH-24 Pilkhuwa, Ghaziabad (U.P.)-245304
(Affiliated by Gautam Buddha Technical University)
we thanks to our friends and group members for their sincere cooperation and support in all the matter concerned with the project. We all are thankful to Mr. . constant encouragement and guidance during the course of the project. Department of EC for providing us excellent facilities.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are grateful to Mr. EC department for valuable advice and timely guidance. Firoz Warsi. Mayank Tiwari. valuable equipments. which resulted in successful completion of our project work. Finally. valuable advice.
3.Table of Contents 1. Introduction Timer 555 IC Stepper motor Stepper motor drive circuits Stepper Motor Driver PCB Circuit Proteus 7 Professional Result . 7. 2. 5. 6. 4.
thanks to its ease of use. The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range. and SE555T. but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. Depending on the manufacturer. Such a practice should nevertheless be avoided. Low-power versions of the 555 are also available. such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555. Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip). These were available in both high-reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) packages. and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range. and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally. SE555V. because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage might interfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages. the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors. 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). and TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). 0 °C to +70 °C. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V. Camenzind and Jim Ball. the design was ported to the Monochip analogue array. The part is still in widespread use. incorporating detailed design by Wayne Foletta and others from Qualidyne Semiconductors. . NE555T. Design The IC design was proposed in 1970 by Hans R. pulse generation and oscillator applications. and released the first 555s in 1971. Signetics (later acquired by Philips) took over the design and production. The 7555 is designed to cause less supply glitching than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor on the power supply. After prototyping. low price and good stability. It has been hypothesized that the 555 got its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used within. −55 °C to +125 °C.Timer 555 IC The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer.
The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature. "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default. Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. low level (0 V) OUT rises. linearize it and even provide calibration means. bouncefree switches. Astable – free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Name GND TRIG OUT RESET CTRL THR DIS V+. VCC Purpose Ground.Pins Pinout diagram The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows: Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Modes The 555 has three operating modes: Monostable mode: in this mode. security alarms. A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. This output is driven to +VCC or GND. Open collector output. capacitance measurement. when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. pulse position modulation and so on. pulse generation. 2/3 VCC). Applications include timers. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. logic clocks. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. frequency divider. . and interval starts. touch switches. pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and so on. tone generation. missing pulse detection. may discharge a capacitor between intervals.
5 to 15 V 3 to 6 mA 10 to 15 mA 200 mA 600 mW 30 mW@5V. 225 mW@15V 0 to 70 °C . if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Other 555 timers can have different specifications depending on the grade (military. etc).Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop. Supply voltage (VCC) Supply current (VCC = +5 V) Supply current (VCC = +15 V) Output current (maximum) Maximum Power dissipation Power Consumption (minimum operating) Operating temperature 4. Uses include bounce free latched switches. Specifications These specifications apply to the NE555. medical.
To make the motor shaft turn. Fundamentals of operation Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors. As motor speed increases. which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. Stepper motor characteristics Stepper motors are constant power devices. In that way. they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. the motor can be turned by a precise angle. and from there the process is repeated. Stepper motors. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. one electromagnet is given power. which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count. first. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off. A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless. electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps.Stepper motor This article needs additional citations for verification. effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller). the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step". When the gear's teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet. (Most motors exhibit maximum torque when stationary. however the torque of a motor when stationary (holding . and generally are closed-loop commutated). such as a microcontroller. on the other hand. torque decreases.
i. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases (this can also be achieved through the use of a microstepping driver) Open-loop versus closed-loop commutation Steppers are generally commutated open loop. especially if the load inertia is high.e. as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another (called a detent). At worst there is a total loss of control and holding torque so the motor is easily overcome by the load and spins almost freely. This has often caused the system designer to consider the trade-offs between a closely sized but expensive servomechanism system and an oversized but relatively cheap stepper. On each step the rotor overshoots and bounces back and forth. This is because the rotor is being held in a magnetic field which behaves like a spring. and only enter closed loop mode if the rotor position error becomes too large — this will allow the system to avoid hunting or oscillating. or there is widely varying load. an encoder or resolver).torque) defines the ability of the motor to maintain a desired position while under external load). so that the commutation can be made optimal for torque generation according to actual rotor position. there are several off the shelf driver chips capable of doing this in a simple manner). The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage (sometimes referred to as a 'chopper' circuit. the driver has no feedback on where the rotor actually is. physically damping (frictional damping) the system. resulting in positional error or a change in direction. If the stepping frequency matches the resonant frequency then the ringing increases and the motor comes out of synchronism. This turns the stepper motor into a high pole count brushless servo motor. a common servo problem. or using a microstepping driver. An advance on this technique is to normally run the motor in open loop mode.g. "ringing" at its resonant frequency. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque or lose direction. The vibration makes stepper motors noisier than DC motors. with exceptional low speed torque and position resolution. so that there is no possibility that the motor will lose steps. Stepper motor systems must thus generally be over engineered. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range. Types There are four main types of stepper motors: . A new development in stepper control is to incorporate a rotor position feedback (e. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types.
so the motor has only five leads. tincan being a cheaper product. and hybrid with higher quality bearings. Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to achieve maximum power in a small package size. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. Often.g. higher power density) 2. given a phase. Lavet type stepping motor Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets. the shaft becomes harder to turn. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current. Each section of windings is switched on for each direction of magnetic field. the commutation circuit can be made very simple (e. This is because there is twice the length of coil between the ends and only . One way to distinguish the center tap (common wire) from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance. A microcontroller or stepper motor controller can be used to activate the drive transistors in the right order. Two-phase stepper motors There are two basic winding arrangements for the electromagnetic coils in a two phase stepper motor: bipolar and unipolar. Typically. the center tap of each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor. a single transistor) for each winding. Variable Reluctance Stepper 4. they are probably the cheapest way to get precise angular movements. and this ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular with hobbyists. If the terminals of a coil are connected. Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle that minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap. Permanent Magnet Stepper (can be subdivided in to 'tin-can' and 'hybrid'. the windings can be identified by touching the terminal wires together in PM motors.1. Unipolar motors A unipolar stepper motor has one winding with center tap per phase. these two phase commons are internally joined. Hybrid Synchronous Stepper 3. smaller step angle. hence the rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles. Unipolar stepper motor coils (For the experimenter.
typically with an H-bridge arrangement (however there are several off the shelf driver chips available to make this a simple affair). Bipolar motor Bipolar motors have a single winding per phase. . so the driving circuit must be more complicated.) A quick way to determine if the stepper motor is working is to short circuit every two pairs and try turning the shaft. the abundance of driver chips means this is much less difficult to achieve. it indicates that the circuit to the particular winding is closed and that the phase is working. Because windings are better utilized.half from center (common wire) to the end. Static friction effects using an H-bridge have been observed with certain drive topologies. The current in a winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole. hence is 50% efficient (or approximately 70% of the torque output available). none are common. This is due to the physical space occupied by the windings.. whenever a higher than normal resistance is felt. Though bipolar is more complicated to drive. A unipolar motor has twice the amount of wire in the same space. they are more powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. There are two leads per phase. but only half used at any point in time.
As speeds further increase. the current will not reach the rated value. Additionally. having both permanent magnets and soft iron cores. Winding inductance and reverse EMF generated by a moving rotor tend to resist changes in drive current. Pull-in torque This is the measure of the torque produced by a stepper motor when it is operated without an acceleration state. Theory A step motor can be viewed as a synchronous AC motor with the number of poles (on both rotor and stator) increased. so that as the motor speeds up. the limiting factor being the winding inductance. and this pull-in torque must overcome friction and inertia. At low speeds the stepper motor can synchronize itself with an applied step frequency. one must increase the drive voltage. To overcome the inductance and switch the windings quickly. Torque curves may be extended to greater speeds if the stator poles can be reversed more quickly.Stepper motor drive circuits Stepper motor performance is strongly dependent on the drive circuit. less and less time is spent at full current — thus reducing motor torque. This leads further to the necessity of limiting the current that these high voltages may otherwise induce. the coils in a stepper motor must reach their full rated current during each step. To achieve full rated torque. soft magnetic material with many teeth on the rotor and stator cheaply multiplies the number of poles (reluctance motor). Modern steppers are of hybrid design. taking care that they have no common denominator. and eventually the motor will cease to produce torque. . It is important to make sure that the load on the motor is frictional rather than inertial as the friction reduces any unwanted oscillations.
As noted below this curve is affected by drive voltage. drive current and current switching techniques. and sometimes included in the specifications) when not driven electrically.3. Soft iron reluctance cores do not exhibit this behavior.Pull-out torque The stepper motor pull-out torque is measured by accelerating the motor to the desired speed and then increasing the torque loading until the motor stalls or misses steps.0NF 50V ALUM LYTIC RADIAL 1 IC 2 LM7805ACT-ND 4 4 Q1. Detent torque Synchronous electric motors using permanent magnets have a remnant position holding torque (called detent torque or cogging.3.4 R1.4 BC547 470QBK-ND 2 R6. Stepper Circuit Board Parts List Quantity 1 Parts IC 1 Digikey Part LM555CNFS-ND Description 555 TIMER SINGLE 070DEG C 8-DIP 7805 REG POS 1A 5V +/-2% TOL TO-220 NPN RES 470 OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM RES 2K OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM RES 22K OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM RES 220 OHM ¼W 5% CARBON FILM CAP 100NF 50V ALUM LYTIC RADIAL CAP 1.2.8 2KQBK-ND 1 1 1 R7 R5 C1 22KQBK-ND 220QBK-ND 1 C2 .2. This measurement is taken across a wide range of speeds and the results are used to generate the stepper motor's dynamic performance curve. A designer may include a safety factor between the rated torque and the estimated full load torque required for the application.
In larger organizations where the two roles are separated. In this software we have simulated the project. the software designers can begin work as soon as the schematic is completed. With this Virtual System Modeling facility.Proteus 7 Professional The Proteus Design Suite is wholly unique in offering the ability to co-simulate both high and low-level micro-controller code in the context of a mixed-mode SPICE circuit simulation. If one person designs both the hardware and the software then that person benefits as the hardware design may be changed just as easily as the software design. there is no need for them to wait until a physical prototype exists. . you can transform your product design cycle. reaping huge rewards in terms of reduced time to market and lower costs of development.
Stepper Motor Driver PCB Circuit Due to the lack of error detection and limited step power. Each stepper motor will have its own power requirements and as there is a great variety of motors available. Motors that operate at voltages lower than 12 volts can also be used with this driver but a separate supply of of 9 to 12 volts will be needed for the control portion of the circuit in addition to the low voltage supply for the motor. This page cannot give information in this area. There is no minimum step speed at which stepper motors cannot operate. capacitor C1 can be removed from the circuit board and an external clock source connected at terminal 'T2'. in theory. the practical limit on the step rate is the motor itself. Users of this circuit will have to determine motor phasing and power requirements for themselves. the values for RT and C1 can be as large as desired but there are practical limitations to these values. depending on the particular motor. Alternately. this circuit should not be used for applications that require accurate positioning. The main limitation is the 'leakage' current of electrolytic capacitors. Testing may be needed to determine the minimum values for RT and C1 to produce the maximum CLOCK frequency for any given motor. The maximum RPM at which stepper motors will operate properly is low when compared to other motor types and the torque the motor produces drops rapidly as its speed increases. Therefore. . With C1 removed. Power for the motors can be regulated or filtered and may range from 12 to 24 volts with currents up to 600 milliamps per phase.
The LM7805. Result I am finally control the stepper motor with some rules and parameters. This pad is connected to pin 3 of the LM555 IC. . positive 5 volt regulator used on the circuit board can also be used to provide power for external control circuits. The regulator can easily dissipate up to 1 watt.There is no CLOCK output terminal on the circuit board but there is a pad to the right of the LED that can be used if a clock output signal is required.
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