Aquarius 14: A train entering a tunnel

T h e w o r d t r ai n d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I n d o E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r o o t t r agh - w h i c h m e a n s ” t o d r a w , d r a g , o r m o ve . ”
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A m o n g i t s p a r on y m s a r e

t ra c t , t ra ct a b le , t rac t i o n , t rai l, t rai t , tre a t , a b s t ra ct , a tt ra c t , co n t ra c t , de t ra c t , dis t ra c t , e x t ra c t , p o rt ra y , p ro t ra c t , re t ra ct , a n d s u b t ra c t .
T h e w o r d e n t e ri n g d e s c e n d s f r o m t he I E r o o t e n - w h i c h m e a n s “ i n . ” 2 I t s p r i m a r y p a r o n ym s a r e ep i so de , e so t e ri c , in , i n di gen t , i n du s t ry , i n ne r ,

i n t e ri m , i n te ri o r, in t e st i ne , i nt ri n si c , i n t ro du c e a n d t h e p r e f i x e s i n - a n d im-.
T h e w o r d t u nn e l e n t e r e d t he E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i n t he m i d - 1 5 t h c e n t u r y w i t h t h e me a n i n g “ f u n n e l - s h a p e d n e t f o r c a t c h i n g b i r d s . ” I t d e s ce n d s f r o m t h e M i d d l e F re n c h t on n e l le m e a n i n g “ n e t ” a n d i s r e l a t e d t o t he M i d d l e F re n h t on e l ( c a s k) w h i c h i s a d i m i n u t i ve o f t he O l d F r e n c h t on n e ( t u n , c a s k f o r l i q ui d s ) . T he s e n s e o f t h e w o r d a s a t ub e o r p i p e d e v e l op e d i n t he m i d - 1 6 t h ce n t u r y a n d b y t he m i d - 1 8 t h c e n t u r y le a d t o i t s m e a n i n g a s a n un d e r g r o u n d p a s sa g e . 3 T h e w o r d i t s e l f ha s se v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g “ a n u n d e r g r o u n d t u n n e l” a n d “ t o c on s t r u c t a p a s s a g e w a y through or under.”4 TH EMES : T he f i r s t t h e m e c on c e r n s D IRECT ION . T h e k e yw o r d e n t eri ng o b v i o u s l y c o n n o t e s a n i n w a r d d i r e c t i on w h i l e t u nn el c o n n o t e s t h e directions under and through. Taken together with the definition of t r a gh - ( t o d r a w, d r a g , m o v e ) w e h a ve t h e m o v e m e n t a n d d i r e c t i o n , n a m e l y m o v e m e n t i n , u n d e r , a n d t h r ou g h .

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Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 93 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 23 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=tunnel http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tunnel Starling Hunter © 2011 1