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r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu
A Drop of the Nectarine Ocean of Bhakti-rasa Composed by The crest-jewel of spiritual preceptors and guardian of the r Gauya sampradya rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura

rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, the crown prince of illustrious teachers among the Gauya Vaiava cryas, is the author of this book. In this book there is a description of the nature of uttam-bhakti, its divisions, sdhana-bhakti, the stages in the development of prema, the agas of bhajana, offences committed in the performance of devotional service (sevpardha), offences against the holy name (nmpardha), vaidh and rgnug-sdhana-bhakti, bhva-bhakti, prema-bhakti, and bhakti-rasa. Life History of rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura appeared in a family of brhmaas from the community of Rhadea in the district of Nadia, West Bengal. He was celebrated by the name Hari Vallabha. He had two older brothers named Rmabhadra and Raghuntha. In childhood, he studied grammar in a village named Devagrma. After this he went to a village named aiyadbda in the district of Muridbda where he studied the bhakti-stras in the home of his guru. It was in aiyadbda that he wrote three books while still undergoing his studies. These three books are Bhakti-rasmtasindhu-bindu, Ujjavala-nlamai-kiraa, and Bhgavatmta-ka. A short time later, he renounced his household life and went to Vndvana. There he wrote many books and commentaries. After the disappearance of rman Mahprabhu and His eternal associates who had taken up residence in Vraja, the current of uddha-bhakti was flowing by the influence of three great personalities: rnivsa crya, Narottama hkura, and ymnanda Prabhu. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura was fourth in the line of disciplic succession coming from rla Narottama hkura. One disciple of rla Narottama hkura Mahaya was named r Gag-Nryaa Cakravart Mahaya. He lived in Blcara Gambhil within the district of Muridbda. He had no sons and only one daughter, whose name was Viupriy. rla Narottama hkura had another disciple named Rmaka Bhacrya from the brhmaa community of Vrendra, a rural community of West Bengal. The youngest son of Rmaka Bhacrya was named Ka-caraa. r Gag-Nryana accepted Ka-caraa as an adopted son. The disciple of r Kna-caraa was Rdh-ramaa Cakravart, who was the spiritual master of Vivantha Cakravart hkura. In his commentary on rmad-Bhgavatam entitled Srrtha-darin, at the beginning of the Rsa-pacdhyya, five chapters describing r Kas rsa-ll, Vivantha Cakravart hkura has written the following verse: r rma-ka-gag-caran natv gurun urupremna rla narottama ntha r gaurga prabhu naumi In this loka the name r Rma refers to the spiritual master of Vivantha Cakravart hkura, r Rdh-ramaa. The word Ka refers to his grand-spiritual master, parama-gurudeva, r Ka-caraa. The name Gag-caraa refers to his great grand-spiritual master, partpara-gurudeva, r Gag-caraa. The name Narottama refers to his great-great grandspiritual master, parama-partpara-gurudeva, rla Narottama hkura, and the word ntha refers to the spiritual master of rla Narottama hkura, r Lokantha Gosvm. In this way, he is offering obeisances unto his guru-parampar up to rman Mahprabhu. The daughter of rnivsa crya, Hemalat hkur, was extremely learned and a great Vaiav. She expelled an estranged disciple named Rpa Kavirja from the Gauya Vaiava community. Since then Rpa Kavirja was known as atib in the Gauya Vaiava community. He established his own concocted doctrine, opposed to the Gauya Vaiava conclusions, that only a person in the renounced order of life could act as crya. He claimed that it was not possible for a householder to become a spiritual master. Completely disregarding the path of devotional rules and regulations (viddhi-

mrga), he propagated the path of spontaneous attraction (rga-mrga) in an unrestrained and undisciplined manner. His opinion was that rgnug-bhakti could be practiced by smaraa (remembrance) alone, abandoning the practices of ravaa and krtana (hearing and chanting). Fortunately, rla Cakravart hkura was present at that time. In his Srrtha-darin commentary on the third canto of rmad-Bhgavatam, he refuted these false conclusions. The householder disciples in the disciplic succession of Nitynanda Prabhus son, Vrabhadra, and those who are descendants of the rejected sons of Advaita crya award and accept the title of gosvm. Such action is completely improper according to the line of cryas. r Cakravart hkura refuted this idea of Rpa Kavirja. He proved that it was not incompatible for a qualified ghastha descendant of an crya to act as a spiritual master. But for unfit descendants of crya families who are greedy for disciples and wealth to adopt the name of gosvm is unlawful and contrary to the statements of stra. This he also proved. Therefore, although acting as an crya, he never used the title gosvm with his name. He did this just to instruct the foolish and unfit descendants of crya families of modern times. When rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura was very old, he spent most of the time in a semi-conscious state, deeply absorbed in bhajana. At that time in the state of Jaipur, a debate broke out between the Gauya Vaiavas and other Vaiavas who supported the doctrine of svakyvda (marital love). Jaya Sigh the second was the king of Jaipur. The Vaiavas of the antagonistic camp lead Jaya Sigh to believe that the worship of rmat Rdhik along with r Govinda Deva was not supported by stra. Their contention was that rmat Rdhiks name was not mentioned anywhere in rmad-Bhgavatam or the Viu Pura and that She was never legally married to Ka according to Vedic rituals. Another objection was that the Gauya Vaiavas did not belong to a recognized line of disciplic succession or sampradya. There are but four lines of Vaiava disciplic succession which have descended from time immemorial: the r sampradya, Brahma sampradya, Rudra sampradya, and Sanaka (Kumra) sampradya. In the age of Kali the principal cryas of these four sampradyas are respectively: r Rmnuja, r Madhva, r Viusvm, and r Nimbditya. The Gauya Vaiavas were thought to be outside of these four sampradyas and were not accepted as having a pure lineage. In particular the Gauya Vaiavas did not have their own commentary on the Brahma-Stra. Therefore, they could not be accepted as a bona fide line of Vaiava disciplic succession. At that time Mahrja Jaya Sigh, knowing the prominent Gauya Vaiava cryas of Vndvana to be followers of rla Rpa Gosvm, summoned them to Jaipur to take up the challenge with the Vaiavas from the line of r Rmnuja. Because he was very old and immersed in the transcendental bliss of bhajana, r Cakravart hkura sent his student, Gauya Vaiava vedntcrya mah-mahopdhyya (the great one among great teachers), paita-kula-mukua (the crown of the assembly of learned scholars), rpda Baladeva Vidybhaa to Jaipur along with his disciple r Kadeva, in order to address the assembly. The caste gosvms had completely forgotten their connection with the Madhva sampradya. In addition to this they were disrespectful to the Vaiava Vednta and created a great disturbance for the Gauya Vaiavas. rla Baladeva Vidybhaa, by his irrefutable logic and powerful stric evidence, proved that the Gauya sampradya was a pure Vaiava sampradya coming in the line of Madhva. The name of this sampradya is the r Brahma-Madhva Gauya Vaiava sampradya. Our previous cryas like rla Jva Gosvm, Kavi Karapra, and others accepted this fact. The r Gauya Vaiavas accept rmad-Bhgavatam as the natural commentary on the Vednta-Stra. For this reason no separate commentary of Vednta-Stra was written in the Gauya Vaiava sampradya. In various Puras the name of rmat Rdhik is mentioned. She is the personification of the hldin (pleasuregiving) potency and the eternal beloved of r Ka. In several places of the rmad-Bhgavatam and specifically in the tenth canto in connection with the description of Vraja-ll, rmat Rdhik is mentioned in a very concealed manner. Only rasika and bhvuka bhaktas who are conversant with the conclusions of stra can understand this confidential mystery. In the learned assembly in Jaipur, Baladeva Vidybhaa refuted all the arguments and doubts of the opposing party. He solidly established that the Gauya Vaiavas were following in the line of disciplic succession descending from Madhva, as well as the authenticity of the worship of Rdh-Govinda. The opposition was silenced by his presentation. Nonetheless, because the Gauya Vaiava sampradya did not have a commentary on Vednta-Stra, the contesting party did not accept them as being a pure line of Vaiava disciplic succession. r Baladeva Vidybhaa then wrote the famous Gauya commentary on the Brahma-Stra named r Govinda Bhya. Once again the worship of r Rdh-Govinda began in the temple of r Govinda Deva, and the validity of the r Brahma-Madhva Gauya sampradya was accepted. It was only on the authority of r Cakravart hkura that r Baladeva Vidy-bhaa Prabhu was able to write the r Govinda Bhya and prove the connection of the Gauya Vaiavas with the Madhva sampradya. There should be no doubt in this regard. This accomplishment of r Vivantha Cakravart hkura done on behalf of the sampradya will be recorded in golden letters in the history of Gauya Vaiavism. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura describes a very striking event in his own book entitled Mantrrtha-dpik. Once while reading r Caitanya-caritmta, he came upon the verse quoted below (Madhya-ll 21.125), which describes the meaning of the kma-gyatr-mantra. kma-gyatr-mantra rpa, haya kera svarpa, srdha-cabbia akara tra haya se akara candra haya ke kari udaya trijagat kaila kmamaya

The kma-gyatr-mantra is identical with r Ka. In this king of mantras there are twenty-four and a half syllables and each syllable is a full moon. This aggregate of moons has caused the moon of r Ka to rise and fill the three worlds with prema. It is proved by the evidence of this verse that the kma-gyatr-mantra is composed of twenty-four and a half syllables. But in spite of considerable thought, r Vivantha Cakravart could not ascertain which syllable in the kma-gyatr was considered a half-syllable. Although he carefully scrutinized grammar books, the Puras, the Tantra, the stras dealing with drama (nya) and rhetoric (alakra), and other scriptures, he found no mention anywhere of a half-syllable. In all these stras he found mention only of the vowels and consonants which make up the fifty letters of the alphabet. He found no evidence anywhere of a half-syllable. In the r Harinmmta-vykaraa, the grammar system composed by r Jva Gosvm, he found mention of only fifty letters in the section dealing with the names of the various groups of vowels and consonants (sajpda). By study of the arrangement of letters (mtk) in the tknysa and other books, he found no mention anywhere of a halfsyllable. In the Rdhik-sahasra-nma-stotra found in the Bhan-Nradya Pura, one of the names of Vndvanevar rmat Rdhik is given as Pacsa-vara-rpi (one whose form is composed of fifty syllables). Seeing this, his doubt only increased. He began to consider whether Kavirja Gosvm might have make a mistake while writing. But there was no possibility of him committing any mistake. He was omniscient and thus completely devoid of the material defects of mistakes, illusion, and so on. If the fragmented letter t (the final letter of the kmagyatr-mantra) is taken as a half-syllable, then Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm would be guilty of the fault of disorder, for he has given the following description in Caitanya-caritmta (Madhya-ll 21.126-128): sakhi he! ka-mukha-dvija-rja-rja ka-vapu sihsane, vasi rjya-sane kare sage candrera samja dui gaa sucikkaa, jini mai-sudarpaa, sei dui prna-candra jni lale aam-indu, thte candana-bindu, sei eka pra-candra mni kara nakha cndera ha va upara kare na tra gta muralra tna pada nakha candra-gaa tale kare sunarttana npurera dhvani yra gna In these lines, r Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm has described the face of r Kna as the first full moon. His two cheeks are both considered as full moons. The dot of sandalwood on the upper portion of His forehead is considered as the fourth full moon, and the region of the forehead below the dot of sandalwood is the moon of aam or, in other words, a half moon. According to this description, the fifth syllable is a half-syllable. If the fragmented t, which is the final letter of the mantra, is taken as a half-syllable, then the fifth syllable could not be a half-syllable. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura fell into a dilemma because he could not decipher the half-syllable. He considered that if the syllables of the mantra would not reveal themselves, then neither would it be possible for the worshipful deity of the mantra to manifest to him. He decided that since he could not obtain audience of the worshipful deity of the mantra, it would be better to die. Thinking thus, he went to the bank of Rdh-Kua at night with the intent of giving up his body. After the second period (prahara) of the night had passed, he began to doze off when suddenly, r Vabhnunandin, rmat Rdhik, appeared to him. She very affectionately said, O Vivantha! O Hari Vallabha! Do not lament! Whatever r Kadsa Kavirja has written is the absolute truth. By my grace, he knows all the inner sentiments of my heart. Do not maintain any doubt about his statements. The kma-gyatr is a mantra to worship Me and my dear beloved (pra-vallabha). We are revealed to the devotee by the syllables of this mantra. No one is capable of knowing us without My grace. The half-syllable is described in the book known as Var Gamabhsvat. After consulting this book, r Kadsa Kavirja determined the actual identity of the kma-gyatr. You should examine this book and then broadcast its meaning for the benefit of faithful persons. After hearing this instruction from Vabhnu-nandin rmat Rdhik Herself, Vivantha Cakravart hkura suddenly arose. Calling out, O Rdhe! O Rdhe! he began to cry in great lamentation. Thereafter, upon regaining his composure, he set himself to carrying out Her order. According to the indication of rmat Rdhik regarding the determination of the half-syllable, the letter vi which is preceded by the letter ya in the mantra is considered as a half-syllable. Apart from this, all other syllables are full syllables or full moons. By the mercy of rmat Rdhik, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura became acquainted with the meaning of the mantra. He obtained the direct audience of his worshipful deity, and by means of his internal perfected spiritual body (siddha-deha), he was able to participate in the Lords nitya-ll as an eternal associate. After this, he established the deity of r Gokulnanda on the bank of Rdh-Kua. While residing there, he experienced the sweetness of the eternal pastimes of r Vndvana. It was at this time that he wrote his Sukhavarttin commentary on nanda-vndvana-camp, a book written by rla Kavi Karapra. rdhparastra-kura-varttina prptavya-vndvana cakravarttina

nanda camp vivti pravarttina snto-gattir me sumah-nivarttina In old age, Vivantha Cakravart hkura spent most of his time in a semi-conscious state, deeply absorbed in bhajana. His principal student, Baladeva Vidybhana, took over the responsibility of teaching the stras. Re-establishment of the Doctrine of Parakyvda Because of a slight decline in influence of the Six Gosvms in r Vndvana Dhma, a controversy arose regarding the doctrines of svakyvda, marital love, and parakyvda, paramour love. To dispel the misconceptions regarding svakyvda, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura wrote two books named Rga-vartma-candrik and Gop-premmta which are wonderfully filled with all the conclusions of stra. Thereafter, in his nanda-candrik commentary on the laghutvam atra* verse of Ujjvala-nlamai (1/21), he soundly refuted the theory of svakyvda by stric evidence and irrefutable arguments and established the conception of paraky. In his Srrtha-darin commentary on rmadBhgavatam, he gave strong support to the paraky bhva. It is said that at the time of rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura there were some paitas who opposed him in regard to the worship in the mood of paraky. But by his deep scholarship and irrefutable logic he defeated them. On account of this, the paitas resolved to kill him. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura used to go out in the early morning before dawn to perform parikram of r Vndvana Dhma. They formulated a plan to kill him at that time in some dense, dark grove. The full verse from Ujjavala-nlamai is as follows: laghutvam atra yat prokta tat tu prkta nyake na ke rasa nirysa svdrtham avatrii Whatever fault or impropriety has been pointed out (in other rasa-stras) in regards to the love of paramours applies to ordinary worldly lovers and not to r Ka, for He is the taster of the liquid essence of rasa and the source of all incarnations. (In other words, the Lords incarnations are the controllers of religion and irreligion and never subjected to their control. How then can r Ka be subjected to such codes when He is the source of all incarnations?) While performing parikram, Vivantha Cakravart hkura came upon the grove where the adversaries desired to kill him. But suddenly they looked and saw that he was no longer there. In his place, they saw a beautiful young Vrajavs girl picking flowers along with two or three of her friends. The paitas inquired from the girl, Dear Child! Just a moment ago a great devotee was approaching here. Where did he go? Did you happen to see him? The girl replied, I saw him, but I dont know where he went. Seeing the astonishing beauty of the girl, her sidelong glancing, her graceful feminine manner, and gentle smiling, the paitas became captivated. All the impurity in their minds was vanquished and their hearts became soft. On being requested by the paitas to introduce herself the girl said, I am a maidservant of Svmin rmat Rdhik. She is presently at Her mother-in-laws home at Yvaa. She sent me to pick flowers. Saying this, she disappeared, and in her place, they saw rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura once again. The paitas fell at his feet and prayed for forgiveness. He forgave them all. Many such astonishing events are heard in the life of r Cakravart hkura. In this way he refuted the theory of svaky-vda and established the truth of pure paraky. This work of his is of great importance for the Gauya Vaiavas. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura not only protected the integrity of the r Gauya Vaiava dharma, but he also re-established its influence in r Vndvana. Anyone who evaluates this accomplishment of his is sure to be struck with wonder by his uncommon genius. The Gauya Vaiava cryas have composed the following verse in praise of his extraordinary work: vivasya ntharpo sau bhakti vartma pradarant bhakta-cakre varttitatvt cakravartty khyay bhavat Because he indicates the path of bhakti, he is known by the name Vivantha, the Lord of the universe, and because he always remains in the assembly (cakra) of pure devotees, he is known by the name Cakravart (he around whom a circle or assembly turns). In the year 1676 akbda, on the fifth day of the light phase of the moon of the month of Mgha (January-February), at approximately one hundred years of age, while absorbed in an internal condition in r Rdh-Kua, he entered into aprakaa (unmanifest) Vndvana. Even today his samdhi can be found just next to the temple of r Gokulnanda in r Dhma Vndvana. Following in the footsteps of rla Rpa Gosvm, he composed abundant transcendental literatures about bhakti and thus established the inner hearts longing of rman Mahprabhu in this world. He also refuted various faulty conclusions, opposed to the genuine following of r Rpa Gosvm (rpnuga). He is thus revered in Gauya Vaiava society as an illustrious crya and as an authoritative mahjana. He is renowned as a great transcendental philosopher, poet, and rasika-bhakta. A Vaiava composer of verse named Ka dsa has written the following lines at the conclusion of his translation of rla Cakravart hkuras book Mdhurya-kdambin:

mdhurya kdambin grantha jagata kaila dhanya cakravart mukhe vakt pani r ka caitanya keha kahena cakravart r rpera avatra kahina ye tattva sarala karite pracra ohe gua-nidhi ri vivantha cakravart ki jniba tomra gua mui mha mati rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura has benedicted the whole world by writing the book Mdhurya-kdambin. In reality, r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu is the speaker of this book. He has spoken it through the mouth of r Cakravart. Some people say that r Cakravart hkura is an incarnation of rla Rpa Gosvm. He is very expert in the art of describing extremely complex truths in an easily understandable manner. O ocean of mercy, r Vivantha Cakravart hkura! I am a great fool. Kindly reveal the mystery of your transcendental qualities in my heart. This is my prayer at your lotus feet. Among Gauya Vaiava cryas, there are very few who wrote as many books as rla Cakravart hkura. Even today the following proverb is quite famous amongst the Vaiavas regarding his three books: kiraa-bindu-ka, ei tna niye vaiava pa These three books, Ujjvala-nlamai-kiraa, Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu, and Bhgavatmta-ka, are taken by the Vai-avas as their wealth. A list is given below of his books, commentaries, and prayers which form a storehouse of incomparable wealth of Gauya Vaiava bhakti literature. (1) Vraja-rti-cintmai, (2) Camatkra-candrik, (3) Prema-sampuam (Khaa-kvyama poetic work which displays only partial characteristics or ornamentation of poetry), (4) Gtval, (5) Subodhin (commentary on Alakrakaustubha), (6) nanda-candrik (commentary on Ujjvala-nlamai), (7) commentary on r Gopla Tpan, (8) Stavmta-lahar (Waves of Nectarine Prayers, included in which are the following) (a) r Guru-tattvakam, (b) Mantra-dt-guror-aakam, (c) Parama-guror-aakam, (d) Partpara-guror-aakam, (e) Parama-partpara-guror-aakam, (f) r Lokanthakam, (g) r acnandanakam, (h) r Svarpa-caritmtam, (i) r Svapna-vils-mtam, (j) r Gopla Devakam, (k) r Madana-mohan-akam, (l) r Govindakam, (m) r Gopinthakam, (n) r Gokulnandakam, (o) Svaya-bhagavad-aakam, (p) r Rdh-Kuakam, (q) Jagan-mohanakam, (r) Anurga-vall, (s) r Vnd Devyakam, (t) r Rdhik-dhynmtam, (u) r Rpa-cintmai, (v) r Nandvarakam, (w) r Vndvanakam, (x) r Govardhanakam, (y) r Sakalpa-kalpa-druma (z) r Nikujavirudval (Virut-kvyalaudatory poetry), (aa) Surata-kathmtam, (bb) r yma-Ku-akam, (9) r Kabhvanmtam, (10) r Bhgavatmta-ka, (11) r Ujjvala-nlama-kiraa, (12) r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu, (13) Rga-vartma-candrik, (14) Aivarya-kdambin (unavailable), (15) r Mdhurya-kdam-bin, (16) commentary on r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, (17) commentary on Dna-keli-kaumud, (18) commentary on r Lalita-mdhava-naka, (19) commentary on r Caitanya-caritmta (incomplete), (20) commentary on Brahma-Sahit, (21) Srrtha-vari commentary on rmad Bhagavad Gt, and (22) Srrtha-darin commentary on rmad-Bhgavatam. My most revered r Gurudeva, aottara-ata r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm Mahrja was a guardian of the r Gauya sampradya and founder-crya of the r Gauya Vednta Samiti as well as the Gauya-mahas established under its auspices. Aside from publishing his own books, he republished the books of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and other previous cryas in the Bengali language. Today, by his heartfelt desire, enthusiastic blessings, and causeless mercy, Jaiva Dharma, r Caitanya-ikmta, r Caitanya Mahprabhura ik, r ikaka, and other books have been printed in Hindi, the national language of India. Gradually other books are being published. The present day head and crya of the r Gauya Vednta Samiti, my most revered godbrother, parivrjakcrya r rmad Bhaktivednta Vmana Mahrja is deeply immersed in transcendental knowledge and is a very dear, intimate servant of the lotus feet of our r Guru. I humbly pray at his lotus feet that he may bless me by presenting this precious book, r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu, into the lotus hands of our rla Guru-deva and thus fulfill his inner hearts longing. I have complete faith that those who are possessed of yearning for bhakti and especially the sdhakas of rgnugbhakti who are captivated by vraja-rasa will receive this book with great reverence. Faithful persons who study this book will obtain qualification to enter into the wealth of prema of r Caitanya Mah-prabhu. Finally, I pray at the lotus feet of my most revered rla Gurudeva, the condensed personification of the Lords compassion, that he may pour down a shower of abundant mercy upon me, by which I may obtain more and more eligibility to engage in the service of his inner hearts longing. This is our humble prayer at his lotus feet which bestow Ka-prema. Akaya Tty (Third day of the bright half of Vaikha) 510 years after the appearance of Lord Gaurg (Gaurbda) (1918 by the Indian calendar) 20th. April, 1996 An aspirant for a particle of mercy

of r Hari, Guru, and Vaiavas, humble and insignificant, Tridai Bhiku r Bhaktivednta Nryaa

This book has been made possible only by the guidance, inspiration, and causeless mercy of my beloved ik guru, o viu-pda paramahasa parivrjakcrya atottara-atta r rmad Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja. Although I am thoroughly unfit for the grave task of translating the books of our Gauya Vaiava cryas into English, I have taken it up by his will. He has a strong desire to distribute the invigorating fruit of Vraja bhakti which has been preserved for all Gaudya Vaiavas in the books of rla Rpa Gosvm, r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and other rpnuga cryas. It is only by his direction that we have now presented in English books like r ikaka, Veu-gta, Mana ik, and this book r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu. I pray at his lotus feet that he may be pleased with this humble offering. r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu, a drop from the nectarine ocean of bhakti-rasa, is a brief summary of the essential topics from r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu. It consists of twenty-seven lokas, some of which were taken from Bhaktirasmta-sindhu and some which were written by rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura in Sanskrit. rla Gurudeva has given an illuminating translation of these lokas into Hindi. His translation and commentary is named r Bindu-vikinvtti or the commentary which reveals the meaning of r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu. In this commentary he has expanded the subject matter by including rla Cakravartpdas purports to the verses taken from Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu. He has drawn additional material from Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu and relevant verses from rmad-Bhgavatam, r Caitanya-caritmta, r Hari-bhakti-vilsa, r Bhakti-sandarbha, and other stras. He has also made very significant comments to facilitate comprehension of the subject matter. These comments are distinct from his Vikin-vtti and are identified in this book simply as Comment. This book is a translation of rla Gurudevas Hindi edition. The subject matter has been enlarged still further by adding many portions from Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu. The entire book has been arranged to fit the pattern of Bhaktirasmta-sindhu, enabling the reader to see how the twenty-seven verses of rla Cakravartpdas book relate to its source book. Thus the genius of rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura is revealed. He very succinctly summarized every wave of the four divisions of the original book. The twenty-seven lokas are easily identified in this book both from the table of contents and from the title pages which appear at the beginning of each of the four divisions of the book. The expansion and design of this book was done very carefully under the supervision of rla Gurudeva. He gave his time freely to explain many subtle intricacies of the book and always encouraged me to penetrate deeply into the subject. I am eternally indebted to him for this, and I pray that this book reflects the mood that he himself embodies. I am confident that the fruit of this work will be appreciated by devotees who are eager to taste a drop from the ocean of bhakti-rasa. I owe an incalculable debt to my dear friend and spiritual guide rmn Satyanryaa dsa for all the help that he has given me in understanding Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu. Four years of preparation by thoroughly studying three different editions of Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu have gone into the presentation of this book. During that time, I met with him almost on a weekly basis to raise questions I had on many points of the book. Whatever understanding I now have is largely due to his mercy. I offer my daavat prama at his feet and pray that he will continue to be kind to me. I am grateful to r Trthapada dsa dhikr for his exceptional editing work. He offered many valuable suggestions and raised penetrating questions that enabled me to go more deeply into the topics and explain things with greater clarity. I am grateful to r Prema-vilsa dsa dhikr for his constant encouragement, for providing the layout and design, and for overseeing all other aspects of the book. I would also like to thank rpda B.V. Tripurri Svm for his generous contribution toward the printing cost of this book. I pray that the mercy of r r Guru Gaurga and GndharvikGiridhr be upon them all. Lastly I offer repeated daavat prma at the feet of rmn Premnanda dsa Brahmacr and rmn Navna-ka dsa Brahmacr. They are two dear friends who are confidential servants of rla Gurudeva. I always keep them close at heart, and it is by their mercy that I am able to offer any service to his lotus feet. I pray that they be merciful upon me and offer this book into the lotus hands of r rla Gurudeva. An aspirant for the service of the lotus feet of r Guru and Vaiavas, Navadvpa dsa

Waves of Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu The ocean of the nectar of Bhakti-rasa

Prva-vibhga (Eastern division) Bhagavad-bhakti-bheda-nirpaka (Divisions of Bhagavad-bhakti)

First waveSmnya-bhakti (General characteristics of Bhakti) Second waveSdhana-bhakti (Bhakti in the stage of cultivation) Third waveBhva-bhakti (Bhakti in the budding stage of Ecstatic love) Fourth wavePrema-bhakti (Bhakti in the mature stage of Ecstatic love) Dakia-vibhga (Southern division) Smnya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka (General characteristics of bhagavad-bhakti-rasa) First waveVibhva (The causes of tasting Bhakti-rasa) Second waveAnubhva (External symptoms of ecstacy) Third waveSttvika-bhva (Symptoms of ecstacy arising from Sattva) Fourth waveVyabhicr-bhva (Internal transitory emotions) Fifth waveSthybhva (Permanent or dominant emotions) Pacima-vibhga (Western division) Mukhya-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka (Primary divisions of Bhakti-rasa) First waventa-bhakti-rasa (Tranquility) Second wavePrta-bhakti-rasa (Servitude) Third wavePreyo-bhakti-rasa (Friendship) Fourth waveVtsalya-bhakti-rasa (Parental affection) Fifth waveMadhura-bhakti-rasa (Conjugal love) Uttara-vibhga (Northern division) Gaua-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka (Secondary divisions of Bhakti-rasa) First waveHsya-bhakti-rasa (Laughter) Second waveAdbhuta-bhakti-rasa (Astonishment) Third waveVra-bhakti-rasa (Heroism) Fourth waveKarua-bhakti-rasa (Compassion) Fifth waveRaudra-bhakti-rasa (Anger) Sixth waveBhaynaka-bhakti-rasa (Fear) Seventh waveVbhatsa-bhakti-rasa (Disgust) Eighth waveRasn-maitr-vaira-sthiti (Compatible and incompatible Rasas) Ninth waveRasbhsa (Semblance of Rasa)

Preface Introduction Waves of Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu Prva-vibhga (Eastern Division) Bhagavad-bhakti-bheda-nirpaka Divisions of Bhagavad-bhakti First WaveSmnya-bhakti General Characteristics of Bhakti Magalcaraam (1) Uttam-bhakti Symptoms of Uttam-bhakti (1) Svarpa-lakaa Anulanam Ka nuklyena (2) Taastha-lakaa Anybhilit-nyam Jna-karmdi-anvtam Three Types of Jna: Tat-padrtha-jna 2 3 6 6 11 11 13 14 15 15 i xv xviii

Tva-padrtha-jna Jva-brahma-aikya-jna Three Types of Bhakti: ropa-siddh-bhakti Saga-siddh-bhakti Svarpa-siddh-bhakti Karma di Anvta Second WaveSdhana-bhakti Bhakti in the Stage of Cultivation (2) Sdhana-bhakti Types of Uttam-bhakti Sdhana-bhakti Bhva-bhakti as Nitya-siddha (3) Stages Leading to the Appearance of Prema Three types of Siddha-mahpuruas (1) Bhagavat-prada-deha-prpt (2) Nirdhta-kaya (3) Mrcchita-kaya (4) The Sixty-four Agas of Bhajana (1) r Guru-padraya Three Types of Gurus: ravaa-guru ik-guru Dk-guru (2) r Ka-dk-ikdi (3) Prtiprvaka-guru-sev (4) Sdhu-mrgnusra (5) Bhajana-rti-nti-prana (6) Krthe-akhila-bhoga-tyga (7) Trtha-vsa (8) Svabhakti-nirvhnurpa-bhojandi-svkram (9) r Ekda-vrata (10) Avattha, Tulas, Dhtr, Go, Brhmaa, Vaiava-sammnam (11) Asdhu-saga-tyga (12) Bahu-iya-karaa-tyga (13) Bahu-rambha-tyga (14) Bahu-stra-vykhy-vivddi-tyga (15) Vyavahre-krpaya-tyga (16) oka-krodhdi-tyga (17) Devatntara-nind-tyga (18) Prmtre-udvega-tyga (19) Sevpardha-nmpardha-tyga (20) Guru Ka Bhakta-nind-sahana-tyga (21) Vaiava-cihna-dhraam (22) Harinmkara-dhraam (23) Nirmlya-dhraam (24) Ntyam (25) Daavat-pramam (26) Abhyutthnam (27) Anuvrajy (28) r-mrti-sthne-gamanam (29) Parikram (30) Pj (31) Paricary (32) Gtam (33) Sakrtanam (34) Japa (35) Stava-pha (36) Mahprasda-sev (37) Vijapti

15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 19

21 24 24 26 29 37 37 37 43 46 46 47 48 53 54 56 56 57 59 59 63 69 69 70 70 71 72 72 73 73 73 74 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 83 83 83 42

(38) Caramta-pnam (39) Dhpa-mlydi-saurabha-grahaam (40) r Mrti-daranam (41) r Mrti-sparanam (42) rtrika-daranam (43) ravaam (44) Tat-kppekaam (45) Smaraam (46) Dhynam (47) Dsyam (48) Sakhyam (49) tma-nivedanam (50) Nija-priya-vastu-samarpaam (51) Krthe-samasta-karma-karaam (52) Sarvath-arapatti (53) Tulas-sev (54) Vaiava-stra-sev (55) Mathur-maale-vsa (56) Vaiava-sev (57) Yath-akti Doldi-mahotsava-karaam (58) Krttika-vratam (59) Sarvad Harinma-grahaa, Janmam-ytrdi-kaca (60) raddh-purvaka r Mrti-sev (61) Rasikai-saha r Bhgavatrthsvda (62) Sajtya-snigdha-mahattara-sdhu-saga (63) Nma-sakrtanam (64) r Vndvana-vsa (5) Sevpardha (6) The severity of Nmpardha (7) Nmpardha (8) Vaidh-bhakti (9) Rgnug-bhakti (10) Further Discussion on Rgnug-bhakti (11) Five Types of Rgnug-sdhana (1) Bhvamaya (2) Bhva-sambandh (3) Bhva anukla (4) Bhva-aviruddha-sdhana (5) Bhva-pratikla Third WaveBhva-bhakti Bhakti in the Budding Stage of Ecstatic Love (12) Bhva-bhakti Nine Symptoms of Bhva Two Types of Ratybhsa: (1) Pratibimba-ratybhsa (2) Chy-ratybhsa Fourth WavePrema-bhakti Bhakti in the Mature Stage of Ecstatic Love (13) Prema-bhakti

97 98

85 85 86 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 90 91 91 91 92 92 93 94 94 95 96 98 100 109 111 115 116 118 121 130 133 134 134 135 135 135

136 139 142 144


Dakia-vibhga (Southern Division) Smnya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka General Characteristics of Bhagavad-bhakti-rasa

(14) Overview of Bhakti-rasa Components of Bhakti-rasa Vibhva Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Sttvikbhsa Ratybhsa Sattvbhsa Nisattva Pratpa First WaveVibhva The Causes of Tasting Bhakti-rasa Viaylambana-vibhva Kas 64 Qualities as Viaylambana Four Kinds of Nyakas or Heroes (1) Dhrodtta (2) Dhra-lalita (3) Dhra-nta (4) Dhroddhata The Causes of Tasting Rati Uddpana-vibhva Qualities Dress and Ornaments Flutes Second WaveAnubhva External Symptoms of Ecstacy Anubhva Third WaveSttvika-bhva Symptoms of Ecstacy Arising from Sattva General Description Eight External Symptoms of Ecstacy How the Sttvika-bhvas Manifest Fourth WaveVyabhicr-bhva Internal Transitory Emotions (15) Description of Vyabhicr-bhvas Types of Vyabhicr-bhvas Vyabhicr-bhvbhsa Various Conditions of Vyabhicr-bhvas (16) Gradation in the Manifestation of Bhvas Various Conditions of the Heart Corresponding Emotions Meltability of the Heart Fifth WaveSthybhva Permanent or Dominant Emotions (17) General Description of Sthybhva Smnya Svaccha Five types of Sthybhva Mukhya-rati Gaua-rati 189 182



156 156 157 157

154 155 155



158 162 162 162 162 163 164 166

165 167


169 170 171

172 179 181 180

186 187 188

191 192

191 191 194

Divisions of the Sthybhva Presiding Deities and Colors of Bhakti-rasa Bhakti-rasa Tasted in Five Ways


196 198

Pacima-vibhga (Western Division) Mukhya-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka Primary Divisions of Bhakti-rasa First Waventa-bhakti-rasa Tranquility (18) nta-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana (1) tmrma (2) Tapasv-gaa Uddpana Asdhraa-uddpana Sdhraa-uddpana Anubhva Asdhraa-anubhva Sdhraa-anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Rasa Second WavePrta-bhakti-rasa Servitude (19) Dsya-rasa Sambhrama-prta-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana: (1) Adhikta (2) rita (3) Priada (4) Anuga (1) Dhurya (2) Dhra (3) Vra Uddpana Asdhraa-uddpana Sdhraa-uddpana Anubhva Asdhraa-uddpana Sdhraa-uddpana Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Prema Sneha Rga 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 208 209 210 210 206 200 201 201

201 201 202 202 202 203 203 203



215 215

Prema, Sneha, and Rga Manifest in Different Devotees Ayoga (1) Utkahitva (2) Viyoga Ten Conditions of Viyoga Yoga (1) Siddhi (2) Tuhi (3) Sthiti Gaurava-prta-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Third WavePreyo-bhakti-rasa Friendship (20) Sakhya-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana (1) Pura-sambandhi (2) Vraja-sambandhi (1) Suhda (2) Sakh (3) Priya-sakh (4) Priyanarma-sakh Uddpana (1) Vayasa Anubhva Sdhraa-anubhva Asdhraa-anubhvas of the Suht-sakhs Asdhraa-anubhvas of the Sakhs Asdhraa-anubhvas of the Priya-sakhs Asdhraa-anubhvas of the Priyanarma-sakhs Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Praaya Fourth WaveVtsalya-bhakti-rasa Parental Affection (21) Vtsalya-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (22) Mixture of Bhvas

216 216 216 217 217 217 217 217 218 218

218 219 219 219 219

221 222 223 224

223 223 224 224 225 225 225 226 227 227 227 227




229 229 230

230 230 231 231 231 232

Fifth WaveMadhura-bhakti-rasa Conjugal love (23) Madhura or gra-rasa Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Meeting and Separation Vipralambha (1) Prva-rga (2) Mna (3) Pravsa Sambhoga 233 233 234

234 234 234 234 234

235 235 235


Uttara-vibhga (Northern Division) Gaua-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka Secondary Divisions of Bhakti-rasa (24) Overview of Gaua-rasa First WaveHsya-bhakti-rasa Laughter Vibhva lambana Uddpana nubhva Sttvika-bhva Vybhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) Smita (2) Hasita (3) Vihasita (4) Avahasita (5) Apahasita (6) Atihasita Second WaveAdbhuta-bhakti-rasa Astonishment Vibhva Viaylambana raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Third WaveVra-bhakti-rasa Heroism 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 240

242 242 243 243 243 243 243 243

243 244 244 244

Yuddha-VraHeroism in Fighting Vibhva lambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) Svaakty hrya (2) Svaakty sahaja (3) Sahyenhrya (4) Sahyena sahaja Dna-VraHeroism in Giving Charity (I) BahupradaGiver of Great Wealth Vibhva lambana Uddpana Anubhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) bhyudayika (2) Tat-sampradnaka 249 249 249 249 249 250 250 247 247 247 248 248 248 248

248 248

(II) Upasthita-durprtha-tyg A Renouncer of Rare Wealth Vibhva lambana Uddpana Anubhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Day-VraHeroism in Compassion Vibhva lambana Uddpana Anubhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Dharma-VraHeroism in Religious Activities Vibhva lambana Uddpana Anubhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Fourth WaveKarua-bhakti-rasa 252 252 252 253 253 251 251 251 252 252 250 250 251 251 251

Compassion Vibhva Viaylambana (1) r Ka (2) Priya (3) Sva-priya raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva Fifth WaveRaudra-bhakti-rasa Anger Vibhva Viaylambana (1) r Ka (2) Hita (a well-wisher) Anavahita (inattentive) Shas (rash) ryu (jealous) (3) Ahita (one who is hostile) Svasyhita (hostile to oneself) Harer ahita (hostile to Ka) raylambana Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) Kopa (fury) (2) Manyu (indignation) (3) Roa (pique) 256 256 254 254 254 254

254 255 255 255 255 255

256 257

256 256 256 256 256 257 257 257 257 257 258 258 258


Sixth WaveBhaynaka-bhakti-rasa Fear Vibhva Viaylambana (1) r Ka (2) Druathe wicked raylambana (1) Anukampya (fit to be favored) (2) Bandhu (a relative or friend) Darana (by seeing) ravaa (by hearing) Smaraa (by remembrance) Uddpana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) kti(dreadful form) (2) Prakti(dreadful nature) 259 259

259 259 259 259 259 259 259 260 260 260 261 261 261

(3) Prabhva(awesome power) Seventh WaveVbhatsa-bhakti-rasa Disgust Vibhva lambana Anubhva Sttvika-bhva Vyabhicr-bhva Sthybhva (1) Vivekaj (arising from discrimination) (2) Pryik (general)


262 262 262 262 262 263 263

Eighth WaveRasn-maitr-vaira-sthiti Compatible and Incompatible Rasas (25) Compatible and Incompatible Rasas Mukhya-rasa Gaua-rasa (26) Inclusion of Gaua-rasas within Mukhya-rasas Ninth WaveRasbhsa Semblance of Rasa (27) Rasbhsa Uparasa Anurasa Aparasa References Verse Index 269 272 273 273 275 264 265 268 264


Prva-vibhga (Eastern Division) Bhagavad-bhakti-bheda-nirpaka Divisions of Bhagavad-bhakti

First WaveSmnya-bhakti General Characteristics of Bhakti loka 1 Second WaveSdhana-bhakti Bhakti in the Stage of Cultivation lokas 2-11 Third WaveBhva-bhakti Bhakti in the Budding Stage of Ecstatic Love loka 12

Fourth WavePrema-bhakti Bhakti in the Mature Stage of Ecstatic Love loka 13 r r Guru-Gaurgau Jayata First WaveSmnya-bhakti General Characteristics of Bhakti

Magalcaraam akhila-rasmta-mrti prasmararucir-uddha-trak-pli kalita-ym-lalito rdh-preyn vidhur jayati The supreme benefactor of all devotees, r r Rpa Gosvm, composed the above loka as the magalcaraa or invocation verse to his unprecedented book named r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, which manifested from the treasury of the divine lotus of his heart. This sacred book named Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu, written by r rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, is also begun with the same magalcaraa loka composed by rla Rpa Gosvm. The meaning of this verse is as follows: Let there be all glory to the omnipotent Lord r Ka Candra who is endowed with all excellence and who is the personification of transcendental bliss characterised by the twelve forms of rasafive primary (mukhya rasanta, dsya, sakhya, vtsalya, and madhura) and seven secondary (gaua rasalaughter, wonder, compassion, anger, fear, heroism, and disgust). By the radiance of His limbs which is spreading in all directions, He has brought under His control the ythevars or leaders of the various groups of gops, named Trak (vipakrepresenting a rival group to that of r Rdh) and Pli (taasth pakrepresenting a neutral group). He has made ymal (suhta pakrepresenting a friendly group) and Lalit (svapakbelonging to Rdhiks own group) His very own, and He is the most beloved of rmat Rdhik (Rdh-preyn). That is, being under the control of the prema of rmat Rdhik, who is the embodiment of the mahbhva of all the ythevars, He is always intently absorbed in inspiring Her love. (1) Uttam-bhakti anybhilit nya jna-karmdy anvtam nuklyena knulan bhaktir uttam asyrthaanybhila jna-karmdi-rahit r kam uddiynuklyena kya-v-manobhir yvat kriy s bhakti The cultivation of activities which are meant exclusively for the pleasure of r Ka, or in other words the uninterrupted flow of service to r Ka, performed through all endeavors of the body, mind, and speech, and through the expression of various spiritual sentiments (bhvas), which is not covered by jna (knowledge aimed at impersonal liberation) and karma (reward-seeking activity), and which is devoid of all desires other than the aspiration to bring happiness to r Ka, is called uttam-bhakti, pure devotional service. (Brs 1.1.11) r Cakravartpdas Sanskrit Commentary atha tasy lakaa vadanneva grantham rabhate,anyeti. yath kriy-abdena dhtv artha mtram ucyate, tathtrnu-lana-abdenpi dhtv artha mtram ucyate. dhtva artha ca dvividhapravtti-nivtty tmaka. tatra pravtty tmaka dhtv arthas tu kya-v-mnasya tat tac ce rpa. nivtty tmaka-dhtva artha ca pravtti bhinna, prti-vidtmako mnasa tat tad bhva rpa ca, sa ca vakyama rati premdi sthyi bhva rpa ca, sevnmpardhnm udbhavbhva kritety di vacana-vyajita-sev-nmpardhdy abhva rpa ca. tad eva sati ka-sambandhi krtha v nulanam iti tat sambandha mtrasya tad arthasya v vivakitatvd guru-pdraydau, bhva rpasypi kroktatvd ratydi-sthyini vyabhicribhveu ca nvypti. etac ca ka-tad-bhakta kpayaiva labhya r bhagavata svarpa-akti-vtti rpam api kydi-vtti tdtmyenvirbhtam iti jeyam. agre tu spat kariyate. ka-abda ctra svaya bhagavata kasya tad rp cnyem avatr grhaka. tratamyam agre vivecanym.

tatra bhakti svarpat siddhy artha vieaam ha nu-klyeneti, prtiklye bhaktitvprasiddhe. nuklyacoddeyya r kya rocamn pravttir ity ukte lakae tivyptir avypti ca. tad yathasura-kartka-prahra rpnulana yuddha-rasa utsha-rati r kya rocate. yathokta prathama skandhe (S.B. 1.13.40)manasvinm iva san saprahra iti. tath r ka vihya dugdha rakrtha gaty yaodys tdnulana r kya na rocate. yathokta r daame (S.B. 10.9.6)sajtakopa sphurit-ru-dharam iti. tath ca tatra tatrtivypty avypte ca vraya-nuklyn pratiklya nyatvam eva vivakayam. eva satyasureu dvea rpa prtiklya sattvn ntivypti. eva yaody prtiklybhvn nvyptir iti bodhyam. etena vieaasynuklyasyaiva bhaktitvam astu. bhakti smnyasyaiva kya rocamnatvd vieyasynulanapadasya vaiyarthyam ity api ak nirast. tda prtikly-bhva mtrasya ghae pi sattvt. uttamtva siddhy-artha vieaa dvayam haanybhilit-nyam itydi. katham bhtam anulanam? anyasmin bhakty tirikte phalatvenbhila nyabhakty sajtay bhakty (S.B. 11.3.31) ity ekdaokter bhakty uddeaka bhakti karaam ucitam evetyato nyasmin khalu bhakty atirikta iti. yathtrnybhila-nyatva vihynybhilit nyam iti svabhvrthaka-tcchlya pratyayena kasyacid bhaktasya kadcid akasmt maraa sakae prptehe bhagavan bhakta mm etad vipatte sakd raketi kdcitkbhila sattve pi na kati. yatas tasya vaivaya hetukasvabhva-viparyayeaiva td-bhilo na tu svbhvika iti bodhyam. puna kda? jna karmdy anvtamjnamatra nirbheda brahmnusandhna na tu bhajanyatattvnusandhnam api tasyvaypekayatvt. karmasmrtta nitya-naimittikdi na tu bhajanya-paricarydi tasya tad anulana rpatvt. di abdena phalgu vairgya yoga skhybhysdayastair anvta na tu nyam ity artha. tena ca bhakty varakm eva jna karmdn niedho bhipreta. bhakty varakatva nma vidhi sann nitya karmkarae pratyavydi bhayc-chraddhay kriyamatva tath bhaktydi rpea sdhanatvc-chraddhay kriyamatva ca. tena loka sagra-hrthama raddhay pitrdi rddhga krvat mahnu-bhvn uddha bhaktau nvypti. atra r knulana ka bhaktir iti vaktavye bhagavac-chstreu kevalasya bhakti abdasya tatraiva virntir ity abhipryt tathoktam. r Bindu-vikin-vtti Illumination of the meaning of r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu

nama o viupdya gaura-prehya bhtale r rmad bhakti prajna keava iti nmine atimartya caritrya svritnca pline jva-dukhe sadrttya r nma-prema dyine vivasya ntha-rpo sau bhakti-vartma-pradarant bhakta-cakre varttitatvt cakravarty-khyay bhavat ri caitanya mano bha sthpita yena bhtale svaya rpa kad mahya dadti sva-padntikam vch kalpatarubhya ca kp sindhubhya eva ca patitn pvanebhyo vaiavebhyo namo nama namo mah-vadnyya ka-prema pradya te kya ka-caitanya-nmne gaura tvie nama Let me first of all offer repeated obeisances at the lotus feet of my spiritual master, nitya-ll-pravia o viupda aottara-ata r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm, r Rpa Gosvm, who is the eternal associate of Lord Gaurga, all the spiritual masters who are following in the line of r Rpa Gosvm, and r r Gaurga Gndharvik Giridhr, r r Rdh- Vinoda-bihr. Praying for their causeless mercy and blessings, this insignificant and lowly person is beginning the translation and commentary named r Bindu-vikin-vtti of this sacred book r Bhakti-rasmtasindhu-bindu written by the supreme teacher among the followers of r Rpa Gosvm (rpnugas), r Vivantha Cakravart hkura. Symptoms of Uttam-bhakti We are beginning hereafter by enumerating the symptoms of uttam-bhakti. The symptoms of uttam-bhakti, as described in the above verse, are of two kinds: (1) svarpa-lakaa (intrinsic characteristics), and (2) taastha-lakaa (extrinsic characteristics). The svarpa-lakaa is described in the second line of the versenuklyena knulana bhaktir uttam: uttam-bhakti involves the cultivation of activities favorable to r Ka. This is said to be the svarpalakaa of uttam-bhakti because it acquaints us with the inherent nature or svarpa of bhakti. The taastha-lakaa is described in the first line of the verseanybhilit-nya jna-karmdy anvtam:

uttam-bhakti is devoid of all desires other than to please r Ka, and it is not covered by jna and karma. This is called the taastha-lakaa because it defines those characteristics which are not part of the nature of bhakti. Svarpa-lakaaIntrinsic Characteristics AnulanamConstant cultivation Here the svarpa-lakaa of uttam-bhakti will be described beginning with knulanam. Just as all the various meanings of the verbal roots (dhtus), or in other words the constituent parts of words, can be understood by the ideas they express when applied as verbs (kriy), all the meanings of this verbal root lana, constant study or practice, may be known by the word anulana, that is constant practice or cultivation. There are two meanings of any verbal root or dhtu: ce-rpa (in every verbal root some activity is implied) and bhva-rpa (inherent in every action, or accompanying every action, there is some particular sentiment). The meaning of ce-rpa is also of two kinds: (1) sdhana-rpaendeavors in the stage of sdhana leading to the manifestation of bhva (comprising both vaidh and rgnug-sdhana), and (2) krya-rpaendeavors which manifest as effects upon attainment of the stage of bhva, or in other words the anubhvas of bhva-bhakti. Included within this category are the eight sttvika-bhvas, such as crying and standing of the hairs on end, and the anubhvas such as singing and dancing. All these effects (anubhvas) are expressions arising from the mind which is constituted of viuddha-sattva. Sdhana-rpa is further divided into two parts: pravtti-mlaka or that which is based on performance of positive action, and nivtti-mlaka or that which is based on avoidance of negative action. The aspect of the verbal root which deals with the performance of positive action refers to favourable endeavors undertaken with the body (kyika), mind (mnasika), and speech (vcika). The aspect of the verbal root which involves the avoidance of negative action is different in meaning from that which arises from engagement in positive activity. In other words, nivtty-tmaka-ce-rpa involves the avoidance of all activities, also performed with body, mind and speech, which give rise to offenses in service (sevpardha), offenses to the holy name (nmpardha), and offenses to the holy places (dhmpardha). The meaning of bhva-rpa is also of two kinds: prti or love and vida, despondency. Prti refers to the manifestation of the sthybhva, and vida refers to the sacr-bhvas. rla Viva-ntha Cakravart hkura has explained this same thing in his commentary to Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (1.3.1). There he says that bhva-rpa may be divided into two aspects: (1) sthy-bhva-rpathe permanent sentiment in one of the five primary relationships of nta, dsya, sakhya, vtsalya or madhura, and (2) sacr-bhva rpathe internal transitory emotions which arise like waves from the ocean of the sthybhva, enhance it and then submerge once again into the sthybhva. There are thirty-three sacr-bhvas, such as nirveda (self-disparagement), vida (despondency), and dainya (depression). Sthybhva-rpa is again divided into two forms: (1) prem-kura-rpathe sprout of prema, that is, rati or bhva, and (2) prema-rpaprema which is developed through the stages of sneha, mna, praaya, rga, anurga, bhva, and mahbhva. All these states (bhva and so on) are completely beyond mundane worldly sentiments. They are transcendental and fully situated in unalloyed goodness, viuddha-sattva. These will be described later. Comment Of the sixty-four agas of bhakti which are described in Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, the first ten beginning from r gurupadraya, taking shelter of the lotus feet of a spiritual master, involve the cultivation of bhakti through endeavors (cerpa) arising from positive activity, pravtti-mlaka. These ten agas are the beginning forms of bhajana. After this, the next ten agas describe activities which are to be given up. These include renunciation of the association of non-devotees, avaiava-saga-tyga, avoidance of sev and nmpardha, and so on. To refrain from such activities is what is meant by the cultivation of bhakti through endeavors (ce-rpa) arising from avoidance of negative activity (nivtti-mlaka). One should act in such a way as to exclude these negative items. The meaning of the word anulana has thus been defined in terms of endeavors or ce-rpa of two kinds, pravttytmaka and nivttytmaka, and in terms of sentiments which arise in connection with such endeavors, bhvarpa. When such cultivation or anulana is in relationship with r Ka or when it is performed for His pleasure, it is called bhakti. The word knulana implies two kinds of endeavors or ceall varieties of anulana which are related to r Ka and all varieties of anulana which are performed directly for r Ka. This refers to the agas of bhakti such as r guru-padraya, accepting dk (initiation) and ik (spiritual instructions) from r Gurudeva, virambha-bhvaguru-sev (serving the guru with a feeling of great intimacy), and so on. In all these agas of bhakti there is no possibility that the fault of avypti or under-extension of a definition could occur. In other words there is no possibility that these agas of bhakti could fail to be included within the definition of knulana. Similarly, the sthybhva, including rati, prema, sneha, and so on, and the vyabhicr-bhvas, which both come under the heading of bhva-rpa, are included within the word knulana. Consequently, there is no possibility of the fault of avypti occurring in their case either. Thus anulana which is undertaken for Ka both as ce-rpa, endeavors, and as bhva-rpa (both sthybhva and vyabhi-cr-bhva-rpa) is possible only by the mercy of r Ka and the devotees of Ka. r Gurudeva is a paramabhagavad-bhakta. Therefore, the agas of bhakti known as r gurupadraya and so on are also within knulana. The sthybhva and other sentiments associated with it, or in other words anubhva, sttvika-bhva, and vyabhicr-bhva are related to r Ka as well. Therefore, they are also within knuilana.

Knulana or bhakti is a special function (vtti) of the svarpa-akti or internal energy of r Ka. The body, mind, and senses of the baddha-jvas or conditioned souls are all unconscious. The function of svarpa-akti can not manifest in the unconscious or inanimate body, mind, and speech of the baddha-jvas. But due to the causeless mercy of the ocean of mercy, r Ka, or the parama-bhagavad-bhaktas, the function of svarpa-akti obtains identification with (tdtma) and manifests in the body, mind, and words of the devotees (even though they are material) who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of r Gurudeva. This subject will be described more clearly ahead. The meaning of the word tdtma can be understood from the following example. When fire permeates an iron rod, it burns other objects. The iron rod does not burn other objects. In this example, the fire is said to have obtained oneness with the iron rod (tdtma). Similarly, by the mercy of the Lord, the bhakti-vtti of svarpa-akti obtains tdtma with the body, mind, and words of the devotees and then acts through them. Ka In the verse under discussion, the word Ka has been used to indicate Svayam-Bhagavn Vrajendra-nandana r Ka and all other avatras of r Ka. However, there is a gradation in the cultivation of bhakti in accordance with its objecteither svayam-avatr Ka, the original source of all incarnations, or other avatras. This gradation in the anulana of bhakti will be described later. nuklyena The svarpa-lakaa of bhakti has been defined as the cultivation of activities in relationship to r Ka (knulana). Now in order to further qualify this definition, the word nu-klyena will be explained. In order to establish the svarpa or inherent nature of bhakti, the qualifying adjective nuklyena (favorably disposed) has been used, because bhakti is not accomplished by unfavorable behavior. Certain liberal-minded philosophers have defined the meaning of the word nuklya as behavior or engagement which is pleasing. In other words, they say that bhakti or the cultivation of activities in relationship to r Ka should be pleasing to Him. Such engagement which is pleasing to r Ka is termed as nuklya-viia-bhakti, or devotion which is favorable to the pleasure of Ka. But by accepting this kind of meaning, the faults of ativypti, over-extension of a rule, and avypti, under-extension of a rule, may become present in the symptoms of bhakti. Ativypti means that when a definition is too wide it encompasses things which are not to be included within the description. Avypti means that when a definition is too narrow it excludes things which should be included within the description. Just as when the asuras Cra, Mika, and others struck the limbs of r Ka in the wrestling match, it gave great happiness to Him. He began to taste the vra-rasa (heroism) with great enthusiasm in the company of Cra, Mika, and others. In this example, the asuras activity of striking the Lord appears to be pleasing to Ka. A doubt arises here as to how the activity of the asuras can be pleasing to Ka. In response to this doubt, a portion of the verse from rmadBhgavatam (1.13.30) is cited heremanasvinm iva san samprahra: although in the vision of ordinary persons, a fierce battle with an enemy is the cause of great distress, for great heroes it is very pleasing. If the activity of the asuras of violently striking the Lord in the wrestling match, due to its being pleasing to Ka, is accepted as bhakti, then the fault of ativypti or over-extension enters into the definition of bhakti. In other words, the activity of the asuras of maliciously striking the Lord is completely opposed to bhakti, but because it is pleasing to Ka, it appears to be included within the characteristics of bhakti. Another example is when Yaod-maiy seated r Ka in her lap, and began to breast-feed Him. At that time, the milk on the stove boiled over and was falling into the fire. Yaod-maiy left Ka unsatisfied and went to rescue the milk. This was not pleasing to Ka. His tiny lips began to tremble with angersajta kopa sphuritr dharam iti (rmad-Bhgavatam 10.9.6). In this example, because the activity of Mother Yaod was displeasing to r Ka, it would seem to be excluded from the definition of bhakti. Therefore, here the fault of avypti or under-extension appears to be present in the definition of bhakti. The faults of ativypti and avypti, respectively, seem to appear in the cited examples of the activities of the asuras and those of Yaod-maiy. The word nuklya has been used here with the intention of prohibiting these kinds of faults. The real meaning of nuklya is to be completely free of any attitude that is unfavorable or hostile to the Lord. Without the complete absence of any attitude that is unfavor-able to the Lord, bhakti is not established. According to this principle, the fault of ativypti cannot be applied to the asuras (in other words the definition of bhakti does not extend to them), because they are always possessed of a malicious attitude toward the Lord. Consequently, because they are not devoid of a hostile attitude, their activities are not counted as bhakti. Here the meaning of anuklya is to be devoid of any attitude unfavorable to the Lord. On the other hand, the activity of Yaod-maiy, from the external point of view, appeared to be unfavorable because it was seen to be displeasing to Ka. But Yaod-maiy has no trace of any attitude that is displeasing to Ka. She is always permeated with an attitude that is completely agreeable toward Ka, being constantly attentive to rearing Him and looking after His welfare. Therefore, this symptom has no contact with the fault of avypti (in other words, the definition of bhakti does not exclude this example). The devotees naturally display even greater love toward those things which are favorable toward the service of Ka than toward Ka directly. Ka was to be nourished with the milk that was boiling on the stove. It was only with the idea of Kas future benefit that Yaod-maiy left Him aside to tend to the milk; therefore, this action is also bhakti. Someone may raise the contention that if a favorable attitude (nuklya), or in other words, the absence of any inimical attitude (prtiklya) is defined as bhakti, and if bhakti involves some kind of activity that is favorable or pleasing to Ka, then what need is there to further qualify bhakti by use of the word anuilana (attentive study or practice)? Why has this word been used if it is without meaning? It is with the purpose of responding to just such a doubt that the

word anulana has been employed. The true nature of bhakti is not established by the mere absence of an inimical attitude, for even within a clay pot there is an absence of animosity. Can the pot then be said to possess bhakti? It never can. It is true that there is no animosity in the pot; however, because there is no activity of the kind implied by the word anulana, the existence of bhakti cannot be admitted. Therefore, the use of the word anulana is not without meaning. Taastha-lakaaExtrinsic Characteristics Having thus described the svarpa-lakaa of bhakti, the taastha-lakaa or extrinsic characteristics are described in order to establish the exclusivity of uttam-bhakti. The taastha-lakaa is pointed out in the beginning of this verse by use of two qualifying terms: (1) anybhilit-nyam, and (2) jna-karmdyanvtam. Anybhilit-nyam How should the cultivation of activities favorable to Ka be undertaken? One should act only in such a way that bhakti may be augmented, giving up laukika-abhil (worldly desires), pralaukika-abhil (other worldly pursuits such as elevation to the heavenly planets and acquisition of mystic perfections in yoga), and any other kind of aspiration. This same idea has been expressed in rmad-Bhgavatam: bhakty sajtay bhakty (S.B. 11.3.31)bhakti is produced only by bhakti. According to this statement, bhakti (ravaa, krtana, and other forms of sdhana) is to be done only for the sake of bhakti. The meaning of this is that sdhana and bhva-bhakti should be done only with the objective of attaining prema-bhakti. Therefore, to be devoid of all desires other than bhakti is uttam-bhakti. It is especially noteworthy here to consider why it is that the term anybhilit-nyam has been used rather than anybhi-la-nyam. A very deep and confidential idea of rla Rpa Gosvmpda has been concealed in this statement. rla Rpa Gosvm has used the term anybhilit-nya after giving a great deal of consideration to this matter. The term anybhila means a desire for other objects. To this word the suffix in has first been added. This suffix indicates the natural or acquired way of living or acting. When used in conjunction with the word anybhila, it means the innate tendency to act under extraneous desires. To this the suffix t is added which indicates the quality or state of being of anything. This means that in his natural condition, a sdhaka should have no desires other than for bhakti. But if on the appearance of some unexpected calamity (in an unnatural condition), a sdhaka prays, O Bhagavn! I am Your devotee. Please protect me from this calamity, then in spite of this desire, no damage is done to his bhakti. It is only due to some calamity that there is a reversal of his natural condition. Therefore he becomes compelled by circumstances to pray in an unnatural way. It should be understood that this desire is not his innate condition. Jna-karmdy-anvtam The second extrinsic characteristic or taastha-lakaa is now being explained. The term jna-karmdy-anvtam means that the cultivation of bhakti should be free from the covering of jna, karma, and so forth. There are three divisions of jna: (1) tat-padrtha-jna, (2) tva-padrtha-jna, and (3) jva-brahma-aikya-jna. Tat-padrtha-jna Knowledge of the Constitutional Identity of Bhagavn r Ka is the absolute truth, parama-tattva. He is the nondual Parabrahma. He is the origin of all, yet He is without origin. He is the cause of all causes. He is the supreme repository of all the qualities of aivarya (majesty) and mdhurya (sweetness). He is completely bereft of inferior material qualities (prkta-gua). He is replete with all transcendental qualities (aprkta-gua). He is sac-cid-nandamaya-vigraha, the embodiment of existence, cognizance, and bliss. He is acintya-sarva-aktimna, the inconceivable possessor of all potencies. He is the very identity of both rasa and rasika. In other words, He is the abode of all rasa, and He Himself is fully adept in enjoying such rasa in the company of His devotees. He is Svayam-Bhagavn, the ultimate object to be ascertained by all the Vedas and all stras. He alone is the person to be designated by the term Svayam-Bhagavn. This kind of knowledge is called tat-padrtha-jna. Tva-padrtha-jna Knowledge of the Constitutional Identity of the Jva and his Relationship with Bhagavn The jvas, as atomic particles of living spirit (cit-paramu-svarpa), are but infinitesimal rays of the supreme existential spirit, r Ka. Although nondifferent from Lord Hari, they are eternally distinct from Him. The jvas are infinitesimal consciousness, au-caitanya, whereas the Lord is the all-pervading consciousness, vibhu-caitanya. The jvas are subjugated by my, while the Lord is the controller of my. Even in the liberated condition, the jva, in accordance with his nature as the marginal potency, taasth-akti, is capable of falling under the sway of material nature (myprakti). The jva is represented both as knowledge (jna-svarpa) and as the knower (jt-svarpa). Although the potentiality for action or kartttva is present in him, he nonetheless remains atomic spirit, aucit. He has minute independence; therefore, he is by nature the eternal servant of the supreme absolute truth, r Ka. He also possesses eternal separate existence. In other words, he is both independent and dependent. On account of being a product of the taasth-akti of r Ka, the jvas relationship with r Ka is one of inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference, acintya-bheda-abheda. Apart from this, because he is a portion of the Lord and because the

tendency to serve the Lord is inherent in his nature, the jvas relationship with r Ka is that of the eternal servant and the served. This type of know-ledge is called tva-padrtha-jna. Jva-brahma-aikya-jna Knowledge of the Oneness of the Jva and Brahma There is no difference between the jva and Brahma. When ignorance is dissipated, the jva becomes identical with the svarpa of Brahma. At that time, the jva has no separate existence. This kind of knowledge is called jva-brahma-aikyajna. The word jna, which is used in the verse under discussion, refers only to this knowledge of the oneness of the jvas and Brahma. This knowledge is called nirviea-jna, knowledge of non-distinction or impersonalism. Nirviea-jna is opposed to bhakti. But the other two forms of knowledge mentioned beforetat-padrtha-jna and tva-padrtha-jna are not opposed to bhakti. When one adopts the path of bhakti, these two types of knowledge are essential. But upon entering the path of bhakti, devotion mixed with empiric speculative knowledge (jna-mir-bhakti) is labelled as external (bhya). This type of knowledge must also be given up. There is no possibility that the jvas natural relationship with the Supreme Lord as servant and served could ever arise in jva-brahma-aikya-jna. This attitude of servant and served, sevya-sevaka-bhva, is the very life of bhakti. Therefore, to remain fully purified of any taint of nirviea-brahma-jna is the gaua-lakaa or secondary characteristic of uttambhakti. Three Types of Bhakti One should also remember that bhakti is of three types: sva-rpa-siddh (those endeavors which are purely constituted of uttam-bhakti), saga-siddh (those endeavors which are associated with or favorable to the development of bhakti but not of themselves purely composed of bhakti), and ropa-siddh (those activities which, although not consisting of pure bhakti, are designated as bhakti due to their being offered to the Supreme Lord). ropa-siddh-bhakti Endeavors Indirectly Attributed with the Quality of Bhakti Endeavors which by nature are not purely constituted of bhaktithat is, nuklya-knulanaand in which the performer, in order to fulfill his own purpose, offers his activities and their results to the Lord so that He may be pleased, is called ropa-siddh-bhakti. In other words, because his activities are assigned (ropa) to the Supreme Lord, bhakti is attributed (ropita) to them. Comment That bhakti in which there is a mixture of karma or desires for material enjoyment is called sakma-bhakti or saguabhakti. Without the assistance of bhakti, karma cannot yield any fruit. Knowing this, many persons offer their prescribed duties for the satisfaction of the Lord, in order that He might fulfill their extraneous desires. The activities of such persons are not sva-rpa-siddh-bhakti. Nonetheless, because they offer the fruit of their activity to the Lord, it is considered as a type of bhakti. Although their activities are offered for the satisfaction of the Lord, their motivation is that by pleasing Him, He may fulfill their extraneous desires. In this case their activities are attributed with the sense of bhakti. Therefore, such endeavors are known as ropa-siddh-bhakti. Saga-siddh-bhakti Endeavors Associated with or Favorable to the Cultivation of Bhakti There are other endeavors which, although not purely constituted of bhakti, anuklya-knulana, acquire a likeness to bhakti due to their being established as assistants to bhakti. Such endeavors are known as saga-siddh-bhakti. An example of this is found in rmad-Bhgavatam (11.3.23-25) in the statement of r Prabuddha Muni to Mahrja Nimi. One should cultivate compassion toward others, friendliness, offering respect to others, cleanliness, austerity, tolerance, silence, study of the Vedas, simplicity, celibacy, non-violence, and so on. One should consider heat and cold, happiness and distress to be the same. One should perceive the presence of the Lord everywhere. One should live in a secluded place, renounce family attachments and remain satisfied with gain which comes of its own accord. Even though the behavior or practices of bhgavata-dharma described in this verse are not by nature purely constituted of bhakti, they are assistants to bhakti. Thus they are considered to be like associates or parikaras of bhakti. If bhagavadbhakti is removed from the twenty-six qualities mentioned, then Bhaga-vn has no direct relationship with the remaining qualities such as compassion, friendliness, tolerance, austerity, and so on. Only when theses items exist as assistants to or associates of bhakti is their likeness to bhakti effected. Therefore they are known as saga-siddh-bhakti. Svarpa-siddh-bhakti Endeavors Purely Constituted of Uttam-bhakti

All favorable endeavors or ce such as ravaa, krtana, smaraa, and so on, as well as the manifestation of the spiritual sentiments which occur beginning from the stage of bhva, which are completely devoid of all desires separate from r Ka and which are freed from the coverings of jna and karma are known as svarpa-siddh-bhakti. In other words all endeavors of the body, words and mind which are related to r Ka and which are performed exclusively and directly for His pleasure without any intervention are known as svarpa-siddh-bhakti. Therefore in Rya Rmnanda samvda, the conversation between r Caitanya Mahprabhu and Rya Rmnanda, found in r Caitanya-caritmta, both ropa-siddh and saga-siddh-bhakti *A prkta-sahajiy is one who abandons the fundamental procedures of sdhana and imitates the symptoms of advanced devotees by a material display.

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(4) The Sixty-four Agas of Bhajana atha bhajanasya catu-air-agni r-guru-pdraya, r ka-dk-ikdi, r-guru-sev, sdhu-mrgnusra, bhajana-rti-prana, r ka-prtaye bhogdi-tyga, trtha-vsa, trtha-mhtmya-ravaa ca, sva-bhakti-nirvhnurpa-bhojandi-svkra, ekdavratam, avattha-tulas-dhtr-go-brhmaa-vaiava-sammnaprva-daa-grahaam. para-daa-tygaasdhu-saga-tyga, bahu-iya-karaa-tyga, bahvrambha tyga, bahu-stra-vykhyvivddi tyga, vyavahre krpaya-tyga, oka-krodhdi-tyga, devatntara-nind-tyga, primtre udvegatyga, sevpardha-nmpardha-tyga, guru-ka-bhakta-nind sahana tyga. vaiava-cihna-dhraa, harinmkara-dhraa, nirmlya-dhraa, ntya, daavat-prama, abhyutthnam, anuvrajy, r-mrti-sthne gamana, parikram, pj, pari-caryy, gta, sakrtana, japa stavapha, mahprasda-sev, vijapti, caramta-pna, dhpa-mlydi-saurabha-grahaa, r-mrti-darana, r-mrti-sparana, rtrika-darana, ravaa, tat-kppekaa, smaraa, dhyna, dsya, sakhya, tmanivedana, nija-priya-vastu-samarpaa, krthe samasta-karma-karaa. sarvath arapatti, tulas-sev, vaiava-stra-sev, mathur-maale vsa, vaiava-sev, yath-akti doldimahotsava-karaa, krttika-vrata, sarvad harinma-grahaa, janmam-ytrdi-kaca, eva naai bhaktyagni; atha tatra paca agni sarvata rehni yathr-mrti-sev-kauala, rasikai saha rbhgavatrthsvda, sajtya-snigdha-mahattara-sdhu-saga, nma-sakrtana, r-vndvana-vsa eva militv catu-ay-agni. r Cakravartpdas Sanskrit Commentary ka-dkdtidk-prvaka ikaam ity artha. r ketir ka prpteryo hetu ka-prasdas tadartham ity artha. di grahalloka-vitta-putrdayo ghyante. sev-nmpardhetisev-nmpardhnm udbhava sdhakasya pryo-bhavaty eva, kintu pact yatnena tem abhvakrit. r Bindu-vikin-vtti (1) r Guru-padraya Taking shelter at the lotus feet of r Guru In all the scriptures which promote bhakti, the unlimited glories of r Guru have been described. Without taking shelter at the lotus feet of a sad-guru, it is impossible to enter into the realm of bhagavad-bhajana. Therefore, out of all the agas of bhakti, sad-guru-padraya has been cited first. It is the duty of all faithful persons who have a desire for bhagavad-bhakti to take shelter at the lotus feet of a spiritual master who is a genuine preceptor of the stras expounding the glories of Bhagavn and who is expert in understanding and explaining the mantras describing Bhagavn. All anarthas are easily removed only by the mercy of such a genuine spiritual master and thus one also obtains the supreme favor of Bhagavn. By the mercy of r Guru, all anarthas are easily destroyed. rla Jva Gosvm has demonstrated this in his Bhakti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 237) by citing the evidence of various stras. He has explained this by the statement of Brahmj as well: yo mantra sa guru skt yo guru sa hari svaya gurur-yasya bhavet tuas-tasya tuo hari svayam The mantra (which is given by the guru) is itself the guru, and the guru is directly the Supreme Lord Hari. He upon whom the spiritual master is pleased also obtains the pleasure of r Hari Himself.

Comment The gurus internal, spiritual mood of service to r Rdhik and Ka is conveyed to the disciple through the medium of a mantra. Everything is given in seed form within the mantra. At first the disciple will not be able to understand, but by performing sdhana and bhajana under the guidance of r Gurudeva and by meditating on the mantra given by him, gradually everything will be revealed. Therefore it is said here that the mantra is the direct representation of r Gurudeva. In the Hari-bhakti-vilsa (4.360) it is stated: harau rue gurus-trt, gurau rue na kacana tasmt sarva-prayatnena gurum-eva prasdayet Even if a person incurs the displeasure of the Lord, the spiritual master may still give him protection, but if the spiritual master is displeased, there is no one to give him protection. Therefore, one should please r Gurudeva by all endeavors of ones body, mind, and words. The author rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura has also said: yasya prasdd-bhagavat-prasdo yasyprasdn-na gati kuto piFor one who pleases the spiritual master the Supreme Lord is automatically pleased, but for one who displeases the spiritual master there is no means of obtaining success. I therefore meditate upon r Gurudeva, offer prayers to him, and bow down before him three times a day. What is required to be a guru? This has been stated in the eleventh canto of rmad-Bhgavatam (11.3.21): tasmd guru prapadyeta jijsu reya uttamam bde pare ca nita brahmay-upasamrayam In the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 202, rla Jva Gosvm has defined the meaning of the words bde pare ca nitam in the following statement: bde brahmai vede ttparya vicrea nita tathaiva nih prptam, pare brahmai-bhagavad-di-rpvirbhvestu aparoknubhavena One who is expert in explaining the purport of the Vedas which are abda-brahma, who has direct experience of Parabrahma (the Supreme Brahman, r Ka), and who is devoid of all material expectations and requirements should be accepted as a genuine spiritual master. One should take shelter of such a guru through the process of hearing in order to know the truth regarding sdhana, the means, and sdhya, the goal. Similarly, it has been stated in the rutis (Muaka Upaniad 1.2.12): tad-vijnrtha sa gurum-evbhigacchet samit-pi rotriya brahma-nihamIn order to obtain direct realization of the supreme absolute reality, bhagavattattva-vastu-vijna, or knowledge concerning prema-bhakti, a person who is desirous of his own welfare, should approach a sad-guru who knows the purport of the Vedas and who is learned in the truths regarding r Ka. Taking an offering in ones hands, one should submit oneself to such a sad-guru with body, mind and words. rla Jva Gosvm has here described that the instructors who disseminate knowledge of bhagavat-tattva are of two kindssarga, with attachments, and nirga, without attachments. Instructors who are greedy for wealth and who maintain desires for sensual enjoyment are known as speakers with material attachments or sarga-vakts. The influence of such instructors is not enduring. An instructor who is a topmost devotee of the Lord (parama-bhagavad-bhakta), who is adept in relishing bhakti-rasa and evoking spiritual emotions in others (sarasa), and who is capable of extracting the essence of anything (sragrh) is known as a speaker without attachments or nirga-vakt. The verse cited above refers exclusively to the instructor who is devoid of attachments (nirga-vakt). In Bhakti-sandarbha, rla Jva Gosvm, in examining guru-tattva, has cited three types of gurus: ravaa-guru, ikguru, and dk-guru.

ravaa-guru The person from whom one hears knowledge of the bhaktas, bhakti, and bhagavat-tattva is known as the ravaaguru. In the conversation between Mahrja Nimi and the Nava-Yogendras in the eleventh canto of rmad-Bhgavatam (11.3.22) it is said: tatra bhgavatn dharmn iked gurvtma-daivata amyaynuvtty yais tuyed tmtma-do hari A sdhaka should adopt the practice of bhakti free from all hypocrisy. He should approach a guru who knows all the truths related to Supreme Lord and who is very dear to the Lord. The sdhaka should receive instructions on bhgavatdharma from such a spiritual master. By carrying out those instructions, Bhaga-vn r Hari personally gives Himself to the devotee. Such a person who gives instructions on how to execute bhajana is called a ravaa-guru. There may be many ravaagurus; nonetheless, the sdhaka should take shelter of one mahat-purua among them who is suitable to his nature and receive instructions from him regarding how to perform bhajana.

ik-guru Out of many such competent ravaa-gurus, one who gives instructions in bhajana which are just suitable to the bhva of the sdhaka is called a ik-guru. There may be many ik-gurus also; however, it is advantageous to have one ik-guru in particular who is conducive to ones mood. The ravaa-guru and the ik-guru are usually one and the same person as stated in the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 206atha ravaa-guru bhajana ik-gurvo pryakamekatvam-iti tathaivha: The ravaa-guru and the bhajana-ik-guru are usually the same person. The verses already cited tasmd guru prapadyeta, tatra bhagavatn dharmn siked , tad-vijnrtha, and so on should be understood in relationship to both the ravaa-guru and the ik-guru. Dk-guru One who gives a mantra for worship according to the rules and regulations of scripture is called a dk-guru or mantra-guru. The dk-guru should possess all the symptoms already described of a mahat-purua (described in loka four in reference to sdhu-saga) and those described in connection with the sad-guru. The dk-guru should be well conversant in the conclusions of the Vedas, he should be adept in expounding those conclusions, he should have direct experience and realization of Bhagavn, and he should be completely detached from material sense objects. If he is lacking in these characteristics then the faith of the disciples will waiver. There is only one dk-guru. The ik-guru should be in conformity with the dk-guru; otherwise, impediments may arise in the practice of sdhana. Ordinarily the dk-guru carries out the function of ik-guru. In his absence, one should accept an advanced devotee possessing the characteristics already describ-ed as ones ik-guru. There is no direction that permits one to renounce a sad-guru; however, a guru who has become inimical to Vaiavas, the stras, and bhakti, who is engrossed in sense enjoyment, who is lacking discrimination as to what is duty and what is not duty, who is foolish, or who is following a path other than uddha-bhakti should be given up. It is directed in various places in the stra that one should then take dks again from a Vaiava guru in accordance with the rules and regulations. This is the purport of the verses quoted below from Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 238: guror apy avaliptasya krykryam-ajnata utpatha-pratipannasya paritygo vidhyate (Mahbhrata, Udyoga-parva, 178.48) avaiavopadiena mantrea niraya vrajet puna-ca vidhin sabhyag grhayed-vaiavd-guro (Hari-bhakti-vilsa, 4.366) In other words, one who accepts a mantra from a non-Vaiava guru goes to hell. Therefore, one should again receive dk-mantra from a Vaiava guru in accordance with the rules and regulations. (2) r Ka-dk-ikdi (Receiving initiation and spiritual instructions) It is essential to accept dk and ik from a guru in order to gain entrance into bhagavad-bhajana. In the Hari-bhaktivilsa the following is said regarding dk: divya jna yato dadyt kuryt ppasya sakayam tasmd-dketi s prokt deikais-tattva-kovidai (Hari-bhakti-vilsa, 2.9; cited from the Viu-ymala) That religious undertaking which bestows divya-jna or transcendental knowledge and destroys ppa (sin), ppa-bja (the seed of sin), and avidy (ignorance) to the root is called dk by learned authorities in the absolute truth. Therefore, a faithful sdhaka will dedicate his entire self to the lotus feet of r Gurudeva, offer prama unto him, and take dk from him by receiving a Vaiava mantra in accordance with the rules and regulations of the stra. The meaning of divya-jna referred to above is that the jva is not a material phenomena; the jva is an atomic particle of spiritual consciousness belonging to the sac-cid-nanda-svarpa of r Ka. By virtue of this, the jva is nothing other than the nitya-dsa of Bhagavn. This is also stated in the r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 20.108: jivera svarpa haya kera nitya dsa: the svarpa or identity of the jva is to be an eternal servant of r Ka. Although the jva is by nature an eternal servant of Bhagavn, because his face has been averted from the Lord (bhagavad-vimukhat) from a time without beginning (andi-kla), he has been wandering in various species of life. He is thus being scorched by the threefold miseries of material existence. By the causeless mercy of the ocean of mercy r Bhagavn or His devotees, the jva attains sdhu-saga. By the potency of that sdhu-saga, the jva offers himself at the lotus feet of r Gurudeva. By bestowing the ka-mantra, r Gurudeva dispels the jvas aversion toward the Lord (bhagavad-vimukhat) and directs his attention toward the performance of bhagavad-bhajana. He gives sambandha-jna concerning bhagavad-tattva, jva-tattva, and my-tattva and awakens the dormant inclination of the jva to serve the Lord (bhagavad-unmukhat). As a consequence of this, ppa, ppa-bja, and avidy of the sdhaka are all destroyed to the root. This procedure of dk is not completed in one day; rather, it is begun from the day of dk. In the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 283, rla Jva Gosvm has explained the meaning of divya-jna in the following

words: divya jna hy atra mantre bhagavat-svarpa jnam, tena bhagavat sambandha-viea jnaca Divyajna is transcendental knowledge contained within a mantra which reveals the form and identity of the Supreme Lord (bhagavat-svarpa) as well as the knowledge of the sdhaka-jvas particular relationship with the Lord. The relationship between Bhagavn and the jva is that of servant and served. Bhagavn is the served (sevya) and the jva is the servant (sevaka)this is only a general relationship. In the advanced stage, this same relationship manifests in one particular form out of the various moods of dsya, sakhya, vtsalya, or madhura. r Gurudeva, knowing the svarpagata-bhva, or in other words the natural, inherent disposition of the sdhaka, gives nourishment to that particular mood within his heart in order to bring it clearly into view. In the Hari-bhakti-vilsa (2.12), quoting a statement from the Tattva-sgara, it is said: yath kcanat yti ksya rasa-vidhnata tath dk-vidhnena dvijatva jyate nm Just as bell metal is turned to gold by a particular alchemical process, a man can obtain to the state of being a dvija by the process of Vaiava dk. By the word nm used in this verse, rla Santana Gosvm has indicated a person who has received initiation. In other words, a person who receives dk becomes a dvija* or twice-born. By the word dvijatvam he has indicated that one attains to the state of a brhmaa or one who knows the absolute truth Brahman. The word dvijatva used here does not mean the state of being a dvija by initiation into the sacred thread like that of the katriyas and vaiyas. By the procedure of dk the disciple is born again. This is called birth by dk (daika janma). There are three kinds of birth: (1) aukra-janmaseminal birth or birth by mother and father, (2) svitra-janmaa ceremony in which a boy is initiated into one of the three twice-born classes by being invested with the sacred thread, and (3) daika-janmabirth by the process of dk or spiritual initiation. Even a dra or an untouchable person (antyaja) who is born in the lowest family obtains the saskras for being a dvija upon being initiated in accordance with the regulations of the Pcartra. This is the purport of the following statement from the Mah-bhrata, Anusana-parva, 143.46: etai karma-phalair-devi nyna jti kulodbhava dro py gama-sampanno dvijo bhavati saskta As a result of these activities, O goddess, even a dra born in a low caste family becomes twice-born and endowed with the gama (the scripture). In a conversation between Rukmgada (a king) and Mohin quoted from the Skanda Pura it is said (Hari-bhaktivilsa 2.6): adkitasya vmoru kta sarva nirarthakam pau-yonim-avpnoti dk virahit jana O Vmoru (O woman with beautiful thighs)! All the auspicious activities of men are worthless without accepting dk. A person who is bereft of dk obtains birth in the animal species of life. In the Bhakti-sandarbha, rla Jva Gosvm has said that without undergoing the upanayana-saskra* even children appearing in twice-born families are unfit to study the stras and to perform yajas. Similarly, without dk one is unfit to worship the mantra-devat, or presiding deity of the mantra. It is seen in the stras in connection with the glories of bhagavn-nma that there is so much potency in the Lords name that even without undergoing dk, purificatory ceremonies (sat-kriy), or preparatory rites (puracary), harinma is competent to produce results as soon as it comes in contact with the tongue. This is expressed in the following statement of r Lakmdhara cited from Padyval (29): ki kta-cetas sumahatm uccana chasm calam amka-loka sulabho vaya ca moka riya no dk na ca daki na ca puracary mangkate mantro ya rasanspgeva phalati r ka-nmtmaka This mahmantra, composed of the names of r Ka, is so astonishingly powerful and accessible that it yields fruit as soon as it touches the tongue. Because it attracts even liberated souls who are purified at heart and whose desires are fully satiated, this mantra is supreme in its power of subjugation. It eradicates great sins which could not be destroyed by yaja, yoga, tapa, dna, and other means. Because it can be chanted anywhere at any time, it is so easily available that even clas or anyone who is not mute can chant it. By its causeless mercy, it submits itself to a person who merely desires to chant. The rare wealth of moka runs behind to serve it. Unlike other mantras, the chanting of this mahmantra is not dependent on receiving dk from a guru, moral conduct, or preparatory rites. rla Jva Gosvm, in discussing this topic in the Bhakti-sandarbha (283), has said that in spite of the statements in the stras as to the autonomous potency of the holy name, the previous mahjanas such as r Nrada and so on first accepted dk from their gurus and then performed their sdhana and bhajana in worship of their iadeva (the beloved deity of their heart). Similarly, those who desire to follow in the footsteps of those mahpuruas must also accept dk into bhagavad-mantra from r Gurudeva, because without accepting dk, ones relationship with Bhagavn as dsya, sakhya, and so on cannot be awakened. That relationship is established only by the lotus feet of r Guru. The custom of

dk was honored by r Caitanya Mahprabhu and His followers, the gosvms. It is prevalent even today in their followers. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura has clearly said that those persons who have abandoned the pursuits of karmayoga, jna-yoga, japa, tapa, and other processes of sdhana, who have accepted Bhagavn as their iadeva and who are engaged in ravana, krtana, and smaraa of bhagavan-nma, but who have not accepted dk from a Vaiava guru according to the Vaiava regulations, cannot attain the Supreme Lord. They will merely be prevented from entering hell, or in their next birth, by the influence of the bhajana performed from the previous life, they will obtain sdhu-saga. By then taking shelter at the lotus feet of a guru, receiving dk from him and making advancement through the different stages of bhakti, they can attain the Supreme Lord. In the Hari-bhakti-vilsa (5.450-451) quoting from the Skanda-Pura, rla Santana Gosvm has said: eva r bhagavn sarvai lagrma-iltmaka dvijai strbhi-ca drai-ca pjyo bhagavata parai brhmaa-katriya-vi sac-chdrm-athpi v lagrme dhikro sti na cnye kadcana In the commentary on the above verse it is stated that upon receiving dk in accordance with the regulations of stra, everyone, whether they be a brhmaa, vaiya, katriya, a woman or a dra, becomes qualified to worship Bhagavn in the form of lagrma il. The word sat-dra from the verse means a dra who has received dk. After receiving dk, a dra no longer remains a dra. In the stras, statements are sometimes seen forbidding women and dras from the worship of lagrma il. These statements, however, do not apply to persons who have taken dk they are intended for those who have not received dk; yath-vidhi dk ghtv bhagavat-pjparai sadbhir ityartha. In the r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (1.2.98), the following verse is quoted from rmad-Bhgavatam (11.3.22): tatra bhgavatn dharmn iked gurvtma daivata amyaynuvtty yaistuyed-tmtma-do hari One should know r Gurudeva to be ones supreme benefactor, friend, and most worshipable deitythe direct personification of Hari. One should always follow him without duplicity and take instructions from him about bhgavatadharma. By this practice, the Supreme Lord Hari becomes pleased and gives Himself to the disciple. (3) Prtiprvaka-guru-sev (Serving r Guru with love) In the rmad-Bhgavatam, r Ka Himself has declared to Uddhava: Know the crya to be My own very self and never disrespect him. Never find fault with him considering him to be an ordinary man, for all the devats reside within r Gurudeva. All those anarthas which cannot be removed even by very rigid practice of sdhana are easily destroyed by serving r Gurudeva without duplicity. yasya prasdd-bhagavat-prasdo, yasy-prasdn-na gati kuto pi The mercy of r Guru is itself the mercy of Bhagavn. If one has the mercy of r Guru, then even if Bhagavn is displeased, the spiritual master will take responsibility to please Him. But if the spiritual master is displeased then r Bhagavn will never forgive such an offender. Therefore, considering the spiritual master to be ones supreme friend, one should serve him with great love. Some persons who are not conversant with the conclusions of the stras serve only the spiritual master, thinking him to be Bhagavn. They think that there is no need to perform service or bhajana of the Lord separately. Such persons go as far as offering tulas and other articles at the feet of r Gurudeva. This thinking is opposed to the stras. According to the stras, just as one possesses par-bhakti toward r Bhagavn, one should similarly possess bhakti toward the lotus feet of r Gurudeva; otherwise, all ones efforts in sdhana and bhajana will bear no result. yasya deve par-bhaktir yath deve tath gurau tasyaite kathit hyarth prakante mahtmana (vetvatara Upaniada 6.23) For one who has par-bhakti toward the Supreme Lord and toward r Gurudeva, all the conclusions mentioned in the stras regarding the supreme, ultimate reality, r Bhagavn, become manifest in his heart. For those who have no bhakti toward the lotus feet of the spiritual master, the conclusions of the stra are not revealed. (4) Sdhu-mrgnusra (Following the path of sdhus) The method by which the mind may be fixed at the lotus feet of Ka can be called sdhana-bhakti. But one should pursue the very same path by which the previous mahjanas attained the Lord. The reason for this is that the path which has already been chalked out by the mahjanas is free from all distress and hardship, and it is the cause of all auspiciousness.

sa mgya reyas hetu panth sastpa-varjjita anavptarama prve yena santa pratasthire (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.2.100, from Skanda-Pura) No path can be properly ascertained by any one individual. All the previous mahjanas following in consecutive succession one after another have made the path of bhakti-yoga neat and clean and free from obstruction. They have eliminated all the petty obstacles and disturbances along the path and made it very easy and free from fear. Therefore, we must take support from the specific path which they have laid. Even though one may be engaged in aikntik-bhakti (exclusive devotion) toward Lord Hari, yet if one transgresses the regulations of the stras like the ruti, Smti, Puras or the Pacartra, his bhakti can never produce a beneficial effect. Rather, it will simply be the cause of calamity. ruti-smti-purdi-pacartra-vidhi vin aikntik harer-bhaktir-utptyaiva kalpate (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.2.101, from Brahma-ymala) A question may be raised here as to how aikntik-bhakti toward Lord Hari could ever be the cause of calamity? In response to this it is said that the exclusive or one-pointed mood (aikntika-bhva) of uddha-bhakti is obtained only by taking support of the path of the previous mahjanas. By abandoning the path of the previous mahjanas and erecting some other path, the mood of one-pointed devotion is not obtained. Therefore, Datttreya, Buddha and other recent teachers, not being able to comprehend uddha-bhakti, accepted in its place a mere reflection of uddha-bhakti and thus propagated paths which were mixed with myvda and atheism (nstikat). Some aspect of aikntik-hari-bhakti is attributed to these paths, but in reality the paths introduced by those persons are not hari-bhaktithey are a disturbance (utpta). In the bhajana of those who pursue the rga-mrga, there is no dependence upon the regulations of the ruti, Smti, Puras and Pacartra. It is dependent simply upon following of the Lords eternal associates of Vraja. But for those sdhakas who have adhikri for the vidhi-mrga it is essential to take support only of the path of bhakti specified by Dhruva, Prahlda, Nrada, Vysa, uka and other mahjanas. In particular, it is even more beneficial to follow the path shown by r Rpa, Santana, Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm and other associates of r acnandana Gaura Hari who is the savior of the fallen conditioned souls of the age of Kali and who is decorated with the sentiment and complexion of r Rdh. One should also follow subsequent mahjanas following in their line. Therefore, for vaidha-bhaktas there is no method other than following the path of sdhus. (5) Bhajana-rti-nti-prana (Questions about the procedures of bhajana) Sad-dharma means true religion or in other words the religion of true sdhus. In the association of saintly persons, sdhakas should inquire about those procedures which the sdhus have adopted to attain the Lord. To inquire with great persistence in order to understand those procedures is called inquiry about sad-dharma. This has been stated in the Nrada Pacartra: acirdeva sarvrtha sidhyaty-em-abhpsita sad-dharmasyvabodhya ye nirvandhin mati (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.2.103) Those whose minds are exceedingly anxious to know all about sad-dharma, or the procedures of bhakti, very quickly attain all their cherished goals. (6) Krthe-akhila-bhoga-tyga (Renunciation of all enjoyment for the sake of Ka) To enjoy material pleasure through activities such as eating, drinking, sleeping, and mating is called bhoga (material enjoyment). This bhoga is principally opposed to bhajana. Bhajana becomes easily accessible by giving up such material enjoyments for the sake of ka-bhajana. A person attached to sense enjoyment is like a person addicted to intoxication. He becomes so engrossed in the enjoyment of material pleasure that he can not perform pure bhajana. Therefore, he should only accept bhagavat-prasda in the mood of service. He should protect and maintain the body only to keep it fit for the service of the Lord. He should give up all types of material enjoyment, particularly on holy days such as Ekda, Janmam, Rma-navam, Phlgun-Gaura-prm, Nsiha-caturda, and so on. (7) Trtha-vsa Trtha-mhtmya-ravaa ca (To live in a sacred place and to hear the greatness of such places) By living in close proximity to holy rivers like the Gag or Yamun connected to the Lords pastimes or by living in sacred places where the Lord appeared and enacted various pastimes, nih is awakened. In the Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu

(1.2.105-107) the following has been said about residing at a holy place: savatsara v anmsn msa msrddham-eva v dvrak-vsina sarve nar nrya-caturbhuj (Skanda Pura) By living in Dvrka for one year, six months, one month or even for fifteen days, a man or woman becomes a four-armed denizen (of Vaikuha). aho ketrasya mhtmya samantd-daa-yojanam divih yatra payanti sarvn-eva caturbhujn (Brahma Pura) The glories of Puruottama Dhma (Jaganntha Pur) are extraordinary. The devats from the celestial planets look upon all living beings spread within a radius of ten yojanas (approximately eighty miles) of this sacred place as four-handed denizens of Vaikuha. y vai lasac chr-tulas-vimira kghri rev-abhyadhikmbu-netr punti sen-ubhayatra lokn kast na seveta mariyama The stras have extensively proclaimed the glories of residing on the bank of sacred rivers like the Gag, Yamun, Godvar, and others. The above verse is taken from rmad-Bhgavatam (1.19.6). The Bhagavat (Gag), which carries the most sacred water mixed with the dust of the Lotus feet of r Ka and the beautiful, alluring tulas, purifies everyone in this world as well as the world beyond (paraloka) including iva. Therefore, who is there on the verge of death who will not take up her service? (In other words all should engage in the service of the Gag.) In Jaiva Dharma rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has said that resi-dence anywhere within the thirty-two mile radius of r Nava-dvpa, and in particular within Mypura, is identical to residence within r Vndvana. Of the seven holy places which yield liberationnamely, Ayodhy, Mathur, My, K, Kc, Avantik, and DvrakMypura is the chief. The reason for this is that in Mypura rman Mahprabhu has manifested His eternal abode of vetadvpa. Four centuries after the appearance of rman Mahprabhu, this vetadvpa has become the most important of all the holy trthas on the planet earth. By living at this place, all kinds of offences are destroyed and one obtains uddha-bhakti. rla Prabodhnanda Sarasvat has described this dhma to be non-different from r Vndvana and in some places he has given even greater importance to r Mypura. Those who are incapable of living at the above-mentioned holy places can hear the glories of those places, and by doing so, a strong desire will arise to live there. When the time is ripe, they may then obtain the good fortune to reside at a holy place. (8) Svabhakti-nirvhnurpa bhojandi-svkram (Accepting only what is required for the sustenance of bhakti) In the Nradya Pura it is said: yvat syt svanirvha svkuryt-tvad-arthavit dhikye nynatyca cyavate paramrthata (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.2.108) A wise person (arthavit) or one who actually knows the value of wealth should accept only as much wealth and other things as is required in order to be steadfast in carrying out ones obligations in the matter of bhakti. For, if one accepts more or less than ones actual requirement, he falls down from spiritual life and thus his real wealth (paramrtha) becomes spoilt. Sdhakas who are fit for vaidh-bhakti may earn wealth by honest means prescribed in accordance with varramadharma in order that they may sustain their existence. It is beneficial for them to accumulate wealth only in proportion to their needs. If one is anxious to seize more than what he requires, attachment will arise which will systematically destroy his bhajana. If one accepts less than what he needs, it will also be detrimental, because by doing so, one will be in scarcity and his bhajana will dwindle. Therefore, until one has earned the qualification to become completely desireless (nirapeka), he should practice uddha-bhakti and accept wealth only in a proportion appropriate for the maintenance of his existence. (9) r Ekda-vrata (Observing the vow of Ekda) The name of uddh Ekda is Harivsara or the day of Lord Hari. uddh Ekda means pure Ekda. This refers to a

circumstance in which there is no overlapping or mixture of tithis or lunar days. When the Ekda

(5) Sevpardha 32 Offenses to be Avoided in Service Yath game ynairv pdukair-vpi gamana bhagavad-ghe devotsavdy asev ca apramas tad-agrata ucchie vpy aauce v bhaga-vad vandandikam eka-hasta-prama ca tat purastt pra-dakiam pda-prasraa cgre tath paryakabandhanam ayana bhakaa cpi mithy-bhaam eva ca uccair-bh mitho jalpa rodandi tad-agrata nigrahnugrahau caive nihura-krra-bhaam kambalvaraa caiva para-nind para-stuti alla-bhaa caiva adhovyu-vimokaam aktau gauopacra ca anivedita-bhakaam tat-tat-klodbhavn ca phaldnm anarpaam viniyuktvaiasya vyajande samarpaam ph ktysana caiva parem abhivandanam gurau mauna nijastotra devat-nindana tath apardhs tath vior dvtriat parikrttit. varhe ca apardha ca te pi sakipya likhyante yathrjnna-bhakana, dhvntgre hare spara, vidhi vin hary-pasarpaa, vdya vin tad-dvrodghana, kukkurdi-dua-bhakya-sagraha, arccane mauna-bhaga, pj-kle vi utsargya gamana, gandha-mlydikamadattv dhpanam, anarha pupea pjanam. aktv dantakha ca ktv nidhuvana tath spv rajasval dpa tath mtakam eva ca rakta nlam adhauta ca prakya malina paa paridhya, mta dv vimucypnamruta krodha ktv mana ca gatv bhuktvpy ajrabhuk bhuktv kusumbha piyka tailbhyaga vidhya ca hare sparo hare karma karaa ptakvaha. tath tatraivnyatrabhagavac-chstrndaraprvakam anya strapravartanam, r mrti sammukhe tmbla carvaam, eradipatrasthapupair arcanam, sura kle pj, phe bhmau v upaviya pjanam; snapana kle vma hastena tat-spara, paryuitai ycitair v pupair arcanam, pjy nihvanam, tasy svagarva pratipdanam, tiryak pura-dhti, apraklita-pdatve pi tan-mandira-pravea, avaiava pakva nivedanam, avaiava dena pjanam, vighneama pjayitv kaplina dv v pjanam, nakhmbha snapanam, gharmmbuliptatve pi pjanam, nirmlya laghanam, bhagavac-chapathdayo nye ca jey. r Bindu-vikin-vtti It has been previously stated that one must give up offenses in regards to service. In the gama stra these sevpardhas are said to be of thirty-two types: (1) to enter the temple wearing sandals, (2) to enter the temple seated on a palanquin, (3) to disrespect or to fail to observe the festivals of ones cherished deity (ia-deva), (4) to not offer prostrated obeisances to ones cherished deity although being present directly before Him, (5) to offer prayers to the Lord without washing the hands and mouth after eating, (6) to offer prayers to the Lord in an unclean condition, (7) to offer obeisances with only one hand, (8) to show ones back to the Lord while circumambulating. (In circumambulating the Lord, one first passes along the right side of the deity, then behind the back, next along the left side and finally one comes face to face with the deity again. As one continues circumambulating, one must turn so as to avoid showing ones back to the deity as one passes in front of Them. To fail to do so is an offense), (9) to spread ones feet in front of the deity, (10) to sit in front of the deity with hands binding ones raised knees, (11) to lie down in front of the deity, (12) to eat in front of the deity, (13) to tell lies in front of the deity, (14) to speak loudly before the deity, (15) to converse with one another about mundane subjects before the deity, (16) to shed tears on account of earthly matters before the Lord, (17) to show favor to or to repri-mand someone before the deity, (18) to speak harshly to others in front of the deity, (19) to wear a coarse blanket in front of the Lord or while serving the deity, (20) to blaspheme others in front of the deity, (21) to praise others, (22) to use obscene language before the Lord, (23) to pass wind before the Lord, (24) to serve the Lord by offering Him secondary or minor articles although competent to offer first-class items (i.e., at the time of worshiping the deity, if one is competent to offer all the principal paraphernalia of worship such as flowers, tulas, incense, lamp, and food offerings, but instead offers only secondary items like water, it is an offense), (25) to eat food items that are not offered to the Lord, (26) to not offer the Lord the fruits and flowers that are in season, (27) to personally enjoy the first portion of anything or present it to someone else and then offer the remainder to the Lord, (28) to sit with ones back to the deity, (29) to offer obeisances or salutation to others in front of the deity, (30) to remain silent in front of ones spiritual master, that is, to not offer prayers and obeisances to him or to remain silent without responding to his questions, (31) to praise oneself, and (32) to slander the devats. These are the thirty-two types of sev apardha. One should strictly avoid them. Other sev apardhas that have been mentioned in the Varha Pura are briefly stated here as follows: to eat grains supplied by the king or government; to touch the deity in a house or temple permeated by darkness; to approach the deity without following the scriptural regulations; to open the door of the temple without ringing a bell or making any sound; to collect items which have been left by a dog or other animals; to break ones silence at the time of worshiping the deity; to go out in order to evacuate at the time of worship; to offer incense without first offering scents and flower garlands; to worship with forbidden flowers; to worship the Lord without cleansing ones teeth or without bathing after sexual intercourse; to worship the deity after touching a woman in menstruation, a lamp or a dead body; to worship the Lord wearing red or blue clothes, unwashed or dirty clothes or clothes belonging to another; to worship the deity after seeing a dead body; to pass wind while worshiping the deity; to worship the Lord in anger, after visiting a cremation ground, or in a state of indigestion; and to touch and worship the deity after taking an oil massage. To commit any of these activities is an offense.

In other stras as well there are sev apardhas that are worthy of attention: to propagate other stras while disregarding those that are related to the Lord; to chew betel (tmbla) in front of the deity; to worship the deity with flowers kept in the leaves of castor plants or other forbidden plants; to worship at forbidden times (when demoniac influences are prominent); to worship while sitting on a four-legged wooden stool or without any sitting mat (sana); to touch the deity with the left hand at the time of bathing the Lord; to worship with stale flowers or with flowers which have already been asked for by others; to spit at the time of worship; I am a great pujr, to glorify oneself in such terms; to apply tilaka on the forehead in a curved manner; to enter the temple without washing ones feet; to offer food grains to the Lord cooked by a non-Vaiava; to worship the deity in the presence of a non-Vaiava; to worship the deity after seeing a Kplika* without first offering worship to Lord r Nsihadeva; to bathe the Lord with water touched with the finger nails; to worship when the body is covered with perspiration; to step over the offerings to the Lord, and to take a vow in the name of the Lord. Many other sev apardhas have been mentioned in the scriptures.

(6) Nmpardha-gurutva (The Severity of Nmpardha) sarvpardha kd api mucyate hari sarayt harer apy apardhn ya kuryd dvipada pana nmsraya kadcit syt taratyeva sa nmata nmno pi sarva-suhdo hy apardht patatyadha r Bindu-vikin-vtti Sdhakas should remain thoroughly attentive to avoid committing all the above-mentioned offences. Even a person who has committed all kinds of offenses is redeemed by taking shelter at the lotus feet of r Hari. If a most wretched and fallen person (a two-legged animal) who has committed severe offenses at the feet of r Hari ever takes shelter of the holy name of r Hari, then the holy name alone mercifully delivers him from all such offenses. There is no doubt of this whatsoever. Therefore, r harinma is the best friend of all. But if one should commit an offense at the feet of r harinma, his falldown is inevitable. (The above two verses are quoted from Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 1.2.119-120)

(7) Nmpardha atha nmpardha daa: yathvaiava-ninddi-vainavpardha; viu-ivayo pthag-vara-buddhi; r gurudeve manuya-buddhi; veda-purdi stra-nind; nmni arthavda; nmni kuvykhy v kaa-kalpan; nmabalena ppe pravtti; anya ubha karmabhi nma-smya-mananam; araddha-jane nmopadea, nma mhtmye rute pi aprtiiti daadh. r Bindu-vikin-vtti Ten kinds of nmpardha will now be described in connection with the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. (1) To commit offenses against the Vaiavas by slandering them, and so on (nind di). The word di here refers to the six kinds of Vaiava apardha indicated in the following verse from the Skanda Pura quoted in the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 265: hanti nindati vai dvei vaiavn nbhinandati krudhyate yti no hara darane patanni a To beat Vaiavas, to slander them, to bear malice or envy against them, to fail to welcome them, to become angry with them, and to not feel happiness upon seeing themby these six types of Vaiava apardha, one falls down to a degraded position. (2) To consider Lord iva to be the Supreme Lord, separate and independent from Lord Viu. (3) To consider r Gurudeva to be an ordinary human being. (4) To slander the Vedas, Puras and other scriptures. (5) To consider the praises of r harinma to be imaginary, in other words, to consider that the praises which have been described in the stras in reference to harinma are not actually present in the holy name. (6) To give an unauthorized and misleading explanation of r harinma, in other words, to abandon the established and reputed meaning of the stras and foolishly concoct some futile explanation; for examplebecause the Lord is incorporeal, nirkra, formless, arpa, and nameless, anma, His name is also imaginary. (7) To engage in sinful activities again and again, knowing that there is such power in the holy name that simply by uttering r harinma all sins are vanquished. (8) To consider all kinds of religious or pious activities to be equal to r harinma. (9) To instruct faithless persons about r harinma.

(10) To not awaken love for the name in spite of hearing the glories of r nma. These ten offenses must certainly be avoided. In the practice of hari-bhajana, one should first of all be very attentive to avoid all sev apardhas and nmpardhas. One should know these apardhas to be severe obstacles on the path of bhajana and vigorously endeavor to give them up. Without giving up these offenses, there can be no question of advancement in bhajana; rather, the sdhakas falldown is assured. The sdhaka should also be vigilant not to commit any sev apardhas in the matter of arcana or worship of the deity. Sev apardhas which are committed unknowingly in the course of serving the deity are mitigated by wholehearted surrender unto Lord Hari, by offering prayers unto Him and, in particular, by taking shelter of r harinma. The holy name mercifully forgives all ones sev apardhas. r harinma is even more merciful than the r Vigraha. But if in spite of taking shelter of r harinma one is inattentive again in the matter of nmpardha, then his falldown is assured.

(8) Vaidh-bhakti atha vaidh lakanaravaa krtandni stra sana bhayena yadi kriyante tad vaidh bhakti. Now the symptoms of vaidh-bhakti are being described. If the agas of bhakti such as ravaa and krtana are performed out of fear of scriptural discipline, it is called vaidh-bhakti. r Cakravartpdas Sanskrit Commentary athtra sdhandau pravtti-smnye kutracit lobhasya kraatva kutracit stra sanasya. tatra ca yasy bhaktau lobhasya kraatva nsti kintu stra-sanasyaiva s vaidhtyha yatreti. rgo tra r-mrter-darand-daamaskandhya-tat-tal-ll ravad-bhajane lobhas-tad-anavptatvt-tad-anadhnatvd-dheto strasya sanenaiva y pravttir-upajyate s bhaktir-vaidh ucyate. r Bindu-vikin-vtti Bhakti is of two kinds: vaidh-bhakti and rgnug-bhakti. The agas of sdhana which are performed on the path of bhakti of both these types are generally considered to be one and the same. Nonetheless, there is a specific distinction between them. In some devotees intense longing or greed (lobha) is the cause of engagement in bhakti; whereas, in others the discipline of the stras is the cause of engagement in bhakti. Sdhana-bhakti which is not inspired by intense longing, but is instigated instead by the discipline of the stra is called vaidh-bhakti. yatra rgnavptatvt pravttir upajyate sanenaiva strasya s vaidh bhaktir ucyate (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 1.2.6) One should understand what is meant by the discipline of the stra. In rmad-Bhgavatam and all the scriptures, bhagavad-bhakti is said to be the supreme duty for the jvas. If a person fulfills all his worldly obligations but does not engage in hari-bhajana, he descends to a dreadful hell. ya e purua skd-tma-prabhavam-varam na bhajanty-avajnanti sthnd-bhra patanty-adha (rmad-Bhgavatam, 11.5.3) The original Supreme Lord is Himself the creator of the four varas and four ramas. He is the Lord, the controller, and the soul of them all. Therefore, if anyone belonging to the four varas and ramas fails to worship the Lord and disrespects Him instead, he is deprived of his position, social status (vara), and rama and falls down to hell. In the r Caitanya-caritmta (Madhya, 22.26), rla Kavi-rja Gosvm has described the substance of this loka in the verse given below: cari varram yadi ka nhi bhaje svakarma karite se raurave pai maje The brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas, and dras may perfectly carry out their vara-dharma. The brahmacrs, ghastas, vna-prasthas, and sannyss may thoroughly execute their rama-dharma. If, however, they do not worship r Ka, then although they may obtain elevation due to material prestige, their piety will wane, and they will most certainly fall down to the hell known as raurava. In the rmad-Bhgavatam (7.1.32), Devari Nrada has said: tasmt kenpy upyena mana ke niveayet The basic and primary aim of all types sdhana is to fix the mind on Ka by whatever method is effective.

This is stated in the Padma Pura also: smartavya satata viur vismartavyo na jtucit sarve vidhi niedh syur etayor eva kikar That which has been ascertained in the stras to be duty for the jvas is called vidhi, regulation, and that which has been forbidden is called niedha, prohibition. Vaidha-dharma for the jvas or religion that is enacted in accordance with scriptural regulations involves observance of the rules and giving up prohibitions. One should remember Lord Viu at all timesthis is the basis of all positive injunctions or vidhi. All the regulations of vara and rama are attendants of this primary injunction. Never forget the Lord at any timethis is the basis of all prohibitory injunctions or niedha. All the prohibitory injunctions such as the avoidance of sins, abandonment of apathy toward the Lord, and atonement of sins, are attendants of this primary prohibition. To observe these rules and prohibitions is to accept the discipline and direction of the scriptures. When the jvas are engaged in bhakti out of fear of violating the directions of the stras it is called vaidh-bhakti. By taking darana of the r Vigraha of the Lord and by hearing the sweetness of the pastimes of r Ka in childhood, boyhood, and youth, as described in the tenth canto of rmad-Bhgavatam, intense longing (lobha) arises for the practice of bhajana. When intense longing has not arisen (in other words, when lobha is not the cause of ones engagement in bhakti) and the discipline of the stra is alone the cause for such engagement, it is called vaidh-bhakti. (9) Rgnug-bhakti atha rgnug-lakaanijbhimata vraja-rja-nandanasya sev prpti-lobhena yadi tni kriyante tad rgnug bhakti; yad uktam sev sdhaka-rpea siddha rpea ctra hi tad bhva lipsun kry vraja-loknusrata ka smaran janacsya preha nijasamhitam tat-tat-kath ratacsau kuryd vsa vraje sad sdhaka rpea yathvasthita-dehena siddha-rpea anta-cintitbha-tat sevopayogi dehena. tasya vrajasthasya r ka prethasya yo bhvo rati-vieas tal-lipsun. vrajaloks tat-tat ka preha-jan r rdh-lalit-vikh-rpa majaryydys (1) tad-anugat r rpa gosvm-prabhtaya ca (2) tem anusrata. tath ca siddha rpe mnas sev r rdh-lalit-vikh-r rpa majaryydnm anusrea karttavy. sdhaka rpea kyiky di sevtu r rpasantandi vraja-vsinm anusrea karttavyety artha. etena braja-loka padena vrajastha r rdh-lalitdy eva grhys tsm anusreaiva sdhaka dehena kyikydi-sevpi karttavy. eva sati tbhir guru-padrayaaikda-vrata lagrma tulas sevdayo na ktstad anugater asmbhir api na karttavy itydhunikn vimatam api nirastam. ataeva r jva gosvmi-caraair api asya granthasya ky tathaivoktam. yathvraja-loks tat tat ka prehajans tad anugat ca iti. atha rgnugy paripmha kam itydin. preha sva-priyatama kiora nandanandana smaran evam asya kasya tda-bhakta-janam. athaca svasya samyag-hita sva-samna-vsanam iti yvat. tathca tda jana smaran vraje vsa sad kuryt. smarthye sati riman nanda-vrajvsa-sthnavndvandau arrea vsa kuryt. tad abhve manaspty artha. r Bindu-vikin-vtti Bhakti which involves the practice of the agas of bhakti such as ravaa and krtana carried out by sdhakas with intense longing (lobha) to obtain the service of their innermost desired object, Vrajarja-nandana, r Ksa, is called rgnug-bhakti. Rgnug-bhakti is performed in two ways: (1) with the sdhaka-rpawith the external body through execution of the agas of bhakti, and (2) with the siddha-rpawith the internally conceived body that is suitable for carrying out the perfected service (prema-sev) for which one aspires. Residing in Vraja with an intense desire to obtain ones cherished object r Ka and the divine sentiments (bhva) of His beloved associates (that is, rati towards r Ka), one should follow in the footsteps of the eternal residents of Vraja, the dear associates of r Ka, such as r Rdhik, Lalit, Vikh, and r Rpa Majar. One should also adhere to their followers such as r Rpa Gosvm, Santana Gosvm, and others. With ones internally conceived body, siddha-rpa, one should execute service within the mind (mnas-sev) in accordance with the eternal associates of Vraja such as r Rdh, Lalit, Vikh, and r Rpa Majar. With the external body, sdhaka-rpa, one should carry out bodily services following in the wake of perfectly realised devotees such as r Rpa and Santana who are also residents of Vraja. If someone raises the objection that the word vraja-loka refers only to r Rdh, Lalit, and others, then with the sdhaka-deha (the external body) one should perform bodily services following in their wake. If this indeed were the case, then the followers of those eternal associates would not find it necessary to carry out the agas of bhakti such as taking shelter of a spiritual master (r guru padraya), observance of Ekda, worship of lagrma, worship of tulas, and so on, since it is not mentioned anywhere that r Rdh and Lalit ever performed such activities. However, this erroneous conclusion (apasiddhnta) held by skeptics who have taken shelter of modern adverse opinions is also refuted by the word vraja-loka. In his commentary to this loka of r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (1.2.295), rla Jva Gosvmpda has explained the same thing; namely, that the word vraja-loka refers to the dearmost associates of r Ka and their followers such as r Rpa

Gosvm and others. Therefore, one should perform internal service (mnas-sev) through the medium of the siddhadeha by following in accordance with r Rpa Majar and other Vrajavss. With the sdhaka-deha, one should perform bodily service by following r Rpa Gosvm and others. Comment According to the conclusion of the Six Gosvms, rla Kavirja Gosvm and other rasika Vaiava cryas, the ll-rasa of Vrajendra-nandana r Ka is the object to be tasted by rgnug-sdhakas. But it is not possible to taste the ll-rasa of r Ka without entering into r gaura-ll. In other words, only through the medium of gaura-ll is it possible to taste the ll-rasa of r Ka. In r Caitanya-caritmta (Madhya 25.271, 274), rla Kavirja Gosvm has stated this as follows: ka-ll amta-sra, tra ata ata dhra daa-dike vahe yh haite se caitanya-ll haya, sarovara akaya, manohasa carha thte nn-bhvera bhakta-jana, hasa-cakravka-gaa, yte sabe karena vihra ka-keli sumla, yh pai sarva-kla, bhakta-hasa karaye hra The pastimes of r Ka are the essence of all transcendental nectar. These nectarine pastimes flow in hundreds and hundreds of streams, inundating the ten directions. The pastimes of Lord Caitanya are an imperishable reservoir of nectar, saturated with the pastimes of Ka. O swanlike mind! Please wander on this transcendental lake. The devotees situated in various transcendental moods are like swans and cakravka birds who play upon the transcendental lake of Kas pastimes. The sweet bulbs of the stalks of lotus flowers are the sportive amorous pastimes of r Ka. r Ka eternally enacts such pastimes and, consequently, they are the foodstuff for the swanlike devotees who have taken shelter of r Gaurasundara who is the eternal embodiment of vipralambha-rasa and identical in form to r Ka, the eternal embodiment of sambhoga-rasa. In his book Prrthan (13), rla Narottama hkura has similarly written: gaura-prema rasrave se tarage yeb be se rdh-mdhava-antaraga Gaura-prema is an ocean of rasa. Those who submerge themselves in the waves of that ocean, emerge in the waves of the confidential and intimate service of Rdh-Mdhava. rla Kavirja Gosvm and rla Narottama hkura have composed the above verses for the benefit of rgnugsdhakas. Therefore, rgnug-sdhakas should taste ka-ll through the medium of gaura-ll. Consequently, it is essential for sdhakas to remember gaura-ll and to follow the eternal associates of Lord Caitanya. Since it is necessary to follow the gaura-parikaras, it is certainly imperative that one observe the agas of bhakti (guru-padraya, Ekda-vrata, tulas-sev, r lagrma-sev and so on) which were practiced by the foremost associates such as rla Rpa Gosvm and others. There is no doubt about this. r Rpa Gosvm, who is an eternal associate of r Gaurasundara, serves r Rdh-Ka as r Rpa Majar in ka-ll. r Rpa Majar, appearing as rla Rpa Gosvm with the attitude of a sdhaka, weeps again and again and prays anxiously to obtain the service of r Yugala. Sometimes while praying in this way, he would become so deeply immersed in the emotional trance of Rpa Majar that he would taste the happiness of direct service. Therefore, rgnug-sdhakas must certainly follow r Rpa-Santana and other gosvms. Opposed to this are those who vainly consider themselves as rasika-sdhakas but who do not adopt the agas of bhakti, such as guru-padraya and Ekda vrata. They can never obtain the service of r Yugala. This subject is extremely deep. Without the mercy of r Gurudeva or uddha-rasika-bhaktas, the sdhaka cannot conceive of his siddha-deha (perfected spiritual body) by himself. Therefore, the contemplation of ones nitya-siddha-deha arises of its own accord only by the merciful indication of r Guru-deva. By continual remembrance of aa-klya-ll (the pastimes of Ka performed in eight divisions of the day), performed internally (mnas-sev) with the nityasiddha-deha, one obtains svarpa-siddhi (perception of ones eternal perfected form which occurs at the stage of bhvabhakti) and ultimately vastu-siddhi. (Vastu-siddhi is attained after giving up this body and taking birth in Kas bhauma-ll, from the womb of a gop. After attaining the association of Kas eternal associates and being purified of all final traces of material identification, when prema is intensified, one attains vastu-siddhi). But one should always bear in mind that not everyone has the eligibility to perform Yugala-sev by meditating in this way on Their supramundane (aprkrta), daily pastimes. This practice must be concealed very diligently. One should not disclose these pastimes to ineligible persons. Until genuine greed (lobha) to enter into the rga-mrga arises in the heart of the jva bound by matter, this subject should be kept hidden from him. One remains ineligible to hear the confidential pastimes of r Yugala which are saturated with rasa as long as the conception of the transcendental nature of the Lords name, form, qualities, and pastimes has not implanted itself in the heart. In other words, one should understand that the name, form, qualities and pastimes of r Ka are fully constituted of pure spiritual transcendence (uddha-cinmayasvarpa). When ineligible persons hear or study these pastimes they recall only the illusory and mundane association of

men and women and are thus compelled to fall down. Thus they sink down into the muck of debauchery. Therefore, judicious students, proceeding cautiously, may enter into this ll, after having obtained the appropriate impressions (saskra) for aprkta-gra-rasa, following the example of Devari Nrada. The fundamental conclusion is that only upon obtaining the aforementioned eligibility can the sdhaka undertake the discipline (sdhana) of rgnug-bhakti. By following this method of sdhana while still plagued with anarthas and without the appearance of genuine greed, the opposite effect will be produced. When genuine greed for vraja-bhajana arises, one should first of all take shelter of a dear devotee of r Gaurasundara who is identical in every respect to r Vrajendra-nandana. The beloved devotees of Lord Gaura will instruct us on the path of rgnug-sdhana in accordance with our eligibility. Otherwise, if one falls into bad association and by ill advice, imitates the bhajana practices of those on the highest level of eligibility, then under the guise of adopting ones siddha-deha one will obtain only a harmful effect. Some persons, distorting the meaning of the instruction that one should perform bhajana according to the residents of Vraja, consider themselves as Lalit, Vikh, or others. Although males, they adopt a female dress and perform bhajana making themselves out to be sakhs. By such practices, they destroy themselves and others. They think, I am Lalit, I am Vikh. This attitude leads to ahagrahopsan of the myvds. (Ahagrahopsan is a type of worship in the course of which one considers himself to be identical with the object of worship). Such persons become offenders at the feet of Lalit and Vikh and fall down to a most dreadful hell. Without faithful adherence to the vraja-gops, no one is entitled to enter into the conjugal service of Yugala-kiora. Even amongst the various types of sakhs, the majar-sakhs are themselves followers of the sakhs. To perform bhajana in allegiance to the majar-sakhs is the aspiration of rman Mahprabhu. This is supported by rmad-Bhgavatam and the stras composed by our Gosvms. In order to pursue majar-bhva, one must certainly follow the associates of r Gaurasundara such as Rpa and Santana Gosvms. rla Narottama hkura has expressed this in his song dealing with the worship of majar-bhva. In one verse of this song, he has indicated his own heartfelt longing (Prrthan, 39): r rpa majar-pada se mora sampada se mora bhajana-pjana se mora pradhana se mora bharaa se mora jvanera-jvana rla Narottama hkura says: The lotus feet of r Rpa Majar are my supreme wealth. To meditate upon and serve those lotus feet are my topmost methods of bhajana and pjana. They are a treasure more precious to me than life itself. They are the ornament of my life. Not only that, they are the very life of my life. He also says (Prrthan, 40): un ychi sdhu-mukhe bale sarva-jana r rpa-kpya mile yugala-caraa h! h! prabhu santana gaura-paribra sabe mili vch-pra karaha mra r rpera kp yena m prati haya se-pada raya yra, se mahaya prabhu lokantha kabe sage la ybe r rpera pda padme more samarpibe I have heard from the mouth of Vaiava sdhus that only by the mercy of rla Rpa Gosvm can one obtain the lotus feet of r Yugala. Crying out, Alas! Alas! again and again, r Narottama hkura exclaims: O Santana Prabhu! O supremely merciful Vaiava associates of Lord Gaura! All of you please fulfill my hearts longing. I pray again and again that the mercy of r Rpa Gosvm may shower down upon me. O what wonder! One who has attained the shelter of the lotus feet of rla Rpa Gosvm is indeed most fortunate. When will my rla Gurudeva, rla Lokantha Gosvm, take me with him to meet r Rpa Gosvm and offer me at his lotus feet? Now the methodology of rgnug-bhakti is being described. The sdhaka, continuously remembering r Ka in the pastime form which is most cherished by him and the beloved associates of r Ka whom he desires to follow, should always reside in Vraja with great attachment to hearing their ll-kath. One should remember Ka as navakiora (a fresh youth) and naavara (the best of dancers) and at the same time one should remember r Rpa Majar and other priya-sakhs of r Ka who are deeply affected with the sentiments that one cherishes in his heart. Being intently focused on this kind of remembrance, the sdhaka should always live in Vraja. If one is capable, he should physically take up residence in Vndvana (Vndvana, Nandago, Var, Govardhana, r Rdh-Kua, and other places in Vraja). Otherwise, he should adopt residence in Vraja within his mind. In the r Caitanya-caritmta the following is said in connection with the cultivation of rgnug-bhakti: bhya, antara,ihra dui ta sdhana bhye sdhaka-dehe kare ravaa-krtana mane nija-siddha deha kariy bhvana rtri-dine kare vraje kera sevana (Cc, Madhya 22.156-157)

nijbha ka-preha pche ta lgiy nirantara sev kare antarman ha dsa-sakh-pitrdi preyasra gaa rga-mrge nija-nija-bhvera gaana ei mata kare yeb rgnug-bhakti kera carae tra upajaya prti (Cc, Madhya 22.159, 161, 164) The practice of rgnug-bhakti is undertaken in two ways: with the sdhaka-arira, the external body, and with the siddha-arira, the internal perfected spiritual form. With the external sdhaka-deha, one should adopt the agas of bhakti such as ravaa, krtana, and so on. With ones siddha-arira, revealed by the mercy of the spiritual master, one should serve r Rdh-Ka Yugala day and night in Vraja. Following the beloved associate of r Ka that one cherishes within ones heart (the associate towards whose service the sdhaka has developed lobha), one should constantly serve Yugala-kiora with an enraptured heart. By following the mood and sentiment (bhva) of one of Kas associates among the servants, friends, parents, or lovers, corresponding to ones own disposition, the sdhaka attains affection for the lotus feet of r Ka that is exactly of the same nature as the associate whom he follows. This is the method of rgnugbhakti. (10) Further Discussion on Rgnug-bhakti tatra rgnugy smaraasya mukhyatvam. tac ca smaraa nija-bhvo cit-llvea svabhvasya r kasya tatpriya-janasya ca. tathaiva krtandikam api arcandv api mudr-nysdi-dvrakdhyndi-rukmiydi pjdi kam-api-nijabhva-prti-klydgamdi-stra-vihitam api na kuryd iti, bhakti-mrge kicit kicit aga-vaikalye pi dobhva smarat. na hyagopakrame dhvaso mad-dharmasyoddhavvapi may vyavasita samya nirguatvd ania (rmad-Bhgavatam, 11.29.20) agivaikalye tu astyeva doa. yad uktam ruti-smti-purdi-pacartra vidhi vin ekntik harer bhaktir utptyaiva kalpate yadi cntare rgo vartate, athaca sarvam-eva vidhi dyaiva karoti, tad dvraky rukmiyditva prpnoti r Bindu-vikin-vtti In rgnug-bhakti, referred to above, the predominant aga is smaraa (remembrance). Smaraa should be related to Ka and His beloved associates who are distinguished by pastimes (ll), emotional rapture (vea), and natures (svabhva) that are appropriate for ones own internal spiritual mood. The other agas of bhakti such as krtana and so on should also be related to Ka and His dear ones who are characterized by pastimes, emotional rapture, and natures befitting ones own internal spiri-tual mood. In the process of arcana (worship of the deity), one is recommended to employ mudrs (particular positions of intertwining the fingers), nysa (consigning the pras or the five life-airs to the mind, or mental assignment of various parts of the body to different deities), meditation on Dvrak, worship of the queens of Dvrak, and so on. Although these limbs of bhakti are prescribed in the gama stras, they are not to be followed in rgnug-bhakti because they are unfavorable to ones particular spiritual mood, bhva-pratikla. Thus on the path of bhakti, although there may be some diminution or relinquishment of certain agas, no detrimental effect will ensue. In regards to this topic, Bhagavn r Ka has said to bhakta Uddhava: na hy agopakrame dhvaso mad-dharmasyoddhavvapi may vyavasita samya nirguatvd ania (rmad-Bhgavatam, 11.29.20) O Uddhava! Once the practice of bhakti-dharma consisting of ravaa and krtana related to Me has begun, no harm whatsoever can be done to the root of bhakti, even though there may be diminution of certain agas. This is because bhakti-dharma is beyond the jurisdiction of the material modes of nature. There is no possibility of its being destroyed by any means because I have ensured this dharma in this way for My unalloyed devotees (nikma-bhaktas). On the path of bhakti, no harm is done either by non-performance of the assortment of activities appropriate for varrama or by diminution of certain agas of bhakti. This is fine. But there is certainly great harm if there is diminution of any of the principle agas of bhakti such as taking shelter of a bona fide spiritual master, ravaa, krtana, and so on. Therefore, one should take great care that there be no decline in any of the principle agas of bhakti. This is declared in the gama stra as quoted in Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (1.2.101):

ruti-smti-purdi-pacartra vidhi vin aikntik harer bhaktir utptyaiva kalpate Although engaged in single-minded devotion to Lord Hari, if one transgresses the regulations mentioned in the ruti, Smti, Puras and the Nrada Pacartra, great misgivings (anarthas) are produced. There is one more point to be considered. A devotee who has an intense desire (lobha) within his heart to obtain the spiritual mood of the Vrajavss and who executes all the agas of bhakti in accordance with the vidhi-mrga, obtains fidelity only to Rukmi and the other principle queens of Dvrak. In other words, he attains to the position of the queens of Dvrak. Comment Because the practice of smaraa is predominant in rgnug-bhakti, some persons, prior to the actual appearance of rga within the heart, make a deceitful display of solitary bhajana while still plagued with anarthas. They consider themselves as rg-nug-bhaktas and thus begin to practice remembrance of aa-kly-ll. But to display the exclusive devotion that is described in the ruti-smti-purdi verse is for them the cause of great disturbance. Some ineligible persons who are entangled in anarthas obtain so-called siddha-pral by going here and there, and by imitation, they begin to consider themselves fit to conduct the practice of rgnug-bhakti. But without the appearance of genuine greed (lobha), they cannot obtain qualification by pretentious means. Because the vidhi-mrga is mixed with the mood of Dvrak and the majestic conception (aivarya), one cannot obtain the service of Vrajendra-nandana r Ka by that means. This is confirmed in Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya, 8.226: vidhimrge nhi piye braje kacandraOne cannot obtain r Kacandra in Vraja by following the vidhi-mrga.

(11) Five Types of Rgnug-sdhana atrya viveka vraja-ll-parikarastha-grdi-bhva-mdhurye rute ida mampi bhyt iti lobhotpatti-kle stra-yuktyepek na syt. tasy ca saty lobhatvasyaivsiddhe. na hi kenacit kutracit stra dy lobha kriyate. kintu lobhye vastuni rute de v svata eva lobha utpadyate. tata ca tad bhva prpty upya-jijsy strpek bhavet, stra eva prpty upya likhant nnyatra. tac ca stra bhajana pratipdakam r bhgavatam eva. teu bhajanev api madhye knicit tad bhva mayni knicit tad bhva sambandhni knicit tad bhvnu-klni knicit tad bhvviruddhni knicit tad bhva prati-klnti paca vidhni sdhanni. tatra dsya sakhydni bhva maynyeva. guru padrayato mantra japdni tath prehasya nija samhitasya tat priya-janasya ca sama yocitn ll-gua-rpa-nmn ravaa-krtana-smarani vividha paricarani ca bhva sambandhni. tat prpty utkahym ekda janmam krtika-vrata bhoga-tygdni taporpi tathvatha tulasydi sammnandni tad bhvnuklnyeva. nmkara-mlya-nirmlydi dhraa pramdni tad bhvviruddhni. uktnyetni sarvi karmi karttavyni. nysa-mudr dvrakdi dhyndni tad bhva pratiklni rgnugy varjanyni. eva svdhikro-citni streu vihitni karttavyni, niiddhni tu sarvi varjanyni. r Bindu-vikin-vtti The distinctive point to be understood in this matter is that upon hearing of the sweetness of the conjugal mood (or the mood of the other rasas) displayed by Kas eternal associates in vraja-ll, one begins to think: This mood is possible for me also. When this type of greed arises, one is no longer dependent on the reasonings of the stra. As long as one is dependent upon the arguments of the stra, one has not obtained consummation of his greed. In other words, it should be understood from this that greed has not yet arisen in the sdhaka. This is so because greed is never observed in anyone who is dependent on the reasoning of the stra. Rather, by hearing about or seeing an enticing object, greed automatically arises to acquire it. Nonetheless, after the appearance of greed when one inquires, How may this irresistible vraja-bhva be obtained? there is dependence upon the stra because it is only in the stra and nowhere else that the method of obtaining this is written. The stra from which this method may be known is rmad-Bhgavatam for it has ascertained the method of bhagavat-bhajana. Among the agas of bhajana, some are tad-bhvamaya (composed of bhva), some are tad-bhva-sambandhi (related to bhva), some are tad-bhva-anukla (favorable to bhva), some are tad-bhva-aviruddha (not opposed to nor incompatible with bhva), and some are tad-bhva-pratikla (opposed to bhva). Thus sdhana is seen to be of five types as explained below: (1) Bhvamaya The four primary relationships of dsya, sakhya, vtsalya and madhura are known as bhvamaya-sdhana. (When ravaa, krtana and other such agas of bhakti become saturated with one of the bhvas of dsya, sakhya and so on, they nourish the future tree of the sdhakas prema. Therefore, dsya, sakhya, and so on are called bhvamaya-sdhana). (2) Bhva-sambandh

The agas of bhakti beginning from acceptance of the shelter of a spiritual master, mantra-japa, hearing, chanting and remembering of the name, form, qualities, and pastimes appropriate for different periods of the day of dearest r Ka and the beloved associates of Ka toward whom one has attraction, and rendering various services unto them are known as bhva-sambandh-sdhana. (The updna-kraa, or material cause of bhva is called bhva-sambandh. That by which bhva attains maturity is called the material cause. Bhva is shaped or molded by the various agas of bhakti such as guru-padraya and so on. Therefore, these agas are called bhva-sambandh-sdhana or that which is related to bhva). (3) Bhva-anukla The observance of Ekda, Janmam, and krttika-vrata, the renunciation of sense pleasure and other austerities performed for the pleasure of Ka, offering respect to tulas, the Ppala tree (the holy fig tree), and othersall of these agas of bhakti performed with great eagerness to obtain ones cherished bhva (among the four attitudes of dsya, and so on) are favorable to bhva. In other words, they are helpful for the attainment of bhva; therefore, they are known as bhva-anukla-sdhana. (4) Bhva-aviruddha-sdhana Wearing the remnants of flower garlands and other paraphernalia offered to the deity, stamping ones body with the syllables of r harinma, offering obeisances and other such agas of bhakti are called bhva-aviruddha-sdhana. That which is not opposed to the attainment of ones bhva is bhva-aviruddha. It is ones duty to carry out the previously mentioned agas of bhakti. (5) Bhva-pratikla Mental assignment of different parts of the body to various deities (nysa), particular positions of intertwining the fingers (mudr), meditation on Kas pastimes in Dvrak and other such agas hould be abandoned in rgnugbhakti because they are opposed to the attainment of ones desired bhva (bhva-pratikla). Thus according to ones eligibility, one is obligated to perform the agas of bhakti prescribed in the stra and to reject those which are forbidden.

Third WaveBhva-bhakti Bhakti in the Budding Stage of Ecstatic Love (12) Bhva-bhakti atha sdhana bhakti paripkena ka kpay tad bhakta kpay v bhva bhaktir bhavati. tasya cihnni nava prty akur, yath kntir avyartha-klatva viraktir mna-nyat bandha samutkah nma-gne sad-ruci saktis tad-gukhyne prtis-tad-vasati-sthale itydayo nubhv syur-jta bhvkure jane (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 1.3.25-26) tad ka sktkra yogyat bhavati. mumuku-prabhtiu yadi bhva cihna dsyate tad bhva-bimba eva natu bhva. ajajaneu bhvac-chy r Bindu-vikin-vtti Now bhva-bhakti is being described. This bhva-bhakti is not obtained by any means of sdhana. Rather, by continual performance of ravaa, krtana and other agas of bhakti, when bhakti attains maturity, it automatically cleanses all misgivings from the heart of the sdhaka. At that time bhva-bhakti manifests itself in the transparent heart by the mercy of r Ka or His devotees. Comment uddha-sattva-vietm prema-sryu-smyabhk rucibhi-citta-msya-kd asau bhva ucyate (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 1.3.1) Bhva-bhakti (bhva-rpa ka-anulana) is a special mani-festation of uddha-sattva. In other words, the constitutional characteristic of bhva-bhakti is that it is a phenomena entirely constituted of uddha-sattva. It is like a ray (kiraa) of the sun of prema and it softens the heart by various tastes (ruci). In his commentary on this verse, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura has written as follows: When the previously mentioned sdhana-bhakti succeeds in softening the heart by various tastes (ruci), it is called bhva-bhakti. The word ruci here refers to three kinds of taste: (1) bhagavad-prpti-abhila (desire for the attainment of

r Ka), (2) nuklya-abhila (desire to do that which is favorable to Ka), and (3) sauhrda-abhila (desiring to serve the Lord with affection). The constitutional identity or svarpa of bhva-bhakti is that it is fully composed of uddha-sattva (uddha-sattva-vietm). The words uddha-sattva refer to the self-manifest cognitive function (samvitvtti) of the Lords own internal spiri-tual energy known as svarpa-akti. The addition of the word viea to the words uddha-sattva indicate the second supreme potency (mah-akti) of svarpa-akti known as hldin. It should be understood from this that the condition known as mah-bhva, which is the highest state of development of the hldin-akti, is also included within uddha-sattva-viea. Therefore, that supreme function (parama-pravtti) which is fully possessed of desire favorable to r Kna, which is the essence of the combination of the samvit and hldin potencies, and which is situated in the heart of the Lords eternal associates, being indistinguishably unified with the condition of their hearts (tdtma-bhva), is known as uddha-sattva-vietm. In simpler language, the nitya-siddha-bhva situated in the hearts of the eternal associates of r Ka is called uddhasattva-vietm. This bhva-bhakti is like the first ray of the sun of prema-bhakti. Therefore, it is also called the sprout of prema (premkura). In the r Caitanya-caritmta, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has explained this verse in simple and straightforward language. We are citing his words here for the benefit of the reader. Prema-bhakti is the fruit of sdhana-bhakti. There are two categories of prema-bhaktithe state of bhva and the state of prema. If prema is compared with the sun, then bhva can be said to be a ray of the sun of prema. Bhva, which is of the identity of viuddha-sattva, melts the heart by various kinds of taste (ruci). At first, while describing the general symptoms of bhakti, it was said that bhakti involves the cultivation of activities in relationship to Ka (ka-anulana). The state in which that cultivation becomes saturated with viuddha-sattva and softens the heart by ruci is called bhva. When bhva makes its appearance within the faculty of the mind, it attains the state of identification with the mental fac-ulty. In reality, bhva is a self-manifest condition, but when it makes its appearance within the mental faculty, it appears as though it was brought into manifestation by the faculty of the mind. That which is referred to here as bhva is also known as rati. Although rati is itself relishable, it is understood to be the cause of tasting r Ka and various paraphernalia related to r Ka. It should be understood here that rati (the word rati also means love or affection) is that particular bhva (the word bhva also means love, affection or emotion) which is a fully spiritual reality (cit-tattva). It is not a substance belonging to the world of inert matter. The rati (mundane affection) which the baddha-jvas have toward mundane sense objects is merely a perverted reflection, arising from contact with matter, of a fragmented portion of the true spiritual bhva of the jva. When, within the world of matter, one takes up the cultivation of activities in relationship with the Supreme Lord, then rati in its cognitive aspect (samvit-aa), becomes the cause of tasting worthy objects which are related to the Supreme Lord. At the same time, by virtue of its pleasure-giving aspect (hldin), rati itself bestows spiritual delight. On the appearance of bhva-bhakti, the nine following symptoms are observed: kntir avyartha-klatva viraktir mna-nyat bandha samutkah nma-gne sad-ruci saktis tad-gukhyne prtis-tad-vasati-sthale itydayo nubhv syur-jta-bhvkure jane (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 1.3.25-26) Knti (forbearance or tolerance), avyartha-klatva (effectual use of ones time), virakti (detachment from worldly enjoyment), mna-nyat (absence of pride), -bandha (steadfast hope that Ka will bestow His mercy), samutkah (intense longing to obtain ones goal), nma-gne sad-ruci (always possessed of taste to chant the holy name), tad-gukhyne-sakti (attachment to hearing narrations of the Lords qualities), and tad-vasati-sthale-prti (affection for the transcendental residences of the Lord)these are the nine sprouts of love of God (prti), or in other words, the symptoms of the appearance of bhva. (1) KntiWhen the heart remains unagitated in spite of the presence of some disturbing element, such a condition is called knti (forbearance, or tolerance). (2) Avyartha-klatvaTo spend ones time exclusively in bhagavad-bhajana avoiding all other futile material engagements is called avyartha-klatva (effective use of ones time). (3) ViraktiA natural distaste for material sense enjoyment is called virakti, detachment. Upon the appearance of bhva within the heart, attraction toward the spiritual dimension (cit-jagat) becomes progressively stronger, and ones taste for the material world gradually perishes. This is real detachment. Those who, upon the awakening of this natural detachment, adopt the external feature and dress of a renunciant in order to diminish their material necessities can be called renounced Vaiavas. But those who adopt the external feature of a renunciant prior to the appearance of bhva do so unlawfully. By chastising Choa Haridsa, rman Mahprabhu has imparted this lesson to the world. (4) Mna-nyatTo remain devoid of pride in spite of ones elevated position is called mna-nyat (absence of pride). Pride arises from high birth, social classification (vara), stage of life (rama), wealth, strength, beauty, high position, and so on. In spite of possessing all these qualities, the sdhakas in whose hearts bhva has manifested easily renounce all these vanities. According to the Padma Pura, King Bhagratha, the crest-jewel among kings, having attained rati toward r Ka, completely renounced the pride of kingdom and wealth. He performed bhajana and maintained his existence by begging from door to door in the cities of his enemy kings. He always offered obeisances and praise to everyone whether they were brhmaas or clas (dog-eaters).

(5) -bandhar Ka will certainly bestow His mercy upon me,to apply ones mind very diligently in bhajana with this firm faith is called -bandha (steadfast hope that Ka will bestow His mercy). (6) SamutkahIntense longing for ones desired object of attainment is called samutkah. When bhva-bhakti manifests in the heart of the sdhaka, his hankering to obtain r Ka increases day by day. The desire to serve r Ka becomes the obsession of his heart. This is nicely expressed in r Ka-karmta (54) as quoted in Bhakti-rasmtasindhu (1.3.36) namrm asita-bhruvor upacitm akia pakmkurevlolm anurgior nayanayor rdr mdau jalpite tmrm adharmte mada-kalm amlna va-svanevste mama locana vraja-ior-mrtti jagan mohinm My eyes are ever restless to see that vraja-kiora who enchants the entire world, whose eyebrows are dark (syma) and slightly curved, whose eyelashes are thick and dense, whose eyes are always restless to see those who are possessed of anurga (or whose eyes always display anurga), whose mild speech is exceedingly soft and filled with rasa, whose lips are as sweet and tasty as nectar and slightly reddish-copper in hue, and who carries a flawless flute whose inexplicably sweet and mild tones maddens all (and incites the gops kma). This kind of intense hankering to see r Ka is called samutkah. It is ever-present in the hearts of bhva-bhaktas. (7) Nma-gne-sad-ruciLoving thirst to always sing hari-nma is called nma-gne sad-ruci. (8) Gukhyne-saktiNatural and spontaneous attachment for the descriptions of the Lords supremely charming qualities is called gukhyne-sakti. The significance of this attachment is that for the devotees in whom bhva has arisen (jta-bhva-bhaktas), the thirst to hear and describe the charming pastimes of Ka, which are decorated with allauspicious qualities, is never satiated. The more they hear and describe the Lords qualities, the more their thirst increases. (9) Tad-vasati-sthale-prtiThe desire to reside in r Vndvana, r Navadvpa and other spiritual abodes of the Lord is called tad-vasati-sthale-prti (affection for the transcendental residences of the Lord). Comment For instance, a devotee, in the course of circumambulating Vraja-maala, arrives in Vndvana and, being overwhelmed with spiritual emotion (bhva-bhakti), inquires as follows from the Vrajavss: O residents of Vraja! Where is Sevkuja, Nidhuvana and Vamvaa? A Vrajavs bhakta takes him by the hand and leads him to Sevkuja. Arriving at Sevkuja, he falls down in the courtyard and begins to roll on the ground. He exclaims, How wonderful! At this very spot Rasika-ekhara Vrajendra-nandana served the lotus feet of our worshipable mistress rmat Rdhik. O Sevkuja! O dust particles of this place! O creepers and trees of this place! May you kindly bestow your mercy upon us. When will we obtain the mercy of Sev-kuja. This is called affection for the places of the Lords residence. A second example is as follows. Some devotee, while performing parikram of Navadvpa Dhma, inquired with tearful eyes and the hairs of his body standing upright due to ecstasy, O Dhmavss! Where is the birth sight of our Gaurasundara? Which path did He use to follow while performing krtana with His devotees? Being shown these places by the residents of the Dhma, his voice becomes choked up with spiritual emotion (bhva-bhakti), he begins to roll on the ground and exclaims, How wonderful! This is Mypura Dhma. Even though it is nondifferent in every respect from Vraja, it confers even greater mercy than Vraja. O birthplace of Gaurasundara! Please bestow your mercy upon this insignificant and worthless person. Saying this again and again that devotee becomes deeply overwhelmed with spiritual emotion. This is called affection for the places of the Lords residence. To reside in these places with great love and perform bhajana also is included within this characteristic. These nine symptoms (anubhvas) are manifest in the devotee in whose heart the sprout of bhva has arisen. It may be understood that the devotee in whom the sprout of love is visible has become eligible to receive the direct audience of Ka. If some of these symptoms of bhva are perceived in karms who are anxious for material sense enjoyment or jns who aspire for liberation, then one should know this to be but a reflection of bhva (pratibimba), or in other words, a semblance of rati (ratybhsa). This should not be considered as a genuine manifestation of bhva. If the symptoms of bhva are seen in ignorant persons by virtue of their association with devotees, this is known as a shadow of rati (chy ratybhsa). Comment In Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, (1.3.45-51) there is the following description of ratybhsa. Ratybhsa is of two kinds: (1) pratibimba (reflection) and (2) chy (shadow). (1) Pratibimba-ratybhsaIf ratybhsa, which appears like genuine rati due to the presence of one or two symptoms such as tears and horripilation, is expressive of the desire for happiness in the form of bhukti and mukti, it is known as pratibimba-raty-bhsa. This reflection of rati easily fulfills the desired aspiration for happiness in the form of bhukti and mukti without undergoing great endeavor. In his commentary on this verse (1.3.46), rla Jva Gosvm explains that the principal nature of bhgavat-rati is that it is free from all material designations or adulterations, updhis. The presence of designations is symptomatic of the semblance of rati. Where such designations exist there is striving for some secondary or inferior inclination. In the mumukus, or those who are desirous of liberation, there is the desire for mukti, and in the karma-ks there is the

desire for elevation to the heavenly planets. These are adulterations. The mumukus and the karms know that the Lord bestows liberation and material enjoyment, and thus they engage in bhakti to the Lord directed toward the fulfilment of these two ends. Their performance of bhakti is not primary but secondary, for bhakti or bhgavat-rati is not the end desired by them. Nonetheless due to the power of performing the agas of bhakti, tears and horripilation arise in them. Because they are adulter-ated with desires for bhukti and mukti, their tears and horripilation are but a reflection of bhgavat-rati. The power of even this reflection of rati is such that without undergoing the laborious sdhana that constitutes the jna-mrga, they can easily obtain the partial happiness of bhukti and mukti. How this pratibimba-ratybhsa arises in them is described in the next two verses. Sometimes persons who are attached to material enjoyment and liberation adopt the agas of bhakti such as krtana in the assembly of pure devotees in order to obtain their desired aspiration. By such performances they remain pleased at heart for a considerable time. By the influence of the association of pure devotees in whose hearts the moon of bhva has arisen, some such persons may have the extreme good fortune of having the moon of bhva reflected in their hearts. In his commentary on these two verses (1.3.47-48), rla Jva Gosvm has said that it is only due to the association of devotees in whose hearts bhva has arisen that bhva is reflected in the hearts of persons attached to bhoga and moka. This reflection occurs during the performance of krtana undertaken in the association of pure devotees. The tears and horripilation which are observed in such persons are not symptoms of genuine rati but of pratibimba-ratybhsa. rla Jva Gosvm raises a question that when there is intervention of a cloud, the moon is not reflected on a reservoir of water. So when the mumukus and those desiring material enjoyment are separated from the association of pure devotees, how can the reflection of bhva remain in their hearts? He answers this by saying that the transcendental influence of the association of jta-rati-bhaktas is so powerful that even when separated from such persons the reflection of bhva remains in the hearts of the mumukus and bhoga-kms for a long time in the form of subtle impressions or samskras. (2) Chy-ratybhsaThat ratybhsa which bears some resemblance to uddha-rati, which possesses curiosity or inquisitiveness of an insignificant nature, which is unsteady, and which relieves material distress is known as chyratybhsa. By even incidental association with activities such as krtana, times such as Janmtam, places like r Vndvana, and persons dear to Lord Hari, chy-rati sometimes arises even in ignorant persons. This chy-rati can never arise without extreme good fortune. Good fortune here refers to the samskras of bhakti acquired in a previous life or the association of devotees from this life or the previous life. When uddha-rati manifests to a very slight extent by virtue of the association of jta-bhva-bhaktas or at the time of performing sdhana in vaidh-bhakti, it is called chy-ratybhsa (a shadow of rati). This shadow of rati is not steady. This semblance of rati is sometimes observed even in ordinary persons who are ignorant of the truth by the influence of the association of devotees. It is a great fortune for the jvas when chy-rati, which is of the form of the lustre (knti) of uddha-rati, arises in them, for upon its appearance the jvas gradually obtain good fortune. Fourth WavePrema-bhakti Bhakti in the Mature Stage of Ecstatic Love (13) Prema-bhakti bhva-bhakti paripka eva prem. tasya cihnamvighndi sambhave pi kincin-mtrasypi na hrsa. mamatvtiayt premna eva uparitano vasth viea sneha. tasya cihna, citta-dravbhva tato rga tasya lakaa nibia-sneha. tata praaya. tasya lakaa gha vivsa. r Bindu-vikin-vtti The mature stage of bhva-bhakti is called prema. The symptom of prema is that even when obstacles or impediments are present, there is not even the slightest diminution of affection (bhva). A superior condition of prema is marked by an increase of mamat and is known as sneha. The word mamat refers to a deep sense of attachment or possessiveness in relationship to r Ka by which one thinks, Ka is mine. Sneha is symptomized by the melting of the heart. Superior to this is the condition known as rga. The symptom of rga is extreme affection (sneha). Superior to this is the condition known as praaya. The symptom of praaya is deep faith. Comment In r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (1.4.1), the general definition of prema has been given as follows: samya masita svnto mamatvtiaykita bhva sa eva sndrtm budhai prem nigadyate Bhva-bhakti which melts the heart much more so than in its initial stage, which greatly augments the feeling of transcendental bliss, and which bestows a deep sense of mamat (possessiveness) in relationship to r Ka is called prema by the learned. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkuras commentary to this loka is translated as follows:

The subject of prema is being discussed with reference to the previously described bhva-bhakti. When bhva thickens beyond its previous condition then it begins to make the inner recesses of the heart much more tender, moist and soft than before, it produces an experience of concentrated transcendental bliss, and bestows extreme mamat toward r Ka. This mature stage of bhva is called prema. The following doubt may be raised here. According to skhya philosophy, the material or immediate cause (updna kraa) abandons its previous condition and is transformed into its effect. At that time it no longer remains as a cause, or in other words, there is no more existence of its prior condition. For instance, when gua (jaggerya type of solid unrefined molasses) is transformed, it abandons its former state and becomes unrefined sugar (kha). When it becomes unrefined sugar, gua can no longer be conceived as having its own separate state because the gua has been transformed into raw sugar. Similarly, unrefined sugar (kha) becomes refined sugar (cn) and refined sugar becomes rock candy (mir). In the condition of rock candy there is no separate existence of gua, unrefined sugar, and refined sugar. In the same way, when bhva matures into prema, why should there be any separate existence of bhva? When prema matures it gradually increases and takes the forms of sneha, mna, praaya, rga, anurga, bhva, and mahbhva. At that time, only mahbhva should remain. Why should there be any existence of rati, prema, sneha, mna, and the other prior conditions? This cannot be said because rati is a distinctive and superior function of Kas hldin-akti. By the power of r Kas inconceivable potency or acintya-akti, rati, sneha, mna, praaya, and so on attain successively higher states without giving up their previous conditions. The separate existence of each and every condition is certainly to be admitted. For example, it can be said that when r Kas childhood form (blya-deha) is imbued with a particular sweetness, then without giving up the condition of childhood, it attains to the boyhood form (paugaa-deha). Again when the paugaa-deha attains even greater sweetness and excellence, it assumes the form of fresh youth (kaiora-deha). Unlike the material body of the jvas, Kas body is never subject to any transformation arising from age. r Kas blya, paugaa, and kaiora forms, as well as the lls connected with them, are all eternal. But when the paugaa form manifests, the blya-deha disappears from this universe and manifests in some other universe. Simultaneously, the blyall is also revealed in that universe. Therefore, as regards the revelation of the unmanifest pastimes (aprakaa-ll) within Vndvana of the earthly sphere (bhauma Vndvana), where the blya-ll begins, the blya-deha also becomes manifest. In the vaivasvata-manvantara of the next kalpa (day of Brahm), when the prakaa-ll of Vndvana is manifest in this universe, then at that time the blya-deha will again be manifest in this very same universe. Therefore, as regards eternal phenomena, it is only a matter of accepting their appearance and disappearance. In the hearts of devotees in whom rati, prema, and the other stages of the sthybhva have been aroused, a particular aspect of the sthybhva (rati, prema, sneha, and so on) sometimes arises due to contact with the stimulating elements known as vibhva. At that time, that particular feature of the sthybhva becomes manifest externally, while the other bhvas remain in the unmanifest condition. In ordinary worldly-minded persons who are possessed of lust, anger, and so on, when one emotion is mani-fest the others remain dormant within in the form of latent desires and impressions (saskras). When the appropriate opportunity comes about, the other emotions assert themselves. Similarly, rati, prema, and so on sometimes become manifest by contact with specific stimuli and at other times they remain concealed within.

Dakia-vibhga (Southern Division) Smnya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-nirpaka General Characteristics of Bhagavad-bhakti-rasa

loka 14Overview of Bhakti-rasa First WaveVibhva The Causes of Tasting Bhakti-rasa Second WaveAnubhva External Symptoms of Ecstacy Third WaveSttvika-bhva Symptoms of Ecstacy Arising from Sattva Fourth WaveVyabhicr-bhva Internal Transitory Emotions

loka 15-16 Fifth WaveSthybhva Permanent or Dominant Emotions loka 17 (14) Overview of Bhakti-rasa vibhvnubhva-sttvika-bhva-vyabhicri bhva-milanena raso bhavati. yatra viaye bhvo bhavati sa viaylambanavibhva ka. yo bhva yukto bhavati sa raylambana-vibhvo bhakta. ye ka smrayanti vastrlakrdayas teuddpana-vibhva. ye bhva jpayanti te anubhv ntya-gta-smitdaya. ye citta tanuca kobhayanti te sttvikh. te aaustambha-sveda-romca-svarabheda-vepathu-vaivaryrupralay iti. te dhmyit jvalit dpt uddpt sddpt iti paca-vidh yathottara-sukhad syu. ete yadi nitya-siddhe tad snigdh. yadi jtaratau tad digdh. bhva-nya-jane yadi jts-tad-ruk. mumuku-jane yadi jts-tad ratybhsaj. karmi-jane viayi-jane v yadi jts-tad sattv-bhsaj. picchila-cittajane tad-abhysa pare v yadi jts-tad nisattv. bhagavad-dvei jane yadi jts-tad pratp. r Bindu-vikin-vtti When ka-rati, or in other words, the sthybhva (the permanent emotion of the heart in one of the five primary relationships of nta, dsya, sakhya, and so on) becomes exceedingly tasty for the devotee by virtue of the elements known as vibhva, anubhva, sttvika-bhva and vyabhicr-bhva, induced through the medium of ravaa, krtana, and so on, it is called bhakti-rasa. In other words, when the sthybhva or ka-rati mixes with vibhva, anubhva, sttvikabhva and vyabhicr-bhva and becomes fit to be tasted in the heart of the devotee, it is called bhakti-rasa. Components of Bhakti-rasa When the sthybhva mixes with vibhva, anubhva, sttvika-bhva and vyabhicr-bhva and produces an extraordinary taste within the devotees heart, it is called bhakti-rasa. Vibhva - lambana (that in which rati is tasted) - Viaylambana (the object of ratiKa) - raylambana (the reservoir of ratithe devotee) Uddpana (that which stimulates rati) SthybhvaThe permanent sentiment in one of the five primary relationships of nta, dsya, sakhya, vtsalya, or mdhurya, which is known as mukhya-rati. This also refers to the dominant sentiment in the seven secondary mellows (gaua-rati) of laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, fear, and disgust. AnubhvaVisible actions which illustrate the spiritual emotions situated within the heart (dancing, singing, and so on). Sttvika-bhvaEight symptoms of spiritual ecstacy arising exclusively from viuddha-sattva or in other words, when the heart is overwhelmed by emotions in connection with mukhya-rati or gaua-rati. Vyabhicr-bhvaThirty-three internal spiritual emotions which emerge from the nectarine ocean of sthybhva, cause it to swell, and then merge back into that ocean. Comment The terms vibhva, anubhva, sttvika-bhva, sthybhva and bhakti-rasa are defined in the following quotes from Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu: vibhvyate hi ratydir yatra yena vibhvyate vibhvo nma sa dvedhlambanoddpantmaka (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 2.1.15) That in which rati is tasted and that cause by which rati is tasted are called vibhva. Vibhva is of two varieties: (1) lambana (the support or repository of rati), and (2) uddpana (that which stimulates or excites rati).

anubhvstu cittastha-bhvnm avabodhak te bahir-vikriy pry prokt udbhsvarkhyay (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 2.2.1) The symptoms which reveal the spiritual emotions situated within the heart are called anubhvas. When they manifest mostly as external actions, they are known as udbhsvara (that which gives light or makes apparent). ka sambandhibhi skt kicid v vyavadhnata bhvai cittam ihkrnta sattvam ity ucyate budhai (Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, 2.3.1) When the heart is overwhelmed by any of the five primary senti-ments (mukhya-rati) in relationship with r Ka of dsya, sakhya, and so on, stimulated by direct contact with Him, or when the heart is overwhelmed by the seven secondary sentiments (gaua-rati) of laughter, tragedy, and so on, induced by a circumstance in which Ka is somewhat apart, learned scholars called this condition sattva. The bhvas or spiritual emotions arising strictly from sattva are known as sttvika-bhvas. The previously mentioned anubhvas such as dancing, singing, and so on, like the sttvika-bhvas, arise from emotion in relationship with Ka, or in other words, when the mind is overwhelmed by emotion in relationship with Ka. However, symptoms such as dancing and singing are done with conscious intention and therefore they are not counted as sttvika-bhvas. The sttvika-bhvas are also referred to as anubhvas because they illustrate the emotions situated within the heart. Therefore, to distinguish between anubhvas and sttvika-bhvas, the word udbhsvara is used to refer to those anubhvas which do not arise exclusively from sattva. The symptoms such as becoming stunned (stambha), standing of the hairs on end (pulaka), and so on arise spontaneously from sattva. Therefore they are known as sttvikabhvas. In his commentary on Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu (2.1.5), rla Jva Gosvm explains the nature of rasa. vibhvair iti. e ka ratir eva sthy-bhva, saiva ca bhakti raso bhavet. kd sat tatrhavibhvair iti. ravadibhi karttbhir vibhvdibhi karaair bhaktn hdi svdyatvam nt samyak prpit camatkra vieea puety artha. This ka-rati is the sthyibhva, and it is transformed into bhakti-rasa. How does it become bhakti-rasa? By combination with vibhva, anubhva, sttvika-bhva and vyabhicr-bhva. In other words, when ka-rati is aroused by the stimulating elements (vibhva) transmitted through the medium of ravaa, krtana, and so on, and gives rise to various ensuing emotions (anubhvas, sttvika-bhvas and vyabhicr-bhvas), the combination of all these elements produces an extraordinary taste within the heart which is referred to as bhakti-rasa. Sthyibhva will be described elaborately further ahead. Here, it is sufficient to know that when ka-rati is augmented, it attains to different levels such as sneha, mna, praaya, rga, anurga, bhva and mahbhva. All of these are known as sthybhva (or permanent emotions) of r ka-bhakti. When these various gradations of the sthybhva combine with the appropriate vibhvas, anubhvas, sttvika-bhvas and vyabhi-cr-bhvas, bhakti-rasa is produced and yields an unprecedented taste. Bhakti-rasa is of twelve varieties and each of these has its own sthybhva. For example: (1) the sthyibhva of ntarasa is nti-rati (tranquility), (2) the sthyibhva of dsya-rasa is prti-rati (affection in servitude), (3) the sthybhva of sakhya-rasa is sakhya-rati (friendship), (4) the sthyibhva of vtsalya-rasa is vtsalya-rati (parental affection), (5) the sthyibhva of madhura-rasa is priyat-rati (conjugal love), (6) the sthybhva of hsya-rasa is hsa-rati (laughter), (7) the sthybhva of adbhuta-rasa (wonder) is vismaya-rati (astonishment), (8) the sthybhva of vra-rasa (heroism) is utsha-rati (enthusiasm), (9) the sthy-bhva of karua-rasa (compassion) is oka-rati (sorrow or lamentation), (10) the sthybhva of raudra-rasa is krodha-rati (anger), (11) the sthybhva of bhaynaka-rasa is bhaya-rati (fear), and (12) the sthybhva of vbhatsa-rasa is jugups-rati (disgust). Although bhakti-rasa is accepted to be of twelve varieties, in the final analysis, five rasas are predominant. The five sthybhvas on which these are based will be discussed elaborately ahead. Vibhva Ka-rati is of five kinds: nta, dsya, sakhya, vtsalya and madhura. That in and by which rati is stimulated and thus caused to be tasted is called vibhva. Vibhva is of two kindslambana (the support) and uddpana (the stimulus). That in which rati is stimulated is called lambana (the support or shelter of rati). That by which rati is stimulated is called uddpana (the stimulus for rati). lambana-vibhva is also of two varietiesviaylambana and raylambana. He for whom rati is aroused is called viaylambana (the object of rati) and one in whom rati is aroused is called raylambana (the receptacle of rati). r Ka is the viaylambana of ka-rati and the devotees are the raylambana. That by which rati is stimulated is called uddpana-vibhva. Uddpana-vibhva refers to all those things which stimulate remembrance of r Ka such as His dress and ornaments, the spring season, the bank of the Yamun, forest groves, cows, peacocks, and so on. Anubhva The actions which display or reveal the emotions situated within the heart are called anubhvas. The anubhvas are thirteen in number: (1) ntya (dancing), (2) viluhita (rolling on the ground), (3) gta (singing), (4) kroana (loud crying), (5) tanu-moana (writhing of the body), (6) hukra (roaring), (7) jmbhaa (yawning), (8) vsa-bhm

(breathing heavily), (9) loka-anapekit (giving up concern for public image), (10) llsrva (salivating), (11) aahsa (loud laughter), (12) ghr (staggering about), and (13) hikk (a fit of hiccups). Sttvika-bhva That which causes perturbation to be aroused within the heart and body is called sttvika-bhva. The sttvika-bhvas are of eight kinds: (1) stambha (becoming stunned), (2) sveda (perspiration), (3) romca (standing of the hairs on end), (4) svara-bhaga (faltering of the voice), (5) kampa (trembling), (6) vaivara (palor or change of color), (7) aru (tears), and (8) pralaya (loss of consciousness or fainting). All these sttvika-bhvas are manifested in five stages of intensity: (1) dhumyita (smoulderingwhen a sttvikabhva manifests in a very small quantity by itself or combined with another symptom and is capable of being hidden), (2) jvalita (flamingwhen two or three symptoms manifest prominently at the same time and can be concealed only with difficulty), (3) dpta (burningwhen three, four or five sttvika-bhvas manifest very powerfully and when it is not possible to suppress such expressions), (4) uddpta (brightly burningwhen five, six or even all eight of the sttvikabhvas manifest simultaneously and attain supreme exultation), and (5) suddpta (blazingwhen all the sttvika-bhvas reach the summit of expression, being extremely bright in their radiance. This condition is observed only in the gops of Vraja in the state of mahbhva). Each of these stages yields greater happiness than the one preceding it. Sttvika-bhvas are further divided into three categories: (1) snigdha (smoothsttvika-bhvas which arise when the mind is overwhelmed with emotion in relationship with either the five primary mellows, mukhya-rati, or the seven secondary mellows, gaua-rati), (2) digdha (smearedsttvika-bhvas which are not instigated either by mukhya or gaua-rati but which follow in the wake of rati), and (3) rka (roughemotion which arises in persons who are devoid of rati). Snigdha sttvika-bhvas are manifest only in the eternally perfected devotees (nitya-siddha bhaktas). Sttvikabhvas which arise in jta-rati bhaktas (those in whom rati has made its appearance) are called digdha sttvika-bhvas. When these symptoms are seen in persons in whom rati has not been aroused, they are called rka-bhva. In actuality, sttvika-bhvas can occur only in persons in whom rati has been aroused. When symptoms resembling the sttvikabhvas are manifest in persons who are devoid of rati, they are known as sttvikbhsa (a semblance of sttvika-bhva). Therefore, rka sttvika-bhvas are also said to be an abhsa. Sttvikbhsa Sttvikbhsa is of four types: (1) ratybhsa, (2) sattvbhsa, (3) nisattva, and (4) pratpa. Ratybhsa Ratybhsa literally means an abhsa or semblance of rati, and sttvikbhsa means a semblance of the symptoms known as sttvika-bhvas. Ratybhsa sttvikbhsa, therefore, refers to those symptoms which resemble sttvika-bhvas arising due to a semblance of rati. This ratybhsa refers to pratibimba and chy-ratybhsa previously described in the section on bhva-bhakti. Persons who are desirous of liberation may adopt the agas of bhakti not for the purpose of obtaining bhakti or ka-rati but simply to attain mukti. When such persons chant the holy name in the association of bhva-bhaktas, they may manifest tears, horripilation and other symptoms. Because these symptoms arise from a reflection of the rati situated in the hearts of genuine bhva-bhaktas, they are known as ratybhsa sttvikbhsa. When symptoms resembling sttvika-bhvas are seen in mumukus (those desirous of liberation) they are said to arise from ratybhsa. Sattvbhsa Sattvbhsa refers to those symptoms which arise from an abhsa of sattva. Sattva refers to the condition wherein the heart possessed of rati is overwhelmed by spiritual emotions such as jubilation, wonder, and despondency. When a person who is devoid of rati hears or chants about the Lords pastimes in the association of pure devotees, he may become overwhelmed with some emotion which resembles those originating from sattva. In this case the symptoms he displays such as crying do not arise from a reflection of rati but merely from some emotion which resembles those arising from sattva. Therefore they are known as sattvbhsa sttvikbhsa. These emotions generally arise in persons whose hearts are naturally soft (ithila). When symptoms resembling sttvika-bhvas are seen in karms or viays (sensualists), they are said to arise from sattvbhsa. Nisattva Nisattva refers to those symptoms which do not arise from sattva. The hearts of such persons are described as picchila (slippery). Externally they appear to be soft-hearted, but internally they are hard-hearted. They exhibit symptoms merely by forced practice. Because the symptoms observed in such persons are devoid of even an abhsa of sattva, they are known as nisattva sttvikbhsa. Pratpa The word pratpa literally means adverse, contrary, or displeasing. When the enemies of Ka display symptoms which resemble sttvika-bhvas arising due to fear or anger, they are called pratpa-sttvikbhsa. First WaveVibhva The Causes of Tasting Bhakti-rasa Viaylambana-vibhva

Kas qualities as viaylambana In the overview of bhakti-rasa given in the previous loka, vibhva is said to be of two types: lambana, the support, and uddpana, the stimulus of rati. lambana is also described to be of two kinds: viaya, the object of rati, and raya, the reservoir of rati. Kas qualities are now described as part of what makes Him the viaya of rati. The qualities of r Ka are sometimes classified as viay-lambana and sometimes as uddpana. Because Kas qualities are part-and-parcel of His form, they are included as viaylambana. When the principal meditation is upon r Ka who possesses various qualities, those qualities are thought of as belonging to the object of love and are therefore classified as viaylambana. When, however, the principal meditation is upon the qualities of r Ka and that remembrance stimulates love for Ka, those qualities are considered as uddpana. r Ka has sixty-four principal qualities. Out of these the first fifty are present to a minute extent in great personalities who are recipients of the Lords mercy. The ordinary jvas, however, display but a shadow of a particle of such qualities. (1) SuramygaThe construction of His limbs is exceedingly beautiful. (2) Sarva-sal-lakaa-yuktaHis body is marked with all auspicious characteristics. (3) RuciraHis beauty is a festival of bliss for the eyes. (4) TejasnvitaHis body is radiant and He is extremely powerful and influential. (5) BalynHe possesses great strength. (6) VayasnvitaHe displays different ages and yet He is eternally situated in fresh youth. (7) Vividhdbhuta-bhvitHe is expert in different languages. (8) SatyavkyaHis words never prove false. (9) PriyamvadaHe speaks pleasantly even to offenders. (10) VvadkaHis words are ambrosial and pleasing to the ears. (11) SupaitaHe is learned and conducts Himself appropriately with different kinds of persons. (12) BuddhimnHis intelligence is sharp and subtle. (13) PratibhnvitaHe is expert at improvising original conversation on the spur of the moment. (14) VidagdhaHe is skilled in the sixty-four arts and in amorous pastimes. (15) CaturaHe can accomplish many actions at the same time. (16) DakaHe can perform difficult tasks with ease. (17) KtajaHe is grateful for services rendered by others. (18) Sudha-vrataHis promises and vows always hold true. (19) Dea-kla-suptrajaHe is an expert judge of time, place, and person and works accordingly. (20) stra-cakuHe acts in accordance with the religious scriptures. (21) uciHe is free from all sins and He purifies others from sins. (22) VaHe is in full control of His senses. (23) SthiraHe perseveres until His work is completed. (24) DntaHe endures even intolerable distress. (25) KamlaHe excuses the offenses of others. (26) GambhraIt is very difficult to understand the import of His mind. (27) DhtimnHis desires are fulfilled and He remains calm even in the midst of great anxiety. (28) SamaHe is devoid of attachment and aversion. (29) VadnyaHe is chivalrous in giving charity. (30) DhrmikaHe is religious and He incites others to adopt the path of religion. (31) raHe is enthusiastic to fight and expert in the use of weapons. (32) KaruaHe is unable to tolerate the distress of others. (33) Mnyamna-ktaHe is respectful to His guru, brhmaas, and elders. (34) DakiaBecause of His excellent disposition, His actions are very pleasing. (35) VinayHe is devoid of pride. (36) HrmnHe is bashful when He thinks that others have detected His amorous affairs and when glorified by others. (37) aragata-plakaHe protects those who take shelter of Him. (38) SukhHe enjoys pleasure and is untouched by distress. (39) Bhakta-suhtaHe is a friend to His devotees and is easily pleased. (40) Prema-vayaHe is controlled only by love. (41) Sarva-ubhakaraHe is a well-wisher to everyone. (42) PratpHe torments and terrifies His enemies. (43) KrttimnHe is famous by dint of His sterling qualities. (44) Rakta-lokaHe is the object of love and attachment for everyone. (45) Sadhu-samrayaHe is partial to the sdhus. (46) Nrgaa-manohrHe is attractive to all women. (47) SarvrdhyaHe is worshipable to everyone. (48) SamddhimnHe possesses great opulence. (49) VarynHe is superior to all. (50) varaHe is independent and His order can not be transgressed.

The next five qualities are partially present in r iva. (51) Sad-svarpa-samprptaHe is never controlled by the dictates of my. (52) SarvajaHe knows the heart of everyone, and He knows all things even though there may be an intervention of time, place and so on. (53) Nitya-nutanaEven though His beauty is always experienced, it is new at every moment and so astonishing that it appears as if it were never previously experienced. (54) Sac-cid-nanda-sndrgaHe is the concentrated embodi-ment of existence, consciousness, and bliss. The word sat means that He pervades all time and space, the word cit means that He is self-manifested, the word nanda means that He is the abode of unadulterated prema, and the word sndra means that His form is so densely composed of sat, cit, and nanda that it is untouched by anything else. (55) Sarva-siddhi-nievitaAll mystic powers are under His control. The next five qualities are present in r Nryaa and Mahviu. (56) Avicintya mahaktiHe possesses inconceivable potencies by which He creates the universes and manifests even the indwelling antarym of those universes, by which He bewilders even Brahm and Rudra, and by which He destroys the prrab-dha-karma of His devotees. (57) Koi-brahma-vigrahaUnlimited universes are situated within His body. (58) Avatrval-bjaHe is the source of all incarnations. (59) Hatri-gati-dyakaHe awards mukti to the enemies killed by Him. (60) tmrmagakarHe attracts the liberated souls or those who rejoice in the self. The next four qualities are unique to r Ka alone. (61) Ll-mdhuryaHe is an undulating ocean of astonishing pastimes out of which rsa-ll is supremely captivating. (62) Prema-mdhuryaHe is surrounded by devotees who possess incomparable madhura prema which develops up to the stage of mahbhva. (63) Veu-mdhuryaThe sweet and mellow sound of His flute attracts the minds of everyone within the three worlds. (64) Rpa-mdhuryaHis extraordinary beauty astonishes all moving and non-moving entities. Viaylambana-vibhva Four kinds of Nyakas or heroes Because r Ka is the reservoir of all qualities and activities He manifests the characteristics of all four different heroes at different times in accordance with specific pastimes. These four varieties of heroes are described below. (1) DhrodttaThe hero who is grave, humble, forgiving, compassionate, fixed in vow, unboastful, extremely powerful, and who thwarts the pride of heroic fighters is known as dhrodtta. Previous cryas have described Bhagavn r Rma as possessing the qualities of a dhrodtta nyaka. These qualities are also observed in r Ka. (2) Dhra-lalitaThe hero who is expert in the sixty-four arts and amorous sports, always situated in fresh youth, expert at joking, devoid of anxiety, and controlled by the prema of his beloveds is known as dhra-lalita. r Ka clearly manifests the features of a dhra-lalita nyaka. In the Nya-stra these qualities are also said to be found in Kandarpa or cupid. (3) Dhra-ntaThe hero who is peaceful, tolerant of miseries, judicious, and humble is known as dhra-nta. Learned scholars of the Nya-stra have declared Mahrja Yudhihira to be a dhra-nta nyaka. (4) DhroddhataOne who is malicious, proud, deceitful, angry, fickle, and boastful is known as dhroddhata. Learned scholars have accepted Bhmasena as a dhroddhata nyaka. Although these characteristics appear to be faults, they are accepted as qualities in r Ka, because they are appropriate in specific pastimes in which He chastises the wicked in order to protect His devotees. Vibhva (The Causes of Tasting Rati) (1) lambana (those who taste rati) a ------------------Viaya (the object of ratiKa) -Anyarpa (in another form, e.g. when Ka assumed the form of the cowherd boys and calves in the Brahm-

mohana-ll) -Svarpa (in His own form) -vta (in a disguised form, e.g. Ka disguised Himself as a woman) -Prakaa (Ka in His original form) b -----------------raya (the reservoir of ratithe devotee) -Sdhaka (bhva-bhaktas, e.g. Bilvamagala hkura) -Siddha (prema-bhaktas) Nitya-siddha (eternally perfect) Samprpti-siddha (those who attained perfection) Sdhana-siddha (attained perfection through sdhana, e.g. Mrkendeya i Kp-siddha (attainedperfectionthrough mercy,e.g. Yaja-patns,Bali Mahrja, and r ukadeva) Uddpana-vibhva (That which stimulates rati) Things which stimulate the devotees rati or love for the Lord are known as uddpana-vibhva. The fourteen principal uddpanas are described below. A detailed outline of Kas qualities, dress and ornaments, and flute are found on the following pages. (1) Gua (qualities) (2) Ce (activities) Kas activities include rsa-ll, killing the wicked, and so on. (3) Prasdana (dress and ornaments) (4) Smita (smile) (5) Aga-saurabha (bodily fragrance) (6) Vaa (flute) (7) ga (buffalo horn) Kas wild female buffalo horn, is mounted with gold on both ends, studded with jewels in the middle and known as mandraghoa. (8) Npura (anklets) (9) Kambu (conchshell) Kas conchshell, which opens to the right or southward, is called Pcajanya. (10) Padka (footprints) (11) Ketra (holy places) (12) Tulas (13) Bhakta (devotees) (14) Bhagavad-vsara (holy days) Janmam, Ekda, etc. Kas qualities as Uddpana-vibhva

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