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The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, faulttolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated one-quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.
Internet is a short form of the technical term internetwork, the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. The Internet is also often referred to as the Net. The term the Internet, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and popular culture a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus
write it as "the internet", without capitalization. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized as a noun but not capitalized as an adjective. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The hardware and software infrastructure of the Internet establishes a global data communications system between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.
Professor Leonard Kleinrock with the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA. Research into packet switching started in the early 1960s and packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telnet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks. The first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Leonard Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing. Early international collaborations on ARPANET were sparse. For various political reasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks. Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in 1972, followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter Kirstein's research group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, London University and later at University College London.
The Internet continues to grow. and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration. as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols. social networking. RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program. The Internet started a rapid expansion to Europe and Australia in the mid to late 1980s and to Asia in the late 1980s and early 1990s. later RFCs repeat this use. by Vinton Cerf. As of 31 March 2011. commerce. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls". which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. first at 56 kbit/s and later at 1. or more. It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way . while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50%. Commercial internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and 1990s. removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. two-way interactive video calls. including the rise of near instant communication by electronic mail. blogs. driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge. 10-Gbit/s. as a shorthand for internetworking. and online shopping sites. Since the mid-1990s the Internet has had a tremendous impact on culture and commerce. This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server. instant messaging. The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned. During the late 1990s.In 1982 the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized and the concept of a world-wide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks called the Internet was introduced. In December 1974. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s.2% of world population). the estimated total number of Internet users was 2. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Yogen Dalal. entertainment and social networking. it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year. which allows organic growth of the network. TCP/IP network access expanded again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. used the term internet. and Carl Sunshine. so the word started out as an adjective rather than the noun it is today.095 billion (30.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
at the bottom of the architecture. the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion which entered its final stage in 2011. also known as TCP/IP. is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. nor implementation. about the various aspects of Internet architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). freely available on the IETF web site. The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups. e. Lastly. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications. is a software layer. it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link. The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate.. was developed in the mid 1990s which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. Below this top layer. The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. A new protocol version. or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies. It was designed to address up to ~4. the Link Layer. consisting of two layers.. Other models have been developed. The Internet Standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite. However. open to any individual. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122. client–server model) with appropriate data exchange methods. The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. the Transport Layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e. and allows them to connect to oneanother via intermediate (transit) networks. RFC 1123). IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use. or historical.3 billion (109) Internet hosts. and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet. but many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking. each called a Request for Comments (RFC). At the top is the Application Layer. IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world.g. Underlying these layers are the core networking technologies. since Internet .g. such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. a web browser program. Technology Protocols The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. but they are not compatible in the details of description. experimental. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative. The model. by 2000 this figure had grown to 51%. such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. when the global address allocation pool was exhausted.telecommunication. the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications. IP enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself. IPv6.
IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. Structure The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively. data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity. The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. GLORIAD. Indeed. These in turn are built around smaller networks (see also the list of academic computer network organizations).address registries (RIRs) began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure.. however. peering agreements). This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for networking devices that need to communicate on both networks.g. the possibility of developing alternative structures is investigated. and the UK's national research and education network JANET. Internet2. Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale. research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as GEANT. The principles of the routing and addressing methods for traffic in the Internet reach back to their origins the 1960s when the eventual scale and popularity of the network could not be anticipated. for instance. the Internet is facilitated by bi. yet highly complex system". For example. It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. United States . Thus. It essentially establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. California. and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Network infrastructures. Governance ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey. data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely. are still lagging in this development.or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e. the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points. Most modern computer operating systems already support both versions of the Internet Protocol. The Internet structure was found to be highly robust to random failures and very vulnerable to high degree attacks. highly engineered. The Internet is heterogeneous.
Internet chat. help with homework and other assignments. including email and the web. but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form. the World Summit on the Information Society. On 16 November 2005. For distance education. Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Globally unified name spaces. Examples range from CBeebies. to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar.The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. are essential for the global reach of the Internet. knowledge.org. Mobile phones. Mozilla Firefox. It operates without a central governing body. allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas. These systems may allow files to be exchanged. headquartered in Marina del Rey. Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods. or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas. drawings and images to be shared. including domain names. which has produced. with the help of collaborative software. and other non-commercial communities. including through mobile Internet devices. may be available. handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. academic. or a social networking website. Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means. Modern uses The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location. in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. whiling away spare time. and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. or voice and video contact between team members. through school and high-school revision guides. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet. via an instant messaging system. whether in the form of an IRC chat room or channel. among other things. California. to maintain interoperability. business. and many other parameters. all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). datacards. held in Tunis. and OpenOffice. . Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocketsized devices. self-guided learning. Linux. However. application port numbers in the transport protocols. the services of the Internet. especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The government of the United States continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system. virtual universities. established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues. An example of this is the free software movement.
such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Compared to printed media. but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. This concept has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare. World Wide Web browser software. in other remote locations. including graphics. can access their emails. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research. i. office applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google. authentication and encryption technologies. but it is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet. while away from the office. multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page. Client-side software can include animations. lets users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data. perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country. The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily. and other databases. conference planning. the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale. interchangeably. video. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet.Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work. on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. images and other resources. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread. including email and other applications. or just the Web. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents. users worldwide have easy. logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). but the two terms are not synonymous. based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world. An office worker away from their desk. access their data using cloud computing. text. . URIs symbolically identify services. Apple's Safari. or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection on the Internet. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers. depending on the requirements. They may do this with or without computer security. wherever they may be. books. and the documents and resources that they can provide. political activism and creative writing. sounds. because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes. and Google Chrome. encyclopedias and traditional libraries. instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. collaboration and information sharing in many industries. software development. Services Information Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web. This is encouraging new ways of working from home.e. games. Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. Opera. This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the World Wide Web. servers. Mozilla Firefox.
which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. who may be paid staff. Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol. Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. is an important communications service available on the Internet. There may or may not be editorial. Publishing and maintaining large. or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition. One example of this practice is Microsoft.The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Over time. and have become increasingly sophisticated. whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server. Publishing a web page. professional web sites with attractive. members of a club or other organization or members of the public. referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information. however. Websites are often created using content management or wiki software with. the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more dynamic. newer offerings from. documents and other files are sent as email attachments. approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors. initially. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. formatted in HTML. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Pictures. very little content. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. a blog. Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web. VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call. fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. for example. Communication Electronic mail. as the Internet carries the voice traffic. and be attracted to the corporation as a result. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or . When the Web began in the 1990s. Contributors to these systems. or email. ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. The benefit is that.
where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. music. HD 720p quality requires 2. video. inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. such as a computer or something more specific. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody. over a worldwide basis. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. colleagues and friends as an attachment. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. graphics and the other arts. Data Transfer File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure.receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Wii. and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features. Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. . They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview. and the top-of-the-line HDX quality needs 4. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. Simple.5 Mbit/s for 1080p. A computer file can be emailed to customers.5 Mbit/s. are changing the production. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. can be used to access online media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. news. Currently. and money may change hands for access to the file. as a form of communication between players. PlayStation 3. For example. access to the file may be controlled by user authentication. Podcasting is a variation on this theme. Classic Clips and Listen Again features. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications. and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption. sale. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. for example. This includes all manner of print publications. with little censorship or licensing control. VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. photography. a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service. This means that an Internetconnected device. from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. software products. standard image quality needs 1 Mbit/s link speed for SD 480p. to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide. a credit card whose details are also passed—usually fully encrypted—across the Internet. The range of available types of content is much wider. film. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. In any of these cases. These simple features of the Internet. but it is not universally available.
satellite and 3G/4G technology cell phones. 14% in North America. Various . and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean taken together. Wi-Fi. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole. that good facilities are available for development and communication in the world's widely used languages. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions. 6% in Africa. 24% in Europe. landline broadband (over coaxial cable. This may be a result of the origin of the Internet.Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years. in some cases just for brief use while standing. 42% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia. Common methods of Internet access in homes include dial-up. live and in real time. where computers with Internet connections are available. Portuguese and German (4% each). the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (23%). Spanish (8%). While some webcams can give fullframe-rate video. Japanese (5%). Arabic. ships in the Panama Canal. 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania. some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of some languages' characters) still remain. French and Russian (3% each). fiber optic or copper wires). traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises. By region. Access Graph of Internet users per 100 inhabitants between 1997 and 2007 by International Telecommunication Union The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes. as well as the language's role as a lingua franca. a subset of the Latin alphabet. Early computer systems were limited to the characters in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). After English (27%). the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. with and without two-way sound. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. and Korean (2%). However. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. especially in the use of Unicode. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams.
men were more likely to have a professional blog. and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Many hotels now also have public terminals. men were more likely to blog in the first place. San Francisco. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Internet blackouts affecting almost entire countries can be achieved by governments as a form of Internet censorship. whereas men downloaded more. In an American study in 2005. and 2 billion videos viewed daily on YouTube. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench. free to customers only. 22 percent of the world's population had access to computers with 1 billion Google searches every day. and are more likely to be broadband users. although this difference reversed in those under 30. there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet. women watched more streaming content. online payment etc. Philadelphia. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking. High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network. Chicago and Pittsburgh. and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets. as in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt. Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. 300 million Internet users reading blogs. though these are usually fee-based. Men logged on more often. Overall Internet usage has seen tremendous growth.858 billion. In terms of blogs. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas. or even an entire city can be enabled. . though this is not as widely used. More recent studies indicate that in 2008. such as Facebook and Myspace. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs. Apart from Wi-Fi. In addition. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks. among those who blog. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signaling interruptions. or fee-based. which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. "public access terminal". various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks. whereas women were more likely to have a personal blog. These services may be free to all. whereby approximately 93% of networks were without access in 2011 in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests. participate in auctions. although the ratios varied with age. and fixed wireless services. whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate (such as email).terms are used. such as in the 2008 submarine cable disruption. A whole campus or park. women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking sites. the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million to 1. spend more time online. the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London. Vienna. bank deposit. such as "public Internet kiosk". By 2010. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes. where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. and "Web payphone". From 2000 to 2009. Toronto. Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location.
a database and software project he had built in 1980. Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced ENQUIRE. one can view web pages that may contain text. and human culture. also "W3") as a "web" of . videos.World Wide Web The World Wide Web (or the proper World-Wide Web. British engineer and computer scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee.. Clarke was reported to have predicted that satellites would one day "bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips" using a console that would combine the functionality of the Xerox. telephone. In March 1989. Using concepts from earlier hypertext systems. and commonly known as the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet." History The NeXT Computer used by Berners-Lee. which would allow collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas and all aspects of a common project. abbreviated as WWW or W3. wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web. The hand label declares. images. to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will". DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!" In the May 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine Arthur C. "The World-Wide Web was developed to be a pool of human knowledge. and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. Switzerland. With a web browser. With help from Robert Cailliau. he published a more formal proposal (on November 12.. television and a small computer. "This machine is a server. and they publicly introduced the project in December. and described a more elaborate information management system. At CERN in Geneva. now Director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). allowing data transfer and video conferencing around the globe. Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext ". 1990) to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" (one word.
0 and RSS/Atom. but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community. [so that] authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available. We cant imagine yet the real scale of the recent shake. The first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992... namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. 1991. the first web server.. licensed by CERN. Web 2. blogs. a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. For about four decades many of them were invited to the international CERN's Laboratories. When the concentration of the human talents per square foot of the CERN's Labs reached the critical mass. . This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet. WorldWideWeb. was technically advanced and was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime. it caused an intellectual explosion The Web – crucial point of human's history – was born. This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers. he posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt. in 1990. By Christmas 1990. The proposal was modeled after the Dynatext SGML reader by Electronic Book Technology. On August 6. Web as a "Side Effect" of the 40 years of Particle Physics Experiments.hypertext newsgroup. which described the project itself." While the read-only goal was met."hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature. It happened many times during history of science that the most impressive results of large scale scientific efforts appeared far away from the main directions of those efforts. The CERN datacenter in 2010 housing some www servers A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and also to write the first web browser. After the World War 2 the nuclear centers of almost all developed countries became the places with the highest concentration of talented scientists. because there has not been so fast growing multi-dimension socialeconomic processes in human history. The Dynatext system. and the first web pages... So specific kind of the CERN's intellectual "entire culture" (as you called it) was constantly growing from one generation of the scientists and engineers to another. with the wiki concept. an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes. Nothing could be compared to it.. Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (which was a web editor as well).
The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s. later known as Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). On April 30. with no fees due. but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. whereas SLAC itself claims 1991. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard. This is supported by a W3C document entitled A Little History of the World Wide Web. he finally tackled the project himself. 1993. the most popular Internet protocol. Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993. one of several computing developments initiated by U. funding for Mosaic came from the U. The publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. led by Marc Andreessen. Prior to the release of Mosaic. but when no one took up his invitation. In the process.S. such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). the World Wide Web was non-proprietary. Ted Nelson's Project Xanadu.The first server outside Europe was set up at SLAC to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use. A graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (NCSA-UIUC).S. this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones. by far. and Douglas Engelbart's oN-Line System (NLS). The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems that were then available. In his book Weaving The Web. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992. Senator Al Gore. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991. . Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become. which was described in the 1945 essay "As We May Think". graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the Web's popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet. CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. This made it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System. he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities. Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's microfilm-based "memex". such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University. he developed three essential technologies: A system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems). the Universal Document Identifier (UDI).
In contrast. In short. which had pioneered the Internet. Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use.80. the HTTP protocol normally uses port 80. a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web . The Web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.wikipedia. many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today's most popular services. transmitted by web browsers and web servers.152. Connected by the existing Internet. the Web is one of the services that runs on the Internet.The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. First.2. other websites were created around the world. Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed). this lookup returns an IP address such as 208. the Web can be thought of as an application "running" on the Internet. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that particular address. As an example. the browser resolves the server-name portion of the URL (en. Function The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in every-day speech without much distinction. It is a collection of textual documents and other resources. However. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages. in order to fetch and display it. the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. It makes the request to a particular application port in the underlying Internet Protocol Suite so that the computer receiving the request can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing such as e-mail delivery. and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. consider the Wikipedia page for this article with the URL http://en. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet.wikipedia. By the end of 1994. and in 1996. behind the scenes. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as the two lines of text GET /wiki/World_Wide_Web HTTP/1. adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. Since then. while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks.1 . The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. quite a number of notable websites were already active.org) into an Internet Protocol address using the globally distributed database known as the Domain Name System (DNS). linked by hyperlinks and URLs. a year later.
scripts that affect page behavior. In the underlying HTML. As it receives their content from the web server. is one of the best-known efforts.The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to Web server software listening for requests on port 80. A browser that handles complex HTML will make additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other Internet media types. The Internet Archive. a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. active since 1996. source documents. interpreting the markup (<title>. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. Linking Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files. or are replaced with different content. The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described by the webgraph: the nodes of the webgraph correspond to the webpages (or URLs) the directed edges between them to the hyperlinks. .0 200 OK The web browser parses the HTML. <b> for bold. If the web server can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success. relocate. definitions and other web resources (this Wikipedia article is full of hyperlinks). and such) that surrounds the words in order to draw that text on the screen. This makes hyperlinks obsolete. and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout. which can be as simple as HTTP/1. Publication on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the WorldWideWeb (in its original CamelCase. Many web pages consist of more elaborate HTML which references the URLs of other resources such as images. which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990. demonstrating hyperlinks Such a collection of useful. interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a web of information. related resources. Over time. the browser progressively renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources. many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear. other embedded media. a hyperlink looks like Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW.
and of the generations of people within the United States who have had access to the internet from a young age. and so define the communication protocol to be used for the request and response. and are part of a generational shift that could be changing norms. [further explanation needed] The social network Facebook progressed from U. Mark Zuckerberg wrote. Berners-Lee and colleagues see hope in accountability and appropriate use achieved by extending the Web's architecture to policy awareness. a translation that very appropriately reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web. As the mobile web grows in popularity. services like Gmail. and in particular web beacons. the added encryption layer in HTTPS is essential when confidential information such as passwords or banking information are to be exchanged over the public Internet. and for default protections for users of social networks. audience. Users can opt-in to features in browsers to clear their personal histories locally and block some cookies and advertising networks but they are still tracked in websites' server logs. [vague] For example: more than half a billion people worldwide have used a social network service. Privacy It is possible that. In 2010 (six years after co-founding the company). with no intervening hyphens. reasoners and appliances.com and Twitter. respectively." In Mandarin Chinese. MySpace. Tim Berners-Lee's web-space states that World Wide Web is officially spelled as three separate words. Web browsers usually prepend the scheme to URLs too. but in 2009 estimated that only 20% of its members use privacy settings. Since 2009.com. college students to a 70% non-U. if omitted. may have surrendered the right to privacy in exchange for using a number of serivces avaliable on the World Wide Web. In exchange for providing free content.S.com are most often discussed without adding the www to the domain (or the .com) Http And Https Specifiers The scheme specifiers (http:// or https://) in URIs refer to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol and to HTTP Secure. perhaps with audit logging. Use of the www prefix is declining as Web 2. each capitalized. Privacy representatives from 60 countries have resolved to ask for laws to complement industry self-regulation.com.Stephen Fry later pronouncing it in his "Podgrammes" series of podcasts as "wuh wuh wuh.0 web applications seek to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable. The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web. World Wide Web is commonly translated via a phono-semantic matching to wàn wéi wǎng ( 万 维 网 ). vendors hire advertisers who spy on Web users and base their business model on tracking them.S. which satisfies www and literally means "myriad dimensional net". average computer users who use the World Wide Web mainly for things like entertainment. They also believe data protection for personally identifiable information benefits business more than the sale of that information. for education for children and other minors who use the Web. Facebook. they buy and sell consumer data on . "we will add privacy controls that are much simpler to use". half have some form of Social Networking presence.
Internet banking and news sites frequently use this facility. Myanmar. to pursue common interests. restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet. data obtained in response to a 'POST' is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached. thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention. North Korea. such as child pornography. possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law. There are many free and commercially available software programs. in order to limit a child's access to pornographic materials or depiction of violence. Some governments. and organizing.cached. While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to contain addresses of known child pornography sites. with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks. Social networking websites such as Facebook. bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity. The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool. the People's Republic of China. short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos. the content of the list is secret. Finland. with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers. Many countries. having given rise to Internet activism. including the United States. called content-control software. and distribution of copyrighted materials. The pornography and gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web. and to connect with others. In Norway. Twitter and MySpace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances. and Sweden. but do not mandate filtering software. have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material. In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity. Data requested with an HTTP 'GET' is likely to be cached if other conditions are met. The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception. major Internet service providers have voluntarily. Social Impact The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction. Denmark. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. activities. Today. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations. leading to Internet censorship by some states. via the Internet. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. and Saudi Arabia. agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring. and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for . such as those of Iran. to allow communication among existing groups of people. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. especially political and religious content. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages.
messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide. where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. where users can access their files and settings via the Internet. Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness. Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.other websites. movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread. Lonely people tend to use the Internet as an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with others. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops. Many people use the Internet to access and download music. using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters. One main area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s. modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work. from role-playing video games to online gambling. sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services. . weather and sports reports. Many people use the World Wide Web to access news. Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet. Some psychologists believe that Internet use has other effects on individuals for instance interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. People use chat. this has generally failed to stop their widespread popularity. This form of recreation creates communities.