INDEX

Page numbers in italics denote illustrations and figures. Page numbers including an ‘n’ refer to notes.
Agana, Tony (player), 216
Amokachi, Daniel (player), 228–9
Anderson, Viv (player), 228
Anti-Fascist Action (AFA), 166, 176, 179,
195, 195–9, 200
Anti-Fascist Football Fans Congress, 198
anti-fascist groups, 16, 147–8, 150, 162–3,
166–72
links with anti-racism, 179, 194–202
Anti-Nazi League (ANL), 166, 169–70, 195
anti-racism, 2, 9, 175–203
campaigns, 179–81, 196–8
education, 175, 178, 181–2, 184
fanzines, 175, 176, 179, 180, 182, 183,
186–202
Germany, 198
image of, 178
initiatives to counteract anti-racism,
221–9
links with anti-fascism, 179, 194–202
post-war era analysis, 6–10
role of police, 183–4
role of women, 176–7, 179, 193–4
use of football environment, 177, 178–9,
180–2, 232
Armstrong, Gary, 253n39
Armstrong, Gary (ethnographer), 114
Asian footballers, 208, 219–20, 233–4
Association Contre La Violence Dans Le
Sport, 47
Association of Chief Police Officers
(ACPO), 99, 105, 106, 109

banana throwing, 153–4, 172, 177, 183,
211, 214
Barnes, John (player), 211, 216
BBC, 164
Beckford, Darren (player), 182
Best, Clyde (player), 208
biracial football couplets, 225–8, 227
black footballers, 8, 23, 147, 148, 150–1,
205–30, 232
abuse of, 2, 152–4, 155–6, 171-2, 177,
182, 183, 208–13
aggression, 217–18
as ambassadors for anti-racism, 222–4
biracial football couplets, 225–8, 227
discrimination by football clubs, 2,
189–91, 219, 228–9
History of Black Footballers in Britain
(exhibition), 222
professionalism, 214–16
responses to racial abuse, 205–6, 209,
229–30
as role models, 224–5, 230
use of humour to avert racism, 216
visiting players, 210
‘whiteness’, pressure of, 17, 206–8,
213–21, 222–3, 225, 229, 230
black people, image of, 22–3, 159, 201,
212
Blake, Noel (Birmingham player), 154
Blatter, Sepp (FIFA president), 235
bourgeois values, 15, 17
Bright, Mark (player), 215

Copyright

– 281 –

282

Violence and Racism in Football

Britain
economy, 21–3, 26, 27
national mythologies, 40, 52–3
national values, 59–60, 65
role in international affairs, 20–1
sporting image, 40, 61, 64–5
British National Party (BNP), 165
British Rail, 119
Britishness, culture of, 8–9, 10, 17, 52–3,
151
Bulldog (NF newspaper), 152–7, 163, 164,
165, 167, 170
Bullstreet, K (anti-fascist), 168–9
Callaghan, James (Home Secretary), 113,
136, 137, 140
Campaign Against Racism and Fascism
(CARF), 166, 195–6
Carter-Jones, Lewis (Labour MP), 58
Cashmore, Ellis (sociologist), 216
casuals, 16, 29, 36–7
CCTV, 16, 98, 114, 120–1, 183, 188, 234
Celtic Fans Against Racism (fanzine), 199
chanting, 155–6, 172, 177, 183, 184, 209
Charlton, Bobby (player), 62
Charlton, Jack (player), 170
Children and Young Persons Act (1969),
124, 139–40
civil rights, 84, 109, 123
Clarke, John, 4
Claxton, J. F. (DPP), 108–9
Clemitson, Ivor (Labour MP), 60, 132
closed-circuit television see CCTV
Clough, Brian (manager), 170
Colquhoun, John (player), 214, 215
Commission for Racial Equality (CRE), 14,
176, 178, 179–86, 225
Communist Party of England, 154
community self-policing, 9–10, 176, 186–8,
193–5, 197, 200, 240n40
Coventry, 115–16
Leicester, 191, 192
conference of anarchists, anti-fascists and
football supporters (1994), 198–9
Conservative Party, 25
economic policies, 21–2, 26
reactions to football violence, 49, 50
Cookson, Bernard (cartoonist), 86, 86f3.1

Crooks, Garth (player), 182
crowd safety, 72–3
Crown Courts, 128, 142
Daily Express, 86
Daily Mail, 43
Daily Star, 163
Daily Telegraph, 45
Deighton, Ted (Secretary, Leeds Joint
Branch Board of Police), 48
Department of the Environment, 123, 125,
135, 138, 142
Direct Action Movement (anarchist group),
166, 169
disasters, 6, 69–70, 78–9, 80, 164, 165, 167,
239n26
documentary sources, 11–12
Drago, Charles (Director, Association Contre La Violence Dans Le Sport), 47

Copyright
Eagle Eye (fanzine), 196
Elkins, Caroline (writer), 2
Elliot, Paul (player), 224
Evening News, 86, 86
Evening Standard, 86

FA Premier League, 234
fans see supporters
fanzines, 175, 176, 179, 180, 182, 183
anti-fascist influences, 194–202
and anti-racism, 186–94, 206, 221
promotion of violence, 200–1
and ‘whiteness’, 219–21
Fashanu, John (player), 224
Follows, Denis (Football Association), 78,
105
Ferguson, Alex (manager, Manchester
United), 234–5
Fighting Talk (AFA publication), 195, 196,
198, 199, 229
Filbo Fever (fanzine), 187
Flashing Blade (fanzine), 187, 189–90
football
anti-fascist groups, 147–8, 150, 166–72
anti-racism, 10–11, 17, 175–203
influence of Thatcherite policies, 27
neo-fascist activities, 147–66
protection of reputation, 53–60, 65

Index
racial abuse, 208–13
racism, 14, 17, 147, 148–9, 175–203
rivalries, 8, 28, 32, 35
role in society, 10–11, 20, 27–8
Football Association, 54–5, 134, 195, 234
football authorities, reactions to football
violence, 42, 46, 58–9
football clubs
and anti-racist campaigns, 179–80
Arsenal, 84, 91, 100, 107
Aston Villa, 102
Barnsley, 190–1, 219
Birmingham City, 154, 216, 250n42
black players, discrimination by clubs, 2,
189–91, 219, 221, 228–9
Blackburn, 119, 218
Cardiff, 119
Celtic, 46, 92–3, 223–4
Charlton Athletic, 193
Chelsea, 170
Coventry City, 118, 153, 213
Crystal Palace, 189
Everton, 119, 192, 193, 228–9
Glasgow Rangers, 76, 78, 135
Halifax Town, 100
Huddersfield Town, 54
Leeds United, 31, 66, 102, 112, 156, 188
Leicester City, 187, 191–2
Manchester United, 57, 58, 66, 90, 92,
100, 234–5
Middlesbrough, 84, 93
Millwall, 214
Newcastle, 55, 76
Nottingham County, 93
Nottingham Forest, 170
Queens Park Rangers, 117
resistance to space divisions, 92–4
Rotherham Town, 150, 222
Sheffield United, 187, 189–90, 216
Sheffield Wednesday, 69–70, 170, 190
Spurs, 62–6, 188
St Helen’s, 54
St Pauli (Hamburg), 198
Stoke, 119
Sunderland, 154, 196
Torquay United, 188–9, 229
West Ham, 153, 196
see also stadiums; supporters

283

Football Foundation, 234
Football League, 55, 118, 195
Football Offences Act (1991), 184, 221
Football Supporters’ Association, 192, 1967, 200
Football Task Force (FTF), 184–6, 188, 224
Football Trust, 121, 179
Football Unites, Racism Divides, 12, 197,
221, 222, 233–4
football violence
anti-fascist views on, 168–9
challenge to national mythologies, 53
explanations of, 28
exploitation by politicians, 39, 40,
49–51, 53–4, 73
forms of, 29–36
government response to, 15–16, 28
historiography, 2–6
links with racism, 9, 11, 175–203
neo-fascist activities, 151–6
police attitudes, 47–9
sensationalization by media, 39, 41–2
spatial divisions, use for prevention, 45,
72–82
see also disasters; moral panics
Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 61–2,
65
Foucault, Michael, 70–1
Foxes Against Racism (FAR), 187, 191–2
Freud, Clement (Liberal MP), 55–6

Copyright
Gannon, Jim (player), 217
Garden House Hotel trial (1970), 25
Garnett, Alf (TV character), 267n62
gender exclusion, 9, 10, 15, 176–7, 179,
193–4, 198-9
Giles, Ronald Carl (cartoonist), 57, 58
Gilroy, Paul, 14
Giulianotti, Richard, 53
Green, Stuart (writer), 226
Griffiths, Eldon (Conservative MP), 60, 79
Guardian, 44–5, 64, 65–6
Hain, Peter (ANL organizer), 169–70
Hall, Stuart, 4, 25, 41, 230
Hardaker, Alan (chairman of Football
League), 135–6

284

Violence and Racism in Football

Harrington commission, 48–9, 53, 56, 74–6,
103–4, 115, 120, 246n32, 249n12
Hattersley, Roy (government minister), 66
Hendrie, Colin (MUSA spokesman), 235
Heysel disaster (1985), 6, 164, 165, 167
Hillsborough disaster (1989), 6, 69–70
hippies, 47–8
History of Black Footballers in Britain (exhibition), 222, 267n55
Home Office, 29, 30, 49–51, 79, 98–9, 109,
110, 116
hooks, bell, 218–19
hooliganism, definition and use of, 14, 15,
31
Hornby, Nick (writer), 210–11
Howard, Michael (Home Secretary), 181
Howell, Denis (Sports Minister), 20, 40,
59–60, 73, 99, 106, 232
attempts to circumvent legal restrictions,
135, 138–43
and CCTV, 121
comments on working-class families,
133–4
and football violence abroad, 64, 66, 67
identification policies, 118, 119
lack of regard for spectators, 87–8
moral entrepreneur, 51–2, 125
policy of containment, 82–8
in praise of police, 113

Kamara, Chris (player), 210, 216
Kaye, Howard, 91
Kendal, Amanda (journalist), 182
Kick It! (fanzine), 180, 182, 183, 225–6
Kick It Out (anti-racist campaign) see Let’s
Kick Racism Out of Football
King, Colin (sociologist and former player),
218
Labour Party
economic policies, 21–2, 26
penal reform, 124, 140–1
reactions to football violence, 49, 50, 51,
144
role in anti-racism, 184–6
sport promotion, 184–5
Laing inquiry see Working Party on Crowd
Behaviour at Football Matches
Laing, Sir John, 76, 136
Latham, Keith (supporter), 190
leafleting, 161–2, 169–70, 173
League of Louts, 163, 167
Leeds Fans United Against Racism and Fascism (LFUARF), 188, 196, 199, 201
Let’s Kick Racism Out of Football (antiracist campaign), 12, 179–81, 192, 196,
221–2, 224, 234, 263n6
licensing schemes, stadiums, 72, 78
logos, 157–8, 158, 170, 175, 196
Lomas, Kenneth (Labour MP), 50

Copyright
Ibrox Park disaster (1971), 6, 78–9, 80
ID cards, 98, 118–20
identification policies, 114, 116–21, 129
immigration, 7, 9, 22–3, 212
government policies, 27
Immigration Act 1971, 25
Ince, Paul (player/manager), 218, 219
Indian Workers’ Movement, 154
Industrial Relations Act 1971, 25
Jenkins, Roy (Chancellor of the Exchequer),
22, 49, 50, 51, 109, 139, 140–1, 142,
143
Johanneson, Albert (player), 208
Johnson, A. (Chairman, National Union of
Football Supporters), 119
Johnson, James (Labour MP), 106
Johnson, Walter (Labour MP), 50, 131–2

Macfarlane, Neil (Conservative MP), 121,
132
Magistrates Association, 137–8
magistrates courts, 109, 124, 125, 126–7
pressure to impose stricter sentences,
135–43
see also punishment
Manchester United Fan Club, 134
Marching Altogether (fanzine), 188, 199,
200-1
Marqusee, Mark, 225
Marsh, Peter (ethnographer), 32
masculinity, 3, 4, 8, 10, 28, 158, 165
Mau Mau (Kenya), 2
Maudling, Reginald (Home Secretary), 126,
136, 136–7
McDonnell and Hughes Architects, 85

Index
Mexico, 61–2
mods and rockers, 23–4, 41
monkey noises, 183, 190, 211, 214, 216
Monro, Hector (Conservative MP), 60
Moore, Bobby (player), 227, 228
moral panics, 29, 67
analysis, 40–3
influence of interest groups, 46–51
social context, 43–6
Moran, Richie (player), 216
Mumford, Gary (NF supporter), 162
Munro, Henry (Minister for Sport), 79
mythologies see national mythologies
National Coalition Building Institute, 191
National Federation of Football Supporters,
119
National Football Intelligence Unit, 118
National Front News, 162
National Front (NF), 148, 149, 151–60
and anti-fascist groups, 167–8, 170–2
black players, abuse of, 152–4
campaigning activities, 161–2
dissociation from violent tactics, 165–6
media attention, 163, 164–5
newspapers, 152–7, 162–3, 164, 165,
167, 170–3
opposition to multiculturalism, 158–9
recruitment activities, 156–8, 157, 161
street violence, encouragement of, 161–2
use of international matches, 155, 164
youth participation, 163–4
national mythologies, 40, 52–3, 148–9
National Union of Football Supporters, 119
Neill, Terry (manager), 84
neo-fascism, 12, 14, 16, 147–73
dissociation from violent tactics, 164–6
newspapers, 162–3, 164, 165, 167, 170-3
political impact, 150
use of football to promote ideologies,
151–3, 155, 160–6, 232
newspapers
and neo-fascism, 170-3
exaggeration of football violence, 39,
41-2
reactions to spatial discipline proposals,
86
role in demonizing youth, 44

285

Noades, Ron (chairman, Crystal Palace FC),
189
Ntende, Paul ‘Delroy’ (comic character),
226, 227
Ostend, 66
Our Day Will Come (fanzine), 199–200, 202
Ouseley, Sir Herman (executive chairman,
CRE), 180, 182, 183
parental responsibility, 125–6, 133–4, 144
Partnership to Keep Racism Out of Football,
224
Pearce, Stuart (player), 218
Pelé (Brazilian player), 227, 228
photography, 117–18
physical space divisions in stadiums, 72–82,
122
admission controls, 74, 78, 93
commercial barrier products, 85
crush barriers, 80, 81, 90
detention facilities, 84, 110–11
ditches, 75, 89
end-taking, 89–90
funding, 73, 92–3
gangways, 73–4, 75
minimum personal space, 81
penning, 74–5, 83
perimeter fences, 75–7
resistance to, 89–95
role in promoting supporter confrontation, 84
slope inclines, 80, 81
pitch invasions, 30–1, 32, 75, 76–7, 86, 89
police authorities
Birmingham, 117
Cheshire, 56
Coventry, 117, 118
Derby, 105
Dumfries and Galloway, 35
Edinburgh, 107
Glasgow, 74–5, 103, 135
Leeds United, 48
Liverpool, 56, 109
Luton, 116
Manchester, 118
meetings with government agencies,
98–100

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286

Violence and Racism in Football

Metropolitan Police, 30, 105–6, 115,
120–1, 126
Middlesbrough, 118, 133
Newcastle, 33, 76–7, 118
Oxford, 33
Scotland Yard, 83, 100, 109, 118, 127
Sheffield, 56
Stoke-on-Trent, 35, 103, 115, 118
Sunderland, 133
Swindon, 33–4
West Midlands, 121
York, 48–9, 74
Police (magazine), 47–8
police records, 4, 29–30, 33–4, 127, 128
policing, 1, 2, 16, 97–121
arrests, 104, 108–10, 111, 125–6, 129
brutality, 65–6, 87, 90–1, 111–14, 122
costs, 100
crowd control tactics, 73–4, 104–6
detention of spectators, 84, 110–11
dogs, use of, 104, 105–6, 112
horses, use of, 104–5, 112, 253n37,
253n39
identification policies, 116–21, 129
information sharing, 116–17
photography, use of, 117–18
racism, 183–4
ratios, 100, 252n12
refusal to protect citizens, 111–12
relations with supporters, 33–4, 100–2,
104
snatch squads, 104
stewards, use of, 100, 107–8
tactics and strategies, 102–11, 122
verbal networks of communication,
114–16
see also community self-policing
Policy Studies Institute (PSI), 180
political ideology, 150
Polkinghorne, David (New Scotland Yard),
221
Portelli, Alessandro, 4
Powell, Enoch (MP), 22–3
Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973, 137
Price, W. F. B. (Consulate-General, Rotterdam), 63, 64, 65
Price, William (Labour MP), 50

Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA),
176, 178, 179–86, 234
Public Education Campaign, 181–2
punishment, 122–45
attendance centres, 131, 137–8, 139, 140
avoidance of, 130
charges, 126–7, 128, 129
community service, 141
corporal punishment, 134, 142–3, 144
delays in court appearances, 125–6
fines, 16, 130, 132–4, 135
forms of punishment, 127, 129–35
parliamentary discussions, 130–2
reports of trials, 128
sentencing policies, 2, 127, 135–43
Race Relations Act 1965, 212
race riots, 5, 14, 17, 27, 101, 155, 172, 212
Race, Rocky (comic character), 226
racial abuse, black footballers, 9
racism, 175–203
campaigns against, 179–86
development of conceptualizations,
13–14, 147
links with fascism, 149
post-war era analysis, 6–10
public and political debate, 148
see also whiteness
Racist League, 163
Reading Council for Racial Equality, 188,
224
Red Action (anti-fascist magazine), 167
Red Attitude (fanzine), 198, 199–200
Rees, Merlyn (Home Secretary), 118, 142–3
Regis, Cyrille (player), 209, 210
Rivers of Blood speech, 1968 (Powell), 22–3
Rotterdam, 61, 62–6
Roy of the Rovers (football comic), 226, 227
Runnymede Trust, 182

Copyright

Safety at Sports Ground Bill, 49, 72–3, 82,
121, 138, 142
Salim, Abdul (player), 223–4
Searchlight (anti-fascist magazine), 164,
166–7, 170–1, 195
self-identification, 28, 36–7
sentencing policies see punishment
Show Racism the Red Card, 221

Index
skinheads, 23, 29, 35–6, 43, 44, 156
Smith, C. D. (Chairman, MUSU), 92
Smith, David (Chairman, National Federation of Football Supporters Clubs), 104
social exclusion, 27
Socialist Workers’ Party (SWP), 166, 169,
193
South Riding (fanzine), 190–1
sport, promotion of, 20
Sports Council, 20, 52
spot the ball competitions, 73
Spriggs, Leslie (Labour MP), 54, 55, 132
stadiums
Ayresome Park, 84
containment policies, 82–8
detention facilities, 84, 110–11
disasters, 6, 69–70, 78–9, 164, 165, 167,
239n26
Goodison Park, 208
Hampden Park, 75
Heysel, 6, 164, 165, 167
Highbury, 84
Hillsborough, 6, 69–70
Ibrox Park, 34, 75, 78–9, 80
Leeds, 31, 120
licensing schemes, 72, 78
Millwall, 105
Old Trafford, 92, 118, 234–5
pitch invasions, 30–1, 32, 75, 76–7, 86,
89
safety, 50
seated areas, 90, 197, 234, 264n26
spatial organization, 1, 6, 15–16, 45,
69–82
St James Park, 76
swaying among spectators, 31, 74, 77,
81, 104
Tranmere, 30
Upton Park, 93
Wembley, 75, 157
White Hart Lane, 101–2
state violence, historiography, 2–6
Stein, Mark (player), 217
Stephens, C. J. (Home Office Chief Scientist), 79–80
stewards, role in policing, 100, 107–8
Stormer (NF comic), 161
street violence, 161–2

287

student uprisings 1968, 24–5
subcultures, 23–4, 29, 35–6, 43, 156–7
Chelsea, 156–7
Sunday Mirror, 164
supporters, 71
arrests by police, 104, 108–10, 111,
125–6, 129
Arsenal, 101
Aston Villa, 102
banana throwing, 153–4, 172, 177, 183,
211, 214
Barnsley, 190–1
behaviour, 14, 15, 29–36, 183, 184
behaviour outside stadiums, 36, 63, 83,
154, 161–2, 196
behaviour when abroad, 40, 53, 60–6,
82, 155
Birmingham City, 154
and black footballers, 153
Bristol, 32, 125–6
Cardiff City, 125–6
Celtic, 199
chanting, 155–6, 172, 177, 183, 184, 209
Charlton Athletic, 193
Chelsea, 30, 163
class distinctions, 56
Coventry City, 118
Crystal Palace, 189
demonizing of, 41–2, 55–7
detention by police, 84, 110–11
Everton, 192, 193, 208, 228
group culture, 35–6
Halifax Town, 101
Hearts, 214
ID cards, 98, 118–20
identification policies, 114, 116–21, 129
Leeds United, 31, 102, 112, 120, 156,
188, 196, 199, 200
Leicester City, 187, 191–2
Liverpool, 33, 69–70
Manchester United, 34–5, 66, 90, 92,
101, 104, 118, 134, 199, 218, 235
Middlesbrough, 101, 111
monkey noises, 183, 190, 211, 214, 216
National Front (NF) recruitment, 156–7
Newcastle, 30
non-violent supporters, 90–2, 104, 113
Nottingham Forest, 128

Copyright

288

Violence and Racism in Football

partisanship, 21, 28, 35
Portsmouth, 210
relations with police, 33–4, 100–2, 104
resistance to space divisions, 89–95
responses to anti-racism, 186–94
segregation, 6, 71, 74–5, 82–8, 93–4
Sheffield United, 187, 189–90, 216
social background, 3–4, 4–5, 56
Spurs, 62–6, 101–2
swaying, 31, 74, 77, 81, 104
territorial conflicts between rival fans,
32–3, 34, 36, 61, 84, 89–90
Torquay United, 188–9, 199, 201
West Ham, 208
Wolverhampton, 128

weapons, 32–3, 86
welfare state, 26
Wharton, Arthur (first professional black
player), 150, 222–3, 260n7
Wheatley commission, 78–9
When Skies Are Grey (fanzine), 192, 193,
228
whiteness, 206–8, 213–21, 222–3, 225, 229,
230
Williamson, Frank (Chief Inspector of
Crime), 103, 110–11, 115, 117, 130
Wilson, Harold, 20–1, 49
Wily, Ron (Coventry City Coach), 213
Winterbottom, Walter (Sports Council
director), 46, 77, 81–2, 87, 249n11,
249n23
Taverne, Dick (Home Office Minister),
women, 30
50–1, 131, 136
complaints of police treatment, 91, 112
Taylor, Ian, 4
exclusion, 9, 10, 15, 176–7, 179, 193–4
Taylor Report (1989), 69–70, 94, 264n26
feminist activists, 198–9
Taylor, Teddy (Conservative MP), 131
National Front advertising, 157–8, 157
Teddy boys, 23, 43
as parents, 133–4, 144
telephone hotlines, 115–16
working-class people
terminology, use of, 13, 14, 15, 241n48,
alienation from society, 4, 171–2
241n51
anxieties about immigrant workers, 151,
territorial conflicts between rival fans, 32–3,
159
34, 84, 89–90
culture, 21
Thatcher, Margaret, 26–7, 64–5, 118, 147
and neo-fascism, 160–6
Thomas, Danny (Coventry player), 153, 209,
parents, 125–6, 133–4, 144
211, 216
relations with middle-classes, 57
Thompson, Garry (Coventry player), 153,
Thatcherite policies, 26–7
211, 213, 216–17
values, 209–10, 222–3
Thorsvedt, Erik (player), 224
white identity, 23, 212–13
Times, The, 44, 45, 64, 221
Working Party on Crowd Behaviour at
Tiochfaid Ar La! (fanzine), 199, 223–4
Football Matches, 53, 76–9, 82–3, 107,
Torney, Tom (Labour MP), 64
115, 120, 135–6, 138, 246n51
Trevelyan, D. J. (Home Office administraWorking Party on Football Hooliganism
tor), 115
(1973-7), 72
Tyndall, John (head of NF), 163–4, 165
World Cup (1966), 20–1, 43, 53, 105–6,
241n7
Ullyett, Roy (cartoonist), 86, 86f3.2
World Cup (1970), 61–2
United Colours of Football (fanzine), 197-8
World Cup (2010), 235
Wray, John (Barnsley FC), 190
Vasili, Phil (writer), 222–3, 260n7
voting patterns, 150
You Wot! (fanzine), 188–9, 199, 201, 229
youth degeneration, 23–6, 29, 41, 54, 55–7,
132, 168

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