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- Preface Green Productivity (GP) is the concept applicable to whole humane activities.

By GP promotion and implementation, quality, environment and productivity improvement could be realized. (Win-Win Approach) Occupational environmental health and safety (OEHS) is the most important targeted area of GP application. Especially, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which generally have difficulty in tackling OEHS problem systematically (Knowledge, experience, human resources and fund), are recommended to apply and implement GP efficiently and effectively, leading to excellent OEHS company. Governmental and other institutional supports such as appropriate law/regulation enforcement, presentation of guideline and monitoring are important. However the most important thing to make comfortable working place is the collaboration among owners, management and employers in the organization. The integration of occupational health and safety, environment and quality have been studied recently; 1) Guideline for Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OHMS) by International Labor Organization (ILO), 2) Integration of ISO 9000 (Quality) and ISO14000 (Environment). The integration of OEHS, frequently discussed as above, is difficult to be realized because of wide range of themes contained. However OEHS themes could be classified into common and individual natures. GP is the most effective measures to provide effective answer to solve common problem. To promote and implement OEHS in organization efficiently basic information is required. This manual provides basic information of OEHS and GP based on the information and data of seminars and workshops hosted by APO. Also in this manual, experimental integration of GP and OEHS themes are studied and contained. Based on this information, the maximum application of GP in the area of occupational environmental health and safety will create comfortable, safe and healthy working places.

-ContentsChapter 1. Global Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development ............ 1 1-1. Notes to Facilitators...................................................................................................1 1-1-1. Learning Objectives ................................................................................ 1 1-1-2. Contents .................................................................................................. 1 1-1-3. Teaching Methodology ............................................................................ 1 1-1-4. Special Tips ............................................................................................. 1 1-2. Global Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development...............................2 1-2-1. Economic Activity and the Environment ............................................... 2 1-2-2. Major Environmental Concerns ............................................................. 2 1-2-3. Environmental Pollution ........................................................................ 3 1-2-4. Air Pollution ............................................................................................ 3 1-2-5. Water Pollution ....................................................................................... 3 1-2-6. Solid Wastes ............................................................................................ 4 1-3. Natural Resources Depletion .....................................................................................5 1-4. Global Environmental Concerns ...............................................................................5 1-4-1. 1960-1970s .............................................................................................. 5 1-4-2. 1980s -1990s............................................................................................ 5 1-4-3. 1990s - ..................................................................................................... 6 1-4-4. Landmark Milestones............................................................................. 6 1-5. Sustainable Development and Agenda 21 .................................................................7 1-5-1. Corporate Response to Agenda 21: WBCSD .......................................... 7 1-6. Sustainability and Triple Bottom Line ......................................................................8 1-6-1. Emerging Notion of Sustainability ........................................................ 8 1-6-2. Sustainability and Competitiveness for Businesses ............................. 8 1-7. Sustainability and OEHS ...........................................................................................9 Chapter 2 Green Productivity and Occupational Environmental Health & Safety11 2-1. Note to Facilitators...11 2-1-1. Learning Objectives......11 2-1-2. Contents........11 2-1-3. Teaching Methodology.11 2-1-4. Special Tips...11 2-2. Green Productivity...12 2-2-1. Green Productivity....12 2-2-2. Triple Focus of GP....12 2-2-3. Key Characteristics of GP13 2-2-4. Driving Forces for GP..14 2-2-5. Green Productivity Enhances Quality of Life..15 2-3. Occupational Enevironmental Health & Safety..16 2-3-1. Precious Lives and Health16 2-3-2. Safe Workplace for Enhanced Productivity..16 2-3-3. Unsafe Situations and Actions......17 2-3-4. Chain Reaction of Five Dominos..19 2-3-5. Causal Analysis - 4M19 2-4. GP for OEHS Management..20

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Chapter 3. Green Productivity Methodology, Tools and Techniques....................... 20 3-1. Notes to Facilitators.................................................................................................20 3-1-1. Learning Objectives .............................................................................. 20 3-1-2. Contents ................................................................................................ 20 3-1-3. Teaching Methodology .......................................................................... 20 3-1-4. Special Tips ........................................................................................... 20 3-2. GP Methodology, Tools & Techniques ....................................................................22 3-2-1. Top Management Commitment............................................................ 22 3-2-2. Step I: Getting Started ......................................................................... 22 3-2-3. Step II: Planning................................................................................... 23 3-2-4. Step III: Generation & Evaluation of GP Options............................... 25 3-2-5. Step IV: Implementation of GP Options .............................................. 27 3-2-6. Step V: Monitoring and Review............................................................ 27 3-2-7. Step VI: Sustaining GP......................................................................... 28 3-3. GP Tools ..................................................................................................................28 3-4. GP Techniques .........................................................................................................29 Chapter 4. Managing GP/OEHS: (Human Aspects) ................................................. 31 4-1. Notes to Facilitators.................................................................................................31 4-1-1. Learning Objectives .............................................................................. 31 4-1-2. Contents ................................................................................................ 31 4-1-3. Teaching Methodology .......................................................................... 31 4-1-4. Special Tips ........................................................................................... 31 4-2. Managing GP/OEHS: Human Aspects ....................................................................32 4-3. OEHS Management: Some Observations & Facts ..................................................32 4-3-1. Organizational Structures, Roles & Responsibilities.......................... 32 4-3-2. Driving Forces for OEHS Management ............................................... 32 4-3-3. Appropriate Alignment of Task and Worker ........................................ 33 4-3-4. Human Character: 3 Causes of unsafe actions.................................... 33 4-3-5. Human Actions and Accidents.............................................................. 33 4-4. Managing Working Conditions & Environment......................................................35 4-4-1. Working Plan ........................................................................................ 35 4-4-2. Work Procedure..................................................................................... 35 4-4-3. Working Environment .......................................................................... 37 4-4-4. Lock-out / Tag-out Procedures.............................................................. 37 4-4-5. Work Permit System............................................................................. 38 4-4-6. Housekeeping Procedures .................................................................... 39 4-4-7. Industrial Hygiene Procedures ............................................................ 39 4-4-8. Emergency Procedures ......................................................................... 42 Chapter 5. Managing GP/OEHS: Technological & Design Considerations............ 45 5-1. Notes to Facilitators.................................................................................................45 5-1-1. Learning Objectives .............................................................................. 45 5-1-2. Contents ................................................................................................ 45 5-1-3. Teaching Methodology .......................................................................... 45 5-1-4. Special Tips ........................................................................................... 45 5-2. Managing GP/OEHS: Technological and Design Considerations ..........................46 5-3. Safety Design...........................................................................................................46

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5-3-1. Equipment and Process Design............................................................ 46 5-3-2. Workplace & Equipment Layout.......................................................... 46 5-3-3. Equipment & Facilities Maintenance .................................................. 46 5-3-4. Machine Safety Guards ........................................................................ 47 5-3-5. Alarm and Warning Systems................................................................ 47 5-3-6. Ventilation............................................................................................. 47 5-3-7. Personal Protection Equipment ........................................................... 47 5-4. Managing Facilities and Equipment ........................................................................47 5-4-1. Safe Machines and Equipment ............................................................ 47 5-4-2. Foolproof and Fail-Safe ........................................................................ 48 5-4-3. Contact with Driving Parts .................................................................. 48 5-4-4. Safety Distance of Objects to Prevent Tucking.................................... 49 5-4-5. Safeguarding: Separation by safety barrier ........................................ 49 5-4-6. Controlling Chemicals .......................................................................... 50 5-5. Preventing Accidents ...............................................................................................51 5-5-1. Preventing Electrical Accidents ........................................................... 51 5-5-2. Preventing Accidents during Transportation ...................................... 51 5-5-3. Preventing Explosions .......................................................................... 52 5-5-4. Preventing Accidents due to Falling & Tumbling ............................... 53 5-5-5. Preventing Accidents due to Come-Flying and Dropping Objects ...... 54 5-6. Preventing Occupational Diseases ..........................................................................54 5-6-1. Preventing Dust Diseases (Pneumoconiosis)....................................... 54 5-6-2. Preventing Organic Solvent Poisoning ................................................ 55 5-6-3. Preventing Chemical Poisoning ........................................................... 56 5-6-4. Preventing Respiratory Exposure with Chemical, Vapor & Dust ...... 57 5-6-5. Preventing Oxygen Deficiency ............................................................. 59 5-6-6. Preventing Back Ache........................................................................... 60 5-6-7. Preventing Noise and Sound ................................................................ 60 5-7. Monitoring ...............................................................................................................61 5-7-1. Proactive Monitoring ............................................................................ 61 5-7-2. Reactive Monitoring.............................................................................. 62 5-7-3. Time-weighted Exposure Monitoring................................................... 62 5-7-4. Sampling and Monitoring Equipment ................................................. 62 5-8. Personal Protective Equipments ..............................................................................63 Chapter 6. Risk Assessment and Emergency Response Planning ............................ 65 6-1. Notes to Facilitators.................................................................................................65 6-1-1. Learning Objectives .............................................................................. 65 6-1-2. Contents ................................................................................................ 65 6-1-3. Teaching Methodology .......................................................................... 65 6-1-4. Special Tips ........................................................................................... 65 6-2. Risk Assessment ......................................................................................................66 6-2-1. Safety and Risk ..................................................................................... 66 6-2-2. Risk Assessment as per ISO................................................................. 66 6-2-3. Risk Assessment Methodology ............................................................. 67 6-3. Emergency Response Planning ...............................................................................70 6-3-1. Need for Emergency Response Plan (ERP).......................................... 71

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6-3-2. Overview of Emergency Response........................................................ 71 6-3-3. HAZMAT: Six Step ERP Methodology ................................................. 72 6-3-4. Developing an ERP Manual ................................................................. 74 6-3-5. Emergency Response Training ............................................................. 75 6-3-6. Exercises and Drills of ERP ................................................................. 75 Chapter 7. OEHS Management System...................................................................... 77 7-1. Notes to Facilitators.................................................................................................77 7-1-1. Learning Objectives .............................................................................. 77 7-1-2. Contents ................................................................................................ 77 7-1-3. Teaching Methodology .......................................................................... 77 7-1-4. Special Tips ........................................................................................... 77 7-2. Human Resources Management Issues ...................................................................78 7-2-1. Collaboration between OEHS & Operations Staff .............................. 78 7-2-2. OEHS Organization.............................................................................. 79 7-2-3. Safety and Health Education ............................................................... 80 7-3. Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) Standards .........81 7-3-1. BS-8800 ................................................................................................. 81 7-3-2. ISO9001 and ISO14001 ........................................................................ 81 7-3-3. OSH System by ILO ............................................................................. 81 7-3-4. Integration of ISO 9000 and 14000...................................................... 81 7-3-5. Comparison of Standards ..................................................................... 81 7-4. OEHS Management System ....................................................................................83 7-4-1. Objective................................................................................................ 83 7-4-2. PDCA Cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Action): .................................................. 83 7-4-3. Outline of OEHSM System:.................................................................. 84 7-4-4. OEHS Management Plan ..................................................................... 84 7-4-5. Follow-Up Safety and Advanced Safety: .............................................. 85 7-5. OEHS Auditing........................................................................................................85 7-5-1. OEHS Auditing ..................................................................................... 85 7-5-2. Pre-Audit Phase .................................................................................... 86 7-5-3. Audit Phase ........................................................................................... 88 7-5-4. Post Audit Phase................................................................................... 90 Case Study for Group Work ........................................................................................ 91 Case 1. Accident Investigation Case Study: Fire in a Drying Unit.................................91 Case 2. Explosion in Petrochemical Plant ......................................................................93

Chapter 1. Global Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development


1-1. Notes to Facilitators
1-1-1. Learning Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to present the context and background for understanding the GP and OEHS issues covered in the training manual.

1-1-2. Contents
This chapter, therefore, presents an overview of the existing state of the environment and development. As the occupational environmental health and safety are key issues to attain the sustainable development, global concerns and responses are explained. Facilitators can present this information supplemented by relevant additional information taken from the local context. Once this bigger picture is explained, the discussion could be zeroed down to the context of industries and manufacturing sectors. Here, the emerging notion of sustainability can be introduced. All this would provide a context for understanding the Green Productivity concept where competitiveness and profitability are very important elements. Once the concept of sustainability and triple bottom line is introduced, its close linkages with OEHS issues can be highlighted. With all this background information, the participants should be convinced at the end of the lecture of the need for an integrated strategy such as GP for OEHS management, which can ultimately help in moving the Asian economy in a sustainable direction.

1-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session can be conducted primarily as a classroom lecture. Some relevant training videos may be screened to enthuse the participants.

1-1-4. Special Tips


Facilitators could include as much local information / context as possible to make the issues covered here, very much appealing for the participants.

1-2. Global Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development


1-2-1. Economic Activity and the Environment
Any form of economic activity, be it agriculture, industry or, more recently, the services sector impacts the environment at every stage of the life cycle of goods and services produced. Obtaining raw materials through mining and other extractive processes leads to degradation of soil, vegetation, and contamination of air and water bodies. Manufacturing processes result in air emissions, wastewater and solid waste generation, leading to pollution of air, water, land and associated biota. Distribution of goods and services demands resources, including energy and packaging material, is resulting in secondary environmental impacts. The use and disposal of products by consumers again results in consumption of resources, pollution of air, water and land.
Industry and Environmental Degradation
Economic Activities Agriculture Industry Services

Life Cycle of Good and Services Resource extraction Transformation to Products Use and Disposal of Products Water Pollution Air Pollution Solid Waste Other Pollution

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Costs of Environmental Damage

1-2-2. Major Environmental Concerns


The late 60s and early 70s witnessed the rise of popular ecological consciousness in the west. Environmental problems such as toxic waste contamination, smog, air pollution, water pollution were initially perceived as local issues and problems have become critical issues that are regularly debated in international forums.

The major environmental concerns include: Loss of croplands and grazing lands due to erosion, desertification, conversion to non-farm uses, etc. Depletion of the world's tropical forests and rapid loss of biological diversity Rapid population growth Shortage of freshwater resources due to overexploitation of surface and groundwater resources Over fishing, habitat destruction and pollution of the marine environment Threats to human health (from the release of industrial pollutants, applications of pesticides and other hazardous substances) Climate change Ozone layer depletion

1-2-3. Environmental Pollution


Rapid development in many Asian countries equates rapid urbanization and industrialization, which in turn have led to high pollution loads and increasing social stress.

1-2-4. Air Pollution


Air pollution by a variety of substances and gases poses risks to human health. Most air pollutants come from the human-made sources such as fossil fuel combustion, transportation, power plant emissions and emissions from other industrial processes and economic activities. Fossil fuel combustion produces many pollutants including nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, mercury and particulates. These pollutants can cause serious health problems including asthma, irritation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infections, and even early death. Some pollutants also cause certain environmental problems, such as acid rain and climate change.

1-2-5. Water Pollution


Water shortage, water pollution and flooding are evident all over the world - especially in the developing countries. The causes of these water related problems are population increase, urban development and industrialization. Moreover, international conflicts over water problem are occurring in various regions. Contaminants in water could reach the human body through drinking water, water used for cooking and eating fishes and shellfishes living in the polluted water bodies. These substances have various ill effects on the human body. Hazardous materials flowing into the river, lake or sea, could be
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concentrated in the process of food chain. Humans eating these food products develop symptoms of poisoning. For example, trichloroethylene is referred to as carcinogens and has bad effect on the nerve system. Methyl mercury causes the disturbance of the central nervous system, loses eyesight and paralyzes limbs. PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyl) develops skin lesions and liver disease. Even tiny amount of such hazardous materials accumulating in the body for long period can have serious effects on human health. Mainly domestic sewage, industrial effluents, and runoff cause water pollution in countries in Asia and the Pacific from activities such as agriculture and mining. The problem of pathogenic pollution is quite severe in South Asia, South-East Asia, the Pacific Islands, and China. The main reason for this being the domestic sewage that is discharged untreated into watercourses.

1-2-6. Solid Wastes


Solid wastes are generated from a variety of economic activities and can include garbage, bulky garbage, residues, sludge, waste oil, waste acid, waste alkalis, animal corpses and other waste or unnecessary materials, residue, plastics, paper, textile, wood, rubber, metal, glass, ceramics and others. The impact on environment and health varies by the kinds of waste. Classification of Waste

Waste Industrial Waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Cinder Sludge Waste Oil Waste Acids Waste Alkalis Waste Plastics Waste Paper Waste Wood Waste Textiles Animals & Vegetable Residues Waste Rubber Metal Scraps Cullet & Waste Ceramics Slag Waste Construction Material Animal Excrement Dead Animals Dust Others

It is important to provide for proper treatment and disposal to each type of waste. In Asian countries, main treatment methods of wastes
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are incineration, land filling and open dumping. Leaking water from open dumping and landfill sites poses serious environmental pollution and bad effects on human health.

1-3. Natural Resources Depletion


Currently the worlds population is about 6 billion and increasing by 80 million every year. In 1650, it was about 500 million and during the past 350 years, it increased 12 times. In 2017, it is estimated that worlds population will be about 7 billion with the present growth rates. The population of developing countries accounts for 73% of the world population, but will increase more. Population increase causes food crisis and natural resource depletion. There are many kinds of natural resource such as water, mineral, forest, sea bottom and marine. Natural resources exist from the era of earth formation in vast but not infinite quantities. Especially the quantity of the resources to be mined is limited. Since industrial revolution, human being has continuously mined and used every kind of natural resources to establish various industries. But it is feared that in near future these precious resources will be dried up. Ocean bottom resources and undeveloped resources are the target of future development. It is therefore important to reduce the consumption and to increase the optimal use and reuse of the natural resources.

1-4. Global Environmental Concerns


1-4-1. 1960-1970s
The late 1960s and early 1970s witnessed the public recognition of environmental issues in the West. Industrial production was rapidly rising with a 7% annual growth in manufacturing. However, environmental problems such as toxic waste contamination, air pollution and water pollution were perceived as local problems.

1-4-2. 1980s -1990s


With increasing global population the consumption patterns became more resource intensive; environmental problems transcended the local and regional boundaries. There was a growing recognition of regional and global impacts of development with visible environmental problems such as acid rain, global warming, ozone layer depletion being recognized as serious issues. Examples include acid rain in Canada originating from industrial emissions in the US; forest destruction in Germany; and acidification of water bodies in Scandinavia. Developed countries began to increasingly depend on developing countries for non-renewable resources (fuel and mineral). This trade boosted growth of developing economies but led to degradation of
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natural resources. Hence, the impact of environmental degradation began crossing local and regional boundaries on the back of trade. Increased industrialization and energy consumption led to regional problems in the developing economies. Global warming and ozone layer depletion became issues of international concern. Trade was liberalized and globalized; leading to a greater recognition that environmental degradation does not respect boundaries.

1-4-3. 1990s Sustainable development, environmental and social soundness began to be recognized as the issues of governance. Role of environment and development in international trade started becoming key issues of international polity and diplomacy. A New Order with sustainable development as the need of the hour emerged.

1-4-4. Landmark Milestones


The environmental trends discussed earlier can be mapped to certain landmark activities, which show that there has been recognition of non-sustainability of development over the years starting from the 1960s. This occurred intermittently in the 1960s and 1970s but today the need for sustainable development has become the agenda for the new millennium. Some of the activities that eventually led to an increase in the publics awareness of the non-sustainability of development are: Rachel Carsons book Silent Spring that explicitly addressed the dangers of using pesticides. The creation of the concept of limits of growth that addresses issues of population vis--vis the finiteness of resources and pollution caused by overexploitation of these resources. The Population Bomb Theory by Ehrlich & Ehrlich that addresses the links between population and environment. The Global 2000 Report 1980 which presented the global state of environment. The World Council of Environment and Developments (WCED) 1987 report called Our Common Future, which for the first time provided a formal definition for sustainable development. Warning on environmental degradation and non-sustainability sounded by 1,670 scientists and 107 Noble Laureates on environmental degradation and non-sustainability of current development trends in 1992. Formation of the International Factor 10 Clubs.

1-5. Sustainable Development and Agenda 21


The growing global environmental crisis has led to a consensus response in the move towards sustainable development. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, 1992, resulted in an Action Plan towards sustainable development (Agenda 21). Agenda 21

Agenda 21 Environment Development

Issues of socio-economic development Inequality in the use of resources between nations and within nations Intergeneration equity Population and the carrying capacity of the earth The need for cooperation between nations
The conference accepted the definition of sustainable development presented by the World Council of Environment and Development in its book Our Common Future, 1987. ..development that meets that needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs ---Our common future, 1987. Agenda 21, is a 300 page plan for achieving sustainable development in 21st century. It was adopted in the first international Earth Summit, at the UNCED in 1992. Agenda 21 deals with all issues of environment and development, including issues of socioeconomics development; inequality in the use of resources between nations and within nations; inter generation equity; population and the carrying capacity of the earth; and the need for cooperation between nations. Implementation of Agenda 21 required its translation into countrylevel plans that would recognize local issues and give priority to addressing them.

1-5-1. Corporate Response to Agenda 21: WBCSD


Corporate responses to Agenda 21 to steer industrial development in a sustainable direction included formation of the World Business Council of Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in 1992. The WBCSD is a coalition of 120 international companies united by a
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shared commitment to the environment and to the principles of economic growth and sustainable development. Its members are drawn from 33 countries and more than 20 major industrial sectors. The WBCSD also benefits from a thriving global network of 9 national and regional business councils and 4 partner organizations. The WBCSD provides a powerful and unified business voice on sustainable development issues. It plays an important role in developing closer cooperation between business, governments and others, and in encouraging high standards of environmental management in business itself. The term eco-efficiency in production was coined by the WBCSD in its declaration. It was first introduced as a concept in 1992 in Changing Course, the councils report to the Rio Earth Summit. The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 came up with the sustainable development concept with its three pillars: economic development, environmental protection and social fairness. These three aspects: economical, environmental and social define the sustainable development or sustainability in the new millennium,

1-6. Sustainability and Triple Bottom Line


1-6-1. Emerging Notion of Sustainability
The late 90s and the beginning of new millennium saw the emergence of sustainability as the cornerstone of development process. Environmental and social issues, which were being discussed at technical seminars and debates, have now become mainstream diplomatic issues and an integral part of international trade. The notion of sustainability is the adaptation of the sustainable development concept in the context of businesses and industries. Importantly, as the word implies, it relates to the long-term survival of the business itself and hence this is no more philanthropy or social commitment but is indeed a real business issue.

1-6-2. Sustainability and Competitiveness for Businesses


The notion of competitiveness has been changing over the last few decades and is getting closely interlinked with the sustainability thinking. In the past (say in 60s) productivity/competitiveness was synonymous to higher production with a low cost. Therefore the main concern for all the businesses was of low cost only. In the 1960's this concept as the competition increased and quality
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also became the major factor for competitiveness. In the 1980's and 1990's the environmental and social aspects also became very important for competitiveness. Hence, the businesses now need to think about the triple bottom line for competitiveness, which is low cost, high quality and environmental as well as social considerations.

1-7. Sustainability and OEHS


One unique characteristic of todays global marketplace is that the human health and safety and environmental quality objectives have been co-opted by the corporations world over as the essential marketing tools. In fact, many North American, European, and Asian corporations and even the governments are poised to implement formal procedures for certifying the authenticity and efficacy of those tools. Of particular importance in this business-driven paradigm of health, safety and environmental quality is the growing acceptance that the social and environmental concerns cannot be separated from one another and must therefore be managed holistically in the context of competitiveness and sustainability. Such a paradigm shift at times conflicts with the traditional view of the workplace as basically an economic resource and provides a window of opportunity to realize the objectives of sustainable development. In the modern thinking therefore OEHS issues are at the core of the sustainability paradigm. Health and safety concerns for workers as well as for the society at large form an important element of sustainable development. This is also in line with the new thinking on sustainability with its three pillars economical, environmental and social with OEHS issues primarily addressing the last two.

Chapter 2 Green Productivity and Occupational Environmental Health & Safety


2-1. Notes to Facilitators
2-1-1. Learning Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to present the overview of the GP and OEHS issues.

2-1-2. Contents

This chapter introduces the background and concept of GP emphasizing its triple Focus, key characteristics and the driving forces. Further, a basic overview of the occupational environmental health & safety issues is presented highlighting the importance of safe workplace for enhanced productivity. A brief introduction on how accidents occur and how to analyze the causes of the accidents is provided next. The chapter concludes with some pointers on how the GP approach can be applied in the context of OEHS Management in any organization which is discussed in detail in the subsequent chapters. With all this conceptual background, at the end of the lecture, participants should be prepared to get into details and hands-on knowledge on GP methodology and other practical issues for OEHS management,

2-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session will essentially have to be conducted as a classroom lecture.

2-1-4. Special Tips


This chapter might appear to be somewhat conceptual / theoretical. Facilitators need to ensure that participants do not get a feeling of GP and OEHS issues as something academic. Hence, facilitators must emphasis on the practical applications about these concepts. For this, it is possible to include case studies of GP implementation through past APO projects and make the concepts covered here appealing for the participants.

2-2. Green Productivity


2-2-1. Green Productivity
In response to the recommendations of Earth Summit of 1992 that economic development and environmental protection would be the two key strategies for sustainable development, the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) introduced the concept of Green Productivity in 1994. Green productivity (GP) is a broad strategy for enhancing profitability and environ-mental performance. When used effectively it can lead to positive changes in socio -economic development. Green Productivity 10

attempts to answer society's needs, by increasing productivity through environmentally sound manufacturing practices and businesses, thereby catering to customer requirements for more environmentally sound products, while ensuring a healthy and safe environment. In order to ensure a continuous improvement in productivity, as well as in the level of environmental protection, a systematic approach and methodology has been developed for Green Productivity. GP is multi-faceted, holistic approach to cover all aspects that are crucial for the overall socio-economic development of a sustained improvement in the quality of human life. The important point of the concept is that one aspect is achieved without sacrificing the others. This is therefore a win-win approach. It is also expected that such a strategy at the micro-level will ultimately contribute to the alleviation of global problems such as climate change and depletion of the ozone layer.

2-2-2. Triple Focus of GP


Green Productivity aims to ensure environmental protection while making business profitable. This is necessary if development is to be sustainable. Triple Focus of GP

The concept of GP shows that for any development strategy to be sustainable it needs to have a focus on Quality, Profitability and Environment -called the triple focus of GP. The customer dictates quality for both goods and services. GP works at ensuring quality by promoting the use of newer and safer materials, increasing processing and production efficiency and improving working conditions. The savings may come from lower production and waste management costs or may take the form of avoiding the cost of potential environmental liabilities. GP thus works towards attaining higher level of productivity for serving the needs of society and to protect and enhance the quality of environment both locally and globally by focusing on Q-E-P. 11

2-2-3. Key Characteristics of GP


GP is characterized by four distinguishing characteristics. Environmental Compliance The heart of GP is environmental compliance. It can be achieved through the practice of GP by pollution prevention and source reduction. Residues will require being managed using end-of-pipe treatment measures. While achieving environmental compliance, GP must improve productivity simultaneously. Productivity Improvement Kaizen approach of continuous improvement forms the basis of GP. This has to accompany environmental protection. The continuous improvement achieved by adopting the tenets of the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Action) cycle is aimed at ensuring not only the productivity improvement sought in classical productivity programs, but also environmental improvement. This is a dynamic and iterative process. Integrated People-based Approach The strength of GP exists in its worker involvement and team-based approach, thus including working environment, worker health and safety, non-discrimination and related social welfare issues. This is the methodology involving multi-stakeholder participation. This enables a step-by-step approach, systematic generation of options and solutions, and contribution by all members in an organization to the GP process. The people involvement also ensures transparency and accountability. Information-driven Improvement Documentation and reporting are the features of GP. Performance of an organization after establishing a GP program would be continuously measured and evaluated using a set of defined GP performance indicators.

2-2-4. Driving Forces for GP


Both external and internal forces could drive GP to the organization. External forces include: National and international regulations Regulations may be in the form of increasingly stricter and more complex national regulations and standards; fiscal instruments such as taxes and penalties; and judicial directives. Many of the national regulations are a reflection of the international regulatory developments in environmental and natural resource protection. Standards and international conventions Evolving global and industry standards are serving as driving forces for the move towards GP. These include international conventions such as the Montreal Protocol and Climate Change 12

Convention; Responsible Care of the Chemical Industry; Marine Stewardship Council for the food-processing sector; Forest Stewardship for pulp and paper sector; and codes of conduct for environmental and social responsibility. Businesses in developing economics These trends have much greater implications for businesses in developing economies due to their technological and resource constraints. Opening up of world markets and the increased globalization has further intensified the pressures on these businesses, as they have to meet international expectations. Resource Pricing and Availability A very important issue pertaining to sustain ability of consumption and production is resource pricing and availability. Policies favoring realistic resource pricing are an essential economic instrument to drive production towards resource conservation and efficiency. Availability of a resource would typically govern its pricing, and this in turn would be indicative of the priority that should be placed in the conservation of the resource. Customers Customer requirements usually focus on quality, cost, reliability, and, most importantly, promptness of delivery. However, as environmental requirements are expected to become an integral part of business strategy, pressure from customers, particularly in industrialized countries, is increasing on suppliers to provide environmentally sound goods and services. The need to obtain standards such as ISO 14000 and SA 8000 certification is increasing pressure on suppliers to improve their environmental and social performance. A number of multinationals are moving to green their supply chains, and purchasing policies are reflecting the environmental requirements. To stay in the market, suppliers have to modify their business practices.

Internal forces that affect GP are worker health and safety and internal efficiency, integral to the enterprise.
Worker Health and Safety Occupational Health and Safety is not as apparent driving force as external ones. However the advantages of ensuring worker health and safety include: reduced health and insurance costs; reduced absenteeism; lower liabilities; and an increase in the morale of workers. This is reflected as improved labor productivity, which is a strong driving force for the adoption of a strategy like GP. Internal Efficiency Internal efficiency of processes and operations in an organization that serve as a driving force for GP primarily involve resource 13

efficiency, which typically results in: Reduction of waste by improving process conversion efficiency, Equipment efficiency, Recycling, Recovering useful raw materials and by-products, Reducing off-spec product formation, Improvement in quality of products, and Using better and safer raw materials and reducing defects. Cost reduction as a result of the above measures is expected, thus adding to the bottom-line of the organization. All these trends are also creating new market opportunities for goods and services produced in a more sustainable manner and promoting a sustainable lifestyle. Such trends, new opportunities and changes in the perceptions of competitive advantage are serving to drive businesses towards practices like GP, which will help them to systematically strengthen their market positions.

2-2-5. Green Productivity Enhances Quality of Life


By improving productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development, GP enhances quality of life. GP achieves this through its multi-sector coverage focus and its role in building up the community as a whole. GP aims eventually at shaping business to answer the societal demands for quality of life through supply of goods and services produced in a sustainable manner. It has a strong SME focus here, as they form the backbone of not only businesses, but development as a whole in Asia.

2-3. Occupational Environmental Health & Safety


2-3-1. Precious Lives and Health
Many people work in the factories; top management executives, secretaries, managers, supervisors, workers, and part-time workers. Their duties are wide-ranging: office work, machine operation, driving, construction, physical labor etc. Of these, some people are exposed to dangerous conditions. Labor accidents were considered to be unavoidable in the past. But at present it is not acceptable for people in factories to be affected with their occupational activities and healthy and safe occupational environment is workers right. Still, in reality many workers fall victim of occupational accidents.

2-3-2. Safe Workplace for Enhanced Productivity


Many people are working vigorously in the workplace everyday. All of 14

the people should be healthy and motivated to keep the work venue safe and comfortable. Safe and healthy workplace leads to efficient production, good quality of products, and clean and safe environment. Plant managers and other people in the lead role have responsibility for this. E. H. Gary, ex-Chairman of US Steel Corporation in USA, was suffering from repetition of accidents in the plants. In 1906 he mended the company basic policy as Safety First, Quality Second, and Production Third. Accordingly, accidents reduced and the quality of products and production volume went up. This result gave strong impact to all the USA and Europe. Safety First is still the most important key word in all plants.

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2-3-3. Unsafe Situations and Actions


When abnormality and defects rise in the equipment and working environment, it could cause accidents and injury. This situation is called unsafe situations. On the other hand when abnormality and defects rise due to human activities, thus causing accidents and injury such actions are called unsafe actions. If accidents occur, its situation and action should be investigated precisely. Tables below show classification of unsafe actions and situations. While, it is necessary to eliminate such unsafe actions and situations, to ascertain the true causes triggering these actions and situations is more important. Unsafe Situations 1. Defects of Equipments Faulty design, Production defect, Obsolescence/Fatigue/Service limit Not-repaired failure/Poor maintenance 2. Defects in Safeguard Vulnerability, Insufficient protection, No or poor insulation / shielding, Defects of Notices 3. Defects in alignment and workspace Shortage of corridor and workspace, Defects in equipment arrangement, Defects in alignment of materials 4. Defects in protection equipment and wear No rules on footwear / protective equipment/work wears, No banning of gloves 5. Defects in working surroundings Defects in ventilation, Defects in other working environment 6. External unsafe situation Defects in external materials/ protection equipments / workplace Danger of traffics, Natural danger 7. Defects in working method Inadequate use of machines / equipments / tools, Mistakes in work sequence, Technical & physical unreasonable demand

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Unsafe Actions 1. Canceling safety apparatus Remove safety apparatus Error in setting safety apparatus Take away protective stuffs 2. Failing safety precautions Start up machines or equipments unexpectedly Start up autos etc. without sign and/or safety confirmation 3. Negligence in unsafe manner Leave machines during operation Leave machines in unsafe manner Placing stuffs at unsafe location 4. Begetting dangerous situation Overloading Mixing dangerous materials Replacing by unsafe parts 5. Usage of unsafe machines and equipments Using imperfect parts Wrong selection Operating at unsafe speed 6 Inadequate cleaning, lubrication, fixing and check during machine operation 7. Defects of protection equipment and wears Not using protection equipments Error in selecting and using the equipments Wearing unsafe clothes 8. Getting close to the dangerous places Approaching to or touch moving machines or equipments Entering into dangerous or harmful place Getting on the dangerous place 9. Other unsafe action Using hands instead of tools Starting the next action without safety confirmation Running without discretion Trick and Hoax 10. Mistakes of driving vehicles Excessive speed Other unsafe operation 11. Mistaken performance Bringing too much burden Uncertain holding Wrong direction of pushing and pulling Wrong manner of climbing up and down

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2-3-4. Chain Reaction of Five Dominos


I. Casualty and injury are the result of accidents. II. Accidents occur due to unsafe situation or a workers unsafe action. These are the direct causes of any accident. III. Unsafe situation and action arise from personal defects (physical and psychological). IV. Personal defects arise from environmental and social defects. These are named indirect causes. V. Casualty and injury are caused by the chain reaction of five dominos. If one can eliminate one domino from I to III, there will be no accidents. Getting rid of unsafe situation and action (direct cause) from the chain action is the most effective measure to curb accidents.

2-3-5. Causal Analysis - 4M


National Traffic Safety Bureau (NTSB) employs 4M technique for causal analysis developed by the US Air Force. This method is useful not only in aircraft accident but also in OEHS. Accidents are caused by unsafe situations and unsafe actions of direct causes. By analyze direct causes from the viewpoint of 4Ms (Man, Machine, Media and Management) exploration of the nature of accidents becomes easier. 4M Techniques for Causal Analysis Pathological, physiological, physical, Man Human Factors medicinal, psychological, sociological factors to involve human action Safety design, Safe guard, Inspection and Equipment Machine maintenance, Structure of workplace and Factors scaffolding, Dangerous object storage Operational & Work plan, Work process, Work motion, Media Environmental Occupational environmental condition, Factors Protective equipment Management structure, Safety training, Administrative Proactive measures against danger, Health Management Factors control, Self-control activities in work groups In 4Ms man, media and management factors have common elements among accidents of all industries. Machine, however, has different counter-measures among industry sectors, and different knowledge is required in each industry. In certain enterprises, workers receive training when they join the organization. The answers from 67% of injured workers to the question: Do you know how to handle your job correctly? were I didnt know. Among them 55% answered I remember that I received training, but I dont remember the content of the training. Some people think from this result that 94% of accidents are a result of the human error.

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2-4. GP for OEHS Management


From the earlier discussion, it is clear that OEHS management is a very important aspect of the business management today, which can directly enhance the productivity and competitiveness. Moreover, this is in line with the emerging trend of sustainability as it addresses the very important aspect of social fairness. GP is a practical strategy that can help organizations to institutionalize continual improvement in productivity and environmental performance. The unique feature of GP is its systematic step-by-step methodology with its 6-steps and 13-tasks. This methodology is based on the Demings classic PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle and is supplemented by a set of tools and techniques from productivity, management and engineering domains. The GP methodology has been a popular and effective approach adopted all over the Asian and Pacific region. In the context of OEHS management, GP approach and methodology can be very effective leading to substantial improvements in productivity and profitability while realizing the sustainability objectives. Chapter 3 elaborates in detail the steps and tools and techniques of the GP methodology while the subsequent chapters discuss the various OEHS tools, techniques and issues that can contribute to the sustainability of any organization.

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Chapter 3. Green Productivity Methodology, Tools and Techniques


3-1. Notes to Facilitators
3-1-1. Learning Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to provide understanding of GP methodology, tools and techniques.

3-1-2. Contents
This chapter presents an overview of the GP methodology with its 6-steps and 13-tasks. A list of GP tools and techniques supplements the methodology.

3-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This chapter should be used to train the participants about the GP methodology using the hands-on Case Study for Group Work. The teaching methodology involves short lectures for the various steps and tasks followed by Group Work by the participants.

3-1-4. Special Tips


It is possible to use the given hypothetical case study for training purposes. However, it is also possible to use a real life situation and participants can work on the case study as a part of the training. Of course, in such a case, a very close interaction between the facilitators and participants is essential and the duration for the group work can be longer depending on the field situation.

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3-2. GP Methodology, Tools & Techniques


GP methodology consists of six major steps. The six steps of GP methodology are comprised of 13 tasks. These are briefly described below.

3-2-1. Top Management Commitment


For any GP project to be implemented successfully there is a need to obtain the commitment and involvement of the top management. The expected role and contribution from the top management include: Identify a GP team leader and recommend composition of the GP team (Step 1). Review the objectives and targets (Step 2) to ensure compatibility with company policy, check the time frames, resource and funding requirement. Review and approve the implementation plan (Step 4). In the case of SMEs, in particular, the owners may need to supervise the implementation of options Review the post-implementation Report to check for the following: whether Objectives and Targets are being met whether benefits and savings are as envisaged main constraints and barriers to GP program whether training programs were effective Ensure that the GP program is established by incorporating appropriate changes into the Organization's system of management to enable continuous improvement

3-2-2. Step I: Getting Started


Task 1: Team Formation Team should be dynamic and involving in nature Member should be drawn as per need analysis Can be a core team and sub-teams in large organizations Core team to supervise the overall GP program and sub team to assist core team on specific tasks. A dynamic, open minded and versatile person should be a Team Leader. It could be effective to integrate the GP team with Teams operating on any other quality or management systems in place, like ISO 9000 or ISO 14001. Tasks to be done by the GP Team could include: Conduct Walk-through; Collect baseline information; Identify problems; Generate and evaluate GP options; Prepare GP implementation plan; 22

Implement GP options; Take corrective actions as needed; Build documentation; Communicate with top management and seek approvals at various milestones. Task 2: Walk-Through Survey and Information Collection The GP team should carry out a detailed and thorough walk-through of the entire facility with an eye for identifying potential problem areas. The primary aim of a Walk-Through is to get the GP Team acquainted with the operations of the plant, validate existing information, and develop GP tools. A walk-through is necessary for several reasons: It is quite likely (especially in the case of large industries) that the members of the team may not be very familiar with the production activities in the departments other than their own. People from other production departments may look at the entire scenario more objectively with an independent perspective Identification of more and more opportunities for improvement is possible. In addition to walk-through, the baseline information about the existing situation should be collected: Review Existing Documents: Existing industry documents should be studied. One-to-One Meetings: Points arising during the review of documents and walk-through could be further discussed by conducting one-to-one meetings with concerned staff so as to seek clarification and crystallize the understanding of the information collected. Carry out Updates: Updates would include state-of-the-art information on technologies, processes, material and resources.

3-2-3. Step II: Planning


Task 3: Identification of Problems and Causes A systematic approach to problem-identification involves moving from "whole to parts: i.e. breaking a big problem down into smaller chunks. At the outset, conduct a macro level assessment of the whole plant to identify the problematic areas, at the levels of the plant, department and individual unit operations. For this exercise, use a hierarchy of tools such as Eco-maps, Benchmarking, Process Flow Diagram and Material Balance. Once the problems are identified, the next step is to carry out a cause-effect analysis. Cause-effect analysis can provide an idea about the likely underlying causes of the existing problems. Problem-specific cause identification can be done through cause-effect analysis using tools such as brainstorming, Ishikawa diagram (Fish-bone diagram), etc. This may require collection of 23

process specific or specialized information or in some cases controlled experimentation/system operations. Prioritizing Problems Setting objectives and targets depends on assigning priority to some problems over the others. The primary criteria for prioritization could be: Severity of the problem: its scale and implications. Frequency: how often it happens. Cost implications of solving the problem: affordability of that chosen solution is a criterion of setting final objectives. Most important: the estimated cost of inaction, i.e. cost of not taking any action on a problem area. It would be necessary to cost the waste streams. A final decision based on the integration of the above parameters would compare the problems on a macro level and help to decide on objectives and targets. Task 4: Setting Objectives and Targets Points to be considered in setting objectives and targets: Objectives should be based on the identified problems. One objective can have multiple targets, which could be phased out over time. Targets should be developed based on need. For example, if legal compliance is to be sought within one year, then the target for an objective, which addresses a compliance parameter, should be set for one year. Indicators to track the target with objective should be established. Objectives can include commitments to: Design products to minimize their environmental impact. Control the environmental impact of raw materials extraction. Promote awareness among employees and the community on GP. The targets need to be tracked by setting performance indicators and dovetailing them in the monitoring and reporting program. Some of the basic tools like control charts, Cumulative sum charts, Multi-variable charts or other graphical charts also can be used to indicate the progress of the target over a period of time. Task 5: Generation of GP Options To generate an innovative GP option one needs to go beyond the conventional and most obvious ways of thinking. A logical approach to generating new options involves: Using tools like the Ishikawa diagram, identify the causes of each problem. Set up a brainstorming exercise for generating options based on the identification of causative factor. Determine the nature of the solution required and hence the potential GP Techniques. 24

3-2-4. Step III: Generation & Evaluation of GP Options


A large number of GP options would be generated in the earlier step. These need to be analyzed, screened and evaluated for further possible implementation. Task 6: Screening and Evaluation of GP Options Option screening criteria The option screening criteria would be based on: Financial: Cost of implementation, cost of maintaining the option and cost of inaction. Technical Feasibility/Complexity: the technical expertise required within the industry to implement this option. Risk: the risk of failure as compared to the investments, benefits expected or physical hazards of implementation. Time required for implementation: to establish a link between time necessary for implementation of the option and the target set for the objective of that option. Benefits: to judge the potential of the option in terms of resolving the problem and in meeting the targets set, including its benefits. Screening (Sieve Method) Set up cut-off values for certain critical parameters such as cost, time, person power, etc. All GP options that exceed these values are automatically eliminated. This is the first level screening. Reasons for rejecting or deferring an option may include: Why reject? The organization cannot afford it. Lack of special skills to implement the option. The option is not proven. Why defer? Option has good potential but there is not enough information to implement it The resources that the option demands are not available The option poses a risk to the production and product quality The option needs incorporation of risk mitigation measures Evaluation of GP Options Options should be evaluated and compared on the basis of technical, environmental and financial issues as follows: Technical Nature of the requirements to implement the option, e.g space requirements, utilities, and necessary operators. Feasibility of technology. Process modification necessary. Environmental How much environmental improvement/waste reduction is expected from the option? What is the nature of the benefit (e.g. improved productivity, odor 25

control, better health and safety)? Is the solution short term or long term (will it be easy to adapt to any new regulations that might emerge)? Financial What are the investment requirements? Is the option financially viable? What would be the source of investment and the difficulty involved in raising the funds? Possible questions to be answered in evaluating options include: Which options will best achieve the objective and targets? What are the benefits to be gained by implementing this option? What technology do we need to develop the option - e.g. is it complex, expensive, difficult to control during operation? Are there any parallel adverse effects because of the option? An anticipatory or proactive approach of evaluation should be adopted while evaluating options. It is worthwhile to look beyond the implementation of the options and try to predict how they would fail, why and what are the probabilities. Task 7: Formulation of GP Implementation Plan The Implementation Plan serves three major purposes: As guidelines for implementing the selected GP options To help management to review the project As an information source for training and awareness-building For every option to be implemented, we need to build up information on the following, which are among the details included in the Implementation Plan: Department/location/points of application of the option. Type of option (e.g. housekeeping, recycle, reuse, recovery, process/equipment modification, change in raw materials). Option pre-requisites (any linkages to the prior success of other options). Necessary resources in terms of materials, equipment, information, expertise and finance. Procurements to be made. Procurements may be internal (i.e. to be requested from other departments or from external agencies). Timing and way of implementation (i.e. start at lab scale, moving to larger scales such as a pilot project, leading to full-scale implementation). Any isolation to be done from other processes, risk mitigation plans. Support staff necessary: any procedural requirements to that effect. Any insurance measures. Responsibility matrix and task allocation. Monitoring program and setting up indicators (background or baseline must be recorded before implementation). Milestones to be set in the implementation sequence.

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3-2-5. Step IV: Implementation of GP Options


Task 8: Implementation of Selected Options Implementation of the selection options should follow the time schedules developed for the Implementation Plan. The sequence of implementation is important. Suggested guidelines for implementation of the evaluated and selected GP options are as follows: Implement the options on a trial basis: start at a small scale to reduce the impact of the existing system. Regular meetings and troubleshooting sessions may be required among people who are involved in the implementation during the implementation phase. The GP Team may face difficulties like: Inadequate follow-up on actions by various parties Poor accountability Lack of resources like manpower, funds and time Lack of support from Management Increase in production time and therefore insufficient time being allocated for implementation Review and refinement of implemented options should be done whenever possible. Documentation, whether textual or visual (photographs, videos, etc.) should be made, showing before and after effects of the implemented options; these must capture the highlights of achievements and be presented during Management Reviews or GP promotional activities. Task 9: Training, Awareness, and Capacity Building Following activities need to be undertaken under this task: Assessing training needs Selecting suitable programs, methods and material Preparing a training plan (5W1H)) Implementing training programs Tracking and recording training programs Evaluating training effectiveness Improving training program as needed Ways of Training and Development Off-the-Job Training (Seminars & Lectures) On-the-Job Training Video presentations and Posters Generation Manuals and work instructions Field Visits

3-2-6. Step V: Monitoring and Review


Task 10: Monitoring and Evaluation Once the selected GP options are implemented, it is necessary to check 27

whether the options are producing the desired results. Management needs to be informed of the results of the monitoring and evaluation so that corrective action can be taken accordingly. Task 11: Management Review Management review involves checking whether the overall GP methodology is applied in the right direction and whether targets are being achieved as per the implementation plan. The key question for a management review is: "Is the GP program working?" Those organization members who are in a position to make decisions and have the right sorts of information at their fingertips should be in the review team. The management review should assess how changing circumstances might influence the suitability, effectiveness or adequacy of the GP program. Changing circumstances may be internal to the organization (i.e., new facilities, changes in products or services, new customers, etc.) or may be external factors (such as new laws and policies, new scientific information that has come to light, or changes in adjacent land use). Management reviews are the key to continuous improvement and to ensure that GP continues to meet the objectives and targets set earlier.

3-2-7. Step VI: Sustaining GP


Task 12: Incorporate Changes into Organization System of Management Task 13: Identification of New/Additional Areas of Continuous Improvement The final step, Step 6 (Task 12 and Task 13) is all about sustaining GP in the organization. The continual improvement of the management of the industry requires instituting procedures. These need to be updated in the light of findings from the monitoring and evaluation, changes to the corrective actions and other changes in the company. Corrective actions would be the actions that need to be taken as identified in the Post-implementation report. The final task, Task 13, then identifies new/additional problem areas for continuous improvement.

3-3. GP Tools
Brain Storming Flowchart Process Flow Diagram Plant Layout Eco Mapping and Example Concentration Diagram Check Sheet Checklist Material Balance Energy Balance 28

Cause-Effect Analysis Ishikawa Diagram Illustrations Pareto Chart Control Chart Spider Web Diagram Failure Mode Effect Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Benchmarking Decision Matrix

3-4. GP Techniques
Improved Operating Practices Waste Stream Segregation Good Housekeeping The 5S Technique Seven Wastes Preventive Maintenance Resource Conservation Recycle, Reuse, Recovery On-site Recovery and Recycle Off-site Recovery and Recycle Energy Conservation Input Material Changes Process / Equipment Changes Pollution Control Air Emission Control Wastewater Management Solid Waste Management Design for Environment Life Cycle Assessment Green Purchasing More detailed information for the GP methodology and its tools and techniques can be found in the GP Training Manual, GP Handbook and GP Pocketbook. All these publications are available for free download on the APO website www.apo-tokyo.org

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Chapter 4. Managing GP/OEHS: (Human Aspects)


4-1. Notes to Facilitators
4-1-1. Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter, participants should understand the human issues of OEHS management and various tools and techniques of managing the same.

4-1-2. Contents
This chapter covers various aspects related to human issues influencing the OEHS management in any organization. To start with, it presents some observations & facts related to human actions and accidents. It then introduces the techniques for managing the working conditions and environment especially using the management interventions rather than technologies. It introduces number of such ideas / techniques such as: Working Plans and Procedures, Lock-out / Tag-out Procedures, Work Permit System, Housekeeping Procedures, Industrial Hygiene Procedures emergency Procedures etc.

4-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session can be conducted primarily as a classroom lecture. Some relevant training videos may be screened to provide a better practical understanding of the issues. Use of case studies / photographs / slides from the local industries is very much encouraged.

4-1-4. Special Tips


Facilitators could include as much local information / context as possible to make the issues covered here, very much appealing for the participants.

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4-2. Managing GP/OEHS: Human Aspects


With the advent of new and technologically superior machinery and chemical substances, the causes of occupational accidents are becoming increasingly complicated to manage and control. The OEHS risk assessment and evaluation by outside experts, therefore, becomes important more than before in order to prevent the accidents. Moreover, OEHS management is all about ensuring health, safety and welfare of the workforce. Hence, the human aspects play an extremely important role in the context of managing the OEHS issues in a workplace.

4-3. OEHS Management: Some Observations & Facts


4-3-1. Organizational Structures, Roles & Responsibilities
Typically, the corporate employees, assigned with environmental or health and safety responsibility, are low-level managers, supervisors, or even technician with little - if any - discernible authority over key corporate decision-making or over any substantive planning or production-related process. Environmental quality and human health & safety define the basic context in which all other business objectives are to be pursued. All corporate employees should be proactively involved in the effective and efficient integration of health, safety, and environmental policies with all workplace activities. In such a situation, it is not surprising that the safety officer usually becomes preoccupied with actual health and safety incidents and regulatory compliance failures rather than proactively and effectively managing a comprehensive health and safety program.

4-3-2. Driving Forces for OEHS Management


The basic approach has most frequently been the so-called command & control or the regulatory approach. Despite a continuing interest in the potential for using market and other economic incentives to achieve health, safety, and environmental goals, there is a general consensus that such objectives cannot be entirely achieved in the absence of strict design and performance standards and an effective enforcement regime. The basic reliance on regulations does not, of course, preclude the use of other legal mechanisms, including the use of civil, criminal, administrative and/or equity law and such other doctrines (e.g. full disclosure) and procedures as may characterize a particular legal system (e.g., Common Law, Roman Law, the Law of Islam, and traditional practices of cultural significance). 32

4-3-3. Appropriate Alignment of Task and Worker


It is necessary to think of workers capacity, knowledge, experience, physical power and others for assigning workers with specific tasks. People hope to gain the recognition and to be respected by their family-members and co-workers through their jobs. Also they feel their jobs worthy when they get one, which fits to their ability and ambition. Appropriate alignment of workers and tasks thus activates and motivates the workers and thus reduces the accidents. Adequate Alignment of Task and Worker
Workers characteristics Task conditions Environment Process Variety Working form Matter Period, Time limit Accident prevention Assignment Task allocation Capacity building Sex Age Experience Title Abilities (knowledge, technique,attitude, physical capacity) Mind-body condition Ambition

4-3-4. Human Character: 3 Causes of unsafe actions


Three causes for unsafe actions are Dont know, Cant do and Dont do. Adequate education and instruction is necessary to eliminate these causes. 3 Causes of Unsafe Actions Causes of unsafe action Education and Instruction

Structure of equipments and machines, Danger Don't know Knowledge of materials, Harmful effects, Causes of accidents and right work method, rules Job procedure, Manner of operation, Checkup, Can't do Technique Measures to troubles, Technical capability Fostering willingness and attitude for safety by Don't do Attitude teaching sort of risks and importance of safety, Rules in the section

4-3-5. Human Actions and Accidents


Humans action is affected by external influences and own situations. There are numerous discussions about the factors affecting human actions in the context of accidents. Typically these factors include: Pathological factors Physiological factors Physical factors Medicinal factors Psychological factors 33

Social factors.
Counter measures to prevent accidents from the view point of human actions should be preliminarily discussed around these six factors. A number of measures based on the human character / actions can be planned to prevent accidents: To recognize humans characteristics To predict humans action To improve human relations at workplace (Greeting, meeting, reporting, communication, consultation) To motivate safety activities To enhance safety awareness To maintain good physical condition (Fatigue prevention, orderly daily rhythm). Heinrich Principle (1:29:300) American engineer H. W. Heinrich disclosed so-called Heinrich Principle, after analyzing and eliciting the statistics of 550,000 occupational accident examples. The accidents were classified into 3 categories: 1. Serious injury (lost work-day: more than one day), 2. Slight injury (no lost work-day) and 3. No injury. The result was 0.3% for serious injury, 8.8% for slight injury and 90.9% for no injury. This means 29 slight injury accidents and 300 faultless accidents stay in hiding behind one serious injury. The basic causes of accidents were related to the management issues in about 70% of cases. Hence, management intervention in sound OEHS practices is very important.
1 for Serious Injury

29 for Slight Injury

300 without Injury

Apparent Accidents is a Part of the Iceberg

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4-4. Managing Working Conditions & Environment


A number of management interventions can be made to address the human aspects of the GP/OEHS management. These are discussed below.

4-4-1. Working Plan


One of the major causes of lost-time accidents is the problem with working method. It is reported that the problems associated with working method account for one third of the total causes of lost-time accidents in manufacturing industry in Japan. Preparation of working plan is thus useful to predict latent dangers and to prevent the accidents. Elements of a typical working plan include: Purpose of work Process Chain of command and its duty Work procedure (See below) Factors for possible accidents Measures to avoid possible accident situations Responsibility of each division or vendor Communication channel between divisions and vendors Notification of risk information Deployed equipment and protective tools Occupation list requiring permission and license Notable and prohibited matter

4-4-2. Work Procedure


Work should be implemented correctly as planned. Work procedure should be configured in the process of analyzing work and can include: How to Configure Work Procedure
To keep machines, equipments and environment in good condition To improve work method

To configure work procedure

To revise work procedure

To receive agreement from employer

Education and Training

Production

Working steps in the standard order Equipment setting conditions 35

Work procedure should be written in a clear and concise manner so that the operators / workers do not to make mistakes in operation. An instruction sheet should be developed for the work procedures. Below are some important tips regarding the Work Procedure Instruction Sheet: It should be based on actual operation and not quoted from the references or vendor specifications The procedure should be described concretely (Use photos, illustrations and drawings.) It should be filled with real opinion and wisdom of operators The reasons for doing the procedures in the certain way should be included. Prohibited matters should be written clearly. Possible dangerous situations should be discussed. The contents should be used to educate and instruct the operators. It is desirable to post the sheet at the operation site. If the procedure is changed, the work procedure instruction sheet should be revised without delay. In a manufacturing plant, the operators have to implement not only regular operations but occasional operations as well. Operators are not familiar and not experienced to such occasional operations in general and accidents during unsteady operation are not rare. The work procedure instruction sheet should also address such unusual / occasional situations.

Sample Work Procedure Instruction Sheet


Name of operation Machine and tool Work procedure 1 2 3 4 5 6 Probable accident Sheet No. Operator Important point Protective equip. Necessary knowledge

Action to unusual situation

Remarks

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4-4-3. Working Environment


Working Space Many accidents are caused due to the manner of putting materials and organizing working spaces. Since it is rare to have abundant working space, ingenuity to use given workspace in effective and safe manner is required to minimize workplace accidents. Lighting Many manufacturing facilities are at times unconcerned about the lighting (artificial and natural). Control items with regard to lighting are illumination intensity, illumination distribution, glare, shadow, and light color. Standards for Illumination Intensity include: For Precise visual work: 750 1,500 lx Normal visual work: 300 750 lx General work: 150 300 lx Color It is a well-known fact that colors often affect the workers mental situation. Also, sometimes color is used to show the meaning of safety and danger: Red: Fire control, Ban, Stop, High danger Yellow-Red: Danger, Protective equipment for sea and air navigation Yellow: Caution Green: Safe, Escape, Health-Rescue-Guard, Keep going Blue: Obligatory action, Direction Red-Violet: Radioactivity Temperature There are many technologies to control temperature, but it is rare to control workplace at an adequate temperature. Operation at high temperature reduces workers power of attention hence measures to maintain the comfortable temperature and thus ensure safety are necessary. In the case of out-door jobs in hot and sunny conditions measures such as periodic rest are essential. Noise Continuous exposure to noise leads to auditory defects. Noise is also a cause of mental fatigue. It is preferable to keep the noise level of workplaces less than 60 dB. In the case of surpassing the limitation using protective goods such as earplugs is suggested.

4-4-4. Lock-out / Tag-out Procedures


Lockout procedures deal with the maintenance on equipment to avoid accidents. Accordingly, controls for all electrical, mechanical, steam, compressed gas, and hydraulic devices must be locked-out to prevent accidental start-up. A fully documented tag-out system has the same effect. 37

Sample Lock-out / Tag-out Procedure Machine Code: LT 23-C Approved on 6/18/99 Approved by DGE Manufacturers designation of machine or equipment Bag house for pulverizer unit Conditions under which lockout / tagout to be Changing pulverizer bags; Maintenance on implemented unit Type of Energy Amount Lockout Required Tagout Required Location Electrical 460V Yes Yes Circuit breaker Pneumatic 150psi Yes Yes Air line valve 1. Shut down Pulverizer Panel prior to Lockout/Tagout 2. Attach Lock and Tag to Pulverizer Bag house Rotary Valve (ALP #24) Placement & Removal of 3. Attach Lock and Tag to Breaker for Strip Air Fan (ALP #20) Locks & Tags 4. Attach Lock and Tag to Breaker for Vent Fan (ALP #2) 5. Attach Lock and Tag to Breaker for Dehumidification Fan (B 66006) 1. Active Start Switch to ensure that unit is electrically disconnected Verification of 2. Return Start Switch to OFF Position Lockout/Tagout 3. Check Pressure Gauge to ensure proper bleed off of air; do not commence work until gauge reads zero 1. Wear normal shop uniform Other Requirements 2. Wear routine shop boots You may not commence any maintenance work until you have SPECIAL NOTE completed the Log-In Procedure Global Enterprises, Inc Energy Control Procedure

4-4-5. Work Permit System


Work permit systems ensure that only trained persons work on safety-critical systems. Issuing permits controls access to such equipment. Work permit is an administrative document to ensure that workers have protective equipment to work on such critical equipment. It provides a checklist to verify inherent hazards and hazards associated with or introduced by the work are taken into consideration. Work permit also tells about areas that the person is not allowed to go and/or allows the specific workers to control the hazards in the specified areas. Work permit ensures that necessary preventive and protective measures and procedures have been taken prior to beginning work. Permits should be dated and be valid for only one shift. Each shift should have the permit updated.
It is the supervisors responsibility toward the people holding the work permits, to ensure that the area of work is as safe as possible for people to carry out the work.

Sample Work Permit to conduct maintenance in a confined space 38

(e.g., inside of a tank) Date, location & description of work to be done Hazards that may be encountered Blanking/disconnecting Complete isolation list Electrical lock-out Mechanical lock-out PPE Clothing/Equipments Safety Harness Explosive levels Atmospheric Test Oxygen levels Toxic substances, if any Atmospheric monitoring during work Personnel trained and understand hazards Emergency procedures in place an first aid location Authorization by supervisor

4-4-6. Housekeeping Procedures


Describe how the workplace should be kept clean and free from debris and obstructions that could result in accidents.

4-4-7. Industrial Hygiene Procedures


Describe how to monitor, assess and limit the workers exposure to hazardous substances. Job procedures and training should address the personal protective equipment needed to limit such exposure. Adequate preparation and knowledge can reduce casualty and injuries. Following three tables - Confined Entry Permit, Heat Work Permit A and B - are samples of permission sheets to undertake jobs with some kinds of risks. Sample Work Permit to conduct maintenance in a confined space (e.g., inside of a tank) Date, location & description of work to be done Hazards that may be encountered Blanking/disconnecting Complete isolation list Electrical lock-out Mechanical lock-out PPE Clothing/Equipments Safety Harness Explosive levels Atmospheric Test Oxygen levels Toxic substances, if any Atmospheric monitoring during work Personnel trained and understand hazards Emergency procedures in place an first aid location Authorization by supervisor Confined Entry Permit 39

Global Enterprises, Inc Confined Space Entry Permit Confined Space Identification Description of work Nature of Hazard Oxygen Deficiency Oxygen Over-abundant Toxic Gas or Vapor Mechanical Hazard Preparation Notify affected department Complete Lockout-Tagout Clean, drain, wash & purge Complete radio test

Date Permit Expiration Monorail Rinse

Entry Procedure Class II

Authorized Entrants Electrical Shock Skin Hazard Eye Hazard Engulfment Rescue team available Implement monitoring Attach Hot-work Permit Review procedures & hazards Others

Authorized Attendants

Safety Clothing and Equipments Respirator Communication Visual and oral contact Rescue equipment Lifeline Safety Harness Protective Clothing Safety shoes; Boots Eye Protection Goggles Hearing Protection Others Nitrile boots Time Reading

Ventilate Reference Oxygen (Min.)

19.5% 10% Oxygen (Max.) Time LEL Flammability 22.0ppm Hydrogen Sulfide 10ppm Carbon Mono-Oxide 50ppm Heat 750F Toxic (Specify) Others (Specify

Reading

40

Heat Work Permit A


Hot Work Performed Class A Global Enterprises, Inc By Global, Inc. Date Hot Work Permit By Contractor Name Location of work Permit Expiration Date Person(s) Time Precautions Personnel have reviewed Confined Space Entry and Hot Work Program Available sprinklers, hose streams and extinguishers are operational Flammable liquids, dust, lint and oily deposits within 35 feet of the work area have been removed There is no explosive atmosphere in the work area Floors within 35 feet have been swept clean; other combustibles have been removed where possible Enclosed equipment has been cleaned of all combustibles Containers have been purged of flammable liquids or vapors Fire watch will be provided during work (including any breaks) and for 30 minutes after work is completed Other Necessary Precautions I verify that the above location has been examined and that the precautions checked on this permit have been taken and hereby authorize the work to proceed Supervisors Signature Date

Heat Work Permit B


Global Enterprises, Hot work Performed Inc Bv Global, Inc. Hot Work Permit Bv Contractor Class B Date Name

Location of work Date Permit Expiration Person(s) Time General Requirements Personnel have reviewed Global Confined space and Hot Work Program Available sprinklers, hose stems and extiguishers are operational Hot work equipment is in good repair Requirements with 35 ft of Work Flammable liquids, dust, lint and oily deposits have been removed Explosive atmosphere in area has been eliminated Floors swept clean; combustible floors wet down, covered with damp sand or fire-resistive sheets Other combustibles have been removed where possible; otherwise protected with fire-resistive tarpaulins or metal Wall and floor openings covered; fire-resistive tarpaulins suspended beneath Work on Walls/Ceilings Construction is noncombustible and without combustible covering or insulation Combustibles on other side of walls moved away Work on Enclosed Equipment Enclosed equipment cleaned of all combustibles Containers purged of flammable liquids and vapors Fire watch will be provided during and for 60 minutes after work, including any break Fire watch is provided with suitable extinguishers/charged hose and is appropriately trained Monitor Hot work area for 4 hours after job is completed Other Necessary Precautions I verify that the above location has been examined and that the precautions checked on this permit have been taken and hereby authorize the work to proceed Supervisors Signature Date

41

4-4-8. Emergency Procedures


Job-specific emergency procedures should be developed to address hazards identified during job hazard analysis. For example: rescue procedures for workers conducting maintenance in confined-spaces. These procedures should be reviewed as a requirement for issuing work permits. It is important to make it a part of the safety policy or procedures. It is advisable to constitute a special Emergency Management Team comprising of key supervisors, security officer, team leaders etc. Everyone should know their responsibility in case of an emergency. It is not appropriate and at times even dangerous to let contractors respond to emergencies. Written Contingency Plan Addresses potential emergencies that can impact employees health and safety including: Fires & explosions Accidents & injuries Medical emergencies Weather-related emergencies Chemical spills & gas leaks Electrical hazards Workplace violence Most companies have fire evacuation plans and procedures dealing with general emergencies. However, emergency plans should address all these emergencies and can be integrated with the environmental management system of the organization. More specialized and detailed assessments like HAZOP for risks that would go outside the plant as well should be conducted periodically as applicable. Emergency Preparedness & Response: Minimum Requirements Inventory of hazardous materials stored on site Identification of potential emergency situations Assignment & description of responsibilities List of emergency response equipment Emergency response & evacuation procedures Training requirements Periodic testing of emergency procedures & equipment Emergency contacts Special responsibilities of people to deal with emergencies, e.g. doctors, fire sweepers, environment professionals. Below is an example of the table of contents from an emergency plan used by a chemical manufacturing facility. Such a dedicated manual should be available in all the rooms of the facility, which is easily visible and accessible in case of emergency.

42

Risk Identification Fire Safety Organizational Control Emergency Operation Training Mock Drills & Exercises Equipment Mutual Aid

Emergency Plan Emergency Notification Evacuation Security Communication Critical Tasks Recovery Planning Emergency Medical Chemical Containment & Recovery

43

44

Chapter 5. Managing GP/OEHS: Technological & Design Considerations


5-1. Notes to Facilitators
5-1-1. Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter, participants should understand the human issues of OEHS management and various tools and techniques of managing the same.

5-1-2. Contents
This chapter covers various aspects related to design and technological issues influencing the OEHS management in any organization. It covers various safety design issues like equipment and process design, workplace & equipment layout machine safety guards. Further it covers practical issues such as ventilation, Personal Protection Equipment etc. It then discusses the issues related to safety management of facilities and equipment, before moving on to a detailed discussion on preventing various kinds of accidents and occupational diseases. Lastly, it touches upon the issues of monitoring in the context of OEHS, which is an important factor in sounds OEHS management,

5-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session can be conducted primarily as a classroom lecture. Some relevant training videos may be screened to provide a better practical understanding of the issues. Use of case studies / photographs / slides from the local industries is very much encouraged.

5-1-4. Special Tips


Facilitators could include as much local information / context as possible to make the issues covered here, very much appealing for the participants. If possible, actual hardware such as personal protective equipment, monitoring equipment should be used in the classroom.

45

5-2. Managing GP/OEHS: Technological and Design Considerations


Managing OEHS in any organization involves managing human dimensions as well as managing technological and hardware related changes. While the organizational changes related to the people are relatively inexpensive, they also take a long time for implementation and require a sustained effort from the management to get the maximum benefit from them. The technological / hardware related changes on the other hand, can be expensive at times but can yield relatively quick and effective results. Moreover, such measures if implemented at the design stage can be most effective and beneficial. Of course, for the hardware changes or technological changes to be successful there is also a need for interventions related to human aspects. Specifically, it is important to ensure the training and changes in the operational procedure to get the maximum benefit from the technological or hardware related changes. A number of technological and design considerations are discussed in the subsequent sections.

5-3. Safety Design


It is not sufficient to keep the machines and equipment safe only by safety education of operators. One needs to recognize that human error and machine failure does occur without exception. Safety design at the stage of machine selection and installation is therefore very essential. During design stage, it is the most effective to take into account of safety and health aspects into consideration. Actual safety and health study should be based on Safety Assessment. Main items of design consideration are as follows.

5-3-1. Equipment and Process Design


At the equipment and process design stage the hazardous substances and materials can be eliminated and equipment designed can be made inherently safe. Life Cycle Analysis should be applied during at the design stage to identify hazards through all stages of a process e.g., purchasing, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning.

5-3-2. Workplace & Equipment Layout


Hazards can be reduced by considering how equipments are laid out and by giving due consideration to aspects such as space, proximity, crowding, uninterrupted movements, enclosures, work flow, etc.

5-3-3. Equipment & Facilities Maintenance


Inspection and maintenance programs can be designed to reduce worker 46

exposure to hazards such as the release of chemicals, heat, pressure, etc.

5-3-4. Machine Safety Guards


Machine guards should be used at all the places where the operation of a machine or accidental contact with it can injure the operator or others in the vicinity.

5-3-5. Alarm and Warning Systems


Hazardous situation occurs unpredictably with equipment failure, human error, malfunction of infrastructure etc. Alarm and warning systems advise generation of hazardous situation to operators with sound and/or light. Such alarm and warning systems should be appropriately provided throughout the facility and should be regularly checked for their functionalities.

5-3-6. Ventilation
Adequate ventilation should be provided to control worker exposure to hazardous materials and high temperatures and also to ensure clean air inflow in case of accidental releases of hazardous substances and chemicals.

5-3-7. Personal Protection Equipment


Personal protective equipment (e.g., masks, face shields, eye protection, gloves, aprons) should be used to reduce worker exposure to hazards. Safety Design Procedure for Machines and Equipment Decide on the required service conditions Undertake risk assessment under assumed risk conditions To plan for the elimination of dangers and/or reduction of risks by the substantial safe design Provide protection guards and safety devices for residual risks Provide information and warning label for the risks that can not be entirely eliminated

5-4. Managing Facilities and Equipment


5-4-1. Safe Machines and Equipment
When selecting machines and equipment it is essential to ensure whether they are designed with substantial safety considerations. Followings are the important items to be checked: To ensure safety around the moving parts in the machine To eliminate projections on rotating parts To provide enough distance between a handle and a machine body so as not to tuck fingers To lock control levers so that they do not move by unexpected touch To get rid of sharp edges from machine bodies To provide enough durability and strength to machines and equipment

47

5-4-2. Foolproof and Fail-Safe


Most machines and equipment are driven and controlled by electricity, oil pressure, or pneumatic power. Accordingly, problems with these driving forces such as wrong operation, circuit breakdown, breakout, and abnormal conditions of oil and air cause improper operating situation. Foolproof and fail-safe are functions that avoid occupational accidents in the cases of above troubles. Foolproof: When operators take mistakes, the system stops machine(s) to ensure safety. Fail-safe: When something is wrong with the machine(s), the system reacts to bring the machine(s) to the safe conditions.

5-4-3. Contact with Driving Parts


Facilities and equipment including machineries have complex structures. The most common accident in machinery and equipment is tucked or embroiled fingers in driving parts of rotating machinery shown here. Dangerous Part of Machinery

Driving Parts of Machinery

Tucked (Pinched) Embroiled

Periodical Inspection

Extra Inspection

Measures for Preventing Contact with Driving Parts Danger of driving machinery exists in rotation/reciprocating and power transmitting. Measures for preventing contact with dangerous parts of driving machinery are shown here. Measures for Accident Prevention in Driving Parts of MachineryThe
Rotation Reciprocating Danger of Driving Machinery
Blade (Preventing Contact) Automatic Feeding Automatic Exhausting Remote Control Miss Operation Preventing System Cover / Fence

Power Transmitting
Gear, Belt, Chain, Pulley, Shaft Flywheel, Connecting rod, Coupling, Cam and Spindle

(Preventing Contact) Cover / Fence Notice Board Embedded Bolt

48

statistics from all the sectors in Japan shows that 30% of occupational accidents happen with machines and equipment. In the Japanese manufacturing industries this ratio increases up to 40%.

5-4-4. Safety Distance of Objects to Prevent Tucking


When a machine tucks human body or a part of body, workers hurt their bodies seriously. To keep allowance between working two parts of machines can prevent human injury indicated in the drawings. The allowance is called safety distance. Safety Distance

Body500

Leg180

Foot120

Arm120

Hand100

Finger25

5-4-5. Safeguarding: Separation by safety barrier


Most occupational accidents happen in the spaces where workers and machine(s) are coexisting. Separation of workers and machines during machine operation is an effective technique to prevent accidents. Below are some suggestions for safeguarding: Safety Guard Contents Fixed Physical barrier Shutting off or disengaging Power, Preventing starting of Interlock machine Adjustable Adjustable barrier to correspond to a variety of operation Sensing Photoelectric, Radio Frequency, Electro-Mechanical Device Safety Trip Stopping machine by tripping Prevent contact: The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, or any other part of the workers body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or another worker placing their hands near hazardous moving parts. 49

Secure: Workers should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard, because a safeguard that can easily be made ineffective is no safeguard at all. Guards and safety devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine. Protect from falling objects: The safeguard should ensure that no objects could fall into moving parts. A small tool, which is dropped into a cycling machine, could easily become a projectile that could strike and injure someone! Creates no new hazards: A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own such as a shear point, a jagged edge, or an unfinished surface which can cause cuts/scratches. The edges of guards, for instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a why that they eliminate sharp edges. Creates no interference: Any safeguard, which impedes a worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably, might soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper safeguarding can actually enhance efficiency since it can relieve the workers apprehensions about injury. Allow safe lubrication: If possible, one should be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards. Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a line leading to the lubrication point, will reduce the need for the operator or maintenance worker to enter the hazardous area.

5-4-6. Controlling Chemicals


Basic rule is that the company using a chemical must obtain a material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) from the manufacturer or importer of that chemical. In some companies, the Right-To-Know Coordinator must countersign each purchase of a chemical; in others, a purchase order is computer interlocked with health and safety department files. Some chemicals enter into a plant because they are mailed as samples; sometimes personnel bring chemicals into the plant; sometimes, contractors bring chemicals into the plant. Some chemicals are generated as by-products of plant operations. In such cases, the safety officer must generate the MSDS.

50

5-5. Preventing Accidents


5-5-1. Preventing Electrical Accidents
The electrical accidents are categorized into three kinds: Electrical shock Fire and explosion by electricity and Electrical fire. The most common accident is electrical shock. Flow of and electrical current into human body causes serious and acute hazard. One fourth leads to death in Japan. The figure shows classification of electrical shock accidents in number. Not only electricity distribution and transmission, but also power machines, cranes and electric tools required sufficient knowledge and care of specialists. Basic knowledge, periodical inspection, manual, qualification and protective guard are indispensable. Improperly grounded and exposed electricity wiring is dangerous for electrical shock.

Electrical Accident
Flow of an Electric Current in Human Body Electrical Shock Electrical Accidents Fire and Explosion by Electricity Electrical Fire Acute Hazard Dreadful Accident: 1/4 Death

Causality in 2002 in Japan


Electric Facilities Power Cranes Power Machines Welding Machines Metal Processing Others 97 16 12 Total 157 8 3 21

Basic Knowledge Periodical Inspection Manual Qualification Protective Guard

5-5-2. Preventing Accidents during Transportation


It is recommended to use transporting machines where possible. If it is necessary to carry by human, safety measures shown in table are recommended.

51

Precaution and Implementation for Transportation Preparatory Physical Exercise Proper Clothes, Safety Shoes and Safety Helmet Heavy (>55kg) Worker more than One Large Size (Sight Difficulty) Precaution Easy to Roll No Obstacles / Enough Space Lifting Place Conditions Transporting Course Destination Carrying as Flatly and on Straight Line as Possible Not Pulling out Baggage from Bottom or Middle of Piles Implementation Not Carrying backward Good Posture

5-5-3. Preventing Explosions


Many flammable materials are around us. Careless handling of flammable materials combined with ignition sources causes explosion and fire. At large-scale manufacturing plants, flammables in big volume must be well managed by adopting proper handling method. Enhanced safety management is required for such situations. Classification of Ignition and Explosion Mixed Touch Ignition: Oxidizing agents, reducing agents, oxidizing salts and strong acids ignite with organic materials instantaneously. Ignition with flammables: Flammable gas and flammable liquid vapor Ignition by electrostatic phenomena Gas explosion and dust explosion There are four basic measures of preventing gas explosion: Gas detection Removal of ignition source, Ventilation and Dilution by inert gas. Displacement of air in containers to inactive gas can keep the concentration of flammable gas under explosion limit. Monitoring gas concentration is also effective countermeasure to detect the risk of gas explosion. Basic measures and monitoring equipment are shown in the tables below:

52

Basic Measures in case of an Explosion Alarm pounding when detected Flammable Gas Blocking Effective Measures Gas Detection Ventilation Catalytic Combustion Detecting Technologies Semiconductor Furnace Burner Welding Open Flame Ignition Cutting Source Removal of Electric Heater High Temp Ignition Source Heated Piping Surface High Temp Metal Explosion-Proof Specification in Flammable Atmosphere Removal of Explosive Atmosphere by Ventilation Danger in Closed System (Reaction Process) Dilution by Inert Reduction of Oxygen Content below Explosion Limit Gas by Nitrogen or Carbon Dioxide

Monitoring Equipment Analyzers Measurements Concentration of a combustible Combustible Gas Indicator (CGI) gas or vapor Flame Ionization Detector (FID) with Total concentration of many Gas Chromatography Option organic gases and vapors Portable Infrared (IR) Concentration of many gases Spectrophotometer and vapors in air Ultraviolet Photo Ionization Detector Many organic and some (UV-PID) inorganic gases and vapors

5-5-4. Preventing Accidents due to Falling & Tumbling


Some ideas for preventing falling accident are as follows: Setting pedestal flooring with non-slip materials Wearing non-slip footwear Setting handrail and fence at the edge of pedestal flooring and aperture area where height is more than 90 cm Setting safety net Using safety belt during jobs at a height and pedestal flooring without fence Some suggestions for prevention of tumbling accidents during walking include: Elimination of unnecessary steps Adequate inclination of stairs (30-35 ), Selection of non-slip materials and installation of handrails (85-90 cm in height) In Japan, the fatality rate for falling and tumbling accidents is as high as 53

25% of total fatal accidents. In construction industry the rate is 40% while it is 20% in manufacturing industry and ranks second among the fatal accidents following the accidents caused by getting tucked or caught in a machine.

5-5-5. Preventing Accidents due to Come-Flying and Dropping Objects


Accidents with come-flying and dropping objects are because of dropping of loads, construction materials, rocks etc. Basic prevention measures to prevent accidents due to come-flying and dropping objects include: Develop appropriate working plans and operation procedures to prevent such accidents Cancel outdoor work in bad weather Ask licensed/trained persons to do such dangerous job Implement periodic checks and pre-operation checks Ensure wearing of protective equipment Operate under instructions of the job supervisor Use machines and parts having enough strength Install covers and safeguard on machines Keep the specified load to machines such as cranes Inspect the risk of rock dropping etc. and take measures preliminarily Place protection equipment for the prevention of come-flying and dropping objects

5-6. Preventing Occupational Diseases


5-6-1. Preventing Dust Diseases (Pneumoconiosis)
Dust disease (pneumoconiosis), related industry and materials, can be categorized into three kinds as shown in the table below: Kinds of Pneumoconiosis Kinds of Pneumoconiosis Stone man disease Industries Metal Mining Sand Molding Work in Casting Blake Lining Packing Board Slate Mining Ceramic Molding Metal /Machinery Construction Materials Free Hydrated Silica

Lung asbestosis

Asbestos

Other pneumoconiosis

Ferrum Plumbum Carbon Aluminum

Workers working in industries that manufacture and/or use asbestos, including even the neighbors of such factories - suffer from lung asbestosis. 54

Measures to counter dust diseases are listed in the table below. Adequate and appropriate measures should be selected for the specific conditions and situations. Measures to Counter Dust Disease Categories Measures Technologies Sealing of Dust Generation Source Closed System Wet Method Shower, Spray and Sprinkler Suppress Dust Automation / Remote Control Generation Automatic Welding Process Change Automatic Packing Machine Charge from Powder to Pellet Dust Removal Local Ventilation Fans and Ducts Ventilation Dust Dilution by Fresh Air Heated Air Flow Natural Ventilation Dust Mask Mask with Air Supply Protective Equipments Breathing apparatus with Self-Contaminated Compressed Air

5-6-2. Preventing Organic Solvent Poisoning


There are many kinds of organic solvents, which often cause damage to human organs. It is important to have knowledge of toxicity of Organic Solvents and to take measures for getting away from such organic materials. Poisoning by Organic Solvents is shown in the table below, with toxicity, affection and symptom. Toxicity of Organic Solvent Effect & Symptoms Organic Solvents Headache, Dizziness and Consciousness Disorder Almost Organic Solvents Skin Inflammation, Cornification, Crack and Infection Consciousness Disorder, Mental Carbon Disulfide Abnormality Decreased Vision, Retinitis Methyl-Alcohol, Methyl-Acetate N-Hexane, Toluene, Trichloroethylene, Multiple Neuritides Methyl-N-Butyl- ketone and Carbon Disulfide
Anemia, Erythrocytolysis Direct Hepatic Damage Protein Urea, Sclerotic Kidney Amphiblestrode Bump Leukemic Disease Benzene, Glycols Carbon Tetrachloride, Chlorinated Hydro Carbon, Carbon Disulfide and Dimethylformamide Chlorinated Hydro Carbon, Carbon Disulfide Carbon Disulfide Benzene

Toxicity

Paralysis of Central Nerve Stimulus of Skin Mucosa Nerve Damage Sight Nerve Damage Peripheral Nerve Damage
Damage of Hematopoietic Forming Organ Hepatic Damage Kidney Damage Vascular Defect Malignant Tumor

55

Measures for Preventing Organic Solvent Diseases Measure Installation of Ventilation Utilization of Mask Handling of Flame (Fire) Handling of Container Health Check Remarks Indoor Work, Not Sufficient Forced Air Supply Ventilation and Inside Tank Exhaust Type Forced Air Mask Proper Maintenance and Special Gas Protection Right Mask Mask Organic Solvents: Easily Ban of Match, Tobacco, Catch Fire Gas-Cutting and Arch-Welding Fire-Ban Storage in Safe Places with Plug and Cover Workers Handling Organic Solvent must have Periodical Health Check Contents

5-6-3. Preventing Chemical Poisoning


The routes of chemical entry to human body are inhalation, ingestion, surface contact, absorption and puncture. The increasing degree of response to increasing dose quantity (Dose-Response Curve) is as shown in figure. Initial response is moderate, later becomes rapid and finally converges to certain value. Dose Response Curve
100 % of Subjects

Increasing Response

Dose-Response Curve

0% Increasing Dose

Lethal amount of chemicals is dependent on the toxicity of each chemical. Relative Toxicity of chemicals is shown in Table with LD50, lethal amount and representative chemicals.

56

Relative Toxicity Extremely Toxic (Poison)

Relative Toxicity of Chemicals LD Lethal Amount


50

(kg/kg) <1

Examples of 3 Chemicals

Dioxin Botulinus toxin Tetrodotoxin Hydrogen cyanide Highly Toxic 7 drops - 1 1 - 50 Nickel oxide (Poison) Teaspoon Arsenic trioxide Methylene chloride 1 Teaspoon - 1 Very Toxic 50 - 500 Phenol ounce DDT Benzene Moderately Toxic 500 - 5000 1 ounce - 1 pint Chloroform Chromium chloride Acetone Slightly Toxic > 5000 > 1 pint Ethyl alcohol Ferrous sulfate 1. As tested by the oral route in rats 2. Lethal amount for average adult human, based on liquid with density of water 3. As tested by various routes in several animal species < 7 drops

5-6-4. Preventing Respiratory Exposure with Chemical, Vapor & Dust


Respiratory exposure with chemical materials often occurs in workplaces. Typical exposure situations and remedial measures are shown in table below. Managers and supervisors should take the necessary against respiratory exposure in such situations.

Potential Respiratory Exposure and Measurers


Potential Respiratory Exposures Measures Chemical vapors and dusts from plant operations Examine requirements of needed work and make work assignments Welding fumes; Grinding dusts Inspect work while in progress and upon completion Welding fumes; Grinding dusts; Vehicular exhausts; Assist in actual performance of work as necessary Operational vapors and dusts Toxic and asphyxiating atmospheres in chemical Lead Rescue Team (under Confined Space Program) reactors and material feed silos

Respirator To prevent respiratory exposure with chemicals, personal protective equipment is useful. Typical respirators and their description are explained in the table below.

57

Respirators Mechanical Filter Air-Purifying Chemical Cartridge (Must not be used when there is oxygen deficiency) Gas Mask Powered Air-Purifying Respirator Continuous Flow Demand Air Flow Air-Supplying (Must be used when there is oxygen deficiency) Pressure Demand Air Flow Disposable Particulate Mask Disposable Half-Mask (Integral Cartridge & Filter) Half-Mask (Replaceable Cartridge & Filter) Full-Face (Replaceable Cartridge & Filter) Full-Face (Replaceable Canister) Full-Face (Replaceable Cartridge; Air Blower) Keeps face under positive pressure; leaks flow Keeps face under positive pressure; leaks flow outward; supplies air only when user inhales Keeps mask under positive pressure during both inhalation and exhalation Closed-circuit re-breathing unit; exhaled air is recycled; carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is added Open-circuit, pressure demand respirator; exhaled air directly vented to outside atmosphere

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

There are different kinds of respirators: Full-face respirator: Used for chemicals hazardous. Organic cartridges are used to filter the air coming in. The cartridges need to be replaced from time to time. Half mask respirator: Used in paint shop. It only protects people from organic vapors. Simple particulate respirator: Only a dust mask does not protect against organics. May protect welding fuel. For example, in paint shop it may filter out the paint but not the organics. Air supplying respirator: Air container is equipped with masks. Respirator

Half Mask Respirator

Scott Air Pack Simple Particulate Respirator

58

5-6-5. Preventing Oxygen Deficiency


Dominant causes of oxygen deficiency are Oxygen over consumption by combustion, Reduction of oxygen concentration in the air by gas generation, Reduction of oxygen concentration due to lack of ventilation. Oxygen deficiency often severely affects the human health as shown in the following table Oxygen Content Level Influence to Human Body (%) 21 Oxygen Content in Atmosphere 18 Minimum Content Specified in Regulation Increase of Breathing Rate Difficulty of Mental Concentration 16 - 12 Fire extinguished Difficulty of Delicate Muscle Work Headache Unsteady Mental Condition No Feeling of Stimuli 11 - 10 Impaired Judgment No Memory High Body Temperature Cyanosis (Pale skin) Damage of Central Nerve 9-6 Unconsciousness Convulsion Cyanosis Lethargic sleep Breathing Gentle and Quiet <6 Breathing stops

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5-6-6. Preventing Back Ache


Backache is a historical bodily illness since human being started walking on its legs. Backache is a habitual illness. It is therefore necessary to implement protective measures in the day-to-day living as well as in the working operations. Causes and contributing factors for backache are listed in the following table.
Causes and Contributing Factors for Backache Causes Contributing Factors Lifting Heavy Things Strong Stress on Back Push and Pull

Body Movement

Environment

Individual Worker

Bending Forward Stoop Same Posture of Long Restricted Posture Time Sudden and unconsidered Movement Coldness Cooling off Body Vehicles, Facilities and Vibration and Impact Machines Slippery Floor, Step Dark Lighting Age, Sex, Body, Muscle, Psychological Factor and work Skill

5-6-7. Preventing Noise and Sound


There are many types of sounds and noises in working sites. Continuous and/or big noise can result in difficulty in concentration and tiredness of workers. Noise exposure data collection is important and fundamental research to reduce noise in working sites. Table below shows a sample of collected noise exposure data.
Noise Exposure Data Name of Company Collected on: Collected by: Name Title Location Task Test Average dB Duration

Following measures are necessary to abate noises in factories. Baffles around the equipment to absorb the noise Personnel Protective equipment

60

Unbearable
Single exposure may cause deafness

Painful
Pain threshold for most people

Deafening
Extreme discomfort

Very high
Prolonged exposure may damage hearing

Moderate
e.g. quiet office

Very low

dB

scarcely audible

Sound and Noise Level

5-7. Monitoring
Performance measurements are necessary to determine the effectiveness of the OEHS management system and the extent to which the policy and objectives are being met. Monitoring system must be specific to the needs of the organization. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements should be included.

5-7-1. Proactive Monitoring


Proactive monitoring includes measuring compliance through surveillance and inspection on a regular basis rather than monitoring after the accident. It may encompass: Personal exposure monitoring Exposure to chemicals, fumes, dust Exposure to noise (average or impact noise) Employee health surveillance/medical exams Effectiveness of training programs Effectiveness of operational programs and controls Availability of personal protective equipment Response to complaints, OEHS committee inspections and audit recommendations etc. Generally Factories Act requires some regular proactive monitoring: General requirements for annual medical examinations Requirements for cleanliness, guarding, fencing, etc. that require periodical inspection Exposure limits for chemicals 61

Exposure limits for average and impact noises Some other examples of proactive monitoring include compliance with risk controls, frequency of OEHS committee meetings, number of plant inspections, staff attitudes, regulatory compliance, etc.

5-7-2. Reactive Monitoring


Monitor accidents, near misses, ill health, incidents and other historical evidence of non-compliances or poor performance. It involves: Reportable accidents Reportable illnesses or other occupational illness Lost-time accidents Accidents requiring first aid Reported near-misses Complaints made by workers, public, regulatory agency staff, etc. Accident and ill-health data are essential indicators of OEHS performance, but they should not be the sole measure of OEHS performance. Lost time accidents require monitoring and follow up.

5-7-3. Time-weighted Exposure Monitoring


This type of monitoring is done to collect historical data for reference and planning purposes. For this, a sample collection device is located in workers breathing zone. Typically, a vacuum sampling pump is used to draw air through the sample that is capable of maintaining constant flow-rate. The sampling flow-rate, duration and worker activities are documented together with other sampling parameters. Sometimes, monitoring equipment can also be in the form of a dress where the person wears the industrial hygiene monitoring equipment. Vacuum pump is normally placed at the back and a hose is over the shoulder. This can give an exact idea of the parameters that the workers are exposed to.

5-7-4. Sampling and Monitoring Equipment


Oxygen/LEL meter: typically used for confined space entry Drager length-of-stain analyzer tubes and hand pump: Tubes are available for a wide variety of chemicals. Immediate result. Inexpensive for small numbers of samples. Typically 1-5 minutes to collect sample. Similar equipment available from other manufactures. Noise meter with frequency analysis: Good for mapping areas of the plant where hearing protection is required. Frequency analysis for evaluating controls. Noise dosimeters: Measure the noise levels workers are exposed to over a shift or other time period. Drager Pump: Gas technology squeeze pump calibrated to the amount of air it takes in. About 400 types of tubes available depending on the chemical and vapor to be tested.

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Noise dosimeters and calibrator

Drager tubes and hand pump

Noise meter with frequency analysis Oxygen/LEL Meter

Exposure Monitoring Equipment

5-8. Personal Protective Equipments


Typical personal protective equipments used in factories are as follows: - Hard hats, caps & hairnets - Safety boots & foot guards - Face shields - Safety goggles & glasses - Hearing protection - Protective gloves - Protective jackets & vests - Respirators (as discussed earlier). Personal Protective Equipments

Ear Plug Dispenser Hard Hat & Hearing Protection


Hard Hat & Safety Glasses Face Shield

Gloves Apron & Smock

63

64

Chapter 6. Risk Assessment and Emergency Response Planning


6-1. Notes to Facilitators
6-1-1. Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter, participants should understand the concept and methodologies of risk assessment and emergency response planning in an organization.

6-1-2. Contents
Risk assessment and emergency response planning are very important tools in the context of OEHS management. These are addressed in this chapter. This chapter therefore covers various issues related risk assessment such as: the conceptual background of safety and risk, risk assessment as per ISO and the risk assessment methodology. Further, in the context of Emergency Response Planning, this chapter highlights on the need for ERP before giving an overview of Emergency Response and moving on to HAZMAT: Six Step ERP Methodology. Special tips are provided on how to develop an ERP Manual, emergency response training etc.

6-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session can be conducted primarily as a classroom lecture. Some relevant training videos may be screened to provide a better practical understanding of the issues. Use of case studies / photographs / slides from the local industries is very much encouraged.

6-1-4. Special Tips


Facilitators could include as much local information / context as possible to make the issues covered here, very much appealing for the participants.

65

OEHS management in any organization requires a concerted effort from the workers, supervisors, top management and even external consultants / experts. A number of specialized OEHS management tools are deployed for this purpose. This chapter discusses two such very important OEHS tools in detail, viz.: Risk Assessment and Emergency Response Planning.

6-2. Risk Assessment


6-2-1. Safety and Risk
According to the internationally accepted concept (ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999) safety is the freedom from unacceptable risk. In reality, there is no absolute safety or absolute risk. Rather, as shown in figure, safety is achieved by decreasing the risk to the acceptable level with conditions (alarming Zone) or without condition (safety zone). ALARP specified in England means as low as reasonably practicable. In this zone, further risk reduction is technically impossible in cost-effective/ economically viable manner (Imperfect safety). Concept of Risk
Dangerous Zone Unacceptable Risk Too Big Risk

Alarming Zone Acceptable Risk with Condition

ALARP
As Low As Reasonably Practicable

Safety Zone Acceptable Risk for Everybody Trivial Risk

6-2-2. Risk Assessment as per ISO


Risk assessment means the whole process of risk analysis and risk evaluation. Figure shows the procedure for risk analysis and reduction as specified by ISO and IEC (ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999). Procedure 1: Preparation: Collection of obtainable information Procedure 2: Identification of potential and possible hazard source Procedure 3: Estimation of risk size and degree of influence Procedure 4: Risk evaluation Procedure 5: The judgment whether further risk reduction is required or not Procedure 6: Further risk reduction Until allowable risk level is obtained, the procedure from 1 to 6 should be repeated continuously. 66

Repeated Process of Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction


Start Procedure 1 Preparation Procedure 6 Procedure 2

Risk Reduction Procedure 3 Procedure 4

Identification of Hazard Source Risk Estimation Risk Evaluation

Risk Analysis

Procedure 5 Whether Achieved No Allowable Risk or Not? Yes End

Risk Assessment

ISO 14121 specifies assessment and ISO 12100-2 specifies risk reduction. ISO 12100-1 specifies both risk assessment and risk reduction.

6-2-3. Risk Assessment Methodology


Preparation As a preparatory work for the risk assessment, an implementation plan needs to be prepared. Implementing plan should include: When, Who and Why while the methodologies should include: Where, What and How? For an effective risk assessment information collection is a prerequisite. Here are some tips: Tips for Risk Assessment Decision by top management Role allocation Education and training Target area or work & Procedure (flow) or area Essential participant who know field work well Spec., performance, manual and machineries Documents of working procedures Law, regulation, standards and company rules Energy supply Labor accidents, near miss and historical breakdown Health impairment Past risk assessment result

Implementation Plan (When, who & why) Methodologies (Where, what how)

Information Collection

Identification of Hazards 67

Following figure shows the process of accident starting from the hazard source to the actual accident incident. Hazard source is defined as a potential source of harm in ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999 and a source of possible injury or damage to health in ISO/DIS 12100 (2000). The most important work of identification of hazard source in risk assessment is the identification process of these hazard source, hazardous situation and hazardous events. As perfect identification is very difficult, systematic, exhaustive and theoretical approach is required as possible. From Hazard Source to Emergence of Accidents
Risk Generation Breakdown (Defect)

Near Miss

Hazard Source Human

Avoid Hazardous Situation Hazardous Events Failure to Avoid

Insufficient or Improper Safety Measures

Accidents

To identify the hazard source, the utilization of hazard source lists is recommended. For this, the ISO/DIS 12100(2000) recommends the following procedure: Following the identification of relevant hazard sources in targeted facilities in general hazard source lists, risk assessment should be conducted on hazard sources of highly requiring of risk removal or reduction. There are four steps of hazard identification: - Step 1: Decision of study unit: Considering study easiness, target area or work specified at preparation, should be divided into smaller unit to handle at one time. - Step 2: Identification of hazard sources: Identification should be done on each unit selected at Step 1. Systematic Checking should be done to all kinds of work shown in table. - Step 3: Identification of human categories facing to risk: All people who enter the working area should be studied to understand the risk faced by various people in various situations. - Step 4: Identification of human pattern such as foreseeable dangerous actions and not following manuals or not following the rules and standard procedures. To identify hazard sources, real opinions of field-workers are important.

Estimation of Risk Estimation of risk factor is done for assessing the potential severity of 68

hazard and probability of hazard generation for each hazard source under consideration. Probability of hazard generation consists of frequency / time for occurrence of the hazard event and avoidance. Severity of hazard depends on the amount of energy involved (motion, potential and accumulated energy of machinery, electricity, heat, light, electromagnetic wave, chemical reaction and etc.). To set the risk factors, it is important to understand meaning and the implications of risk degree on each risk factor as shown in the table. Risk Factors Specified in ISO 14121:1999
Risk Factors Severity Fatal or Injury Low Degree High Slight Injury Serious Wound Death (Recovery Possible) (Recovery Impossible) Single Human / Thing Plural Humans / Things Sudden Direct Contact Frequent Long Plural Low Frequent Accident High None (Automation) Sudden General Information Impossible No No

Generation Probability

Spread of Hazard Exposure Frequency and time Necessity of Approach Plan (Periodical) Kinds of Approach Indirect Contact (Use of Jig) Frequency of Approach Infrequent Duration of Approach Short Human Number One Probability of Hazard Event Reliability High Statistical Data Infrequent Experience of Accident Near Miss Risk Comparison with Same Low Machinery Possibility of Hazard Event Avoidance or Confinement Operators of Machinery Skilled Workers Non-Skilled Speed of Hazard Event Slow Fast Hazard Recognition Possibility of Human Avoidance Experience of Machinery Knowledge of Machinery Direct Observing Possible Yes Yes

Through Display Possible under certain conditions Yes but same kind

Risk Estimation Here is one method for risk estimation, as developed by an English private company, which is commonly used in machine safety in Japan. In this method, scores are assigned to risks depending on the severity, possibility and frequency as described below: Addition of S (Severity), P (Possibility) and F (Frequency) Score Contents Fatal 10 Death Heavy 6 Disability, blindness, severing limb, pulmonary defect Severe 3 Unconsciousness, burn injury, bone fracture (hospitalization) Light 1 Bruise, abrasion Certain 6 Nobody can avoid Highly possible 4 Cannot avoid without care Possible 3 Can avoid Rare 1 No harm if not with inattention Frequent 4 Several times in a day Sometimes 2 Every day Rare 1 Every week Risk Evaluation (Risk Factor Addition) Score Risk Level Evaluation 69

Severity

Possibility

Frequency

20 ~ 14 13 ~ 10 9~6 5~3

IV III II I

Not acceptable Serious problem Some problem Acceptable

Measures for Risk Reduction It is necessary to study measures for minimizing all the risks, including acceptable risks. However with limited money and time, it is recommendable to develop some rules of the relations between risk level and counter-measures. While identifying the risk reduction measures, initially all-possible risk reduction measures should be listed out first. Later appropriate risk reduction measures can be short-listed based on the criteria such as: technical feasibility and cost effectiveness (risk reduction v/s expenditure). Below is a compilation of possible risk reduction measures:

Risk Reduction Measures


Risk Reduction Measures Essentially safe design Protection Additional safety measures Information utilization Protection equipments Working approval system Education and training Remarks Safe shape, limitation of energy, safety distance, safety interspaces, human engineering, automation, scaffold and guardrail Guard (safety barrier, cover, casing and etc.) personnel safety nets, interlock for safety Emergency shut down facilities Alarm and display of dangerous situation Safety work manual Alarm and display in instruction booklet Protective glass, safety belt Qualified work for high risk work Publication of working manual Training of danger sensitivity

Documentation Documenting the records of the risk assessment is very important for the effective ongoing management of OEHS in any organization. Following records need to be maintained regularly: Record of risk assessment Record of risk reduction measures Safety technologies in working place etc.

6-3. Emergency Response Planning


70

Mishaps are sudden catastrophic event that can disrupt operations and/or cause loss of life or limb. Emergencies do occur in spite of careful controls. Typical emergency situation in an organization include: Fire / Explosion Natural disasters: Floods, Typhoon, Landslide etc Chemical spills, Toxic gas leak/release Construction site major mishaps Biological material spill Radiological material spill Seriously injured / ill person Structure collapse, bomb threat etc. Some landmark OEHS disasters in the modern times: Nuclear radiation leakage in Chernobyl Methyl isocyanate release in Bhopal Valdaze Oil Spill North Sea Piper Alfa Fire

6-3-1. Need for Emergency Response Plan (ERP)


Immediate and effective response to an emergency can minimize damage and help speedy recovery. ERP is thus a very essential part of good OEHS program. In many countries, local OEHS law requires ERP. ERP should address both on-site and off-site emergencies and be regularly updated. Classification and Levels of Emergency LEVEL I - Incident can be brought under control by first responders with locally available equipment. Example: a small fire easily put out or a spill contained LEVEL II - Incident requiring help beyond first responders, need local help; outside help may or may not be necessary; Example: Chlorine cylinder leak LEVEL III - Incident cannot be managed without help by fire brigade, police, hospitals, external aid providers, technical experts, community etc. To prevent mishaps, it is essential: To identify possible system failures, their gravity and consequences To ask further/hypothetical questions for finding the hidden causes of accidents, such as: What if ? What else? Ensure application of SOPs through effective training and supervision of employees To review and update existing controls to prevent mishaps Remember that losses found are only the tip of iceberg.

6-3-2. Overview of Emergency Response


Emergency Response Plan (ERP) should be implemented schematically not to slip over important items. (Drawing 1) shows the procedure of 71

ERP from preparation to follow up. Overview of Emergency Response


Notify onsite personnel about the incident Size-up the situation based on available information Preparation Request aid from outside sources Allocate personnel & equipment for response Survey and assess casualties Stabilize victims Response Extricate victims Decontaminate victims Transport & treat victims Evacuate site personnel Evacuate nearby public Extinguish hazard Contain hazard Survey & assess hazards

Follow Up

Replace or rejuvenate damaged or exhausted equipment Document the incident Review and revise site safety and contingency plans

6-3-3. HAZMAT: Six Step ERP Methodology


HAZMAT is the standard ERP method comprising 6 steps as below: H - Hazard identification and consequences A - Action plan (Positive actions) Z - Zoning of incident site M - Managing the incident / Emergency A - Assistance T - Termination after remedial action Below are some important pointers / tips for implementing HAZMAT in an organization: H Identification of possible hazardous situations/processes that could lead to mishaps and their consequences. Careful attention must be given to: Machinery, Equipment, Processes, Materials used in process Transportation Physical layout, land contour, structures, etc. Local natural elements Human actions, working methodologies etc.
A Action plan: Considerations for each type of emergency and appropriate response Detailed directions and control responses in case of various emergencies should be developed in the form of a contingency plan. While developing such a plan, saving life and limb as the topmost priority followed by property protection.

72

Action plan should also include the elements of recovery and restoration in case the emergency has occurred. Communication of the contents of the action plan should be made to the respective parties. If necessary, appropriate and relevant training should be provided. Necessary administrative and logistical preparations to handle the emergencies should be in place as per the plan.

Z Zoning the incident site to control the emergency is an important activity to restrict the access to the affected areas only to the relevant and authorized personnel. This is important to quickly and effectively containing the emergency without creating chaos and further accidents due to anxiety. The zoning involves following three types: Hot Zone: Restricted area to all except specially trained disaster control teams Warm Zone: Restricted area except limited access on need base such as support personnel and escape route Cold Zone: Site for forward control such as command post and support personnel M Managing the incident in case of emergency involves implementation of the action plan developed. Here are some tips: Have Incident Command (IC) system under the direction of an on-site commander. Decisions for managing the incident should be based on the class / level of emergency. HAZMAT team should be organized as per the need with designated persons with specified procedures for specific action(s) Regular Drills must be carried out to test procedures, which should be reviewed and revised as necessary ERP/IC organization charts with displays, manuals, checklist and equipment should be easily available at the relevant places. A - Assistance from varied resources must be sought as per the specific needs. Relevant and trained personnel must be identified for specific tasks Disaster Control Team (DCT) should be constituted comprising of fire fighters, rescue personnel, first Aid providers, medical personnel, technical specialists, section/floor representatives, public relations department, legal experts, contractors etc, The respective personnel must be immediately and clearly communicated about the emergency / incidence T - Termination of ERP and Remedial measures after the incident should include: Decontaminating and cleaning the site Post-incident rehabilitation of injured workers Cleaning up and storing of ERP equipment Restart and rebuild operation Incident reporting and post-incident analysis Revision of SOPs if necessary 73

6-3-4. Developing an ERP Manual


Developing an ERP manual is an important step in ERP and managing emergencies and accidents. This manual becomes the primary guideline in case of an emergency, where all the respective personnel must simply follow the procedures and guidelines in the ERP manual. Hence, it is essential to develop the ERP manual in a great detail with attention to all the possible emergency scenarios and the possible actions in such situations. A well thought out & planned ERP manual should: Guide all levels of management in emergency situations Identify and document the assistance required: in-house as well as external such as local police, experts, medical assistance, community, technical support, international experts etc. Ensure maximum safety of all personnel and property in emergency situations Ensure regular testing, drills, evaluation and update The ERP manual should identify the personnel responsible for emergency response actions. This would include the key personnel for emergency response as well as support personnel. On-scene commanders and his stand-in should be clearly identified to ensure a proper line of command in such a situation. Alternates in ERP organization chart for the varied positions and functions should also be identified to avoid any confusion. ERP manual should clearly spell out the strategies and procedures to organize people quickly and effectively in emergency situations. For this, emergency procedures need to be developed to provide immediate and accurate information to concerned people. Such a procedure therefore, could include: Telephone hot line numbers Communication with outside agencies Information about emergency exits, evacuation routes, assembly areas, Location of ER kit, personal protective equipment (PPEs), rescue equipment etc Information about the emergency alarms ERP manual should also include details about the first aid measures that can be administered by the rescue personnel on the victims. This can, for instance, cover: Basic life support (e.g. for collapsed persons) Burns: chemical, thermal, radiation and decontamination Wounds and disinfection Prevent shock/trauma Proper lifting/handling procedures for transporting of victims ERP manual should include information for the specific industry / organization depending upon the risks involved. For instance, the chemical industry could include specific instructions and procedures for chemical spill or gas leakage, while construction industry might include procedures for emergencies related to handling of heavy materials or accidents happening with people working at risky locations etc.

74

It is extremely essential to disseminate the salient points of ERP to all employees in addition to the specific requirements for the respective personnel. Also, one must ensure the availability of suitable ERP equipment, PPE, communication equipment, antidotes, and decontamination chemicals etc. as needed. Lastly, it is important to recognize that an effective and comprehensive ERP should address the issues such as: Welfare needs of victims as well as rescue teams (such food, Water, Sanitary Facilities, Rest etc) Crisis management including psychological support for rescuers, victims, relatives during and even after the emergency Press releases Procedures for clean up and/or safely resuming operation.

6-3-5. Emergency Response Training


While training is one of the most important elements of OEHS management in general and ERP in particular, it is essential to remember that the only meaningful training is the one which actually influences the workplace behavior. This can occur only when the training actively involves employees in discussion of information related to their specific work-related activities and responsibilities. Effective personnel training must be based on the premise that health and safety are a joint objective and responsibility of both management and labor. Where health and safety practices and procedures (or the lack thereof) are perceived as emanating solely at the discretion of corporate management, it is unlikely that any personnel training program can have any measurable influence on workplace-related health or safety. Today, OEHS-related training is an essential component of the induction of new employees. While it is neither possible nor desirable to attempt to complete all health and safety training prior to undertaking actual job assignments, the company must ensure that initial training is sufficient to ensure that workers are not at special health or safety risk simply because of their status as newly assigned personnel, and that the public at large as well as community emergency response personnel are not at risk simply because workplace personnel are incompetent in managing in-plant operational hazards. This requires that the corporate health and safety training program be appropriately tiered or staggered to meet the needs of personnel at various stages of their employment, including the categories of newly hired, newly assigned, and temporary personnel, as well as personnel in need of refreshing or advanced training, or additional training due to the implementation of new production processes or procedures.

6-3-6. Exercises and Drills of ERP


ERP should include several kinds of exercises and drills as shown in the table below: 75

Exercises and Drills of ERP


Orientation Education Session Table-top Exercises Regularly scheduled discussion session to provide information, answer questions, and identify needs and concerns of the personnel Members of the emergency management group meet in a conference room setting to discuss their responsibilities and how they would react to emergency scenarios. This is a cost-effective and efficient way to identify areas of overlap and confusion before conducting more demanding training activities. The emergency management group and response teams actually perform their emergency response functions. This activity generally involves more people and is more thorough than a table-top exercise This drill tests specific functions, such as medical response, emergency notification, warning and communications procedures and equipment, though not necessarily all at the same time. Personnel are asked to evaluate the systems and identify problem areas. Personnel walk the evacuation route to a designated area where procedures for accounting for all personnel are tested. Participants are asked to make notes as they go along of what might become a hazard during an emergency (e.g., stairways cluttered with debris; smoke in the hallways). Plans are modified accordingly A real-life emergency situation is simulated as closely as possible. This exercise involves company emergency response personnel, employees, and management and community response organizations.

Walk-through Drill

Functional Drill

Evacuation Drill

Full-scale Exercise

76

Chapter 7. OEHS Management System


7-1. Notes to Facilitators
7-1-1. Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter, participants should gain an understanding about the OEHS management systems.

7-1-2. Contents
This chapter covers the issues related to institutionalizing the OEHS management in an organization by implementing an OEHS management system. It provides an overview of various OHSMS related Standards such as: BS-8800, ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSH System by ILO together with an elaborate comparison of standards. The chapter then covers the OEHS Management System in greater detail. Finally, it covers the elements of OEHS auditing outlining the methodology in details.

7-1-3. Teaching Methodology


This session can be conducted primarily as a classroom lecture.

7-1-4. Special Tips


Facilitators could include as much local information / context as possible to make the issues covered here, very much appealing for the participants.

77

OEHS management is an ongoing task in an organization and it does involve substantial involvement and contribution by the people at various levels. Essentially it is peoples management exercise in the organization. Different people react to different situations (including emergencies) in different manners. This is due to an element of subjectivity in making judgments by different people as well as the difference in the capabilities and competency levels. It is essential to ensure that such human elements do not affect the overall management of GP and OEHS issues and the safety and welfare of the personnel as well as neighboring communities are not compromised. For this purpose, it is essential to institutionalize the various OEHS management functions by establishing a management system. This ensures the sustainability and effectiveness of the GP and OEHS initiatives in the organization even when the key champions driving such efforts are changed.

7-2. Human Resources Management Issues


For an efficient and effective management of OEHS, personnel of each job class must play their respective roles as shown in figure. Each class is not only responsible for his or her own work, but also must take care of the subordinates activities. In small and medium enterprises, the number of classes becomes three or two depending on the scale of company.

Management in Safety and Health

Executive Management Supervisor Operator

Policy of Occupational Safety and Health Management Policy, Objectives, Implementing Plan Concrete Activities Implementing Activities

7-2-1. Collaboration between OEHS & Operations Staff


Generally there are two kinds of people in a manufacturing type of organization: firstly, the operations crew that focuses on day-to-day operations with little or no responsibility for OEHS and secondly the OEHS staff that knows expert in OEHS issues but with little knowledge/expertise about the operations. In companies with excellent record of OEHS, one can easily see a great collaboration and corporation between operations and OEHS staff. Top management together with all the employees try to establish such cordial and positive relationships.
78

Operating Crew and OHS Staff Operating Crew OHS Staff Job Production Activity Non-Production Activity Familiar with Operation Understanding Overall Advantage Business Flow Much Attention on Operation Little Knowledge about Disadvantage and Little interest in OHS Working Place

7-2-2. OEHS Organization


The safety and health management organization varies by business area, company scale and laws and regulations of the country concerned. The figure shows the OHS organization of large-scale company. Safety and Health Management Organization

Employer Appointment General Safety and Health Supervisor Command Safety and Health Supervisor Health Supervisor Industrial Physician Safety and Health Committee
Safety and health committee should be established to reflect the labors opinion, under the chairmanship of general safety and health supervisor. OEHS supervisor is an important key role in the OEHS management. A supervisor has to perform his activities through his subordinates at the same time he also has to keep them safe from accidents. OEHS Activities of Supervisor 12 Keys for OEHS
Guidance and Education Direction and indication during operation To promote interest in industrial injury prevention To collect measures for industrial injury prevention

Safety Supervisor

Work Plan

Man

Input

Supervisor

To set up work procedure To improve work method Adequate allocation of workers Response in emergency Response to accidents Safe equipments and environmental improvement To keep the environmental conditions Checking for safety and health

Output
Method

Work

Machine Material

Among others, especially the following types of companies require 79

qualified safety and health supervisors. Companies operating boilers, pressure vessels and pressing machines Construction and civil work business Handling chemicals and agents. Depending on the law and regulation of country concerned, sometimes following is required for safety and/or supervisors: Technical knowledge about safety and health Academic background Work experience Passing the Qualifying examination.

7-2-3. Safety and Health Education


The basic principles of safety education include the following: Focus on the degree of understanding of the trainees Promote voluntary activities through training Starting from easy issues and advancing to more difficult ones One issue in one time Doing over and over again Referring familiar example Real experience by five senses Following up Safety education should be implemented on three aspects of knowledge, technology and behavior. Table below summarizes the key points of each aspect. These trainings are indispensable for newcomers, workers with new job and workers engaging in dangerous work.
Features of Safety Education Contents Key Points of Education Structure, Function and Concept Formation Performance of Flexible Education depending on Machines and Facilities Trainees Capability Theory of Accident Generation Law, Regulation and Standard of OESH Focus on Principles Skill and Technology Working Basis Real Experience Applied Skill and Technology Mind and Body Posture for OSH Rule of Working Place and Safety Motivation and Willingness Proper Concept of Values Good Human Relation

Objectives Knowledge Education

Methods Lecture Exercise Discussion

Technology Education Behavior Education

Lecture Exercise Lecture Exercise Discussion

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7-3. Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) Standards


7-3-1. BS-8800
The first standard of occupational safety and health management system is BS8800 (Guideline) of England. It should be noted that PDCA cycle of ISO14001, which is calling on continuous improvement, was adopted as basic concept here. The BS 8800 later developed into OHSAS 18001 where the occupational safety and health management system is developed together with environment and quality management system.

7-3-2. ISO9001 and ISO14001


As the background for the development of Occupational Safety and Health Management System standards, there were two systems of quality management system (ISO 9001) and environment management system (ISO 14001). These two management systems became widely popular across the world, because of followings: PDCA cycle (Plan, Do, Check and Act) is the basis for both the systems, which could be applicable to any business category; By certification and self-advertisement of management system implementation, it becomes considerably easy to seek the confidence of stakeholders such as customers and neighboring community.

7-3-3. OSH System by ILO


It was quite natural to apply the management systems principles to the occupational safety and health field. Under such circumstances, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) started to standardize the occupational safety and health system in 1996, but it was voted down in January 2000, because rapid standardization was feared to create a heavy burden for industries. Anyhow, behind this voting down, International Labor Organization (ILO) was then developing the international guideline of occupational safety and health management system. In September 2001, ILO disclosed these guidelines for Occupational Safety and Health Management System.

7-3-4. Integration of ISO 9000 and 14000


ISO's Technical Management Board (TMB), which oversees the organization's standardization work program, addressed the integration of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 at its meeting in Geneva on 27-28 January 1997. The TMB decided that no further action should be taken to initiate activity within ISO in the field of Occupational Health & Safety management system standards. The TMB noted that the outcome of the international workshop on OH&S management system standardization held by ISO on 5-6 September 1996 in Geneva indicated that there was little support from the main stakeholders for ISO to develop International Standard in this field. The TMB considered that a need for the development of such standards might arise in the future.

7-3-5. Comparison of Standards

Comparison of Standards 81

ISO 14001

OHSAS 18001 1 2 3 4 Scope Reference publications Nomenclature and definition Components of OHSMS 3.3

ILO Guideline 4.02 Preface 2 Responsibility and accountability 3 4

BS 8800 Informative reference standards Definition Components of OH&S

Scope

2 Normative reference 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3


Definition Claims postulated by EMS General requirements Environmental strategy Planning

4.1 General requirements 4.2 OSH strategy 3.1 Safety and health strategy

4.01 General Items 4.1 4.2 3.7 3.10 3.9 3.8 Initial survey Removal of danger and hazardous sources Targets of OSH 4.2.4 Plan and implementation of OSH OH&S strategy Planning

4.3 Planning Identification of risk sources 4.3.1 Risk assessment Risk management planning 4.3.2 Law and other requirements 4.3.3 Targets 4.3.4 OSH management program 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 Implementation and operation Organization and responsibility Training, awareness and capability Discussion and communication

4.3.1 Environmental aspects

4.2.2 Risk assessment 4.2.3 Law and other requirements Preparation of OH&S management Implementation and operation

4.3.2

Law and other requirements Environment management program Implementation and operation Organization and responsibility Training, awareness and capability

4.3.3 Objectives and targets 4.3.4 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2

4.3

3.4

Capability and education/training

4.3.1 Structure and responsibility 4.3.2 Education / training / awareness/ capability

4.4.3 Communication 4.4.4 EMS documents 4.4.5 Documents management

3.2 3.5 3.2

Participation of labors Management system documents Participation of labors Communication OSH Planning and implementation Removal of danger and hazardous sources Survey of implementation and measurement Survey of injury and illness

4.3.3 Dialogue 4.3.4 OHSMS documentation 4.3.5 Document management

4.4.4 Documentation Documents and data 4.4.5 management

4.4.6 Operational management

4.4.6 Operational management

3.6 3.8

4.3.6 Operational management

4.4.7 Emergency response plan 4.5 4.5.1 Inspection and corrective measures Monitoring and measurements

4.4.7 Emergency response plan 4.5 4.5.1 Inspection and corrective measures Performance measurement and monitoring

3.10 3.11 3.12

4.3.7 Emergency response plan 4.4 Inspection and corrective measures

4.4.1 Monitoring and measurements

Incompatibility correction 4.5.2 and preventive measures

Accidents, cause of accidents, incompatibility, 4.5.2 corrective measures and preventive measures 4.5.3 Record and management 4.5.4 Audit 4.6 Review by management

3.15

Prevention and corrective measures

4.4.2 Corrective measures

4.5.3 Record 4.5.4 EMS audit 4.6 Review by management

3.5

MS Documents

4.4.3 Record 4.4.4 Audit 4.5 Management review

3.13 Audit 3.14 Management review

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7-4. OEHS Management System


7-4-1. Objective
The objective of OHSM system is the total improvement of occupational safety and health standard in working place. To achieve this objective, two basic foundations are important. The first one is the cooperation between managements and employees while the second is continuous and voluntary activity for ensuring safety & health. By introducing clear rules and risk reduction under specified integrated procedure (PDCA Cycle), health and safety improvement and comfortable working environment can be materialized, leading total occupational safety and health improvement. Objectives

Total OSH Improvement Health Improvement


Reducing Risk

Comfortable Environment
Specifying Rules

Cooperation of Management & Employees

Continuous and Voluntary S & H Activity

7-4-2. PDCA Cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Action):


Demings Plan-Do-Check-Action Cycle is repeatedly implemented aiming for continual improvement. PDCA Cycle
P A

C P

Action
Review by Management

Plan
Strategy for Labor Safety and Health

Do
Implementation and Operation

Check
Inspection and Corrective Action

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7-4-3. Outline of OEHSM System:


Following are the important elements of the OEHSMS: 1. Manifestation of OEHS Policy 2. Identification of dangerous and hazardous factors 3. Identification of issues for the compliance with labor law 4. Establishment of OEHS objectives based on OEHS policy 5. Drawing up of OEHS plan for issues identified in (3) 6. Implementation of OEHS Plan 7. Regular inspection & improvement of the OEHSMS performance 8. Management system audit and improvement 9. Periodical review of the management system 10. Continuous implementation of steps (1) to (9)

7-4-4. OEHS Management Plan


The top management must endorse that the safety and health issues have top priority than others. This must be reflected in the organizations OEHS policy. Accordingly, the top management should stipulate high but achievable and measurable objectives and targets within fixed period. Opinions of Labors and all the related stakeholders should be reflected in the OEHS plan. Review and revision of the OEHS management plan should be done continuously based on PDCA cycle. Contents of the plan could typically include: Measures to remove or reduce dangerous and hazardous factors Compliance with laws and regulations Daily OEHS activities like advanced anticipation and inspection tour Responsible sections for various activities / emergencies Daily / monthly / yearly schedule Plan of education and training Emergency response plan Flow Chart of OSHMS in PDCA
(2) Identification of Dangerous and Hazardous Factors (3) Identification of Implementing Items based on Labor Laws (4) Establishment of OSH Objectives (5) Drawing of OSH Plan (1) Manifestation of OSH Policy

P (Plan)

Stakeholders
Labors Opinion Publicize Relevant Matters

Systems D (Do)
(6) Operation of OSH Plan Structural Formulation

C (Check) (7) Daily Inspection & Improvement A (Action) (8) System Audits
(9) Review of OSHMS

Documents safet Management Records

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7-4-5. Follow-Up Safety and Advanced Safety:


The safety management in the past was follow-up safety. More specifically it involved the prevention of same or similar kinds of accidents, based on the information of past labor accidents, under the similar circumstance. There was a lack of holistic and integrated approach and safety activities were done in an ad-hoc manner. Follow-Up Safety and Advanced Safety

In the Past Follow-Up Safety Prevention of same /similar kinds of accidents Rules Information of past labor accidents
Lack of total and integrated approach Safety activity in a desultory way

Hereafter Advanced Safety Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) PDCA Cycle Voluntary Activities

Risk Assessment

New concept of OEHS management is based on proactive approach safety involving entire management and workers and is achieved through PDCA cycle including risk assessment. Voluntary activity becomes important here together with the existing rules & regulations.

7-5. OEHS Auditing


Auditing is a very important element of any management system. OEHS audit is a systematic, documented verification process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence to determine whether an organizations management system conforms to the OEHS audit criteria, and communicating the results of this process to the client. In its simplest form, the philosophy of an audit can be summarized as: No matter how good you are, you can always be better!

7-5-1. OEHS Auditing


Audit Objectives The client defines the objectives of the audit. For example, it could be to determine whether all the elements of ISO 14001 have been met, or it could be to assess the effectiveness of the EMS. Audit Scope The audit scope provides the extent and boundaries of the audit. Audit scope could be: Environmental regulations to be audited against Facilities to be audited 85

EMS standard to be audited against Elements of ISO 14001 to be audited Processes or functions to be audited Audit Criterion Policies, practices, procedures or requirements against which the auditor compares collected audit evidence about the subject matter. For example; Company policy (including environmental regulations) Nature, scale, impacts of activities, products, services EMS standards Actual functioning, performance etc. Audit Tools Audit can be conducted using following tools: Study of company documentation Interviewing management and personnel Plant (and location) visits Verification checks on information Audit Independence The audit team members need to be independent of the activities that they will audit. Independence is needed to ensure the objectivity of: the audit process the audit findings the audit conclusions Audit Findings Result of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence compared against the agreed audit criteria. Audit Evidence Audit evidence is the verifiable information, records or statements of fact in the context of OEHS. The auditor to determine whether audit criteria are met uses audit Evidence, which can be qualitative or quantitative, or not. Audit evidence is typically based on interviews, examination of documents, observation of activities and conditions, existing results of measurements and tests or other means within the scope of the audit Audit Conclusion Audit conclusions are the professional judgments or opinions expressed by an auditor about the subject matter of the audit (OEHS), based on and limited to reasoning which the auditor has applied to audit findings.

7-5-2. Pre-Audit Phase


Pre-audit Activities Establish & implement systems as per standards - to be done by the organization to be audited. Develop & establish internal audit system - to be done by Management Representative (for EMS) Gain clear understanding of audit assignment and commensurate preparation by auditors

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Preliminary OEHS Document Review Apex manual, procedures, program Register of legal requirements Register of Environmental / Safety aspects and associated impacts Past audit reports Audit Plan Audit plan should be able to answer 5W and 1H: Why, What, Where, When, Who and How? This may therefore include: Methodology - Review of documentation/ records, Interviews and cross verification, Site inspection Priority areas determined by significance Time schedule - allocation of proportionate time Audit team including leader/members Audit Team Preparation Team meeting/ interaction for role clarity and work allocation Individual & collective review of criteria & documentation Prepare/select standard checklists Confirm logistics Special briefing by lead auditor for first time auditors Developing Checklists Purpose Ensure a systematic and structured approach Ensure nothing is omitted and achieve the objectives Methods Identify the objective of the checklist Identify the key steps in achieving the objective Sub-divide each key item into more detailed items Take each of those and divide still further Information Required for the Audit Site Information Management information Production information Raw materials data Chemical data Waste information Spills and accidents Cost information Key personnel Aide Memos Before site visit, prepare a written guide for use during the site visit. It may include: List of topics to be covered Questions to be asked Legislation and regulations Environmental sensitivities Areas for special attention Each field auditor should have his or her own customized guide to follow.

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7-5-3. Audit Phase


Audit methodology comprises of: Opening meeting Observations and recording of audit evidence Finalization of the audit findings Closing meeting (Present audit findings and finalize audit report) Opening Meeting Team Introductions (Establish credentials and rapport) Review scope, objectives, schedule, criteria & audit sampling method Summary of audit methodology/ procedure Confirm that the required resources & facilities are available Confirm time and date of closing meeting Promote active participation of the organization being audited Review site safety and emergency procedures for auditors. Clarify and reassure purpose (Fact and not fault finding) Note: Make it short and sweet Observing & Recording Evidence Follow audit plan/ route/ procedures Use checklists & aide-memos judiciously Use appropriate data collection method/s: Interviews Examination of documents Physical observation of site activities and conditions Review linkages Follow up on previous audit findings Manage time optimally (adequate depth and spread) Consult team members (Back and forth verification) The audit team should undertake a detailed site-visit in order to observe and record the evidence. Following some of the important issues to be addressed during the site visit: Routing Inside-Follow Production Line Unloading / Storage Preparation Process / Assembly Rejection and Recycled Packaging Transportation Outside- Follow Drainage, Check exits for by-products Environmental Controls Stacks and Vents/ emissions Dust Collectors/Bag Houses/ESPs/leaks Sewage & Wastewater Treatment/discharges Open Areas Soil stains and stressed vegetation Abandoned structures Chemical containers, Drums, Packaging, Wastes Storage Tank Leaks, Spills, Stains Secondary Containment 88

Piping Fire Safety Utilities Transformers and PCBs Boilers & Tanks Compressed Gases Manholes and Piping Wells Cooling Systems Here are some practical tips for on-site information review; Meet the area representative first Talk to those performing the tasks on ground Explain the purpose of audit Be calm, polite Never act superior Speak clearly and listen carefully Start with the easy questions Do not challenge the organization / people being audited Record all answers Audit Findings Audit findings should be: Clear/Unambiguous Objective Supported by Evidence Accurate Identified with relevant clauses and procedures Identified with functional area In order to assess and verify the audit findings: Audit team should meet privately Interim meetings can be held during audit, on completion of audit, prior to close out Audit team should review notes and checklist Identify non-compliance Evaluate impacts of non-compliance Audit team should document the findings Finalization of Audit Findings In order to finalize the audit findings: Each auditor should review the individual findings. Lead auditor should make an integrated review Audit team should check for additional data collection/site visit/documents if necessary Generate factual, correct, complete and legible audit findings in defined formats should be produced Review audit findings with individual auditees. Prepare for closing meeting (process & content) Closing Meeting Thank the auditees. Present findings (after lead auditors introductory remarks) Ensure clear understanding 89

Resolve differences Be open to additional information Present audit conclusion, if appropriate Give recommendations if required and if the audit team is competent to do so Discuss corrective actions/ follow up requirements Hand over/commit the date of final report submission Maintain confidentiality

7-5-4. Post Audit Phase


After the audit, the team should finalize and submit the audit report. For this audit report: Formalize what has been agreed at the closing meeting No additional observations/ surprises Use specified reporting format Lead auditor to review and approve report in right earnest and not merely sign Generate required no of copies Distribute to identified functions/locations including Management Representative Typically the audit report could include: General information Objectives / Scope Audited organization / Audit team Audit plan Summary of audit methodology Confidentiality Report distribution Reference documents Audit findings Summary of findings Conformances / strengths of the organization Non-conformances Observations Conclusions Audit conclusions Opinions Recommendations

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Case Study for Group Work


Case 1. Accident Investigation Case Study: Fire in a Drying Unit
To meet a demand from some customers for a product containing less water, a small drying unit was added to a plant, which manufactured an organic solvent. The solvent, which was miscible with water, was passed over a drying agent for about eight hours; the solvent was then blown out of the drier with nitrogen and the drier regenerated. There were two driers, one working, and one regenerating. (Figure) Drying unit in which the accident occurred As the drying unit was some distance Dry Solvent from the control room the instruments associated with it were mounted on the outdoor control panel shown in Figure 2. The top half of the panel contained pneumatic instruments, the lower half electrical equipment associated with the changeover of the driers. The control panel was located Drying in a Zone (Division) 2 area, i.e. an Chambers area in which a flammable mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and, if it does occur, will exist for only a short time (say for a total of not more than 10 hours per year). The electrical equipment could not, at the time of construction, be obtained in a flameproof or non-sparking form Wet Solvent suitable for use in a Zone 2 area. It was therefore mounted in a metal cabinet, made from thin metal sheet, which was continuously purged with Nitrogen nitrogen. The nitrogen was intended to keep out any solvent vapor that might leak from the drying unit or the main plant. Such leaks were unlikely, and if they did occur would probably be short-lived, but the Zone 2 classification showed that they could not be ruled out. A pressure switch isolated the electricity supply if the pressure in the cabinet fell below a preset value, originally 1/2 inch water gauge. No solvent or other process materials were connected to the control panel. Despite these precautions an explosion occurred during the commissioning of the drying unit. It had been shut down for a few days and was ready to restart. A young graduate had been given the job of commissioning the unit as his first industrial experience. Standing in the position shown in Figure 2 he personally switched on the electricity supply. There was an explosion and the front cover was blown off the metal cabinet, hitting him in the legs. Fortunately no bones were broken and he returned to work after a few days. 91

Other points:
The nitrogen supply was permanently connected to the driers by single isolation valves and non-return (check) valves as shown in Figure 1. The gauge pressure of the nitrogen was nominally 40 lbf/sq.in (almost 3 bar) but fell when the demand was high. The gauge pressure in the driers was about 30 lbf/sq.in (2 bar). The nitrogen pressure had fallen to zero for some hours immediately before the accident. The unit was at the end of the nitrogen distribution network and suffered more than most units from deficiencies in the supply. It is difficult to get airtight joints in a cabinet made from thin metal sheets bolted together The low-pressure switch should have isolated the supply. Figure 4, a photograph of the pressure switch with the cover removed. It will be seen that the set point has been reduced from 1/2-inch water gauge to zero. The switch cannot operate unless the pressure in the cabinet becomes zero. A metal cover normally covered the switch and the set point was not visible. Only electricians were authorized to remove the cover. Perform accident analysis to establish root causes of the accident and develop recommendations

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Case 2. Explosion in Petrochemical Plant


Company: Tisso Petrochemical Co., Ltd Plant: No.2 polypropylene plant Date: October 8, 1973 Time: At about ten past seven in the afternoon Accident: Big Explosion Occurred Damage: Died---Humans 4 Workers 1 Seriously Injured--- 9 Workers + 1 Nearby Resident Amount of Loss: 25 Million US $ (1) Outline of Accident The explosion in No.2 polypropylene plant of Tisso Petrochemical Co., Ltd. occurred at about ten past seven in the afternoon, October 8, 1973. Four workers died and nine workers sustained minor and serious injuries. Furthermore, one resident and one fire fighter were injured. The amount of plant damage was about 2.5 billion. Adjacent factories and area were suffered damage of glass breakage etc. At one past ten, just before the accident, Power supply was cut because of short circuit between phases of transformer in transforming station. The emergency shut down operation to cope with this power failure started immediately. One field worker of No.2 polypropylene plant, who was checking and handling the valves, closed incorrectly the valve of No.6 polymerization reactor under cleaning operation, instead of the valve of No.4 polymerization reactor under operation. Caused by this miss-operation, forty tons of slurry liquid containing normal hexane and propylene flowed out from the reactor. Vapor cloud was formed, ignited and exploded. There were four polymerization reactors in No.2 plant. No.4 reactor was under cleaning operation by high-pressure hexane for removing choking. No.4 reactor was separated from operating line for periodical cleaning and parts of piping are removed. The power failure occurred frequently in 1973, five times before the accident. Emergency shut down work in the field had to be done in the darkness. While the air valve in the control room was in open position, the field worker opened the cock on the field panel leading the outflow of slurry.

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Field Panel Display at the Timing of Accident


Emergency Shutdown Valve

Emergency Shutdown Valve Open: By air pressure Close: Pulling out the air and activated by spring

Air Line Air Compressor

Supplementary Cooling Line

Control Room Air Valve Intermediate Panel Air Valve

Pump Emergency Shutdown Valve Inlet Valve

Emergency Valve Position of No. 6 Reactor

Inlet Cock No.5 Polymerization Reactor Outlet Cock No.4 Polymerization Reactor

No.7 Polymerization Reactor (Non Operation)

No.6 Polymerization Reactor

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(2) Time Course of Accident - 2201hours of October 8, 1973 The power supply to the part of Goi Factory was cut by short circuit between phases in transforming station. - The No.2 polypropylene plant started the emergency shutdown operation complying with countermeasure for total blackout. - The panel worker conducted the emergency purging operation of polymerization reactors. - The field worker checked the field valves and closed mechanical seal lines of No.4, No.5 and No.7 polymerization reactors. - 2205hours The field worker reported to the control room that he felt the hexane smell. According to the supervisors order, the field worker started sprinkling water around No.10 reactor. - 2207hours The explosion occurred in pellet factory and compressor room at the distance of 50 meters from polypropylene plant. - 350hours of October 9, 1973. Fire extinction. (3) The Causes of Accident (Direct Causes) (a) No.6 polymerization reactor was separated from operation line on October 5. Plugged supplementary cooler was under cleaning operation. While cleaning operation, the bottom short piping was removed without blind. (b) About 2155hours on October 8, the supplementary cooling line of No.4 polymerization reactor turned into bad condition. Accordingly, injection of high-pressure hexane from the pump suction of supplementary cooling line was conducted as the cleaning operation. (c) At 2201hours, the transformer tripped by short circuit between phases and the leaked insulating oil caught fire. (d) Consequently, the electricity to No.2 polypropylene plant was cut leading to emergency shutdown operation. As the instrument air continued to supply, the processes of polymerization were in normal conditions. (e) There were no lights in field except emergency lights. The field worker in darkness opened incorrectly the cock of No.6 polymerization reactor instead of opening the cock of No. 4 polymerization reactor. (f) As separated short piping was not attached blind flange, slurry containing a large amount of propylene flew out. (g) The electric equipments of operating pellet production facility, which located 50 meters away from No.2 propylene plant, were not explosion-proof types. (h) The ignition source was estimated to be the magnet switch of extruder or electric heater. (Indirect Causes) (a) Power failure occurred as frequently as five times in the year before accident. On the day, there were two power failures in the morning and five minutes before. (b) Plugging in supplementary cooling line occurred frequently and required abnormal work operation. And this situation had become 95

ordinal work operation. (c) There were sufficient emergency lights in the fields. (4) Adopted Countermeasures This accident is unthinkable judging from current level of technology. However, the improvement and development in the both aspect of hardware and software is not able to eliminate completely the human error and accidents. Followings are adopted countermeasure after accident. (a) Safety management organization - Strengthen the occupational health department - Strengthen the safety department - Strengthen the maintenance department (b) Safety education and training (3) Facilities - Polymerization reactors: Improvement of supplementary cooling line - Electric power supply: Strengthen power system - Lighting: Improvement of lighting - Instrument: Automatic emergency stoppage system - Communication: Improvement of reporting and alarming system - Gas detector: Power failure proof type and improvement - Prevention of miss-operation: Full proof type - Prevention of enlarging accident: Strengthening and addition of sprinklers (4) Operation - Manual of maintenance work: Establishment and compliance - Revision of manual: Periodical review and revision - Manual of emergency operation: Establishment - Manual: Education and training

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