GŦkŦ NoŦ 114S08 November 19ţ 1999

ÞkI8nDAS IŦ MIkÞUkIţ peLlLlonerţ vsŦ CCUk1 CI AÞÞLALSţ DIkLC1Ck CI
ÞA1LN1S and the 8Ak8I2CN CCkÞCkA1ICNţ respondenLsŦ
ÞUNCţ Ŧť
1he ConvenLlon of Þarls for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of lndusLrlal ÞroperLy ls a
mulLlŴlaLeral LreaLy whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes bound lLself Lo honor and
enforce ln Lhls counLryŦ As Lo wheLher or noL Lhe LreaLy affords
proLecLlon Lo a forelgn corporaLlon agalnsL a Þhlllpplne appllcanL for Lhe
reglsLraLlon of a slmllar Lrademark ls Lhe prlnclpal lssue ln Lhls caseŦ
Cn !une 13ţ 1970ţ one LollLa Lscobarţ Lhe predecessorŴlnŴlnLeresL of
peLlLloner Þrlbhdas !Ŧ Mlrpurlţ flled an appllcaLlon wlLh Lhe 8ureau of
ÞaLenLs for Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark ƍ8arblzonƍ for use ln
brassleres and ladles undergarmenLsŦ Lscobar alleged LhaL she had been
manufacLurlng and selllng Lhese producLs under Lhe flrm name ƍL Ǝ 8M
Commerclalƍ slnce March 3ţ 1970Ŧ
ÞrlvaLe respondenL 8arblzon CorporaLlonţ a corporaLlon organlzed and
dolng buslness under Lhe laws of new ?orkţ uŦSŦAŦţ opposed Lhe
appllcaLlonŦ lL clalmed LhaLť
1he mark 8A88lZCn of respondenLŴappllcanL ls
confuslngly slmllar Lo Lhe Lrademark 8A88lZCn
whlch opposer owns and has noL abandonedŦ
1haL opposer wlll be damaged by Lhe reglsLraLlon of
Lhe mark 8A88lZCn and lLs buslness repuLaLlon and
goodwlll wlll suffer greaL and lrreparable ln[uryŦ
1haL Lhe respondenLŴappllcanLƌs use of Lhe sald
mark 8A88lZCn whlch resembles Lhe Lrademark
used and owned by opposerţ consLlLuLes an
unlawful approprlaLlon of a mark prevlously used ln
Lhe Þhlllpplnes and noL abandoned and Lherefore a
sLaLuLory vlolaLlon of SecLlon 4 (d) of 8epubllc AcL
noŦ 166ţ as amendedŦ
1

1hls was dockeLed as lnLer ÞarLes Case noŦ 686 (lÞC noŦ 686)Ŧ
AfLer flllng of Lhe pleadlngsţ Lhe parLles submlLLed Lhe case for
declslonŦ
Cn !une 18ţ 1974ţ Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs rendered [udgmenL dlsmlsslng
Lhe opposlLlon and glvlng due course Lo Lscobarƌs appllcaLlonţ Lhusť
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe opposlLlon should beţ as lL ls
herebyţ ulSMlSSLuŦ Accordlnglyţ AppllcaLlon Serlal
noŦ 19010 for Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCnţ of respondenL LollLa 8Ŧ Lscobarţ ls glven
due courseŦ
l1 lS SC C8uL8LuŦ
2

1hls declslon became flnal and on SepLember 11ţ 1974ţ LollLa
Lscobar was lssued a cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon for Lhe
Lrademark ƍ8arblzonŦƍ 1he Lrademark was ƍfor use ln
ƍbrassleres and ladyƌs underwear garmenLs llke panLlesŦƍ
3

Lscobar laLer asslgned all her rlghLs and lnLeresL over Lhe Lrademark Lo
peLlLloner Þrlbhdas !Ŧ Mlrpurl whoţ under hls flrm name Lhenţ Lhe
ƍ8onlLo LnLerprlsesţƍ was Lhe sole and excluslve dlsLrlbuLor of Lscobarƌs
ƍ8arblzonƍ producLsŦ
ln 1979ţ howeverţ Lscobar falled Lo flle wlLh Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLs Lhe
AffldavlL of use of Lhe Lrademark requlred under SecLlon 12 of 8epubllc
AcL (8ŦAŦ) noŦ 166ţ Lhe Þhlllpplne 1rademark LawŦ uue Lo Lhls fallureţ Lhe
8ureau of ÞaLenLs cancelled Lscobarƌs cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlonŦ
Cn May 27ţ 1981ţ Lscobar reapplled for reglsLraLlon of Lhe cancelled
LrademarkŦ Mlrpurl flled hls own appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon of Lscobarƌs
LrademarkŦ Lscobar laLer asslgned her appllcaLlon Lo hereln peLlLloner
and Lhls appllcaLlon was opposed by prlvaLe respondenLŦ 1he case was
dockeLed as lnLer ÞarLes Case noŦ 2049 (lÞC noŦ 2049)Ŧ
ln lLs opposlLlonţ prlvaLe respondenL alleged LhaLť
(a) 1he Cpposer has adopLed Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCn (word)ţ someLlme ln !une 1933 and has
Lhen used lL on varlous klnds of wearlng apparelŦ Cn
AugusL 14ţ 1934ţ Cpposer obLalned from Lhe unlLed
SLaLes ÞaLenL Cfflce a more recenL reglsLraLlon of
Lhe sald mark under CerLlflcaLe of 8eglsLraLlon noŦ
316ţ161Ŧ Cn March 1ţ 1949ţ Cpposer obLalned from
Lhe unlLed SLaLes ÞaLenL Cfflce a more recenL
reglsLraLlon for Lhe sald Lrademark under CerLlflcaLe
of 8eglsLraLlon noŦ 307ţ214ţ a copy of whlch ls
herewlLh aLLached as Annex ƍAŦƍ Sald CerLlflcaLe of
8eglsLraLlon covers Lhe followlng goods Ÿ wearlng
apparelť robesţ pa[amasţ llngerleţ nlghLgowns and
sllpsŤ
(b) SomeLlme ln March 1976ţ Cpposer furLher
adopLed Lhe Lrademark 8A88lZCn and 8ee deslgn
and used Lhe sald mark ln varlous klnds of wearlng
apparelŦ Cn March 13ţ 1977ţ Cpposer secured from
Lhe unlLed SLaLes ÞaLenL Cfflce a reglsLraLlon of Lhe
sald mark under CerLlflcaLe of 8eglsLraLlon noŦ
1ţ061ţ277ţ a copy of whlch ls hereln enclosed as
Annex ƍ8Ŧƍ 1he sald CerLlflcaLe of 8eglsLraLlon
covers Lhe followlng goodsť robesţ pa[amasţ
llngerleţ nlghLgowns and sllpsŤ
(c) SLlll furLherţ someLlme ln 1961ţ Cpposer
adopLed Lhe Lrademark 8A88lZCn and a
8epresenLaLlon of a Woman and LhereafLer used
Lhe sald Lrademark on varlous klnds of wearlng
apparelŦ Cpposer obLalned from Lhe unlLed SLaLes
ÞaLenL Cfflce reglsLraLlon of Lhe sald mark on Aprll
3ţ 1983 under CerLlflcaLe of 8eglsLraLlon noŦ
1ţ233ţ666 for Lhe followlng goodsť wearlng apparelť
robesţ pa[amasţ nlghLgowns and llngerleŦ A copy of
Lhe sald cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon ls herewlLh
enclosed as Annex ƍCŦƍ
(d) All Lhe above reglsLraLlons are subslsLlng and ln
force and Cpposer has noL abandoned Lhe use of
Lhe sald LrademarksŦ ln facLţ Cpposerţ Lhrough a
whollyŴowned Þhlllpplne subsldlaryţ Lhe Þhlllpplne
Llngerle CorporaLlonţ has been manufacLurlng Lhe
goods covered by sald reglsLraLlons and selllng
Lhem Lo varlous counLrlesţ Lhereby earnlng valuable
forelgn exchange for Lhe counLryŦ As a resulL of
respondenLŴappllcanLƌs mlsapproprlaLlon of
Cpposerƌs 8A88lZCn Lrademarkţ Þhlllpplne Llngerle
CorporaLlon ls prevenLed from selllng lLs goods ln
Lhe local markeLţ Lo Lhe damage and pre[udlce of
Cpposer and lLs whollyŴowned subsldlaryŦ
(e) 1he Cpposerƌs goods bearlng Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCn have been used ln many counLrlesţ
lncludlng Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ for aL leasL 40 years and
has en[oyed lnLernaLlonal repuLaLlon and good wlll
for Lhelr quallLyŦ 1o proLecL lLs reglsLraLlons ln
counLrles where Lhe goods covered by Lhe
reglsLraLlons are belng soldţ Cpposer has procured
Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark 8A88lZCn ln Lhe
followlng counLrlesť AusLrallaţ AusLrlaţ Abu uhablţ
ArgenLlnaţ 8elglumţ 8ollvlaţ 8ahralnţ Canadaţ Chlleţ
Colomblaţ uenmarkţ Lcuadorţ lranceţ WesL
Cermanyţ Creeceţ CuaLemalaţ Pongkongţ
Pondurasţ lLalyţ !apanţ !ordanţ Lebanonţ Mexlcoţ
Moroccoţ Þanamaţ new Zealandţ norwayţ Swedenţ
SwlLzerlandţ Syrlaţ Ll Salvadorţ SouLh Afrlcaţ
Zamblaţ LgypLţ and lranţ among oLhersŤ
(f) 1o enhance lLs lnLernaLlonal repuLaLlon for
quallLy goods and Lo furLher promoLe goodwlll over
lLs nameţ marks and producLsţ Cpposer has
exLenslvely adverLlsed lLs producLsţ Lrademarks and
name ln varlous publlcaLlons whlch are clrculaLed ln
Lhe unlLed SLaLes and many counLrles around Lhe
worldţ lncludlng Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ
(g) 1he Lrademark 8A88lZCn was fraudulenLly
reglsLered ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes by one LollLa 8Ŧ
Lscobar under 8eglsLraLlon noŦ 21920ţ lssued on
SepLember 11ţ 1974ţ ln vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 189 (3)
of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Code and SecLlon 4 (d) of Lhe
1rademark LawŦ Pereln respondenL appllcanL
acqulred by asslgnmenL Lhe ƍrlghLsƍ Lo Lhe sald
mark prevlously reglsLered by LollLa Lscobarţ hence
respondenLŴappllcanLƌs LlLle ls vlLlaLed by Lhe same
fraud and crlmlnal acLŦ 8esldesţ CerLlflcaLe of
8eglsLraLlon noŦ 21920 has been cancelled for
fallure of elLher LollLa Lscobar or hereln
respondenLŴappllcanLţ Lo seasonably flle Lhe
sLaLuLory affldavlL of useŦ 8y applylng for a reŴ
reglsLraLlon of Lhe mark 8A88lZCn sub[ecL of Lhls
opposlLlonţ respondenLŴappllcanL seeks Lo
perpeLuaLe Lhe fraud and crlmlnal acL commlLLed by
LollLa LscobarŦ
(h) Cpposerƌs 8A88lZCn as well as lLs 8A88lZCn
and 8ee ueslgn and 8A88lZCn and 8epresenLaLlon
of a Woman Lrademarks quallfy as wellŴknown
Lrademarks enLlLled Lo proLecLlon under ArLlcle
6bls of Lhe ConvenLlon of Þarls for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of
lndusLrlal ÞroperLy and furLher ampllfled by Lhe
Memorandum of Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade Lo Lhe
Ponorable ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs daLed CcLober 23ţ
1983 żslcŽţ
4
LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 913 daLed CcLober
7ţ 1963 and Lhe Memorandum of Lhe MlnlsLer of
1rade and lndusLry Lo Lhe Ponorable ulrecLor of
ÞaLenLs daLed CcLober 23ţ 1983Ŧ
(l) 1he Lrademark applled for by respondenL
appllcanL ls ldenLlcal Lo Cpposerƌs 8A88lZCn
Lrademark and consLlLuLes Lhe domlnanL parL of
Cpposerƌs Lwo oLher marks namelyţ 8A88lZCn and
8ee deslgn and 8A88lZCn and a 8epresenLaLlon of
a WomanŦ 1he conLlnued use by respondenLŴ
appllcanL of Cpposerƌs Lrademark 8A88lZCn on
goods belonglng Lo Class 23 consLlLuLes a clear case
of commerclal and crlmlnal plracy and lf allowed
reglsLraLlon wlll vlolaLe noL only Lhe 1rademark Law
buL also ArLlcle 189 of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Code and
Lhe commlLmenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes Lo an
lnLernaLlonal LreaLyŦ
S

8eplylng Lo prlvaLe respondenLƌs opposlLlonţ peLlLloner ralsed
Lhe defense of s joJlcotoŦ
Cn March 2ţ 1982ţ Lscobar asslgned Lo peLlLloner Lhe use of Lhe buslness
name ƍ8arblzon lnLernaLlonalŦƍ ÞeLlLloner reglsLered Lhe name wlLh Lhe
ueparLmenL of 1rade and lndusLry (u1l) for whlch a cerLlflcaLe of
reglsLraLlon was lssued ln 1987Ŧ
lorLhwlLhţ prlvaLe respondenL flled before Lhe Cfflce of Legal Affalrs of
Lhe u1l a peLlLlon for cancellaLlon of peLlLlonerƌs buslness nameŦ
Cn november 26ţ 1991ţ Lhe u1lţ Cfflce of Legal Affalrsţ cancelled
peLlLlonerƌs cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlonţ and declared prlvaLe respondenL
Lhe owner and prlor user of Lhe buslness name ƍ8arblzon lnLernaLlonalŦƍ
1husť
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe peLlLlon ls hereby C8An1Lu and
peLlLloner ls declared Lhe owner and prlor user of
Lhe buslness name ƍ8A88lZCn ln1L8nA1lCnALƍ
under CerLlflcaLe of 8eglsLraLlon noŦ 87Ŵ09000
daLed March 10ţ 1987 and lssued ln Lhe name of
respondenLţ ls żslcŽ hereby ordered revoked and
cancelledŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ

Meanwhlleţ ln lÞC noŦ 2049ţ Lhe evldence of boLh parLles were recelved
by Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsŦ Cn !une 18ţ 1992ţ Lhe ulrecLor rendered a
declslon declarlng prlvaLe respondenLƌs opposlLlon barred by s
joJlcoto and glvlng due course Lo peLlLlonerƌs appllcaLlon for
reglsLraLlonţ Lo wlLť
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe presenL CpposlLlon ln lnLer ÞarLes
Case noŦ 2049 ls hereby uLCLA8Lu 8A88Lu by s
joJlcoto and ls hereby ulSMlSSLuŦ Accordlnglyţ
AppllcaLlon Serlal noŦ 43011 for Lrademark
8A88lZCn flled by Þrlbhdas !Ŧ Mlrpurl ls ClvLn uuL
CCu8SLŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ

ÞrlvaLe respondenL quesLloned Lhls declslon before Lhe CourL of Appeals
ln CAŴCŦ8Ŧ SÞ noŦ 28413Ŧ Cn Aprll 30ţ 1993ţ Lhe CourL of Appeals
reversed Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs flndlng LhaL lÞC noŦ 686 was noL barred
by [udgmenL ln lÞC noŦ 2049 and ordered LhaL Lhe case be remanded Lo
Lhe 8ureau of ÞaLenLs for furLher proceedlngsţ lzť
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe appealed ueclslon noŦ 92Ŵ13
daLed !une 18ţ 1992 of Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs ln
lnLer ÞarLes Case noŦ 2049 ls hereby SL1 ASluLŤ and
Lhe case ls hereby remanded Lo Lhe 8ureau of
ÞaLenLs for furLher proceedlngsţ ln accordance wlLh
Lhls pronouncemenLŦ no cosLsŦ
8

ln a 8esoluLlon daLed March 16ţ 1994ţ Lhe CourL of Appeals
denled reconslderaLlon of lLs declslonŦ
9
Penceţ Lhls recourseŦ
8efore usţ peLlLloner ralses Lhe followlng lssuesť
1Ŧ WPL1PL8 C8 nC1 1PL uLClSlCn Cl 1PL
ul8LC1C8 Cl ÞA1Ln1S ln ln1L8 ÞA81LS CASL nCŦ
686 8LnuL8Lu Cn !unL 18ţ 1974ţ AnnLx C
PL8LClţ CCnS1l1u1Lu IuulcA1A ln SC lA8 AS
1PL CASL 8LlC8L 1PL ul8LC1C8 Cl ÞA1Ln1S lS
CCnCL8nLuŤ
2Ŧ WPL1PL8 C8 nC1 1PL ul8LC1C8 Cl ÞA1Ln1S
CC88LC1L? AÞÞLlLu 1PL Þ8lnClÞLL Cl
IuulcA1A ln ulSMlSSlnC Þ8lvA1L 8LSÞCnuLn1
8A88lZCnƌS CÞÞCSl1lCn 1C ÞL1l1lCnL8ƌS
AÞÞLlCA1lCn lC8 8LClS18A1lCn lC8 1PL
18AuLMA8k 8A88lZCnţ WPlCP PAS SlnCL
8lÞLnLu 1C CL81lllCA1L Cl 8LClS18A1lCn nCŦ
33920 Cn nCvLM8L8 16ţ 1992Ť
3Ŧ WPL1PL8 C8 nC1 1PL 8LCulSl1L 1PA1 A
ƍ!uuCMLn1 Cn 1PL ML8l1Sƍ 8LCul8Lu A
ƍPLA8lnC WPL8L 8C1P ÞA81lLS A8L SuÞÞCSLu
1C AuuuCL LvluLnCLƍ Anu WPL1PL8 1PL !Cln1
Su8MlSSlCn Cl 1PL ÞA81lLS 1C A CASL Cn 1PL
8ASlS Cl 1PLl8 8LSÞLC1lvL ÞLLAulnCS Wl1PCu1
Þ8LSLn1lnC 1LS1lMCnlAL C8 uCCuMLn1A8?
LvluLnCL lALLS Wl1Pln 1PL MLAnlnC Cl
ƍ!uuCMLn1 Cn 1PL ML8l1Sƍ AS CnL Cl 1PL
8LCulSl1LS 1C CCnS1l1u1L IuulcA1AŤ
4Ŧ WPL1PL8 A uLClSlCn Cl 1PL uLÞA81MLn1 Cl
18AuL Anu lnuuS18? CAnCLLLlnC ÞL1l1lCnL8ƌS
ll8M nAML ƍ8A88lZCn ln1L8nA1lCnALƍ Anu
WPlCP uLClSlCn lS S1lLL ÞLnulnC
8LCCnSluL8A1lCn nLvL8 CllL8Lu ln LvluLnCL
8LlC8L 1PL ul8LC1C8 Cl ÞA1Ln1S ln ln1L8
ÞA81LS CASL nCŦ 2049 PAS 1PL 8lCP1 1C uLCluL
SuCP CAnCLLLA1lCn nC1 Cn 1PL 8ASlS Cl 1PL
8uSlnLSS nAML LAW (AS lMÞLLMLn1Lu 8? 1PL
8u8LAu Cl uCMLS1lC 18AuL) 8u1 Cn 1PL 8ASlS
Cl 1PL ÞA8lS CCnvLn1lCn Anu 1PL 18AuLMA8k
LAW (8ŦAŦ 166) WPlCP lS Wl1Pln 1PL C8lClnAL
Anu LxCLuSlvL !u8lSulC1lCn Cl 1PL ul8LC1C8
Cl ÞA1Ln1SŦ
10

8efore rullng on Lhe lssues of Lhe caseţ Lhere ls need for a brlef
background on Lhe funcLlon and hlsLorlcal developmenL of Lrademarks
and Lrademark lawŦ
A ƍLrademarkƍ ls deflned under 8ŦAŦ 166ţ Lhe 1rademark Lawţ as
lncludlng ƍany wordţ nameţ symbolţ emblemţ slgn or devlce or any
comblnaLlon Lhereof adopLed and used by a manufacLurer or merchanL
Lo ldenLlfy hls goods and dlsLlngulsh Lhem from Lhose manufacLuredţ
sold or dealL ln by oLhersŦ
11
1hls deflnlLlon has been slmpllfled ln 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 8293ţ Lhe lnLellecLual ÞroperLy Code of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ whlch
deflnes a ƍLrademarkƍ as ƍany vlslble slgn capable of dlsLlngulshlng
goodsŦƍ
12
ln Þhlllpplne [urlsprudenceţ Lhe funcLlon of a Lrademark ls Lo
polnL ouL dlsLlncLly Lhe orlgln or ownershlp of Lhe goods Lo whlch lL ls
afflxedŤ Lo secure Lo hlmţ who has been lnsLrumenLal ln brlnglng lnLo Lhe
markeL a superlor arLlcle of merchandlseţ Lhe frulL of hls lndusLry and
sklllŤ Lo assure Lhe publlc LhaL Lhey are procurlng Lhe genulne arLlcleŤ Lo
prevenL fraud and lmposlLlonŤ and Lo proLecL Lhe manufacLurer agalnsL
subsLlLuLlon and sale of an lnferlor and dlfferenL arLlcle as hls producLŦ
13

Modern auLhorlLles on Lrademark law vlew Lrademarks as performlng
Lhree dlsLlncL funcLlonsť (1) Lhey lndlcaLe orlgln or ownershlp of Lhe
arLlcles Lo whlch Lhey are aLLachedŤ (2) Lhey guaranLee LhaL Lhose
arLlcles come up Lo a cerLaln sLandard of quallLyŤ and (3) Lhey adverLlse
Lhe arLlcles Lhey symbollzeŦ
14

Symbols have been used Lo ldenLlfy Lhe ownershlp or orlgln of arLlcles
for several cenLurlesŦ
1S
As early as 3ţ000 8ŦCŦţ marklngs on poLLery have
been found by archaeologlsLsŦ Cave drawlngs ln souLhwesLern Lurope
show blson wlLh symbols on Lhelr flanksŦ
1
Archaeologlcal dlscoverles of
anclenL Creek and 8oman lnscrlpLlons on sculpLural worksţ palnLlngsţ
vasesţ preclous sLonesţ glassworksţ brlcksţ eLcŦ reveal some feaLures
whlch are LhoughL Lo be marks or symbolsŦ 1hese marks were afflxed by
Lhe creaLor or maker of Lhe arLlcleţ or by publlc auLhorlLles as lndlcaLors
for Lhe paymenL of Laxţ for dlscloslng sLaLe monopolyţ or devlces for Lhe
seLLlemenL of accounLs beLween an enLrepreneur and hls workmenŦ
1

ln Lhe Mlddle Agesţ Lhe use of many klnds of marks on a varleLy of goods
was commonplaceŦ llfLeenLh cenLury Lngland saw Lhe compulsory use of
ldenLlfylng marks ln cerLaln LradesŦ 1here were Lhe bakerƌs mark on
breadţ boLLlemakerƌs marksţ smlLhƌs marksţ Lannerƌs marksţ waLermarks
on paperţ eLcŦ
18
Lvery gulld had lLs own mark and every masLer
belonglng Lo lL had a speclal mark of hls ownŦ 1he marks were noL
Lrademarks buL pollce marks compulsorlly lmposed by Lhe soverelgn Lo
leL Lhe publlc know LhaL Lhe goods were noL ƍforelgnƍ goods smuggled
lnLo an area where Lhe gulld had a monopolyţ as well as Lo ald ln Lraclng
defecLlve work or poor crafLsmanshlp Lo Lhe arLlsanŦ
19
lor a slmllar
reasonţ merchanLs also used merchanLsƌ marksŦ MerchanLs dealL ln
goods acqulred from many sources and Lhe marks enabled Lhem Lo
ldenLlfy and reclalm Lhelr goods upon recovery afLer shlpwreck or
plracyŦ
20

WlLh consLanL useţ Lhe mark acqulred popularlLy and became volunLarlly
adopLedŦ lL was noL lnLended Lo creaLe or conLlnue monopoly buL Lo glve
Lhe cusLomer an lndex or guaranLee of quallLyŦ
21
lL was ln Lhe laLe 18Lh
cenLury when Lhe lndusLrlal revoluLlon gave rlse Lo mass producLlon and
dlsLrlbuLlon of consumer goods LhaL Lhe mark became an lmporLanL
lnsLrumenLallLy of Lrade and commerceŦ
22
8y Lhls Llmeţ Lrademarks dld
noL merely ldenLlfy Lhe goodsŤ Lhey also lndlcaLed Lhe goods Lo be of
saLlsfacLory quallLyţ and Lhereby sLlmulaLed furLher purchases by Lhe
consumlng publlcŦ
23
LvenLuallyţ Lhey came Lo symbollze Lhe goodwlll
and buslness repuLaLlon of Lhe owner of Lhe producL and became a
properLy rlghL proLecLed by lawŦ
24
1he common law developed Lhe
docLrlne of Lrademarks and Lradenames ƍLo prevenL a person from
palmlng off hls goods as anoLherƌsţ from geLLlng anoLherƌs buslness or
ln[urlng hls repuLaLlon by unfalr meansţ andţ from defraudlng Lhe
publlcŦƍ
2S
SubsequenLlyţ Lngland and Lhe unlLed SLaLes enacLed naLlonal
leglslaLlon on Lrademarks as parL of Lhe law regulaLlng unfalr LradeŦ
2
lL
became Lhe rlghL of Lhe Lrademark owner Lo exclude oLhers from Lhe use
of hls markţ or of a confuslngly slmllar mark where confuslon resulLed ln
dlverslon of Lrade or flnanclal ln[uryŦ AL Lhe same Llmeţ Lhe Lrademark
served as a warnlng agalnsL Lhe lmlLaLlon or faklng of producLs Lo
prevenL Lhe lmposlLlon of fraud upon Lhe publlcŦ
2

1odayţ Lhe Lrademark ls noL merely a symbol of orlgln and goodwlllŤ lL ls
ofLen Lhe mosL effecLlve agenL for Lhe acLual creaLlon and proLecLlon of
goodwlllŦ lL lmprlnLs upon Lhe publlc mlnd an anonymous and
lmpersonal guaranLy of saLlsfacLlonţ creaLlng a deslre for furLher
saLlsfacLlonŦ ln oLher wordsţ Lhe mark acLually sells Lhe goodsŦ
28
1he
mark has become Lhe ƍsllenL salesmanţƍ Lhe condulL Lhrough whlch
dlrecL conLacL beLween Lhe Lrademark owner and Lhe consumer ls
assuredŦ lL has lnvaded popular culLure ln ways never anLlclpaLed LhaL lL
has become a more convlnclng selllng polnL Lhan even Lhe quallLy of Lhe
arLlcle Lo whlch lL refersŦ
29
ln Lhe lasL half cenLuryţ Lhe unparalleled
growLh of lndusLry and Lhe rapld developmenL of communlcaLlons
Lechnology have enabled Lrademarksţ Lradenames and oLher dlsLlncLlve
slgns of a producL Lo peneLraLe reglons where Lhe owner does noL
acLually manufacLure or sell Lhe producL lLselfŦ Coodwlll ls no longer
conflned Lo Lhe LerrlLory of acLual markeL peneLraLlonŤ lL exLends Lo
zones where Lhe marked arLlcle has been flxed ln Lhe publlc mlnd
Lhrough adverLlslngŦ
30
WheLher ln Lhe prlnLţ broadcasL or elecLronlc
communlcaLlons medlumţ parLlcularly on Lhe lnLerneLţ
31
adverLlslng has
paved Lhe way for growLh and expanslon of Lhe producL by creaLlng and
earnlng a repuLaLlon LhaL crosses over bordersţ vlrLually Lurnlng Lhe
whole world lnLo one vasL markeLplaceŦ
1hls ls Lhe ¯lsŴ°Ŵsc° of Lhe presenL conLroversyŦ ÞeLlLloner brlngs
Lhls acLlon clalmlng LhaL ƍ8arblzonƍ producLs have been sold ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes slnce 1970Ŧ ÞeLlLloner developed Lhls markeL by worklng long
hours and spendlng conslderable sums of money on adverLlsemenLs and
promoLlon of Lhe Lrademark and lLs producLsŦ nowţ almosL LhlrLy years
laLerţ prlvaLe respondenLţ a forelgn corporaLlonţ ƍswaggers lnLo Lhe
counLry llke a conquerlng heroţƍ usurps Lhe Lrademark and lnvades
peLlLlonerƌs markeLŦ
32
!usLlce and falrness dlcLaLe LhaL prlvaLe
respondenL be prevenLed from approprlaLlng whaL ls noL lLs ownŦ
Legallyţ aL Lhe same Llmeţ prlvaLe respondenL ls barred from quesLlonlng
peLlLlonerƌs ownershlp of Lhe Lrademark because of s joJlcotoŦ
33

LlLerallyţ s joJlcoto means a maLLer ad[udgedţ a Lhlng [udlclally acLed
upon or decldedŤ a Lhlng or maLLer seLLled by [udgmenLŦ
34
ln s
joJlcotoţ Lhe [udgmenL ln Lhe flrsL acLlon ls consldered concluslve as Lo
every maLLer offered and recelved Lherelnţ as Lo any oLher admlsslble
maLLer whlch mlghL have been offered for LhaL purposeţ and all oLher
maLLers LhaL could have been ad[udged LherelnŦ
3S
s joJlcoto ls an
absoluLe bar Lo a subsequenL acLlon for Lhe same causeŤ and lLs
requlslLes areť (a) Lhe former [udgmenL or order musL be flnalŤ (b) Lhe
[udgmenL or order musL be one on Lhe merlLsŤ (c) lL musL have been
rendered by a courL havlng [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sub[ecL maLLer and
parLlesŤ (d) Lhere musL be beLween Lhe flrsL and second acLlonsţ ldenLlLy
of parLlesţ of sub[ecL maLLer and of causes of acLlonŦ
3

1he SollclLor Ceneralţ on behalf of respondenL ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsţ has
[olned cause wlLh peLlLlonerŦ 8oLh clalm LhaL all Lhe four elemenLs of s
joJlcoto have been complled wlLhť LhaL Lhe [udgmenL ln lÞC noŦ 686 was
flnal and was rendered by Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs who had [urlsdlcLlon
over Lhe sub[ecL maLLer and parLlesŤ LhaL Lhe [udgmenL ln lÞC noŦ 686
was on Lhe merlLsŤ and LhaL Lhe lack of a hearlng was lmmaLerlal
because subsLanLlal lssues were ralsed by Lhe parLles and passed upon
by Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsŦ
3

1he declslon ln lÞC noŦ 686 reads as followsť
xxx xxx xxxŦ
nelLher parLy Look LesLlmony nor adduced
documenLary evldenceŦ 1hey submlLLed Lhe case for
declslon based on Lhe pleadlngs whlchţ LogeLher
wlLh Lhe perLlnenL recordsţ have all been carefully
conslderedŦ
Accordlnglyţ Lhe only lssue for my dlsposlLlon ls
wheLher or noL Lhe hereln opposer would probably
be damaged by Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCn soughL by Lhe respondenLŴappllcanL on
Lhe ground LhaL lL so resembles Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCn allegedly used and owned by Lhe former
Lo be ƍllkely Lo cause confuslonţ mlsLake or Lo
decelve purchasersŦƍ
Cn recordţ Lhere can be no doubL LhaL respondenLŴ
appllcanLƌs soughLŴLoŴbeŴreglsLered Lrademark
8A88lZCn ls slmllarţ ln facL obvlously ldenLlcalţ Lo
opposerƌs alleged Lrademark 8A88lZCnţ ln spelllng
and pronunclaLlonŦ 1he only appreclable buL very
negllglble dlfference lles ln Lhelr respecLlve
appearances or manner of presenLaLlonŦ
8espondenLŴappllcanLƌs Lrademark ls ln bold leLLers
(seL agalnsL a black background)ţ whlle LhaL of Lhe
opposer ls offered ln sLyllsh scrlpL leLLersŦ
lL ls opposerƌs asserLlon LhaL lLs Lrademark
8A88lZCn has been used ln Lrade or commerce ln
Lhe Þhlllpplnes prlor Lo Lhe daLe of appllcaLlon for
Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe ldenLlcal mark 8A88lZCn by
Lhe respondenLŴappllcanLŦ Poweverţ Lhe allegaLlon
of facLs ln opposerƌs verlfled noLlce of opposlLlon ls
devold of such maLerlal lnformaLlonŦ ln facLţ a
readlng of Lhe LexL of sald verlfled opposlLlon
reveals an apparenLţ lf noL dellberaLeţ omlsslon of
Lhe daLe (or year) when opposerƌs alleged
Lrademark 8A88lZCn was flrsL used ln Lrade ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes (see parŦ noŦ 1ţ pŦ 2ţ verlfled noLlce of
CpposlLlonţ 8ecŦ)Ŧ 1husţ lL cannoL here and now be
ascerLalned wheLher opposerƌs alleged use of Lhe
Lrademark 8A88lZCn could be prlor Lo Lhe use of
Lhe ldenLlcal mark by Lhe hereln respondenLŴ
appllcanLţ slnce Lhe opposer aLLempLed nelLher Lo
subsLanLlaLe lLs clalm of use ln local commerce wlLh
any proof or evldenceŦ lnsLeadţ Lhe opposer
submlLLed Lhe case for declslon based merely on
Lhe pleadlngsŦ
Cn Lhe oLher handţ respondenLŴappllcanL asserLed
ln her amended appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon LhaL she
flrsL used Lhe Lrademark 8A88lZCn for brasslere (or
ƍbrasselreƍ) and ladles underwear garmenLs and
panLles as early as March 3ţ 1970Ŧ 8e LhaL as lL mayţ
Lhere belng no LesLlmony Laken as Lo sald daLe of
flrsL useţ respondenLŴappllcanL wlll be llmlLed Lo Lhe
flllng daLeţ !une 13ţ 1970ţ of her appllcaLlon as Lhe
daLe of flrsL use (8ule 173ţ 8ules of ÞracLlce ln
1rademark Cases)Ŧ
lrom Lhe foregolngţ l conclude LhaL Lhe opposer has
noL made ouL a case of probable damage by Lhe
reglsLraLlon of Lhe respondenLŴappllcanLƌs mark
8A88lZCnŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe opposlLlon should beţ as lL ls
herebyţ ulSMlSSLuŦ Accordlnglyţ AppllcaLlon Serlal
noŦ 19010ţ for Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark
8A88lZCn of respondenL LollLa 8Ŧ Lscobarţ ls glven
due courseŦ
38

1he declslon ln lÞC noŦ 686 was a [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs and lL was
error for Lhe CourL of Appeals Lo rule LhaL lL was noLŦ A [udgmenL ls on
Lhe merlLs when lL deLermlnes Lhe rlghLs and llablllLles of Lhe parLles
based on Lhe dlsclosed facLsţ lrrespecLlve of formalţ Lechnlcal or dllaLory
ob[ecLlonsŦ
39
lL ls noL necessary LhaL a Lrlal should have been conducLedŦ
lf Lhe courLƌs [udgmenL ls generalţ and noL based on any Lechnlcal defecL
or ob[ecLlonţ and Lhe parLles had a full legal opporLunlLy Lo be heard on
Lhelr respecLlve clalms and conLenLlonsţ lL ls on Lhe merlLs alLhough
Lhere was no acLual hearlng or argumenLs on Lhe facLs of Lhe caseŦ
40
ln
Lhe case aL barţ Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs dld noL dlsmlss prlvaLe
respondenLƌs opposlLlon on a sheer LechnlcallLyŦ AlLhough no hearlng
was conducLedţ boLh parLles flled Lhelr respecLlve pleadlngs and were
glven opporLunlLy Lo presenL evldenceŦ 1heyţ howeverţ walved Lhelr
rlghL Lo do so and submlLLed Lhe case for declslon based on Lhelr
pleadlngsŦ 1he lack of evldence dld noL deLer Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs
from rullng on Lhe caseţ parLlcularly on Lhe lssue of prlor useţ whlch goes
lnLo Lhe very subsLance of Lhe rellef soughL by Lhe parLlesŦ Slnce prlvaLe
respondenL falled Lo prove prlor use of lLs Lrademarkţ Lscobarƌs clalm of
flrsL use was upheldŦ
1he [udgmenL ln lÞC noŦ 686 belng on Lhe merlLsţ peLlLloner and Lhe
SollclLor Ceneral allege LhaL lÞC noŦ 686 and lÞC noŦ 2049 also comply
wlLh Lhe fourLh requlslLe of s joJlcotoţ lŦŦţ Lhey lnvolve Lhe same
parLles and Lhe same sub[ecL maLLerţ and have ldenLlcal causes of acLlonŦ
undlspuLedlyţ lÞC noŦ 686 and lÞC noŦ 2049 lnvolve Lhe same parLles
and Lhe same sub[ecL maLLerŦ ÞeLlLloner hereln ls Lhe asslgnee of
Lscobar whlle prlvaLe respondenL ls Lhe same Amerlcan corporaLlon ln
Lhe flrsL caseŦ 1he sub[ecL maLLer of boLh cases ls Lhe Lrademark
ƍ8arblzonŦƍ ÞrlvaLe respondenL counLerŴarguesţ howeverţ LhaL Lhe Lwo
cases do noL have ldenLlcal causes of acLlonŦ new causes of acLlon were
allegedly lnLroduced ln lÞC noŦ 2049ţ such as Lhe prlor use and
reglsLraLlon of Lhe Lrademark ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes and oLher counLrles
worldwldeţ prlor use ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ and Lhe fraudulenL reglsLraLlon
of Lhe mark ln vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 189 of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal CodeŦ ÞrlvaLe
respondenL also clLed proLecLlon of Lhe Lrademark under Lhe ConvenLlon
of Þarls for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of lndusLrlal ÞroperLyţ speclflcally ArLlcle
6bls Lhereofţ and Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of ArLlcle 6bls by Lwo Memoranda
daLed november 20ţ 1980 and CcLober 23ţ 1983 of Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade
and lndusLry Lo Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsţ as well as LxecuLlve Crder (LŦCŦ)
noŦ 913Ŧ
1he ConvenLlon of Þarls for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of lndusLrlal ÞroperLyţ
oLherwlse known as Lhe Þarls ConvenLlonţ ls a mulLllaLeral LreaLy LhaL
seeks Lo proLecL lndusLrlal properLy conslsLlng of paLenLsţ uLlllLy modelsţ
lndusLrlal deslgnsţ Lrademarksţ servlce marksţ Lrade names and
lndlcaLlons of source or appellaLlons of orlglnţ and aL Lhe same Llme alms
Lo repress unfalr compeLlLlonŦ
41
1he ConvenLlon ls essenLlally a compacL
among varlous counLrles whlchţ as members of Lhe unlonţ have pledged
Lo accord Lo clLlzens of Lhe oLher member counLrles Lrademark and
oLher rlghLs comparable Lo Lhose accorded Lhelr own clLlzens by Lhelr
domesLlc laws for an effecLlve proLecLlon agalnsL unfalr
compeLlLlonŦ
42
ln shorLţ forelgn naLlonals are Lo be glven Lhe same
LreaLmenL ln each of Lhe member counLrles as LhaL counLry makes
avallable Lo lLs own clLlzensŦ
43
naLlonals of Lhe varlous member naLlons
are Lhus assured of a cerLaln mlnlmum of lnLernaLlonal proLecLlon of
Lhelr lndusLrlal properLyŦ
44

1he ConvenLlon was flrsL slgned by eleven counLrles ln Þarls on March
20ţ 1883Ŧ
4S
lL underwenL several revlslons Ÿ aL 8russels ln 1900ţ aL
WashlngLon ln 1911ţ aL 1he Pague ln 1923ţ aL London ln 1934ţ aL Llsbon
ln 1938ţ
4
and aL SLockholm ln 1967Ŧ 8oLh Lhe Þhlllpplnes and Lhe unlLed
SLaLes of Amerlcaţ hereln prlvaLe respondenLƌs counLryţ are slgnaLorles
Lo Lhe ConvenLlonŦ 1he unlLed SLaLes acceded on May 30ţ 1887 whlle
Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Lhrough lLs SenaLeţ concurred on May 10ţ 1963Ŧ
4
1he
Þhlllpplnesƌ adheslon became effecLlve on SepLember 27ţ 1963ţ
48
and
from Lhls daLeţ Lhe counLry obllgaLed lLself Lo honor and enforce Lhe
provlslons of Lhe ConvenLlonŦ
49

ln Lhe case aL barţ prlvaLe respondenL anchors lLs cause of acLlon on Lhe
flrsL paragraph of ArLlcle 6bls of Lhe Þarls ConvenLlon whlch reads as
followsť
ArLlcle 6bls
(1) 1he counLrles of Lhe unlon underLakeţ elLher
admlnlsLraLlvely lf Lhelr leglslaLlon so permlLsţ or aL Lhe
requesL of an lnLeresLed parLyţ Lo refuse or Lo cancel Lhe
reglsLraLlon and Lo prohlblL Lhe useţ of a Lrademark whlch
consLlLuLes a reproducLlonţ an lmlLaLlonţ or a LranslaLlonţ
llable Lo creaLe confuslonţ of a mark consldered by Lhe
compeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe counLry of reglsLraLlon or use Lo
be wellŴknown ln LhaL counLry as belng already Lhe mark of a
person enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhls ConvenLlon and used
for ldenLlcal or slmllar goodsŦ 1hese provlslons shall also apply
when Lhe essenLlal parL of Lhe mark consLlLuLes a
reproducLlon of any such wellŴknown mark or an lmlLaLlon
llable Lo creaLe confuslon LherewlLhŦ
(2) A perlod of aL leasL flve years from Lhe daLe of reglsLraLlon
shall be allowed for seeklng Lhe cancellaLlon of such a markŦ
1he counLrles of Lhe unlon may provlde for a perlod wlLhln
whlch Lhe prohlblLlon of use musL be soughLŦ
(3) no Llme llmlL shall be flxed for seeklng Lhe cancellaLlon or
Lhe prohlblLlon of Lhe use of marks reglsLered or used ln bad
falLhŦ
S0

1hls ArLlcle governs proLecLlon of Ŵ°° toJ¯osŦ
under Lhe flrsL paragraphţ each counLry of Lhe unlon bound
lLself Lo underLake Lo refuse or cancel Lhe reglsLraLlonţ and
prohlblL Lhe use of a Lrademark whlch ls a reproducLlonţ
lmlLaLlon or LranslaLlonţ or any essenLlal parL of whlch
Lrademark consLlLuLes a reproducLlonţ llable Lo creaLe
confuslonţ of a mark consldered by Lhe compeLenL auLhorlLy
of Lhe counLry where proLecLlon ls soughLţ Lo be wellŴknown
ln Lhe counLry as belng already Lhe mark of a person enLlLled
Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhe ConvenLlonţ and used for ldenLlcal or
slmllar goodsŦ
ArLŦ 6bls was flrsL lnLroduced aL 1he Pague ln 1923 and amended ln
Llsbon ln 1932Ŧ
S1
lL ls a selfŴexecuLlng provlslon and does noL requlre
leglslaLlve enacLmenL Lo glve lL effecL ln Lhe member counLryŦ
S2
lL may
be applled dlrecLly by Lhe Lrlbunals and offlclals of each member counLry
by Lhe mere publlcaLlon or proclamaLlon of Lhe ConvenLlonţ afLer lLs
raLlflcaLlon accordlng Lo Lhe publlc law of each sLaLe and Lhe order for lLs
execuLlonŦ
S3

1he essenLlal requlremenL under ArLlcle 6bls ls LhaL Lhe Lrademark Lo be
proLecLed musL be ƍwellŴknownƍ ln Lhe counLry where proLecLlon ls
soughLŦ 1he power Lo deLermlne wheLher a Lrademark ls wellŴknown lles
ln Lhe ƍcompeLenL auLhorlLy of Lhe counLry of reglsLraLlon or useŦƍ 1hls
compeLenL auLhorlLy would be elLher Lhe reglsLerlng auLhorlLy lf lL has
Lhe power Lo declde Lhlsţ or Lhe courLs of Lhe counLry ln quesLlon lf Lhe
lssue comes before a courLŦ
S4

ÞursuanL Lo ArLlcle 6blsţ on november 20ţ 1980ţ Lhen MlnlsLer Luls
vlllafuerLe of Lhe MlnlsLry of 1rade lssued a Memorandum Lo Lhe
ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsŦ 1he MlnlsLer ordered Lhe ulrecLor LhaLť
ÞursuanL Lo Lhe Þarls ConvenLlon for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of
lndusLrlal ÞroperLy Lo whlch Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls a slgnaLoryţ you
are hereby dlrecLed Lo re[ecL all pendlng appllcaLlons for
Þhlllpplne reglsLraLlon of slgnaLure and oLher worldŴfamous
Lrademarks by appllcanLs oLher Lhan lLs orlglnal owners or
usersŦ
1he confllcLlng clalms over lnLernaLlonally known Lrademarks
lnvolve such name brands as LacosLeţ !ordacheţ vanderbllLţ
Sassonţ lllaţ Þlerre Cardlnţ Cucclţ ChrlsLlan ulorţ Cscar de la
8enLaţ Calvln klelnţ Clvenchyţ 8alph Laurenţ Ceoffrey 8eeneţ
Lanvln and 1ed LapldusŦ
lL ls furLher dlrecLed LhaLţ ln cases where warranLedţ
Þhlllpplne reglsLranLs of such Lrademarks should be asked Lo
surrender Lhelr cerLlflcaLes of reglsLraLlonţ lf anyţ Lo avold
sulLs for damages and oLher legal acLlon by Lhe Lrademarksƌ
forelgn or local owners or orlglnal usersŦ
?ou are also requlred Lo submlL Lo Lhe underslgned a progress
reporL on Lhe maLLerŦ
lor lmmedlaLe compllanceŦ
SS

1hree years laLerţ on CcLober 23ţ 1983ţ Lhen MlnlsLer 8oberLo Cngpln
lssued anoLher Memorandum Lo Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsţ lzť
ÞursuanL Lo LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 913 daLed 7 CcLober 1983
whlch sLrengLhens Lhe ruleŴmaklng and ad[udlcaLory powers
of Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLry and provldes l°t oloţ
LhaL ƍsuch ruleŴmaklng and ad[udlcaLory powers should be
revlLallzed ln order LhaL Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLry can
Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ apply more swlfL and effecLlve soluLlons and remedles Lo
old and new problems Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ such as lnfrlngemenL of
lnLernaLlonallyŴknown Lradenames and Lrademarks Ŧ Ŧ Ŧƍ and ln
vlew of Lhe declslon of Lhe lnLermedlaLe AppellaLe CourL ln
Lhe case of LA CPLMlSL LACCS1Lţ SŦAŦţ versus 8AM
SAuWPAnl żACŴCŦ8Ŧ SÞ nCŦ 13339 (17) !une 1983Ž
S
whlch
afflrms Lhe valldlLy of Lhe MLMC8AnuuM of Lhen MlnlsLer
Luls 8Ŧ vlllafuerLe daLed 20 november 1980 conflrmlng our
obllgaLlons under Lhe ÞA8lS CCnvLn1lCn lC8 1PL
Þ8C1LC1lCn Cl lnuuS18lAL Þ8CÞL81? Lo whlch Lhe 8epubllc
of Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls a slgnaLoryţ you are hereby dlrecLed Lo
lmplemenL measures necessary Lo effecL compllance wlLh our
obllgaLlons under sald ConvenLlon ln generalţ andţ ¯
spclflcoţ t b° o c¯¯lt¯°t o°J
ctl° 6bls
S
tbfţ as followsť
1Ŧ WheLher Lhe Lrademark under conslderaLlon ls
wellŴknown ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes or ls a mark already
belonglng Lo a person enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhe
CCnvLn1lCnţ Lhls should be esLabllshedţ pursuanL
Lo Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce procedures ln l°t
potsand pot casesţ accordlng Lo any of Lhe
followlng crlLerla or any comblnaLlon Lhereofť
(a) a declaraLlon by Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade
and lndusLry LhaL Lhe Lrademark belng
consldered ls already wellŴknown ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes such LhaL permlsslon for lLs
use by oLher Lhan lLs orlglnal owner wlll
consLlLuLe a reproducLlonţ lmlLaLlonţ
LranslaLlon or oLher lnfrlngemenLŤ
(b) LhaL Lhe Lrademark ls used ln
commerce lnLernaLlonallyţ supporLed by
proof LhaL goods bearlng Lhe Lrademark
are sold on an lnLernaLlonal scaleţ
adverLlsemenLsţ Lhe esLabllshmenL of
facLorlesţ sales offlcesţ dlsLrlbuLorshlpsţ
and Lhe llkeţ ln dlfferenL counLrlesţ
lncludlng volume or oLher measure of
lnLernaLlonal Lrade and commerceŤ
(c) LhaL Lhe Lrademark ls duly reglsLered
ln Lhe lndusLrlal properLy offlce(s) of
anoLher counLry or counLrlesţ Laklng lnLo
conslderaLlon Lhe daLe of such
reglsLraLlonŤ
(d) LhaL Lhe Lrademark has long been
esLabllshed and obLalned goodwlll and
lnLernaLlonal consumer recognlLlon as
belonglng Lo one owner or sourceŤ
(e) LhaL Lhe Lrademark acLually belongs
Lo a parLy clalmlng ownershlp and has
Lhe rlghL Lo reglsLraLlon under Lhe
provlslons of Lhe aforesLaLed ÞA8lS
CCnvLn1lCnŦ
2Ŧ 1he word Lrademarkţ as used ln Lhls
MLMC8AnuuMţ shall lnclude Lradenamesţ servlce
marksţ logosţ slgnsţ emblemsţ lnslgnla or oLher
slmllar devlces used for ldenLlflcaLlon and
recognlLlon by consumersŦ
3Ŧ 1he Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce shall refuse all
appllcaLlons forţ or cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon ofţ
Lrademarks whlch consLlLuLe a reproducLlonţ
LranslaLlon or lmlLaLlon of a Lrademark owned by a
personţ naLural or corporaLeţ who ls a clLlzen of a
counLry slgnaLory Lo Lhe ÞA8lS CCnvLn1lCn lC8
1PL Þ8C1LC1lCn Cl lnuuS18lAL Þ8CÞL81?Ŧ
4Ŧ 1he Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce shall glve due course
Lo Lhe CpposlLlon ln cases already or hereafLer flled
agalnsL Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lrademarks enLlLled Lo
proLecLlon of SecLlon 6bls of sald ÞA8lS
CCnvLn1lCn as ouLllned aboveţ by remandlng
appllcaLlons flled by one noL enLlLled Lo such
proLecLlon for flnal dlsallowance by Lhe
LxamlnaLlon ulvlslonŦ
3Ŧ All pendlng appllcaLlons for Þhlllpplne
reglsLraLlon of slgnaLure and oLher worldŴfamous
Lrademarks flled by appllcanLs oLher Lhan Lhelr
orlglnal owners or users shall be re[ecLed forLhwlLhŦ
Where such appllcanLs have already obLalned
reglsLraLlon conLrary Lo Lhe abovemenLloned ÞA8lS
CCnvLn1lCn and/or Þhlllpplne Lawţ Lhey shall be
dlrecLed Lo surrender Lhelr CerLlflcaLes of
8eglsLraLlon Lo Lhe Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce for
lmmedlaLe cancellaLlon proceedlngsŦ
xxx xxx xxxŦ
S8

ln Lhe vlllafuerLe Memorandumţ Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade lnsLrucLed Lhe
ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs Lo re[ecL all pendlng appllcaLlons for Þhlllpplne
reglsLraLlon of slgnaLure and oLher worldŴfamous Lrademarks by
appllcanLs oLher Lhan Lhelr orlglnal owners or usersŦ 1he MlnlsLer
enumeraLed several lnLernaLlonallyŴknown Lrademarks and ordered Lhe
ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs Lo requlre Þhlllpplne reglsLranLs of such marks Lo
surrender Lhelr cerLlflcaLes of reglsLraLlonŦ
ln Lhe Cngpln Memorandumţ Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLry dld noL
enumeraLe wellŴknown Lrademarks buL lald down guldellnes for Lhe
ulrecLor of ÞaLenLs Lo observe ln deLermlnlng wheLher a Lrademark ls
enLlLled Lo proLecLlon as a wellŴknown mark ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes under
ArLlcle 6bls of Lhe Þarls ConvenLlonŦ 1hls was Lo be esLabllshed Lhrough
Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce procedures ln l°t pots and pot cases
pursuanL Lo Lhe crlLerla enumeraLed LherelnŦ 1he Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL
Cfflce was ordered Lo refuse appllcaLlons forţ or cancel Lhe reglsLraLlon
ofţ Lrademarks whlch consLlLuLe a reproducLlonţ LranslaLlon or lmlLaLlon
of a Lrademark owned by a person who ls a clLlzen of a member of Lhe
unlonŦ All pendlng appllcaLlons for reglsLraLlon of worldŴfamous
Lrademarks by persons oLher Lhan Lhelr orlglnal owners were Lo be
re[ecLed forLhwlLhŦ 1he Cngpln Memorandum was lssued pursuanL Lo
LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 913 daLed CcLober 7ţ 1983 of Lhen ÞresldenL
Marcos whlch sLrengLhened Lhe ruleŴmaklng and ad[udlcaLory powers of
Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLry for Lhe effecLlve proLecLlon of
consumers and Lhe appllcaLlon of swlfL soluLlons Lo problems ln Lrade
and lndusLryŦ
S9

8oLh Lhe vlllafuerLe and Cngpln Memoranda were susLalned by Lhe
Supreme CourL ln Lhe 1984 landmark case ofo cb¯ls ocstţ ŦAŦ Ŧ
l°o°JzŦ
0
1hls courL ruled Lhereln LhaL under Lhe provlslons of ArLlcle
6bls of Lhe Þarls ConvenLlonţ Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLry was Lhe
ƍcompeLenL auLhorlLyƍ Lo deLermlne wheLher a Lrademark ls wellŴknown
ln Lhls counLryŦ
1

1he vlllafuerLe Memorandum was lssued ln 1980ţ lŦŦţ flfLeen (13) years
afLer Lhe adopLlon of Lhe Þarls ConvenLlon ln 1963Ŧ ln Lhe case aL barţ
Lhe flrsL l°t pots caseţ lÞC noŦ 686ţ was flled ln 1970ţ bf Lhe
vlllafuerLe Memorandum buL flve (3) years oft Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe
Þarls ConvenLlonŦ ArLlcle 6bls was already ln effecL flve years before Lhe
flrsL case was lnsLlLuLedŦ ÞrlvaLe respondenLţ howeverţ dld noL clLe Lhe
proLecLlon of ArLlcle 6blsţ nelLher dld lL menLlon Lhe Þarls ConvenLlon aL
allŦ lL was only ln 1981 when lÞC noŦ 2049 was lnsLlLuLed LhaL Lhe Þarls
ConvenLlon and Lhe vlllafuerLe Memorandumţ andţ durlng Lhe pendency
of Lhe caseţ Lhe 1983 Cngpln Memorandum were lnvoked by prlvaLe
respondenLŦ
1he SollclLor Ceneral argues LhaL Lhe lssue of wheLher Lhe proLecLlon of
ArLlcle 6bls of Lhe ConvenLlon and Lhe Lwo Memoranda ls barred by s
joJlcoto has already been answered ln wl°
wJlJţ l°cŦ Ŧ cot f
ApposŦ
2
ln Lhls caseţ peLlLloner Wolverlneţ a forelgn corporaLlonţ flled
wlLh Lhe Þhlllpplne ÞaLenL Cfflce a peLlLlon for cancellaLlon of Lhe
reglsLraLlon cerLlflcaLe of prlvaLe respondenLţ a llllplno clLlzenţ for Lhe
Lrademark ƍPush Þupplesƍ and ƍuog uevlceŦƍ ÞeLlLloner alleged LhaL lL
was Lhe reglsLranL of Lhe lnLernaLlonallyŴknown Lrademark ln Lhe unlLed
SLaLes and oLher counLrlesţ and clLed proLecLlon under Lhe Þarls
ConvenLlon and Lhe Cngpln MemorandumŦ 1he peLlLlon was dlsmlssed
by Lhe ÞaLenL Cfflce on Lhe ground of s joJlcotoŦ lL was found LhaL ln
1973 peLlLlonerƌs predecessorŴlnŴlnLeresL flled Lwo peLlLlons for
cancellaLlon of Lhe same Lrademark agalnsL respondenLƌs predecessorŴ
lnŴlnLeresLŦ 1he ÞaLenL Cfflce dlsmlssed Lhe peLlLlonsţ ordered Lhe
cancellaLlon of reglsLraLlon of peLlLlonerƌs Lrademarkţ and gave due
course Lo respondenLƌs appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlonŦ 1hls declslon was
susLalned by Lhe CourL of Appealsţ whlch declslon was noL elevaLed Lo us
and became flnal and
execuLoryŦ
3

Wolverlne clalmed LhaL whlle lLs prevlous peLlLlons were flled under 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 166ţ Lhe 1rademark Lawţ lLs subsequenL peLlLlon was based on a
new cause of acLlonţ lŦŦţ Lhe Cngpln Memorandum and LŦCŦ noŦ 913
lssued ln 1983ţ afLer flnallLy of Lhe prevlous declslonŦ We held LhaL Lhe
sald Memorandum and LŦCŦ dld noL granL a new cause of acLlon because
lL dld ƍnoL amend Lhe 1rademark Lawţƍ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ ƍnor dld lL lndlcaLe a new
pollcy wlLh respecL Lo Lhe reglsLraLlon ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes of worldŴfamous
LrademarksŦƍ
4
1hls concluslon was based on Lhe flndlng LhaL
Wolverlneƌs Lwo prevlous peLlLlons and subsequenL peLlLlon dealL wlLh
Lhe same lssue of ownershlp of Lhe LrademarkŦ
S
ln oLher wordsţ slnce
Lhe flrsL and second cases lnvolved Lhe same lssue of ownershlpţ Lhen
Lhe flrsL case was a bar Lo Lhe second caseŦ
ln Lhe lnsLanL caseţ Lhe lssue of ownershlp of Lhe Lrademark ƍ8arblzonƍ
was noL ralsed ln lÞC noŦ 686Ŧ ÞrlvaLe respondenLƌs opposlLlon Lhereln
was merely anchored onť
(a) ƍconfuslng slmllarlLyƍ of lLs Lrademark wlLh LhaL of
LscobarƌsŤ
(b) LhaL Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lscobarƌs slmllar Lrademark wlll
cause damage Lo prlvaLe respondenLƌs buslness repuLaLlon
and goodwlllŤ and
(c) LhaL Lscobarƌs use of Lhe Lrademark amounLs Lo an
unlawful approprlaLlon of a mark prevlously used ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes whlch acL ls penallzed under SecLlon 4 (d) of Lhe
1rademark LawŦ
ln lÞC noŦ 2049ţ prlvaLe respondenLƌs opposlLlon seL forLh
several lssues summarlzed as followsť
(a) as early as 1933ţ lL adopLed Lhe word
ƍ8A88lZCnƍ as Lrademark on lLs producLs such as
robesţ pa[amasţ llngerleţ nlghLgowns and sllpsŤ
(b) LhaL Lhe Lrademark ƍ8A88lZCnƍ was reglsLered
wlLh Lhe unlLed SLaLes ÞaLenL Cfflce ln 1934 and
1949Ť and LhaL varlaLlons of Lhe same
Lrademarkţ lŦŦţ ƍ8A88lZCnƍ wlLh 8ee deslgn and
ƍ8A88lZCnƍ wlLh Lhe represenLaLlon of a woman
were also reglsLered wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ ÞaLenL Cfflce ln
1961 and 1976Ť
(c) LhaL Lhese marks have been ln use ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes and ln many counLrles all over Lhe world
for over forLy yearsŦ ƍ8arblzonƍ producLs have been
adverLlsed ln lnLernaLlonal publlcaLlons and Lhe
marks reglsLered ln 36 counLrles worldwldeŤ
(d) Lscobarƌs reglsLraLlon of Lhe slmllar Lrademark
ƍ8A88lZCnƍ ln 1974 was based on fraudŤ and Lhls
fraudulenL reglsLraLlon was cancelled ln 1979ţ
sLrlpplng Lscobar of whaLsoever rlghL she had Lo
Lhe sald markŤ
(e) ÞrlvaLe respondenLƌs Lrademark ls enLlLled Lo
proLecLlon as a wellŴknown mark under ArLlcle
6bls of Lhe Þarls ConvenLlonţ LxecuLlve Crder noŦ
913ţ and Lhe Lwo Memoranda daLed november 20ţ
1980 and CcLober 23ţ 1983 of Lhe MlnlsLer of 1rade
and lndusLry Lo Lhe ulrecLor of ÞaLenLsŤ
(f) Lscobarƌs Lrademark ls ldenLlcal Lo prlvaLe
respondenLƌs and lLs use on Lhe same class of goods
as Lhe laLLerƌs amounLs Lo a vlolaLlon of Lhe
1rademark Law and ArLlcle 189 of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal
CodeŦ
lÞC noŦ 2049 ralsed Lhe lssue of ownershlp of Lhe Lrademarkţ Lhe flrsL
reglsLraLlon and use of Lhe Lrademark ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes and oLher
counLrlesţ and Lhe lnLernaLlonal recognlLlon and repuLaLlon of Lhe
Lrademark esLabllshed by exLenslve use and adverLlsemenL of prlvaLe
respondenLƌs producLs for over forLy years here and abroadŦ 1hese are
dlfferenL from Lhe lssues of confuslng slmllarlLy and damage ln lÞC noŦ
686Ŧ 1he lssue of prlor os may have been ralsed ln lÞC noŦ 686 buL Lhls
clalm was llmlLed Lo prlor use ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes onlyŦ Þrlor use ln lÞC noŦ
2049 sLems from prlvaLe respondenLƌs clalm as lql°ot of Lhe word
and symbol ƍ8arblzonţƍ

as Lhe flrsL and reglsLered user of Lhe mark
aLLached Lo lLs producLs whlch have been sold and adverLlsed worldwlde
for a conslderable number of years prlor Lo peLlLlonerƌs flrsL appllcaLlon
for reglsLraLlon of her Lrademark ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ lndeedţ Lhese are
subsLanLlal allegaLlons LhaL ralsed new lssues and necessarlly gave
prlvaLe respondenL a new cause of acLlonŦ s joJlcoto does noL apply Lo
rlghLsţ clalms or demandsţ alLhough growlng ouL of Lhe same sub[ecL
maLLerţ whlch consLlLuLe separaLe or dlsLlncL causes of acLlon and were
noL puL ln lssue ln Lhe former acLlonŦ

8espondenL corporaLlon also lnLroduced ln Lhe second case a facL LhaL
dld noL exlsL aL Lhe Llme Lhe flrsL case was flled and LermlnaLedŦ 1he
cancellaLlon of peLlLlonerƌs cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon for fallure Lo flle Lhe
affldavlL of use arose only afLer lÞC noŦ 686Ŧ lL dld noL and could noL
have occurred ln Lhe flrsL caseţ and Lhls gave respondenL anoLher cause
Lo oppose Lhe second appllcaLlonŦ s joJlcoto exLends only Lo facLs and
condlLlons as Lhey exlsLed aL Lhe Llme [udgmenL was rendered and Lo Lhe
legal rlghLs and relaLlons of Lhe parLles flxed by Lhe facLs so
deLermlnedŦ
8
When new facLs or condlLlons lnLervene before Lhe
second sulLţ furnlshlng a new basls for Lhe clalms and defenses of Lhe
parLlesţ Lhe lssues are no longer Lhe sameţ and Lhe former [udgmenL
cannoL be pleaded as a bar Lo Lhe subsequenL acLlonŦ
9

lL ls also noLed LhaL Lhe opposlLlons ln Lhe flrsL and second cases are
based on dlfferenL lawsŦ 1he opposlLlon ln lÞC noŦ 686 was based on
speclflc provlslons of Lhe 1rademark Lawţ lŦŦţ SecLlon 4 (d)
0
on
confuslng slmllarlLy of Lrademarks and SecLlon 8
1
on Lhe requlslLe
damage Lo flle an opposlLlon Lo a peLlLlon for reglsLraLlonŦ 1he
opposlLlon ln lÞC noŦ 2049 lnvoked Lhe Þarls ConvenLlonţ parLlcularly
ArLlcle 6bls Lhereofţ LŦCŦ noŦ 913 and Lhe Lwo Memoranda of Lhe
MlnlsLer of 1rade and lndusLryŦ 1hls opposlLlon also lnvoked ArLlcle 189
of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Code whlch ls a sLaLuLe LoLally dlfferenL from Lhe
1rademark LawŦ
2
Causes of acLlon whlch are dlsLlncL and lndependenL
from each oLherţ alLhough arlslng ouL of Lhe same conLracLţ LransacLlonţ
or sLaLe of facLsţ may be sued on separaLelyţ recovery on one belng no
bar Lo subsequenL acLlons on oLhersŦ
3
1he mere facL LhaL Lhe same
rellef ls soughL ln Lhe subsequenL acLlon wlll noL render Lhe [udgmenL ln
Lhe prlor acLlon operaLlve as s joJlcotoţ such as where Lhe Lwo acLlons
are based on dlfferenL sLaLuLesŦ
4
s joJlcoto Lherefore does noL apply
Lo Lhe lnsLanL case and respondenL CourL of Appeals dld noL err ln so
rullngŦ
lnLellecLual and lndusLrlal properLy rlghLs cases are noL slmple properLy
casesŦ 1rademarks deal wlLh Lhe psychologlcal funcLlon of symbols and
Lhe effecL of Lhese symbols on Lhe publlc aL largeŦ
S
1rademarks play a
slgnlflcanL role ln communlcaLlonţ commerce and Lradeţ and serve
valuable and lnLerrelaLed buslness funcLlonsţ boLh naLlonally and
lnLernaLlonallyŦ lor Lhls reasonţ all agreemenLs concernlng lndusLrlal
properLyţ llke Lhose on Lrademarks and Lradenamesţ are lnLlmaLely
connecLed wlLh economlc developmenLŦ

lndusLrlal properLy
encourages lnvesLmenLs ln new ldeas and lnvenLlons and sLlmulaLes
creaLlve efforLs for Lhe saLlsfacLlon of human needsŦ 1hey speed up
Lransfer of Lechnology and lndusLrlallzaLlonţ and Lhereby brlng abouL
soclal and economlc progressŦ

1hese advanLages have been
acknowledged by Lhe Þhlllpplne governmenL lLselfŦ 1he lnLellecLual
ÞroperLy Code of Lhe Þhlllpplnes declares LhaL ƍan effecLlve lnLellecLual
and lndusLrlal properLy sysLem ls vlLal Lo Lhe developmenL of domesLlc
and creaLlve acLlvlLyţ faclllLaLes Lransfer of Lechnologyţ lL aLLracLs forelgn
lnvesLmenLsţ and ensures markeL access for our producLsŦƍ
8
1he
lnLellecLual ÞroperLy Code Look effecL on !anuary 1ţ 1998 and by lLs
express provlslonţ
9
repealed Lhe 1rademark Lawţ
80
Lhe ÞaLenL
Lawţ
81
ArLlcles 188 and 189 of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Codeţ Lhe uecree on
lnLellecLual ÞroperLyţ
82
and Lhe uecree on Compulsory 8eprlnLlng of
lorelgn 1exLbooksŦ
83
1he Code was enacLed Lo sLrengLhen Lhe
lnLellecLual and lndusLrlal properLy sysLem ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes as
mandaLed by Lhe counLryƌs accesslon Lo Lhe AgreemenL LsLabllshlng Lhe
World 1rade CrganlzaLlon (W1C)Ŧ
84

1he W1C ls a common lnsLlLuLlonal framework for Lhe conducL of Lrade
relaLlons among lLs members ln maLLers relaLed Lo Lhe mulLllaLeral and
plurllaLeral Lrade agreemenLs annexed Lo Lhe W1C AgreemenLŦ
8S
1he
W1C framework ensures a ƍslngle underLaklng approachƍ Lo Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon and operaLlon of all agreemenLs and arrangemenLs
aLLached Lo Lhe W1C AgreemenLŦ Among Lhose annexed ls Lhe
AgreemenL on 1radeŴ8elaLed AspecLs of lnLellecLual ÞroperLy 8lghLs or
18lÞsŦ
8
Members Lo Lhls AgreemenL ƍdeslre Lo reduce dlsLorLlons and
lmpedlmenLs Lo lnLernaLlonal Lradeţ Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe need Lo
promoLe effecLlve and adequaLe proLecLlon of lnLellecLual properLy
rlghLsţ and Lo ensure LhaL measures and procedures Lo enforce
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs do noL Lhemselves become barrlers Lo
leglLlmaLe LradeŦƍ 1o fulflll Lhese ob[ecLlvesţ Lhe members have agreed
Lo adhere Lo mlnlmum sLandards of proLecLlon seL by several
ConvenLlonsŦ
8
1hese ConvenLlons areť Lhe 8erne ConvenLlon for Lhe
ÞroLecLlon of LlLerary and ArLlsLlc Works (1971)ţ Lhe 8ome ConvenLlon or
Lhe lnLernaLlonal ConvenLlon for Lhe ÞroLecLlon of Þerformersţ
Þroducers of Þhonograms and 8roadcasLlng CrganlsaLlonsţ Lhe 1reaLy on
lnLellecLual ÞroperLy ln 8especL of lnLegraLed ClrculLsţ o°J tb lols
c°°tl° (1967)ţ as revlsed ln SLockholm on !uly 14ţ 1967Ŧ
88

A ma[or proporLlon of lnLernaLlonal Lrade depends on Lhe proLecLlon of
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLsŦ
89
Slnce Lhe laLe 1970ƌsţ Lhe unauLhorlzed
counLerfelLlng of lndusLrlal properLy and Lrademarked producLs has had
a conslderable adverse lmpacL on domesLlc and lnLernaLlonal Lrade
revenuesŦ
90
1he 18lÞs AgreemenL seeks Lo granL adequaLe proLecLlon of
lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs by creaLlng a favorable economlc
envlronmenL Lo encourage Lhe lnflow of forelgn lnvesLmenLsţ and
sLrengLhenlng Lhe mulLlŴlaLeral Lradlng sysLem Lo brlng abouL economlcţ
culLural and Lechnologlcal lndependenceŦ
91

1he Þhlllpplnes and Lhe unlLed SLaLes of Amerlca have acceded Lo Lhe
W1C AgreemenLŦ 1hls AgreemenL has revoluLlonlzed lnLernaLlonal
buslness and economlc relaLlons among sLaLesţ and has propelled Lhe
world Lowards Lrade llberallzaLlon and economlc
globallzaLlonŦ
92
ÞroLecLlonlsm and lsolaLlonlsm belong Lo Lhe pasLŦ 1rade
ls no longer conflned Lo a bllaLeral sysLemŦ 1here ls now ƍa new era of
global economlc cooperaLlonţ reflecLlng Lhe wldespread deslre Lo
operaLe ln a falrer and more open mulLllaLeral Lradlng
sysLemŦƍ
93
Conformablyţ Lhe SLaLe musL reafflrm lLs commlLmenL Lo Lhe
global communlLy and Lake parL ln evolvlng a new lnLernaLlonal
economlc order aL Lhe dawn of Lhe new mlllenlumŦ
ln vlLW WPL8LClţ Lhe peLlLlon ls denled and Lhe ueclslon and
8esoluLlon of Lhe CourL of Appeals ln CAŴCŦ8Ŧ SÞ noŦ 28413 are afflrmedŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ

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  € 9½½° ¾ nf ¾f f° €€ n °  nf f°  ° ¾f ½½ ¾¾ ¯ ¾ f     ½¯ ° € ¯ ¾n f° n f fn €fnf ¾f°¾€ € n°– ffn¾€ –° ° ¾¯ °¾  f°  °¾ ¾ ¯f  fnn ¾¾ €  ½ n¾ @  °  nf 9½  .

   €€ n ° f°f    f°   ¾ ½ ¾¾ ½¾°  ½ f    @f ¯f f   9f ° f n ¾  f°   €    ¾  9 °f .

     n  ° °  nf 9½  f°     n  ° .

¯½¾  ½°°– €  –° @  ¾ @  .

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° °°¾ @ ¾  .

° °°¾ f    °  .

° °° €   9 n°€ ff° ¾nJ¾%%  ¯ .

° °°   ° °f°f .

° °° €   9 n° € 9 €¯ ¾  9 n ¾€9°–f¯¾f°  f nf¾°––f°¾f°¾  @ f° °  nf 9½  °  ¾½ n € ° –f  .

n¾ f°    9f¾ .

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°€¯f   f ¯¾ f€€¯¾n¯¯¯ °  – f n¯¯° f°  f  ½f ° °– f °  ° °f°f n°¯n f  f°€ ° ¯ °¯  - IJ J    ½ ° ¾ °  f°     n¾° f°   ¾°€ .

€½½ f¾°.

   9- f f€€¯     .

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