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A.

Societe anonyme Luxembourg

Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads

Printed in Luxembourg

1991

Foreword

The non-homogeneity of soils and the uncertainty of the factors governing the equilibrium of forces in a mass of earth, present problems of earth pressure and resistance that cannot be solved with mathematical precision. It must never be overlooked that, in practice. one cannot expect to obtain from computations in soil mechanics. results of more than approximate accuracy in relation to reality. For that reason, it is necessary to proceed very frequently by trial and error and to adopt several cases of possible stresses in order to value the effect of variation in results in terms of entertained assumptions. To deal with a bulkhead problem it is therefore necessary to have straightforward methods of design that are rapid and accurate enough to reveal the possible solutions of the problem in view within a relatively short time. These methods should avoid lengthy computations and should render results that can be easily verified. This handbook endeavours to summarize some of the rational graphical methods, based on simple hypotheses generally accepted today. It is addressed primarily to those who require an introduction to the design of sheet pile bulkheads; it tries to present simply certain intricate phenomena that take place in a mass of earth and of which the thorough study is impossible without a fundamental knowledge of soil mechanics. This book then is not a scientific treatise, it aims merely at outlining some of the problems in order to facilitate a closer study of sufficient accuracy for practical application. The first chapter recalls certain elementary notions concerning the properties of soils of which knowledge is essential in a bulkhead design. We have then shown how one can picture and assess numeric-

Some remarks on the pressure distribution on the buried part of the bulkhead lead to the determination of the different depths of penetration to be adopted for an earth retaining sheet pile wall. The second chapter reviews numerical examples of the application of sheet pile bulkheads. Such checking alone can give a true idea of the reliability of the structure in a given case. Several pages are devoted to the checking of retaining walls subjected to exceptional stresses. . The engineer in charge will have no difficulty in selecting dimensions of these parts by following the rules usually applicable in structural steel work. P. are treated only summarily. The two improved methods presented here are capable of easing appreciably the evaluation of the dimensions of the anchorage system with a predetermined factor of safety. In the Appendix. the latter being freely supported or fixed in the ground. At the end. ARBED . cantilevered or anchored.Belval Division Steel Sheet Pile Technical Department G. reference is given to the assumptions made and to the developments in calculations which have led to the establishment of various diagrams. E. the reader will find an index to the notations used in the text as well as a list of publications by various authors cited in this handbook. COLLING. which possess only a subordinate interest in a sheet pile bulkhead design. The accessories of the anchorage system. The third chapter deals with the simplification of the existing methods of anchorage design. these have always led to laborious exercises in trial and error.8 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads ally the pressures exercised by the soil on a plane wall in accordance with the theory of the linear distribution of pressures. For the standard anchor wall.

. 7 CHAPTER I.. 3. Pressure and resistance of soil. Preparing a diagramm of active earth pressures . 6. Special cases . ApPENDIX. 1... 3.. . .. . Diagram of Figure 11 INDEX OF NOTATIONS USED 85 87 89 95 REFERENCES . . Numerical examples of bulkhead design.. . 26 27 II. Cantilever bulkhead . CHAPTER Introduction. 11 14 19 23 24 Properties of soil. .. 3. . . 2. Height of anchor wall. 31 35 40 49 CHAPTER III 1. 4. . 5.. Pressure diagramm on the buried part of a bulkhead Depth of penetration of a bulkhead Methods of bulkhead design. 1. . .. General considerations on the design . - 1.. .CONTENTS FOREWORD •••••.. ... . 2. . The anchorage system.. 2. 4. . . 2. 59 60 General . - 68 80 various dia- Assumptions and calculations concerning grams.. . . Pressure diagrarnm in soil of cohesion c . Stability of bulkhead and anchor wall Selection of accessories . Anchored bulkhead 4. 7. Diagram of Figure 10 . ...

65 (I .v) of its solid elements and of their specific gravity r.35) has a dry weight. l. PROPERTIES OF SOIL The fundamental properties of soil serving as the basis for a bulkhead design are: a) Its unit weight y . This can be shown as if r = 2.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. c) Its cohesion c. These elements are separated by voids which occupy a relative volume v. b) Its angle of internal friction p . .65 t/m:' A soil having a void ratio of 35 % (= 0. {s = 2.a UNIT WEIGHT OF SOIL Soils are formed from elements derived from the decomposition of rocks having in their natural compact state an average specific gravity I' of about 2.0. The dry weight of a unit volume of soil is consequently a function of the volume (l .65 t/m '.72 tim 3 • In their natural state all soils occlude a certain quantity of water.35) = 1.

04) = 1. practically equal to 1.0 t/m".35) = 1.07 t/m3 and the vertical stress exercised on a horizontal surface of a layer of soil of thickness h = 5 m is: Ph = )'1' h or Ph = 1. From Archimedes' principle.79 t/m3.0' 5 = 5 t/rn". two pressures are distinguishable.79' 5 = 8. Thus.07' 5 = 5. To the stress of the solid phase is obviously added the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid phase.72-1. Thus if a soil is immerged. =5 At the foot of a horizontal layer of h cises a vertical stress equal to Ph = ')In m this soil exer- 'h = 1. expressed as a percentage of the dry unit weight.12 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads This natural moisture content w. one due to the solid and the other to the liquid phase. the water fills all the voids.04) has a natural unit weight of ')In = 1.95 t/m2.35 t/m2.. If the same soil is immerged. w varies between 2 and 8 % and for silt and clay between 10 and 40 % of )'. a soil having a natural moisture content of w = 4 % (0.0 (1-0. increases the actual unit weight of the soil to I )In = )Is (1 + w) I For sands.72 (1 +0. We shall see later that the pressures exerted by the solid phase of a soil on . The submerged solid phase of a soil weighs therefore only: or ')11= 1. the specific gravity of the solid particles is diminished in terms of their volume and of the unit weight ')10of the water. equal to Ph = ')10' h = 1.

b ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION The angle of internal friction of a soil is a function of the rugosity of the particles of which it is composed and of its state of compaction. it has relatively low values in the case of immerged coherent soils. in consequence of vibrations. A thorough knowledge of these three fundamental characteristics is essential in all conclusive bulkhead design. while the hydrostatic pressure has the same intensity in all directions. serve merely as the basis for estimating and summary examinations of a structure. Cohesion is a fairly uncertain property. It can diminish or even disappear entirely as. These approximate values can. at the best. It is the decisive factor of the pressures that the soil can exert on an obstacle. For this reason it is usually disregarded in most cases of practice. l. Being of the order of 30-40 for sands or gravels. for example. Even fine sands always show some degree of cohesion due to the clayey impurities they generally contain. 0 Le COHESION c The cohesion of a soil is the property of its constituent parts to cling together. It is taken into account only in the case of unreservedly coherent soils and here again it is well to be cautious and not to overestimate its permanent effects. Thus. the average values shown in Table I are recorded only as indications.Introduction 13 the face of a sloping wall are proportional to the vertical stresses multiplied by a factor A more or less variable. dry or immerged. The presence or absence of water can influence cohesion considerably. .

1 1. Unit weight 'Y. angle of internal friction p and the cohesion c of the back-fill : 3.8 1.8 1. 1.0 0 Slight 0-10 In Items [1] to [7] of the publications cited in the appendix. But experience has shown that the flexibility of steel sheet piling is sufficient (except perhaps in the case of sheet pile caissons of very high rigidity) to allow ground fully to develop completely either its minimum active pressure or its maximum passive pressure. . A slight yield of the flexible screen effected by pressure O. 2. PRESSURE AND RESISTANCE OF SOIL A mass of earth retained by a bulkhead exerts upon it lateral pressures that are related to: Slopes of the free surface P of the back-fill and of the bulkhead IX . characterized by the coefficient of passive earth pressure or resistance Ap. In that case it is subjected by the back-fill to a pressure "at rest" proportional to a factor AO more or less known (Fig.14 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads TABLE I (t/rn ') Sands and gravels Silty sands . capable of developing in soils their forces of pressure or of resistance. reduces the pressure on the rear face to a minimum value characterized by the coefficient Aa of "active pressure". 1). On the contrary. Angle of friction 0 of the earth on the wall. The importance of yield.8 rIc (t/m3) ri C) 30-40 25-35 10-25 p c (t/m2) 1. Clays and silt.1 1. the reader will find a great deal of information concerning the properties and characteristics of soils. Let us assume that the bulkhead is infinitely rigid and can be neither displaced nor deformed. is not well known. 1. a displacement of the screen towards the back-fill will produce soon a maximum of passive earth pressure Qp . 2. .

a and A.a and A. Ph = S+)I' h Pt' = S +)1' r )I can be equal to I'n or )11 as the case may be. Ph and Pt' are the vertical stresses in the soil at the considered level.Introduction 15 There will therefore be the two values A. I . They are proportional to the sum of a possible surcharge of the ground and of the weight of the volume of earth above the considered level.p that determine the loading of a steel bulkhead. by I - ---j iJil II - 00 d Isp{ocement (£) FIG.a in the case of active pressure and by: qp = Pt" A. that is to say. The pressure exerted on a section of the surface of a retaining wall is given by the general expression: qa = Pit' A.p may be achieved by admitting rectilinear or curvilinear equilibria.p in the case of passive pressure. Determination of the factors A.

the development of which does not appear within the compass of this handbook. 2 As in the design of sheet pile bulkheads one seeks first the horizontal component of the active and passive earth pressure We have shown in Figure 2 the formulae for estimating A.-.. However in normal conditions one can follow this hypothesis in design.. The hypothesis of plane sliding surfaces in this case gives exaggerated values for A.=S'=(f=-. In these formulae the angle of earth-wall friction 0 must be regarded as positive in the case of active.ah and A. cos 1 I( L r.ph in the hypothesis of plane sliding surfaces.16 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkhead s assuming the sliding surfaces of the earth being straight or curved like circles or logarithmic spirals. for it has the advantage of being easier than the others.(Jf cosf-.-JJ cosf«+nij 72 FIG. even if it must be rejected for high values of p_and O. give almost identical values for A.p• even reaching infinity. "Ph ..p • above all for high values of the angle of internal friction p combined with significant values for earth-wall friction a.a but very divergent ones for A. and negative in the case of passive earth pressure.=)====. y'Sltl(~-J) I- sm(~. ". For the friction of earth on steel sheet piling an angle c5 can be allowed equal to about ±t·p· [8] ._--r--"CO.. All these hypotheses.. which is in conflict with reality.

. d I~] c. c... -. . d ~ ~ -- -_ . .. . Figure 3 shows for this case a diagram indicating with sufficient accuracy the values of .. .1.." . ~ -e .: "i\ " I -- 7:' .- 1\\\ \ \\ \' ~ J~) t.II .. . .. @.C3 -:V y-~ \~ f\ / \/ V -~ ~ . 11 1 I.. FIG.. 3 :!. '" }~ -e .ab and ....1 \ 1\ \ " at .. F- \K~ \ ~ ~ ~ F- ... ..C> C> '" V -. .: [7 ~ ..1 . d /" "7 ~ '"':::::::.Introduction 17 As in most cases of bulkheads the wall is vertical and the ground is horizontal.1 S! . 'b\ \ -r <f' . " . " -\ \\ 1\ \ r------. . ~ .1 I ~ .VI \\ @ '(' .ph for the various values of p and of o.A. ..A.. "..: .

= 0.0)] cos (0 .8.0. A. Aph = 5.ph • = [1 _ v'0. f3 = 0° .407] (It is to be observed that in the calculation of replaced by .(30+ 0) 2 = Aah - I [1+JO.407]2 cos- -~-O r 1.75 [1 + v'0. we obtain Aah Aph The agreement of the two methods is reasonably good.0) [1 _JSin 0.765. Caquot and J. In the graph of Figure 3.8 [0. Let us examine the agreement of the formulae of Figure 2 with the values given in Figure 3.0.0 - cos.5]2 0.0 =~ =5.= cos- ° [1 + JSin (30 + 20) sin (30. Assuming p = 30° .Ie ph [1_JO.75 2 0.6412 - 28 .29. a = 0° .20) cos (0 + 0) 0.5]2 0.94.0.1.94·1.28.765. Kerisel [9] following a method that assumes curvilinear equilibria. we obtain )'a~.ah 0 should be = 0. but .18 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads This diagram has been prepared with the aid of tables of active and passive earth pressure drawn up by Messrs.) Thus.36]2 A. A.C5.75 0. 0 = l' 30 = 20° . Aph= ----~--~~~==~==~~==~ ° cos.(30 . In substituting these values in the formulae of Figure 2. = 5. in a practical illustration.75 (30 + 20) sin (30 + 0)] cos (0 + 20) cos (0 + 0) 2 =1 .

0. It is for this reason that the plane sliding surface hypothesis must be rejected for values of p exceeding 35° combined with values over ! p for the angle ~ of friction.introduction 19 nevertheless we observe that the formulae of Figure 2 already give more favourable results. the respective values: ASb = tg2 (45 . On the assumption that ~ = 0.15) = tg2 30° = 0. 3. From the graph of Figure 3 we notice the considerable influence of earth-wall friction on the passive earth pressure whereas the effect of that same friction is far less in the case of the active pressure.!p) Aph = tg2 (! tt + ! p) Aah which have.) The bulkhead retains a back-fill consisting of two horizontal . Aah in the case of horizontal pressure. Knowing the vertical stress Ph at the considered level one may deduce the horizontal active pressure on the bulkhead by simple multiplication by the coefficient of horizontal active pressure Aah. In Figure 4a a practical example is shown. = tg2 (! tt . and for horizontal back-fill surface and a vertical bulkhead. as was seen in paragraph 2 above.33 Aph = tg2 (45 + 15) = tg2 60° = 3. PREPARING A DIAGRAM OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURES We have seen that the lateral pressure of a soil on a bulkhead at a point situated at depth h is given by the expression and more specially by qah = Ph . in the case of the above illustration. the coefficients of active and passive earth pressure are those given by the Rankine formula. neglecting the earth-wall friction. a tendency that progresses with increasing values of p. (That friction has not much influence on the active pressures.

50 I/m' Yo • e = 1."DO .33 ¥n :: 9. iii' 1'. @. 0.65' 6.0 t/m2.95 I FIG. 0. 051/m' . 0. hOI = 2.12' 0.01/m· '.17' 05~ I/m' e . • I • e . :: lo.651/m' ~12 .4a .02 (l3l.27 J 9•• p -~ 1.0 m above the dredge line and the back-fill is assumed to bear a surcharge of S = 2.54 t/m2. ..O· U • 1501l/m' 15.12 11m' ~12·O.1I/mJ 30' G.27 = 1.651/m 35' 0. the unit weight of the solid phase Beneath water level p•• ¥11 = :1.33 • ] 0] I/m z • 6. there prevails a vertical stress owing to the surcharge and to the volume of the upper layer of earth..33 Ps• q•• q. The free water level and the water table in the back-fill are both at 4. AOh" 1.95 tim '.. = 0.27 = 0.5 1.12+ 2. PI = Po + Yn .'-00 ~ '.12 t/m2.0'2.65' 2.33 = 2. q• 2.27· 1.02 t/m2.27) In the upper layer attains ql (p = 35°.50 1.0 t/m2.8· 1062 I/m' 10.0' 0. 2. The horizontal pressure at that level is thus equal to qo = Po .0' 0. Aah = 0. At the level @ the vertical stress is equal to the surcharge S Po = S = 2.81/mJ 30' lo.12 . Aah = 6.20 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads layers of different characters.65 t/m2 and in the lower layer ql = 30°. Aah the horizontal pressure = Pl' (p Aah = 6...5 = 6...33) = PI .62' O. Aah = At the level CDwhere there are changes in the characteristics of the soil.J3 • 3.62+~.0 + 1.

Introduction 21 decreases from Yn = 1. superimposed to the pressure of the solid phase.0· 1.0 = 15.33 350 11m' 0 ... 2.33 ---@ "" . q8 "" 10.62·1. • 0 2. p~ = b) liquid phase: Yo.H:r 10621/mz 10.a. 6.65 I/m' 5.JJ tt = 15. so that at level ® of the dredge line. 0 !ll/mJ = ). = 'n .81/m' 3D' ~c.---0 !. q. 1.0 = 4.4b .' h2B = 10.0+2.Ot/m2 opposed to the pressure of the water in the back-fill.0 t/m2 . We have therefore: q~ = P~ .. 0.0 = 4.62 .D2tJm' '-95 tim' » FIG..1' 4.02 o.0 11m.'2+2.1 t/m? but there is.0~ 11m' -. . "'= 'I. Aah = 15.02' 0.33 = 4. for the coefficient of hydrostatic pressure Ae is always equal to unity.5 1. h2B = 1..12 11m2 6.50 I. the hydrostatic pressure of the water in the back-fill.1~.65t/mJ = ~Qh= 35' 027 (!) P. Ae = 4. = 6. But the free water likewise has an influence on the pressure diagram. -.02 t/m2.8 t/m3 to 1'.'" 30' 0. At dredge line level ® it exerts in its turn a horizontal pressure on the bulkhead equal to q~ = 4.65 .33 • 2. 2..95 t/m2 .62+ 1.0 t/m2 .0 027= 0.0·4. the following pressures exist: a) solid phase: PB qB = P2 +1'.0 15. = PB ." 033 0 0. = 1.---@ 1n p• q.27 = 1.12· 0. This hydrostatic pressure is transmitted entirely in all directions.5' 11m' e 1. 0.

Therefore.4c In this case the water pressures counteract each other only partly and only beneath the level of the free water in front of the bulkhead. at the considered level CD. 4b). water is held at different levels in front and on the rear side of the bulkhead. . In the diagram shown in Figure 4b it is observed that a change in the angle of internal friction (therefore of the coefficient Aah) induces. A change in the unit weight of the earth alters the slope of the linear distribution of pressures.22 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Thus the water pressures on the bulkhead cancel themselves out and the position is as if the bulkheads only load were the solid phase of the earth with submerged unit weight (Fig.a jump in the pressure diagram. S=2. there is an unbalanced water pressure rising from zero at level Eo and reaching a maximum value of Yo . The example in Figure 4c indicates the distribution of pressures if. w at level E.if Yo is the unit weight of the water and w the total hydraulic head. Below level E the unbalanced water pressure remains constant and equal to its maximum value Yow. superimposed on the pressure of the solid phase. for one reason or another.'J/tm2 FIG.

Under the influence of cohesion the active pressures diminish by 2 c .Introduction 23 4.tg (1tt + 1p) .J Apb = 2 c. 5 On neglecting the earth-wall friction. tg2 (1 n -!p) = p. In Figure 5 it is seen clearly that the effects of cohesion may be superimposed. . . on the effects derived from the noncohesive medium alone. the pressures exerted by the medium regarded as non-cohesive are: qah qp'1 = Ph . tg2 (! t. +! p) . PRESSURE DIAGRAM IN SOIL OF COHESION c Cohesion diminishes the active pressure and increases the passive pressure of a soil. FIG.tg (1 n and the passive pressures increase by 2c t p) . Aph = Pt . in a way. Aha = Ph .jASh = 2 c.

PRESSURE DIAGRAM ON THE BURIED PART OF A BULKHEAD Consider an anchored bulkhead (Fig. equal to Yo or YI according to . It should be borne in mind however that the effects of cohesion are much less certain than those of internal friction and one should always be very cautious when assigning pressures of cohesive soils. following the relation qB + y . t' where qB is the lateral pressure at dredge line level B. y the unit weight of the soil. 6a) driven into an assumedly homogeneous soil. It is at that height hi that the earth remains firm to a vertical wall without falling away. On the rear face of the bulkhead the back-fill exerts lateral pressures. the evaluation of which has been discussed in paragraph 3. s a FIG. in a homogeneous soil.24 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads It is seen in Figure 5 that no pressure at all is exerted on the unsupported height hi equal to 2· ely' tg (1n+! p). this pressure increases. 5. linearly with the depth t'. 6 Below the dredge line B. circumstances of the case. Aah .

on both sides of the retaining wall. This diagram is characterised by a point D where the pressures. The superposition of these two diagrams of active and passive pressures provides the resultant diagram of pressures on the part embedded in the ground (Fig. Downstream the wall the yield of the flexible bulkhead gives rise to passive earth pressures that increase linearly with the depth and which can be assessed as )I • . /' may be equal to )In or )Ii • Below this point D of zero pressure the passive pressures of the soil are given by (3) where t is the depth of the considered level below the point D.. The depth z of this point below dredge line level B is given by the relation Iz = qRl I fJ (1) where qB is the horizontal active earth pressure at Band (2) the effective coefficient of horizontal passive earth pressure. It is this linear diagram that we shall adopt later in determining the depth of penetration of a bulkhead into the ground. balance and result in zero pressure.lab coefficient of horizontal active pressure.Introduction 25 . t' the depth below dredge line level B. 6b). . r where Aph is the coefficient of horizontal passive pressure.lph ..

This penetration is absolutely necessary in order to ensure the stability of the bulkhead in the given conditions. It will fail due to dislocation of its toe C. There will thus occur at C a yield dC and an angular distortion /'c of the bulkhead. The yield of the toe is zero but there remains an appreciable angular distortion /'c. But it is easy to conceive that any increase in active pressure due for example to an increase in the surcharge. will cause collapse of the bulkhead which.26 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads 6. DEPTH OF PENETRATION OF A BULKHEAD In Figure 7 we have sketched the loads and elastic lines of anchored bulkheads in relation to their depth of penetration. In case a of Figure 7 the passive pressures that the earth develops on the driven part of the bulkhead are too weak to hold it in place. Hence care must be taken to lengthen the penetration beyond the minimum in order to be secure under any possible temporary overstress. a point is found where enough passive pressures are brought into play to maintain the toe C of the bulkhead in its place. It is the minimum depth of penetration that is shown in Figure 7b. 7 c d . The bulkhead must find in the sub-soil a supplementary support which is now to be determined. The lateral active pressure on the retaining wall cannot be counterbalanced by the anchor pull alone. a b FIG. in these new conditions. will lack support. By increasing the penetration.

but their proper application to other requirements is often difficult [10]. port. of a partially fixed toe C in the ground. We have in this case a certain reserve of soil resistance that ensures stability of the bulkhead against the incidence of supplementary loading. Thus one may speak.Introduction 27 On further prolonging the penetration. The angular distortion Yc of the toe prevails but it is less pronounced than in the case of 7b. based on the laws of elementary statics. based upon those design methods. are still in good condition. a considerable safety factor is assigned to the coefficients of active pressure Aah and passive earth pressure Aph by neglecting . The ideal case of penetration of a bulkhead is that shown in Figure 7d. We restrict ourselves to deal here with the two so-called "classical" methods of design. In this case. METHODS OF BULKHEAD DESIGN There are methods of bulkhead design derived from large scale model tests. 7. An extension of penetration beyond this fixed end is not necessary. b) The European method of bulkheads with fixed earth sup- a) The American method of the free earth support consists in finding the minimum depth of penetration of the bulkhead to assure its stability. this disposes not only of the angular distortion Yc but also of the yield LlC of the toe C of the bulkhead. As that penetration is the exact minimum required and to provide protection against possible supplementary stresses. namely: a) The American method of bulkheads with free earth support. there appears counterresistance of the soil on the rear side of the bulkhead. Other methods are purely empirical and their only justification is that structures. one may refer to a bulkhead with fixed earth support. that has tendency to relieve the angular distortion of its toe. in the case of Figure 7c.

the pressures in front ql and behind the bulkhead qr being of different intensities. the penetration is such that we find it to be already in the region of what would be a partially fixed support. computed by this method. The coefficients of pressure and resistance then have the respective values: lah lph = tg2 U tt . Dr. perhaps more accurate but much more complicated. That is why we restrict ourselves to only mentioning the American method and giving in Chapter II an example of the design for the minimum depth of penetration of a bulkhead. b) The European method consists in computing the penetration of the fixed toe of the bulkhead. which plays an essential part when designing the length of the anchor-rods in Chapter III. .! p) = tg2 (! tt + t p) in the general case of vertical walls. The counter-resistance of the soil is replaced by a single force vector R. Blum [12] and it is the same author [13] who has demonstrated its validity. By way of additional security a supplement of some 20 % is added to this driving depth. This method was proposed by Dr. He replaces this diagram with an idealized one (Figure 8b) saying that the passive pressures in front of the bulkhead increase linearly with the depth down to the theoretical fixed toe C. These considerations are outside the scope of this book. which is assumed to originate at C. Blum allows a distribution of pressure on the embedded portion as is shown in Figure 8a. Experience has shown that the maximum bending moments and the anchor pulls.28 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads the friction of earth on wall. and above all its simplicity in comparison with other methods. It is possible that in the case where the bending moments and the anchor pulls have been found to be lower than the computed values. in this respect have led to the diminution of bending moments and of anchor pulls in terms of the flexibility of the employed sections and of the degree of compaction of the back-fill. are higher than the values measured on site and are thus on the safe side. Certain investigations and large scale model tests [11].

e-------~c ~~ /' '1{~ qr---~ q. Blum proposes to add to the theoretical penetration to a supplement !!. ~-'I L~ (4) ..045 !!s_ Qc a FIG. 8e) that the passive pressures at the theoretical toe C. and furthermore that the intensity of the counter-resistance below C remains constant and equal to qc. must likewise counterbalance. varying from 10 to 20 % of to in so far as the rate of pressure qr!ql varies from 2 to 1. It is this idealized diagram that we shall use later to compute the penetration for the fixed end condition of anchored bulkheads.: 9r = Qc .d . he obtains the counter-resistance R. -: or That value of !!. caused by all the pressures acting upon the bulkhead. 8 b c L. The moment about C. To allow the full development of the counter-resistance R.Introduction 29 The conditions governing the fixed end are: a) b) The sum of all the horizontal forces must be zero. Assuming (Fig. are of equal intensity q«. is about 15 % of the theoretical penetration to below D. qr and ql. 5=)=-. Descans [14] starts from another hypothesis to determine the value of !!. The equations of translation and rotation equilibrium about C give as extra length [" ~ (1 + -v--=~=c. at C as the force vector of a triangle and a rectangle. Dr.

The computation can be undertaken analytically. has the advantage of being fairly rapid and to present results in the form of a simple and clear drawing from which all the necessary elements for the choice of sections can be taken by simple measurement. on the contrary. Graphical design.3) the depth z of the point D of zero pressure below the dredge line is evaluated following the formula Z= P' qR (1) if qB is the horizontal active pressure at the dredge line level Band (2) the residual coefficient of the horizontal passive pressure. The accuracy of results obtained by graphical design is usually of greater precision than that of the data available for the design. equal to 1'1 or I'n whether the ground is submerged or not. Having established the diagram of active pressures (see Chapter 1. a) The first step in the design consists in setting out the diagram of pressures acting upon the bulkhead. I' may be . GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DESIGN The static design of a continuous bulkhead is generally made over a unit portion of bulkhead that may be taken for example equal to 1 m. even for a trained calculator. That method is a long and tedious one and embraces many sources of error that are difficult to detect.CHAPTER II NUMERICAL EXAMPLES OF BULKHEAD DESIGN 1.

The intensity of the first force vector is in this case: d @. t if t is the depth of the considered level below D. the pressure diagram is split into triangular and trapezoidal areas and these are replaced by their force vectors acting at the gravity centres of the areas. etc. calculating the first force vector of the soil resistance . From the point of zero pressure D. the passive pressures increase in proportion to P . It is therefore expedient to proceed in the following way in determining the force vectors in the passive pressure diagram.. are respectively equal to ®=3xCD @=5xCD ® = (2n -I) x CD Thus.32 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Below D. By the reduction of the scale representing passive earth pressures precision of the pointing is lessened. It is easy to show that the intensities of the force vectors ®. it is recommended to reduce the scale. In order to obviate cumbersome drawings. the triangular diagram is split into a triangle and trapezes of the same height d. b) In the second place. representing passive pressures below D. in comparison with that of the active pressures.

Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 33 it remains only to multiply that force vector by the sequence of the odd numbers to obtain the succeeding force vectors of the passive earth pressure. f) Finally one draws up the elastic line of the bulkhead which is none other than the funicular polygon of moments of the beam acted upon by the elastic weights. It is not out of place to new designation of scales that The scales are defined the reduced size blocks of the add a few words on the comparatively is introduced here. it is d) The closing line of the polygon of moments varies according to the support conditions in the soil. the scale of length is given by the ratio . Let us assume that it has been found. on a beam that is assumed to replace the bulkhead. for the original drawing (but not for following examples) by the ration size of unit representation of unit If. easy to compute the line of moments of the bulkhead. in the direction of their action. c) In collecting these force vectors to a string polygon. For greater ease we have admitted the gravity centres of the trapezes at their midheight. one metre for example is represented by 2 ern on the drawing. The approximation of this short cut is all the greater as the subdivisions are smaller and generally the error involved is compatible with the accuracy of graphical design. e) We now in turn break up the moment area into elastic weights that are applied anew. This procedure is far more accurate than any graphical pointing. always on the original drawing. The determination will be imparted in the examples of this chapter.

5 cm. of which the scale is given by: ef = eL . eF ·at . . The scale of moments is thus given by the simple expression. with the values adopted above: ef = 1 m . 10tm2 2 em 1 em • 5cm = 50tm3 2 em . or rather in kg· ern" (1 tm? = 109 kg· ern") by the expression E'I in kg . gives eM = 2 em . eM = eu 2t . at or. Let us assume the choice of 10tm2 eE-w= ~' With the string polygon of the elastic weights having a polar distance Be. 1m One em on the original drawing therefore represents a bending moment of 5 tm. a purely relative value of which the real yield F of the elastic line in em is deduced by dividing the value given in tm". for example. The yield is thus given in tm '. the elastic line of the bulkhead is computed. a scale is chosen appropriate to the elastic weights expressed in tm-.34 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads In splitting up the pressure diagram. 1 em . let us assume. the following scale is chosen By means of this scale the force vectors are assembled in a string polygon for which a polar distance at is chosen arbitrarily. for example. 5 em = 1em . eE-W . with the scales adopted above. emelastic constant of the chosen section. according to their magnitude. After splitting up the diagram of moments delimited by the line of moments and the closing line. 5 tm which. force vectors are obtained for which.

value given in the catalogue and in the attached table. when the height of the retained back-fill becomes excessive while at the same time the top of the cantilever begins to show severe yield which is not permissible. 2. 2. Such a bulkhead has to be fixed in the soil.b GRAPHICAL DESIGN METHOD In Figure 9 we deal with the case of a cantilever bulkhead retaining the bank of a canal. In preparing the pressure diagram we have neglected the earth-wall friction." . It is easy to understand that the penetration of cantilevers must be far greater than that of the anchored bulkheads and that the stress on the buried part can reach an excessive value. the line (or rather the polygon) of moments is computed by use of the string polygon. Having chosen a convenient scale for the force vectors of the pressures acting upon the wall. "The exact theoretical penetration of the cantilever is cut off by the intersection of the line of moments with the tangent at its origin. in this case the vertical line at the top of the wall. That is why the use of the cantilever bulkhead is not very economical and for that reason it is fairly restricted in application.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 35 E is the modulus of elasticity of the steel equal practically to E = 2. In that case the pressures exerted on the cantilevered part of the bulkhead should be counterbalanced by the reaction of the earth on the embedded part.1· 106 kg/ern". I is the moment of inertia of the sheet piles in cm4/m. THE CANTILEVER WALL 203 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Back-fill of no great height can be retained by a bulkhead driven simply into the soil and having no other supplementary support above the dredge line.

75 m. er . -.. M.5 Total horizontal soil resistance from D to C: QPh=qC'~= =20.m 65 11.67 .. Counter-resistance: R. .A. The problem is resolved. e! = eL • eE-W where is always the polar distance of the corresponding string polygon. needs a little intermediate calculation: P= Unit pressure at C: q.02 = °. ac.". Yi (Aph . The representative scales of the moments and of the elastic line are set up with the help of the known formulae (see under ILl) eM = eL .02 t. = Qph .65 t. outlines the same counter-resistance R. Foreseen extension of length !:l.Qah = 20. The determination of the extended length !:l.02 t/m2.67t.02.65 = 16. By splitting up the diagram of moments and on applying the elastic weights to a beam representing the bulkhead one computes likewise the elastic line of the bulkhead assumed as being fixed at C.75 = 11.4.45 l6. Total active earth pressure: Qah = 4. In the string polygon of the force vectors of the soil resistance it is seen that a parallel to the closing line of the moment area.45 Rc qc = °. = fJ· to = 2.94' 3.94 t/m3.h) = 2.02 t.ae ac. = 13. = 0. The choice of section is a function of the maximum bending moment of the wall.36 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads In the case examined the theoretical depth of penetration beneath D is equal to to = 3.85 tm. 3 11. • . = 16. 02 .

7 .1 = t.quality with a permissible working stress of IJ = 1 800 kg/em" of choice should be made of a section having a section modulus W which corresponds = Mmax IJ = 13.82m above level D. . may demand the use of so heavy and rigid a section that it would be more economical to provide anchorage of the top of the wall in so far as local conditions will permit.109 2 . 103 = 17. But that is not important in the progress of the calculation. The value of 11 plays a part in the following paragraph. 260. 103 5 em 3/ m to that of the section with W = BZ I RA The maximum 850 cm3/m. 1. We have likewise indicated in Figure 9 the origin of the force vector Qah of the total active pressures which is situated at 11 = I. The moment of inertia of BZ IRA being / = 7 100 cm4Jm and the modulus of elasticity of the steel being E = 2.8. according to circumstances. 1 .Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 37 In selecting a steel of 50/60 kg/nun. is equal to yield at the top of the cantilever i. The origin of Qah is obtained from the intersection of the tangent at its origin with the tangent at the point of counterflexure of the line of moments. = 260 tm3/m.85.1' 106 kg/em! the actual yield of the top Ao of the cantilever amounts to: F = E . I t remains to be added that in the region of the fixed toe C the actual line of moments will rather follow the dotted line in Figure 9. that point of counterflexure being found at level D of zero pressure. crn+jm) will The more rigid section reduce that yield to 9.4 ern.10 770 1. BZ II N (l = 13200 This large yield of a cantilever bulkhead under load is its major drawback which. 106.5 cm .

.m 7 Mo I' I. 7 0.30 7.0.2 1._ ....72 -.IO 2. Q:) 0) t'\j "" 0 . - 1- --- -~ -... <"\IIr." ~ 11'1 c) 1. Mmox u..D I.80 163 T T Dah 250 - r...8 = -_.75 - ? f....50 7~0 3...60 0.) ..... 1.. . to - -: .87 7.0< 2.94 11m' Ocrh 1...50 --r. .9 " FIG.})' 6 Qoh "" J 2.87m 2..85 fJ?2 f. 2..64 3.._..50 ---- = f--3...38 Z Dah Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads .50 0. 062 .1 1. r-. I I I 7. 0 (:) _ -.D 3.. P) ..' 1..1-- 1 I I I I ~~ ~~ ~ "ci "" c::i c::i ti .05 7.D v 1/ V~ V ~ ..23 a. 3.eoi-..3 i'-...0 '..33 .0 r-..0 5.... - 0'1 01.73 0....64 0. 1 <-.0 ~...7 7.M=O 7..... .. <0 t'\j I'-..D 7. Mmox= .. I I ! I I I......71.. P ? . _.37 --- 2.. sc r-... ... ""'1 I\i 1.f--D• .3=No M. <5 2.-----..6 1..0 i' .}-.83 0.90 1. <5 7.0 6.5 i r-. P) ~ ...57 <. 0 r::J' (b 0 0.....i t'oi '-. ~ . 8.

822 = 2. (A'ph 6·4. the force vector of the active pressures Qah and the cantilever moment MD caused by this force vector is calculated following the scheme shown in figure 10. 8.43 = 13. = 1.64 which gives the theoretical depth of embedment beneath D and the maximum bending moment by the relations: to Mm•x = tJ . . = J1.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 39 z.: = 1.1. In splitting up the diagram of active pressures into rectangles and triangles. The height of origin of Qah. that is the distance between the level of the gravity centre of the active pressure diagram and the point D is given by tJ = -Q MD ah = 4 64 = 1.e ANALYTICAL METHOD WITH GRAPH COMBINED The peculiarity of the cantilever wall allows the immediate determination of the theoretical depth of embedment beneath D and of the maximum bending moment of the wall by means of a graph.64 - Aah) = 2.b.82 m . The interested reader will find in the Appendix the assumptions made to lead to the graph in Figure 10.80 tm.82' 2.74 m. With that value of r = 2.94 t/m".64' 8. and 5' = 2. In the column headed n there is entered each time the distance of the level of the gravity centre of the partial area above the point D. • MD = 1.tJ2 6· Qah that f3 = JI. .85.43 Bearing in mind constant r is given by: r = fJ. if the magnitude and the origin of the force vector Qah of the total active pressures is known. the = 2.85 we read at once on the graph of Figure 10.94.05 = 3.05 J1.. The problem is completely solved if !1 is calculated as is shown under 2.

~orm ~ . 9 .101m' FIG.

53 =Q fJ 10.20 ~I ~ i_~o' _-T " .'.60 '.8 0.1 03 D.6?-\'0.~-~32--2_.-:.00 ----!-----I 39. 3. W _ 153 l~i: I '" ~~ ~ U60 -r ' I Ro m Qah L_~ -t--I _JI.97 H .I::: -l---:.-:. analytical and graphical.----l----. that can be combined to determine this minimum penetration.}- No 11m' ::. .0 FIG.' 05 06 07 0.60 0011 = LM 600 $. ..a THE ANCHORED BULKHEAD DETERMINATION OF PENETRATION OF THE MINIMUM DEPTH The minimum depth of penetration is of interest while designing the lengths of the tie-rods (Chapter IIIb)..303.-:.~-~--~ 3. We give hereafter two methods.02 31.5" GO? 3.50 l Z 0. ~~-:. I ------------ ~-..9 . 11 .3'5 15~ 3DcoMo ~ RD Qatr - " 2._RD 15.15 t 0336 030& 2.40 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads 3.&6 1.9'm 122?J (jH2 tmm:' 6 RD .r 'mm" jH 00 0.

the second. The complete design of the bulkhead is carried out more advantageously by the graphical method given.336 . freely supported at A and D.30=1515t H ' 9.a Analytical method combined with graph (Figure 11) After having prepared the pressure diagram for the beam AD (see example under 3.30 tm. By addition one obtains the force vector of the total lateral pressure Qah = 31. Knowing also that the constant p = /'1 (A'Ph _ Aah) 6. the value of /) = from which we obtain tmln tmin H = 0.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 41 3. for information. H2 6·RD 0.53 = 2.a. in the following paragraph.97.53 ' .15 2 . In the graph of Figure 11. It is easily shown (for proof. The reaction RD is deduced from available data by R D = Q ah _ MD=3135_154. at a distance of H metres.97 t/m3 one calculates r= r = p. the distances of the gravity centres of the partial areas above point D and the third.. 9. it is split up into rectangular and triangular areas and the stress on the beam is calculated with the aid of the scheme of Figure 11.s.94 m. The first column of the scheme contains the calculation of the force vectors of the partial areas. the cantilever moment in D caused by all the partial areas.a. H = 0.308 = .532 = = 2.9 . we deduce starting from the abcissa 0.15.b).35 t and the cantilever moment in D: MD = 154. . is known.308 .336. see Appendix) that the minimum depth of penetration beneath D of a bulkhead may be ascertained by a very simple relation if the reaction of support RD of the beam AoD. For our needs knowledge of the penetration is all that is necessary.

.. l'l 0' E .'" ::: =< 1 '" ~ ti n .l oj Cl 0.... <0 ol~ <0 '" . ~Il '" "'1". . 0' .42 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads ~ <> ~! .. FIG.1: . 12 ..... S E :1 IJJJOI "Jf J ... '".' .

intersecting the line of moments at the level D of zero pressure is drawn (indicated as a dotted line in Figure 12). 9.94 m .10 t.b Graphical method (Figure 12) The course to follow in order to prepare the pressure diagram is given in Figure 12.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 43 3. The minimum penetration below D therefore is tmln = :: . with a span H.336 which in turn. The line AD. A parallel to that line outlines the reaction Ro in the string polygon of the active force vectors RD = 15. With the string polygon one computes the polygon of moments which presents no particular difficulty.a.H2 6·Rn = 0.308 . So a more accurate process must be adopted.53 = 2. But it is difficult to draw a tangent to a polygon that replaces the "line" of moments. provides immediately a reading from the graph in Figure 1I of :3 = 0. The first condition is easy to achieve. The closing line of the moment area should satisfy two conditions: a) To intersect the tangent at the origin of the line of moments at the level of anchorage A b) To be tangent to the line of moments at the toe Co .308. However the quest for that reaction Ro is easy if one has already computed the line of moments. That value of Ro enables calculation of the constant: r = p. H = 0. In the preceding paragraph we indicated such a step which consists in taking the value of from a graph if one knows Ro • the reaction of support at D of the beam AoD freely supported at A and at D.

(on this point see 11.A graphical method. We do not dwell on the determination of the elastic line of the bulkhead as it is of no particular interest.1). We describe hereafter two methods used for determining the penetration for fixed bulkhead toe.b. 3. The maximum bending moment of the bulkhead equals Mrnax = 51. 3.2 tm. At the same time it is also the maximum depth of penetration which it is useless to increase. Blum's "equivalent beam" In dealing with numerous examples. The scale of moments having been calculated according to formula.50 t and another parallel gives the total passive earth pressure Qph = 12. . Dr. approximate but often sufficiently exact. Blum [12] has established that the bending moment of an anchored bulkhead with fixed earth support is reduced to zero in immediate proximity to level D of zero pressure. From this he has derived a very simple method that is rapid and often sufficiently accurate for determining the penetration for fixed earth support of an anchored bulkhead.A graphical method that uses "the error" of the elastic line of the bulkhead to correct the already computed driving depth.a Dr.83 t in the string polygon of the passive force vectors. In the string polygon of active force vectors a parallel to this closing line ACo outlines the anchor pull RA = 18. . namely: .b DETERMINATION OF THE PENETRATION FOR THE FIXED END CONDITION OF AN ANCHORED BULKHEAD The fixed earth support assures the best conditions to the anchored bulkhead in normal service.44 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads which allows the definite drawing of the line ACo • closing the area of moments.

The closing line should satisfy two conditions: To intersect the tangent to the origin at anchorage level A.RD -fJis equal to 4. 13) the wall portion AoD may be considered as a beam supported at A and at D and loaded by active pressures.Numerical Examples 0/ Bulkhead Design 45 Since the moment about D is nil (Fig.25 m in the example given in Figure 13. = 2· Rn = 29.64 29.86 .05 t RD = 14. at the toe of the bulkhead equal to R. The moment at D and at C being zero the lower part DC of the wall can be regarded as a beam freely supported at D and at C and loaded with the triangular passive earth pressures.45 21 04 = 0. The counter-resistance R. . m.931.to· I 2·} t~ t~ = ° from which one obtains the value of the depth of penetration below D fo = J 6.45 Rc qc fixed toe C if qc is the unit pressure at the theoretical I:! = 0. The extension I:! to be added to this theoretical depth of embedment beneath D to allow the development of the counterresistance is equal to I:! = 0. = fJ· 1'2 t or also R. Having prepared the diagram of active pressures on the part AoD of the wall the line of moments can be computed without difficulty.86 t . To intersect the line of moments on level D. An equation of moments about the support C gives RD·toI fJ. A parallel to the line AD cuts off in the string polygon the reactions and RA = 15.

It is said that the "error" of the elastic line at A (level of anchorage) is t'J. e .Mc to counteract has developed a formula that makes use of this pecufirst elastic line to determine the supplement of the that should be added to the moment area at level C the error of the elastic line at A. It goes without saying that the penetration deduced by an analytical computation of RD .).4 tm.b. the sign E9 should be applied.fA.a. After splitting up the diagram of lateral pressures acting upon the bulkhead. A first approximation to the penetration of fixed earth support is obtained from the closing line CD which intersects the moment at the level D of zero pressure (see 3. we compute the elastic line CD of the wall which generally will not pass through the point A. accurately enough as can be verified by comparing results with those obtained in the example dealt with in 3. situated on a vertical rising from the fixed toe of the wall. the 10' may also be 3. one computes the line of moments with the aid of the string polygon. The method of preparing the pressure diagram is given in Figure 13.b. expressed as tm-'. In the contrary event. that error amounts to The sign indicates that the elastic line passes upstream of the point A.b.80 trn '.b.46 The maximum bending M max Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads moment = is equal to 32. the case of Figure 14. In . Hedde liarity of the moment t'J. The rapidity of this method can facilitate considerably examination of several solutions under consideration. In splitting up the moment area into elastic weights applied to a beam representing the bulkhead. The problem is solved.b Hcdde's correction [15] We have separated in Figure 14 the two phases of the design.

I

",os·1t

'1

!T',' \ II

i

: I, ' 1\ ~\

i~,

I \

";!_-

\

'.

I I

I

oj

.,

e-,

..;

'" '"

..;

e-,

..;

., ., '" .; "

..;

e-,

., '" .. .. " '"

o ..;

~

FIG.I3

Numerical

Examples of Bulkhead

Design

47

The formula is:

where 6.fA is the error of the elastic line at the level A expressed in tm ' and 11 the distance in metres between the origine of anchorage A and the position given to the toe C in first approximation. In the case of Figure 14 we obtain: 6.Mc = 3· (- 80) 13 162

,

= -I,38tm

.

In bringing 6.Mc (having regard to the sign e) the closing line CDis pivoted about the point A in the position ® which is final and gives the theoretical penetration of fixed earth support by its intersection with the line of moments. The elastic line ® obtained by splitting up the moment areas delimited by line ® passes through the point A. A parallel to the closing line ® of the moment areas outlines in the string polygon of the active force vectors the anchor pull RA qc

=

14,88

t.

The unit pressure at the toe C of the bulkhead

is equal to face

= fJ . to = 4,95 . 4,30 = 21,30 t/m •

2

The total horizontal of the bulkhead equals

**passive pressure on the downstream 4,30 -2as
**

t.

**to QPh = qc2, = 21,30.
**

The counter-resistance R; appears

= 45,80

t.

=

Qph

+ RA -

Qah

= 45,80 + 14,88 - 29,88 = 30,70

The extension 11 is equal to

6. = 0,45 Re = 0,45·

qc

~~' ;~ ,

=

0,65 m .

It is to be observed that a parallel to the line ® outlines in the string polygon of passive force vectors the counter-resistance

R;

=

30,701.

48

Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads

It is interesting to compare described in 3.b.a and 3.b.b. We obtain:

results from the two methods

I. Equivalent Beam I

to (m) ... Mm., (tm) .

RA (t) ... Rc (t) . . .

I Exact

Method

4,25 32,40 15,05

29,86

4,30 31,70 14,88 30,70

The theoretical depth of penetration for fixed earth support of an anchored bulkhead obtained by Hedde's correction is sufficiently accurate in practice and one would be deluded in striving for greater precision.

Choice of sheet pile section For an allowable stress a = 1 800 kg/em? of a steel of 50/60 kgjrnm- quality the section modulus of the sheet piles should be equal to:

W- Mmax _ --

a

31,7.10 _ - 1760 cm 3/ m 1,8· 103 .

5

In chosing section BZ III N W

=

1 750 cm3/m,

1= 22750 cm4/m

is at the

the permissible stress of 1 800 kg/ern? will not be reached. In this case the maximum yield of the bulkhead level indicated in Figure 14 and its extent is F=

Imax

EI

=

340· 109 2,1.106.22,75.103

= ,Scm.

71

The total length of the sheet piles is equal to L say L

=

10 + 0,92

+ 4,30 + 0,65

= 15,87 m

=

15.90 m.

-1.80 I .30 95 ~ 3D ..38Im 9c • p to·. n.8 -~ 101m c~ 10almJ i ·0 . .70 9c = J. 14 ..d Mr: . '5. '-30.d "" 2.SSm FIG. 30 tJm~ °ph' 9c } .}~C _ O.k ~ 21.30}""" 30.n 21.

three checks are made of exceptional stresses by assuming successively. a lowering of the dredge line by 1 m. In Figure 15.22 m below the dredge line. The new closing line should cancel out the moment at this . an increase of 100 % of the surcharge. The study of several possible. SPECIAL CASES EXCEPTIONAL STRESSES 408 Like all engineering works.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 49 4. a sheet pile bulkhead is exposed to temporary load increments. when its embedded portion is sufficient to set up sufficient soil resistance to hold the toe of the wall back and when. the maxima stresses are such that they do not exceed at any point. again.87 . at the same time. It is only such study as this that provides sound control of the reliability of the structure. For each case of new stress a new pressure diagram is first established. exceptional cases will show whether the bulkhead can resist within the limiting conditions of static equilibrium. by an unbalanced water pressure caused by the immersion of the back-fill. The theoretical toe C was found in section 3 previously.0. at the depth T -!1 = 5. modified as compared with that of normal load.65 = 5. following the example cited in section 3. be it in consequence of an unforeseen increase of the surcharge or by a lowering of the level of the dredge line B where the first resistant forces become evident or. With the string polygon of the force vectors resulting from the splitting up of the pressure diagram the line of moments is computed. an unbalanced water pressure in the back-fill. the elastic limit of the material. The stability of the bulkhead is assured.

In any event the closing line becomes tangent to the line of moments although in the case of a fall of the dredge line (case b) it becomes dangerously near.7 tm under normal load. . RA a) b) c) = 14. The soil resistance induced by the penetration of fixed earth support is therefore sufficient to keep the bulkhead in position.105 {750 54.40 t 19.quality of steel having a minimum elastic limite of 3000 kg/ern".105 1 750 68 4.5. The safety factor 1. (section modulus W = I 750 cm 'jm) it is seen that the stresses reach respectively Ga = 430. 750 = 2460 kg/ctn- Gb = = = 3 100 kgjcm- Gc = 3 900 kg/ern" .50 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads level of the theoretical toe and intersect at level A of the anchorage. The anchor pull increases from its normal value. The bulkhead having been dimensioned with section BZ III N.88 t RA RA RA = 20. the tangent at the origin In the three cases treated in Figure 15 it is seen that the bulkhead remains partly fixed in the ground. (= +79 = = 26. (= +31 %).63 t %). these stresses are reached by a fall of the dredge line and are greatly exceeded by an unbalanced water pressure.5 generally adopted for designing the anchor wall will be no longer sufficient in the case of an unbalanced water pressure.105 . But it is noted that the bending moment of the bulkhead increases appreciably relatively to the Mm>x = 31. The 50/60 kg/rum.50 t (= +36 %).

The procedure then is as follows: One begins by selecting a section of sheet pile capable of withstanding the lateral earth pressure. An hydraulic head can be avoided by arranging an efficient drainage system in the bulkhead. 4. In such cases. It can cause complete destruction of the work through lack of resistance of the material. - Therefore if such stresses are possible. due to the eddies caused by ships' propellers. a fall of the dredge line can quickly create a dangerous situation. the main anchorage is placed as high up as possible. if the loading due to those cranes is not too important.b ANCHORED WALL CARRYING VERTICAL LOAD The steel sheet pile bulkhead is often used to carry one of the runways of the cranes installed on the platform. These vertical loads stress the bulkhead in addition to the lateral pressures set up by the back-fill. an hydraulic head is particularly dangerous. to avoid the task of having to ensure the stability of the top of the bulkhead by supplementary anchorage. That section is checked for . The wall may in these circumstances yield as easily from movement of its toe as well as from fatigue of its material.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 51 This comparison shows that: a local and temporary increase in surcharge is only to be feared if it assumes really exceptional proportions. care should be taken to control the stability of the bulkhead or to find means to avoid their disastrous effects. even at the top of the bulkhead using the runway itself as a waling. A layer of ballast in front of the bulkhead provides a usefull protection against the lowering of the dredge line. The reduction in the support of the bulkhead in the ground is accompanied by a considerable increase of the stresses in the steel. even temporarily.

52 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads to resist the supplementary vertical load without exceeding a reasonable limit of stress. can transmit to the ground. In Figure 16 we deal with the checks generally accepted in such a case.67 m: = 118 tm". If the vertical load is less than the resultant of the frictional forces between earth and wall.a r = 1200 cm3/m. T in contact with the ground.5 tm. 277 cm/m: = 9. p= = 155. Total penetration of fixed earth support: T Relative yield of the elastic line: Vertical load: P = fmax = 4. the point resistance of a sheet pile bulkhead can be neglected. 10 t. The whole load P ought to be transmitted to the underground by the friction of the earth on the driven bulkhead surface.5 cm2/m. driven to a depth of T m. we give below a simple formula. Section modulus: W Section of steel: s Perimeter of section: Radius of gyration: 4. It is also important to verify that the bulkhead is able to transmit that load to the subsoil. Transmission of load to ground Because the steel section of the sheet piles is very small in relation to their surface p .21 cm. The selected section is BZ II N with following characteristics: Moment of inertia: 1= 13 200 cm4/m. in many practical problems. to get an idea of the magnitude of the resistance that can be developed by friction between earth and wall. deduced from the so-called "Dorr" formula for assessing the load that a bulkhead. its transmission is assured.5 t.b. . As it is an issue. Linear anchor pull: RA = 6. Without reproducing all the intermediate computations we cite the principal characteristics of the stresses of the bulkhead and those of the selected sheet pile section: Maximum bending moment: Mmax = 15.

:1 :1 FIO.lSa .

lSb .s ] ] a WJOI·1t "'00·9 FIo.

lSc .:I WJOJ -it FIO.

. ~ ~ jilt s S • ~ " 3: 1 ~ )_ ::~~~ "':~Q~ - ~ ~fJIoi.. FIG... i\'"" 0.' jl'< 0 ~ § Q. ~ v ... ~ I<'i ~ . E "" "-I '1:1 ~ ~ . ~ '" .... ~I" ..s .. " '" :::l Q... t!' '"s . '" OJ 0.. § ~ . -. 0- -.1_ -1'< .1 •• II • s...Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 53 § ... 16 ... V ~ " ct -100 "'100 v 0.

2 t. known as the "Omega" method. which give approximately the same results. In the case of Figure 16. are available. The other method proceeds from the supplementary stressing of the wall resulting from the eccentricity of the load P in relation to the deflected elastic line of the wall. o 4.54 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads The first check appears as I p < t y • p .672 • 0.1 . tg OJ where P is the lineal load to be transmitted to the ground in tim. 0 being the angle of earth-wall friction. 2.364 = 12. y the unit weight of the earth in t/m3. T2 . two methods.b Checking the steel stresses To verify the supplementary stresses in the steel. The transmission of the vertical load of 10 tim is thus assured by the depth of penetration of fixed earth support of the bulkhead. arises from principles of computing straight beams stressed by a load acting through their axis. One of them. p the perimeter of the sheet piles in m/m: T the total penetration of the bulkhead in m. tg 0 the coefficient of friction. 4. Omega method We begin by calculating the ratio of slenderness beam which is given by the relation Af of the .b. due to the vertical load. 1. This angle of friction 0 may be assumed to be equal to about = ! p in the case of loose unsettled earth and to 0 = ! p and even 0 = p in the case of settled earth being in place for some time.77 . 10 <! . this inequality may be verified already for an angle 0 equal to t p.

The radius of gyration of the selected section being equal to r = 9. the corresponding value of 0) for the selected quality of steel. in ern.22 1. A certain degree of confusion prevails concerning the choice of the buckling length If of the bulkhead and its determination is more or less arbitrary.29 5.43 5.72 4.92 1.35 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.06 1..Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 55 where A.85 2.98 .21 em.07 3.21 = 81. the ratio of slenderness of the yielded and compressed beam would thus be ).20 1.00 6.50 m.03 1.49 I I 1.39 3. In the case of Figure 16 that buckling length would thus be equal to If = 7. coefficient without dimensions. I I 6.5. = 9.32 1.54 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 I I I 1.76 2.55 4. loaded by a moment and articulated at its extremities of zero moment.12 1.03 1. the dredge line) included between the That corresponds most closely to the case of a compressed beam. r the radius of gyration of the selected section. If the buckling length of the beam.20 6. we find by linear interpolation in Table II below.03 6.07 113 1.21 3.00 1. We propose to consider as buckling length If of the bulkhead the part of the wall situated in the most highly stressed region (thus above two points of zero moment.95 7. For that value of slenderness ratio.--------Steel 44/52 I Steel 50/60 --- At ~--w Steel 44/52 I I Steel 50/60 I 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1. TABLE w 750 II At ----------~. in cm.f is the ratio of slenderness of the considered beam.

5 gem.93. P the vertical load by running metre expressed in kg. I . This value is used to check the supplementary stress due to the vertical load by the relation being the supplementary stress due to the load P in kg/em".93. That yield of the elastic line in relation to the vertical line of action of the load P creates in the wall a supplementary moment equal to . The actual value F of that yield expressed in em is obtained by dividing the value of Imax expressed kgcm" (l tm? = 109 kgcm") by the elastic constant E .J E being the modulus of elasticity of the steel generally equal to 2. Method using walls yield In Figure 16 the elastic line of the wall shows a maximum yield of I max = 118 tm". the value of (J) (J) is = 1. Up r::¥l In the case of Figure 16 the supplementary stresses are equal to up_1..10.1 . for steel of 50/60 kg/mm". 106kg/cm2 and I the moment of inertia of the selected wall section expressed in cm4/m.56 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads In our case. s the chosen steel section in em2/m and (J) the factor obtained from Table II. I of the wall I F= '-- i~a.103_124k/2 155.

5 35 - 6 r' J A5 / cm . The supplementary stresses attributable equal to [] to P are ultimately O'p P s M. 10 2.2. 103 9 = 4 . 2• O'p = + 65 = 100 kgjcm>.1 .422 tm.103 _ 35 k / 2. calculation On the example given in Figure 16.0422. W= M. 3 _ S- P _ 10· 10 155.Numerical Examples of Bulkhead Design 57 The supplementary stresses due to this moment are equal to la. steel section of the bulkhead in cm2/m.2. the numerical shows successively F Mp or = fm'" E· / 118 . linear vertical load expressed in kg. 42. 103 g ern . 1.22 cm: = F· P = 0. 106• 13.. moment due to eccentricity of load P in relation to unyielded wall axis in kgcm. W are the supplementary stresses from the vertical load on the bulkhead expressed in kg/ern 2.~~ l L _J These stresses go to increase those due to the direct action of the load P which is given by where s is the steel section of the bulkhead. section modulus of the used sheet piles in cm3/m. .10 = 0.2.

starting from the yield of the elastic line of the bulkhead gives a result slightly more favourable than that obtained from the "Omega method". we shall have a = aM+Up. Finally. a = 1290 or 1 290 + 124 = 1414 kg/ern! 1 390 kg/ern". The principal check on a vertically loaded bulkhead consists in controlling the transmission of the load to the subsoil by the friction of the earth on the buried portion of the bulkhead. + 100 = It can be seen that the influence of a vertical load on the bulkhead stresses is rather insignificant.ax = 1 290 kg/em> owing to the maximum bending moment and the tension ap resulting from the vertical load. ..58 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads It is seen that the second method. The total stress of the bulkhead is given by aM = M .

with the help of drilled in or driven batter piles that resist traction by the frictional forces that arise on their surfaces in contact with the earth. study and preliminary field investigation on their actual bearing capacity under given field conditions. GENERAL The stability of an anchored sheet pile bulkhead.CHAPTER III THE ANCHORAGE SYSTEM 1. at its top. and by tie-rods. the anchor pull to an anchor wall buried in the ground at a certain distance behind the bulkhead and acting by . The anchor pull can also be transmitted back to the retained fill. In that case the superstructure and the piles transfer the anchor pull to the subsoil. These systems of retention. more often than not. depends mainly on the stability of the device which has to guarantee the appearance of the anchor pull. consisting of piles. The design of such structures is fairly critical and depends largely on the conception and the performance of the employed piles. Another anchorage system may be formed of trestles of raking piles set at some distance behind the bulkhead. driven into the ground. We propose to examine the classical type of anchorage which consists in transferring. by means of waling fixed to the bulkhead. These also resist the anchor pull by the frictional forces due to contact with the ground. are within the design scope of drilled in or driven piles and need. on a massive structure such as a right angle wall resting on piles. The wall may be supported.

To facilitate this design we give here a graphical method which uses the integral curve and the line of moments of the earth resistance. Computation of the stability of the whole. in other words. namely: Determination of the required height of the anchor wall that should resist a given pull J. the actual length of the tie-rods for necessary security.l being the factor of safety that it is wished to adopt. Its dimensions are generally computed by a long and laborious trial and error. giving the solution of the problem in a few draughts. Selection of accessories such as walings or wales. plates and fixing bolts for a certain pre-determined stress. that is to say bulkhead and anchor wall or. 5 (tim') FIG.17a .60 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads reason of the soil-resistance developed on its front face under the influence of the pull to which it is subjected.l • RA• J. - - 2. THE HEIGHT OF THE ANCHOR WALL The anchor wall (reinforced concrete slabs or pannels of sheet piles) stand the pull of the tie-rods by the soil-resistance that is developed on its front face. The design itself of such a retaining system is dependent upon three distinct checks. tie-rods.

That condition is by no means indispensable and in the case of rough blocks of reinforced concrete. it is quite possible. on the unit of length of. such friction may well be taken into account so as to avoid anchorages that are too clumsy and awkward to handle.As an additional security the friction of earth on the anchor wall is not taken into account. METHOD FOR DETERMINING OF ANCHOR WALL HEIGHT The preparatory work consists in establishing the soil resistance diagram for a fictitious anchor wall beginning at the free .The water in the back-fill maintains itself at the level of the water table in front of the bulkhead.The anchor wall is vertical or slightly inclined. The coefficients of the earth pressures Aah and Aph are those for a vertical wall and can be read from the graph in Figure 3. . . The effect of this is to increase the active pressures on the back of the wall without influencing the resistance in front of it. We note however that this assumption is often negligible except in the case of already exceptional surcharges. However. at a certain distance behind it. The formulae in Figure 2 may serve to find the pressure coefficients in the case of a raked anchor wall. It may therefore be assumed in practice that the soil in the neighbourhood of the anchor wall is completely immerged. The computation therefore is made just as for the bulkead. This assumption in no way alters the principles of the method to be described. the back-fill may be waterlogged up to its free surface. even if effective drainage has been foreseen in the bulkhead that.The surcharge is covering only the back-fill upstream of the anchor wall.The Anchorage System 61 To obtain the height of the anchor wall we shall make the following assumptions (see Figure 17a): . . say 1 m.The anchor wall is continuous. .

.62 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads back-fill level and going down to an adequate depth.' 30· a33 3. Decrease in the soil 1'.81/"" 30' D. the effective soil resistance is therefore given by the expression if Ph is the vertical stress at the considered level. at (h) m below the free level.:tah at the earth fill level. f la.0 l"" • FIG. The soil resistance diagram is easily prepared.. At each considered level. • • 1. the fictitious wall is represented by a vertical. 0 f AOh APh . In Figure 17b.0 '" "' E 0 50 1m I. That depth can easily be increased if the computation shows it to be necessary.S .t 1/". ..17b resistance from the effect of the surcharge behind the anchor wall is expressed as a negative pressure . .ll 3. - - t.

in each case. This preparatory work. 15 = 30 t. This integral curve ® is in effect obtained by the intersection of a horizontal ® drawn at the considered level (one selects the bases of the trapezia) and of a vertical (XJ issuing from the extremity of the force vector Qph • representative of the trapezium in question. The force vectors of the partial soil resistances.b we found an anchor pull metre of bulkead. The computation of dimensions according to the curves of Figure 17b is dealt with in the practical example in Figure 18. An adequate number of points of intersection will be obtained to construct the curve ® with sufficient accuracy. Let us assume further that the top of the anchor wall is 2 m beneath the free back-fill level.The Anchorage System 63 This soil resistance diagram is divided into horizontal trapezia represented by force vectors stemming from (0). be considered in this case will therefore be equal RA of 15 t per running of the anchor wall The anchor pull to to = 2 . Let us select the dimensions so as to resist that pull with a safety factor of 2. . below the vertical. Generally that depth is left entirely to the estimation of the constructor. giving for each level the effective soil resistance available from the free back-fill level. in the direction of the anchor pull. This arrangement of the force vectors enables the integral curve of the soil resistance to be drawn. hatched in the drawing. which at first sight appears lengthy. One may assume with reasonable approximation that the force vectors Qph originate at mid height of the trapezia. the intensity of the soil resistance between the level ® and the upper surface of the back-fill. The vector ® comprised between the curve ® and the vertical represents. now enable the line of moments ® to be computed after an appropriate polar distance ae of the string polygon has been chosen. reduces the computation of plate dimensions to some draughts for all possible earth support conditions of the anchored wall. if the height of the trapezia has not been overdrawn. In Chapter II 3.

a) of the soil resistance that cannot affect the resistance of the anchor wall. Fixed Anchor Wall (Figure 18) In practice it can happen that the tie-rods cannot be placed at the centre of gravity of the soil resistance (if.@ to the line of moments ®. On drawing a vertical CD from Ao' situated on curve ® one outlines on the string polygon the force vector (0 . (here equal to 2) is marked of. to be withstood by the wall with a safety factor of /1.23 m from the top of the wall which is at the centre of gravity of the soil resistance. This therefore enables the drawing of this tangent Ao' .64 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Freely earth supported wall (Figure 18) A horizontal CD is first drawn at a depth of 2 m which gives the points Ao' on the curves ® and @. The intersection of the two tangents @ and ® gives the origin of the anchor pull and the value of the maximum bending moment (M 1) stressing the anchor wall under conditions of free earth support. the anchor wall should have a height of 2. Taking the foregoing into account.22 m and the tie-rods should thus be placed at 1. The line ® joining Co to the pole of the string polygon is parallel to the tangent on ® at the level Co'. the fixing of the wale and the tie-rods is obstructed by water that cannot be drained off). The position of (co) fixes the points Co' on the curves ® and @ on drawing in tum the vertical ® and the horizontal ® which give directly the level Co' of the toe of the anchor wall freely supported by the ground. this gives the vector (a . In that case the support of the anchor wall is no longer a . On the string polygon of force vectors the intensity of the anchor pull. in our case 30 t. The line @ joining (a) to the pole of the string polygon is parallel to the tangent on ® at the level Ao'.co). for example.

181/mJ JO' 0.'l1".22 23.0 = a. = 1.0 .1t/mJ 30' 0. 18 .22'qc' 390 2.33 3.7 tm FIG.0 t.=-6. "'.33 3.d ~ ~Ot Re' 2.

The theoretical depth of the fixed earth support is that which cancels the moment caused by the anchor pull and the soil resistance on the front side of the anchor wall. R applied at the top of the wall.95 m in the case where the tie-rods originate at the level Ao'. A. To compute the depth of the fixed earth support we assume. To make the fundamental differences perfectly clear between the freely supported and the fixed anchor wall.The Anchorage System 65 free one as it is necessary that the eccentricity of the anchor pull should be counterbalanced by the reactions of the ground on the fixed toe of the wall. thus at the level Ao' chosen arbitrarily. easily readable from the soil resistance diagram.0 t/m2• The total height of the fixed wall h' 2 = 4. In Figure 18 the method of fixing this depth is stated. The maximum bending moment of the fixed anchor wall. The counter-resistance Rc' at the toe of the anchor wall is obtained on the string polygon by drawing the horizontal ®.co). by the vector (co -c) which is 39. following Dr. then the vertical ®. we assume the pull Il .c) on the wall and the anchor pull (a . The extension to be added to the anchor wall to allow the full development of the counter-resistance at C' is given by the formula where qc' is the intensity of the soil resistance at the level C'. difference between the total soil resistance (a . in this case being 23. The tangent ® on curve @ at level Co' is shifted parallel to itself up to its intersection with the tangent @ at the level of origin Ao' of the anchor pull. Blum's hypothesis (see 1-7b) that soil resistance increases linearly up to the fixed support C of the wall where the counter-resistance is supposed to be reduced to a single force. The theoretical fixed toe is represented by the point C' on curve ®.0 t. .

that the moments (M) and (M') are equal in absolute value and minima at the same time. Figure 19 illustrates the case of the best utilization of a fixed wall. 0.::: 2.::: >'Ph = so: 1.4Im = 031m N= 6.r:" .66 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads always found at the level Co' (penetration point of the free earth support) is in this case equal to M 2 = 36.D LI FIG. ]9 = 22~C~c.5 t and the height of the wall to 3. The intersection of @ and ® indicates the origin A' of the tie-rods.. This method thus allows the immediate determination of the height of the anchor wall in terms of the level of origin of the anchor .0 '" E 50tm (..'tm The line ® should be shifted so.8 30" 11m' . = = ! ).2.1t/mJ Q3l l.6 tm..23 m..= ~Ph = (" 1.~~!S M~-6. The counter-resitsance at the toe C' is reduced to R. = e= ~a.' = 13.33 3.

L. Descans [14] has analysed this problem and his investigations led him to conclude that this critical value (e) of the interval between the separate plates is given approximately by the formula if T'mln is the depth of the toe Co' of the free earth support of the anchor wall below the back-fill surface (or the level of the maximum bending moment of the fixed anchor wall.94 m . In many cases in practice this course can lead to appreciable economies. But it is possible that the anchor wall may consist of isolated plates separated one from the other.5 ·4.5 e = 3"' 1 + 0.3). ° . Thus the continuous wall may be replaced by separate plates 90 em apart.The Anchorage System 67 pull and the depth of the wall below the back-fill surface without much trial and error but with predetermined reliability.2 2 = . These separate plates behave like a continuous wall if the space that separates them does not exceed a certain critical value (e). level where the shearing stress cancels itself). Under the conditions of the example in Figure 18 this critical interval would be 2 0. Note In the preceding design we have assumed that the anchor wall was continuous. The point Co' can be regarded as the point of rotation of the fixed anchor wall (see also 111.

In Figures 20a and 20b. That anchorage is therefore ineffective. In the case of 20a. it remains to define the reasonable positions to be taken by the anchorage system. which passes through the toe Co of the principal wall. two extreme cases of locating anchor walls are shown. FIO. Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads STABILITY OF BULKHEAD AND ANCHOR WALL After having determined the dimensions of the anchor wall or plates that should resist a given pull.20b 8 . the anchor wall is situated too near to the bulkhead and it will be carried away by the general slip of the back-fill which will occur approximately on a inclined plane of (i 10 +! p) to the horizontal.68 3.20a FIG. c.

owing to the excessive length of the tie-rods.3). thus at the level where the shearing stress cancels itself. the level of the minimum penetration can be regarded as the level below which the counterresistance of the soil begins to make its appearance. This brings us back to consideration of the level Co at the minimum depth of penetration T min • The same considerations apply to the anchor wall where the sliding surfaces have to pass through the extremity Co' of the freely supported wall at the depth T'mln from the surface. the depth of the toe Co corresponds obviously with the minimum penetration (see 11. That level is defined by the cancellation of the shearing stress. It is necessary therefore to choose a reasonable length for tie-rods in order to be both certain and economical. . but they are not at all economical in practice. Dr. Lackner [16] suggests the choice of the point Co at the level of the maximum bending moment on the buried part of the bulkhead. the anchor wall is buried on the far side of the natural slope plane inclined approximately under the angle of internal friction p to the horizontal and passing through the toe of the principal wall. A first check consists in determining the length of the tie-rods that will allow the full development of the soil-resistance on the anchor wall. In the case of bulkheads with free earth support. even for fixed anchor walls. These long anchorages ensure the stability of the bulkhead. This condition can be made sure by following the scheme in Figure 21. We can therefore agree that the origin of the sliding surfaces is found at the depth T min' as well for the fixed as for the freely supported bulkheads. In the case of fixed bulkheads.The Anchorage System 69 In the case of 20b. The lateral pressure of the back-fill can only manifest itself up to this level. DEPTH OF TOE Co OF WALL A word remains to be said on the depth of the toe Co of the bulkhead.

to the horizontal and issuing from the toes Co and Co' of the two walls. This first check gives in fact the lengths of the tie-rods strictly necessary to ensure the resistance of the soil in front of the anchor wall. In this case it can be agreed that the full development of the soil resistance of the anchor wall is assured. whilst the weight of earth to the right of N obstructs the rising of that earth mass that the anchor wall tends to rise. Kranz [17] has shown that the most dangerous sliding surface between bulkhead and anchor wall is that one joining the toes Co and Co' of the two walls (Figure 22a). FIG. inclined. always with close approximation. we propose . 21 The point N is in this case the intersection of the two sliding surfaces of the active and the passive wedges of pressure.70 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads The ground above the horizontal plane above the top Ao' of the anchor wall can be regarded as a simple ballast load. the weight of earth to the left of N presses the lower mass of earth towards the bulkhead. Dr. The object is to verify if the presence of the anchorage system in the back-fill of the bulkhead is not the cause of an additional pressure on this latter. at (!n+tp) and (tn-tp) respectively. This sliding surface Co-Co' being assumed plane. A second check is then necessarily applied. which was tacitly supposed when computing the height of the anchor wall.

. does not exceed the total pressure on AoCo in normal service. F / C~ FIG.The Anchorage System 71 to compute this last condition imposed on the anchor wall with the Culman diagram.22b . 22b) sliding on the plane surface CoX' (initiated by the toe Co' of the anchor wall) exerts on the principal wall AoCo a pressure which.. c. --r FIG. added to the anchor pull. Using Culman's method we will verify if the mass AoCoX' (Fig.22a c.

and the line LO (so-called line of orientation) making x' v <y.-p » Qo + T T FIG.na .-T p.>J: . p . moxQa'''' T .~s:J'~ 1~ P .72 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads NOTE ON THE CULMAN DIAGRAM (Figures 23a and 23b) a) Draw through the base C of the screen AC the line TN (so-called natural slope) making the angle of internal friction p with the horizontal.

d) The point of contact of the tangent to that curve (Fig.The Anchorage System 73 the angle (p + 15)with the direction CA of the screen. is given by the vector P'X. The value of the active pressure Qa on the screen. is . its point of intersection with CX'. AoCoX'. chosen arbitrarily. Taking account of the surcharge. a parallel to the line of orientation LO and note X. exercised by the arbitrarily chosen prism of earth. the weight of the prism. c) The same procedure is repeated for an adequate number of sliding surfaces and. draw through the end P of this vector. APPLICATION OF THE CULMAN TO A VERTICAL BULKHEAD (Figures 24a and 24b) DIAGRAM Assuming that the water table in the back-fill levels the free water in front of the bulkhead. inclined at (IX) to the vertical (is being the angle of friction of earth on wall). normal to the screen. perpendicular to the line TN. - determine the weight P of the prism ACX'. a curve is drawn which is representative of the successive values of the earth pressures on the screen AC. mark off the value P from C along the line TN. 23b) parallel to the line TN. is then given by the vector PX. through all the points X thus obtained. The component of the pressure. the weight of the prisme AoCoX' is found as a simple function of the angle rp that the sliding surface CoX' makes with the horizontal. b) For each sliding surface CX'. gives the value of the maximum earth pressure max Qa (vector PX) and the direction of the corresponding plane sliding surface CX'.

" ~ E K· J I P=ln (1= /. function simply of T min' h..( I p= t£J Tmm +h} FIG. °7+11 ( ) lz Tmtn+h T+s. _l_ (rmln fg~ +n+«} r. On Figure 24b the Culman curve has been drawn. a and S which are known..{. ".= f..24a .74 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads an expression in which we have: 11 12 = 1 -(Tmin+h+a) tg tp 1 = tg tp (Tmin+h) - P is thus given by the simple relation: where K is a constant..

sliding along CoX'. This determines the length La of the tie-rods. since Qah is cancelled. on sliding along the surface CoCo' would exert on the bulkhead CoAo a total pressure Qah exceeding the total pressure max Qah minus the anchor pull. FIG.The Anchorage System 75 The toe Co' of the anchor wall should be outside the prism of earth which. if the toe Co' of the anchor wall is found behind the plane of sliding surface inclined at p to the horizontal. it will exert no pressure on the bulkhead. In Figure 24b it is seen that. .24b The toe Co' of the anchor wall should therefore be situated outside or on this sliding surface CoX' in order to have Qah + R. The vector LL' is the horizontal pressure Qah exerted on the wall AoCo by the prism AoCoX'. That parallel to TN cuts the Culman curve at a point L. ~ max Qah . From the vector max Qah (P'X) the anchor pull RA (increased by the chosen factor of safety p) must be deduced and at that distance a parallel to the line TN is drawn.

26. discussed in chapter II-3. for this value of r we find ~ = 0.3 the length of the anchorage system.93 = 0.93 tIm for H = 8.92 m and t/m3• These values give the constant: r = 4. is known. Thus we obtain the minimum depth of penetration tmln below level D Imln = ~ . 11). The factor of safety in this case is jJ. In the first place this involves determination of the depth of the origin Co of the sliding surfaces corresponding to the minimum depth of penetration T min • The determination of the minimum penetration of the bulkhead is facilitated by the graph Figure 11 when the reaction RD of the "equivalent beam" of Dr.76 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads It may be said then that maximum security is attained with "long anchorages" situated behind this so-called natural slope surface..95 In Figure 13 we find RD = 14. In the graph (Fig. Blum.= --=-RA max Qab It remains constant for all "long anchorages".922 6· 14. H = 0..32 m. p = )'1 (A'Ph .228 . 8.95.26 .:lab) the residual coefficient of the soil-resist- ance in t/m3• p = 4.a and in Figure 13. H the span (AD) of the "equivalent beam" in m.h. .8. With this value of RD the dimensionless constant r= 6·Ro ~ P ·H is calculated D of the "equivalent beam" where RD is the reaction of support expressed in tim.92 = 2. PRACTICAL EXAMPLE We propose to determine for the anchored and fixed bulkhead of Chapter 11.

5 =-+-+-tg e tg e 26.. 5. z represents the depth of the point D of zero pressure below B.32+ 0. To calculate the weights of the prisms of earth in terms of angle rp one determines.12 . The horizontal component of the maximum active pressure on AoCo is equal to max Qah = 43 t. .1024 .tg e 2 ---m' --m.24 . 2 13. 10. the Culman curve is drawn.(3. ~rp 12= -(Tmin+h)= 1 -. (3. 11 +12 -2- 11. in tum: lr = - 1 ~rp (Tmin+h+a) 1 tg e =- 1 ~rp 13. tg rp .24 tg rp r----· p = 147.12 tg rp +.92= 3.24+7+3) = --m.5 tg e .4 tgrp With these values of P. determined for a serie of sliding surfaces at variable inclination rp.74 = tgrp =18.The Anchorage System 77 The level of Co below level B of the dredge line T mtn t = mln + Z = 2.24m. 63.74+11.24+7)= tg e 12 5.24 tg e .4 57.311.

5 t.5 t.55 --l s .5' 15 = 22.5. RA) from TN.Jl .5 t which. RA = 15 t with a safety = 1. A horizontal at the depth T'mln = 4. L.78 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Allowing the anchor pull RA = 14.88 t or RA factor of Jl = 1.55 m.. 25 A parallel to TN. drawn at the distance (max Qah . = 12. defines on the Culman curve the point L which is the second point on the sliding surface CoL which satisfies the imposed condition to exert on the bulkhead AoCo a horizontal pressure Qah = 20.20 m determines the site of the anchor wall Ao'Co'. equals the maximum lateral pressure max Qah = 43 t. the length of the tie-rods should therefore be equal to 12. E --~-~- I I I ~I I I B FIG. which value we deduct from max Qah .5. added to Jl' RA = 22.. we shall have: Jl . For a safety factor of 1. A. .

the active pressure on the bulkhead increases and causes unavoidably a higher anchor pull than that found when the friction is taken into account.1. The coefficients A. One has only to determine for each case the toe Co of the bulkhead. by making use of the graph of Figure 11.3 and Aph = 4. The first condition previously expressed is therefore-satisfied: the full development of the soil resistance on the anchor wall is assured. assumed to be supported at A and at D. = = 15 = 43 2. In Figure 25.The Anchorage System 79 with the The maximum safety factor that can be attained so-called "long anchorages" amounts to max Qa.8 used in the example sub II-3.a) and in fixing the safety factor.86 FINAL REMARKS It remains to observe that earth-wall angle of friction f5 adopted in this method should correspond to the angle adopted in the design covering the bulkhead. This method can very well serve to verify the stability of the bulkhead and anchor wall in all cases of exceptional loading (see II-4.ah = 0.8 lengths. origin of the sliding surfaces. it is seen that the sliding surface of the passive wedge of earth pressure starting from Co' of the anchor wall and inclined at (i tt . The coefficients Aah = 0.p) = 30° to the horizontal (we have neglected the earth-wall friction) cuts the sliding surface of the active wedge of pressure at a level N situated above the top Ao' of the anchor wall. The reaction RD is always that of the "equivalent beam" AoD.h RA fJ.b correspond to a value of f5 = ± t p as can be verified in the graph of Figure 3. If therefore we neglect the earth-wall friction in the bulkhead design covering the bulkhead.3 and Aph = 4. . for in neglecting this friction.

Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads SELECfION OF ACCESSORIES The choice of the accessories for the anchorage system is made with simple assumptions currently used for structural steel work. 26 .80 4. FIG.

. the conditions and the possibilities of supply of the material. in practice. That is why. The wale can be computed as a continuous beam with several supports (origins of the tie-rods) and bearing a linear load RA• The bending stress on this beam can be estimated by the method of the three moments. That stress superposes itself on that computed from normal loading and thus alters the results of the computations. Such a computation is exceedingly complicated and lengthy..The Anchorage System 81 The dimensions of those fittings can vary widely in terms of the chosen quality of steel. giving it its desired alignment. for example. This straightening operation causes some additional stress on the wale. it is satisfactory to assess a certain stress on the wale and finally to choose a strong wale proportional to the section of the sheet piles. when fixed to the bulkhead. An "exact" computation would have to take into account the elasticity of the tie-rods and the rigidity of the wale. which it is difficult. Figure 26 shows a range of such anchorage accessories. It consists generally of two spaced channel sections set back to back. Further. Because of that the application of the three moments method is only an approximation. or can be found in appropriate tables. the wale serves to straighten its axis.a WALE OR WALING The wale serves to transmit the anchor pull RA to the tie-rods which carry that pull to the anchor wall. One may assess the maximum bending moment of the wale as: I Mm. We confine ourselves therefore to enumerate several general rules concerning the design of various pieces. d' I if RA is the linear anchor pull in t/m and d the distance clc inrn between tie-rods.R •. One must not forget however that the "supports" of the wale (the tie-rods) are more or less elastic. if not impossible. ~ ~ . to value. 4.

in the form of tubes fitted by bolts.2 and 1. There are many engineering handbooks and suppliers catalogues that provide a choice of channels for the wale suitable in every case.b FITTING WALE TO WALL The wale is fixed to the sheet piling by means of fixing plates and bolts. Each bolt transmits a pull proportional to the width I of a single sheet pile and equal to R. 4.82 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads The section modulus of the wale should be above if a is the permissible stress on the steel. 1 the width of a single sheet pile. or by upset parts provided for on the fixing plates of the wale. the width 1 is that of two single sheet piles. for in that case the wale is fixed only to every second single element. . Jl a safety factor introduced to cover additional stresses on the bolts due to straightening of the wall. The space between the channels may be ensured either by distance pieces. which should not exceed 80 % of its normal allowable stress. RA anchor pull in tim. varying from 0.5.42 to 0. A heavy and relatively low stressed wale is preferable to a lighter wale in a higher steel quality. In the case of V-shaped sheet piles.50 m for the BZ sections. This factor Jl can be chosen between 1. being pull in t per bolt.

The width and thickness of the fixing plates are deduced from the stress on this beam. The fixing plates shall be computed for a permissible stress not exceeding the allowed bending stress for the employed steel. in the centre. a inclinaison of tie-rod in relation to the horizontal and J1. to 1. 4. d distance clc between rods in m. RA the anchor pull in tim.1 and various authors allow 1. They are made in two or three pieces (depending on their length) which are joined one to the other by single couplings or by standard opposed thread turnbuckles.2 as the average value. at least.The Anchorage System 83 It is recommended that for the bolts the allowable stress should be below 1000 kg/cm2 (normal quality). The inclined tie-rods need special beveled washers to be insertThese special washers can be avoided by the use of articulated or swivelling plates. a safety factor taking into account a certain prestressing of the tie-rods due to erection or an abnormal increase of the anchor pull. The pull on a tie-rod can be assessed as -cos ex RA·d '/1 if RT is the pull in t per rod.c TIE-RODS These consist generally of steel bars threaded at both ends. . That factor should be taken as equal. ed between the nuts and the bearing plates. Their attachment to the wale is effected by means of nuts and bearing plates. The fixing plates can be computed as beams supported at two points (longitudinal webs of the wale) and bearing a single load R.

known as fish plates or splices. The bearing plates of the tie-rods may be computed as beams supported at two points but. . assure continuity of the wale. it is preferable to splice the two members at one and the same time and to place the joints at a recess in the double piling elements where the attachment of the wale to the sheet piles does not interfere with them. instead of allowing one single load RT • that load may be distributed over the height of the nut. 4. The transmission of some bending moment should be allowed by the splicing. The permissible stresses in the tie-rods may be fixed at 75 % of the allowable stress in the area at the root of the thread. They can be prepared by upsetting or by butt welding on threaded bars of larger diameter. at 100 % of the allowable stress in the full section of the bar. But.d JOINTING WALE The bolted joints. from the practical point of view. reinforced ends can be provided for the tie-rods of which the diameter exceeds 2!". One may splice the two channels of the wale independently one of the other and stagger the joints. to reduce their weight. at the same time.33 times the section of the full bar. To obtain a better use of the steel of the tie-rods and. A suitable section for the upset ends would be chosen in order that the area at the root of the thread might be 100/75 = 1. Certain cases of failure of bulkheads are attributable to the breaking of the threads under the influence of these unforeseen bending moments. which eliminates the large bending moments at the origins of the threads which may arise from the vertical yield of the tie-rods due to an eventual settlement of the back-fill. conception of which varies to some extent and makes it difficult to propose a standardization.84 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads The articulated plates also allow a slight inclination of the horizontal tie-rods.

The diagram of active pressures can be replaced by the force vector Qab of the lateral pressures. The part of the cantilever charged with active pressures can in its tum be regarded as the beam AoD fixed at D. Blum. acts as a single force in accord with the hypothesis of Dr. . FIG.APPENDIX ASSUMPTIONS AND CALCULATIONS CONCERNING VARIOUS DIAGRAMS 1. 27 The depth of the fixed earth support of the cantilever is that which cancels out the moments resulting from the active and the passive pressures. acting at the distance" from the point D. DIAGRAM OF FIGURE 10 PENETRATION AND MAXIMUM BENDING OF THE CANTILEVER WALL (Figure 27) MOMENT The cantilever wall is regarded as a beam AoC fixed at C where the counter-resistance R.

in substituting !. the bending moment. That effort is given by the derivative of Mt in relation to t from which we obtain (2 = 2· Qah. (J . stressing the cantilever below the level D of zero pressures. 2 to 3 = 0 or 6Qah . is obtained from the relation This moment becomes maximum when the shearing effort is cancelled. '7 -_ fJ (to) 1+- '7 -'73• (to)3 - '7.86 Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Qah and 7] are easily obtained by decomposing the diagram of active pressure. The equation can be written in this form: Me = Qah(tO+1J)-fJ·to· to -. = 0.:!.=() 17 we obtain finally the simple relation On substituting r=-- 6 ·Qah fJ· '72 the curve relating r to :J can be drawn In Figure 27.

Assumptions

and Calculations

concerning

Various Diagrams

87

**By substituting that value of t in the equation of moment, we obtain
**

M max = Qab '11 (1

+ ~ ~)

2)2 + 3" fJ

Qah) ' 112 '

=

Qah ' 11 ( 1

**However. from equation (1) above 2 Q"h 1 1)3 fJ'112 = 3" 1 +.9 ' By replacement of this value below the radical. we obtain finally:
**

Mmax=Qah'l1 4,.93 ( 1+ ) 27(1+.9)

)

or again

in substituting

r

L

t1

= I + ) 2~ , 1 ~3 .9

. __~

**which is easy to convert into the form of a curve,
**

2. DIAGRAM OF FIGURE ]]

MINIMUM PENETRATION OF THE ANCHORED BULKHEAD

(Figure 28)

The condition controlling minimum depth of penetration of the anchored bulkhead is that the wall should be simply supported in the earth. The triangular diagram of soil resistance below the point D of zero pressure is replaced by its force vector Qpb applied to the lower third of the diagram. An equation of the moment about A gives: MA

=- Q.h

(H -11)-

Qph (H +2/3·

tm1n)

= 0,

88

Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads

However. on regarding the part AoD of the bulkhead as a beam supported at A and D. the relation may be written

Qah{H-tJ)=RD'H

**if RD is the reaction of support D of that beam and
**

Qph=fJ·tmin·

A.

FIG.

28

**On replacing these values in the initial equation we obtain RD·H-fJ.t· Rn.H=p.
**

min

. tmin(H+_JZ..t. 2

12m;n

rmn 3

)=0

2

.11+13. t min

3

**A slight change transforms that equation to:
**

6RD_32

or again

/;;2 =

r

-p - .(

3·

e~nr e~nr

mill

+ .H

+2

2

t3min

On adopting that

= p. H2

6R[)

and

the final relation is obtained as [r=3.92+2.93=.92(3+2.9) enabling the curve of Figure 11 to be drawn.

I

INDEX OF NOTATIONS EMPLOYED

Free level of back-fill and top of bulkhead Top of anchor wall A Origin of anchor pun on the bulkhead Origin of anchor pun on the anchor wall

(m) (0)

A'

Freeboard -

of bulkhead above free water level

Slope of wan Slope of tie-rods

B

**Dredge line level in front of the bulkhead Slope of back-fill retained by the bulkhead
**

I' (lPh - lab) residual

f3

fJ

coefficient of horizontal

soil resist-

ance Toe of minimum driving depth of the bulkhead Toe of anchor wall supported freely in the soil

C

Theoretical toe of fixed earth support of the bulkhead Theoretical toe of anchor wall with fixed earth support Cohesion of soil Level where pressure diagram of bulkhead is cancelled

(m)

C'

c

D d

Distance c/c of tie-rods Angel of earth friction on wall Extension of theoretical penetration of fixed earth support allowing the fun development of counterresistance of the soil at foot of wan

90 (m) Practical Design 01 Sheet Pile Bulkheads Displacement penetration of toe C of bulkhead having insufficient (tm-') (tm) "Error" of the elastic line of the bulkhead at level A Correction of moment to apply at level C following Hedde's correction Water table in the back-fill Free water level in front of the bulkhead Eo E E (kg/cm2) (m) Modulus of elasticity of steel = 2. 106 Distance of the origin of the force vector Qah of active pressures from level D Actual yield of the elastic line Maximum yield of the elastic line Maximum yield of cantilever wall Actual specific gravity of solid particles composing soil Unit weight of soil in dry state Unit weight of soil in natural damp state Immerged unit weight of soil Unit weight of water for practical purposes equal to 1.0 Angular deformation of bulkhead at its toe C Span AD of the "equivalent" beam F (ern) (trn-') (trn-') I max r Ys (t/m3) (t/m3) (t/m3) (t/m3) (t/m3) (0) (m) (ern) Yn Yi Yo Yc H Polar distance in the string polygons of force vectors Depth of considered level below free back-fill level Depth of free water in front of the bulkhead Total height of the anchor wall Moment of inertia of the sheet piles Constant of vertical bulkhead Culman curve Total length of sheet piles Distance between bulkhead and anchor walls Width of a single sheet pile for the plotting of the It II h' (m) (m) (m) (crn+rm) K (tIm) L (rn) (m) (m) .1 .

Aah Ap Aph A. Slope of sliding surface Vertical stress on horizontal respectively Vertical stress on horizontal respectively facet at depths facet at levels hand t' Pl. Qah maxQah max Q.: 1.n Qp (t) (t) (t) (t) Total lateral pressure on bulkhead active pressures on unit of width Horizontal component of Qa or force vector Horizontal component of maximum total pressure whole height AoCo of freely supported bulkhead Normal component ed screen AC over of maximum total pressure on inclin- (t) Total soil resistance or force vector of passive earth pressures on unit of width of bulkhead . PB (t/m2) CD and ® of Q.Index of Notations If I 1 ' 12 (m) (m) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) employed Bukling length of a bulkhead Various lengths indicated in the text Coefficient of earth pressure at rest Coefficient of active earth pressure Coefficient of horizontal active earth pressure 91 AO A.1 1. Af Coefficient of passive earth pressure or soil resistance Coefficient of horizontal resistance Coefficient of hydrostatic passive pressure earth pressure or soil (1) (1) (trn) (tm) (1) Slenderness ratio of bulkhead Cantilever moment of the pressures acting above D Maximum bending moment of bulkhead Multiplicator giving as from MD the maximum moment of cantilever walls General factor of safety Vertical load stressing bulkhead per unit of width Perimeter of sheet piles per running metre bending MD «.1 P P (1) (tIm) (em) (0) Pt' (t/m2) rp Ph.

of the toe Co' of the freely supported anchor wall Depth of considered level below D Depth of considered level below B Minimum penetration below D for free earth support Approximate penetration below D of fixed earth support Theoretical penetration below D of fixed earth support Coefficient of earth friction on a bulkhead (m) I' 1min (m) (m) (m) (rn) to ' tg a (1) . qph Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads (t) (t/m2) Horizontal component of Qp Horizontal pressures. below back-fill level. Blum Pull per tie-rod Pull per fixing bolt Radius of gyration of sheet piles per running metre Characteristic pressures constant of bulkhead stressed by active at toe of fixed bulkhead D of the "equivalent beam" of ql. on an inclined or vertical facet Horizontal pressures on inclined or vertical facet at level CD and ® respectively Anchor pull per unit of width Horizontal and vertical components of RA Total counter-resistance Reaction at support Dr.92 Qph qah.: (m) Depth. active and passive respectively. RAv (t) Rc RD (t) (t) (t) (t) RT Rb (em) r (1) p S (0) (t/m2) (cm-) Angle of internal friction of soil Surcharge of back-fill Section of steel of sheet piles per running metre (J (kgjcm 2) Working stress of steel (m) (m) T T mIn Total penetration of fixed bulkhead Total penetration head of the free earth support of the bulk- r. qB RA (t/m2) (t) RAh.

93 (1) ratio of penetration of cantilever wall below D to the distance of the force vector of the active pressures Qah above level D » v W Wx (I) Im'n/H... ratio of minimum depth of penetration below D of anchored bulkheads and the span of the equivalent beam Volume of voids in comparison with unit volume of soil (%) (cm3/m) (cm-) (%) Section modulus of sheet piles per running metre Section modulus of wale Natural moisture content of soils expressed as water pressure w W % of 1'. (m) (m) Hydraulic head of unbalanced z Depth of point D below dredge line B .Index of Notations C- employed 10/.

KREY Erddruck.06 Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. Liege Empjehlungen des Arbeitsausschusses "Ufereinfassungen" Berlin. H. Toronto. Berlin Jacques VERDEYEN Mecanique du Sol et Fondations Editions Descer. New York Chapman and Hall Ltd. Berlin BRENNECKE-LoHMEYER Der Grundbau Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. quai des Grands-Augustins. Ziffer 7. TSCHEBOTARIOFF Soil Mechanics.. Soutenements. Berlin A. Talus Editions Descer. Paris Dr. 1960. Paris . CAQUOTet J.. KERISEL Tables de Butee. Imprimeur-Editeur Librairie du Bureau des Longitudes de I'Ecole Poly technique 55.Victor ROISIN Stabilite des Terres. London Gregory P. quai des Grands-Augustins. Foundations and Earth Structures McGraw-Hili Book Company Inc.. London A. de Poussee et de Force portante des Fonda/ions Librairie du Bureau des Longitudes de I'Ecole Poly technique 55. New York.J. Ing. Sols routiers. CAQUOT. KERISEL Traite de Mecanique des Sols Gauthier-Villars. Erdwiderstand Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. Liege Jacques VERDEYEN.REFERENCES [1] [2] [31 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] 19) Karl TERZAGHIand Ralph B. PECK Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice John Wiley and Sons Inc.

1951. of C. I.96 [10] Practical Design of Sheet Pile Bulkheads Gregory P. Berlin L. BLUM Einspannungsverhiiltnisse be. Nov. Berlin Dr. insbesonders be. vol. 1937 Dr. DESCANS "Contribution au calcul des ouvrages en palplanches" Annales des Travaux Publics de Belgique. juin 1954 P. E. P. Berlin Dr. Band Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. 1949. Ing. part 1. W. TSCHEBOTARIOFF Final Report. Bohlwerken Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. 1940. pp. Grundbautaschenbuch. Ing. J. mit der Tieie linear zunehmender Widerstandsziffer Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. Large Scale Earth Pressure Tests with Model Flexible Bulkheads Princeton University. BLUM Beitrag zur Berechnung von Bohlwerken. Princeton N. 27-70 London Dr. KRANZ Uber die Verankerung von Spundwiinden Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. LACKNER Spundwdnde. ROWE "Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls" Proceedings Inst. unter Berilcksichtigung der Wandverjormung. Ing. HEDDE "Beitrag zur Berechnung eingespannter Spundwande" Bautechnik.. E. 1952. Ing. Berlin [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] . 1931. Heft 51.

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- In situ soil testing for foundation performance prediction - Yueyang Zhao 2008 Cambridge PhD Thesis
- Pile Foundations
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- มอก. 396-2549 precast prestressed concrete piles

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