3.

0 POULTRY - FISH FARMING
An integrated approach to poultry cum fish farming is carried out by Rangayya (1977) who is proud of his two-in-one poultry cum fish farm. The poultry house, built on a wooden platform erected in a pond had 1,600 birds kept in two-tire battery type cages provided with feed troughs and water channels. The droppings of the chickens fall straight into the pond, about 0.2 hectare in size, stocked with fingerlings which serve a field of about half hectare under para grass. Rangayya estimated the net additional income from fish at Rs. 1,000 (US$ 130). He was convinced of the usefulness of the system to increase small farmers' income and said that his pond could irrigate more area under grass. The battery system makes maintenance and management easy and economical while it also helps in the production of „clean‟ eggs. The village of Gudlavalleru with 8,000 population produce 70,000 eggs a day and 10,000 litres of milk. It has two milk chilling centres and a poultry marketing ubcentre. The State Bank of India has financed about 75 poultry farms in the village and the bank has attracted over 1200 saving accounts from the farmers (The Hindu, June 24, 1977). The live-weight process production or farm raised catfish in the United States for May Catfish totalled 1.8 million pounds. According to Newton and Merkowsky (1977), the total production for the year is estimated to be almost 10 million pounds (4.5 million kg). Farmers are obtaining 60– 65 cents per pound. Research on the fertilizing efficiency of chicken manure in fish ponds, either alone or in Combination with cattle manure, has been done by Banerjee et al. (1969), who observed that a combination of chicken and cattle manure worked better than the cattle manure alone in fertilizing nursery ponds. It has also been reported that poultry manure is a complete fertilizer, with the characteristics of both organic as well as inorganic fertilizers (Banerjee et al. (1979). Ray and David (1969) found that chicken manure produced a large population of rotifers quicker than cattle manure. A fish yield of 670 kg/ha/90 day has been reported by Banerjee et al. (1979), using poultry manure and no supplemental feeds. In Indonesia, the Chicken-fish farms usually practice monoculture of Common carp or Java carp stocking with 1 to 3 cm fry and 10g fingerlings. The alternative is polyculture of common carp, tilapia, nilem carp and kissing goramy. No supplemental feeds are given. Examples of inputs and yields for chickens and fish are given in the tables (5) & (6) below: Table 5: Annual inputs and returns for 3 integrated mendong (Fimbristylls globum)-fish farms in Indonesia, excluding depreciation costs (unit of currency, Rupish (Rp): US$ 1.00=Rp 627).
Water surface area (m 2) 420 Fish 1 Inputs labor fish seed 6,000 20,000 10,000 15,000 18,600 12,000 1,050 1,680

595 75 68.400 57.050 420 27.240 48.000 21. Pond area (m2) 400 Fish 1.495 95 Table 6: Annual Inputs and returns for 3 integrated chickenfish farms in Indonesia.280 116 26.800 800 44.000 3.900 136 11.805 134.000 2.300 207.000 3.200 17.000 240.000 30.720 60. Output(D) 3. Total rate of return as a % of total costs Source: Pullin & Shehadeh. Total costs (A + C) 2.000 8.750 90.720 117.750 1.000 189.700 800 1.905 224.100 2. Inputs pond construction labor fingerlings feed fertilizer taxes 880 7.00 = Rp 627). Total returns (B + D) 3.000 8. Net return (B .450 89 43.000 90.408 .000 57.400 800 2.450 77 114.000 55.500 21.seed Total(A) 2.000 16.050 62.000 2.000 64 7.A) 4. Rate of return as a % of C Fish + Mendong 1.520 71 117.750 55.400 109.240 16.000 35.000 41.100 90.000 168.600 400 22.240 40 30.680 76. 1980 15. Total net returns 4. Inputs field construction equipment labor seedlings fertilizer pesticides taxes Total(C) 2.750 11.500 38.900 10.750 375 1.800 3.000 51.200 8.000 1. excluding depreciation costs (walt of currency. Rate of return as a % of A Mendong 1.300 117.000 32. Net return (D-C) 4. Ruplah (Rp): US$ 1. Output(B) 3.

051.800 2. Fowler and Lock (1974) described the possibility of inclusion of poultry waste as a feed ingredient in catfish ration. Net return (B .590 170.150 75 443. Total rate of return as a % of total costs 57.279.980 130. no cleaning of poultry cages is necessary.500 40.303.780 1.201.850 414. This system in terms of livestock waste management increases the profit derived from fish and totally eliminates the pollution problem.200 2. 1980).280 150.Total(A) 2. Total returns (B + D) 3. Output (D) 3. Output (B) 3. and poultry situated above the fish pond enjoy an excellent air circulation which has a significant cooling effect for laying birds which are particularly sensitive to heat stress.590 857.400 525. Inputs chicken house labor stocking feed medication Total (C) 2. Total net returns 4.050 3. It is estimated that one laying hen will produce enough manure to generate about 6–8 kg/year of fish biomass. Rate of return as a % of A Chickens 1.450 19.220 45 110.786.760 1.950 56 11.650 4.500 610.000 127.000 551.620 125 432.000 82. Manure from One dairy cow One beef cattle One sheep Fish biomass production (kg/year) 100 90 10 – – – 200 160 17 .850 123 38.903.090 247.281.200 178 273.600 1. Rate of return as a % of C Fish + Chickens 1.800 769.000 1.585.600 623.773.260 93 It is estimated that each chicken produces about 40 g of excreta per day.221. Net return (D .735. Total costs (A + C) 2.350 336.C) 4. poultry feed together with spilled feed fall directly into the pond where it is consumed by the fish. Manure derived from individual confined livestock species (annually) can support the following annual production range of fish biomass (Muller.410 46 1.500 1.000 36.600 72.000 48.521.500 77. Some farmers in Asia build poultry cages on a wooden platform above a fish pond.840 49 2.000 1. This system is very practical.000 985.A) 4.

But the commodity-integration must fit into the particular farmer's . Bangladesh. It can be concluded that fish cultures are an excellent outlet.68 tons/ha/year was attained with manure fertilizer which was 5–7 times higher than normal fish production. This practice supports both high production of disease free fish and high crop yields. chicken. a system quite commonly used in Asia. to 120 kg/ha/day of pelleted chicken manure was considered safe.One laying hen One replacement bird One broiler One turkey 6 4 3 7 – – – – 8 5 4 8 The conversion ratio of manure to fish biomass is related to numerous factors. rice with fish production systems in Bangladesh are reviewed with emphasis on traditional approach and present efforts of the production systems. Nerrie and Smitherman (1979) used pelleted chicken manure to feed tilapia stocked at approximately 10. Dhaka. effort should be taken to increase production through integration of various production systemlike animal-cum-fish or rice-cum-fish culture for efficient utilization of available meagre resources and maximisation of production of diversified products. Economic analysis included duck-fish.000/ha. A multi-commodity farming system presents more advantages to a mono-cropping system. chicken-fish. Emadadul Huque Poultry Production Research Division. ABSTRACT The present status of animal and fish production system and the various integration of duck. Average fish production of 14 kg/ha/day resulted from using chicken manure. closing circularly integrated recycling systems without further pollution discharge. INTRODUCTION In a country like Bangladesh where land is scarce. Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute. In Alabama. the pelleted manure supplemented with soybean and corn meals increased fish production to 22 kg/ha/day. which will increase the income of the farmers and would enhance food production. from a minimum area. INTEGRATED LIVESTOCK-FISH FARMING: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE Quazi M. broiler-fish and rice-fish production systems. Maximum average fish yield of 5. goat. particularly the fish species. This is even more true when fish ponds can be switched over to cropping every second year. climatic conditions and pond water management.

INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM The traditional mixed farming systems have been existing in Bangladesh with crop based subsistance economy. meat.68 tons/ha/year from duck-fish experiment. The integrated production system can be divided into five subsystem: (i) Duck-cum-fish. and homestead waste to meat their daily feed requirement (Huque. PRESENT EFFORTS Integrated poultry-cum-fish production systems in Bangladesh is a successful operation. In another study at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute with three type of duck breeds for selecting duck breed for the integrated system. 1991). Integrated layer chicken-cum-fish farming .25. 400 and 500 ducks/ha respectively as compared to 0. 3. Although the egg production is low in Bangladesh context.68 and 5.10. Average production of fish was 1.50 tons/ha/year with the density of 200. (ii) Layer-cum-fish. 1991).22 tons/ha in a period of 4 month culture of fish raising (Huque and Ebadul. After several trial it has been found that the average fish yield of 5. Although the crop sub-system is dominant but the other sub-systems like household. power. Sometimes the farmers provide supplementary feed to the ducks. algae. The ponds were stocked with carp fingerlings at a density of 7500 fingerlings/ha and Khaki Campbell ducks were reared over the experimental pond. 1991). A comparative study of fish production in on-station and on-farm ponds of integrated duck-cum-fish farming showed 5. mrigal. oysters. fish pond provides food and irrigation and orchards provides fire wood and fruits. crop provides food and feed. canals or water reservoirs for a long time and are also rearing ducks under extensively.capability. The average egg production of Khaki Campbell duck was 240 eggs/ducks/year of local ducks. The household provides labour and management. 1991). 1.32 tons/ha/year in duck-fish farming in India.00 (Nuruzzaman.068.5 and 5 percent of silver carp.64 tons/ha/year respectively (Uddin. catla. 400 and 500 duck/ha. who refined this technology in Bangladesh perspective through a number of production trials.49 tons/ha from control pond. (iv) Ruminant (goat)-cum-fish (v) Rice-cum-fish farming. grass carp and mirror carp respectively. lakes. fish pond and orchards are integrated and interdependent. 1990). Farmers of Bangladesh have been practicing fish culture in a traditional way in pond/tank. average fish yield was 3. This yield was 5–7 times higher than the normal fish production (Nuruzzaman. animal. A large number of small-scale farmers raised relatively few free ranging ducks that foraged for most or all of thier feed. economic and environmental factors around him. Jhingran and Sharma (1980) reported that the fish yield was 4. The ducks are mainly dependent on organisms of water origin like snails. (iii) Broiler-cum-fish. the total returns are higher compared to the raising duck or fish alone due to high feed cost.92. A detail of input costs and return for a years' production of fishduck farming system showed the net profit was Tk.82. Duck-cum-fish integrated farming system has been introduced in Bangladesh by Fisheries Research Institute in 1986. rohu. streams. small fishes ect. animal provides milk. resources and need as well as the social. The amount of fish produced in Bangladesh under integrated duck-cumfish farming (5. at 200.15 and 4. manure and capital.68 tons/ha/year) is a very prospective fish production practice where fish fingerlings rate was at the rate of 6000/ha with 30.

chicken and ducks. The economic analysis of this system revealed a net profit of Tk.The integrated layer chicken-fish farming operation is undertaken with the commercial strain of layers where the birds are kept at the floor over the pond. Integrated rice-cum-fish farming The integrated culture of captural wild fish into rice fields in fresh water or estuarine areas of different regions of Bangladesh is an old practice. sheep and goat. The cowdung and poultry dried droppings as a direct fish feed showed that manure are poor substitutes for the components normally included in fish feed pellets. But this system has got some limitation in rural areas of Bangladesh. The concentrated feed gives the high value than the fibrous feed. Intensive goat raising are increasing due to high mutton cost.2 million tons of different types of fishes harvested from rice field per year. Manure from goat and sheep is also potential for integrated animal-fish farming system but this is not yet used in widespread integration with fish culture. But the study of production performance of fish has not been completed. The economics analysis of this integrated system showed that this is economically and technically highly viable. In this case droppings drop directly to the pond without any wastage. Libunao (1990) reported that the fish feed produced in the ponds with goat manure is efficiently utilized by the fish biomass. He also mentioned that the growth of tilapia increased with the rate of goat manure loading. About 0.00/ha/year where the fish production cage rearing was 4. The maximum 30 percents dried manure may be included in the fish be feed to obtain equal growth with conventional fish feed pellets (Schroeder. WASTE UTILIZATION The high cost of feed is the major constraint to intensive fish production. The regular supply of day-old chicks with two month interval and marketing of broilers could pose problems in the rural areas. Integrated goat-cum-fish farming In Bangladesh.836. Generally. there are 12 million goat and sheep. Goat-fish farming is being practiced by the one NGO name “Bangladesh Mission” in Bangladesh.89 tons/ha/year (Nuruzzaman. Integrated broiler-fish farming Integrated broiler-fish farming is a successful system practiced in the country in a small number. Traditional capture of fish from inundated floodplains having rice is also very common in Bangladesh. Ricecum-shrimp culture practice in the Southern part of the country is known as “Gher” method. The quality value of manure as a substrate for microbial growth is directly related to the feed the animal received. 1991). The raising cost of fish feed has brought interest in the utilization of animal waste in pond culture. POTENTIAL FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT . Though this integrated system of farming requires skilled management for both layer chicken and fish but it proves economically and technically viable at farmers condition. the value of the manure. in increasing order is: cattle. 1980). followed by pig. Recently cage rearing of layers over the fish pond has been introduced. 219.

E. This increase fish production potential means of waste utilization which increase fish production potential without the use of supplemented feed normally used for fish production. and Shehadeh.The importance of integrated livestock/poultryfish production system has began to be more appreciated. CONCLUSION Two or three fold integrated production system like animal-fish-vegetable. Huque. faster growth and higher yield of animals should be adopted.. XVI (2): 18 pp. species combination and feeding. As the success of integrated system depends on low production cost and high returns. and Sharma. The pilot experiments of on-farm study for this technology has been completed with very promising results. Jhingran. and Ebadul. Duck Production System in Bangladesh. V. P.V.G.E. number of animal and their size. Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute has started an experiment to select the type/breed of duck with different level of duck nutrition for making this duck/fish technology more economic and productive to fit in integrated duck-fish production system in the country. age and diet.M.) Proceedings of the ICLARM-SEARCA Conference on .S. Farrell and P. An Efficiency of Khaki combell. (1980). Duck/Fish Integrated Farming Systems. quality of seasonal factors will also have to be considered. (1986). Effort is required to standardize the fish size. Bangladesh. Here is much potentiality for the introduction of the cultural system of fish where only the captural system is practiced. University of New England. (1991). Dhaka.H. Integrated Livestock-fish farming in India. M. (Edited by Pullin. Liquid manure of effluent from bio-gas digester can be matched with this production technology.J. R. Z. Asian Livestock. feeding. or rice-fish are unique technology of diversifying food production and increasing the income of small scale farmers. This packaged technology has been taken to rural farmers in a large-scale as multi-location trials. B. Extensive efforts for transferring this production technology to the farmers through direct linkage need to be organized through structural support and marketing system for upliftment of rural poor. Jinding and Local Ducks in an Integrated Duck-Cum-Fish Farming. Huque. There is a need for critical studies on animal/fish/vegetable integrated production system. Q. Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute. Saavar. the management techniques for animals will have to be improved. (1991). Progress Report. In: Duck Production Science and World Practice. The package technology of this integrated production system has may minimize the animal protein gap at low cost.H. This integrated system has a great production potential to decrease the malnutrition of the country by increasing animal protein production.K. The Fisheries Research Institute has developed a simple and an economically viable production system of integrating fish culture and chicken/duck rearing. REFERENCES Edwards. stocking rate. The exploitation of the potential of large number of fish pond through animal rearing make an important contribution to increase farm income and nutrition gap of small-scale farmers. 267 pp. type of animal. The standard methodology for this region matched with available resources need to be developed. Edited by D. if possible human excreta can be added in this technique. Feeding technology for reducing feed cost. Q. Stapleton.

Dhaka. R.M. Philippines. Uddin. Manila. S.P. (1991).Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Farming System.V. . 135–142 pp.. August 1979. Libunao. Schroeder. and Shehadeh. ICLARM-SEARCA. Fish Farming in ManureLoaded Ponds (Edited by Pullin. Development of Integrated Livestock-Fish-Crop Farming.S. pp. Integrated Fish Farming System Holds Promise in Bangladesh. (1990). Z. Bangladesh.K. Proceedings of the ICLARM-SEARCH conference on Integrated Agriculture Farming Systems. Manila. Goat/Fish Integrated Farming in the Philippines. BARC/FRI Contract Research Project. (1980). G. AMBIO 19 (8): 408–410. Nuruzzaman. ICLARM conference proceedings 4. A. August 1979. L. L.).H. (1990). ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. 73–86. Manila. Published by 5/H Eastern Housing Apt. Progress report.

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