Border Molding

Check with your instructor to make sure the tray borders are properly reduced. A sharp scalpel is needed for this procedure. It is a knife with a removable blade. Take a paper towel and wipe the tray border completely dry. Sometimes I also flame the border briefly. Compound will spark if it is held motionless over the flame. Heat the compound by constantly moving it through the flame. I first place the compound on the buccal (lingual) aspect of the tray to make sure it is firmly attached. Then with a moistened gloved hand I coax it on to the border. This will hold the compound in place and usually prevent the compound from going inside the tray. (If the compound does eventually go inside the tray, cut it off with a scalpel before continuing.) Shape the compound so it looks like a denture border (smooth, rounded). You may need to move it in and out of the flame to make it smooth, rounded and shiny. Anneal and place in the mouth so the frenum line up with their counterparts on the tray. You have to gently mold the lip over the compound. You also have to LOOK at the compound to see if it captures the fold and the frenum. The frenum will not be imprinted on to the compound if you don't activate the lip. After removing the tray from the mouth I dip it into a bowl of cold water. Maybe the compound is still soft? I border mold from attachment to attachment. This is a preference, not a rule. In the maxillary anterior there is usually an undercut, so the border molding is cantelevered toward the distal. Make sure the compound captures the undercut. You can push the compound into the fold and then bring down the lip to mold it to the proper length. (Although there is no requirement I usually add compound to the maxillary posterior border. I first add a line of compound to the "polished" side of the tray following the border. After the tray is in the mouth I push the softened compound on to the palatal tissue. This serves to lengthen the tray, creates a better fit thus reducing the posterior flow of impression material.) With the mandibular tray I border mold the same way...adding the hands-off routine. Sometimes the cheek overlies the mandibular disto-buccal border. Make sure this cheek tissue is NOT included in your impression. Pull the cheek aside and make your tray and border molding fit neatly into the buccal fold. When you make the impression, again pull the cheek aside when inserting the tray.

Most of the time the tray is completely border molded.) Cover the compound. then it was either too cold when you put it in the mouth or it didn't reach the fold. (Your beading wax will be placed three millimeters from the depth of the fold. Spread a thin layer of (rubber base) adhesive over the tray and over all the compound borders. because the final impression included the cheek. The length of the lingual border molding is determined by the side to side movements of the tongue. The cheek on the disto-buccal border is able to slide under the denture.11. If the ridge is badly deleted (1-2 mm in height). The lingual has to be border molded. Therefore it is important to add a thin veneer of rubber base (impression material) over the tray. including at least three millimeters over the buccal and lingual borders. . The compound will have a dull finish when dry. The most likely areas left free of compound are the distobuccal and the anteriolabial. If the compound is shiny. These three millimeters should be covered with impression material. Loading the Tray Do not use the brush in the bottle to apply the adhesive. This only serves to contaminate the adhesive with the patient's bacteria. I adjust the tray border to the mucobuccal fold and sometimes do not border mold that area. Notice that the lingual flange is longer than the buccal flange (on the mandibular). Your denture will have this same shape. When the border molding is completed the tray should have the outline of the finished denture. Push the cheek aside before taking the final impression so the cheek will rest on top of the denture. We presume that the tray and the border molding make a precise fit to the tissue.

The land area should be just high enough above the depth of the fold so that you can see the width of the fold. Recording Base . If I carry a cast it will be held close to my body so it won't get knocked out of my hand. 12. You can drop something on it. Students alter the width of the fold especially on the lingual. Trimming the Master Cast The casts have to be trimmed before mounting on the articulator. It is also a good idea to trim the base parallel to the residual ridge. regular and large. Never work directly over a cast. There are two sizes of processing flasks. This is especially true of the maxillary cast because you will lose your facebow record if the cast is trimmed after mounting. Notches only Do not make any additional grooves on the master cast because it will make it more difficult to reseat the cast on the index. If possible try to get the model to fit the regular size. the poorly mixed area of the impression will come out rough. If not. Leave 2-3mm (width) of land area. Of course you can't mix the rubber base without a large mixing pad and a mixing spatula.Make sure you thoroughly mix the impression material. Always place it with the base down. If you can't get it to fit the regular size flask then write on your prescription. "large flask. Always put the cast in a safe place." Trim and notch the casts before you come to the clinic. Never leave the cast in the center of the bracket table. If your model doesn't fit the processing flask the lab tech will trim your cast. Make the base of the cast about a half inch thick. Do not change the shape of the master cast without guidance from your instructor. wiping out your notches you made to re-index the master cast on to the articulator.

. Where you have thin delicate ridges widen them with a small amount of wax so the acrylic base doesn't chip off pieces of the model. However. Sear it to your recording base and shape as necessary. This gingival portion makes the occlusion rim longer. A thick occlusion rim anteriorly will affect the patient's speech. Generally speaking occlusion rims are about the size of teeth.. so make a recording base that fits well but will not alter (abraid) the master cast when seating and removing. Thus you could use it to evaluate the future denture. (There is a thin layer of wax that extends to the fold area. Don't use them.warm. Do NOT make your occlusion rim out of layers of baseplate wax. Closeup of broken master cast Impression should have been redone. When cutting into the occlusion rim the layers will separate. This is an unusual length. You can buy premade soft wax rims. the cast came with it. 13. the model is most important. Of course you can make the occlusion rim any length because you can add or subtract the wax. When the recording base was removed. Master cast broken by recording base. . Remember they have to maintain the vertical. Occlusion Rims In the preclinic the occlusion rims are 18mm and 22mm long. This means capturing the fold area.You would like a recording base that fits as well as the denture. To make your rim use one sheet of baseplate wax. 13. and tightly fold it into the shape of a cigar. Occlusion rims should be made of wax that is hard. That means not locking acrylic into an undercut.) How long is a maxillary central? 11mm? How wide is a molar? 10-11mm? The anterior section of the occlusion rim should be thinner (facio-lingually) than the posterior. The recording base was locked onto the master cast.

Then make the maxillary rim. If you are not prepared it will take more than an hour. So make it gorgeous. You need three points to make a plane. Another goal is to have the opening and closing arcs of the models mimic the opening and closing arcs of the patient's jaws. At this point all you need is something to attach your fork to. Make the mandibular occlusion rim first. (Some instructors will want the rims to be gorgeous right now. centered over the crest of the ridge in the bicuspid. Later on you can perfect it. About 10mm wide posteriorly. about the height of a mandibular central. Recording facebow The facebow record is about a 15 minute procedure designed to mount your maxillary cast on the articulator. molar area. The facebow will position the maxillary cast (only the maxillary cast) on the articulator in the same relationship as the maxilla exists in the patient. Trim your cast bases parallel to the remaining ridges. (Now you know why we have a third point of reference. If it looks reasonable it's fine. occlude it with the lower such that the bases of the master casts are approximately parallel to each other. then the facebow would be unimportant. Half way up the pad. . we would have to take a new centric record with every change in vertical. These are your starting occlusion rims. We know the mandible moves in an arc posteriorly when opening. We record (1) the maxilla's position anterior to the condyle (for the Slidematic we use the external auditory meatus) and (2) the maxilla's position to a horizontal plane. the relative position of the maxilla and mandible would not change.Before you take the facebow it is not critical to perfect the maxillary rim. As the mouth opened. Now all you need do is look at the base of the cast to visualize the position of the ridges when it is hidden by the recording base. While it is still soft.. thinner anteriorly.) We will talk more about adjusting the rims when doing the vertical. The static maxillo-mandibular relationship (centric relation) is one future goal. The centric relation would not change. Thus every change in vertical causes a change in the relative position of the mandible to the maxilla (centric relation). If the mandible moved as an elevator. Presumably. What are the other two points?) The importance of the correct positioning of the maxillary cast becomes apparent when you consider the mandibular cast is eventually related to the maxillary cast. Ridges are usually (not always) parallel to each other when the vertical is correct.

I wrap a whole sheet of base plate wax around the fork. Not putting the screws in correctly. it will not hold the fork in place. 13. Then I soften the wax on the fork and press the occlusion rim into the softened wax. In complete dentures. pry the two waxes apart with a knife. Not having a solid relationship between the recording base and the fork. We need the facebow for this to happen. Add sticky wax to both waxes. Not remembering to locate the third point of reference. then you need the facebow. When you remove the fork from the recording base. If you try to pull the fork straight off.If we can get the mandibular model to follow the same arc as the patient's mandible. the occlusion rim will come with it. When you tighten the screw it should be moving up. . The number #2 screw should have the head closest to the floor. if you want the cusps to follow the opposing grooves. The most common facebow record mistakes are: Not having the incisal guide pin on zero with the screwdriver side down on the metal incisal guide table. we will be in the correct centric relation with each jaw movement. 3rd Point of Reference Not having all the screws. It gives a step by step explanation of how the procedure should be followed. Not knowing to loosen up the screws for #1 and #2 before taking the record. the facebow is more of a convenience than a necessity. with flat-planed teeth. With crown and bridge construction. If you put the screw in from the other direction. Not having the metal incisal guide table on the articulator. There is an informative booklet given with your facebow.

So have your instructor move the model to the next best position. Notches You must fill the notches with plaster. Otherwise. That should duplicate the position of the maxillary cast on the articulator. If your model doesn't fit in that space then you either have to build a larger articulator or move the model. Not putting four notches on the maxillary cast. you do not have any use for that notch. Make sure that the occlusion rim is at least as long as the anterior teeth so that the fork handle will not be deflected by the anterior teeth. Is it pointing upward? Is it facing downward? Is it tilted to the right or the left? When the patient is sitting erect. pull the cheek aside and look at the maxilla from the side and also from the front. It will make it more difficult to reseat the model. Not having the plaster soft enough when closing the articulator.) (If you are going to do a facebow for an immediate denture. (Do not make any additional grooves on the model. Not lubricating the cast before mounting.) s the Facebow Correct? Look to see how the patient's maxilla is positioned. (The requirements will change somewhat with a different facebow.Not having the fork come out the right side of the mouth. so the pin never reaches the incisal guide table. Support the fork and model when closing the articulator so the position of the model doesn't change from the force of closure. There are some rare occasions when you place the facebow apparatus on the articulator and the maxillary model interferes with the closure of the articulator. . Not making sure that the recording base is firmly seated in the mouth during the entire record.) 13. You should realize there is a limited area within the articulator that the model can be placed. the patient may have some anterior teeth in place.

Insert the maxillary recording base and occlusion rim. The difference is the free way space. but of muscles and nerves. (Do not put in the mandibular recording base. The muscles will fatigue because they will constantly try to keep the teeth apart. If the denture teeth contact when speaking you will have bone resorption and sore spots. Put some tape (at least an inch) on the nose and another piece on the chin. When you are in rest vertical dimension your lips touch but your teeth do not. When you speak. Consider first a patient (or yourself) with a complete set of teeth (not dentures). Rest Vertical Dimension Every patient has a rest vertical dimension.) Now insert your mandibular occlusion rim and adjust the wax to make it equal your calculated occlusal vertical dimension. (In the natural dentition the free way space can vary from 1-10mm. (You will need to remove some wax distal . Consider this arbitrary number the rest vertical dimension. At the correct occlusal vertical dimension the wax rims do not touch in speaking. relaxed appearance. When the patient closes on the wax rims we also want the face to have a natural. parallel to the pupils. The occlusal vertical is always smaller than the rest vertical. Start removing some mandibular wax. The only time the muscles will relax is when the dentures are removed. your teeth do not touch. Do your measuring more than once. If the lips meet and force each other out then the vertical is closed.Vertical (General Information) Records are initially hard to deal with because you need to do it once to understand how they work. and perhaps a millimeter below the relaxed lip. This free way space is physiologically necessary. Let us work backwards. You can't learn too much from a manikin. If they do touch then your denture teeth will eventually "click" when the patient speaks. Put a mark on each piece of tape. More often than not the vertical is open and the waxes are hitting in the posterior. and possibly condylar joint pain. Occlusal Vertical Dimension Subtract 3 millimeters from your rest vertical and consider this the occlusal vertical dimension. We are going to use a simple method to quickly get you to the correct vertical or very close to it. It is not a function of teeth.) Have the patient say "M" (the lips are gently touching) and measure the distance between the marks. adjusting it to support the lips. If the patient has to forcibly make the lips touch the vertical is open.

Even an old maxillary denture that was made to an intact or restored mandibular arch can be used to get vertical. Then bite on a pencil and notice that your temporal muscle doesn't work properly. If you are happy with what you are seeing just measure the distance between your tape marks when the patient is in occlusion with the dentures. Does the wax rim just touch the lower lip with the "f" sound? Say 55. A hypo vertical is better tolerated than a hyper vertical. or say "Mississippi. If you have to reduce the occlusion rim which one do you reduce? If the mandibular rim is above the dorsum of the tongue then I would reduce the mandibular.) You can also remove some of the maxillary wax if necessary. it was easier to get vertical. Make sure the acrylic bases are not hitting in the back. Try this on yourself. Make your wax rims to the same height. Some Hints Residual ridges are (usually) parallel when the vertical is correct. If the acrylic touches just cut it off liberally. Your new setup should have very similar dimensions. (If there is premature contact in the posterior then the wax rims will stay apart anteriorly and you will think there is a speaking space. you can use them to get vertical. (I know I said that before. If you have any doubts that the vertical is open.) If there is an old set of dentures. Of course the correct vertical is best.) The closest speaking space occurs during the "S" sound. thus increasing the free way space. watching to see if there is a "speaking space" between the wax rims. Does the patient have a large toothy smile? Maybe you should reduce the maxillary rim. That is the reason you ask the patient to count from 60 to 70. You can always add back the base when doing the waxup. When the patient deliberately closes on the wax rims the face should look normal. . reduce it. Have the patient speak and check to see the amount of speaking space. Try to visualize the maxillary rim as teeth. The maxillary centrals should just touch the lower lip when you make the "f" sound. Measure the denture from the mucobuccal fold to the occlusal surface of the teeth. Have the patient the canines when you do the centric record. You can also take a little off each rim. You are hyper and the muscle can't fire. or count from 50 to 60. Bite and feel your temporalis muscle contracting. Since one arch remained." Make sure the rims do not touch during the "S" sound.

Do not tell the patient you are taking a "bite. Use the word "close. Have the patient close a few times and see if the four lines coincide. See if the four lines coincide. There is a space between the occlusion rims distal to the canines to allow for a recording medium. You also want to be alert when mounting the record. . gently shake the mandible up and down. Chances are this is the centric relation position. Make another line in each canine region in the same manner." Put your fingers on the buccal flange of the mandibular recording base and have the patient close. Have the patient close on your soft recording medium. Try it yourself and see what happens. I also use a rounded "pea" of wax on the posterior aspect of the palate of the recording base. marking both occlusion rims. I sometimes ask the patient to stick out the top jaw. Make a few notches about an inch apart distal to the canine area on the maxillary rim. A perfect record will be undone because you relaxed when mounting your cast. The patient has to keep touching the wax pea when closing.Getting ready for Centric Relation Your wax rims are now only hitting in the anterior. (It has aluminum filings to keep it soft longer. You have made notches in the maxillary occlusion rim coinciding with the space on the mandibular rim posteriorly. If they ask I tell them I am checking the tongue space." This will induce them to go into protrusive. Watch how they close. While holding down the mandibular recording base. Have the patient close in a relaxed position and mark the midline on the wax.) Aluwax will melt at 140oF and become a useless film on the water if allowed to stay heated for more than 15 seconds.. If you can't get the patient into centric here are some tips. The recoCentric Relation Record This is the most difficult step in denture construction. If the patient's tongue touches the wax then the mandible will be retruded. Then mark the maxillary rim where the overjet begins. If they go into protrusive. You can actually feel the condyle going into the glenoid fossa. Be quick and alert when heating the Aluwax. Thus the name Alu. I like Aluwax for the centric record. Don't tell the patient you are using this to get a record.. Take both recording bases out and line up the wax grooves in your hand to make sure nothing is hitting in the rear. This will usually get the mandible into the retruded position. tell them to open and start again.

I soften it briefly (10-15 seconds) in the compound heater and attach it to the mandibular occlusion rim. Some Errors in Mounting In a professional lab the models are mounted by a sophisticated technician. You can use all fast set if you are comfortable with it. You can usually get the models to seat without ruining either model. If they hit anything hard the record may be altered. Therefore. Mounting the Mandibular Model The recording bases have to be firmly seated on the casts. the models will be kept apart posteriorly. Presumably you only want the patient to close on a very soft recording medium. or the recording base touch recording base or opposing master cast. If I need additional softening I use a hot wax spatula. The teeth will now be set hyper and when you do the try-in you will have a prematurity posteriorly. Get help or confine most of the cutting to the retromolar pad area. (If you don't have a space anteriorly the pin will be set on zero. The mandibular model should be notched and lubricated. 1981 Board Exam 1986 Board Exam rding material must be long mesio-distally if the record is going to be stable. If anything hits. Students actually cut away the hamular notch that was so carefully captured in the impression. Don't put the occlusion rim into the water bath. I usually mark the point of contact with a pencil. Students are too casual in cutting the models when they hit each other. Any errors at this point will only be incorporated in the prosthesis. Then I check where it is most convenient to remove stone. After the bases are seated make sure that nothing interferes posteriorly. Make your incisal pin longer (about 1/2 -1mm) so you will mount your models open. This will change your record.) Using a teaspoon of fast set plaster in slow set plaster will hasten the setting. fashioning the Aluwax in a triangular shape with the apex above the occlusal plane. Watch out for the following: . The most dangerous cut is in the hamular notch area. After the recording medium is removed your pin will return to zero and the wax rims will touch anteriorly. The models can't hit each other. Your incisal guide pin will be slightly longer (than zero) and locked at that point. This will open the bite. you might want to keep the (hard wax) anterior occlusion rim apart (about 1/2-1mm). Do not press the maxillary recording base to seat the mandibular or visa versa.

The cast and notches are not lubricated. When you have occasion to take another centric record. The record is unstable so the models can change their relationship to one another. Previous page . 4. 5. There is some wax or plaster under the mounting ring. 9. The incisal guide pin is not set. be sure and preserve the plaster indices. 7. Finally when you do have to remove the maxillary and mandibular casts. 11. 8. The models are not completely seated in the recording bases. The condyles are not locked in centric. Sharks can protrude both jaws allowing for a larger. The base of the cast is not notched. more lethal bite.1. The models are hitting prematurely. The acrylic bases touch posteriorly. 10. Some Errors in Remounting Once you have mounted the maxillary with the facebow consider the model to be permanently fixed to the articulator (just as the maxillary bone is fixed to the cranium*). Some wax in the wrong place will do this. *The upper jaw of sharks is not firmly attached to the skull. In addition it would probably cost you an arm and a leg. The model is not trimmed so the notches you made will be cut off in the lab in order for the model to fit the flask. with each new centric record only remount the mandibular. After processing you will have to remount the models. 12. 3. you only remount the mandibular. because with two movable jaws. Be thankful you will never have to make a denture for a shark. The mounting ring is a little loose. trying to get a centric record would destroy your mind. 2. 6. The plaster set too quickly preventing the closing of the articulator. So unless you are making dentures for a shark. (posteriorly) thus changing the record. The base of the model hits the mounting ring before the articulator is closed.

Your instructor will help you. 48. You know you are doing an upper and a lower but the clerk gave you two sets of lower posterior teeth.Selecting the Tooth Size Your occlusion rim occupies the space of the teeth. I randomly measured the mesio-distal width of six sets of posterior teeth designated: Maxillary M42=29mm L45=30mm L48=33mm Mandibular M42=32mm M45=34mm L48=35mm Apparently the mandibular teeth in the same mold are longer mesio-distally than the maxillary. check to see if they are what you requested. The numbers refer to the mesio-distal diameter of the maxillary six anteriors in millimeters. Use whatever fits. The occluso-gingival dimension is the small. In Verident we have such numbers as 39. So for all the teeth except the maxillary anteriors consider this number to be a mold designation. There is a space between the maxillary cast and the mandibular occlusion rim. There is also an extra-small (XS). "I think I ground the teeth too much" is a pretty hopeless situation for everybody. medium. When you are handed the teeth. or large (S. Whatever teeth you get. 42. So you might order a M45 or an S42. Sometimes I used to set central. lateral. If you want to match the teeth of an old set of dentures compare your selection to the width of the maxillary central of the denture (or measure the six maxillary anteriors). They gave you flat teeth and you wanted cusped. The clerks are very experienced but they can be tired and make mistakes. Using one mold number for all the teeth will make setting the teeth easier.M. They gave you two different shades. You have to fill that space. To get the matching mandibular anteriors use the same number and letter. . You can set some teeth directly on the cast with utility wax and see what fits. Take off your maxillary recording base and close the articulator. 45. try them in before any grinding to see if you are in the ballpark. canine of one size and set another size on the other side of the midline to see what suited me.L) on the card. The larger the number the larger the anteriors.

There is a tendency to have a space between the pin and the incisal guide table (opening the bite) to make it easier to set teeth.In your private practice you will have a complete set of molds of some manufacturers. Teeth ground too much 15.) Before Setting Denture Teeth Before setting teeth you should have an image of the occlusion rims in relation to the patient's lips. Exact same set-up now with more concern for aesthetics . How much wax shows when the patient is smiling. Be careful that the pin always touches the incisal guide table. talking? Where does the patient show a lot of wax (meaning a lot of teeth)? If you want to make some changes when setting teeth you should know where the change can best be made. (The lab will of course return your teeth. When you send your case to the lab your technician will know exactly what size and where you want the teeth placed. Try to leave the buccal aspect of the teeth long because the beauty in the denture is the teeth. There is also a great tendency to cut the teeth too short. 15. You can also make a window in the recording base to help keep the teeth long. Don't do it. The midline and the plane of occlusion will be correct. Then you can set a few maxillary anterior teeth while the patient is sitting in your office.

At some point anteriorly the movement ends. You can also remove a tight impression by rotating the handle forward with a vibrating motion and with another finger pulling down the border in the molar area. Ideally the centrals should be in a tip to tip relationship in protrusive. Set one tooth on the bare stone using Utility wax to keep it in place. Move the articulator forward and back to see if the centrals just kiss. In that way you will know that the centrals will not cause a tripping action and dislodge the maxillary denture. Teeth should always be imbedded in wax. Have the patient say "Ah" and watch the soft palate move upward*.) This technique will only work if the patient is a class 1.Try this. Cut out about a 5mm bullet-shaped section of acrylic on the midline of your posterior border. If the tooth is not moved then you shouldn't have to trim that tooth. Teeth disappear as soon as they hit the floor. never loose on the bracket table. Seat your recording base in the mouth and hold it in place with your mirror handle.) (After the denture is processed. (When back in centric the centrals will be in their ideal position.) Posterior "Vibrating" Line ("Ah" Line) We want to end the denture on soft tissue that does not move. you would like three points of tooth contact (one anteriorly and two posteriorly) to keep the denture stable. Close the articulator with the opposing rim in place. If when the patient says "Ah" the soft tissue moves away from the recording base (now there is a triangular space posteriorly) then your recording base is too long. and the posterior part of the denture moves downward breaking the seal. Have the patient say "Ah" again and watch through the opening where the palate stops moving. Put the recording base on the master cast and put a small dot where the movement ended. Set the centrals in this tip to tip relationship while putting the articulator in protrusive. you can remove a tight maxillary denture by tilting the incisal edges (maxillary centrals) forward while trying to break the seal in the posterior. If you are having a hard time fitting the teeth in the space available see your instructor. The manufacturer puts denture teeth (1 by 6) and (1 by 8) on cards with some soft wax. or little movement. They hide because they don't want to spend the rest of their lives working in a dirty mouth. We need to record this line of no movement. the maxillary centrals tilt forward and upward. They blend in with the floor pattern. (If tripping does occur. The Centrals When in protrusive. Note the soft tissue contacting the posterior border of your recording base. If you should remove a tooth from your setup put it back on the card in the proper position. .

") . *The soft palate moves upward to close off the nasal cavities when you eat or drink. There is sometimes a rounded projection of bone disto-lingual to the tuberosity. Otherwise some food and drink would come out your nose. the processed denture will show a raised edge which defines the posterior border of your denture.) A portion of the soft palate overlaps the bony palate. We want to begin our seal only in an area of more soft tissue. Posterior Palatal Seal. "Maintaining Suction of the Maxillary Denture. The clinical crown can change because it is a function of the location of the soft tissue. Anterior "Vibrating" Line This is the familiar "junction of the hard and soft palate. (The "bony" palate is the anatomic palate and consists of the bones (maxilla. This requires a judgment.) Sometimes you can feel the bone just below the mucosa.Laterally your border should end at the hamular notch. The anatomic crown is the same no matter where the soft tissue. think of a clinical crown and an anatomic crown.) It is the place where very little soft tissue (hard palate) meets more soft tissue (soft palate).) I use the end of a mirror handle to feel where the soft tissue begins. (Check diagram in Section 17. It is not a clinical judgment. To put this another way. and the hamular notch. (This is the hamular process or pterygoid hamulus. Mark this on your master cast. Never cover this hard tissue with your denture or your pressure spot will end up as a sore spot." (The "hard" and "soft" palate is a clinical judgment based upon palpation. You can locate it by moving your mouth mirror over the tuberosity until it falls into a soft tissue crevice distally. (The entire posterior palatal seal is on soft palate. Join the three marks and you have the posterior vibrating line. This is the area of the posterior palatal seal. Be aware there is bone under that soft tissue. palatine) that make up the palate. When you scrape the master cast along the posterior vibrating line.

17. Feel around the tuberosity to the greater palatine foramen and then move medially to the midpalatal suture where there is a small ridge of bone (less soft tissue)." You will notice the title of this section is anterior "vibrating" line. That is why the posterior vibrating line is drawn first. with the word vibrating in quotes. Here the anterior posterior width of the soft tissue is less. Do not include the tuberosity (which is not soft palate) in your outline of the posterior palatal seal. Check it out. This is an area of soft tissue.With this unusual skull there is a large depression in the bone shaped like a cupid's bow which was filled with soft tissue. Wax-up I do the wax-up keeping in mind the eventual polishing of the denture. You needn't worry about a space under your recording base as long as the borders of the final wax-up are sealed. (Avoid scraping any part of the tuberosity. The teeth should never be polished. To correct this you would have had to draw the anterior line closer to the posterior line to keep it within the 7mm width rule. Scrape the stone in your palatal seal area decreasing the depth to zero when approaching the anterior vibrating line. (Ignore the wax used to hold down the dental tape. This will define the posterior border of the denture. so it will help you locate the limits for the anterior vibrating line. Make the depth 1/2mm at the hamular notch. This thickness of wax (eventually acrylic) makes it easier to polish the denture base without hitting the teeth. This cut in the stone will be a raised border of acrylic on the denture. . I put a gingival roll or shelf around the buccal of all the teeth and on the lingual of the posteriors. I have never seen the anterior line vibrate or even quiver.) Making the Mechanical Seal Groove out about 1mm of stone at the posterior vibrating line. Had you been making a denture for this individual you might have mistakenly made a too wide (anterior-posterior) palatal seal. Ideally the anterior vibrating line will be at the "junction. Make your anterior vibrating line go around the lingual border of the tuberosity. Adjacent to the lingual border of the tuberosity is the greater palatine foramen.) Theoretically your depth should coincide with half the depth of the tissue. Your greatest anterior posterior width should not be more than 7mm. Follow the same pattern on the other side and you have completed the cupid's bow outline.

If there is room I also try make this same shape on the posterior buccal of the mandibular. If you cover the lingual with wax. the investment will never reach the teeth." The proximal side of the tongue will hopefully rest on the border and keep it seated. When the wax is removed there will be a space between the investment and the teeth. Never have wax on the occlusal surface. Why? When the denture is invested. (It also makes it easier for the patient to keep it clean. Anterior Root Forms Notice the gentle nature of the anterior root forms. The maxillary posterior buccal area is made slightly convex. This prevents debri from getting between the teeth also make it easier to polish. The lingual of the teeth also have to be exposed. "Back in place" is the best guess of the lab tech. 18. There is a "cemento-enamel junction" on denture teeth so end your wax on that border. The papilla are also convex and filling the embrasure. This allows the teeth to move and change the occlusion. Maybe the cheek will rest on the border. "Make all of the polished surface of the mandibular denture face upward. Expose the Teeth Always expose the teeth maximally.) The wax papilla should not reach to the occlusal or incisal edge. I do not make posterior root forms. It should only fill the embrasure. Mandibular Wax-up If possible I like to make the lingual of the mandibular denture in the shape of a "J. I make a hint of root indications anteriorly." If you combine the "J" on one side with the backward "J" on the other side you have a "U. Teeth that move are called "floaters. Make sure there are no undercuts on the lingual or the tongue will lift the denture. the stone and plaster have to grab the teeth. Convex is easier to polish and clean. On the buccal there should be a scalloped gingival contour." . Root forms are always a pain to polish. Look at your own mouth and check the convex gingival contour.The papilla are made convex filling the embrasure." They have to be glued back in place. The teeth are fully exposed. As one of the Temple faculty used to say.

Remove any wax that flowed on to the teeth. Slight dimples (caused by exposing air bubbles) can be smoothed with the touch of a hot explorer. Show it to your instructor the day before you want it processed. These are short quick movements. Make your wax. if your maxillary cast is cut down by the lab tech. The wax has to reach the denture borders. That means the wax and the recording base. If you don't check it on the articulator the patient will be occluding on the bases.up at least three millimeters. plus the space under the recording base should be three millimeters thick. However.Finishing and Shining the Wax You need to end up with a minimal thickness of 2-3mm after polishing the denture. Your final wax margin should be similar to that of a crown. Sometimes teeth are moved during the wax-up. To smooth a wax-up. After your wax-up is complete. There should be no vagueness or tabs of wax especially around the teeth. you should preserve the facebow record. Sometimes you overwax the tuberosity area. not the teeth. Don't make it five millimeters. You can also wait to preserve the facebow record after processing. It is easy to momentarily check the wax surface after each pass of the flame. brush it lightly with an alcohol torch. you may have to re-do the facebow. The last thing you do is to check the occlusion." . Look for the details of this procedure in this section under "Preserving the Facebow Record. Don't take your wax-up to the instructor at 8:40 and say you have to have it in the lab by 9:00 in order to get it processed in time for delivery. The wax-up has to be sealed to the master cast without covering the land area. Then dip it into cold water and then rub it a few times with a cold wet paper towel.

4:7/05984:/.80. 2. :5 /490.3.43..308841.039:.4/8.8079454890/039:70-.80.47/3-.0/  .7941909:-07489 %04709./09.8390/0599407403. :50053323/900.990.7..74:3/90-:.7.. 0.07-05480/  .8094:9993909009 %09009 84:/30.7447 801.190/0594190988:0  4:300/3 9477.54834190/039:70 5:9..9.0:3/074:770.2:.890-47/078419013.7080.4190548907478 %89.41.909009.70..85.-4:9.7. :5.50908943034:75..7349. $..0890.9330  .390.843.390747.3 5.70. . /0.5574.22.3/43903:...53.039:..-7.

0/9070-0.9-47/07  390-:.094-005480/ 0390/039:7083.489090099424.:8.0..:8.8:71.08:709070 ..7 .8907.4790943:01990/039:70  1907087442..03.3/139002-7..3/.0..0.0892039.:9843903:.3/5..3/-:.842. %0 .0988.41902.7/439049078/04:.-909009 14:.43.5.7/  .35.8/04190943:04501:70894390-47/07.90.0890 -089:0884190.0:5.0903:.9:704190..30904..439...208.0.  .90/ .3/-:.473. :5 15488-00942.390747744914728 %05..7034:3/07.0.84:/34970.84.3/..394174493/.089203930.094-0:0/-.4394:7 0.20:3..3/-:.84972.2.701:05480/   2..907084:/-0..9039940059.7.0  %03:.85.70.3/-:.080.394548 /43492..8.0890/ 9089430 .909009 0390.4190 5480/8:71.0398/0-717420993-0900390 9009.0/0 984:/4319002-7./089. ....70 .9078 %0.-0 90.3/90 9009 %8.924.80794548.807147905.-90.5041.07 70.94343/039:70900984 03/4:7...94:7 4324:9.9438.0-09003903..07903:.35. %0708..0 .& %0 5742.0/14.5.50439054890747-:.87024.3/005980...3/..0070894390-47/07 84304190%02501.82.450/3.090.9...43.702.0 44..8:70 %8570.0947..0.5./0.80794548  9..42-3090434308/0990-.8...43.%05.4394:7 43.020394 03.8:70 %09009.:843  %0099.754890747-:.7/039:703908..0 54890747744914728 %02.84.0890.0.4.842..8. 14: .7/039:701.43.8:70   390747#4494728 49.390747 #44914728...41902.0.0139002-7..3  548090%009 ...41909009.:9:80/948.43904.09003903. 903.07 .8054809090092.70..70.

 :5.0901.47/ 4:.3/8.. 4:2.89470.:80/-05483.49 054707  %0.89934:/4894.9039 -04..70.7..-841..4.. :5  $42092084:4.3/9037:-9.808 349909009  43 99.. :5.3-0824490/99094:.0/94902..3.907..425090 4:84:/570807.0-4#0.. 14:/43 9..-014704:.0-470.09470 /4901.8084:/-0970022090789.920.0.3/.0850.90..0/:7039880.94390.0880/3920147/0.07 14:72.308841 22.4/ ..1092089.9 .909:-07489.0-4 4414790/09.0901.47/..8841901.9.:.8994:9.943 :3/07!70807..894242039. 4:300/9403/:59.020398 9 80.941.7024.3/$3390..4:.07390..4/095.7949...3890.-- 3 47/0794099574.0..904.04:7.8907.0880/  19074:7.0883 40.3.898.  %0.2.0.:03088479.9140/4394 909009  $9/2508 ...7384:/-082.09390.20 %03/59394.3.07 $49944:73897:..0//:7390.232.19070.74:3/909009  %482449.84198574.947.0.84.507940 #024.390.47/3-..743 %0. %080.3/9070.0-470.947905.994 570807. :594903897:.47/3-..9.. :58..04:7 .. 43 92.-90.383.894- %.7-:--08 ..70.79.091. :5 -7:8999.0 :3/079070.7.7084796:.47/   .80 5:89085.94790/.07.:9/43-90 .90.5.8:71.:/34390-..39 9574.90/039:70 -47/078 %07084:/-034..44947.1907574.:843 $42092089009.094.1907548390/039:70 .24.02209078  4:713.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful