Kapalbhati (Frontal Lobe Cleansing) By - Dr.Prafulla S.

Dorle 'kapalbhati' is one of the 'shatkarma' which has been mentioned in the 'Gherand Samhita' & 'Hatha Yoga Pradipika'. The literal meaning of 'kapal' is cranium and 'bhati' is light or shining. So kapalbhati means increasing the efficiency of the organs situated in the cranium. So we can say that kapalbhati improves the function of brain. Another name for kapalbhati is 'bhalbhati'. In processes of kapalbhati exhalation is fast and with jerk while inhalation is slow, passive and without any efforts. Emphasis is given more on the processes of exhalation. In natural respiration emphasis is on inhalation, it is active and exhalation is passive. In kapalbhati the processes is exactly reversed, giving more importance to exhalation and less importance to inhalation. About the benefits of kapalbhati it can be said that it helps to clear and purify the mucus, dust, carbon particles from the respiratory tract. Physiologically during natural respiration the cerebro-spinal-fluid around the brain is compressed and decompressed. This happens 14 times a minute, the natural respiratory rate. In kapalbhati the exhalation is with jerk and inhalation is passive, so the compression? decompression effect is enhanced. Further the process is fast, 120 times a minute which increases the effect. Because of this the brain is being massaged which will improve the blood supply to the brain and increase the function of brain. The circulatory system is also affected by contraction and relaxation of diaphragm and the abdominal muscles. While exhaling the blood from abdominal region is pushed towards heart. During inhalation the venous return from legs to abdomen increases and in next round same blood is pushed towards the heart. So kapalbhati improves venous return to the heart and helps to improve circulation. Apart from above mentioned benefits, kapalbhati helps to improve digestion, the function of liver and pancreas. It also increases the strength of abdominal muscle and the diaphragm.

hastrika, Plavini, Murchha, Sitkari Pranayama from Hatha Yoga Pradipika - as mentioned in Hatha Yoga Yogacharya Vishwas Mandlik Note - The Following Types of Pranayama should only be practiced under the direct guidance of Expert Guru. Please DO NOT Practice by reading the following article, it may be harmful to your health.

Pranayama in Hatha Yoga Pradipika Prana is vital energy, and ayama is control and extension of the Pranic energy. Swami Swatmarama in Hatha Yoga Pradipika talks about Pranayama as the way to awaken the kundalini, regular practice of Pranayama can lead to spiritual awakening and self realization. He describes various types of Pranayama, which has different effects on the body, mind and spirit. Considering the physiology of Pranayama, Swami Niranjananda of Bihar School of Yoga has classified Pranayama as hyperventilation and hypoventilation. Mainly Kapalbhati, & Bhastrika Pranayama are considered as Hyperventilation type of Pranayama, this type of Pranayama revitalizes body. Bharamari, Shitali, Sitkari, Ujjayi etc are considered as hypoventilation. Though kapalbhati is described as cleansing technique in Hatha Yoga, it reduces the carbon dioxide (CO2) percentage in blood so it can be classified as hyperventilation Pranayama. Kumbhaka (Retention of air) along with Bandhas (energy locks) is very important in Pranayama, it has long lasting effects on nervous system, brain and other parts of the body. So guidance of Guru is essential for practicing Pranayama. The practice of Kumbhaka increases the CO2 in the blood, which stresses the nervous system, and continuous practice results in nervous system becoming tolerant. Some of the Yogis have displayed unique capacity to survive without O2, with regular practice of Pranayama. Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Nadi Purifying Pranayama) Balancing the Ida and Pingala, the mental force and vital force is one of the main objectives of Pranayama. Left nostril (Ida) and right nostril (Pingala) if balanced can awaken Sushumna (the psychic nadi or channel carrying kundalini) nadi. Swami Swatmarama recommends Nadi Shodhan Pranayama, (alternate nostril breathing with Kumbhaka and Bandhas) for purifying Ida Nadi and Pingala Nadi. Surya Bhedan Surya is sun, in the body pingala nadi represents energy of Sun or vital energy, Surya Bhedan Pranayama increases vital energy in the body, and it is revitalizing Pranayama. It is practiced by inhaling with right nostril, then performing kumbhaka with bandhas (Jalandhar Bandha or Chin Lock, Moola Bandha or Anus lock and Uddiyan Bandha or Abdominal Lock) and exhaling through left nostril. This Pranayama stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and left part of the brain. It eliminates wind or gas related trouble (Vata Dosha as per Ayurveda) and balances Mucus (Kapha as per Ayurveda) and Bile / acidity (Pitta Dosha as per Ayurveda). Bhastrika (Bellow's Breathe) This literally means one has to operate lungs like the bellow, fast inhalation and fast exhalation, followed by inhaling through right nostril and performing kumbhaka with bandhas and exhaling through left nostril, this is is Bhastrika Pranayama. This is

vitalizing type of Pranayama. This rhythmic inhalation and exhalation stimulates the circulation of cerebral fluid, creating compression and decompression in the brain. Rhythmic diaphragm movements stimulate heart & lung muscles improving blood circulation. Accelerated blood circulation and rate of gas exchange in each cell produces heat and washes out gases. Bhramari (Humming Bee Breathe) In this Pranayama one has to make sound like humming bee while exhalation and inhalation as well. This Pranayama increases psychic sensitivity and awareness of subtle sound vibrations, this proves to be useful for Nada Meditation. This is useful in removing stress and mental problems like anxiety, depression, anger etc. Ujjayi (Victorious Breathe) This is also called psychic breath. This type of Pranayama is done with inhalation via nostrils then performing Bandhas and exhaling through left. During inhalation and exhalation a typical sound (Ujjayi Sound) should be created by compressing epiglottis in the throat. Ujjayi sound can be combined with So-Ham or Guru Mantra for better awareness of Mantra. Ujjayi Pranayama has therapy applications, especially useful in insomnia, tensions, and heart diseases. This should not be practiced in Low blood pressure, as the practice of this Pranayama puts pressure on carotid sinus which further reduces blood pressure. Sitkari This is done by opening lips, keeping the upper and lower teeth touching each other, then inhaling through mouth with hissing sound, then performing kumbhaka with bandhas and then exhaling with nostrils. The air passing via tongue, cools the blood, lowering the temperature of the blood. This type of Pranayama removes excess heat in the body. Also the diseases like acidity, hypertension etc. This Pranayama harmonizes the secretions of reproductive organs and all the endocrine system. Also it improves digestion, lowers High Blood pressure, purifies the blood. Shitali (Cooling Breathe) Tongue is rolled and inhalation is done via mouth followed by Kumbhaka with Bandhas and then exhalation with nostrils. The effects of the Shitali are same as Sitkari Pranayama. Murchha (Swooning Breathe or Fainting) This type of Pranayama induces a state of "conscious unconsciousness" (in the words of Swami Satyananda of Bihar School of Yoga). One should inhale through both the nostrils, the kumbhaka with Bandhas, but while exhaling the Jalandhar Bandha (Chin Lock) is kept intact and then exhalation is done with the Jalandhar bandha (Chin lock).

flowing through the nadis. "Jal" means "Net". But generally. But it should not be bent much. in this case. which further reduces blood pressure and one can experience a state of unconsciousness with practice. The neck is to be bent a little for achieving this bandh. it is expected to contract the muscles of the neck and to press the chin firmly on to the depression at the end of the throat (jugular notch). However. and the same was named after him. Jalandhar Bandha Introduction It is difficult to explain why this bandh is known as Jalandhar Bandh. Plavini (Floating Breathe) After inhalation the air is filled in to stomach and kept inside for some time.) If we try to trace the meaning of the word Jalandhar. Action : Pre-position This bandh can be achieved without getting into any asana pose. Since all the muscles of the neck and the throat are contracted totally. let us understand the action behind this bandh instead of discussing its name or origin. The presence of the force . a force is exerted onto the seven paths in the throat. This Pranayama involves high risks so should not be practiced with out the Direct Guidance of Guru. Gorakshasan etc. Text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika mentions that one can float easily on water with this Pranayama. It is to be pressed onto the depression just as a spring is pressed with a little force. one may guess that Rishi Jalandhar might have defined the act of this bandh for the first time. it is studied in Padmasan or any other asana specified for Dhyana Process. This Pranayama helps remove most of the ailments of stomach or digestive system. sometimes the actions are known by the name of the Rishis. Padmasan or Siddhasan are considered as the best positions to practise this bandh. such as Matsyendrasan. Swami Satyananda mentions that one can inhale the air via mouth while practicing this. (In Yoga. To perform the Bandh In this bandh. However.Excess pressure is exerted on carotid sinus during exhalation with Jalandhar bandha. The same principle is to be applied in this bandh. The release of the force brings the spring back into normal position. net of Nadis (energy channels) and the word "Dhar" means to stop or to hold the flow of the fluid (Amrut).

interferes with the breathing process. with even a little bit of study and practice of this bandh. Most of the functions of the body are stopped and the sadhaka can progress towards samadhi. external carotid and carotid sinus. The force of this action is felt on the spinal cord. Spinal cord has the utmost importance in the control of the body. The wall covering Carotid Sinus is thin and can easily get affected by inner or outside pressure. In pranayam. These arteries pass from both the sides of the neck to the brain. However. It is divided into two parts. The beats of the heart can be easily felt if the neck is bent backwards. However. effects can be enumerated on the basis of experiments carried out at Kaivalyadham. It goes high up into the skull and then down into the brain. The heart beats are reduced. Hence. sadhaka can achieve calm and quiet mind devoid of any thoughts and the nearly lifeless body. It is the only blood vessel passing below the neck. the effects of this bandh on the body have been clearly defined. The brain activates its machinery to lower the blood pressure. The reduction in the blood supply to the brain slows down the body activities and the practitioner can observe the complete stillness of body and mind. Hence. this bandh is to be attained after Pooraka and is to be released before Rechaka. the yogasadhaka can achieve such elated state of mind wherein he can forget the outside world and even the awareness of his own body. The nerve passing from here to the brain is known as Carotid Nerve. The pressure exerted on this nerve is transmitted to the brain. The reason why this happens is that the position of the bandh lessens the blood supply to the carotid artery. But to achieve this position. so that the muscles of the heart start functioning slowly. Due to the peculiar position of the neck. Lonavala and other observations while teaching and studying this bandh. This nerve is related to internal carotid. The bandh is necessary in Kumbhaka. This process is attempted in the Jalandhar Bandh. achieving Jalandhar . The state is pleasurable. the pressure is exerted on carotid sinus and the nerves are activated to send a signal to the brain. the circulation of blood increases thereby increasing the efficiency of the spinal cord. Physical Effects Nowhere. the pulse is felt on both the sides below the jaw. The messages are passed on from carotid sinus to that centre in the brain which regulates the blood pressure. This is the plan of the nature to reduce the increased blood pressure. it is pressed forward and the spinal cord gets a little bit lifted upwards. the bandh has to be practised for a number of years. there is a possibility of increasing the blood pressure while performing Kumbhaka. The pressure on the carotid sinus is transmitted to the brain in the form of messages and accordingly the blood pressure is reduced. which move towards the brain. Due to the particular action of the neck required to achieve this bandh. With this force. The area where the blood vessel is divided into two parts is a little bit flat and is known as Carotid Sinus. These are known as Carotid Arteries. The pressure can be exerted from outside too. After putting in enough practice. The bandh also affects "Vidyan Nadi" which passes through the neck.

Kumbhaka is observed after Pooraka. Rechaka should not be observed while being in this bandh. the position of the pressed neck in Jalandhar Bandh stops this inhaled air from entering into these routes and the eardrums are saved from the ill effects. References in the ancient texts The bandh has been described in Hathapradeepika in the third chapter as under : Kanthamakunchya hridaye sthapayechhibukam dridham | Bandho jalandharakhyoyam jaramrituvinashakah || H P 3-70 Badhnani hi shirajalam adhogami nabhojalam | Tato jalandharo badhah kanthadukkhahoghanashanah || H P 3-71 Meaning The chin is to be pressed on the chest after contracting the throat. Since the usual path of escape i e the nostrils are closed.Bandh before Kumbhaka automatically results in controlling the bloodpressure. unless advised by the experts in the field. At the time of observing Kumbhaka . After Kumbhka. Instead of practising this bandh independently. which means that it destroys any pain in the throat. During Pranayam. it is to be practised while practising Pranayam. results in air trying to find out an escape route. Hence. Rechaka is to be practised after Kumbhaka. This is a major benefit of Jalandhar Bandh. the bandh is to be released before practising Rechaka. The increased pressure on the eardrums is not advisable and can cause a lot of complaints. the duration of Kumbhaka is the duration for this bandh too. The contracted veins in the throat ensure that the liquid from the skies is received here. This bandh eliminates old age and death. the increased pressure on the inhaled air. after releasing the bandh. Gherandsamhita has also described the bandh as under : Kanthasankochanam krutva chibukam hridaye nyaset | . There is another important benefit of this bandh. the bandh has been appropriately known as Jalandhar Bandh. the air tries to enter eustachian tube and finds a way behind the ear drums. Precaution The bandh is not to be practised by persons suffering from breath related problems or high or low bloodpressure. the bandh is to be observed after Pooraka. Duration This bandh is to be observed after Pooraka and before Kumbhaka. The bandh is advised in Pranayam after Pooraka. However. Hence.

Both the texts have assured that the bandh causes destruction of old age and death. Uddiyan Bandha Introduction This bandh involves movement of the muscles of the stomach and especially the muscles of the diaphragm. The bandh can also be performed while being in Padmasan. In both the texts. hence it may have been termed as Uddiyan Bandh. this bandh is useful for awakening of Kundalini Shakti while making spiritual progress. Hence. the description as well as the effects of the bandh is more or less the same. for the new entrants in the field. It is easier to learn this bandh while in standing pose and it can be performed effectively too. While performing this bandh. while being in standing pose. Pre-position The bandh involves action of muscles of the stomach and hence it may be performed while being in Standing Pose or Sitting Pose. The study of Pranayam is not complete without studying this bandh.Jalandharakrute bandhe shodashadharbandhanam | Jalandharam mahamudra mrityoeach kshayakarini || G S 3-12 Meaning The chin is to be pressed onto the heart after contracting the throat.5 feet between the legs . This in turn increases the lifetime of the sadhaka. To perform the bandh Stand up with distance of 1 to 1. Siddhasan. hence this bandh is termed as Uddiyan Bandh. here the bandh has been explained while being in standing pose. Hathayoga assigns a special importance to Uddiyan Bandh. Vajrasan and while practising pranayam. Siddham jalandharam bandham yoginam siddhidayakam | Shanmasmabyaset yo hi sa siddho natra samshayah || G S 3-13 Meaning Jalandhar Bandh is Swayamsiddha and the sadhaka who practises this bandh for six months will. However. the muscle of the diaphragm is stretched in upward direction. This Jalandhar Bandh supports sixteen types of bandhas and destroys death. Also. it is advisable to study the bandh. no doubt. Or it may be performed independently while being in these asanas too. Observing this bandh gives peace and calmness to both. The movement is important and characteristic. achieve siddha status. the heart and the mind.

the better the performance of the bandh. Diaphragm will also be released to the normal pose. try to shift the muscles of the stomach towards inner side. The weight of the body is shifted onto the knees due to the pose. This is the main part to be achieved while in this bandh. bring back the hands into the normal pose and straighten out the bent knees. Important aspects of the bandh The pose involves pressure on the knees with the help of both the hands and retaining a firm pose with a particular pressure on the neck and shoulder muscles. it is essential to be in that pose for some time. This pose is to be retained when the breath is fully exhaled. Lift up the ribs a little bit and push the muscles from within with a gentle push towards the upward direction. This relaxes the muscles of the stomach and the diaphragm. Join both the legs together and come back into the standing pose. The ribs are lifted up a little bit and the chest is broadened. Inhale deeply and then exhale gradually. the diaphragm is pushed upwards. The stomach is pulled in and the navel pushed upwards. the bandh must be released gradually as under. Further the muscles of the stomach must be relaxed while in this bandh. While exhaling. Bend the shoulders a little towards the front and the neck also towards the front so that the weight of the body is shifted onto the knees through the hands. The more the relaxation. When there is an urgent need to inhale. The muscles of the stomach must be relaxed at this time. During this bandh. All these actions are performed simultaneously.Bend a little in the knees and place left palm on the left knee and right palm on the right knee. In this position. However. This reduces the strain on the stomach and the muscles of the stomach can be relaxed. This results in muscles of diaphragm being pushed upwards. Relax the pressure in the shoulders and neck area and start inhaling gradually. A little bit bending of the shoulders in forward direction will prove useful for this bandh. the stomach is taken considerably inside and a vacuum is created in it. An attempt is made to inhale without actually inhaling the air into the lungs. This attempt results in expanding the ribs but as the air is not inhaled. Try to remain firmly in this pose. the muscles of the stomach are pushed inwards and the muscles of the diaphragm are pushed upwards. so that they can be pushed up. Once the pose is achieved. Releasing the bandh pose Relax the muscles of the stomach so that they are slowly released back to the normal position. However. all . the pose is to be attained after exhaling the breath completely. This is the final stage of Uddiyan Bandh. After inhaling completely.

Physical Effects The diaphragm is moved to a great extent in this bandh. the bandh cannot be maintained even for 10 to 15 seconds. However. liver etc. Hence. The bandh is indispensable for the study of pranayama. This also results in improving the secretion of the digestive juices. the breathing system also works more efficiently. as if one is inhaling. all the muscles should be gradually relaxed and brought back to the original position and then the breath should be inhaled. the bandh is to be retained till the time it can be easily retained after complete rechaka. The proper duration for the bandh is the time for which it can be retained comfortably but firmly after exhalation and without inhaling. When the strength and the efficiency of diaphragm is improved. the bandh can be maintained for a little more duration. Inhalation should not be immediate after releasing the bandh pose.e. After releasing the bandh. after proper practice. Duration The bandh action is to be performed after exhaling completely. The inhalation i. If after achieving bandh pose. The pose is to be retained after exhalation of the breath and till the time an urge is felt for inhalation. the blood supply to these organs is improved. this bandh is indispensable in pranayama. This also results in affimproving their efficiency. Due to this negative pressure. The bandh involves movement. the bandh is also useful for spiritual progress and awakening of Kundalini power. it is discovered after research that the organs in the stomach develop a negative pressure in this Uddiyan bandh. However. the blood circulation in the heart is increased. In the initial stages. hence the muscles of the diaphragm get well exercised and this movement also helps in the regular breathing. the breath must be exhaled. thereby improving their efficiency. the bandh duration can also be increased. The bandh also helps in improving the digestive system. Precaution . the pooraka should be performed gradually. When the urge is felt. Otherwise. Because in a relaxed state of the body. the need for oxygen is reduced and the oxygen present in the body can be used up for a little more time. Also. further research is necessary to find out all such effects. small intestines. Hence. It may also be affecting several other organs of the body. Due to such negative pressure. it can be firmly maintained for 1 to 2 minutes. The air pressure resulting in pranayama is regulated in proper direction due to the position of this bandh. all the other muscles of the body are relaxed. Hence. hence this creates negative pressure on the lungs and the heart. Inhalation should not take place before bringing the muscles to the original state. pooraka after releasing the bandh has to be in a controlled manner. It is stated in various ancient texts that apart from these benefits.this time. such pressures can create harmful effects on the body. increases friction on the internal organs such as stomach. however actual air is not inhaled. The difference between the negative pressure during this bandh and the normal pressures resumed after relaxation.

heart troubles or defective blood circulation should not attempt to perform the bandh. The effects of this bandh have been described as under : Uddiyanam tu sahajam gurunam kathitam sada | Abhyasetsatatam yastu vruddhopi tarunayate || 3-58 Meaning - . hence this bandh is termed as Uddiyan bandh. it is to be performed after exhalation. However. References in the ancient texts The third chapter in Hathapradeepika describes ten mudras.Persons suffering from stomach ailments. the pose of the bandh is to be taken while being in kumbhaka. while practising this bandh during pranayama. it is described that the bandh is to be performed after exhalation. This is the proper method while studying this bandh independently. While performing Uddiyan bandh. This action is like lion killing elephant which represents death. This part was taught as a matter of master-disciple tradition and hence perhaps not explained in detail in the shloka. The action of this bandh is described as under : Udare paschimam tanam nabherudhwaram cha karayet | Uddiyano hyasou bandho mrityumatang kesari || 3-57 Meaning The stomach is to be pressed inwards and the navel upwards. This process is known as Uddiyan bandh. Persons suffering from diseases like hernia too should not perform this bandh. Uddiyan bandh has been described as one of the mudras. Nowhere in the process. The writer of Hathapradeepika explains why this mudra is termed as Uddiyan bandh as follows : Badhho yen sushumnayam pranastuddiyate yatah | Tasmaduddiyanakhyoyam yogibhihi samudahrutah || 3-55 Meaning The prana (Zeal) in the body is raised (A :? awakened ? )due to the performance of this bandh.

After achieving a firm pose. Action of the bandh After sitting in Siddhasan.If the bandh is practised constantly and regularly as taught by the Guru. this may be the other reason for naming it as such because 'mul' means root or base. but still we should study the bandh regularly so that its beneficial effects on the body will result in increasing our life span. however the hidden meaning is to be understood. A shloka after this describes that the study of this bandh results in leading the sadhaka easily onto the path of mukti. This description is also a bit exaggerated. The weight of the body creates pressure on that part. However the logic behind it must be understood. Mulbandha Introduction This bandh relates mainly to the muscles of the anus. We should not blindly believe that practising this bandh for six months will win over the death. The bandh causes certain beneficial effects on the body. the left heel is properly placed under the penis. The muladhar chakra is supposed to be located near penis. regularly for a period of six months. The next shloka describes as under : Nabherurdhwamadhaschapi tanam kuryatprayatnatah | Shanmasbhyasenmrutyum jayatyeva na samshayah || 3-59 Meaning If a sadhaka practices stretching the navel. Pre-position If the bandh is to be performed ideally it should be performed in Siddhasan. even an old man can be transformed into a young one. there is no doubt that he can win over the death. penis and the muscles located nearby. the anal muscles and . The effects have been a bit exaggerated over here. the portion below the navel and the upper part of the stomach towards back and upward direction. which in turn result in youth like state of the body full of enthusiasm. Otherwise it may also be performed in Padmasan. Also it relates to the base of the spine. But Siddhasan is supposed to be the ideal preposition. Hence this bandh relates to muladhar chakra and is termed as mulbandh.

This results in more blood supply to these muscles thereby improving their efficiency. Hence. however it is important to be in the same pose for a while. Practice of this bandh results in circulation of this accumulated blood. it can affect the digestive system in a bad way. The muscles of the penis are also to be lifted in this bandh. Achieving pose in this bandh is easier. Kundalini power. Duration The real study and practice of this bandh is to retain it for maximum period. which is supposed to be residing at the chakra. However. Also. It is stated that the bandh is to be practised while doing Pranayam. these muscles alone are not to be contracted and lifted but the other surrounding muscles should also be similarly contracted and lifted. A duration of 5 to 120 seconds may not generate beneficial effects of this bandh. the bandh should be practised under expert guidance.the other surrounding muscles should be contracted and moved upwards. However. Both these muscles are round. onset of any symptoms described above should be immediately reported to experts and the bandh performed under their guidance. While performing pranayam. Physical Effects The muscles which are not generally used. the duration can be increased to 5 minutes. are contracted in this bandh. This is difficult and requires quite a bit of practice. This is the obvious benefit of this bandh. With further practice. the blood is accumulated around the waist. References in the ancient texts . The anus has two muscles. the muscles surrounding Muladhar Chakra are contracted and the pressure of such contraction is definitely felt on the Muladhar Chakra. If such a person wants to perform this bandh. It is expected in this bandh to contract these muscles and to lift them upwards. One inside and the other outside. piles etc should not as far as possible perform this bandh. The beneficial effect of this bandh is also felt on the nerves attached to the muscles involved in the bandh. it cannot be definitely stated as to the duration for which the bandh is to be practised for such awakening of the Kundalini power. is awakened due to the practice of this bandh. This is the pose of the mulbandh. Precaution If the bandh is not performed properly. The bandh has to be retained for at least 3 to 4 minutes. This results in indigestion or similar other ailments of the digestive system. Persons suffering from hernia.

when the pran and apan and the sound and the point (nad and bindu) will merge with each other due to this bandh. awakens like a snake hit by a stick It . With deliberate contraction of the anal muscles. an old person may not be transformed into a youth. Hathapradeepika says that when the apan vayu is forced upwards. The next four shlokas in Hathapradeepika describe how the bandh is related to awakening of Kundalini power. This is known as mulbandh. as a matter of practice. The kundalini power. Apan vayu and this fire heats the prana. the muscles of the anus should be contracted and the gas ( apan vayu ) should be lifted upwards. Hathapradeepika in further shlokas describe this bandh as. The pressure of this vayu results in increasing the fire. Parshnibhagen sampeedya yonimakunchayet gudam | Apanmurdhwamakrushya mulbandhobhidhiyate || 3-61 Meaning The heel should press the penis. This results in mulbandh pose. it enters the vanhimandal. The excretions are minimised and an old person is transformed into a young one. which is supposed to be asleep. Further it is described as : Adhogatimapan va urdhwargam kurushalat | Aakunchanen tam prahurmulbandham hi yoginah || 3-62 Parnapanou nadbindu mulbandhen chaikatam | Gatva yogasya samsiddhidam gachshato natra samshayah || 3-63 Meaning Apan vayu is generally in the downward direction. the apan vayu is lifted upwards. This results in precipitating the fire in the stomach. The bandh is to be performed till the time the gas is forced upwards. the general meaning can be guessed as disappearance of the signs of old age with return of the enthusiasm associated with youth.The bandh has been described thoroughly in the third chapter of Hathapradeepika. then one can be said to succeed in yoga. The effects of this bandh are described as under : Apanpranayoraikyam kshayo mutrapurishayoh | Yuva bhavati vrudhopi satatam mulbandhanat || 3-65 Meaning The regular study of the mulbandh results in merging apan and prana. Though.

In all. the effects of this bandh are described as under : Mulbandhah paro bandho jaramarannashanah | Prasadadasya bandhasya sadhayetsarvavanchitam || 3-18 Meaning This is a superior type of bandh. . The practice of sheetali breathing calms the mind.then enters the sushumna nadi ( brahma nadi ) as if snake entering its hole. Hence. We will study pranayam in detail afterwards. Uddiyan Bandh and Mul Bandh have been described in many of the ancient texts. The bandhas are to be studied mainly while studying pranayama. This description too is a bit exaggerated. It is expected in Yoga to retain a firm pose in bandh as it is retained in the asanas. The thirteenth shloka in the third chapter of Gherandsamhita describes this bandh. However. Bandh may be defined as a particular action involving pressure or strain on the muscles. viz Jalandhar Bandh. an attempt may be made to define the bandhas. 10 mudras have been described in it. Bandhas and Mudras in Pranayama Bandh is a special characteristic of Hatha Yoga. However none of them defines the term "Bandh" as such. With the help of these descriptions. The various types of bandhas have been described in Yoga texts. the real meaning behind it is to be guessed and the bandh must be studied. it is taken from the original word "Sheetal" which is soothing or cold. The study of this bandh results in satisfying any desire. However. The description is as given above as in Hathapradeepika. which results in destruction of old age and the death. There are three types of Bandha's :Jalandhar Bandha Uddiyan Bandha Mulbandha Sheetali or (Cooling Breath) The word "sheetali" means cooling in Sanskrit. every sadhaka must study this mulbandh daily. Bandhas have been described in Hathapradeepika in the chapter relating to Mudras. The chapter describes all the three bandhas as mudras. The three types of bandhas.

this may have positive effect on the endocrine glands and nervous system. The purpose of the Sheetali breathing is to reduce the body temperature.Note (Practice of Sheetali breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert Only) 1. With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8. If you feel dizzy then please stop the practice and continue normal breathing. If you are stressed then 10 minutes of Sheetali breath can calm you. Vajrasana . make sure that the air passing in is cooled via tongue. Surya Bhedan (Right Nostril Breathing or Revitalizing Breath) Right nostril is Pingala Nadi. 4. Also he says that this pranayama removes excess heat accumulated in the system. It has a calming effect on entire nervous system. The blood pressure is also lowered. Then start inhaling through mouth by rolling the tongue. It cools the body and mind.Auspicious. This pranayama is very effective in hyperacidity or even ulcers. For these people alternate Sitkari Pranayama gives very similar effects. corrects the disorders of spleen. Swami Swatmaram says that person becomes young and attractive by practicing this pranayama. This pranayama gives control over hunger and thirst. Swastikasana. So you must be careful. especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. In ancient text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika. 2. Initially 4 seconds inhale through mouth while rolling the tongue and exhale for 6 seconds through both nostrils. this can be practiced for about 5 minutes. In this pranayama the tongue is rolled in a specific manner as shown in figure. But many people can not roll their tongue in this fashion. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind. Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana Lotus. 3. The breath through right nostril is important for many important metabolic processes. Any Cross legged position in which the body can be relaxed and spine is erect. or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds Precautions If you have Low Blood pressure then this pranayama can bring it further down.reduces the stress or fight . Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced.Thunderbolt. . reduces the excess biles. which induces muscular relaxation and is very effective in stress management. which represents physical energy and body. Practice . works on fever.flight response. You may feel little cold or tingling sensation in the throat due to cold air but this is normal.

Please do not rush to increase the proportions. also boosts the nervous system.Note (Practice of Right Nostril breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert Only) 1. low energy. or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds Precautions If you feel little bit of discomfort then you can reduce the ratio of breathing. which removes the Kafa (mucus) imbalance. Also it makes the mind calm and peaceful by . but trying to practice easy ratio (4:6 seconds) for little more time may help. Helps reducing the anxiety. Prana increases in the body. Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced. it is difficult to see why this pranayama is called victorious's breath. the physical energy. brain surgeries should consult the medical expert or consultant. especially the sympathetic nervous system. increasing the vitality. With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8. People who have undergone abdominal surgeries. Any Cross legged position in which the body can be relaxed and spine is erect. Following are the benefits of Right Nostril Breathing It increases the body temperature.Thunderbolt. It increases the efficiency of digestive system.Auspicious. Pranav Mudra of right hand. 3. Very effective for depression. Especially psychosomatic diseases and stress related ailments can be effectively treated with Ujjayi breath. depression and other mental illnesses. Ujjayi or (Psychic Breath) The word Ujjayi means victorious in Sanskrit. Initially 4 seconds inhale through right and exhale for 6 seconds through right nostril or left nostril. Regular practice of Right nostril breath is used for weight loss. as it will not help.) 2. Swastikasana. it also helps bring down blood pressure & heart beats. The purpose of the Ujjayi breathing is to increase the psychic sensitivity. So this pranayama can be very effectively used in therapy. Practice . Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana Lotus. It gives all the benefits of Deep breathing as well. Vajrasana . But this is also called psychic breath. This is very effective in obesity. to revitalize the body. May be practice of Ujjayi results in high energy state of mind. 4. heart surgeries. will help close the left nostril while inhaling through right nostril. this can be practiced for about 5 minutes.The purpose of the Right nostril breathing is to increase the Pranic energy .

You may feel little warm or tingling sensation in the throat due to friction but this is normal. anxiety. In ancient text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika. 3. or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds 5. Any Cross legged position in which the body can be relaxed and spine is erect. This may have positive effect on the endocrine glands specially thyroids and nervous system. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind. especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. Initially 4 seconds inhale through both nostrils while creating Ujjayi sound and exhale for 6 seconds through both nostrils creating sound. If you feel dizzy then please stop the practice and continue normal breathing. It has a calming effect on entire nervous system. Then start creating hissing sound with breathe. Precautions If you have Low Blood pressure then this pranayama can bring it further down. Or you may contract the throat and make frictional sound. This helps release the stresses faster and makes the mind focused easily. 4.flight response.Note (Practice of Ujjayi breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert Only) 1. this sound is NOT produced in vocal chords but produced by contraction of throat or epiglottis. Swastikasana. Vajrasana . It has a calming effect on entire nervous system. insomnia. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind. This Ujjayi sound can also be created while doing Asanas. Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana Lotus. The purpose of the Bhramari breathing is to reduce throat ailments.Auspicious. this can be practiced for about 5 minutes. anger. If you are stressed then 10 minutes of Ujjayi breath can reenergise you. The blood pressure is also lowered. The practice of bhramari breathing calms the mind. . With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8. Practice . Bharamari or (Humming Bee Breath) The word "Bhramari" comes from the sanskrit name bhramar which is Humming black bee. Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced.removing the stress. It reduces celebral tensions. reduces the stress or fight .Thunderbolt.) 2. especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. So you must be careful. Swami Swatmaram says that person becomes Lord of Yogis and mind gets absorbed in the supreme bliss. which induces muscular relaxation and is very effective in stress management. This pranayama is very effective in speeding up the healing of body tissues and may be practiced after surgeries.

The metabolic processes are balanced. steady and smooth Practice . one inhales through right and exhales through left then inhales through left and exhales through right nostrl. Vajrasana . and then start creating sound while you exhale. The sound is similar to chanting of Om. or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds 5. Nadi Shodhan or Anuloma Viloma (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Right nostril is Pingala Nadi(Sun principle or body). making the breathing most efficient. It is recommended for all types of problems. Precautions You may feel little cold or tingling sensation in the throat due to sound but this is normal. Swastikasana.) 2. This purification brings balance to body and mind. left nostril represents Ida nadi (moon principle or mind). This purifies the Ida and Pingala nadis.In this pranayama one needs to create a sound while exhaling and inhaling in the throat. Then start inhaling through both nostrils. one can start trying to create similar sound while inhaling. In alternate nostril breathing. The sound should be deep. Any Cross legged position in which the body can be relaxed and spine is erect. Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana Lotus. The inhalation sound is very difficult.Thunderbolt. As Hatha Yoga principle says that the health conditions are due to imbalance between this Ida and Pingala. Alternate nostril breathing balances this two forces. The purpose of the Alternate Nostril Breathing is to balance the physical energy and mental energy. Blood is purified of toxins. but is possible with constant efforts. 3. With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8..Note (Practice of Bhramari breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert Only) 1. . Once the exhalation sound is mastered. Very effective for stress management. More oxygen is made available per breath. Initially 4 seconds inhale through both nostrils while creating sound while exhaling for 6 seconds through both nostrils. especially the long mmm. Following are the benefits of Alternate Nostril Breathing Proper supply of oxygen is ensured and carbon dioxide is effectively removed. this can be practiced for about 5 minutes. 4.Auspicious. in Omkar. If you feel dizzy then please stop the practice and continue normal breathing. Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced.

Balancing Ida and Pingala removes all the blockages in the pranic energy channels. 4. The air is inhaled mostly using diaphragm or muscle of respiration and expanding the chest. air per breathe in to our lungs. Pranayama . The movement of abdomen helps the movement of diaphragm. It gives all the benefits of Deep breathing as well. heart surgeries. The normal breath rate is 15 to 18 breaths per minute but in deep breathing this rate is reduced to about 4 to 8 breaths per minute. which increases breathing efficiency per breath. Practice . The intercostal . With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8. You may practice it for about 3 minutes.Auspicious. Initially one should start slowly by 30 Inhalation and exhalations in 1 minute. then inhale through right for 4 seconds and exhale through left for 6 seconds can be practiced for about 5 minutes.c. as it will not help.c. depression and other mental illnesses. Swastikasana.. Pranav Mudra of right hand.Note (Practice of Anuloma . Please do not rush to increase the proportions. one can increase the speed to about 80 rounds per minute and then you may even do 120 rounds in 1 minute.) 2. but trying to practice easy ratio (4:6 seconds) for little more time may help. brain surgeries should consult the medical expert or consultant. 3.Helps reducing the anxiety.Viloma or Nadi Shodhan should be done with a Yoga Expert Only) 1. People who have undergone abdominal surgeries. Any Cross legged position in which the body can be relaxed and spine is erect. which may lead to spiritual awakenings.Thunderbolt. In deep breathing the practitioner can inhale up to the total capacity of the lungs. Vajrasana . Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced. will help close the right nostril while inhaling through left nostril and ring finger can close the left nostril while inhaling through right. Also it reduces hyperactive disorders related to mind. and slowly build the speed to 60 rounds in 1 minute.Deep breathing Deep Breathing The total capacity of our lungs is about 6000 c. After practicing for 15 to 20 days. Begineers can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana Lotus. or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds Precautions If you feel little bit of discomfort then you can reduce the ratio of breathing. but during normal breathing we only breath about 600 c. Initially 4 seconds inhale through left and exhale for 6 seconds through right nostril.

This is also called as Varisar Dhauti. 2. More oxygen is made available per breath. Physiology of Shankha Prakshalana (Master Cleansing Process) By Dr. for example . Enhanced movement of the diaphragm gives good massage to the internal organs as liver. 3.4 seconds inhale and 4 seconds exhale or 5 sec inhale and 5 sec exhale. Continue the process till you have consumed 12 to 18 glasses of water. IBS. Colon related problems can be effectively treated with Master cleansing. Practice 1. pancreas. So Deep breathing involves efficient movement of abdomen. Conscious deep breathing greatly affects the cortical activities. for example .. relaxing the nervous system. heart. Even diseases like diabetes. The blood pressure is also reduced. lungs are attached to the diaphragm which is moved up and down during the breathing. Prafulla S.muscles help the movement of chest. you can empty your bowels in between. and gradually increase the time duration. It is observed that the animals who breath slowly have more life span. So deep breathing is very good for stress and related ailments. After practicing it for 10 minutes everyday. Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position of lying down position. which calms the mind by removing thoughts and emotions. the heart rate / pulse rate is reduced. that is exhalation is twice of inhalation. In the process you consume two glasses of salted water with lemon followed by 2 set of 6 exercises.. The process continues . Initially the ratio of 1:1. Whenever you feel like. Dorle Physiology of Shankha Prakshalana (Master Cleansing Process) Suffering from constipation or Bloated abdomen or Indigestion or Heaviness of stomach? Do all of these problems make you uneasy throughout the day? Here is a solution for you. This technique is described in ?Gherand Samhita?. Master Cleansing or Shankha Prakshalan. You may practice it for 5 minutes initially. Following are the benefits of Deep Breathing Due to slowing of respiration rate (15 breaths/min to 4 breaths/min). In this the diaphragm movement requires less efforts than the rib movement and more air can be inhaled as the diaphragm can be vertically moved up and down to about 6 inches. making the breathing most efficient.4 seconds inhalation and 8 seconds exhalation or 5 sec inhale and 10 sec exhale. a text on Hatha Yoga written by Sage Gherand in 13th Century. one can increase the ratio to 1:2. that is inhalation and exhalation counts are same. so reducing the breath rate with deep breathing may help increase the life span of human beings. stomach.

It normalizes the blood sugar level and blood pressure. but in the daily routine one cannot wash the esophagus or the stomach. The water one drinks is not completely absorbed in the stomach and intestines due to increased osmotic pressure of the salty and acidic water. 3. Master cleansing helps in removal of this contaminated sticky mucus. one must give rest to the digestive system by following few of the following restrictions for next 7 days. But one should not drink plain water as this will be opposite to what we are trying to do. The washing up of the entire track starting from the mouth to the digestive path at the beginning of the small intestines. stomach etc are included in this process. This process is done in Yoga without any external instruments. This cellular water carries along with it. It causes cellular water to flow from intestinal cells into the lumen of the intestine. Spicy. Master cleansing helps in normalizing the peristaltic movement by stimulating the intrinsic nerve plexus of the intestine and the intestinal muscles. toxins and other harmful substances accumulated over years in the intestinal cells. only with the physical movements of the internal . One can wash one's mouth. oily and fat rich food should be avoided Vaman Dhouti Introduction It is another easy method of dhouti. that is mouth. This has adverse effects on the body. No fruits should be consumed for next 5 days. 2. ulcers of all kinds. The impurities residing there are carried along with the food particles and are mixed in some proportion with the blood. It goes on for years together and interferes in the process of enzyme secretion and absorption of food. Do not consume milk or milk related products for next 5 days.till one see the clear water coming out of colon. The additives. This is called Reverse Osmosis which helps removing toxins from the blood. esophagus. So you may feel dehydrated during the process. Generally this process should be done in presence of medical expert as there are few risks involved in it. Also salt can increase blood pressure during the practice and people suffering from haemorrhages. As it is very intensive process on the digestive system. the stomach wash is effected by introducing rubber tube into the stomach. Cleaning of the digestive system The salt added to the water increases Osmotic pressure in intestine. pregnancy or menstruation should also not practice this technique. In the case of some patients. preservatives and chemicals in the food remains stuck up in the mucus of the intestinal cells. 1.

While drinking the water (salted and heated as described herein above). After intake of 1. Keep on drinking.5 ft in the legs and bend down slightly. it may be performed after having food. However. Generally. Ultimately.organs in the body. The actual process of vomiting lasts for only 2 to 3 minutes. for learning the process. After one hour. on empty stomach. the proportion of salt can be kept a little high. Process Heat pure drinking water till it achieves the body temperature and put a pinch of salt in it Initially. there is a nauseating feeling. .5 to 2 liters of water. Try to bring out the entire quantity by inserting fingers into the throat. Also. This aggravates the feeling to vomit. Try to consume another glass by keeping the feeling in check with mental efforts. This process is not to be reiterated. It is a one time process at a given time. After learning the process thoroughly. That means the entire process of vamandhouti lasts for 15 to 20 minutes. a drink may be allowed. there is a feeling that no further quantity can be consumed and there is an intense feeling to vomit. When the entire quantity of water comes out. Afterwards. Shavasan should be performed for 10 to 15 minutes as per the need and then one can resume the normal routine. middle finger and the small finger of the right hand into the mouth and press a little at the end of the tongue. the weight of the water is felt into the stomach. if it is to be performed with specific purpose in mind. nothing is felt till a liter of water is consumed. the nausea stops and the feeling to vomit vanishes. It is said in the texts that the process is to be performed after having food. Wash the mouth and perform shavasan. Then stand up with a distance of 1 to 1. We will consider the process done with the help of water. it should be drunk sip by sip consuming it from a glass. The water in the stomach will come out in gushes. Insert the fore or index finger. it is not to be performed daily. Duration The feeling to vomit becomes intense within 10 to 15 minutes of the start of drinking the water. Keep on drinking the water. However. water or cloth. This process of stomach wash is done with the help of dand (catheter). Start drinking this water sitting at one place. This is to be performed as per the need under proper guidance. it should be performed early in the morning. which gradually causes strain. shavasan must be performed as per the need for at least 10 to 15 minutes.

However. This process helps to bring out such poisonous materials. the poisonous substances on the inner wall or lining of the stomach are brought into the stomach and thrown out along with the water. the water in the blood gets absorbed into the stomach. if the exact quantity is not thrown out. if any food is to be consumed. Also. the same amount of water as consumed should be thrown out. It should be performed according to the need under the expert guidance. People suffering from heart trouble. travel with the food to the small intestines and are absorbed into the blood in at least certain proportion. This vamandhouti process is useful for patients suffering from acidity. It should be learnt under the guidance of the expert and then may be performed independently when learnt properly. diseases of the nervous system. The osmotic pressure in the stomach is increased due to such water and instead of such water getting absorbed. blood pressure . should not perform the process. or trouble from ulcers. The water then travels across the digestive track and is thrown out of the body by way of diarrhea. when the food and the water are consumed. That means. Hence.Physical Effects In this process. In the general digestion process. Precaution This process cannot be learnt from reading it in a book. Due to some sort of problem.high or low. It is necessary to perform shavasan for 10 to 15 minutes. poisonous substances when swallowed through the mouth or if generated in the stomach due to some internal problems. the water drunk in the process includes salt. the stomach and the esophagus are washed clean from inside. they travel from the stomach to the small intestines and then absorbed into the blood. It does not cause any trouble to the body. The impurities are thrown out. Also. While performing the process. it may be taken after 1. This hinders proper digestion. References in the ancient texts The first chapter of the Gherandsamhita states that : Bhojanante pibadwari chakantham puritam sudhih | . If this process is performed immediately after having food.5 to 2 hours after the process. Hence. It should be done under expert advice and to the extent prescribed by them. there is no need to get scared. like asanas and pranayama. this process should not be performed daily. certain poisonous materials or deformed juices are generated in the stomach after consumption of food. such poisonous materials are thrown out of the body and they do not get mixed into the blood. Also. the stomach is filled with the water and then the same water is turned out from the mouth.

Bend the legs at the knee in forward direction. However. Agnisar Dhouti Introduction Dhouti is a word made up of Sanskrit verb "Dhoo" which means to wash. place both the hands on the knee and exhale. However. stand straight and come back into the pre-position. the process is to be performed after having food. Pre-position . 3. That means when kapha-pitta are generated in excess and cause some trouble to the body. Try to perform the process a number of times as possible and in a firm position. there is no actual process of washing involved. When the movement of the stomach is going on.Standing Pose Procedure 1. Inhale 2. there should not be any inhalation or exhalation i e Pooraka and Rechaka should be completely stopped. it states that the process eliminates kapha-pitta. The pressure of the shoulders should come onto the knees through both the hands. even if this kriya is termed as Dhouti kriya. then the process need not be performed.pitta are in control. The legs below the knees and the hands starting from the shoulders should be in one line. it is not expected that it is to be performed daily. swift movements of the stomach are expected. Here. . diagonal to the ground. In this process. contract the stomach fully and immediately bring it back to the previous position. Then gradually inhale. When the kapha . The vamandhouti eliminates kapha and pitta. After exhaling completely. then this process should be used to get rid of them. This exercise is to be done while being in the state after complete exhalation.5 ft in between both the feet. Stand erect with a distance of 1 to 1. Continue this contraction and expansion exercise in rapid manner. The process of such cleaning is Dhouti Kriya. Also. 4.Urdhwa drishtim kshanam krutva tatjalam vamayetpunah | Nityamabhyasyogen kaphapittam niwarayet || G S 1-39 Meaning Drink plenty of water after having food and vomit out the entire water after glancing upwards for a minute. The word Agni used here refers to the fire in the form of internal digestive juices.

the impure blood is sucked into the veins at the same rate and pushed forward. The blood circulation improves. in the process of agnisar. The excess or too low a pressure does not affect them much.The movement of the stomach should not be jerky but should be done rythmatically. 1957 ) These positive and negative pressures in the stomach change with the swift movements made during the process. The process can be practiced for 3 to 4 times at a stretch. It is expected to carry on the process till the time the bahya ( outer ) kumbhaka can be easily maintained. kidney etc. the pressure returns to the normal and when the stomach is contracted. To understand their implication. when the stomach moves in outward direction. also these organs get supply of pure blood. When the pressure is negative. The abdominal cavity contains important organs such as stomach. thus improving it considerably. The duration of the bahya kumbhaka ( the state after complete exhalation before inhalation ) will determine the duration of the process. Thus. The duration will change as per the study of each sadhaka. The muscles of the stomach are made up of involuntary muscles. No 3. which increases the efficiency of all these organs. The blood vessels which carry the purified blood are termed as arteries ( Rohini ). a definite duration cannot be specified. it is not advisable to practise it further. December. These vessels contain flaps so that the blood flows in one direction. the vessels suck blood inside. Thus. the blood gets pushed forward. spleen. the rapid movement of the stomach causes negative and positive pressure. oxygen and the necessary food elements. the pressure becomes negative. the pressure reduces. Even if the duration of the bahya kumbhaka is less. they act rapidly on the internal organs of the stomach. the pressure reduces to the extent of -110 to -120 mm. the blood gets sucked to that area. They are quite tenacious. However. small intestines. liver. the impurities and poisonous substances generated are effectively thrown out. There is another important effect of the process. Physical Effects In this process. when the pressure is positive. These muscles cannot be moved as per one's wish. Duration Since the process is to be performed after exhaling. Compared to arteries. The pressure causes the blood to push forward. They are . one must have knowledge of the blood circulation process. When the process is performed efficiently. This causes the circulation of the blood in the stomach to be rapid and effective. pancreas. The pressure stays for a second and then increases to -50 to -60 mm when the muscles are relaxed. The vessels carrying impure blood are known as veins ( Neela ). The low or excess pressure affects them immediately. the process can be studied in versions as the asanas were studied. it increases to +10 to +20 mm ( Ref : Yogamimansa volume 7. When in the agnisar process. these are soft and weak.

indigestion. Since the process increases its production. This improves digestion process. This process is known as agnisar dhouti.20 Meaning Try touching the navel hundred times to the spinal cord.regulated by involuntary nervous system. can thus be experienced. constipation. Precaution No one who suffers from stomach ailments should practise the process without expert guidance. It is evident from this description that this process is useful for the ailments such as complaints regarding digestion. Insulin helps to digest the sugar in the food items. the sugar in the blood and urine increases and the cells are deprived of it. The other important gland in the abdomen is Pancreas. one cannot make the stomach exercise at one's will. However. an attempt should be made under the expert directions. . The process ensures siddhis for Yogis. Hence. Afterwards too. This process eliminates diseases in the stomach and ignites the fire in the stomach. Those who suffer from the loss of tone of the stomach or swellings of the intestines or ailments of the liver should not practise unless advised by the experts. they get massaged to an extent and moved too. The description in the yoga texts that the agni in the stomach is ignited. Pancreas produce Insulin. since there is positive and negative pressure on these organs. Those who have undergone any operation of the stomach should not try to perform the process for a period of three years from the date of operation. the efficiency of the glands increases. Also.19 Vanhisarmiyam dhoutiryoginam yogsiddhida | Esha dhoutihi para gopya devanamapi durlabha || G S 1. References in the ancient texts Gherand Samhita mentions the process in its first chapter Shatkarmsadhan as under : Nabhigranthim meruprushte shatwaram cha karayet | Udarymamayam twaktwa jatharagnim vivardhayeta || G S 1. However. the muscles of the stomach cannot be exercised as such. the process should not be repeated more than 3 / 4 times. more insulin is produced and the sugar is digested properly. Also. the food is digested and assimilated well and more efficiently. the bile produced by the liver is an important aspect of the digestion process. It is a secret process which is hard to achieve even for the Gods. This increases their efficiency and also generates more digestive juices. That means one suffers from diabetes. If enough insulin is not secreted. one should study and practice it under expert guidance. Due to the positive and negative pressures generated in the process. In the process of Agnisar. diabetes etc. The efficiency of other muscles can be increased with the willful movement of the muscles. at one point of time.

Aligning your practice with the first limb of Ashtanga Yoga. When practiced as an isolated discipline pranayama isn't as powerful as when it is practiced holistically in combination with Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga system. Invariably. sustaining and supporting the entire body of the universe. However. The eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are all directed at a single purpose-the preservation and management of pranic energy. An isolated practice of one hour of pranayama practice is not enough to recover the pranic power that is lost through unconscious interactions the remainder of the day. in conjunction with pranayama. When the wasteful use of prana ceases. contentment and purity move you toward the integrative forces of the higher centers. This includes our individual bodies. the benefits of pranayama are multiplied. as well as balanced. helping you overcome unconscious dissipations of energy all day long. pranayama is much more than a discipline of breath or a set of breathing exercises. Yogic breathing techniques are powerful ways to retain more prana by reversing the flow upward toward the heart and higher centers of consciousness. water. can be very powerful for gathering and building prana." It is the force which exists in all things." so pranayama means both the conservation and the expansion of our vital life force. which is then mirrored in external struggle and hardships. When prana moves downward and outward. Pranayama is a conscious way of living that prevents the dissipation of the life force. This is the main cause of the continuous depletion of vital life force. This is a self-destructive. in different expressions and interactions of life. Prana permeates all of existence. When attention is driven by the ego mind. Now prana is disturbed both internally and externally. truth. Conscious management of prana is a transformative medium for personal growth and spiritual unfolding. this pranic energy is disrupted by irritations in the relationship you have with yourself. the yamas and niyamas. abusive and unconscious use of prana. Even a single unconscious reaction can disperse your prana. you operate in the field of conflict and stressproducing duality. . Ayama means "conservation or expansion. it wastes your precious life force. sunlight. conscious and meditative lifestyle. It is the extension of yoga practice into daily life and normal day-to-day interactions. Conscious use of both breathwork and postures extends this practice into the posture of consciousness. The ultimate aim of yoga is to learn how to prevent these mental irritations and emotional disturbances from dissipating your prana-no matter what the situation. This life-force is then received not only through breath but also through food.Ask The Guru: The Physiology of Prana The Sanskrit word prana is defined as "life force" or "vital energy. Focusing on non-violence.

belief systems. The cause is hidden within you. When the mind is in hesitation and doubt. stressproducing blockages can be removed. This means that the ultimate source of pranayama lies in the ability to shift the management from ego-mind engaged in externalized problem solving to inward management through meditative awareness. mental. Although this is the supreme aim. and when the mind is divided. sensuality and power. For a rightful interpretation.Part I By Arun Goel Pranayama works as the basis for spiritual awakening in yoga. it must be understood that 'prana' is an energy or life force that is universal in nature . pranic flow is inhibited. A portion of that prana is also present in the human body. explore. and they live in a victim consciousness. and personal biases that create internal conflict. this is a result of wrong interpretation. prana is also divided. you only change the effects without removing the cause. and physical. Whenever you try to solve problems you encounter outside by changing external conditions. choiceless awareness disengages the preprogrammed habits. It flows at a superficial level to maintain the body and its organs. Operating from the lower chakra centers of survival. and emotional health can be restored. This allows you to see all problems that appears to be coming from outside are really coming from within. Pranayama brings about tremendous benefits along the way such as increased energy. Meditative. One who sees the source of problems as coming from outside blame other people for their own failures and unhappiness. while the effects appear outside of you. and to learn how to access that dormant source of infinite potential. Attention becomes outwardly focused .and all of our energy flows down and out. Understanding Pranayama . As prana begins to build. Only then are you empowered to solve problems from within. increased perception and development of various brain faculties. However. a unique ability to see. and experience the energy body is developed. creates the perception of all problems and solutions to external. In this space.it is omnipresent. When this is brought to conscious awareness. attention and energy begins to reverse its flow from out and down to in and up.Prana mimics the mind. . remarkably increasing the ability to manage mental and emotional energies. The only way to access the power is to discover that its source is within. control of breath is Pranayama. What is Pranayama? To most. Progressively subtler levels of perception are available. feel.

When this fantastic amount of energy is created it flows from the mooladhara through the right side of the spinal column (pingala nadi) and up to the Ajna Chakra. How Prana operates? All the life force or Prana lies as dormant potential energy called the 'pranashakti' or 'kundalini'. . According to yoga. Pranayama serves to heat that quantum of Prana which then ascends along the spinal column into the Ajna Chakra. if you produce heat in a vessel. For example. This helps in expanding the human faculties and retarding degeneration. called the 'mooladhara chakra'. the primitive brain forms nine out of ten parts of the brain. We all have a certain amount of Prana which gives us life and maintains our organs. According to yoga. This center is called the 'Ajna Chakra'. the middle brain and the primitive brain. The prana also gets distributed to the whole body through a different set of nerve channels so that it reaches every atom of the body. a certain amount of heat is generated which influences the existing quantum of energy or Prana. the Ajna Chakra sends a feedback to the base (the mooladhara) of kundalini and the dormant potential energy is awakened to increase the energy flow to the Ajna Chakra.The goal of Pranayama is to increase the quantum of this life force (Prana) so that it can reach out to 'hidden' recesses of the brain. intuition and expanded awareness. Pranayama helps create a greater quantum of prana and also purifies the channels that will carry this increased prana to these 'silent' areas of the brain. It is very important that the channels be purified first to cope up with the increased energy created by Pranayama. this prana flows from the base 'mooladhara' center up along the right side of the spinal column into the center which lies at the top of the spinal column. From here it flows into the silent areas of the brain. This is how prana operates in the normal body and the scope of Pranayama is to extend this influence beyond the physical body. Prana and the Brain Modern science has divided the brain into three parts: the new brain. These parts are 'silent' and unexplored. The next phase of evolution will see the development of these parts and Pranayama helps achieve that. How Pranayama works? Through the practices of Pranayama. It resides at a center which is found just above the genital area. This is the purpose of Pranayama. it will heat the existing air. When sufficient heat is generated within the system. These are the little known brain areas that house 'mysterious' faculties such as clairvoyance.

Thus a luxurious soil is prepared for the tubercle bacillus. Effective Breathing Breathing problems can be corrected by yoga through the practice of Pranayama. Few people are able to handle it and that is why the practice of Pranayama should be combined with the practice of concentration. others breathe with only the diaphragm (lower part) leaving the upper structures of the lungs inactive and partially collapsed. slimy secretions accumulate and the tissues become devitalized. Those who are serious in awakening the hidden recesses of the brain need to perfect the art of retention (kumbhaka). a dot or the 'Om' symbol. certain Pranayamas are done to purify the carrying channels so that this increased energy can be handled appropriately. Therefore. In those parts of the lung that are not used. For one individual perishing from food starvation. Each motion should be accompanied by a conscious effort to make it produce . The science of Pranayama is based on the retention of prana called 'kumbhaka'. Pranayama has various techniques that are designed for the maximum capacity utilization of the lungs . it is important that when this occurs you are fully aware. The heat generates an increased energy in an electrical form. This is why one experiences a dizziness. The effectiveness of breathing exercises depends upon the mental attitude during the time of practice. dizziness occurs and a visual aid is necessary such as a candle. However.something that most of us do not do. When awakening takes place. Yoga and pranayama also help in regulating the temperature of the breath flow thereby solving a lot of problems related to breathing. Inhalation and exhalation are merely incidental. All the great experiences take place in this condition of dizziness. This electrical spark alters the chemical structure of the cerebral fluid which surrounds the brain. the practice of Pranayama has to be done very intelligently and patiently. it affects the behaviour of the brain.While Pranayama serves to awaken the kundalini. thousands are dying from oxygen starvation. Pranayama and Breathing Effects Of Improper Breathing Very few people breathe correctly. When this fluid is chemically influenced. During kumbhaka there is an increased blood flow into the brain and simultaneously heat is generated in the system. Some use only the upper part of their lungs. pneumococcus and other scavenger germs. For example. the Ujjayi pranayama clears the pingala nadi for the ascension of kundalini. This habit of shallow breathing accounts in a good measure for the fact that one third of all deaths result from diseases of the lungs.

A typical cycle of the slow type pranayamic breathing involves the phases of inhalation. with about 5 years of experience in practising different types of pranayamas (Fig. Also the air is warmed and moistened before it reaches the lungs which is extremely important. and have only a short end-expiratory Kumbhak (K-E. 1992 ) Pranayama is a state of voluntarily regulated breathing while the mind is directed to the feeling of the flow of breath or prana (1). In the other two . and bandhas employed. Jalaneti is highly recommended by experts as a way of keeping your nasal passages clean and clear.expiration. MP) have no end-inspiratory kumbhak (K-I). Nature intends that outer air must reach the lungs by way of the nose whose membranes are lined with tiny hairs and mucous which serve as wonderful filters.20. and respirogram via a mercury strain gauge wrapped around the chest. Do not breathe through the mouth. Kumbhak at end-inspiration (K-I) : expiration (E) kumbhak at end-expiration. were recorded on a Beckman dynograph. The results revealed an overall increase of heart rate during two pranayamas (VP and MP) of the 4 pranayamas. These ratios were as follows: (1) in Savitri pranayama (SP) I:K . VJ was a 49 year old healthy male. compared to the respective prepranayamic baseline values of the sukhasan sitting state (Table 1). i. This report presents the differences in heart rate changes in 4 different kinds of pranayama. (3) in Mahatyoga pranayama (MP) (3 phases) I:E:K-E = 1: 1:0. These 2 pranayamas (VP. aimless way.e. or at both stages. 1).25. The EKG of standard limb lead II. There are different kinds of pranayamas varying according to the durations of the phases in the breathing cycle. inspiration (1). and (4) inVibhaga pranayama (VP) I:E:K-E = 1:1:0. practised by a subject who had several years of experience.). exhalation. The 4 pranayamas differed in the ratios of the durations of respiratory phases in a pranayama breathing cycle. At the time of the study. and timed breath-holding (kumbhak) either at end-inspiration stage or at end. The subject practised 4 types of pranayamas in the same session separated by 5 minute periods of relaxation in sukhasan in between the 4 pranayamas.I:E:K-E = 2:1:2:1. (2) in Nadisuddhi pranayama (NP) I:K .I:K: K. Learn more on Jalaneti HEART RATE ALTERATIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRANAYAMAS Sir. and in other details like the nostrils used. ( Received on April 7. Much more can be accomplished through mental concentration by keeping your mind on what you are doing than by performing exercises in an indifferent.a certain result. Yoga and meditation exercises specifically provide such a training.E = 1:1:1:1.

pranayama (SP and NP). in eupnoea. 79..5 ± 2.05 against value of eyes closed (Sukhasan).0 beats/min). This is an example showing that different types of heart rate alterations may occur in different types of pranayamas.0 beats /min). and that the short kumbhak type of pranayamas may not cause a change in the mean heart rate.9 ± 0.expiration. 87. the highest value was during the end-inspiratory kumbhak (mean ± S.D. A previous report (2) on heart rate changes in Savitri Pranayama showed that the heart rate was higher during inspiration than during expiration. E: expiration K .D. The inspiratory and expiratory heart rate values did not differ significantly from the corresponding values of the preceding baseline period.e.0 ± 0. I: inspiration phase.0 ± 3..3 beats/ min). NP) the heart rate was higher during expiration (mean ± SD 78. However. inspiratory or expiratory) values of quiet breathing in the preceding baseline period. Student's t-test (2 tailed). the two varieties which had end . during deep breathing.D. In present report in two pranayamas (MP. and during Savitri pranayama * P<0. the increased rate during the inspiratory phase of Savitri Pranayama was significantly more than for eupnoea or deep breathing. £: No statistical comparisons were made with 'eyes closed (sukhasan)' value as respiration was voluntarily slowed down.inspiratory (K-I) and endexpiratory (K-E) kumbhak phases.1 ± 2.e. 90. However.4 beats/min) and less during expiration (mean ± S.E : kumbhak phase at end .2 beats/min) and lowest during end-expiratory kumbhak (Mean ± S. i. . K -I: kumbhak phase at end-inspiration.1 ± 2.D. VP) the heart rate was more during inspiration (mean ± S. the mean of the overall heart rate was not significantly altered. Both values were significantly higher than corresponding (i.5 beats / min) than during inspiration (mean 74. In the 2 remaining pranayamas (SP. 71.

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