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Summary

x B such that x % x for all x B

(1)

xR+

(2)

Continuous preferences can be represented by utility functions For such preferences a demand correspondence exists if all prices are strictly positive If, in addition preferences are strictly convex, demand function exists If, in addition, utility functions are strictly monotone, the marginal rate of substitution equals the price ratio.

The Indirect Utility Function

The relationship among prices, income, and the maximized value of utility can be summarized by a real-valued function v: Rn R+ + R dened by the indirect utility function: v (p, y) = max u (x) n

xR+

s.t.

p x y.

(3)

When u (x) is continuous, v (p, y) is well-dened for all p >> 0 and y 0 If, in addition, u (x) is strictly quasiconcave, then the solution is unique and we write it as x (p, y), the consumers demand function. v (p, y) = u (x (p, y)) . (4)

Theorem 6:

If u (x) is continuous and strictly increasing on Rn , then v (p, y) dened + in (3) is 1. Continuous on Rn R+ ++ 2. Homogeneous of degree zero in (p, y) 3. Strictly increasing in y 4. Decreasing in p. 5. Quasiconvex in (p, y) 6. Roys identity holds: If v (p, y) is dierentiable at v p0, y 0 /y 6= 0, then

0, y 0 /p v p i 0, y 0 = , xi p 0, y 0 /y v p

p0, y 0

and

i = 1, ..., n.

CES Functions

Example 2

1/ u (x1, x2) = x1 + x2 , where 0 6= p < 1

By Example 1, Marshallian demands are: pr1y x1 (p, y) = r1 r, p1 + p2 pr1y x2 (p, y) = r2 p1 + pr 2 for r / ( 1) (5)

1/ r1 r1 p y p y 1 2 = + r + pr p1 pr + pr 2 1 2 1/ r r p1 + p2 = y r + pr p1 2 = y (pr + pr )1/r 1 2

(6)

To construct the indirect utility function, we xed prices and income, and sought the maximum utility the consumer could achieve. To construct the expenditure function, we again x prices and utility and seek the minimum level of expenditure the consumer must make facing these prices to achieve this utility. isoexpenditure curves are dened implicitly by e = p1x1 + p2x2, for a dierent level of total expenditure e > 0 each therefore will have the same slope, p1/p2, but dierent horizontal and vertical intercepts, e/p1 and e/p2, respectively.

We dene the expenditure function as the minimum-value function, e (p, u) min p x n

xeR+ o n

s.t.

u (x) u

(7)

for all p 0 and all attainable utility levels u. U = u (x) | x Rn + denotes the set of attainable utility levels. Thus, the domain of e () is Rn U . ++ As we have seen, if xh (p, u) solves this problem, the lowest expenditure necessary to achieve utility u at prices p will be exactly equal to the cost of the bundle xh (p, u), or e (p, u) = p xh (p, u) (8)

Consider the following mental experiment. If we x the level of utility the consumer is permitted to achieve at some arbitrary level u, how will his purchases of each good behave as we change the prices he faces? The hypothetical demand functions we are describing are often called compensated demand functions. These hypothetical demand functions are most commonly known as Hicksian demand functions. The solution, xh (p, u), to the expenditure-minimization problem is precisely the vector of Hicksian demands.

If u () is continuous and strictly increasing, then e (p, u) dened in (7) is 1. Zero when u takes on the lowest level of utility in U . 2. Continuous on its domain Rn U. ++ 3. For all p 0, strictly increasing and unbounded above in u. 4. Increasing in p. 5. Homogeneous of degree 1 in p. 6. Concave in p.

If, in addition, u () is strictly quasiconcave, we have 7. Shephards lemma: e (p, u) is dierentiable in p at p0, u0 with

p0 0, and

e p0, u0 pi

= xh i

0, u0 , p

i = 1, ..., n.

1/ Suppose u (x1, x2) = x1 + x2 , where 0 6= < 1.

s.t.

1/ u x1 + x2 = 0,

x1 0, x2 0. (9) (10)

Let v (p, u) and e (p, u) be the indirect utility function and expenditure function for some consumer whose utility function is continuous and strictly increasing. Then for all p 0, y 0, and u U : 1. e (p, v (p, y)) = y. 2. v (p, e (p, u)) = u Thus: e (p, u) = v 1 (p : u) v (p, y) = e1 (p : y) (11) (12)

By Example 2, v (p, y) = y (pr + pr )1/r 1 2 Thus, v (p, e (p, u)) = e (p, u) (pr + pr )1/r 1 2 Using Theorem 8, v (p, e (p, u)) = u Therefore e (p, u) (pr + pr )1/r = u 1 2 and e (p, u) = u (pr + pr )1/r 1 2 (17) (16) (15) (14) (13)

Marshallian vs. Hicksian Demand Functions Theorem 9: Duality Between Marshallian and Hicksian Demand Functions

Under Assumption 2 we have the following relations between the Hicksian and Marshallian demand functions for p 0, y 0, u U, and i = 1, ..., n: 1. xi (p, y) = xh (p, v (p, y)) i 2. xh (p, u) = xi (p, e (p, u)) i

We will see that if preferences, objectives, and circumstances are as we have modeled them to be, then demand behavior must display certain observable characteristics.

One then can test the theory by comparing these theoretical restrictions on demand behavior to actual demand behavior.

Under Assumption 2, the consumer demand function xi (p, y) , i = 1, ..., n, is homogeneous of degree zero in all prices and income, and it satises budget balancedness, p x (p, y) = y for all (p, y) .

We tend to think a consumer will buy more of a good when its price declines and less when its price increases, other things being equal. That this need not always be the case is illustrated in Fig. 1.19. What then - if anything - does the theory predict about how someones demand behavior responds to changes in (relative) prices? When the price of a good declines, there are two conceptually separate reasons why we expect some change in the quantity demanded.

First, that good becomes relatively cheaper compared to other goods - substitution eect (SE). When the price of any one good declines, the consumers total command over all goods is eectively increased - income eect (IE). The substitution eect is that (hypothetical) change in consumption that would occure if relative prices were to change to their new levels but the maximum utility the consumer can achieve were kept the same as before the price chenge. The income eect is then dened as whatever is left of the total eect after the substitution eect.

Let x (p, y) be the consumers Marshallian demand system. Let u be the level of utility the consumer achieves at prices p and income y. Then

{z TE } | {z SE }

IE

i, j = 1, ..., n.

Let xh (p, u) be the Hicksian demand for good i. Then i

xh (p, u) i 0, pi

i = 1, ..., n.

A good is called normal if consumption of it increases as income increases, holding prices constant. A good is called inferior if consumption of it declines as income increases, holding prices constant.

A decrease in the own price of a normal good will cause quantity demanded to increase. If an own price decrease causes a decrease in quantity demanded, the good must be inferior.

Let xh (p, u) be the consumers system of Hicksian demands and supi pose that e () is twice continuously dierentiable. Then

xh (p, u) xh (p, u) j i = , pj pi

i, j = 1, ..., n.

Important points:

Utility maximization requires expenditure minimization Marshallian and Hicksian demands are therefore closely related Marshallian demand functions are homogeneous of degree zero in prices and income satisfy budget balancedness satisfy the Slutsky equation Hicksian demands have negative own-substitution terms symmetric substitution terms

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