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LABORATORY STUDY TO

DETERMINE FLOW RESISTANCE


OF HVAC DUCT FITTING
FINAL REPORT
FOR 551-RP

Submitted to:

The American Society of


Heating, Refrigerating
and Air-Conditioning Engineers

Date: 31 October, 1990

Submitted by:

Patrick J. Brooks
Manager of Engineering
United McGill Corporation
Westerville, Ohio

COPYRIGHT
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING,
A"
^CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
i
LIE CIRCLE, ATLANTA, GA 30329

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objective
1.2 Fittings Tested
1.3 Test Equipment

3
4
4-5
18-19

2. TEST PROCEDURES AND CALCULATIONS


2.1 Elbows/Offsets
2.2 Orifice Inlet
2.3 Diverging Branch Fittings
2.4 Single-Flow Branch Fittings

19-26
26-27
27-28
28-30
30-31

3. TEST RESULTS
31
3.1 Plate 1, Elbow, 90, 5-Piece, Round
31
3.2 Plate 2, Elbow, Mitered,- Round
31-32
3.3 Plate 3, 30 Mitered Offset, Z-Shaped, Round
32
3.4 Plate 4, Orifice, Inlet Duct, Round
32-33
3.5 Plate 5, Elbow, 90, Radius without Vanes, Rectangular
33
3.6 Plate 6, Elbow, Mitered (90) with Vanes, Rectangular
34
3.7 Plate 7, 30 Mitered Offset, Z-Shaped, Rectangular
34
3.8 Plate 8, 30 Radius Offeet, Rectangular
34-35
3.9 Plate 9, Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
35-36
3.10 Plate 10, Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry . . . 36
3.11 Plate 11, Round Tap with Cushion Head
36
3.12 Scope 2.2 Work
37
3.13 Scope 2.3 Work
37-38
3.14 Pitot Tube Traverse vs Orifice Metering Station
38
4. DISCUSSION
4.1 Round Elbows and Offsets Loss Coefficients/Size Effect
4.2 Orifice Inlet
4.3 Rectangular Radius Elbows
4.4 Rectangular Mitered Elbows with Turning Vanes
4.5 Diverging Fittings
4.6 Round Tap with Cushion Head
4.7 Effect of Upstream and Downstream Diameters
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SPC 120P Recommendations
5.2 Recommendations for Additional Testing

38
39-40
40
40
. . . . 40-41
41
41
41-42
42
42-43
43-45

6. REFERENCES

46

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

47

TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd)


APPENDIX A Figures
APPENDIX B Tables/Graphs
APPENDIX C Sample Calculations/Spreadsheets
APPENDIX D Instrumentation
APPENDIX E Pictures

1. INTRODUCTION
There has long been discussion about the credibility of the fitting loss coefficient data in the
ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook chapter on duct design. A forum was conducted 26 June 1983
at the Annual ASHRAE meeting in Washington, D.C. to discuss the source and accuracy of the
data. A summary of the major comments made regarding the chapter included:
(1) Some coefficient data was developed or investigated over 50 years ago.
(2) The chapter has several inaccuracies and is incomplete.
(3) Variations were as much as -42% to +54% for a 6-inch elbowfromfour different sources.
Much of the loss coefficient data listed in the chapter originated from a translation of a
Russian manuscript (Idel'chik, 1966). The main reason for this was the lack of other information for
many of the fitting constructions. His handbook is a compilation of data checked satisfactorily by
laboratory studies but also includes data obtained by crude experiments, data obtained theoretically,
data obtained from approximate calculations, and other methods. Idel'chik felt that publishing all
data available was justified since "the accuracy with which conduits and components are manufactured
and installed under industrial conditions can differ considerably from installation to installation and
also from the laboratory conditions under which most coefficients were obtained." Idel'chik warns
in his FOREWORD, "it would have been better to delay the publication of this handbook until all
coefficients could have been checked experimentally by some standard method..."
It is also this researcher's opinion that loss coefficients established by standard methods of
testing in a laboratory environment will not necessarily ensure a universal loss coefficient for a given
construction. There are two main reasons for this: First, the loss coefficients are a strong function
of the manufacturers quality control for which there is only a limited amount of in the sheet metal
industry. Projecting edges, radius of curvature at take-offs, angle tolerences, etc. can cause wide
variations in loss coefficient data for fittings from different manufacturers. In fact, it is not unusual
to have a variation of 50 percent in data on smaller sizes where these manufacturing differences
have a larger impact. Second, the loss coefficient is also a function of the turbulence of airflow.
When establishing loss coefficients in a laboratory setting, fully developed airflow is necessary to get
repeatable and accurate data. This often means test velocities will be higher than those in real
installations. Flow disturbances are also minimal in laboratory test while in real installations it is
seldom that there are many diameters between fitting of junctions. These close coupling effects can
also increase the loss coefficient by over 50 percent. Thus laboratory measured coefficients can vary
considerably from those in the actual installation. So regardless of how reliable loss coefficient data
from laboratory tests are, the designer using the information must be responsible for variations from
the laboratory setting to the installed system.
An additional problem that was discussed at the 26 June, 1983 FORUM is the lack of a
standard for testing duct and fitting performance. Even if everything else was equal: construction,
flow conditions, etc., two researchers may not have used the same methods to develop the loss
coefficient data.

1.1 Objective
As a result of the FORUM it was decided that a CONSENSUS STANDARD should be
developed for all duct and fitting research for performance. A special project committee (SPC) 120P
was formed by ASHRAE's Technical Committee (TC) 5.2 to draft Laboratory Methods ofDetermining
Flow Resistance of Air Ducts and Fittings which is to become an ASHRAE standard.
In addition, CONSENSUS WORK STATEMENTS for accomplishing the fitting research
would be generated to obtain loss coefficients for important fittings. Initial research was also to be
used to help the SPC 120P committee develop the new standard. Because of the magnitude of the
number of fittings to be tested, the research was to be done in phases.
The objective of the initial research was threefold:
(1)

To determine the pressure loss coefficients of selected HVAC fittings and compare
to data in Chapter 33 of the 1985 Fundamentals Handbook

(2)

To extend fitting data in the Handbook

(3)

To provide data for use by SPC 120 in preparing an ASHRAE standard for
Laboratory Methods of Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings.

Research Project 551-RP was created to obtain these objectives.


1.2 Fittings Tested
The fittings tested in this initial research were selected by the oversight committee and are
shown in Tables 1 through 13.
In addition to determining loss coefficients for the different constructions, the 30 and 45,
10-inch mitered elbow of Plate 2 was to be used to establish the exit length required to eliminate the
influence of downstream pressure tap locations on the fitting loss determinations (see Table 2).
Also the 10-inch, 90, 5-piece, r/D = 1.0 elbow from Plate 1, and the 10-inch, 90, mitered
elbow of Plate 2 were tested to determine when the downstream pressure gradient of the duct
became equal to the upstream duct pressure gradient, varying both the upstream and downstream
piezometer pressure measurement locations. The original work statements only called to vary the
downstream locations, but research showed both caused changes (see Table 4).
Additional tests were added per the oversight committee's request to determine the accuracy
of a pitot traverse vs an orifice metering station (see Table 5).
Two vane constructions were to be tested in accordance with Plate 6 requirements (see Table
8); these were a Type 1 which was a single thickness vane with a trailing edge and a Type 2 which
is a double thickness vane without the trailing edge. Both types were to have a vane radius of 2
inches and vane spacing of V/z inches. The 551-RP Oversight Committee requested that the Type
1 vane be instead tested without the trailing edge; this is reflected in the data and coefficients. These
fittings were originally made incorrectly with a radius of 4.5 inches and spacing of 3 1/4 inches. These
4

were tested anyway and that data in included in the report along with the requested vane
configurations. The correct fittings for Plate 6 were also tested with flow in both directions.
The fittings for Plate 8 were originally constructed with the wrong angle. These were remade
but the original offsets with the incorrect angle were also tested (see Table 10).

TABLE 1. PLATE 1 TESTS

u
Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

Description
Elbow, 90, 5-Piece, Round

Date
Completed

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

6
6
6
6
10
10
10
10
14
14
14
14

r/D = 0.75
r/D = 1.0
r/D = 1.5
r/D = 2.0
r/D = 0.75
r/D = 1.0
r/D = 1.5
r/D = 2.0
r/D = 0.75
r/D = 1.0
r/D = 1.5
r/D = 2.0

02/08/89
02/08/89
02/08/89
02/08/89
10/20/88
10/19/88
10/18/88
10/17/88
09/22/88
09/26/88
09/26/88
09/27/88

TABLE 2. PLATE 2 AND EFFECT OF


DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE TAP LOCATION TESTS

m^
Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

6
6
6
10
10
10
10
.10
10
10
10
10
14
14
14

Description
Elbow, 90, Mitered, Round

30,
30,
30,
30,
45,
45,
45,
45,

piezometer-10
piezometer-15
piezometer-20
piezometer-25
piezometer-10
piezometer-15
piezometer-20
piezometer-25

30
45
90
diameters
diameters
diameters
diameters
diameters
diameters
diameters
diameters
90
30
45
90

downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream

Date
Completed
02/13/89
02/13/89
01/18/89
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
11/17/88
10/20/88
10/03/88
09/30/88
09/27/88

TABLE 3. PLATE 3 TESTS

\7 3

.:*/_ ^

ao'p

:D_
.3

Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

30, Mitered Offset, Z-Shaped,


Round .

Date
Completed

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

6
6
6
10
10
10
14
14
14

L/D = 1.0
L/D = 3.0
Minimum Offset, 2 Elbows
L/D = 1.0
L/D = 3.0
Minimum Offset, 2 Elbows
L/D = 1.0
L/D = 3.0
Minimum Offset, 2 Elbows

02/14/89
02/14/89
01/14/89
04/01/89
04/01/89
11/22/89
03/30/89
03/30/89
10/14/88

TABLE 4. PRESSURE GRADIENT TESTS

7~-r-

L-

w>C

Vary the upstream distance and downstream distance


of the piezometer stations from the test fitting
Pressure Gradient Test #13, 90 mitered elbow
Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

Upstream
Diameters

Downstream
Diameters

13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

Date
Completed
02/20/89
02/20/89
03/15/89
03/15/89 .
03/15/89
03/16/89
03/16/89
03/16/89
03/21/89
03/22/89
03/23/89
03/24/89

Pressure Gradient Test #29, 90, r/D = 1.0, elbow


Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

Upstream
Diameters

Downstream
Diameters

Date
Completed

29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.5
29.6
29.7
29.8
29.9
29.10
29.11
29.12

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

03/27/89
03/27/89
03/27/89
03/27/89
03/17/89
03/17/89
03/17/89
03/17/89
03/21/89
03/22/89
03/23/89
05/04/89

TABLES. PITOT TRAVERSE TESTS


Comparison of Pitot Traverse
used for Calculating Volume Rates
versus an Orifice Tube Metering Station
Pitot Tube Traverse Test
Overall
Test No.

Duct
Dimensions
(inches)

Description

Date
Completed

95

14

Comparison of Pitot
Traverse used for
Calculating Volume
Rates versus an
Orifice Tube
Metering Station

03/28/90

TABLE 6. PLATE 4 TESTS


0

1
* \

Overall
Test No.

Diameter
(inches)

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

6
6
6
6
10
10
10
10
14
14
14
14

<]

Description
Orifice, Inlet Duct, Round
Reference Data to both "O" and *SM
DJD =
DJD =
DJD DJD =
DJD =
Do/D =
DJD =
DJD =
DJD =
D./D =
DJD =
D./D =

10

0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

Date
Completed
05/30/89
06/01/89
06/02/89
05/26/89
05/25/89
05/24/89
06/19/89
05/23/89
05/18/89
05/18/89
05/22/89
05/18/89

TABLE 7. PLATE 5 TESTS

f^/KY\
<x

H
"I
r

Overall
Test No.

"1 1 1

Dimension
(inches)

Description
Elbow, 90, Radius w/o Vanes, Rectangular

Date
Completed

8x32
8x32
32x8
32x8

r/W = 0.75
r/W = 1.5
r/W = 0.75
r/W = 0.75
for Deflection
r/W = 1.5
r/W = 1.5
for Deflection
r/W = 0.75
r/W = 1.5
r/W = 0.75
for Deflection
r/W = 1.5
for Deflection

08/25/89
08/24/89
08/01/89
(not tested)

Plate 5
51B
52B
53
54

(Reinforced
55
56

32x8
32x8
(Reinforced

57
58
59

16x8
16x8
8x32

60

8x32

(Reinforced
(Reinforced

11

< 0.10 inch)


08/02/89
(not tested)
< 0.10 inch)
08/10/89
08/10/89
08/25/89
< 0.10 inch)
08/25/89
< 0.10 inch)

TABLE 8. PLATE 6 TESTS

1
H

Air
Flow

S^~
\
1-^.
1

i4-r
\1

0.\X

^n-ai
VANE

VANE

Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

Description
Elbow, 90, Mitered w/Vanes, Rectangular

Date
Completed

61*
62*
63B

8x32
8x32
8x32

08/30/89
08/30/89
10/03/89

63C

8x32

Vane Type 1, S = 3W, r = 4.5"


Vane Type 2, S = 3W, r = 4.5"
Vane Type 1, 3%", r = 2"
Vane Type 1, 3%", r = 2", Flow into opposite end
of elbow used in 63B

64B

8x32

Vane Type 2, S = 1%", r = 2"


Vane Type 2, S = Wi", r = 2", Flow into opposite
end of elbow used in 64B
64C
8x32
v
test added, not included in original work statement

10/03/89

12

10/03/89

10/03/89

TABLE 9. PLATE 7 TESTS

1.

S\*

v^

L /V

^~

y^

Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

Description
30, Mitered Offset, Z-Shaped, Rectangular

Date
Completed

65
66
67
68
69
70

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

L = 4 inch
L = 8 inch
L = 12 inch
L = 4 inch
L = 8 inch
L = 12 inch

09/15/89
09/15/89
08/29/89
10/16/89
10/13/89
10/12/89

13

TABLE 10. PLATE 8 TESTS

H.

ORIGINAL TESTS
Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

Description
Radius, Offset, Rectangular

Date
Completed

71
72
73
74
75
76

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

L = 4 inches, e = 17.2
L = 8 inches, e = 23.7
L = 12 inches, 6 = 24
L = 4 inches, 6 = 17.2
L = 8 inches, 0 = 22.9
L = 12 inches, e = 23.7

09/18/89
09/15/89
09/15/89
11/02/89
10/13/89
10/13/89

RETEST
Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

Description
9 30, Radius Offset, Rectangular

Date
Completed

71A
72A
73A
74A
75A
76A

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

L =4 inches
L = 8 inches
L = 12 inches
L = 4 inches
L = 8 inches
L = 12 inches

01/22/90
01/19/90
01/19/90
01/18/90
01/17/90
01/17/90

14

TABLE 11. PLATE 9 TESTS

Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

Description
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap

77
78
19
80
81
82

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

D = 6 inches
D = 10 inches
D = 14 inches
D = 6 inches
D = 10 inches
D = 14 inches

15

Date
Completed
04/26/90
04/27/90
05/02/90
04/20/90
04/17/90
04/12/90

TABLE 12. PLATE 10 TESTS

J
r

_*j
PLAN

Overall
Test No.

Dimension
(inches)

83
84
85
86
87
88

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

|V^

4"

V-

Description
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to
Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
8x4
8x6
8x8
8x4
8x6
8x8

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Tap
Tap
Tap
Tap
Tap
Tap

Date
Completed
05/08/90
05/14/90
05/21/90
04/06/90
03/26/90
03/19/90

TABLE 13. PLATE 11 TESTS

Overall
Test No.

Tap
Dimension
(inches)

Description
Fitting Tap with Cushion Head off
16 x 8 Rectangular Duct

Date
Completed

89
90
91
92
93
94

10
10
10
14
14
14

4-inch Cushion
7-inch Cushion
10-inch Cushion
4-inch Cushion
9-inch Cushion
14-inch Cushion

12/07/89
01/12/90
01/12/90
12/07/89
12/06/89
12/06/89

17

1.3 Test Equipment


Metering Tubes
An OGASGO Oil and Gas Specialties company orifice metering tube was used to measure
the main air flow rate during the tests and to calibrate a secondary airflow instrument. The
specifications are given in Appendix D pages D.l and D.2.
A secondary orifice metering station was constructed as shown in Figure D.3. This tube was
calibrated against the OGASCO metering station.
Meriam Instrument Orifice plates were used in both of the above orifice meters. The
specifications for these plates are given on pages D.4 through D.6.
Piezometer Stations
Piezometer stations were built according to Figure D.3a and D.3b on page D.7. Four taps
were spaced at 90 intervals at a distance one diameter from the upstream flanges. Tap
specifications used are given in Figure D.4 on page D.8. A piezometer ring as suggested by
the SPC 120P committee was used to connect the taps as shown in Figure D.5 on page D.9.
Thermometers
Thermometers were from Weksler Instruments with specifications as shown on page D.10 for
a catalog No. AA6L-7 with 7 inch scale size, 0-120F, and 1F increments.
Manometers
Three Dwyer Durablock Inclined-Vertical Manometers were used to measure static pressures
or pressure differentials.
These included Models No. 421-5, 421-10 and 422-23.
Specifications for these models are given on page D.ll.
Two Meriam Instruments inclined manometers were also used to measure static or differential
pressure. These manometers have aO-12 in. wg range, 0.01 in. wg scale markings and 0.01
in. wg accuracy.
When necessary, a Meri-Cal digital manometer Model No. DP200I was used to measure static
or differential pressure as required. Specifications for the Meri-Cal are given on page D.12.
Hook Gauge
A Dwyer Hook Gauge Model 1425-12 was used to calibrate the manometers.
specifications for the hook gauge are given on page D.13.
Barometer
The specifications for the barometer used are given on page D.14.
18

The

Blower
The blower used as the air movement device was a Buffalo Forge SW35AW Centrifugal
Exhaust Fan with a 10 hp AC Drive Train with Exit Damper controls, 10000 CFM Maximum
Airflow/10 in. wg Maximum Static Pressure.
MALCO Hole Cutter
A MALCO hole cutter equipped with a mill-type cutting bit was purchased to form orifice
holes as part of the Plate 4 test requirements.

2. TEST PROCEDURES AND CALCULATIONS


As part of the research was to aide the SPC120P committee in developing a standard method
of determining flow resistance of air ducts and fittings, some of the required lengths and velocity
ranges changed as the standard evolved. When work began, Draft 3 of the standard had been
written. At the time of this report the committee is currently reviewing Draft 8b. The procedures
detailed reflect those used, not necessarily those which are in the current standard.
The general test procedure was to determine the zero length dynamic loss of the fitting, then
reduce the data to a loss coefficient through either regression analysis or for some fittings, by dividing
by the sections local velocity pressure. The regression analysis was used for single-flow fittings while
the second method was used for divided flow fittings. In either case, the friction loss of the duct to
the center line of the fitting was subtracted before determining the dynamic loss or loss coefficient.
Procedures outlined in the SPC 120P standard were used to determine the friction loss rate of the
various sizes of duct. The following general procedure was used for all tests:
(1)

Set up the test in accordance with the then current draft of the SPC 120P Standard. All
instruments had already been calibrated.

(2)

Reinforce the duct for maximum internal static pressure according to the guidelines and
standards referenced in the ASHRAE Handbook, 1988 Equipment Volume. Chapter 1, Duct
Construction.

(3)

Establish the minimum test volumetric flow rate. Seal and leak test the system so that the
total leakage is less than 0.5% of the minimum test flow rate.

(4)

Leak check the pressure measuring lines to insure the lines are pressure tight.

(5)

Record a complete description of the test and test setup as well as instruments used.

(6)

Adjust the flow control device to generate the needed volumetric flow rate for a test point
and establish equilibrium conditions.

19

(7)

At the start of the test record the time, the ambient dry-bulb temperate (t*,), ambient wetbulb temperature (t^,), ambient barometric pressure (pb) and dry-bulb temperature at the exit
of the duct (td).

(8)

Record measurements required to determine the volumetric flow rate.

(9)

Simultaneously, when possible, record pressure(s) or pressure drop(s) required to establish


the test duct or fitting performance for the volumetric flow rate measured in Step (8).

(10)

Re-establish a new volumetric flow rate and equilibrium point per Step (6), then repeat Steps
(8) and (9).

(11)

Repeat Step (10) for all required test points.

(12)

Repeat Step (7) at the end of the test.

FLOW RATE EQUATIONS


The equations to calculate the volume rate of airflow through the main orifice metering tube
was not taken from the SPC 120P standard as it had not yet been reviewed. Instead it was from
Fluid Meters, Sixth Edition, 1971, published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Refer
to Figure A.1 for pressure and temperatures nomenclature.
Mass Flow Rate at Orifice Metering Stations

m5 = Q.151M20Y0FJC{p^p0pJs

HI

where:
rhs = mass flow rate at the orifice metering station, Ibjtrda
d0

= orifice diameter, inch

Y0

= expansion factor, dimensionless

Fa = thermal expansion factor of the metal = 0.998 for stainless steel


K = flow coefficient, dimensionless

20

p5

= density of the air at plane 5, lb^ft3

Ap0

= measured pressure differential across the orifice plate, in. wg.

pw

= density of water in the manometer at the test conditions, lbn/ft3

Expansion Factor
Y0 = 1 - (0.41+0.35p4)x/y

[2]

where:
P

= ratio of diameters <\JDS

X = differential pressure ratio, ^pJip^ + ^-^lp^

= ratio of specific heats of the gas = 1.41 for air

pb

= ambient barometric pressure, in. Hg.

Flow coefficient, Flanged Taps


K = KeJ*(\+KJRe^

[3]

where:
KcKtj
Re^

= coefficients for flanged taps, which are functions of d0 and D5


= Reynold's Number referenced to the orifice diameter

For the flanged orifice main flow metering tube, D5 = 13.3760 inches. Based on this dimension the
coefficients for Equation 3 are calculated for the orifice plates used as:
21

d0

(inches)

*"V

3.5024

0.2618

0.5984

726.25

6.5549

0.4893

0.6201

1250.96

9.6027

0.7179

0.6973

4512.13

Flow Coefficient, D and D/2 Taps

K, = KoJ) + 1000^/CP Re J,0.5

[4]

where:
KotKt

= coefficients for D and D/2 tap, which are functions of d0

For the D and D/2 taps orifice metering tube, D5 = 13.7235 inches. Based on this dimension the
coefficients for Equation 4 are calculated for the orifice plates used as:
dc {inches)

3.5024

0.2552

0.5961

0.0041

6.5549

0.4769

0.6158

0.0041

9.6027

0.6997

0.6956

0.0041

eJ>

Because Reynold's Number is a function of the flow rate, an equation to estimate its value for use
in Equation [3] and [4] was used.
Estimated Reynold's

Re^

Number

= 13630CKW, ( p 5 A p / ( l - p 44\0J
)'

[5]

Calculating the actual Reynold's Number did not significantly affect the final value of the flow
coefficient.
Density of Air at Plane x

P* = Pc

'*
tdx

459

-7
* 459.7

Psx

13.63^'

[6]

13.63/?.,

22

where:
po

= density of the ambient air, Ibjtt3

do ~ dry-bulb temperature of the ambient air, F

pa

= static pressure at Plane x, in. wg

The density at Plane 5 can be calculated using Equation 6, p^ and t^.


Density ofAmbient Air
pg = 70.73<p6-0.378/>p / [R^

* 459.7)]

where:
p

= partial vapor pressure of the ambient air, in. Hg

R = gas constant for air = 53.35 ft-lb/Ib.-R0


Partial Vapor Pressure
PP=Pe-

Pt <!*, ~ U /

2731

where:
pt
t^

= partial vapor pressure at saturation of the ambient air, in. Hg

= wet-bulb temperature of the ambient air, F

Partial Vapor Pressure at Saturation


2
* = 0.000296*wo - 0.0159* w + 0.41

rp,

23

Density of Water
An equation was curve fit to data supplied by Dwyer Instruments Inc. The equation is valid between
50F and 110F water temperature, t^ At steady state conditions ^ = t^ and:
p w = 62.195 + 0.1218 x 10 1 t^ - 0.17493 x 10"3 & + 0.33429 x 10* &

[10]

FRICTION LOSS OF DUCT


The friction loss per 100 ft. of duct is usually given by the Darcey-Weisbach equation:
Darcey Weisbach Equation

DJ12'
where:
Ap1>2 = friction loss of the duct being tested (see Figure A.2), in. wg
/
Lla

= friction factor of test duct, dimensionless


= length of test duct, ft.

D = hydraulic diameter of test duct, inches


pvl

= velocity pressure of test duct.

The friction factor, f, can be estimated from a Moody diagram as a function of the Reynold's Number
and surface roughness. The surface roughness for the test duct may not be the published value,
especially if joints are part of the system. The duct friction loss should be measured for the length
of duct used in the fittings test prior to testing the fittings. Because the friction pressure loss will not
vary exactly as the square of the velocity (as implied by the Darcey-Weisbach equation) a regression
analysis should be done for an equation in the form of:

24

Friction Loss Equation

[12]

'%'>(!
where:
V

= the average velocity, fpm

Velocity
Vx = Qx/Ax

[13]

where:
Qx

= volume rate of flow at cross-section x, cfm

Ax

= area of cross-section x, sq. ft.

Velocity Pressure
/ v *
Pvx = P*
V1097)

[14]

Volume Rate of Flow


Qx = *JPX

[15]

Taking logarithms of both sides of Equation 12 gives an equation of the form


Equation of a Straight Line
y = mx + b

[16]

25

where:
y = Log (Ap u )

< vx

x = Log

= n, the slope of the regression line

Because pt will be relatively constant over the test conditions, a regression of the A p u and V data
will yield "n" from the slope (directly) and f

from the intercept.

2.1 Elbows/Offsets
Plates 1 through 3 and 5 through 8 are nonjunction duct fittings which used a test setup
similar to that shown in Figure A.3. The friction was measured prior to testing the fitting using the
methods previously described. A slip coupling was inserted where the test fitting was to be located
when the friction loss was characterized. The fitting zero length dynamic pressure loss was calculated
using Equation 17.
Nonjunction Fitting, Ducted, Zero length Dynamic Loss
Apia = A/>78 - (Ap7l + Ap2g)

[17]

where:
A/?1>2 = zero length dynamic loss of the nonjunction duct fitting, in. wg
Ap7g

= measured static pressure differential between Planes 7 and 8, in. wg

Ap7 x + Ajp^g = the total friction loss for the length L^, + Lj,g, calculated using Equation 12.

26

The test procedure is described in the previous section. Ten data points were recorded for
each fitting, and Ap u was plotted versus the velocity pressure. The loss coefficient of the fittings was
determined by a regression of an equation in the form of Equation 18.
Defining Equation for Nonfunction Fitting, Ducted, Loss Coefficient

where:
C

= the fitting zero length dynamic loss coefficient, dimensionless

pvl

= velocity pressure at.Plane 1, calculated using Equation 14, in. wg

Equation 18 shows that the loss coefficient, C, is the slope of a regression line of A p u versus
pv, with zero intercept.
2.2 Orifice Inlet
Plate 4 fittings are duct mounted entry fittings. The test setup is shown in Figure A.4. The
friction loss of the duct had been measured in previous tests. Equation 19 is used to calculate the
zero length dynamic fitting loss.
Duct Mounted Entry Fitting, Zero length Dynamic Fitting Loss
A

^U = Ps?

Pv, ~ Pi.i

[19]

where:
Ap w = zero length dynamic loss of the duct mounted entry fitting, in. wg
pa7 = measured static pressure at Plane 7, in. wg
pv7 = velocity pressure at Plane 7 calculated using Equation 13, in. wg
Ap2,7 = friction loss for the length, L ^ calculated using Equation 12, in. wg
The test procedure is described in the introduction to Section 2. Ten data points were
recorded for each inlet fitting. The zero length dynamic pressure loss was plotted versus both the
orifice velocity pressure and the duct velocity pressure. The inlet orifice loss coefficient was
determined from the slope of a regression line of both plots using equations of the form shown in
Equations 20 and 21.
27

Defining Equation for Duct Mounted Entry Fitting Loss Coefficient, Referenced to the Orifice Velocity
Pressure
Pi* = CefiPvJ>

[20]

where:
C

p^

= loss coefficient referenced to the orifice velocity pressure, dimensionless

= orifice velocity pressure, calculated using Equation 14, in. wg

Defining Equation for Duct Mounted Entry Fitting Loss Coefficient, Referenced to the Downstream Duct
Velocity Pressure

where:
C

= loss coefficient referenced to the downstream duct velocity pressure, dimensionless

pV2

= velocity pressure at Plane 2 calculated using Equation 14, in. wg

2.3 Diverging Branch Fittings


Plates 9 and 10 are diverging flow fittings. The test setup is shown in Figure A.5 with the
second orifice metering station downstream of the branch. Both the main and branch portions of the
fittings have associated loss coefficients so the zero length dynamic loss of both the main and branch
sections must be determined.
Diverging Flow Fitting, Main, Zero Length Dynamic Pressure Loss
A

Pll

- A

P*7fi

PV7 ~ P* - AP2fi

P21

where:

28

Apt,

= zero length dynamic loss of the diverging flow fitting main, in. wg

Ap i7g

= measured static pressure differential, between Planes 7 and 8, in. wg

pv7

= velocity pressure at Plane 7 calculated using Equation 14, in. wg

Prt = velocity pressure at Plane 8 calculated using Equation 14, in. wg

A/>^g = friction loss for the length L^g, calculated using Equation 12, in. wg
Diverging Flow Fitting Branch, Zero Length Dynamic Pressure Loss
A

*U " APs7<> +PVJ -P#-

P31

P3S

where:
Aj7j 3 = zero-length dynamic fitting loss of the diverging flow fitting main, in. wg

&ps7a = measured static pressure differential, between Planes 7 and 8, in. wg


p^

velocity pressure at Plane 9, calculated using equation 14, in. wg

A/3>9 = friction loss for the length L^, calculated using Equation 12, in. wg
The test procedure is described in the introduction to Section 2. However, to fully
characterize the fitting a velocity ratio was established by adjusting volume dampers in the
downstream main and branch sections. With the velocity ratio set, the main flow rate was adjusted
for ten values. Data was recorded for each flow condition. After the initial ten sets of data were
recorded, the dampers were again adjusted to establish a new velocity ratio and the flow rate was
again adjusted ten times and data recorded for each flow condition. This was repeated until ten
velocity ratios had been established, each with ten main flow conditions (100 total sets of data points).
The loss coefficients for the main and branch were calculated for the test condition only. A linear
regression was not useful since the loss coefficient varied as a function of the area and flow rate
ratios.

29

Diverging Flow Fitting, Main Loss Coefficient


c

s = LPulP*

[24]

where:
Cs

= the loss coefficient of the main, dimensionless

pv2

= the velocity pressure at Plane 2 calculated using Equation 14

Diverging Flow-Fitting, Branch Loss Coefficient


Cb - A j y / / ^

[25]

where:
C.

= the loss coefficient of the branch, dimensionless

pv3

= velocity pressure at Plane 3 calculated using Equation 14.

For the diverging flow fittings, the main downstream mass flow rate was calculated by subtracting the
mass flow rate in the branch from the main upstream mass flow rate. Equations 13 through 15 were
then applied to determine the velocity pressures.
2.4 Single-Flow Branch Fittings
Plate 11 was'a single-flow branch fitting where the duct downstream of the fitting had a
different cross-section than the upstream duct. The test setup was similar to the diverging flow setup
of Figure A 5 with the main capped off. The equation used to calculate the zero length dynamic
pressure loss is the same as Equation 23. Equation 25 defines the loss coefficient of this type of
fitting and a regression of pv3 vs Ap u for ten flow conditions yields Q as the slope of the line.
2.5 Error Analysis
The 8th draft of the SPC 120P Standard (Laboratory Methods of Determining Flow Resistance
of Air Ducts and Fittings, May 1990) describes the type of errors which can occur during laboratory
tests. For single tests only an estimate of the error is possible. This requires knowing the uncertainty
interval of a given measurement and the odds of falling within this measurement. This data is usually
supplied with manufacturers' equipment as calculation data or is known from industry standards for
30

rigid construction specifications. The uncertainty for a final result is approximated by combining all
of the estimated error for each testing device into a single total error by quadrature or root-mean
square.

3. TEST RESULTS
The test results are presented for each Plate in this section. Graphs of the zero length
dynamic loss are given in Appendix B.l. Tables of loss coefficients are given in Appendix B.2.
3.1 Plate 1. Elbow. 90. 5-Piece. Round
Figure B.l.l, B.1.2, and B.1.3 are graphs which compare elbows of the same diameter but with
different r/D ratios. The 90 mitered elbows from Plate 2 were added to the curves for comparison.
The same trend was apparent for all sizes. The mitered elbow was consistently a very poor
performer, more than doubling the loss of the next best fitting, the r/D = 0.75 elbow. The r/D =
1.0 elbow showed improved performance over the r/D = 0.75 elbow and the r/D = 1.5 elbow again
improved performance over the r/D = 1.0 elbow by about the same magnitude. However, the r/D
= 2.0 elbow did not show a significant improvement over the r/D = 1.5 elbow.
The elbow performance was compared versus data given in the 1985 ASHRAE
FUNDAMENTALS, Chapter 33, as well as for a size effect. Graphs of these results are given in
Figures B.1.4 through B.1.7. Figure B.8 graphs the relationship between diameter and loss
coefficients. The loss coefficients for Plate 1 were also plotted as a function of Reynolds' Number
in Figure B.1.9. The data for Plate 1 is also presented in Table B.2.1 as loss coefficients. The
ASHRAE data is given as a single loss coefficient. The measured values bracket the ASHRAE value.
The accuracy of the very low loss fittings is questionable. Although the velocities were above
the minimum required of 1800 fpm, the measured pressure loss was not greater than 0.3 in. wg until
the velocity reached approximately 3000 fpm for the 14-inch, r/D = 1.5 and r/D = 2.0 elbows. In fact
the maximum pressure loss was just greater than 0.60 in. wg at 4000 fpm. The relatively high friction
loss compared to the fitting loss, which is subtracted from measured pressure loss, also contributes
to the potential inaccuracy. This same effect is seen with the 14-inch, 30 mitered elbow, which is
discussed in the next section.
3.2 Plate 2. Elbow. Mitered. Round
The mitered elbows tested from Plate 2 were compared for elbows of the same size, but
different angles as shown in Figures B.1.10, B.l.ll, and B.1.12. Again an obvious trend developed;
the 90 mitered elbows pressure losses are four to ten times those of the 45 elbows. The 30 mitered
elbows show even less pressure loss.
The mitered elbow performance data is also compared against ASHRAE loss coefficients and
for a size effect. Figures B.1.13, B.1.14, and B.1.15 are graphs of the mitered elbows, with the same
angle of construction, but varying diameters. Figure B.1.16 graphs the relationship between diameter
and loss coefficient. The loss coefficients for Plate 2 are also plotted as a function of Reynolds'
Number in Figure B.1.17. Table B.2.2 presents the data in loss coefficient form. The data for the
30 elbows was erratic as seen on Figure B.l.ll. The 6-inch, 30 elbow has a higher loss coefficient
31

than the 10-inch elbow, but lower zero length dynamic pressure losses when the friction loss was
subtracted from the measures pressure drop. The low loss of the fitting, even at high velocities, was
such that the accuracy becomes questionable. In fact the 14-inch, mitered, 30 elbow showed a
negative loss coefficient (but very close to zero). Figures B.1.12 and B.1.13 do show a size effect and
the ASHRAE data is bracketed.
3.3 Plate 3. 30 Mitered Offset. Z-Shaved. Round
The offset performance data for Plate 3 is graphed in Figures B.1.18 through B.1.24. Figures
B.1.18, B.1.19, and B.1.20 show comparisons of offsets of the same diameter but varying L/D ratios.
There was not an obvious pattern to the data. The 6-inch offset shows the L/D = 3.0 as having the
worst performance, followed by the L/D = min (0.71) offset, then the L/D = 1.0 offset. The 10-inch
offset shows the L/D = min (0.65) as being the worst performer, followed by the L/D = 1.0 and L/D
= 3.0 while the 14-inch offset shows the L/D = 1.0 as being the worst performer followed by the L/D
= 3.0 and L/D = min (0.53). The constructions tested are shown in Figure A.6. A viable
explanation for the difference in patterns for the different sizes is that the friction loss is affected by
the different constructions. The friction loss may actually be higher or lower than that measured
because of air turbulence caused by the Gtting constructions. However, it should be noted that these
are also relatively good (low loss) performing fittings and most of the pressure loss measurements
were very low. The 10-inch and 14-inch offset tests did not have a measured pressure loss greater
than 0.3 in. wg until the velocity was greater than 2700 fpm. The 6-inch offset test did not have a
measured pressure loss greater than 0.3 in. wg until the velocity was close to 2400 fpm (the upper
range for the 6-inch test) and in fact the L/D = 1.0, 6-inch offset did not have a measured pressure
drop greater than 0.3 in. wg even at 2600 fpm. So again the accuracy of the low pressure loss fitting
is questionable because of the relatively high friction loss being subtracted from the measured values.
The L/D = min and L/D = 3.0 offsets established the same pattern as the elbows in that the
smaller sizes are worse performers (see Figures B.1.22 and B.1.23). However, the L/D = 1.0 offset
exhibited a peculiar phenomena (Figure B.1.21) in that this size effect was reversed. The 6-inch
offset was the best performer while the 14-inch offset was the worst. Again the data brackets the
published values given by the ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter. The relationship between diameter
and loss coefficient is shown in Figure B.1.24. Table B.2.3 lists the loss coefficients for the various
constructions.
3.4 Plate 4. Orifice. Inlet Duct. Round
These zero length dynamic pressure losses for Plate 4 are graphed in Figures B.1.25 through
B.1.37. When the zero length dynamic pressure loss is plotted versus the duct velocity pressure, the
loss coefficients tend to be quite high. Up to almost 90 for the D./D = 0.4 orifice inlet. There are
significant differences in the loss coefficients as a function of D./D but there is no significant
difference in loss coefficients as a function of duct diameter.
The loss coefficient data for D ,/D = 0.6 presented in the ASHRAE manual is approximately
that measured by these experiments. ASHRAE data is not presented for Do/D = 0.4. (ASHRAE
data is presented as A ./A not Do/D; values were converted for this report). Table B.2.4 data list
the loss coefficients referenced to both the duct velocity pressure and the orifice velocity pressure.

32

The Plate 4, Orifice, Inlet Duct, Round required that the orifice hole be formed by a
MALCO hole cutter equipped with a mill-type cutting bit out of a 16 gauge material. After
contacting a MALCO representative, we found that the hole cutter should only be used on 20 gauge
or lighter material. This information was passed on to Glen Brower, chairman of the Oversight
Committee, who, via a telephone conversation on 28 November, 1988, verbally approved the use of
20 gauge material.
3.5 Plate 5. Elbow. 90. Radius without Vanes. Rectangular
The original work statement included testing the 32 x 8, r/W = 0.75 and r/W = 1.5 elbows
without reinforcement and again with enough reinforcement to limit the elbow wall deflection to 0.10
in. However, when those elbows were tested neither had deflection greater than 0.10 inch without
reinforcement. In fact, the deflection from 0 (zero) of the 32 x 8 elbow, with r/W 0.75 was only
about 0.001 inch at 9 in. wg. (leakage pressure; actual test pressure at the elbow was less than 1 in.
wg). The 32 x 8, r/W =1.5 elbow only deflected 0.06 inch at over 10 in. wg (again a leakage test
pressure; actual test pressure was less than 0.5 in. wg). Because of the minimal unreinforced
deflection, the elbows were not retested with reinforcement.
Instead it was felt that the 8 x 32 elbows (both r/W = 0.75 and r/W = 1.5) should be tested
with reinforcement since there is a much larger flat surface than on the 32 x 8 elbows. During these
tests deflection was measured for each flow rate. However, even on these the unreinforced elbows
deflection never exceeded 0.10 inch. Reinforcement was placed on the elbows anyway and they were
again tested. The reinforcements were placed at the 45 radius for the r/W = 0.75 elbow and at the
30 and 60 radius locations for the r/W = 1.5 elbow. The reinforcements essentially only seemed
to deform the original shape of the elbow although deflection was even more minimal. The
deformation seemed to increase the loss coefficients slightly although the pressure losses of both
reinforced and unreinforced were with each others error limits.
The 8 x 32, r/W = 1.5 elbow shows extremely low values of coefficients (close to zero) on
both the reinforced and unreinforced test. Although the coefficients probably are not negative, the
low values of measured pressure tend to produce higher percentage errors and as in previous reports,
very low loss fittings as difficult to characterize accurately.
The performance data for Plate 5 is graphed in Figures B.1.38 through B.1.44. Figures B.1.38
through B.1.40 show comparisons of same size elbows with varying r/W ratios as well as with and
without reinforcement. The loss coefficients for the r/W = 0.75 elbows were much higher than the
loss coefficients for the r/W = 1.5 for all sizes tested.
The data is compared for the same r/W ratio in Figures B.1.41 through B.1.44. The data for
32 x 8 and 8 x 32 elbows is graphed for comparison with the 16 x 8 data (Figures B.1.41 and B.1.43)
and again by themselves (Figures B.1.42 and B.1.44). ASHRAE values for these calculations are also
graphed.
A comparison with ASHRAE data shows notable differences. Only the 32 x 8 r/W = 1.5 data
is close to the ASHRAE published values. This is seen on both graphs and Table B.2.5 which list
the loss coefficients.

33

3.6 Plate 6. Elbow. Mitered (90) with Vanes. Rectangular


The zero length dynamic pressure losses for Plate 6 are plotted in Figure B.1.45 and B.1.46.
The loss coefficients are listed in Table B.2.6.
Two vane constructions were to be tested in accordance with Plate 6 requirements; these were
a Type 1 which was a single thickness vane with a trailing edge and a Type 2 which is a double
thickness vane without the trailing edge. Both types were to have a vane radius of 2 inches and vane
spacing of IV2 inches. The Oversight Committee requested that the Type 1 vane be instead tested
without the trailing edge; this is reflected in the data and coefficients. The fittings were originally
made incorrectly with a radius of 4.5 inches and spacing of 3Vi inches. These were tested anyway and
the data is reported in Table B.1.6 along with the requested vane configurations and is also included
in the graph of Figure B.1.45. The correct fittings were tested with flow in both directions. Six total
tests are reflected in Table B.2.6.
The 3V4-inch vane spacing, 4.5-inch radius elbows show higher loss coefficients than ASHRAE
reports for the double-thickness vanes. The Type 1 and Type 2 vane coefficients for the 3J/4-inch
vane spacing, 4.5-inch radius elbows were relatively close when compared to the differences between
the Type 1 and Type 2 for the 2-inch radius, lVWnch spacing vanes. The 3V4-inch radius, 4.5-inch
spacing vane data is plotted in Figure B.1.46. The Type 2 vanes are much less efficient than the Type
1 vanes for the 2-inch radius, lV2-inch spaced vanes, with loss coefficients of 0.34 and 0.38 compared
to 0.11 and 0.08.
When comparing the elbows with the 3V4-inch radius 4.5-inch vane spacing, with the 2-inch
radius, l^-inch vane spacing for the Type 1 vanes, the 1-inch radius, P/i-inch vane spacing is much
more efficient. However the Type 2 vanes do not show much difference between the vane
construction although the 2-inch radius, lV^-inch spacing are still more efficient.
3.7 Plate 7. 30 Mitered Offset. Z-Shaped. Rectangular
The zero length dynamic pressure losses for Plate 7 are graphed in Figures B.1.47 and B.1.48.
The loss coefficients are listed in Table B.2.7.
There is no available ASHRAE data to compare with the Rectangular, 30 Mitered Offset,
Z-shaped fitting. Data for all six tests are plotted in Figure B.1.47 for comparison. However,
because of the narrow tested flow ranges, the 32 x 8 data was regraphed on an expanded scale in
Figure B.1.48.
The loss coefficients in Table B.2.7 and data graphed in Figures B.1.47 and B.1.48 show the
4-inch and 8-inch offsets to have low and close loss coefficients while the 12-inch offset loss
coefficients are higher.
3.8 Plate 8. 30 Radius Offset. Rectangular
The zero length dynamic pressure losses for Plate 8 are graphed in Figures B.1.49 through
B.1.52. The loss coefficients are listed in Table B.2.8.

34

The original Plate 8 specifications did not call out either the offset angle or the offset length.
The Oversight Committee suggested using 30 offsets and these were subsequently ordered from a
local contractor. Unfortunately the contractor did not adhere to the 30. The data in Figures B.1.49
and B.1.50 show the constructed angles. The fittings were remade and retested with the 30 angles.
Figures B.1.51 and B.1.52 show data for the 30 angle offsets. The original angles were less
than 30 and show much lower coefficients. The original angles also varied by fitting. The retested
fitting shows a consistent pattern of higher loss coefficients for smaller offset dimensions. Also the
smaller cross-section fittings 16 x 8 show a higher loss coefflcient. There was no available ASHRAE
data with which to compare the results.
3.9 Plate 9. Divermm Tee. Rectangular Main to Round Tap
The zero length loss coefficients for Plate 9, are graphed in Figures B.1.53 through B.1.57.
The loss coefficients are listed in Tables B.2.9 through B.2.14.
The data presented in Tables B.2.9 through B.2.14 are the average loss coefficient for each
of the fittings tested at the respective flow rate ratios, for both the branch and the straight-through.
The ASHRAE coefficients had to be converted for comparisons because they are referenced to the
common rather than their respective sections. The following equations were used to convert the loss
coefficients.

'bt

C =

from

'b,c

[26]

' ^
\"b)

C. =

YP

(Ae\

(Q*

LV^/

\Vcy

from ^ 2
V \

[27]

Several ASHRAE entries in Tables B.2.9 through B.2.14 are "N/A" because they were not
within the currently available range. Part of the project was to fill out the loss coefficient table,
however.
The individual data points had potential for large errors as shown by the error bars on the
graph of all loss coefficients in Figures B.1.53 and B.1.54 because very low velocities often occurred
in the branch. These errors tend to be minimized though, when averaging ten data points for each
flow rate ratio. The resultant average values of loss coefficients, and error bars representing the
standard deviation of the data (of the loss coefficients and flow rate ratios) are graphed in Figures
B.1.55 and B.1.56.
Observation of the results show the branch loss coefficient is a function of the branch to
common area ratio. As the area ratio increases so does the branch loss coefficient for a given flow
rate ratio (QJQC). The loss coefficient curve remained fairly constant for the straight-through loss
35

which had a constant area ratio of A^A,. = 1.0 for all Gttings.
The test results show higher loss coefficients for both the branch and straight-through sections
than the ASHRAE data indicates (from 1985 ASHRAE Handbook, Fitting 6-26, pg. 33.45). Where
comparisons could be made the branch coefficients measured from the tests were generally about 20
to 50 percent higher than in the ASHRAE Handbook, while the straight-through coefficients were
over twice the value given in the Handbook.
3.10 Plate 10. Diverging Tee. Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
The zero length loss coefficients for Plate 10 are plotted in Figures B.1.57 through B.1.60.
The loss coefficients are listed in Tables B.2.15 through B.2.20.
The data presented in Tables B.2.15 through B.2.20 are also the average loss coefficients for
each of the fittings tested at the respective flow rate ratios, for both the branch and straight-through.
The ASHRAE coefficients were determined as given above for Plate 9, but for Fitting 6-29, pg. 33.46
of the Handbook.
The ASHRAE entries in Tables B.2.15 through B.2.20 which are "N/A" are outside of the
range of data presented in the 1985 Handbook.
Also there is potential for large errors as shown by the error bars in the graph of all loss
coefficients in Figures B.1.57 and B.1.58. The errors are minimized through averaging data at
common flow rate ratios. The resultant curves of averaged data are graphed in Figures B.1.59 and
B.1.60. The curves are smooth and the error bars, representing the standard deviation of the data
are small.
These results also show the loss coefficients are functions of the area ratios. As the area ratio
increases, so does the loss coefficient. The straight-through loss coefficient curve shows similar results
as for Plate 9 as well, with a fairly constant curve for all Gttings tested.
When comparing the data in B.2.15 through B.2.20 with ASHRAE values, the branch
coefficients are generally slightly lower. However, the straight-through losses are again over twice
as high as the ASHRAE data shows, but they are close to the values calculated for the straightthrough sections of Plate 9.
3.11 Plate 11. Round Tap with Cushion Head
The zero length dynamic pressure losses for Plate 11 are graphed in Figures B.1.61 and
B.1.62. The loss coefficients are listed in Table B.2.21.
The loss coefficients for Plate 11 are plotted for different cushion head lengths, L in Figure
B.1.61 and B.1.63.
The zero length dynamic pressure losses for the cushion head of 4 inches and the cushion of
1 diameter were very close in magnitude, while a cushion head at the average of these two values (L
= 7 inches for the 10-inch tap and L = 9 inches for the 14-inch tap) was over 25% higher in both
cases. There was no ASHRAE data available for comparison.
36

3.12 Scope 2.2 Work


The 30 and 45, 10-inch, mitered elbows of Plate 2 were used to try to determine the exit
length required to minimize the influence of the downstream pressure tap locations on the fitting loss
determination. Four exit lengths were used including 10,15, 20, and 25 diameters. The data is
presented graphically in Figure B.1.63 and B.1.64. Table B.1.22 lists the loss coefficients and shows
the loss coefficient consistantly increased as the length downstream increased. The downstream
diameters vs the zero length dynamic loss coefficients are graphed in Figure B.1.65. This data was
reduced using friction loss data for 10, 15, 20, and 25 diameter lengths respectively.
3.13 Scope 2.3 Work
The 10-inch, Elbow, 90, 5-Piece, Round, r/D = 1.0 from Plate 1 and the 10-inch, Elbow,
Mitered, Round, 90 from Plate 2 were used in the scope 2.3 work. The objective of these tests was
to increase the exit duct length until the downstream pressure gradient became constant. To do this
we:
1.

Used 25 diameters of duct length with one joint and measured the friction loss.

2.

Took another identical section, with one joint in the same location as before, and
measured this section's friction loss as well.

3.

The first piece was placed upstream from the fitting while the second piece was
placed downstream of the fitting.

The pressure gradient tests were run to show the effects of varying upstream lengths of ducts
from the upstream measuring station to the test fitting and downstream lengths of ducts from the test
fitting to the downstream measuring station, on the performance of the fitting. The friction loss data
that was used to subtract the friction loss of the other 10 inch diameter performance tests was also
used for these tests. It was based on 25 diameters and friction pressure loss was calculated using
Equation 12 with /

= 0.0185 and n = 1.812.

In order to check the effect of the upstream length, (1), and downstream length (2), [see
Figure A.7 on the fitting performance], these lengths were varied by set amounts and the friction
losses of Lj (upstream length of (1)) and 1^ (downstream of length (2)) were determined. It was
thought that if the friction losses were the same as before the fitting was inserted, the ductwork
(either the upstream or the downstream) was not having an effect on the fitting performance. The
initial values of f

/
n

and n for the upstream length, 1^ and the downstream length, Li are:
Upstream
(length LO

Downstream
(length L,)

0.0187
1.932

0.0195
1.904

37

Both Lj and 1^ were 22' 8" long. Table B.2.23 summarizes the friction loss results of the 24
tests that were conducted to compare friction loss of the upstream length Lj and downstream length
Lj to the original values. For both the mitered elbow and the r/D = 1.0 elbow the 1 diameter
upstream, 25 diameter downstream tests showed friction losses closest to the original values (average
of upstream and of downstream percent difference) except the 1 diameter upstream, 15 diameter
downstream tests for the r/D = 1.0 elbow was slightly better than the 1 diameter upstream, 25
diameter downstream tests. The average percent difference is the average of the difference between
losses, calculated for 8 velocities at standard conditions, using the original f

and n values for either

the upstream or downstream and the f and n values from the test being compared. The friction
loss was always higher than the original values for both of the upstream and downstream sections (1^
and Lj) when the fitting was in place.
Figures B.1.66 through B.1.69 show the best and worst percent difference from the original
friction loss for both the r/D = 1.0 and the mitered elbow pressure gradient test. The 3 diameter
upstream tests gave the worst average results (except for the 1 diameter upstream, 20 diameter
downstream test which may have incorrect data as it was not consistent with the other results).
The tests for which the friction loss of the upstream and downstream pressure gradients were
closest to their pre-fitting test values, show loss coefficients with the highest values. The loss
coefficients are listed in Table B.2.24.
3.14 Pilot Tube Traverse vs Orifice Metering Station
Part of the scope of the 571-RP project was to assist the SPC 120P committee in preparing
an airflow laboratory procedure. The committee asked United McGill to include as part of the work
for the 571-RP, measurements and comparisons of a pitot traverse versus an orifice meter.
Pitot traverse tests were run to try to quantify some of the differences that exist between an
orifice metering station and a pitot tube traverse when both are used to measure flow rates. The test
setup is shown in Figure A.8. The traverse points taken are given in Figure A.9. The test used a
Dwyer stainless steel pitot tube Model 160-18 (see page D.15 for pitot tube dimensions).
Measurements at the orifice tube were made with the Meriam 0-12 inch inclined manometer.
Measurements at the pitot tube traverse plane were made with a Dwyer 0-5 inch manometer. Both
manometers were previously calibrated against Dwyer model no. 1425-12 (0-12 inch) hook gauge.
Eight comparisons were made for velocities between 500 fpm and 4000 fpm.
Table B.2.25 shows the results of the test normalized to average velocity. Both instruments
are in agreement at high velocities but the difference becomes large at low velocities.

4. DISCUSSION
Several items require further discussion as a result of the tests. This includes elbow loss
coefficients which have in the past been assumed to be a function of type of construction only. Test
data indicate that size significantly effects the coefficients as well. Coefficients for other fittings as
they vary from ASHRAE data are also discussed. Finally, studies for the SPC 120P standards are
38

discussed. Recommendations for future work is given in the next section.


4.1 Round Elbows and Offsets Loss Coefficients/Size Effect
There was some concern by the 574-RP Oversight Committee about the results of loss
coefficients of round elbows and offsets. The loss coefficient decreased as the cross sectional
diameter of the elbow measured. This occurred very consistently as shown in Figure B.1.8 and B.1.16
of Plates 2 and 3 respectively. It also occurred consistently for the round offsets as shown in Figure
B.1.24. This supposed anomoly was thought to be a Reynold's Number effect, but when the elbow
loss coefficients were plotted against Reynold's number, only a weak relationship was established (see
Figure B.1.9 and B.1.17) as the data shows several discontinuous jumps in the loss coefficients. Other
reviewers felt that the data may simply be wrong, but similar results were found by other researchers
in previous work when tests were conducted by the same methods. Jones (1958) states that there
is a substantial diameter effect on the elbow pressure loss which is verified by his test results. He
attributed the variation in losses to dimensional and internal surface effects. Jones says the
dimensional effects are at least partly attributable to the elbow connections because the elbows slip
into the duct so that the average air-velocity in the elbow exceeds that in the duct. This effect for
our tests however should have been reduced because the friction loss of the test duct was conducted
with a slip coupling inserted where the test elbow was to be placed. In any case if the loss coefficient
of a coupling was subtracted from the elbows losses of both Jones and our data there are still
significant size effects. Jones says the internal surface effects are the sum of three individual effects:
(1) the dynamic loss of a "dead smooth" band which depends only on the radius of curvature, (2) a
roughness effect depending on the surface material and Reynold's Number and (3) an entrance effect
due to the diameter change from duct to elbow. The size effect Jones measured is shown clearly in
Figure 2 of his 1950 test report for a 2-piece, 1.5 centerline radius, smooth elbow.
In Eschman and Lang's (1968) literature search in Figures 5 and 6 show that the size effect
of die-stamped elbows and 5-piece elbows was published by United McGill Corporation in their 1963
Engineering Design Manual.
Locklin (1950) had previously done a survey of literature on pressure losses for 90 elbows.
In Figure 3 of his paper one can see that for research conducted on different diameter elbows there
was a definite size effect on the "total loss coefficient." The total loss coefficient however does not
deduct the friction loss to the centerline of the fitting. Laughlin suggests using the Pigott equation
to determine the "net" (minus the friction loss of the elbow) loss coefficient from
*' = O.lOeWD)-*5 + 2000/ Z5

[28]

where:
k'

RjD =

net loss coefficient or the total loss coefficient minus the friction loss
calculated over the actual length of the elbow
radius of curvature of the elbow

39

friction factor per the material roughness and Reynolds Number.

For a given R/D ratio, Equation 28 has two parts; a constant equal to 0.106(R/D)"" and a
variable part that is a function of the friction factor, f (2000f"). Note that f however is a function
of material roughness, e, diameter and Reynolds Number. Using the modified Altshul equation
(ASHRAE 1989 FUNDAMENTALS, pg. 32.5), Equation 28 is graphed for varying diameters in
Figure B.1.70 for different R/D ratios. Reynolds Number was set equal to 1,000,000 and a material
roughness of e = 0.0003 was assumed. The shape of the curves show a definite size effect. The
curves are very similar in shape to those published by United McGill Corporation (United McGill
Corporation, 1985, Report No. SRF1285). The actual loss coefficients measured in the 571-RP test
program were higher in the 6- and 10-inch diameters and lower for the 14-inch diameter than
predicted by the Pigott equation. This could be due to a varying relative e for the elbows. The
smaller diameter elbow would have closer gore connections which would in effect raise c. As the
diameter increased the effect of the gore joints would be lessened. Also other effects such as
entrance conditions and flow separation may be more prominent at small diameters which are not
accounted for in the Pigott equation. (Idel'chick, 1966, pg. 211) also shows a strong size being
dominant in elbows of small diameters.
4.2 Orifice Inlet
The orifice inlets did not show a direct effect of duct diameter but show a definite effect
based on the orifice to duct diameter ratio. The data for the smaller ratios (.4 and .6) were similar
to ASHRAE published data. Loss coefficients from 571-RP tests were much higher for the .8 and
1.0 ratio than the ASHRAE data, however.
The Malco hole cutter was a very inaccurate device. The diameter was off by more than
y4-inch at the desired setting on the instrument. Trial and error methods were used to adjust the
machine to the desired level. The Malco hole cutter was difficult to use and several drill bits were
broken in the process of cutting the holes.
4.3 Rectangular Radius Elbows
Reinforcing the elbows tested had no affect on deflection or performance. Elbows in these
sizes or smaller do not need reinforcement, even at high pressures. Some measured loss coefficients
were much higher than published by ASHRAE for the r/W = 0.75 data.
4.4 Rectangular Mitered Elbows with Turning Vanes
ASHRAE did not publish data for the vane spacing and vane radius combinations tested
except for the double-thickness (vane Type 2) lV^-inch vane spacing, 2-inch vane radius elbows and
the double-thickness, SVWnch vane spacing, 2-inch vane radius. ASHRAE data for these elbows show
a range of values for the loss coefficient which are velocity dependent. The ASHRAE data for these
elbows show a range of values for the loss coefficient which are velocity dependant. The ASHRAE
data is from a paper by (Rozell, Transaction No. 2307). Rozell did test the other elbows but did not
reduce the data in the same manner. He seemed to use an insertion method which in effect includes
the friction loss of the elbow. Also most of his data is for 24 x 24 inch duct. Finally not all of
40

Rozell's data had a zero y-intercept Comparing the data ignoring these differences shows good
agreement for IVi-inch vane spacing, 2-inch vane radius elbows for both the single-thickness and
double-thickness vanes. The 571-RP data for the 3tt-inch vane spacing, 4.5-inch vane radius elbows
was higher than that measured by Rozell. Rozell does show however that the elbow loss increased
in a 48 x 12 inch elbow so the losses seem to be a function of aspect ratio which was not varied for
the 571-RP tests.
4.5 Diverging Fittines
The diverging tee, rectangular main to round tap and diverging tee, rectangular main to
rectangular tap with 45 entry fitting data was different than published by ASHRAE. To create new
loss coefficient tables as a function of area ratio and volume flow rate ratio, the average loss
coefficients were plotted as a function of the branch to common and main to common velocity ratios.
These curve through the values was used to generate new tables as functions of volume flow rate
ratios and area ratio. The velocity ratio curves are plotted in Figures B.1.71 through B.1.74. The loss
coefficients are listed in Tables B.2.27 through B.2.30. The shaded data in Tables B.2.27 and B.2.29
were extrapolated by curve fitting the velocity ratio VJVC vs Q,,., then converting the data to VJVC
toQ.
4.6 Round Tap with Cushion Head
Although there is no ASHRAE data, the Associated Air Balance Council (1965) publishes
turning loss data for diffusers connected to cushion hoods. The loss coefficients extracted from Chart
VIII of this reference show loss coefficients much lower than determined from the 571-RP data. A
14-inch neck from their chart has a loss coefficient of Q, = 0.72 while a 10-inch neck has a loss
coefficient of Q = 0.68. The corresponding coefficients from Table B.2.21 are 1.24 to 1.71 for the
10-inch tap and 1.95 to 2.48 for the 14-inch tap. These differences are probably due to several
factors including the construction of the fitting and the way in which the data is reduced.
The 571-RP data shows no significant benefit of a cushion head on a round tap. In fact, the
loss coefficient increased as the cushion hood was lengthened before decreasing back to about its
original value. If a diffuser was attached to the round tap however the longer cushion head may
serve to cause a more uniform flow, which although may not decrease the loss of the turn, could
decrease the loss of a diffuser associated with poor flow. This idea was not studied during this 571RP test.
4.7 Effect of Upstream and Downstream Diameters
Scope 2.2 and 2.3 of the 571-RP project were to measure the effects of varying the distance
between the fitting and upstream pressure taps and the distance between the fitting and the
downstream pressure taps.
Scope 2.2 varied only downstream pressure tap distances. The loss coefficients for the 10inch, 30 and 45 mitered elbows were determined by subtracting the friction loss when 10-, 15-, 20-,
and 25-diameter pressures tape locations were used. The friction loss for these tests were determined
separately for each of the 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-diameter ducts. Using this method a clear trend of
higher loss coefficients was established with more duct diameters as the data in Table B.2.22 shows.
However when the data was reduced using the friction loss results based on 25 diameters, there was
41

not a clear pattern and the resulting loss coefficients were much closer as shown in Table B.2.26.
The scope 2.3 work shows similar results as the scope 2.2 work when friction loss is based on
25 diameters and the upstream diameters from the fitting to the pressure taps is one.

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Part of the full scope of the 571-RP project was to provide data to establish improved test
procedures for use by SPC 120P in preparing an ASHRAE standard for Laboratory Methods of
Determining Flow Resistance of Air Ducts and Fittings.'' Recommendations have been given to the
SPC 120P committee throughout the project These are summarized here. Recommendations for
additional testing are also given.
5.1 SPC 120P Recommendations
Flow Measurement
The dimensional requirements for orifice metering tubes and equations used to determine
volume rate of flow should be based on The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fluid Meters
Their Theory and Applications. The flow rate equations should be written in terms of the flow
coefficient K. Equations should be available to calculate K for both flanged and D, D/2 taps (ASME,
1971).
Pitot traverse gave flow rates which differed by 29 percent from the orifice metering stations
at low velocities (440 fpm). The difference was only 0.6 percent at 3900 fpm and was within the
required 2 percent accuracy at 3000 fpm. Properly calibrated pitot tubes can be used to insure flow
rates with the required accuracy at low velocities and should be sufficiently accurate without
calibration when velocities exceed 3000 fpm.
Temperature Measurement
Flows upstream of a fan should not require a thermometer or temperature measurement.
Ambient temperature should be accurate enough. Flows downstream of a fan should require a
thermometer in flows downstream of each fan or downstream of fittings where flows of different
temperatures converge. Thermometers should be placed at least 10 diameters upstream of a pressure
measurement location of four diameters downstream of a pressure measurement location.
Pressure Tap Locations
Piezometer static pressure taps should be used to measure the average local static pressure
or pressure differentials. For duct friction loss, at least 25 diameters of length should be used
between the piezometer taps. For fittings, the pressure tap should be between one and two diameters
upstream of the fitting and at least ten diameters downstream of a fitting. Downstream diameters
should be kept to a minimum (maximum twelve diameters) when testing very low loss fittings to
reduce the error of subtracting friction loss to determine the fitting zero length dynamic loss.
42

Flow Rate
Although many types of fittings are not used in high velocity systems, the SPC 120P
committee recommends single flow fitting should be tested at velocities exceeding 1800 fpm or where
the measured pressure (or differential) exceed 0.30 in. wg. The 571-RP research shows these are
probably good minimum if they can be observed. However for many efficient fittings the pressure
differential will not exceed 0.30 in. wg except at very high (outside of the normal range of use)
velocities. Also, when divided flow fittings are tested, at low or high flow rate ratios, the branch of
main is often below both the velocity minimum and the pressure minimum. For these cases, multiple
runs of tests should be performed with a statistical error analysis to determine the range of error.
Branch fittings should be tested with eight velocity ratio settings and each setting should have eight
common section flow rates (64 total data points).
5.2 Recommendations for Additional Testing
Round Elbows and Offsets
Other sizes of elbows need to be tested to complete the range of needed data. Three inch
elbows are the smallest commonly used. At larger sizes, the loss coefficient does not change
dramatically (Jones 1958) (United McGill 1963). The following additional sizes are recommended
for testing:
Plate 1: 5-Gored Elbows

Recommended

r/D = 0.75 and 1.0


r/D = 1.5
r/D = 2.0

3", 18" and 24"


3"
None

Plate 2: Mitered Elbows


90
45 and 30

3", 18" and 24"


3"

Plate 3: Offsets
L/D = 3, L/D = 1
and L/D = Min

3"

The data in the ASHRAE Handbook should be replaced with data from Tables B.2.1, B.2.2
and B.2.3 to replace the variations in coefficients with size.
Orifice Inlets
The data fairly well characterized the inlet orifices of Plate 4 and no further tests are
recommended. The data are different from that published in the ASHRAE Handbook. ASHRAE
data should be replaced by information from Table B.2.4 referenced to the duct velocity to remain
consistent with other data.

43

Rectangular Elbows and Offsets


Data are inconsistent with that published by ASHRAE for Plate 5. Test on additional sizes
need to be performed to better characterize the fitting. Reinforcing does little to effect the pressure
loss and should be eliminated as a variable on future tests. Recommended test should include
variations of aspect ratio from .25 to 4. Additional sizes recommended are given below.
Plate 5. Radiused without Vanes, both r/W = 0.75 and r/W = 1.5
H xW

Aspect Ratio (H/W)

16x32
24x32
32x32
32x16

0.50
0.75
1.0
2.0

Plate 6. Mitered with Vanes, with Vane Type 1 and Vane Type 2, Both with Vane Spacing 3'A inches,
Radius 4.5 inches and Vane Spacing IV2 inches, Vane Radius 2.0 inches
H xW

Aspect Ratio (H/W)

16x32
24x32
32x32
32x16
32x8

0.50
0.75
1.0
2.0
4.0

Plate 7. 30 Mitered Offsets, Offsets = 4,8 and 12 inches


H xW

Aspect Ratio (H/W)

8x32
16x32
24x32
32x32
32x16

0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
2.0

Plate 8. 30 Radiused Offset, Offsets = 4, 8 and 12 inches


H xW

Aspect Ratio (H/W)

8x32
16x32
24x32
32x32
32x16

0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
2.0

44

Diverging Flow Fittings


The branch to common area ratios for normal use were well covered for Plates 9 and 10.
However, only a straight-through to common area ratio of 1 was tested. The results show significant
differences from those published by ASHRAE so it is recommended that other straight-through to
common area ratios be studied. That is, branch fittings with area ratios AJ\ = .1 to .9 should be
studied.
Round Tap with Cushion Head
Cushion heads did not offer any additional advantage to decrease pressure loss. If this is
studied further, it should be on the affect on diffusers.

45

References
1985 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, I-P Edition, The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.
1988 ASHRAE Handbook, Equipment, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air
Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.
1989 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, I-P Edition, The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.
Engineering Design Reference Manual, United McGill Corporation, Form No. SMD-EDM, November
1989.
Eschman, Rick and Wayne E. Lang. A Critical Assessment of High Velocity Duct Design Information,
Report on Research Project 8 for the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air
Conditioning Engineers, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, September 1966.
Fluid Meters, The Theory and Application Report ofASME Research Committee on Fluid Meters, Sixth
Edition, 1971, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, New York.
Idel'chick, I.F., Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, Translated by Barouch, A., Israel Program for
Scientific Translations Ltd., Jerusalem, 1966.
Jones, Charles D. Friction Loss Coefficients of United Sheet Metal Company Two-Piece Stamped
Elbows. File No. T-1012, The Ohio State University Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbus, Ohio. September 1958.
Laboratory Methods of Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings (Draft 8), SPC 120P
Committee, ASHRAE, May 1990.
Locklin, D.W. Energy Losses in 90-Degree Duct Elbows, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 56, 1950.
Principles of Air Distribution, Associated Air Balance Council, Los Angeles, California, 1965.
Report No. SRF 1285, An Experimental Study of the Performance Characteristics of 90 Elbows,
United McGill Corporation, Westerville, Ohio, 1985.
Rozell, John M. Duct Turning Vanes in 90 Elbows, ASHRAE Transactions No. 230 7.

46

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
United McGill Corporation wishes to express our thanks to the 571-RP Oversight Committee as well
as the TC 5.2 and SPC 120P Committees for their support and guidance.

47

ifc

APPENDIXA
Figures

;.;:

g^'W'WBSfMi

gm^*-*"^

Wr*-

IP'-"-.
Figure A l
Orifice Flow Measuring System
(SPC 120P, Figure 11 of Draft 8 of Laboratory Methods of
Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings, 8 May 1990)
MEASURING DUCT
PL5

PL6

> 10D5OR 10 FT-

> 10D 5 0R 10 FT
TRANSFORMATION
PIECE ,

(1.0 0.1)D 5 -

VARIABLE
EXHAUST
SYSTEM

+0.25D
5.00D5 -0

(0.50 0.01)D 5
(4.0 0.5)D 5 H

D,
^

MEASURING DUCT

= o

ua

|_ft

d5

\r
TRANSFORMATION
PIECE
ORIFICE

PL-A
PL-B

PL-C
NOTE: Typically only one fan, either supply or exhaust,
is needed for the flow measuring system.
The larger of the two dimensions shall be used.

FAN DIFFUSER
(OPTIONAL)
PL-E

Figure A.2
Test Setup - Duct, Straight
(SPC 120P, Figure 6 of Draft 8 of Laboratory Methods of
Determining Flow Resistance of At Duct and Fittings, 8 May 1990)

TO SUPPLY SYSTEM AND


FLOW MEASURING SYSTEM

PL-1

PL-2

^ " l O t y OR 10 FT

[(3.0 0 . 5 ) ^ J

(INLET
BELLMOUTH,
OPTIONAL FOR ATTACHMENT
TO PLENUM)

TEST DUCT

INLET DUCT

PL-Z
PL-Y
*NOTE:

The larger of the two dimensions shall be used.

PL-7 PL-1

Figure A 3
Test Setup - Non Junction Fitting-Ducted
(SPC 120P, Figure 16 of Draft 8 of Laboratory Methods of
Daenninim F,o ResU.ance of Air I ^ ^ S S ^ T S Z 1990)

TO SUPPLY SYSTEM AND


FLOW MEASURING SYSTEM

PL-8

(INLI
BELLMOUTH.
OPTIONAL FOR ATTACHMEN
TO PLENUM)

PL-Y

NOTE:

The Idrger of the two dimensions shall be used.

"s8

Figure A4
Test Setup - Duct Mounted Entry Fitting
(SPC 120P, Figure 12 of Draft 8 of Laboratory Methods of
Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings, 8 May 1990)

PL-7

PL1
PL-2

>3D7

L 2 7 = ( 1 1 1)D 7

"1.2

I
K-0-5

0.5)D 7

1
ENTRY TEST
FITTING

v /A

TO EXHAUST SYSTEM
AND FLOW
MEASURING SYSTEM

r97

PL-X

Figure A.5 Test Setup - Fitting, Diverging Row (SPC 120P, Figure 18 of
Draft 8 of Laboratory Methods of Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings, 8 May 1990)
PL-7
*10D 7 0R 10 FT

PL-1

PL-2

PL-8
-2.8

7.1

(1.5 0.5)D 7

^ .

^ur
(INLET "
'
BELLMOUTH
OPTIONAL FOR ATTACHMENT
TO PLENUM)

-TAIL DUCT

PL-Z
PL-Y
TO SUPPLY SYSTEM AND
FLOW MEASURING SYSTEM

NOTE: Flow measuring stations shall be used


in two of the three flow streams.
*The larger of the two dimensions shall be used.

PL-9

FIGURE A-6 -

Plate 3, 30 Mitered Offset, Zshaped, Round Construction.


G

Lc

m^-

(
/

n
u

act

"

o
\J
)

e /

'
D

Test Number

Diameter Urt
Required L/D Actual L/D
(inches) (inches)

0 if not 30*

Lr.
G
(inches) (inches)

30

1.0

10.392 2

31

18

3.0

31.177 2 3 / 8

32

4.25

"MIN"

0.71

33B

10

10.5

1.05

34B

10

31.25

3.125

51.529 3 3 / 1 6

35

10

6.5

"MIN"

0.65

11.258

36B

14

14

1.0

24.682 3

1/4

37B

14

42.75

3.054

72.746 3

1/2

38

14

8.12

"MIN"

0.58

A6

8.011

2 5/8

17.537 3

31

12.99

1/2

1/4

1/2

FIGURE A.7 -

Scope 2.3 Test Setup, Part 2.

OPSI-;

22-r

s'-icr

-1*1*1
,

<>
;L

, J.
2tr

iv

J,

1C

J
d>

TEST #13
90*. 10"
MITERED ELBOW
U = 6"
Ln = 6"
TEST #29
90'. 10" ELBOW
r/D = 1.0

1 DOWNSTREAM DIA 3 DOWNSTREAM DIA 6 DOWNSTREAM DIA -

<2>

'

IV

10"

12"
32"
62"

2T-S"

DOWNSTREAM DIAMETERS
10D
15D
20D
25D

PIEZOMFTFR LENGTHS

2<r

8'-4"
12'-6"
16'-8"
20'-10"

5 2 ' - 4 " OF 14"(S FROM


METERING STATION TO REDUCER.
1 4 - 1 0 REDUCER, LENGTH V - 8 1 / 2 "

VT
tdx

<D

ELBOW -

A7

FIGURE A.8 -

Pitot Tube Traverse Test Setup.

28'

140"

12'

140"

44"

"*T*

DPS5-6

FAN

14"0

ORIFICE METERING
STATION
TRAVERSE PLANE - 1

FIGURE A.9 - Sec. A-A from (FIGURE A.8)


Traverse Points in a Round Duct.

PLANE 2

0.021 D

60'= V

PLANE 1

.0.117D
0.184D

, PLANE 3

ALL PITOT POSITIONS


0 . 0 0 2 5 D RELATIVE TO
INSIDE DUCT WALLS.

PLANE #
1
2
3

I.D.
13.945
13.935
13.940

D IS THE AVERAGE OF FOUR MEASUREMENTS AT TRAVERSE PLANE AT 45'


ANGLES MEASURED TO ACCURACY OF 0.2% D. TRAVERSE DUCT SHALL BE
ROUND WITHIN 0.5% D AT TRAVERSE PLANE AND FOR A DISTANCE OF
0.5 D ON EITHER SIDE OF TRAVERSE PLANE.

A19

APPENDIX B
Graphs/Tables

L
Li

Ii
fci

APPENDIX B.l
Graphs

v-i'

FIGURE B.l.l - 6 INCH, 90* ELBOW


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.6

0.55

0.5

0.45

CO
CO

0.4

o
K)
CK
S3
CO
CO

0.35

CK

a,
0.3

>--

o
Z

0.25

o
a;
IS!

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in wg)
(all elbows are 5 piece except the mitered)
B.l

0.4

0.45

0.5

FIGURE B.1.2 - 10 INCH, 90 ELBOW


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
(all elbows are 5 piece except the mitered)

B.2

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.3 - 14 INCH, 90 ELBOW


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

CO
CO

CO
CO

OS

a.

?~

3C

^~
O
Z

w
-J

OS
W
tSJ

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
(all elbows are 5 piece except the mitered)
B.3

0.9

1.1

1.2

FIGURE B.1.4. - ELBOW, 90, 5 PIECE, ROUND, r/D=0.75


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.4

0.8

1.

0.9

1.1

1.2

FIGURE B.1.5 - ELBOW, 90, 5 PIECE, ROUND, r/D=1.0


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.35

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.25

CO
CO

OS
CO
CO

0.2

w
OS

o,

5.5
>-o

35
6-i

0.15

0.15

w
_j

o
OS

0.1

0.05

0.05

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.5

FIGURE B.1.6 - ELBOW, 90, 5 PIECE, ROUND, r/D=1.5


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0
0.2 O

0.1
0.2
6 INCH. C=0.25

-Q-

10 INCH, C=0.22

0.18 -A"

14 INCH, C=0.06

-+-

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

0.18

ASHRAE, C=0.24

0.16

0.16

0.14

0.14

0.12

0.12

co
CO

K
1=
CO
CO
Ed

ct:

a.

I * 0-1
5.5
>-o
w

0.08

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

tS]

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.6

FIGURE B.1.7 - ELBOW, 90, 5 PIECE, ROUND, r/D=2.0


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.2

0.18

0.16

0.14
CO
CO

;=>

0.12

to
CO
ct:

a,

*3 *

0.1

3C
6-

o
g

0.08

o
OS
C-CI

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.4

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.7

1.1

12

FIGURE B.1.8 - ELBOW, 90*. 5 PIECE, ROUND


DIAMETER vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

0
0.8

0.65

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425

0.8
/D= 0.7

0.75

0.7

-O

r/D=1.0

"A"

r/D-1.5

-0-

r/D=2.0

0.75

0.7
0.65
\

0.6

0.6
^
0.55

0.55
\

0.5

o
(*,
w
o

\
0.45

0.5

0.4

0.45

Kp

m
CO

0.4

<<

0.35
0.35

\
\

0.3
^

0.3

0.25

0.25

0.2

jv

0.2

0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.05

h
\

0.05

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425
DIAMETER
(inches)

B.8

FIGURE B.1.9 - ELBOW, 90 9 , 5 PIECE, ROUND


REYNOLD'S NUMBER vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

1.5e+007

le+007

5000000

2.5e+007

2e+007

3e+007

0.8

0.8

O r / I )=0.75

0.75

0.7

b^

(J

0.6

O r/D=2.0

Cto{J
a ^OC\od }

0.65
0.6

0.55

0.55

0.5

0.5

0.45

w
o
o

0.4

D
- L

0.45

1 an

?b

CO
CO

<=>

r/D=1.0

Ar/D=1.5 -0.7

0.65

0.75

o-c )

0.35

f o< 3
J

O o

o o

0.35

<V

0.3

Sp

0.25

0.3

J^

0.25

1*

W?\n

^
0.8

D 0.2

0.15

0.4

0.15

A
/\ A

0.1

>

<

0.05

A
O

0.1

A A /\
0.05
^
,
>
o
O o <> o
A

<^

'

L.

0
0

5000000

le+007

1.5e+007
REYNOLD'S NUMBER

B.9

2e+007

2.5e+007

3e+007

FIGURE B.1.10 - 6 INCH, MITERED ELBOW,


30, 45, & 90
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

-O-

30

-Q-

45

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5
0.55

~i

0.5

- A - 90
0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

4^
&
,*-

r-l-"

0.1

0^
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.15

&

-ftit r * '

3^H

r ~]
J

C\

k^=

}-

0.05

&+>

0
0.2

0.25

0.3

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.10

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

FIGURE B.1.11 - 10 INCH, M1TERED ELBOW,


30, 45, & 90

VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

1.2

30

-O"

45

-^/

K*

~A- 90
/
/

7
0Q

/
co

0R

to

co

0 7

CO

^r

a.
0R

4r

1^-

o
z
w
_J
o

0 S

(S3

0 4

0 ^

n?

r^
r-tf
F

n 1

f s^

il^-

^
^ ^

tX
P

3-

^ F

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.ll

0.7

0.8

FIGURE B.1.12 - 14 INCH, M1TERED ELBO10,


30', 45, & 90
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.12

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

FIGURE B.1.13 - ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND, 30


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

6 INCH, C=0.14

-Q-

10 INCH. C=0.19

"A"

14 INCH, C=-0.01

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

0.2

- ASHRAE, C=0.16
0.15

0.15

CO

co

s
OS

0.1

^>
CO
CO
OS

o,
O on

0.05

0.05

o
OS

0.05

-0.05
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.13

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.I.14 - ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND, 45


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.35

0.3

0.25
CO
CO

o
;=>

CO
CO

0.2

Qi

a,

o
pq
^~
o
z:

0.15

o
OS
tS3

0.1

0.05

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.14

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

FIGURE B.1.15 - ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND, 90


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1
1

1.3

1.2

1.1

0.2
1

6 INCH, C=1.34

-Q-

10 INCH, C=1.40

"A"

14 INCH, C=1.16

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

~ ASHRAE, C=1.20

0.9
VI
V3

0.8

^>

en
a:
ou
o

0.7
em

g
o

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.15

FIGURE B.1.16 - ELBOW, M1TERED, ROUND


DIAMETER vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

;i

t1 5

6 '1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425

M M ! ! !

1.6

-c>

CONSTRUCTION ANGLE=30I>

1.5

]-

CONSTRUCTION ANGLE=45

1.4

-t!r

CONSTRUCTION ANGLE= 90
1.3

\
>\

-.

ci \

1 2

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425
DIAMETER
(inches)
B.16

FIGURE B.1.17 - ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND


REYNOLD'S NUMBER vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

5000000

Je+007

1.5e+007

2e+007

2.5e+007

3e+007 3.5e+007
i

kd A ^AAA

Z^A
zA

1.5

O 30 MITERED ELBO*
1.4

45 MITERED ELBOW

/ \ yir

A L^ A A
A

MI

ic* T.r.1/

LL. u u n

-11.3

A' A A

i^] J

\ &

5000000

DC &1-

1i

H^tP

fft D [b c D D [1

)
<

le+007

C. O
1.5e+007

O r

2e4007

REYNOLDS NUMBER

B.17

"^

KJ

2.5e+007

3e+007 3.5e+007

FIGURE B.1.18 - 6 INCH, 30 MJTERED OFFSET,


1 / 0 = 3 , 1, M1N.
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.18

FIGURE B.1.19 - 10 INCH, 30 M1TERED OFFSET,


L/D=3, 1, M1N.

VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.24

0.22

0.2

0.18

to

0.16

CO

3
=>
to

0.14

CO

03

QZ
d,

0.12

>*
C3

o
w

0.1

o
OS
tSJ

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.19

FIGURE B.1.20 - 14 INCH, 30 M1TERED OFFSET,


L / D = 3 , 1 , M1N.

VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2
0.18

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.20

FIGURE B.1.21 - 30 MJTERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED, ROUND,


L/D=l
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.22

0.22

0.2

0.18

0.18

0.16

0.16

014

0.14

0.12

0.12

w
co
CO

cu
*
o

0.1

O
Z

-J

0.0B

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

IS]

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.21

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

FIGURE B.1.22 - 30 M1TERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED, ROUND,


L/D=3
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

6 INCH. C=0.38

-Q-

10 INCH, C=0.22

"A"

14 INCH, C=0.06

--

ASHRAE, C-0.16

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

0.2

0.18

0.16

0.14
co

CO

w
as
53

0.12

CO
CO

a,

S.S

0.1

> - '

o
j

0.08

o
OS
bJ
CSI

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.2

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.22

FIGURE B.1.23 - 30 MITERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED, ROUND,


L/D="MIN."
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.24

0.22

0.2

0.18

co
co
o

CO
CO

0.16

0.14

a;
a,
s *
z.S
o

0.12

f->

0.1

w
-J

o
tsi

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.23

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.24 - 30 M1TERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED, ROUND


DIAMETER vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

0.6

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425
0.6
! i

L/D= 1

0.55

0.55
-r

0.5

MINIMUM L/D
0.5

0.45

0.4

\
M1N = 0.

0.35

nI

o
w
o
o

0.3

en
CO

-J

0.25
(

---

V-M: N.= ).65

0.2

0.15

0.1

i.

^
0.05

\ VMI N.= 3.58


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425
DIAMETER
(inches)
B.24

FIGURE B.1.25 - 6 INCH ORIFICE INLET


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.45
DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.25

0.5

FIGURE B.1.26 - 10 INCH ORIFICE INLET


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)

B.26

FIGURE B.1.27 - 14 INCH ORIFICE INLET


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

J
I
J

1
1

1.1

Do/D=0.4

"Q

Do/D=0.6

A"

Do/D=0.8

-O-

Do/D=1.0

f^
/

v ^ ^

/
%
-f\ Pvi V - " 1Y

ZZ/

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

y^

"^

0.6

0.7

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.27

Ak^-^^l.
AL^-^4
?

0.8

0.9

1.1

FIGURE B.1.28 - 6 INCH ORIFICE INLET


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.28

FIGURE B.1.29 - 10 INCH ORIFICE INLET


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0
8
75

-O"

0.5
1

1.5

J-

c.D

.J

<I

3.5

D/l>=0-4
/

- O D0/ D=0.6
7

65

,<-

D=0.8

-O

4.5

ITl

Do/ D=1.0

6
5 f>

erf
7^

CO

en
CO
en
a,

4 F>

4
Q

33
E-

3 !S

e>
z
o
w

OS
tSJ

2 fS
^

f~/. T
r ^

yy

CJ.ZC-A2

e~y

1 fi

n s
0
0.5

1.5

2.5

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.29

3.5

4.5

FIGURE B.1.30 - 14 INCH ORIFICE INLET


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

14
13

Do/D-0.4

"O

Do/D=0.6

12 ."A"

Do/D=0.8

O-

Do/D=1.0

11

10
CO
CO

o
CO
CO
OS
P-

*
> -

CJ
35
EO

O
OS

IS]

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.30

5.5

6.5

FIGURE B.1.31 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D-0.4


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.12

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.31

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

FIGURE B.1.32 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D=0.6


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65 0.7

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65 0.7

10
O

$=6", C0.s=15.4

- O

*=10", C0s=13.3

-A"

$=14", C0-s=14.6

" " ASHRAE. C0 s = 15.8

0.05

0.1

0.15

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.32

FIGURE B.1.33 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D=0.8


D U a VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

o.i

0.2

=6". C0s=4.10

- O

*=10", C0,s=3.86

3.5 -A"

=14". Cas=3.78

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

" " ASHRAE. C0s=2.71

CO
CO

2.5

OS

:=>
CO
CO

as
C_) Ofl

> - '

O
O
OS

1.5

rsi

0.5

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.33

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.34 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D=1.0


DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

O.l

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

07

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

0.1

0,2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.9

1.1

1.2

DUCT VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.34

FIGURE B.1.35 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D=0.4


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)

5.5

6.5

5.5

6.5

FIGURE B.1.36 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT, ROUND, D o /D=0.6


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.36

FIGURE B.1.37 - ORIFICE, INLET DUCT. ROUND, D o /D=0.8


ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

GO
GO

s
OS
GO
CO

a:
O

OB

z.

w
-J

tSI

ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.37

1.8

2.2

2.4

FIGURE B.1.38 - ELB01, 90. RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, 8 X 32
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0
0.3

0.05
1

0.1
1

0.15
1

0.2
1

r/W-0.75

-Q-

r/W=0.75 with reinforcement

0.25

0.35

0.3

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.25

-O r /W=1.5 with

rei nforcen lent

0.2

~7^

co

CO

0.15

_cJ^
^

/
1

ca
EG

co

1
\

"v<

J\

CO

/c

CG

cu
O OB

15 S

r^
\ I

fi 1

SJ

-I V

E-

o
2.

_3

0 OS

CG

IS!

U J

T \

f\

3 /,

0 O^i

-0.1
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.38

0.4

0.45

FIGURE B.1.39 - ELBOW, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, 32 X 8
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.4

r/V?=0.75

r/W=l-5

0.35

0.35

0.3

CO
CO

0.25

0.25

^>
CO
CO

w
eu

0.2

0.15

0.15

OS
fc-3

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.39

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

FIGURE B.1.40 - ELBOH, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR. 16 X 8
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

1.8

0.2

r/W=0.75

-Q-

r/W=1.5

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.6

1.4
CO
O
_3

Ed
QZ

1.2

tn

to

Ed
EU

>

0.8

o
Ed
(SI

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.40

FIGURE B.1.41 - ELBOW, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, r/l=0.75
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

O
1.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

8 X 32

-LJ- 8 X 32 with reinforcement

"A- 32 X 8

-O-

16 I 8, C=0.

-+-

ASHRAE 16 1 8, C=0.39

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.41

FIGURE B.1.42 - ELBOW, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, r/W-0.75
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.4

8 X 32. 0 0 . 3 9

-Q-

8 X 32 with reinforcement. C=0.44

0.35 '"A"

32 X 8, C=0.80

-#-

ASHRAE 8 X 32, C=0.57

TIT

ASHRAE 32 X 8. C=0.40

0.3

GQ
xn

s
w

0.25

az
CO
GO
CL,

=3 *

0.2

55 . S

0.15

(S3

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.42

FIGURE B.1.43 - ELBOW, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, r/W=1.5
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.5

O
0.45

0.4

8 X 32

-j_J- 8 X 32 with reinforcement


"A"

32 X 8

-O

16X8. C=0.22

--

ASHRAE 16X8. C=0.14

0.35

CO
CO

0.3

o
on
;=>
CO
CO
OS

0.25

a,

5.5
>--

a
x,
eo
z

0.2

0.15

-J

o
tS3

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.43

FIGURE B.1.44 - ELBOW, 90, RADIUS WITHOUT VANES,


RECTANGULAR, r/W=1.5
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.12

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6
0.12

8 X 32, C=-0.04

-Q-

8 X 32 with reinforcement, C=- 0.02

"A"

32 X 8, C=0.14

-#-

ASHRAE 8 X 32, C-0.22

--

A^HRAP n? Y ft r-n

'

0.1

0.08

0.1

i?i

0.08

>

CO
CO

0.06

i^tr-

3
^

w
:=>
CO
CO
OS

*2

-t

0.04

if

&,
*
35
6-.
o
sz;

^ ^

0.06

S*FT
0.04

0.02

0.02

o
W
C^3

m Mi
^-^2

i
I

\-

;yxr

-h-.
v~>
VT

-0.02

-0.02

-0.04

-0.04

-0.06

-0.06

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.44

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

FIGURE B.1.45 - E O T , MITERED (90) I1TH VANES,


RECTANGULAR, 8 X 32
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0
0.22

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15
1

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

- O

Type 1, 3 1/4" spacing, r=4 1/2", C=0.33

" O

Type 2, 3 1/4" spacing. r=4 1/2", 0 0 . 4 1

0.18

0.16

CO
CO

0.14

CO
CO

vc

0.12

o g"

s
0.1
EO
Z

O
W
IS)

0.08

0.06

0.04

002

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.45

FIGURE B.1.46 - ELBOW. MITERED (90) WITH VANES,


RECTANGULAR, 8 X 32
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0
0.22

0.2

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6
0.22

- O

Type 1, 1 1/2" spacing, r=2", C=0.11

-Q-

Type 1. 1 1/2" spacing, r=2", opposite flow, C=0.08

~A~

Type 2, 1 1/2" spacing, r=2", C=0.34

0.18 K > -

to
CO
O

0.05

0.2

Type 2, 1 1/2" spacing, r=2", opposite flow, C=0.38

0.18

0.16

0.16

0.14

0.14

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.1

0.08

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

w
ce
;=>
to
to

a:

2.s
>

^
O

tsi

0
0.55
VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.46

0.6

FIGURE B.1.47 - 30 MITERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED,


RECTANGULAR
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

-O-

32 X 8, 4" offset, C=0.08

"O

32 X 8. 8" offset, C=0.08

-A"

32 X 8, 12" offset. C-0.30

-#-

16 X 8. 4" offset, C=0.16

HB-

16 X 8. 8" offset. C=0.12

-T

16X8, 12" offset. C=0.24

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0.2

0.4

0.6

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.47

FIGURE B.1.48 - 30' MITERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED,


RECTANGULAR, 32 X 8
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.16

0.14

0.12

CO

m
o
-j

0.1

to
CO

w
os
o0.08

a
35

e>
z
w
a

0.06

OS
tS3

0.04

0.02

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.48

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

FIGURE B.1.49 - RADIUS OFFSET, RECTANGULAR


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.4
O

32 X 8, 4" offset, 17.2" angle, C=-0.01

-Q-

32 X 8. 8" offset, 23.7 angle. C=0.01

-A-

32 X 8. 12" offset, 24.0 angle, C=0.10

-#-

16 X 8. 4" offset, 17.2 angle, C=0.12

HB-

16 X 8, 8" offset, 22.9 angle. C=0.17

-AT

16 X 8, 12" offset. 23.7 angle. C=0.14

0.35

-0.3

0.85

-0.25

0.8

0.2

0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.05

-0.05

-0.05
1.6
VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.49

1.8

FIGURE B.1.50 - RADIUS OFFSET, RECTANGULAR, 32 X 8


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

32 X 8, 4" <)ffset. 17.2" angle, C=-0.01

-Q-

32 X 8. 8" (offset. 23.7" angle. C=0.01

-A"

32 X 8. 12" offset. 2'1.0 angle , C=0.10

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.07

0.06

0.05
. ' 1

-r'
0.04

-&

w
^>

~t ^

CO
CO

L\

\ J
T \L 2 ^
s
_i

0.03

to

CO

a:
p-

o an

S.S
>-^

0.02

|
o

0.01

OS

>

IS3

4 3- - 3 -

'\

<>

1
1

^_J >
r

-0.01

7= ^
^
s^

\
y

-0.02

-0.03
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.50

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

FIGURE B.1.51 - 30 RADIUS OFFSET, RECTANGULAR


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

2.2

1.8

1.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

32 X 8, 4" offset, C=0.99

-Q-

32 X 8, 8" offset, C=0.30

~A"

32 X 8, 12" offset, C=0.14

-#-

16 X 8, 4" offset, C=1.09

-M~

16 X 8, 8" offset, C=0.42

T!T

16 X 8, 12" offset, C=0.26

1.2

0.8

co
CO

1.4

Ed
CO
CO

1.2

a
o

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.51

1.4

1.6

1.8

FIGURE B.1.52 - 30 RADIUS OFFSET, RECTANGULAR, 32 X 8


VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.5

O
0.45 - Q -

32 x 8, 4" offset. C=0.99


32 X 8, 8" offset, C=0.30

-2A7 32 J 8, 12" offset, C=0.14


0.4

0.35
CO
CO

0.3

ED
V}

GO
CJ
OS

Cu

0.25

EC
EO

0.2

o
CS1

0.15

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.52

FIGURE B.1.53 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, BRANCH
ALL LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

35

0.9

~0~

32 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter ta P

-\ r

32 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter 1 ap

~/V

32 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter t ap

-^"

16 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter ta P

~H~

16 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter I ap

~ar

1 6 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter 1 ap

=i

in

30

25 _ i I

II
^

1E

20

Z
W
O
fa-,
O

o
CO

Yk

15

10

(.

,1l>

SK

if

5
(.

5|[ ll

1
t"

ki

W Ti
w

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

JJISM

Mil".

i,
l^.

i'i
L -

rnhml
0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Q b /Q c

B.53

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.54 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, STRAIGHT THROUGH
ALL LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT

0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qs/Qc

B.54

FIGURE B.1.55 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, BRANCH
AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLO* RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
o.i

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

07

0.8

0.9

35

30

-O"

32 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.110

-Q-

32 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap: Ab/Ac=0.307

-A~

32 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.602

-#-

16 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.221

~Hh

16 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.614

-^t~

16 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; Ab/Ac= 1.203

25

20

15

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO. Q/Qc

B.55

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.56 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, STRAIGHT THROUGH
AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
o.i

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

"O"

32 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; Ag/Ac=1.0

-Q-

32 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; A , / ^ 1 - 0

-7^-

32 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; As/Ac=1.0

"4r" 16 X 8 upstream: 6" diameter tap; As/Ac=1.0

\ \

"B-

16 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; Aa/Ac=1.0

~ar

16 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; As/Ac=1.0

"S

\J
f*^^B i I-+-4. Y { i Ti t V" 7

0.1

0,2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qs/Qc

B.56

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.57 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP WITH 45 ENTRY,
BRANCH, ALL LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

35

30

11:

0.6

07

0.8

"O

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap

"O"

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap

~A~

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap

-#-

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap

0.9

~Sh 16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap


- .

--

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap

25

20

II

1
\ \

15

10

L__p^g|^

0.1

0.2

0.3

B | ^ k l L

0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qb/Qe

B.57

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.58 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP WITH 45 ENTRY,
STRAIGHT THROUGH, ALL LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

-O

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap

-Q"

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6

"A~

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap

0.9

~W~ 16X8 upstream; 8 X 4 lap


HH~ 16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap

-~ 16'X 8 upstre am;

8 X 8 tap

1
i

A1

ll|j|

II

0.1

0.2

0.3

- 5^
0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qs/Qc


B.58

0.7

U J C T V W-Wa

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B J . 5 9 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP WITH 45 ENTRY,
BRANCH, AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0.2

o.i

0.3

0.4

.
\

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; Ab/Ac=0.125

- O

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap; Ab/Ac=0.1875

~A"

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap; Ab/Ac=0.25

4) 16 A o
-

0.9

upstr earn; o A i' tap; A,/)

-flh 16 X 8

upstr earn; 8 X 5( tap; Ab/i\ c =0.375

-Jr 16 X 8

upstr earn; 8 X 31 tap; Ab/i

u
u
\ z^

i I T T ^ *
*H * HT~~"1
-^*-\. y \ 2-^~ i r4 1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qb/Qc

B.59

0.7

A 0.8

A
M

0.9

mk

FIGURE B.1.60 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP WITH 45 ENTRY,
STRAIGHT THROUGH, AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
FLOW RATE RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
o.i

0.3

0.2

0.4

60

55

50

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

-O"

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; kjt

-11-

"*? Y A linetraflm- ft Y ft fan- A / /k 1 ( 1

-A"

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap; Ajt

0.9

~W~ 16X8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; hjtic1.0

45

-f^-

16X8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap; hji^=1.0

-AT

16 X 8 upstr earn; 8 X 13 tap; tjtkc=1.0

40

35

30

25

20

15

k
\

10

^
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

^ 0.5^ M 0.6afruJ0.7bfT^^K0.8^ T T W0.9^r^rs

0.4

FLOW RATE RATIO, Qs/Qc

B.60

FIGURE B.1.61 - ROUND TAP ITH CUSHION HEAD,


W X H = 16 X 8, TAP DIAMETER = 10"
BRANCH VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

o.oi

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.12

0.12
O

0.11 " O
~Z^-

L=4", Cb=1.24
0.11

L=7". Cb=1.71
L=10", Cb=1.26

0.1

0.09

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07

:*

0.06

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

CO
CO

o
-J
CO

co
CK
Q,

a
o

to

0.07
BRANCH VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. urg)
B.61

0.08

FIGURE B.1.62 - ROUND TAP I1TH CUSHION HEAD,


W X H = 16 X 8, TAP DIAMETER = 14"
BRANCH VELOCITY PRESSURE vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

BRANCH VELOCITY PRESSURE


(in. wg)
B.62

FIGURE B.1.63 - 10 INCH, 30 ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND


EFFECT OF VARYING DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE TAPS LOCATION
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

o.i

0.2
-\J~

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

25 downstream diameters, C=0.191

0.18 ~1 r 20 downstream diameters, C=0.177


W

15 downstream diameters, C=0.164

-\/~

10 downstream diameters, C=0.154

0.16

0.14
to

CO
O

w
OS
to
CO

0.12

OS
CU

O QB

0.1
Q
SC
EO

EJ

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)

B.63

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.64 - 10 INCH, 45 ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND


EFFECT OF VARYING DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE TAPS LOCATION
VELOCITY PRESSURE vs. ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC PRESSURE LOSS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.24
O
0.22

l r

25 downstream diameters, C=0.278


20 downstream diameters, C=0.264

"~ZjT 15 downstream diameters, C=0.259


0.2
10 downstream diameters, C=0.234

0.18

VI

0.16

s
w
os
;=>

en

0.14

GO

Ed

3 *

0.12

x;
o

0.1

o
OS
IS]

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

VELOCITY PRESSURE
(in. wg)
B.64

0.7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.65 - 10 INCH, ELBOW, M1TEREO, ROUND.


EFFECT OF VARYING DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE TAPS LOCATION
DOWNSTREAM DIAMETERS vs.
ZERO LENGTH DYNAMIC LOSS COEFFICIENT
5

10

-O-

15

20

25

30

15

20

25

30

30"

- Q 45

10

DOWNSTREAM DIAMETERS TO TAPS LOCATION

B.65

FIGURE B.1.66 - UPSTREAM PRESSURE GRADIENT, 10 INCH,


90 r / D = 1 . 0 ELBOW
VELOCITY vs. PRESSURE LOSS

1000
3 upstream; 10 clownstreamX
3 upstream; 15 ( lown stream :V
3 upstream; 25 downstream^ A

; //ii^^

\
'

f//jr/r%

//W

10000
;
1

Y6 upstream; 20 downstream

IIWX.
M
'"W\\

\
'

upslream;
6 upslream;
1 upstream;
1 upslream;
1 upstream;
* 1 upstream;

\
\

25 upstream
15 downstream
25 downstream
10 downstream
20 downstream
15 donmstr earn

Baseline

01

0.1

0.01

0.01
1000

10000
VELOCITY
(fpm)

B.66

FIGURE B.1.67 - DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE GRADIENT, 10 INCH,


90 r/D= 1.0 ELBOW
VELOCITY vs. PRESSURE LOSS

1000

10000

;
1 upstream; 10 downstream^
1 upstream; 15 downstream^N/--^;3 upstream; 10 downstream

Jy^fy '

/Jy
^y/
Jfir--y
^

'
:
;
;
;
i

6 upstream; 10 downstream
1 upstream; 25 downstream
3 upstream; 25 downstream
1 6 upstream; 25 downstream
l Baseline
|
:
:
16 upstream; 15 downstream
13 upstream; 15 downstream.
13 upstream: 20 dov
earn
11 upstream; 20 don
?am
;am
16 upstream; 20 dov

*y\4E""^ T

III

01

0.1

0.01

0.01
10000

1000
VELOCITY
(fpm)

B.67

FIGURE B.1.68 - UPSTREAM PRESSURE GRADIENT, 10 INCH,


90 M1TERED ELBOW
VELOCITY vs. PRESSURE LOSS

1000

10000
3 upstream; 25 down sire airi>vN
16 upstream; 10 downstream
3 upstream; 10 downstream: " ^ /6 upstream; 15 downstream
3 upstream; 20 downstream' / \ J 6 upstream; 25 downstream

. .

3 UDStrpam' 15

rinwn<5li*onn"i'/

JL / K n n s l r e a m ' ?fi H n w n s l r o a m

: y^/^JJ. upstream; 15 downstream


<wf

/ Jw

7Jw

/Jw

'/Jw
"M

10 downstream
20 downstream
'
' '
25 dovmstream

0.1

':
]

'
\

. _ _..

o.i

\ 1 upstream;
1 upstream;
Baseline
1 upstrearn;

0.01

0.01
1000

10000
VELOCITY
(fpm)

B.68

FIGURE B.1.69 - DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE GRADIENT, 10 INCH,


90 M1TERED ELBOW
VELOCITY vs. PRESSURE LOSS

1000

/w/

5 upstream;
3 upstream;
1 upstream;
3 upstream;
6 upstream;
1 upstream:
3 upstream;
1 upstream;
i
i 6 upstream;
3 upstream;
\ 1 upstream;
\6 upstream;
\ Baselinea

25
10
20
15
10
10
20
15
15
25
25
20

10000
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream
downstream

CO

/d$f

Ed
<\?-.

0.1

/Jffl/

TO
(72
O
-J

7Jw
"Zm/

ft;

:=>

0.1

'
i

(73
Ed

K
Ou

0.01

0.01
10000

1000
VELOCITY
(fpm)

B.69

FIGURE B.1.70
Elbow Loss Coeff using Pigott Equation
(Locklin, 1950) Re = 1,000,000
0.35

K 0.25

7
5

11
9

15
13

19 23 27 31 35 39
17 21 25 29 33 37
Diameter (inch)

B.70

FIGURE B.l.71 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, BRANCH
AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
VELOCITY RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2
26

- O

32 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.110

25

-Q-

32 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.307

24

"-A-

32 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap: Ab/Ac=0.602

23

"-#-

1 6 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.221

22
21

-flh

16X8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=0.614

If

16 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; Ab/Ac=1.203

20

19
18

17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.8

1.2

VELOCITY RATIO, Vb/Vc

B.71

1.4

FIGURE B.1.72-DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP, STRAIGHT THROUGH
AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
VELOCITY RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFIQENT
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

"\/"

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

6c. A t) upstream; o diameter tap; AS/A,,i .u

-\ \- 32 X 8 upstream; 10" diameter tap; AB/AC= 1.0

32 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; Ag/Ac= 1.0

-Q-

16 X 8 upstream; 6" diameter tap; A s /A e =l

~H"

1 6 X 8 upstream; 10 diameter tap; Ag/A,,- 1.0

~Ar

1 6 X 8 upstream; 14" diameter tap; As/Ac= 1.0

All

n
z

^ ^

3~kr-T-

*a *^*4*ree^RflT *YTV~

i F

ii

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

VELOCITY RATIO,
B.72

0.6
\J\C

. ^ _ J1

0.7

SXV.

^ ^ - A ^ ~AX7

0.8

0.9

FIGURE B.1.73 - DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP *1TH 45 ENTRY,
BRANCH, AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
VELOCITY RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFIQENT
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Ml .

1.2
\y

1.4

1.6

1.8

i>

2.2

oc A o upstream, o A 4 tap, Ab/Acu.ico

-LJ- 32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap; Ab/Ac=0.1875

N4Ku

r^

0.4

0.6

32 X 8 upstream; B X 8 tap; Ab/Ar=0.25

-#-

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; Ab/Ac=0.25

--

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap; Ab/Ac=0.375

-Jf

16 X 8 upstream: 8 X 8 tap; Ab/Ac=0.5

\h

Y1^

0.2

-A"

0.8

TTV^ '"n H &


>--mi-LA-iL,
U.

i_

1.2

VELOCITY RATIO, Vb/Vc

B.73

1.4

1.6

1.8

v>

-()

2.2

FIGURE B.1.74-DIVERGING TEE,


RECTANGULAR MAIN TO RECTANGULAR TAP WITH 45 ENTRY,
STRAIGHT THROUGH, AVERAGE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
VELOCITY RATIO vs. LOSS COEFFICIENT
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

07

0.8

0.9

O
i

32 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; As/Ac=1.0


i

J<-

nr.

~7 V 32 A a upstream; o A o lap; A S /A C =I.U

-#-

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 4 tap; As/Ac=1.0

-"

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 6 tap; As/Ac=1.0

-AT

16 X 8 upstream; 8 X 8 tap; As/Ac=1.0

1
1
\

t
\
\
\
\

v
^
\
\

X^
* J

"ni&-flUnJ
!

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

i_if

0.6

VELOCITY RATIO, V^V,,

B.74

T- V

1,1-^ry^U

07

0.8

0.9

APPENDIX B.2
Loss Coefficient Tables

II
Li

TT~

r
itsfe

TABLE B.2.1

*rj

LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 1


Plhrtw, 90T 5-Piece, Round
Apia = Cpvl
r/D

Diameter (inches)

.75

6
10
14
ASHRAE

0.68
0.58
0.38
0.46

1.0

6
10
14
ASHRAE

0.42
0.40
0.20
0.33

1.5

2.0

6
10
14
ASHRAE
6
10
14
ASHRAE

B.76

0.25
0.22
0.06
0.24

0.29
0.22
0.04
.

TABLE B.2.2
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 2
Elbow, Mitered, Round
A p u - Cpvl
Construction Angle
30

45

90

Diameter (inches)

6
10
14
ASHRAE

0.14
0.19
-0.01
0.16

6
10
14
ASHRAE

0.37
0.28
0.13
0.34

6
10
14
ASHRAE

1.34
1.40
1.16
1.20

TABLE B.2.3
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 3
30 Mitered Offset, Z-Shaped, Round
A P U = Cpvl
L/D

Diameter (inches)

1 (1.00)
3 (3.00)
Min=0.71

6
6
6

0.18
0.38
0.31

1 (1.05)
3 (3.125)
Min=0.65

10
10
10

0.24
0.22
0.27

1 (1.101)
3 (3.054)
Min=0.58

14
14
14

0.14
0.06
0.02

1
3
Min

ASHRAE
ASHRAE
ASHRAE

0.15
0.16
0.15

B.77

TABLE B.2.4
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 4
Orifice, Inlet Duct, Round
A

*U

= C

o* pvi

or A

* u Co,o p*

BJD

Diameter
(inches)

Q.

*-"<M>

.4
.4
.4
.4

6
10
14
ASHRAE

86.9
88.6
81.9
>55

2.32
2.25
2.29
N/A

.6
.6
.6
.6

6
10
14
ASHRAE

15.4
13.3
14.6
15.8

1.85
1.84
1.91
N/A

.8
.8
.8
.8

6
10
14
ASHRAE

4.10
3.86
3.78
2.71

1.60
1.61
1.55
N/A

6
10
14
ASHRAE

1.96
2.12
2.00
1.00

1.96
2.12
2.00
N/A

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
*N/A = not available

B.78

TABLE B.2.5
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 5
Elbow, 90, Radius Without Vanes, Rectangular
Apia = Cpvl
HxW
(inches)
8x32
8x32
32x8
32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
*8x32
*8x32
N/1 = not tested

r/W

Reinforced

ASHRAEC

0.75
1.50
0.75
0.75
1.50
1.50
0.75
1.50
0.75
1.50

No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes

0.39
-0.04
0.80
N/T
0.14
N/T
0.89
0.22
0.44
-0.02

0.57
0.22
0.40
0.40
0.15
0.15
0.39
0.14
0.57
0.22

TABLE B.2.6
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 6
Elbows, Mitered (90) With Vanes Rectangular
Apia = C/vl
HxW
(inches)

Vane Type

8x32
8x32
8x32
8x32u
8x32
8 x 32 w
'test added
2
elbow in the opposite
3
depends on velocity
N/A = not available

1
2
1
1
2
2

Vane
Spacing
(inches)

Vane
Radius
(inches)

ASHRAEC

3VA

4.5
4.5
2
2
2
2

0.331
0.411
0.11
0.08
0.34
0.38

N/A
(.26-.16)3
N/A
N/A
(.33-.12)3
(.33-.23)3

3%
V/2
V/2
V/2
V/2

direction, test added

B.79

TABLE B.2.7
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 7
30 Mitered Offsets, Z-Shaped, Rectangular
A/1>2 - Cpvl
HxW
(inches)

Offset
(inches)

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

4
8
12
4
8
12

0.08
0.08
0.30
0.16
0.12
0.24

TABLE B.2.8
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 8
Radius Offset, Rectangular
.-..

/u

= Q

P*\

HxW
(inches)

Offset
(inches)

Offset
Angle

32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8
32x8
32x8
32x8
16x8
16x8
16x8

4
8
12
4
8
12
4
8
12
4
8
12

17.2
23.7
24.0
17.2
22.9
23.7
30
30
30
30
30
30

B.80

C
-0.01
0.01
0.10
0.12
0.17
0.14
0.99
0.30
0.14
1.09
0.42

0.26

TABLE B.2.9
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9

Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap


TEST 77

MAIN = 32."x8"

A/A. = 100

A./A, = 0.11

TAP = 6"

Straight Through

Branch
ASHRAE
Q

Qb/Qc

0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.14
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.23

6.64
3.38
2.28
1.77
1.39
1.18
1.14
1.04
0.98
0.91

ASHRAE

v/vc

c*.

0,

0.42
0.62
0.84
1.03
1.25
1.45
1.52
1.66
1.86
2.08

N/A
N/A
N/A
1.33
1.57
1.83
1.92
2.07
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
1.26
1.00
0.87
0.83
0.76
N/A
N/A

CVQc

C,

0.77
0.80
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.96

0.21
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.05
0.10
0.03
0.01
-0.02
0.00

VJVC

cc

c.

0.77
0.80
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.96

0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00

0.05
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00

TABLE B.2.10
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
TEST 78

MAIN = 32" x 8"

A/A, = 1.00

Afc/A, = 0.31

TAP = 10"

ASHRAE

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.12
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.37
0.43
0.47
0.50
0.56
0.62

6.59
3.18
2.13
1.61
1.27
1.10
1.01
0.97
0.89
0.85

v/v c

0,0

0.39
0.60
0.79
0.98
1.20
1.38
1.52
1.60
1.81
1.99

N/A
1.10
1.23
1.19
1.35
1.51
1.71
1.70
N/A
N/A

N/A
3.07
1.98
1.24
0.94
0.80
0.74
0.66
N/A
N/A

Q/Qc

0.39
0.44
0.51
0.53
0.58
0.63
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.88

3.85
2.46
1.46
1.12
0.81
0.43
0.20
0.11
0.08
0.02

B.81

v/vc

Qc

0.39
0.44
0.51
0.53
0.58
0.63
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.88

0.13
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.87
0.56
0.35
0.29
0.21
0.13
0.08
0.05
0.03
0.01

TABLE B.2.11
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
TEST 79

MAIN = 32" x 8"

A / A . = 1.00

A./A. = 0.60

TAP = 14"

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.24
0.36
0.42
0.48
0.59
0.61
0.70
0.72
0.80
0.86

5.98
2.92
2.26
1.90
1.51
1.48
1.29
1.27
1.16
1.10

\SHRAE

vjvc

c*

0.40
0.60
0.70
0.81
0.98
1.02
1.17
1.20
1.33
1.43

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A.
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

CVQc

C,

0.14
0.20
0.28
0.30
0.39
0.42
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.76

25.23
11.89
5.57
4.52
2.20
1.66
0.79
0.49
0.29
0.08 .

v,/vc

0.14
0.20
0.28
0.30
0.39
0.42
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.76

0.26
0.22
0.18
0.17
0.13
0.12
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.03

12.81
5.47
2.31
1.89
0.85
0.69
0.30
0.21
0.15
0.05

TABLE B.2.12
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
TEST 80

MAIN = 16" x J3"

AJA, = 1.00

AJ\

TAP = 6"

= 0.22

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.04
0.09
0.14
0.18
0.23
0.27
0.32
0.35
0.39
0.45

25.43
7.01
3.65
2.37
1.79
1.46
1.25
1.20
1.09
1.03

ASHRAE

v^

Qc

0.20
0.41
0.62
0.83
1.03
1.23
1.44
1.59
1.79
2.04

N/A
N/A
1.13
1.30
1.36
1.52
1.70
1.90
2.13
N/A

N/A
N/A
2.98
1.87
1.29
1.01
0.83
0.75
0.66
N/A

Q./Qc

C,

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.68
0.73
0.78
0.82
0.87
0.91
0.96

0.85
0.58
0.40
0.36
0.24
0.18
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.16

B.82

v,/vc

Cc

c.

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.68
0.73
0.78
0.82
0.87
0.91
0.%

0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00

0.26
0.16
0.12
0.09
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.00

TABLE B.2.13
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
TEST 81

MAIN = 16" x 8"

A/A, = l.OC1

A/A, = 0.61

TAP = 10"

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

Q,

0.12
0.25
0.31
0.36
0.49
0.55
0.63
0.73
0.80
0.86

23.68
6.14
4.18
3.22
2.02
1.77
1.44
1.19
1.13
1.07

ASHRAE

v/vc

Q*

0.20
0.41
0.51
0.59
0.80
0.90
1.03
1.20
1.31
1.40

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

07Qc

C,

0.14
0.20
0.27
0.37
0.45
0.51
0.64
0.69
0.75
0.88

27.63
12.24
6.40
2.25
1.22
0.74
0.32
0.25
0.18
0.16

v/v.

C,c

0.14
0.20
0.27
0.37
0.45
0.51
0.64
0.69
0.75
0.88

0.26
0.22
0.19
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02

13.25
5.61
2.63
1.00
0.55
0.34
0.12
0.08
0.05
0.00

TABLE B.2.14
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 9
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
TEST 82

MAIN = 16" x 8"

A/A, = l.OC)

A/A, = 1.20

TAP = 14"

ASHRAE
CVQ=

v/vc

<v

0.24
0.31
0.49
0.57
0.76
0.83
0.97

20.91
12.47
4.99
3.83
2.33
2.07
1.66

0.20
0.26
0.41
0.48
0.63
0.69
0.81

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

Q/Qc

c.

0.03
0.17
0.24
0.43
0.51
0.69
0.76

850
14.66
6.42
1.02
0.54
0.17
0.14

B.83

ASHRAE

v/vc

C,c

c,

0.03
0.17
0.24
0.43
0.51
0.69
0.76

0.33
0.24
0.20
0.12
0.09
0.04
0.03

453
8.19
3.45
0.65
0.35
0.08
0.05

TABLE B.2.15
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
TEST 83

MAIN = 32" x 8"

AJ\

AJA,

= 1.00

TAP = 8" x 4"

= 0.13

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.05
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.15
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.23
0.26

0,

4.73
1.94
1.18
0.75
0.57
0.43
0.37
0.38
0.33
0.27

ASHRAE

v/vc

<\c

0.42
0.63
0.79
1.01
1.21
1.50
1.57
1.63
1.88
2.08

N/A
N/A
0.78
0.85
1.02
1.32
1.37
1.43
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
1.25
0.83
0.69
0.58
0.56
0.54
N/A
N/A

CVQc

0.74
0.77
0.80
0.80
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.95

0.38
0.25
0.16
0.26
0.23
0.12
0.06
0.02
0.01
0.00

VA,

C,c

c.

0J4
0.77
0.80
0.80
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.95

0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.06
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00

TABLE B.2.16
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
TEST 84

MAIN = 32" x 8"

AJA, = 1.00

A./A, = 0.19

TAP = 8" x 6"

ASHRAE

ASHRAE
CVQc

0.08
0.11
0.15
0.19
0.23
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.35
0.39

4.95
2.12
1.04
0.69
0.50
0.37
0.40
0.38
0.37
0.29

v/vc

Q.C

0.42
0.61
0.82
1.00
1.20
1.45
1.55
1.64
1.85
2.06

N/A
0.77
0.77
0.96
1.13
1.31
1.47
1.59
N/A
N/A

N/A
2.06
1.15
0.95
0.78
0.62
0.61
0.59
N/A
N/A

CVQc

v,/v c

Q,c

c.

0.61
0.65
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.78
0.81
0.85
0.89
0.92

0.79
0.51
0.28
0.28
0.46
0.25
0.15
0.09
0.02
0.01

0.61
0.65
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.78
0.81
0.85
0.89
0.92

0.06
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01

0.15
0.12
0.09
0.08
0.11
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01

B.84

TABLE B.2.17
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
TEST 85

MAIN = 32" x 8"

A/A, = 1.00

AJK = 0.25
ASHRAE

Qb/Qc

0.10
0.15
0.20
0.26
0.30
0.35
0.38
0.41
0.46
0.50

5.51
2.23
1.25
0.80
0.63
0.52
0.50
0.46
0.44
0.42

TAP = 8" x 8"

ASHRAE

v/vc

Ch,c

0.41
0.62
0.82
1.02
1.20
1.42
1.52
1.64
1.84
2.01

0.81
0.75
0.71
0.93
1.16
1.30
1.46
1.36
N/A
N/A

4.87
1.94
1.05
0.89
0.81
0.65
0.64
0.50
N/A
N/A

QVQ.
- -

C.

0.50
0.54
0.59
0.62
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90

0.98
0.66
0.42
0.30
0.26
0.10
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.03

vyv c

C,c

c,

0.50
0.54
0.59
0.62
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90

0.09
0.08
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01

0.37
0.27
0.18
0.15
0.12
0.08
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.01

TABLE B.2.18
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
TEST 86

MAIN = 16" x 8"

AJ\

AJA,

= 1.00

TAP = 8" x 4"

= 0.25

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

v/vc

Qc

0,

Q/Qc

c,

0.05
0.10
0.16
0.20
0.26
0.31
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50

19.06
4.92
1.71
1.05
0.67
0.51
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.38

0.22
0.41
0.66
0.80
1.02
1.22
1.39
1.61
1.81
1.99

N/A
0.81
0.74
0.73
0.93
1.18
1.27
1.60
N/A
N/A

N/A
4.91
1.72
1.14
0.88
0.79
0.65
0.62
N/A
N/A

0.50
0.54
0.59
0.65
0.69
0.74
0.80
0.83
0.90
0.95

1.45
0.95
0.59
0.42
0.28
0.23
0.19
0.15
0.16
0.16

B.85

ASHRAE

v/v

Qc

c,

0.50
0.54
0.59
0.65
0.69
0.74
0.80
0.83
0.90
0.95

0.09
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01

0.36
0.27
0.18
0.12
0.09
0.06
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00

TABLE B.2.19
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 a Entry
TEST 87

MAIN = 16" x 8"

A / A . = 1.00

AJ\

TAP = 8" x 6"

= 0.38
ASHRAE

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.08
0.16
0.23
0.30
0.37
0.45
0.52
0.59
0.66
0.76

21.22
4.24
1.87
0.97
0.64
0.49
0.43
0.40
0.37
0.33

vjv.

Q*

0.20
0.43
0.61
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.39
1.58
1.76
2.02

N/A
0.79
0.71
0.69
0.81
1.13
1.46
1.49
1.78
N/A

N/A
4.26
1.92
1.08
0.81
0.78
0.75
0.60
0.57
N/A

Q./Qc

C,

0.24
0.34
0.40
0.47
0.55
0.62
0.70
0.77
0.83
0.92

8.42
3.12
1.68
0.92
0.83
0.31
0.19
0.13
0.14
0.17

v/vc

Qc

0.24
0.34
0.40
0.47
0.55
0.62
0.70
0.77
0.83
0.92

0.20
0.15
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

3.56
1.37
0.80
0.45
0.25
0.14
0.08
0.04
0.02
0.00

TABLE B.2.20
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 10
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
TEST 88

MAIN = 16" x 8"

A / A . = 1.00

Ab/Ac = 0.50

TAP = 8" x 8"

ASHRAE

ASHRAE
Qb/Qc

0.09
0.21
0.30
0.40
0.49
0.60
0.65
0.79
0.89
0.97

28.08
4.27
2.02
1.03
0.57
0.42
0.41
0.32
0.29
0.28

vjv.

Q,c

0.18
0.43
0.60
0.80
0.99
1.20
1.29
1.57
1.78
1.94

N/A
N/A
0.70
0.66
N/A
0.86
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
1.97
1.02
N/A
0.60
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

QJQc

C,

0.03
0.10
0.21
0.35
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.79
0.91

2345
47.28
8.44
2.21
1.52
0.73
0.27
0.13
0.12
0.16

B.86

v/vc

Qc

c,

0.03
0.10
0.21
0.35
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.79
0.91

0.33
0.28
0.22
0.15
0.13
0.09
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01

472
25.75
4.76
1.22
0.82
0.35
0.17
0.08
0.04
0.01

TABLE B.2.21
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR PLATE 11
Round Tap with Cushion Head, W x H * 16 x 8
*Plfi

*Pv3

D
(inches)

L
(inches)

10
10
10

4
7
10

1.24
1.71
1.26

14
14
14

4
9
14

2.01
2.48
1.95

TABLE B.2.22
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR SCOPE 2.2 WORK
Varying Downstream Pressure Tap Location
10-inch, Elbow, Mitered, Round
AP - CPvl
Downstream
Diameters

30
C

45
C

10
15
20
25

.154
.164
.177
.191

0.234
0.259
0.264
0.277

(Friction loss, that was deducted to determine the zero length dynamic loss, was based on tests for
the actual number of downstream diameters)

B.87

TABLE B.2.23
FRICTION LOSS RESULTS FOR DUCTWORK UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM
FROM MEASURING STATIONS LOCATED DIFFERENT DIAMETERS IN LENGTH
FROM THE TEST FnTING

bPfndan =
Distance to
Measuring Station
Upstream
Diameters

Downstream
Diameters

fWtyPWWiy

Upstream (Lj)
n
/

Avg %
Difference
From
Original

Downstream (Lj)
n

Avg %
Difference
From
Original

10-inch, 90, r/D = 1.0, Elbow


1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

0.0183
0.0192
0.0214
0.0204
0.0194
0.0201
0.0203
0.0188
0.0200
0.0224
0.0191
0.0234

1.969
1.931
1.854
1.899
2.038
2.004
1.954
2.062
1.966
1.841
2.004
1.801

1.9
2.5
7.4
6.3
13.1
14.2
15.8
21.3
9.8
11.3
8.2
13.7

0.0199
0.0201
0.0214
0.0195
0.0207
0.0221
0.0225
0.0200
0.0206
0.0209
0.0185
0.0214

1.961
1.904
1.823
1.912
1.867
4.806
1.797
1.938
1.903
1.852
1.916
1.842

7.1
2.9
3.7
0.5
3.1
5.1
6.0
5.5
5.5
3.0
4.3
4.2

0.0192
0.0179
0.0267
0.0203
0.0211
0.0198
0.0188
0.0183
0.0213
0.0214
0.0209
0.0207

1.924
2.009
1.690
1.867
1.964
2.017
2.043
2.074
1.907
1.902
1.913
1.923

2.30
4.30
18.00
3.40
15.80
13.40
10.40
11.00
11.50
11.60
10.00
9.94

0.0228
0.0223
0.0253
0.0211
0.0203
0.0216
0.0200
0.0203
0.0219
0.0221
0.0185
0.0185

1.841
1.853
1.789
1.878
1.912
1.876
1.946
1.950
1.881
1.854
1.966
1.982

11.3
9.1
18.5
6.1
4.8
8.3
6.2
8.3
10.3
8.7
2.5
3.5

*May have been bad data


10-inch, 90, Mitered, Elbow
1
1
1*
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

B.88

TABLE B.2.24
PERFORMANCE OF 10", r/D = L0 ELBOW
AND 10", 90 MITERED ELBOW WITH VARYING DISTANCES OF UPSTREAM
AND DOWNSTREAM MEASURING STATIONS
A

^U

Pvi

Distance to Measuring Station


Upstream
Diameters

Downstream
Diameters

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

0.35
0.38
0.40
0.38
0.30
0.31
0.29
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.34
0.34

10
15
20
25
25
20
15
10
10
15
20
25

1.29
1.34
1.34
1.23
1.24
1.21
1.21
1.24
1.27
1.26
1.24

90 r/D = 1.0 Elbow


1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
90 Mitered Elbow
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6

B.89

TABLE B.2.25
ORIFICE METERING STATION VERSUS PITOT TUBE TRAVERSE
Test
Point

Velocity From Orifice


Meter, [Volume Flow
Rate Divided by Test
Diameter Cross Sectional
Area]
(fpm)

Average of
Velocities From the
Pitot Tube Traverse

617
1127
1603
1907
2175
2475
3054
3923

441
1036
1521
1833
2113
2409
2992
3898

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Percent Difference
1

orifice mtter

pilot tube

x 100

V
\

orifice meter

(fpm)
28.6
8.0
5.1
3.9
2.9
2.7
2.0
0.6

TABLE B.2.26
LOSS COEFFICIENT DATA FOR SCOPE 22. WORK VARYING DOWNSTREAM
PRESSURE TAP LOCATION 10 INCH, ELBOW, MITERED, ROUND
*Pia

Pvi

Downstream
Diameters

30
C

45
C

10
15
20
25

.190
.178
.1%
.191

0.272
0.273
0.283
0.277

(Friction loss that was deducted to determine the zero length dynamic losses was based on tests with
25 diameters)

B.90

TABLE B.2.27
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap)
Branch, Q,
CVQc

A/A.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

1.58

0.94

0.83

0.79

0.77

0.76

0.76

0.76

0.75

0.2

4.20

1.58

1.10

0.94

0.87

0.83

0.80

0.79

0.78

0.3

8.63

2.67

1.58

1.20

1.03

0.94

0.88

0.85

0.83

0.4

14.85

4.20

2.25

1.58

1.27

1.10

1.00

0.94

0.90

0.5

22.87

6.19

3.13

2.07

1.58

1.32

1.16

1.06

0.99

0.6

32.68

8.63

4.20

2.67

1.%

1.58

1.35

1.20

1.10

0.7

44.30

11.51

5.48

3.38

2.41

1.89

1.58

1.38

1.24

0.8

57.71

14.85

6.95

4.20

2.94

2.25

1.84

1.58

1.40

0.9

72.92

18.63

8.63

5.14

3.53

2.67

2.14

1.81

1.58

TABLE B.2.28
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Tap
Straight Through, Q
CVQc

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
A/A,

0.5

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.04

0.07

0.15

0.31

0.67

1.46

3.48

10.17

51.37

0.04

0.08

0.18

0.42

0.98

2.47

7.55

39.48

0.04

0.09

0.23

0.60

1.64

5.32

29.15

0.04

0.10

0.31

0.98

3.48

20.38

0.04

0.13

0.49

2.03

13.18

0.04

0.18

0.98

7.55

0.04

0.31

3.48

0.04

0.98

0.4
0.3
0.2

0.04

0.1

B.91

TABLE B.2.29
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangular Tap with 45 Entry
Branch, Q
(VQc

AJK

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

0.73

0.34

0.32

0.34

0.35

0.37

0.38

0.39

0.40

0.2

3.10

0.73

0.41

0.34

032

0.32

0.33

0.34

0.35

0.3

7.59

1.65

0.73

0.47

0.37

0.34

0.32

0.32

0.32

0.4

14.20

3.10

1.28

0.73

0.51

0.41

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.5

22.92

5.08

2.07

1.12

0.73

0.54

0.44

0.38

0.35

0.6

33.76

7.59

3.10

1.65

1.03

0.73

0.56

0.47

0.41

0.7

46.71

10.63

436

2.31

1.42

0.98

0.73

0.58

0.49

0.8

61.79

14.20

5.86

3.10

1.90

1.28

0.94

0.73

0.60

0.9

78.98

18.29

7.59

4.02

2.46

1.65

1.19

0.91

0.73

TABLE B.2.30
Diverging Tee, Rectangular Main to Rectangulai Tap with 45" Entry
Straight-Through C t
QJQc

0.9
0.8
0.7
A/A.

0.6
0.5

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.04

0.09

0.17

0.33

0.65

1.33

3.01

8.40

40.82

0.04

0.10

0.20

0.43

0.93

2.18

6.30

31.51

0.04

0.11

0.25

0.59

1.49

4.51

23.40

0.04

0.12

0.33

0.93

3.01

16.50

0.04

0.15

0.50

1.82

10.80

0.04

0.20

0.93

6.30

0.04

0.33

3.01

0.04

0.93

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.04

B.92

APPENDIX C
Sample Spreadsheets

i-

PLATE
SAMPLE

1
2
3
4
5
i
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1)
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

SPREADSHEET

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
MANUAL HODEPUT SPREADSHEET IX MANUAL MODE OPERATION/HO
P1LE:TEST1B
PLATE:
1
PLATE TEST 1 :
1
OVERALL TEST I :
1
PITTING DESCRIPTION:
5-G0RE 90 DEGREE ELBOH ( . 7 5 CENTERLINE RADIUS)
PITTING SIZE:
6"
DATE: 0 2 / 0 8 / 8 9

ambient: tdo,Uo,pb

Ll
-140"
!<

42->1

->!<-

-140"

~>l<
!Dps5-6|
ps5
ps6

-10.9792'-

->j<

Dspl-2-

Ll=
3.5833 ft.
L2=
12.9167 ft.
Lt=LltL2' 16.5000 ft.

psl

|<-28"->!

======= 13.375 "

td5
Ul
!<-5 diameters--)!

L2

ps2
2.04'
2.5'

td2

LEAKAGE REQUIREMENTS

dia
6"

VELOCTIY RANGE (fpm)


1500-2400

AREA (ft"2)
TOTAL LENGTH IN TEST (ft)
24.8125 ft gl4"t 29.9792 ft8 6" 0.1963
MINIMUM CFH
REQUIRED
294.52

SEAL SYSTEM BEING TESTED


TEST FOR THE FOLLOWING:
dia
6"

ALLOWABLE
LEAKAGE (cfm) ( MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE (in HC)
1.4726
10.5402

TRANSITION STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(ill HC) Ca.01
0.347

MAXIMUM CPM
REQUIRED
471.24
ORIFICE TOTAL
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
9.200

orifice tube
MAX UPSTREAM
VELOCITY (fpm)
440.822
ELBOW LOSS
HORSE CASE
(in HC)
0.539

MAX
VPd
PRESSURE DROP OF VPu
(in HC) (in HC)
DUCT (in HC)
0.012
0.359
0.454
TOTAL MAXIMUM STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
10.540

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
HI
112

ft
B
C
D
PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER
TEST PERSONNEL:

GREG MEYER

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (tvo)
Barometric Pressure (nb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

=
=
=
=

72.0000 Deg F
53.0000 Deg F
992.000 mbar
29.2990

The roll owing Are Automatically Calculated


pe:0.000296UHo"2-0.0159*tvot.41
:

0.3988 in Ho.

PP=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


:

0.1949 in Hg

rho,o=70.73(pb-.378pp)/(53.35*(tdot459.7) (ambient density)


=
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE PER ABOVE

0.0729 lom/(t*3

LEAKAGE = 1.2600 cfm 8

10.5300 inches WC

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO =
slope bl
=
Correlation =

Heriam 1 Dvyer 1 Meriao 2 Dvyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0124 0.0139 -0.0067 0.0363
0.9843 0.9954 1.0183 0.9942 1.0010
0.9998 0.99)9 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TORN FAX ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST DIAMETER (Di)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

=
=
=

6.0000 inches
13.3760 inches
3.5024 inches

ORIFICE DIAMETER
Beta=

0.2618 (calculated)

0.1963 ft"2

METER TUBE DIAMETER


TEST AREA=Pl*Di"2/4/144

114 5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALOES
115
POINT Dps5-6
ps5
116
tdS
td2 tdl=(td5d2)/2
DPsl-2
psl
(In HC) (In HC) Dec t
117
(in HC) (in HC) Deg 1
Deg !
118
119
3.8100 3.8650
77
76
,2000 0.2400
77
120
4.5000 4.5450
78
77
2300 0.2750
78
121
4.9400 4.9950
79
78
2550 0.3050
79
122
5.5950 5.6650
80
79
2850 0.3400
123
81
79
1350 6.1800
3100
.3750
124
82
80
7500 6.8500
3450
.4100
81
125
82
80
4500 7.5150
3750
.4500
81
126
83
81
1400 8.2400
4100
82
.4900
127
83
81
82
8550 8.9450
4450
.5300
128
83
84 0.4850
82
6800 9.7750
.5800
10
129
130 6. CORRECTED VALOES (calculated by computer)
131
132
02722
02723
133
Merlin 1 Merian 2
Differ 1 Differ 2
134
ps5
td5
DPsl-2
pal
tdl
POIHT Dps5-6
135
(in HC) (in HC) Deg t ( i n HC) ( i n HC) Beg t
136
137
3.7667 3.9496
77
2115
2319
77
138
4.4459 4.6421
78
2667
78
2413
139
4.8789 5.1003
79
2965
79
2662
140
5.5237 5.7826
80
3313
80
2961
141
6.0552 6.3070
81
,3661
80
3210
142
6.6605 6.9893
82
,4009
81
3558
143
7.3495 7.6664
82
,4407
81
3857
144
8.0287 8.4047
83 0.4205
,4805
82
145
8.7325 9.1226
83 0.4554
,5202
82
146
9.5445 9.9678
84
,5699
83
0.4952
147
148
149 7. PLOH RATE CALCULATIONS BT THE COMPUTER
150
151
152
H=.7578016Do"2*Y*K*Fa*(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,ii)\5 (mass floH rate)
153
154
rho,=62.195t.l2181E-01Udo-,17493E-03Udo*203429E-06ndo*3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
155
156
=
62.2900 lbn/ft"3
157
158
i=l-(.41*.35*Beta*4)alpha/k (eipansion coefficient)
159
160
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5U3.63*pb)
161
162
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
163
1(4
=
1.4100 (air)
165
166
(tdo+459.7)(psltl3.63'pb)
(tdoM59.7)(ps5U3.63*pb)
167
rho,5=rho,o*
rho,l=rho,o*168
(tdlt459.7)(13.63*pb)
(td5*459.7)(13.63*pb)
169
170
Pa=(material expansion factor) =
0.9998

174
175
176
177
178 Do

K=Ko*(lA/REd) (Clou coefficient)

Beta

Xo

179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194

195

3.5024

0.2618

726.25

0.5984

REd=1363000*Do(rho,5Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))* .5 (approximate REd)


Plow rate 1-2 = H/rho.l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, : Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
VELOCITY PRESSURE, Pvl = rho,l(AVERAOE VELOC1TY/1097)*2, in H.g.
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
DPf = f*Lt/Otrho,l*(V/1097)*n

f = 2.470E-2 (from L0SS6HEH)


n=
1.5360

196
PITTING LOSS = total 1 iss (Psl-Ps2) - DPf
197
198
Co - loss coeficient f rom slope of line of Pvl vs PITTING
199
200
201
202
rho,5
REd
H
bm/ft'3 estimate J
203 POINT
alpha
Y
Ibm/min
204
205
1 0.0093 0.9973 0.0729 2.5076E6 0.5986 22.9471
2 0.0110 0.9968 0.0729 2.7241E6 0.5986 24.9156
206
3 0.0121 0.9965 0.0728 2.8526E6 0.5986 26.0831
207
4 0.0136 0.9960 0.0728 3.0350E6 0.5986 27.7375
208
5 0.0149 0.9956 0.0728 3.1768E6 0.5986 29.0220
209
6 0.0164 0.9952 0.0728 3.3315E6 0.5986 30.4222
210
7 0.0181 0.9947 0.0729 3.5025E6 0.5986 31.9676
211
8 0.0197 0.9943 0.0729 3.6607E6 0.5985 33.3952
212
9 0.0214 0.9938 0.0730 3.82UE6 0.5985 34.8412
213
214
10 0.0233 0.9932 0.0730 3.9953E6 0.5985 36.4082
215
216
VI
ul
217 OPERATION rbo.l
Rel
Pvl
Ql
fpm lbm/ft-s
in. wg
218
POINT !bm/ft*3
cfm
219
317
1616 1.24E-5 4.72E6 0.1570
220
1.0000 0.0723
1758 1.24E-5 5.12E6 0.1854
221
2.0000 0.0722
345
3.0000 0.0720
1844 1.24E-5 5.35E6 0.2035
222
362
223
4.0000 0.0719
386
1964 1.24E-5 5.68E6 0.2306
2057 1.24E-5 5.94E6 0.2526
224
5.0000 0.0719
404
6.0000 0.0717
2160 1.25E-5 6.22E6 0.2781
225
424
2269 1.25E-5 6.53E6 0.3070
7.0000 0.0717
226
446
8.0000 0.0716
2375 1.25E-5 6.82E6 0.3357
227
466
2478 1.25E-5 7.11E6 0.3653
9.0000 0.0716
228
486
2593 1.25E-5 7.42E6 0.3996
229 10.0000 0.0715
509

230

LOSS
FITTING

rho.l
Mow Rate 1-2
lbm/ft"3
cfm
0.0723
0.0722
0.0720
0.0719
0.0719
0.0717
0.0717
0.0716
0.0716
0.0715

317
345
362
386
404
424
446
466
486
509

FITTING LOSS
LOSS COEFFICIENT
is. wj
C
0.1046
0.1199
0.1358
0.1527
0.1671
0.1903
0.2071
0.2293
0.2513
0.2767

0.6663
0.6469
0.6674
0.6621
0.6616
0.6842
0.6744
0.6832
0.6879
0.6923

VI
fpm
1616
1758
1844
1964
2057
2160
2269
2375
2478
2593

Pvl
n w.g
0.1570
0.1854
0.2035
0.2306
0.2526
0.2781
0.3070
0.3357
0.3653
0.3996

DPf
inches WC

LOSS
inches WC

0.1069
0.1214
0.1304
0.1434
0.1538
0.1655
0.1786
0.1912
0.2040
0.2185

0.1046
0.1199
0.1358
0.1527
0.1671
0.1903
0.2071
0.2293
0.2513
0.2767

A
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
233
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270

REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co from a plot of Fvl


VERSOS FITTING LOSS
FROM FITTING LOSS = Co*PvlINTERCEPT
CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE
OPERATION
POINT

X
Pvl

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.1570
0.1854
0.2035
0.2306
.2526
.2781
.3070
.3357
.3653
0.3996

SLOPE
INTERCEPT
CORRELATION
TEST1B.DIF
Pvl CALCULATE
Fs.1-2
in. wg
T
1570 0.1069
1854 0.1262
2035 0.1386
2306 0.1570
2526 0.1720
0.2781 0.1893
0.3070 0.2090
0.3357 0.2285
0.3653 0.2487
0.3996 0.2720

xn

X"2

f2

0.1046
0.1199
0.1358
0.1527
0.1671
0.1903
0.2071
0.2293
0.2513
0.2767

0.0164
0.0222
0.0276
0.0352
0.0422
0.0529
0.0636
0.0770
0.0918
0.1106

0.0246
0.0344
0.0414
0.0532
0.0638
0.0773
0.0943
0.1127
0.1335
0.1597

0.0109
0.0144
0.0185
0.0233
0.0279
0.0362
0.0429
0.0526
0.0632
0.0765

0.7241
-0.0135
0.9994

0.6807

Pl-2

P.l-2
i n . wg
.1002
.1208
.1339
.1535
.1695
.1879
.2089
0.2296
0.2511
0.2759

,1-2

0.1046
0.1199
0.1358
0.1527
0.1671
0.1903
0.2071
0.2293
0.2513
0.2767

AVERAGE
operating points 1 and 2 ERROR
omitted
below .3 in w.g. and 1800 fpm
REYNOLDS LOSS
ACTUAL NUMBER COEFFICIENT
Ps.1-2
in. wg
It
X
T
1046 4.72E6 0.6663
1199 5.12E6 0.6469
1358 5.35E6 0.6674
1527 5.68E6 0.6621
1671 5.94E6 0.6616
0.1903 6.22E6 0.6842
0.2071 6.53E6 0.6744
0.2293 6.82E6 0.6832
0.2513 7.11E6 0.6879
0.2767 7.42E6 0.6923

ERROR

4.19
0.711
1.42%
0.56%
1.40%
1.24%
0.88%
0.12%
0.09%
0.27%

1.09%

P , l - 2 , b ERROR
i n . vg

0.1069
0.1262
1386
1570
1720
1893
2090
0.2285
0.2487
0.2720

2.16%
5.22%
1.99%
2.82%
2.89%
0.51%
0.94%
0.36%
1.05%
1.68%
1.96%

274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
120
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330

%
eDo=
0.0288%orific error
eY=
0.5000%expansion coefficient error
eK=
1.0000%flow coefficeint error
ePa=
0.0200%material expansion error
eRHO=
0.5000%density error
eDps5-6= ((0.01*2+(.05/Dsp5-6)*2)*.5
pressure measunnent error
eD=
1.6667ttest diameter error .1 inch tolerance
eL=
0.5051%test length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
-0.80648E-04*V0.38321E-07*r2t. 15881 FOR 6 IHCH
error of friction factor
ERROR ANALYSIS
VELOCITY ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
eDPf ERROR

eV%
2.06544
1.9413%
1.8852%
1.8229%
1.7848%
1.7513%
1.7224%
1.7004%
1.6827%
1.6668%

/"
eV
33.3841
34.1305
34.7596
35.8069
36.7123
37.8288
39.0887
40.3853
41.6905
43.2270

eV=[((eDo)*2)"2eY"2*eK*2teFa"2eRHO*2teDps5-6"2teA]*.5100 , %
eVP=(2*eV)
PITTlHfl
eDPf=(ef"2*eD"2*eL"2teRHO"2*(neV)"2)\5
DYKAHIC
ePs,l-2=eDpsl-2*eDPf (DYKAHIC LOSS ERROR)
ACTUAL
/Ps,l-2
HEASORED MEASURED
//in. vg
/eDpsl-2% eDpsl-2
eVP%
eVP
eft
eDPft
eDPf
ePs.1-2 ePs,l-2%
2.86431 0.0061 4.1307% 0.0065 6.4591% 7.4207% 0.0079 0.1046 0.0140
13.38%
2.5717% 0.0062 3.8825% 0.0072 5.9774% 6.9212% 0.0084 0.1199 0.0146
12.18%
2.3781% 0.0063 3.7704% 0.0077 5.7133% .6.6566% 0.0087 0.1358 0.0150
11.05%
2.1887% 0.00(5 3.6458% 0.0084 5.3765% 6.3269% 0.0091 0.1527 0.0156
10.19%
2.0578% 0.0066 3.5(96% 0.0090 5.1445% (.1044% 0.0094 0.1671 0.0160
9.57%
1.9052% 0.00(8 3.5027% 0.0097 4.9145% 5.8883% 0.0097 0.1903 0.01(5
8.(9%
1.79(4% 0.00(9 3.4447% 0.0106 4.7023% 5.6915% 0.0102 0.2071 0.0171
8.26%
1.6890% 0.0071 3.4009% 0.0114 4.5292% 5.5334% 0.0106 0.2293 0.0177
7.71%
1.5980% 0.0073 3.3(54% 0.0123 4.3904% 5.4073% 0.0110 0.2513 0.0183
7.29%
1.5098% 0.0075 3.3335% 0.0133 4.2687% 5.2971% 0.0116 0.2767 0.0191
6.89%

1A.DIP
Pvl
X

0.1570
0.1854
0.2035
0.2306
0.2526
0.2781
0.3070
0.3357
0.3(53
0.3996

ACTUAL
Ps.1-2
in. vg
Y
0.1046
0.1199
0.1358
0.1527
0.1(71
0.1903
0.2071
0.2293
0.2513
0.27(7

di
0.0140
0.0148
0.0150
0.0156
0.0160
0.0165
0.0171
0.0177
0.0183
0.0191

dr
0.00(5
0.0072
0.0077
0.0084
0.0090
0.0097
0.0106
0.0114
0.0123
0.0133

i*

PLATE 2
SAMPLE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

SPREADSHEET

A
B
C
D
E
P
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED
PILE:TESTH
PLATE:
2
PLATE TEST I: 1
OVERALL TEST I: 14
PITTING DESCRIPTION: MITERED 30 DEGREE ELBOW
PITTIMO SIZE: 6"
DATE: 02/13/89
ambient: tdo,tvo,pb

a
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Ll
1/

-140"
i<

42"->!

-140"

>!<
!Dps5-6!
ps5 ps6

->!<-

-10.9792'-

vt

->i<-

\
Dspl-2
\

psl

!<-28"->!

LI:
3.4166 ft.
12=
12.7083 ft.
Lt=LHL2= 16.1249 ft.

\
\
\

"

td5

13.375

\
!
tdl{

!<-5 diameters--)|

LEAKAGE REQUIREMENTS

dia
6"

VELOCTIY RANGE (fpm)


1500-2400

TOTAL LEHGTH IN TEST (ft)


24.8125 ft gl4" 29.6041 ft 6"
MINIMUM CFH
REQUIRED
294.52

SEAL SYSTEM BEING TESTED


TEST FOR THE FOLLOWING:
dia
6"

ALLOWABLE
LEAXACE (cfm) t MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE (in HC)
1.4726
10.5346

AREA (ft*2)
0.1963
TRANSITION STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC) Co=.01
0.347

HAXIMUH CFH
REQUIRED
471.24
ORIFICE TOTAL
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
9.200

"
\

\
\

orifice tube
MAX UPSTREAM
VELOCITY (fpm)
440.822

MAX
PRESSURE DROP OF VPu VPd
DUCT (in HC)
(in HC) (in HC)
0.449
0.012 0.359

ELBOW LOSS
MORSE CASE
(in HC)
0.539

!
!
"-- 30 - >

\
\

\
\

\
\
\
\ \
L2
\
\ \
\
\
\ \
\
\
\ \
\
\

\ \= ps2
\
\ \ \
2.5"
\ \ 2.04"
\
\ \ \
\
\ \
tdl
_\_ \ \
\

TOTAL MAXIMUM STATIC


PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
10.535

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

A
B
C
D
PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER
TEST PERSONNEL:

GRES MEYER
CHARLES AURICH

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Net-bulb Temperature (tvo)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

73.0000 Deg F
60.0000 Deg F
980.000 mbar
28.9446

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296two*2-0.0159two+.41
S

0.5216 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-tvo)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


s

0.3838 in Hg

rho,o=70.73<(pb-.378*pp)/(53.35*(tdoH59.7) (ambient density)

2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE PER ABOVE

0.0717 lbm/ft"3

LEAKAGE = 1.1000 cfm I

10.4500 inches HC

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO =
slope bl
=
Correlation =

Heriam 1 Suyer 1 Meriam 2 Dvyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0124 0.0139 -0.0067 0.0363
0.9843 0.9954 1.0183 0.9942 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN OX AND MEASURE ALL REQll IRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST DIAMETER (Di)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

6.0000 inches
13.3760 inches
3.5024 inches

ORIFICE DIAMETER

0.2618 (calculated)

0.1963 t*2

METER TUBE DIAMETER


TEST AREA=JPI*Di"2/4/144

M M

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
1 H 5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
115
116
ps 5
td5
psl
POINT Dps5-6
DPsl-2
td2 tdl=(td5Ud2)/2
117
( i n HC) (in HC) Deg P
(in HC) (in HC) Deg P
Deg F
118
119
8450
3.8000
.1100 0.1400
8
120
4100
4.3700
.1250 0.1650
8
121
9800
4.9250
.1400 0.1800
8
122
5150
5.4600
.1550 0.2000
123
1650
6.1O00
.1700
2200
124
7300
6.6550
.1850
2450
125
4850
7.3900
0.2050
2700
126
1950
8.1050
8
0.2250
2950
127
8350
8.7400
9
0.2450
3150
128
6350
9.5200
10
0.2600
3400
129
130 6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by conputer)
131
132
02722
02723
133
Herian 1 Heriam 2
Dvyec 1 Dvyer 2
134
ps5
td5
DFsl-2
psl
tdl
POINT Dps5-6
135
(in HC) (in HC) Deg F (in HC) (in HC) Deg F
136
137
3.8011 3.8834
8! 0.1219
1325
138
4.3573 4.4639
8: 0.1368
1573
139
4.9183 5.0290
8! 0.1518
1723
140
5.4449 5.5738
1921
.1667
141
6.0847 6.2255
2120
.1816
142
6.6408 6.7907
2369
.1965
143
7.3840 7.5391
2617
.2165
144
2866
8 8.0828 8.2672
.2364
145
3065
9 8.7128 8.9138
.2563
146
10 9.5002 9.7081
0.2712 0.3313
147
148
149 7. FLOH RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER
150
151
152
H=.7578016Do*2*TK*Pa(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,v)".5 (mass flow rate)
153
154
rho,K=62.195M2181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03*tdo"2t.33429E-06*tdo*3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
155
156
62.2821 lbm/ft"3
157
158
I=l-(.41t.35Beta"4)*alpha/k (eipansion coefficient)
159
160
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5tl3.63pb)
161
162
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
163
164
=
1.4100 (air)
165
166
(tdo+459.7)(ps5tl3.63*pb)
(tdo+459.7)(psltl3.63*pb)
167
rho,5=rho,o*
rho,l=rho,o*168
(td5+459.7)(13.63*pb)
(tdU459.7)(13.63*pb)
169
170
Fa=(material eipansion factor) =
0.9998

(^
;_,
O

A
B
C
D
E
F
O
H
I
J
K
173
174
K=Ko(l*A/REd) (flow coefficient)
175
176
177
178 Do
Beta
A
Ho
179
180
3.5024
0.2618
726.25
0.5984
181
182
183
REd=1363000*Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))*.5 (approximate REd)
184
185
Flow rate 1-2 = H/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfn
186
187
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpn
188
189
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)"2, inches HC
190
191
192
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
193
194
OPf = fLt/Dtrho,l*(V/1097)"n
f = 2.470E-2 (from LOSS6NEW)
195
n=
1.5360
196
PITTING LOSS = total loss (Psl-Ps2) - OPf
197
198
Co = loss coeficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS
199
200
201
202
rho,5
REd
H
rho.l
Flow Rate 1-2
203 POINT
alpha
7
\im/tt'i
estimate X
Ibm/min lbm/it'3
cfo
204
205
1 0.0095 0.9972 0.0708 2.4821E6 0.5986 22.7113 0.0702
324
206
2 0.0109 0.9968 0.0709 2.6594E6 0.5986 24.3234 0.0702
347
207
3 0.0123 0.9964 0.0710 2.8274E6 0.5986 25.8493 0.0702
368
208
4 0.0136 0.9960 0.0711 2.9770E6 0.5986 27.2058 0.0702
388
209
5 0.0152 0.9956 0.0712 3.1496E6 0.5986 28.7696 0.0703
409
210
( 0.0165 0.9952 0.0714 3.2957E6 0.5986 30.0921 0.0703
428
211
7 0.0184 0.9946 0.0716 3.4785E6 0.5986 31.7434 0.0703
451
212
8 0.0201 0.9941 0.0717 3.6427E6 0.5985 33.2248 0.0703
472
213
9 0.0216 0.9937 0.0718 3.7850E6 0.5985 34.5071 0.0703
491
214
10 0.0235 0.9931 0.0720 3.9562E6 0.5985 36.0477 0.0703
512
215
216
FITTING LOSS
217 OPERATION rho.l
Ql
VI
ul
Rel
Pvl
LOSS COEFFICIENT
218
POINT lbm/ft'3
cfm
fpm lbm/ft-s
in. wg in. wg
C
219
220
1.0000 0.0702
324
1648 1.25E-5
4.62E6 0.1584 0.0174 0.1100
221
2.0000 0.0702
347
1765 1.25E-5 4.95E6 0.1817 0.0208 0.1143
222
3.0000 0.0702
368
1876 1.25E-5 5.26E6 0.2052 0.0243 0.1185
223
4.0000 0.0702
388
1974 1.25E-5 5.53E6 0.2273 0.0288 0.1269
224
5.0000 0.0703
409
2085 1.25E-5 5.86E6 0.2539 0.0315 0.1240
225
6.0000 0.0703
428
2179 1.25E-5 6.13E6 0.2775 0.0358 0.1289
226
7.0000 0.0703
451
2298 1.25E-5 6.47E6 0.3088 0.0419 0.1358
227
8.0000 0.0703
472
2406 1.25E-5 6.77E6 0.3383 0.0492 0.1454
228
9.0000 0.0703
491
2498 1.25E-5 7.03E6 0.3648 0.0579 0.1587
229 10.0000 0.0703
512
2610 1.25E-5 7.34E6 0.3981 0.0591 0.1484
230

VI
fpm
1648
1765
1876
1974
2085
2179
2298
2406
2498
2610

Pvl
in w.g
0.1584
0.1817
0.2052
0.2273
0.2539
0.2775
0.3088
0.3383
0.3648
0.3981

inches HC

FITTING
LOSS
inches HC

0.1045
0.1161
0.1274
0.1378
0.1501
0.1608
0.1745
0.1872
0.1984
0.2121

0.0174
0.0208
0.0243
0.0288
0.0315
0.0358
0.0419
0.0492
0.0579
0.0591

DPf

(I

231
232 [6] REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co from a plot of Pvl
VERSOS FITTING LOSS
233
234
235
236

237 OPERATION
X
POINT
238
Pvl
239
1.0000 0.1584
240
241
2.0000 0.1817
3.0000 0.2052
242
243
4.0000 0.2273
5.0000 0.2539
244
6.0000 0.2775
245
7.0000 0.3088
246
8.0000 0.3383
247
9.0000 0.3648
248

FROM FITTING LOSS = Co*Pvl+lNTERCEPT

r
Pl-2
0.0174
0.0208
0.0243
0.0288
0.0315
0.0358
0.0419
0.0492
0.0579
0.0591

249 10.0000 0.3981


250
:
0.1930
251 SLOPE
s
-0.0162
252 INTERCEPT
0.9899
253 CORRELATION =

x*r
0.0028
0.0038
0.0050
0.0066
0.0080
0.0099
0.0130
0.0166
0.0211
0.0235
0.1408

X"2
0.0251
0.0330
0.0421
0.0517
0.0645
0.0770
0.0953
0.1144
0.1331
0.1585

T2
0.0003
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0013
0.0018
0.0024
0.0034
0.0035

CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


P.l-2
P,l-2,b ERROR
P.l-2 ERROR
in. vg in. wg
in. wg
0.0144
0.0189
0.0234
0.0277
0.0328
0.0374
0.0434
0.0491
0.0542
0.0606

0.0174
0.0208
0.0243
0.0288
0.0315
0.0358
0.0419
0.0492
0.0579
0.0591

AVERAGE
operating points 1 and 2 ERROR
omitted
lelovi .3 in w.g. and 1800 fpm

254
255 TEST14.DIF
256
Pvl CALCULATE ACTUAL REYNOLD'S LOSS
Ps.1-2 Ps,l-2 NUMBER COEFFICIENT
257
X
in. wg in. wg
258
C
I
259
I
X
r
0.1584 0.0223 0.0174 4.62E6 0.1100
260
0.1817 0.0256 0.0208 4.95E6 0.1143
261
0.2052 0.0289 0.0243 5.26E6 0.1185
262
0.2273 0.0320 0.0288 5.53E6 0.1269
263
0.2539 0.0357 0.0315 5.86E6 0.1240
264
0.2775 0.0391 0.0358 6.13E6 0.1289
265
0.3088 0.0435 0.0419 6.47E6 0.1358
266
0.3383 0.0476 0.0492 6.77E6 0.1454
267
0.3648 0.0514 0.0579 7.03E6 0.1587
2(8
0.3981 0.0561 0.0591 7.34E6 0.1484
269
270

17.52*
9.12*
3.79*
4.08*
4.15*
4.41*
3.45*
0.23*
6.36*
2.65*

0.0223
0.0256
0.0289
0.0320
0.0357
0.0391
0.0435
0.0476
0.0514
0.0561

5.58*
a255

27.97*
23.22*
18.77*
10.94*
13.50*
9.19*
3.64*
3.20*
11.28*
5.11*
12.68*

274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
28S
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330

eDo=
O.0286*orific error
el=
0.5000*expansion coefficient error '
eK=
l.OOOOtflov coefficeint error
eFa=
0.0200tmaterial expansion error
eRHO=
0,5000*density error
eDps5-6= ((0.or2*{.05/Dsp5-6)"2)".5
pressure measurment error
eD=
1.6667Uest diameter error .1 inch tolerance
el0.5168Hest length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
-0.80648E-04*V0.38321E-07V*2.15881 FOR 6 INCH
error of friction factor
ERROR ANALYSIS
VELOCITY ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
eDPf ERROR
/

eV*
2.0577*
1.9546%
1.8807*
1.8295*
1.7829*
1.7523*
1.7211*
1.6989*
1.6831*
1.6675*

eV
33.9112
34.4971
35.2745
36.1116
37.1804
38.1834
39.5592
40.8690
42.0503
43.5173

eV=[((eDo)*2)"2eY*2+eK"2teFa"2teRHO"2*eDps5-6"2teA]*.5*100 , *
PITTING
eVP=(2*eV)
DYNAMIC
eDPf=(ef"2teD*2*eL*2teRHO"2(neV)"2)*.5
ACTUAL
ePs,l-2=eDpsl-2eDPt (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
Ps,l-2
////in. wg
MEASURED MEASURED
eVP
eVP*
ef*
eDPf* eDPf
eDpsl-2* eDpsl-2
ePs 1-2 ePs,l-2*
76.06*
4.6019* 0.0056 4.1153* 0.0065 6.3467* 7.3188* 0.0076 0.0174 0 0133
66.03*
4.1543* 0.0057 3.9092* 0071 5.9559* 6.9123* 0.0080 0.0208 0 0137
0.0084
0141
58.13*
3.7948* 0058 3.7615* 0077 5.6207* 6.5751* 0.0087 0.0243 0
0145
0.0288 0
50.39*
3.4996* 0058 3.6589* 0083 5.3512* 6.3109*
0.0150
47.59*
3.2530* .0059 3.5659* 0091 5.0782* 6.0484* ,0091 0.0315 0.0154
43.04*
3.0439* ,0060 3.5046* 0097 4.8752* 5.8572* .0094 0.0358 0.0159
38.01*
2.8099* .0061 3.4422* 0106 4.6517* 5.6499* ,0099 0.0419 0.0165
2.6154* .0062 3.3978* 0115 4.4848* 5.4971* ,0103 0.0492 0.0170 33.48*
29.31*
2.4510* .0063 3.3663* 0.0123 4.3659* 5.3889* ,0107 0.0579 0.0176
29.75*
2.3436* .0064 3.3351* 0.0133 4.2546* 5.2875* 0.0112 0.0591

14A.WKS
Pvl
X

1584
1817
2052
2273
2539
2775
0.3088
0.3383
0.3648
0.3981

ACTUAL
Ps,l-2
in. Kg
Y
0.0174
0.0208
0.0243
0.0288
.0315
.0358
.0419
.0492
.0579
.0591

dx
0.0133
0.0137
0.0141
0.0145
0.0150
0.0154
0.0159
0.0165
0.0170
0.0176

il
0.0065
0.0071
0.0077
0.0083
0.0091
0.0097
0.0106
0.0115
0.0123
0.0133

PLATE
SAMPLE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

SPREADSHEET

A
B
C
D
E
P
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE OSED
PILR-.TEST30
PLATE:
3
PLATE TEST I: 1
OVERALL TEST \:
30
FITTING DESCRIPTION: HITERED OFFSET L/D= 1.0 30 deg
riTTINO SIZE: 6"
DATE: 02/14/89
ambient: tdo.two.pb

LI
|< >!
-140"!<

42"->!

->!<

-140"

>!<
|Dps5-6j
ps5 ps6

Ll=
12
13=
Lt=LlL2H3=

\
pal

!<-28"->!

Dspl-2
\

3.3958 ft.
1.0000 ft.
12.7083 ft.
17.1041 ft.

\
t 1
.(i

tdS

13.375

"\
\
\\\

tdl
\L2 \<--30 deg ---
1
1
\\ \
V
-- 30' deg - ...>
\ ..

!<-5 diameters--)j

i
i
i
i

-13-

LEAKAGE REQUIREMENTS

dia
6"

VELOCTIT RANGE (fpm)


1500-2400

TOTAL LENGTH IN TEST (ft)


24.8125 ft ei4" 30.5833 ft 6"
HINIHUH CFM
REQUIRED
294.52

SEAL SYSTEM BEING TESTED


TEST FOR THE FOLLOWING:
dia
6"

ALLOWABLE
LEAKAGE (cfm) t MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE (in HC)
1.4726
10.5492

AREA (ft"2)
0.1963
TRANSITION STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC) Co=.01
0.347

MAXIMUM CFM
REQUIRED
471.24
ORIFICE TOTAL
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
9.200

orifice tube
MAX UPSTREAM
VELOCITY (fpm)
440.822
ELBOW LOSS
HORSE CASE
(in HC)
0.539

2.04'
!<
>!
ps2
td2
> i
i
!!
->!

. !
2.5'

MAX
VPd
PRESSURE DROP OF VPu
(in HC) (in HC)
DUCT (in HC)
0.463
0.012
0.359
TOTAL MAXIMUM STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(in HC)
10.549

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

A
B
C
D
PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVES TEST DIAMETER
TEST PERSONNEL:

GREG HEVER
CHARLES AORICH

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

76.0000 Deg F
57.0000 Deg F
990.000 mbar
29.2399

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296Uuo'2-0.0159Uwoi.41

0.4654 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-tno)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)

0.2620 in Hg

rho,o=70.73(pb-.378*pp)/(53.35*(tdoM59.7) (ambient density)

2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE PER ABOVE

0.0721 lbm/ft*3

LEAKAGE = 1.1000 ctm I

10.8000 inches DC

3. MAXOHETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO =
slope bl
=
Correlation =

Heriam 1 Dwyer 1 Heriatn 2 Dwyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0124 0.0139 -0.0067 0.0363
0.9843 0.9954 1.0183' 0.9942 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQt 1RED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST DIAMETER (Di)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

=
=
=

6.0000 inches
13.3760 inches
3.5024 inches

ORIFICE DIAMETER

no

METER TUBE DIAMETER

HI
112

TEST AREA=PI*Di"2/4/144

0.2618 (calculated)

0.1963 ftA2

114
115

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS MID LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES

psS
POINT Dps5-6
td5 DPsl-2
psl
td2 tdlt(td5Ud2)/2
in
( i n HC) (in WC)
Deg F
(in WC) (in WC) Deg F
117
118
3.8050 3.7800
1250
1600
119
4.4600 4.4300
1450
1800
120
4.9150 4.8800
1550
2000
121
5.5100 5.4700
1750
2200
122
6.2100 6.1600
1900
2450
123
6.7750 6.7050
2100
2650
124
7.4250 7.3700
2300
2900
125
8.1100 8.0150
2500
3150
126
8.8400 8.7700
2700
3400
127
9.6750 9.5700
0.2900 0.3750
128
129
130 6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)
131
02722
02723
132
Meriam 1 Meriam 2
Dvjrer 1 Dwyer 2
133
ps5
P01HT Dps 5-6
td5
DPsl-2
tdl
134
PSl
(in WC) (in MC) Deg F (in WC) (in WC) Deg F
135
136
8631
3.7618
81
1368
1524
8
137
81
1567
4.4065
5250
8
1723
138
82
1667
8
4.8543
9832
1921
139
82
1866
8
5.4400
,5840
2120
140
83
2015
8
6.1290
2866
2369
141
83
2214
8:
6.6851
,8416
2568
142
83
2413 0.2816
8:
7.3249
,5188
143
83
2613 0.3065
8
7.9992 8.1756
144
83
2812 0.3313
8,
8.7177 8.9444
145
83
3011 0.3661
9.5396 9.7590
146
147
148
149 7. FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COHPUTER
150
151
M=.7578016*Do*2*!f*K*Pa(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,v)\5 (mass flow rate)
152
153
rho,v=62.195.12181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03*tdo*2t.33429E-06Udo"3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
154
155
=
62.2571 lbm/ft"3
156
157
Y=l-(.4H.35*Beta*4)*alphaA (expansion coefficient)
158
159
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5U3.63*pb)
160
161
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
162
163
=
1.4100 (air)
164
165
(tdo+459.7)(psltl3.63*pb)
(tdo*459.7)(ps5+13.63*pb)
166
rho,l=rho,orho,5=rho,o*
167
(tdl459.7)(13.63*pb)
(td5*459.7)(13.63*pb)
168
169
Fa=(material eipansion factor) =
0.9998
170

173
174
175
176
177
178 Do

'1
pm

Pvl

X=Xo(l*A/REd) (flow coefficient)

Beta

Xo

179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194

195

3.5024

0.2618

726.25

0.5984

REdM363000*Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))" .5 (approximate REd)


Flow rate 1-2 = H/rbo,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)*2, Inches HC
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
DPf = f*Lt/Dt*rho,lMV/1097)*n

f = 2.470E-2 (from LOSSSNEW)


1.5360
n

196
PITTING LOSS = total 1 oss (Psl-Ps2) - DPf
197
198
Co = loss coeficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS
199
200
201
H
202
rho.S REd
rho.l
Fl ow Rate 1-2
203 POINT
alpha
Y
lbm/ft*3 estimate X
Ibm/min lbm/ft'3
cfm
204
205
1 0.0093 0.9973 0.0721 2.4928E6 0.5986 22.8058 0.0715
319
2 0.0109 0.9968 0.0723 2.7002E6 0.5986 24.6912 0.0715
206
345
3 0.0120 0.9965 0.0722 2.8331E6 0.5986 25.8977 0.0714
207
363
4 0.0135 0.9961 0.0723 3.0013E6 0.5986 27.4239 0.0714
208
384
5 0.0151 0.9956 0.0723 3.1856E6 0.5986 29.0926 0.0714
209
408
i 0.0165 0.9952 0.0724 3.3292E6 0.5986 30.3923 0.0714
210
426
7 0.0180 0.9947 0.0725 3.4878E6 0.5986 31.8252 0.0713
211
446
8 0.0197 0.9943 0.0726 3.6477E6 0.5985 33.2684 0.0713
212
467
213
9 0.0214 0.9938 0.0728 3.8116E6 0.5985 34.7453 0.0713
487
214
10 0.0234 0.9932 0.0729 3.9913E6 0.5985 36.3612 0.0713
510
215
216
FITTING
LOSS
VI
ul
217 OPERATION rbo.l
Rel
Pvl
Ql
in. wg in. wg
218
POINT lbm/ft'3
cfm
fpm lbm/ft-s
219
220
319
1.0000 0.0715
1623 1.24E-5 4.66E6 0.1567 0.0264
1758 1.24E-5 5.05E6 0.1837 0.0320
2.0000 0.0715
221
345
3.0000 0.0714
1847 1.25E-5 5.29E6 0.2024 0.0324
222
363
223
4.0000 0.0714
384
1955 1.25E-5 5.60E6 0.2270 0.0399
224
5.0000 0.0714
408
2076 1.25E-5 5.94E6 0.2556 0.0409
2169 1.25E-5 6.20E6 0.2790 0.0496
6.0000 0.0714
225
426
226 7.0000 0.0713
446
2273 1.25E-5 6.49E6 0.3062 0.0569
8.0000 0.0713
2376 1.25E-5 6.79E6 0.3345 0.0638
227
467
9.0000 0.0713
2481 1.25E-5 7.09E6 0.3649 0.0701
228
487
2597 1.25E-5 7.42E6 0.3996 0.0747
229 10.0000 0.0713
510

FITTING

1623
1758
1847
1955
2076
2169
2273
2376
2481
2597

in w.g
0.1567
0.1837
0.2024
0.2270
0.2556
0.2790
0.3062
0.3345
0.3649
0.3996

DPf
inches WC

LOSS
inches HC

0.1104
0.1247
0.1343
0.1466
0.1607
0.1718
0.1845
0.1975
0.2111
0.2264

0.0264
0.0320
0.0324
0.0399
0.0409
0.0496
0.0569
0.0638
0.0701
0.0747

REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co from a plot of Pvl


VERSUS PITTING LOSS
FROM FITTING LOSS = Co*PvltINTERCEPT

OPERATION
POINT

X
Pvl

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.1567
0.1837
0.2024
0.2270
0.2556
0.2790
0.3062
0.3345
0.3649
0.3996

SLOPE
INTERCEPT
CORRELATION

=
=

X*Y

X"2

Y"2

0.0264
0.0320
0.0324
0.0399
0.0409
0.0496
0.0569
0.0638
0.0701
0.0747

0.0041
0.0059
0.0066
0.0091
0.0104
0.0138
0.0174
0.0213
0.0256
0.0299

0.0246
0.0337
0.0410
0.0515
0.0653
0.0778
0.0937
0.1119
0.1331
0.1597

0.0007
0.0010
0.0010
0.0016
0.0017
0.0025
0.0032
0.0041
0.0049
0.0056

0.2232
-0.0126
0.9922

0.1826

Pl-2

TEST1B.DIF
Pvl CALCULATE ACTUAL
Ps.1-2 Ps,l-2
X
in. vg in. vg
Y
Y
0.1567 0.0286 0.0264
0.1837 0.0335 0.0320
0.2024 0.0370 0.0324
0.2270 0.0414 0.0399
0.2556 0.0467 0.0409
0.2790 0.0509 0.0496
0.3062 0.0559 0.0569
0.3345 0.0611 0.0638
0.3649 0.0666 0.0701
0.3996 0.0730 0.0747

CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


P,l-2,b ERROR
P.l-2
P.l-2 ERROR
in. vg in. vg
in. vg
0.0224
0.0284
0.0326
0.0381
0.0445
0.0497
0.0558
0.0621
0.0689
0.0766

0.0264
0.0320
0.0324
0.0399
0.0409
0.0496
0.0569
0.0638
0.0701
0.0747

AVERAGE
operating points 1 and 2 ERROR
onmitted
below .3 n u.g. and 1800 fpm

15.29*
11.28%
0.701
4.651
8.841
0.13%
1.92%
2.62%
1.70%
2.55%
4.97%

0.0286
0.0335
0.0370
0.0414
0.0467
0.0509
0.0559
0.0611
0.0666
0.0730

8.20%
4.69%
14.16%
3.77%
14.22%
2.65%
1.66%
4.19%
4.88%
2.32%
6.07%

o
H
00

274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330

eDo=
0.0286%orific error
eY=
0.5000%expansion coefficient error
ell.OOOOtflow coefficeint error
eFa=
0.0200%material expansion error
eRHO=
0.5000%densitj error
eDps5-(= ((0.01"2t(.05/Dsp5-6)"2)".5
pressure measurment error
eD=
l.(667%test diameter error .1 inch tolerance
el0.4872Uest length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
-0.80648E-04Vt0.38321E-07*V*2.15881 FOR 6 IKCH
error of friction factor
ERROR AHALTSIS
VEL0C1TI ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
eDPf ERROR

/-

eV%
2.0665%
1.9471%
1.8880%
1.8299%
1.7802%
1.7502%
1.7233%
1.7013%
1.6830%
1.6668%

eV
33.5477
34.2211
34.8667
35.7829
36.9619
37.9593
39.1716
40.4233
41.7625
43.2805

eV=t((eDo)*2)"2>eI"2+eK*2teFa*2eRHO"2teDps5-6"2*eA]".5U00 , %
eVP=(2eV)
FITTIHG
DINAHIC
eDPf=(ef"2teD*2eL*2teRHO"2t(neV)*2)".5
ACTUAL
ePs,l-2-eDpsl-2teDPf (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
1-2
/
/
/MEASURED MEASURED
/ "9
eDPf
ePs,l-2 ePs,l-2%
eVP%
eDPf%
eDpsl-2% eDpsl-2
ef%
eVP
0.0139
4.1543% 0.0057 4.1330% 0.0065 6.4338% 7.3983% .0082
02(4
52.37%
3.6901% 0.0058 3.8942%
0320
45.01%
.0144
0072 5.9794% 6.9255% .0086
3.4996% 0.0058 3.7760%
0324
45.60%
.0148
0076 5.7047% 6.6497% .0089
3.1796% 0.0059 3.6597%
0399
38.17%
0083 5.3997% (.3499% .0093
.0152
2.9811% 0.0060 3.5604%
0091 5.0992% (.0(17% .0097
0409
38.52%
.0157
2.7580% 0.0061 3.5003%
0098 4.8960% 5.8705% .0101
0496
32.63%
.0162
2.5717% 0.0062 3.4465%
0106 4.6958% 5.(853% .0105
05(9
29.36%
.0187
0114 4.5277% 5.5311% 0.0109 0.0(38 0.0172
2.4139% 0.0063 3.4026%
27.02%
0123 4.3859% 5.4022% 0.0114 0.0701 0.0178
2.2784% 0.0064 3.3661%
25.42%
2.1608% 0.0065 3.3337% 0.0133 4.2660% 5.2933% 0.0120 0.0747 0.0185
24.75%

30A.HKS
Pvl
X

1567
1837
2024
2270
2556
2790
3062
3345
3(49
0.3996

ACTUAL
Ps,l-2
in. ug
I
0264
0320
0324
0399
0409
0496
0569
0638
0.0701
0.0747

dx
0139
0144
0148
0152
0157
0162
0167
0.0172
0.0178
0.0185

dj

0.0065
0072
0076
0083
0091
0098
0106
0114
0.0123
0.0133

PLATE
SAMPLE

O
vo

A
B
C
D
E
P
1
MANUAL HODEPUT SPREADSHEET IK MANUAL MODE OPERATION/WC
2
PILE:TEST39
PLATE:
4
3
PLATE TEST |i
1
4
OVERALL TEST I:
1
5
PITTING DESCRIPTION: ORIFICE INLET, Do/D = .40
6
PITTING SIZE: 6"
7
ORIFICE DIAMETER: 2, 425"
8
DATE: 05/30/89
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
-140"
16
-140"
->!<
17
DpsS-6!
18
ps6 ps5
19
20
21
22
13.375
td5
23
24
25
!<-5 diameters26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
dia
VELOCTU RANGE (fpn)
TOTAL LENGTH IN TEST (ft)
LEAKAGE REQUIREMENTS
42
6"
24.8125 ft ei4" 5.7500 ft 6"
1500-2400
43
44
45
MINIMUM CFH
46
REQUIRED
47
48
294.52
49
50
SEAL SYSTEM BEING TESTED
51
TEST FOR THE FOLLOWING:
52
53
ALLOWABLE
54
LEAKAGE (cfn) t MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE (in WC)
55 dia
1.4726
10.1
56 6"
57
58

SPREADSHEETS

LI :
i<

>i<-

-1'6"->!<

j<42">!

4.2500 ft
.

Dspl-8

>i

>|

psl
Lt-Ll

!<-28"

ft.
ft.
4.2500 ft.

tdl

AREA (ft"2)
0.1963

MAXIMUM CFM
REQUIRED
471.24

TRANSITION STATIC ORIFICE TOTAL


PRESSURE 0ROP
PRESSURE DROP
(in vg) Cos.01
(in wg)
0.347
9.200

orifice tube
MAX UPSTREAM
VELOCITI (fpm)
440.822
TEST ORIFICE
HORSE CASE
(in vg)
0.500

MAX
VPd
PRESSURE DROP OF VPu
(in wg) (in wg)
DUCT (in vg)
0.012
0.359
0.092
TOTAL MAXIMUM STATIC
PRESSURE DROP
(in wg)
10.139

59
60

61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

A
B
C
D
E
PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER

TEST PERSONNEL:

GREG METER

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

76.0000 Deg F
70.0000 Deg F
985.000 mbar
29.0923

The Following Are Automaticallj Calculated


pe=0.000296nwo'2-0.0159Uvo.41
:

0.7474 in Bg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-tvo)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.6835 in Hg

rho,o=70.73*(l>b-.378*pp)/(53.35(tdot459.7) (ambient density)


=
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE PER ABOVE

0.0714 lbm/ft'3

LEAKAGE = 1.2000 cfm t

10.2500 inches wg

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALOES
intercept bO *
slope bl
:
Correlation =

Meriam 1 Dwyer 1 Heriam 2 Dwyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0124 0.0139 -0.0067 0.0363
0.9843 0.9954 1.0183 0.9942 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST DIAMETER (Di)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)
TEST ORIFICE DIAMETER (Dto)

=
=
=
=

6.0000
13.3760
3.5024
2.4250

inches
inches
inches
inches

ORIFICE DIAMETER
Beta*

0.2618 (calculated)
METER TUBE DIAMETER

Blue
Blue
Dwyer
Dwyer
Front
Back
0.0283 0.0256
0.9632 0.9799
0.9997 0.9998

A
1H
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172

B
C
D
TEST AREA=jPlDi"2/4/144
=
TEST ORIFICE AREA=Pl*Dto*2/4/l=

P
0
0.1963 ft"2
0.0321 ft"2

5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
POINT

Ops5-6
ps5
(in wg) (in wg)

DPsl-8
(in wg) (in wg)

td5
Deg t

tdl
Deg F

77 1.1500 1.1500
77 3.3000 3.3000
77 5.6000 5.6000
77 7.8500 7.8500
77 10.0500 10.0500
77 11.1500 11.1500
77 8.9000 8.9000
77 6.7000 6.7000
77 4.5500 4.5500
77 2.3500 2.3500

0.3000 1.0600
0.9300 3.2700
1.5600 5.5300
2.1700 7.6200
2.7800 10.0000
3.1100 11.1000
2.4900 8.6200
1.8600 6.4800
1.2500 4.4700
10 0.6300 2.3200

6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)


02722
02723
Meriam 1 Herian 2
ps5
POINT Dps5-6
(in wg) (in wg)

tdS
Deg P

Dwyer 1 Dwyer 2
DPsl-8
ps8
(in wg) (in wg)

tdl
Deg F

0.3118 1.0933
77 1.1571 1.1366
0.9319 3.3437
77 3.2972 3.2742
1.5520 5.6451
77 5.5866 5.5608
2.1524 7.7733
77 7.8263 7.7978
2.7529 9.6603
77 9.8733 9.8733
3.0777 10.7199
77 10.9512 10.9512
2.4674 8.7916
77 8.8715 8.8417
1.8473 6.6125
77 6.6816 6.6544
1.2469 4.5657
77 4.5415 4.5169
77 2.3516 2.3297
10 0.6366 2.3764
Point 5,6: ps5 data are Blue Dwyer Front corrected, DPsl-8 am ps8 are Blue Dwyer Back corrected
7. FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS By THE COMPUTER
H=.7578016*Do"2*Y*K*Pa(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)*.5 (mass flow rate)
rho,w=62.195.12181E-01Hdo-.17493E-03ndo"2t.33429E-06*tdo"3 (density of water, lbm/ft*3)
s

62.2571 lbm/ft'3

T=l-(.4H.35*Beta"4)*alpha/lt (expansion coefficient)


alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5U3.63*pb)
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
=

1.4100 (air)

(tdot459.7)(ps5tl3.63*pb)

(tdot459.7)(psl13.63*pb)
rho,l=rho,o*-

rho,5=rho,o*(td5*459.7)(13.63pb)

(tdlt459.7)(13.63*pb)

A
B
C
D
E
P
G
H
I
173
174
Fa={material expansion factor) =
0.9998
175
176
177
178
K=Ko*(lA/REd) (Clow coefficient)
179
180
181
182 Do
Beta
A
Ko
183
184
3.5024 0.2618
726.25
0.5984
185
186
187
REd=1363000*Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))'.5 (approiiaiate REd)
188
189
Plow rate 1-8 = H/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 8), cfm
190
191
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-8/AREA, fpm
192
193
VELOCITY PRESSURE, Pvl, = rho,l*(VERAGE VELOC1TY/1097)*2, In w.g.
194
195
TEST ORIFICE VELOCITY PRESSURE, Pvo, = rho,l(AVERAGE VELOC1TY/1097)"2, in w.g.
196
197
198
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
199
200
DPf = fLt/Dt*rho,l*(V/1097)*n
f = 2.470E-2 (from LOSS6NEH)
201
n =
1.5360
202
PI,2 = total loss (Psl-Ps8) - DPf (tero-lengtb dynamic fitting loss)
203
204
Co,3 = loss coeficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS
205
206
Co,o = loss coeficient from slope of line of Pvo vs FITTING LOSS
207
208
209
210
rho,5
REd
M
rho.l
Flow Rate 1-8
211 POINT
alpha
Y
lbm/ft*3 estimate K
lbm/min lbm/ft"3
cfm
212
213
1 0.0008
0.9998
0.0714 7.1406E5 0.5990
6.5539 0.0716
92
214
2 0.0023 0.9993
0.0718 1.2380E6 0.5988 11.3526 0.0719
158
215
3 0.0039 0.9989 0.0722 1.6022E6 0.5987 14.6843 0.0724
203
216
4 0.0053 0.9984
0.0726 1.8918E6
0.5987 17.3300 0.0728
238
217
5 0.0068
0.9980
0.0730 2.1445E6 0.5986 19.6351 0.0731
268
218
6 0.0076 0.9978 0.0732 2.2704E6 0.5986 20.7832 0.0733
283
219
7 0.0061 0.9982
0.0728 2.0281E6 0.5986 18.5735 0.0730
255
220
8 0.0046
0.9987
0.0724 1.7501E6 0.5987 16.0357 0.0726
221
221
9 0.0031 0.9991 0.0720 1.4342E6 0.5987 13.1477 0.0722
182
222
10 0.0016 0.9995
0.0717 1.0220E6 0.5989
9.3749 0.0772
121

VI
fpm

Pvl
(in wg)

466
804
1034
1213
1367
1443
1297
1126

928
619

0.0129
0.0386
0.0642
0.0890
0.1136
0.1270
0.1019
0.0764
0.0516
0.0245

DPf
(in wg)
0.0040
0.0094
0.0139
0.0178
0.0215
0.0235
0.0198
0.0158
0.0117
0.0067

PI ,'2
(in wg)
1.1531
3.2879
5.5728
7.8085
9.8518
10.9277
8.8517
6.6657
4.5298
2.3449

A
B
225 OPERATION rho.l
POINT lbm/ft"3
226
227
1.0000 0.0716
228
2.0000 0.0719
229
230
3.0000 0.0724
4.0000 0.0728
231
232
5.0000 0.0731
6.0000 0.0733
233
7.0000 0.0730
234
8.0000 0.0726
235
9.0000 0.0722
236
237 10.0000 0.0772

C
Ql
cfn
92
158
203
238
268
283
255
221
182
121

D
VI
fpm
466
804
1034
1213
1367
1443
1297
1126

928
619

E
Vo
fpm
2855
4920
6327
7426
8370
8836
7938
6891
5680
3787

P
ul
lbm/ft-s

G
Rel

1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24B-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.17E-5

2.25E4
3.90E4
5.04E4
S.95E4
6.74E4
7.13E4
6.37E4
5.50E4
4.51E4
3.40E4

H
I
J
Pvl
Fvo
PI,2
(in vg) (in vg) (in vg)
0.0129
0.0386
0.0642
0.0890
0.1136
0.1270
0.1019
0.0764
0.0516
0.0245

0.4848 1.1531
1.44(9 3.2879
2.4071 5.5728
3.3341 7.8085
4.2581 9.8518
4.7580 10.9277
3.8198 8.8517
2.8(27 6.6657
1.9347 4.5298
0.9198 2.3449

238
239
240 8. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co,s from a plot of Pvl
241
VERSOS FITTING LOSS
242
FROM FITTING LOSS = Co,S*Pvl*lHTERCEPT
243
244
CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE

,- used to determine Co,o from a plot of Pvo


VERSUS FITTING LOSS
FROM FITTING LOSS = Co,o*Pvo*INTERCEPT
CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCUL

ATEO
245 OPERATION
246
POINT

X
Pvl

1
X*I
FITTING LOSS

X"2

1*2

PI,2 . PI,2 ERROR


(in vg) (in vg)

PI,2 ERROR
(in vg)

OPERATION
POINT

X
Pvo

T
XT
FITTING LOSS

X*2

Y"2

1.0000

0.4848

1.1531

2.0000

1.4469

3.2879

3.0000

PI,2
PI,2 ERROR
(in vg) (in vg)

PI,2
(in vg

0.5590

0.2351

1.3296

1.2088

1.1531

4.82% 1.12

4.7574

2.0937 10.8100

3.4097

3.2879

3.71% 3.35

2.4071

5.5728 13.4141

5.7940 31.0558

5.6063

5.5728

0.60% 5.57

4.0000

3.3341

7.8085 26.0340 11.11(1 (0.9721

7.7270

7.8085

1.04% 7.72

5.0000

4.2581

9.8518 41.9502 18.1317 97.0575

9.8411

9.8518

0.11% 9.86

(.0000

4.7580 10.9277 51.9941 22.6386 119.4147 10.9847 10.9277

0.52% 11.02

7.0000

3.8198

8.8517 33.8118 14.5910 78.3519

8.8383

8.8517

0.15% 8.85

8.0000

2.8(27

(.6657 19.0821

8.1952 44.4320

6.6487

6.6657

0.26% (.63

9.0000

1.9347

4.5298

8.7638

3.7431 20.5187

4.5256

4.5298

0.09% 4.48

10.0000

0.9198

2.3449

2.1569

0.8461

2.2038

2.3449

6.02% 2.13

2.2878
0.0994
0.9997

2.3176

247

36 248

1.0000

0.0129

1.1531

0.0149

0.0002

1.3296

1.2086

1.1531

4.821 1.1236

2.55%%

35 249

2.0000

0.0386

3.2879

0.1269

0.0015 10.8100

3.4097

3.2879

3.711 3.3535

2.00%%

87 250

3.0000

0.0642

5.5728

0.3579

0.0041 31.0558

5.60(3

5.5729

0.601 5.5787

0.11%%

71 251

4.0000

0.0890

7.8085

0.6947

0.0079 60.9721

7.7270

7.8085

1.04% 7.7271

1.04%%

87 252

5.0000

0.1136

9.8518

1.1194

0.0129 97.0575

9.8411

9.8518

0.11% 9.8687

0.17%%

72 253

6.0000

0.1270 10.9277

1.3874

0.0161 119.4147 10.9847 10.9277

0.52% 11.0272

0.91%%

29 254

7.0000

0.1019

8.8517

0.9022

0.0104 78.3519

8.8383

8.8517

0.15% 8.8529

0.01%%

47 255

8.0000

0.07(4

6.((57

0.5092

0.0058 44.4320

(.(487

(.((57

0.26% (.(347

0.47%%

39 256

9.0000

0.0516

4.5298

0.2338

0.0027 20.5187

4.5256

4.5298

0.09% 4.4839

1.011%

0.0006

2.2038

2.3449

6.02% 2.1318

9.09%%

1.73%

1.74%

18 257 10.0000 0.0245 2.3449 0.0576


258
259 SLOPE (Co,s) =
85.7375 86.8557
260 INTERCEPT
=
0.0994
261 CORRELATION =
0.9997
262

5.4984

AVERAGE
ERROR

SLOPE (Co,o) =
INTERCEPT
=
CORRELATION =

5.4984

AVERAGE
ERROR

1.73%

263
264 eDo=

o
to

265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275

eY=
eK=
efa=
eRB0=
eDpsl-8=
eDi =
eDto=

eL=
ef=

*
0.0286*orific error for metering tube
0.5000*eipansion coeffici ent error
l.OOOOUlou coefficeint error
0.0200*material expansion error
0.5000*densitr error
((0.01"2M.05/Dspl-8)*2)" 5
pressure measurment error
1.6667Uest diameter error .1 inch tolerance
4.1237*test orifice diameter error .1 inch tolerance
1.9608Uest length error 1 inch tolerance
-0.80648E-04Vl*0.38321E-07Vl"2t. 15881 FOR 6 INCH
error of friction factor
3.3333*area of duct error =2eDi
8.2474Urea of test orifi ce error=2eDto

'

thi-276 eAto=
277
278
279 ERROR ANALYSIS based on orifice
eVo=[((eDo)*2)"2eY"2UK"2tePa"2*eRHO"2eDps5-6"2UAto " 2 ] \ 5*100 , t
280 VELOCITY ERROR
281 VEL PRESS ERROR eVPo=(2*eVo)
eVl=[((eOo)*2)'2teY'2teK*2tePa*2eRHO*2teDps5-6-2teAi'2]".5UOO , *
282 VELOCITY ERROR
283 VEL PRESS ERROR eVPl=(2*eVl)
eDPf=(ef"2teDi"2eL*2eRH0*2*(neVl)"2)\5
284 eDPf ERROR
ePl,2=eDpsl-8*eDPf (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
285 Total ERROR

286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299

/-

/-

eVo*
eVo
18.1022UU.8757
9.9655*490.2532
8.9946*569.0925
8.71321647.0194
8.5920*719.1917
8.5535*755.8290
8.6389U85.7576
8.82321607.9742
9.3061*528.5654
11.4983*435.4491

/eVl*
16.4555*
6.5117*
4.8983*
4.3601*
4.1126*
4.0316*
4.2096*
4.5761*
5.4493*
8.6777*

eVl
76.7511
52.3283
50.6257
52.8836
56.2329
58.1943
54.5859
51.5079
50.5584
53.6819

ePvo*
36.2045*
19.9310*
17.9892*
17.4264*
17.1840*
17.1071*
17.2777*
17.6465*
18.6122*
22.9966*

/-

/ePvo
0.1755
0.2884
0.4330
0.5810
0.7317
0.8140
0.6600
0.5052
0.3601
0.2115

ePvl*
32.9109'*
13.0234*
9.7967*
8.7203*
8.2253*
8.0633*
8.4193*
9.1522*
10.8986*
17.3553*

ePvl
0.0043
0.0050
0.0063
0.0078
0.0093
0.0102
0.0086
0.0070
0.0056
0.0043

MEASURED MEASURED
/eDpsl-8* eDpsl-8
ef*
eDPf*
eDPf
12.4203*
28.2841*
0.9321* 0.0108
0.0011
0.6516* 0.0215 10.2933* 14.5899* 0.0014
0.5895* 0.0329
9.0233* 12.0375* 0.0017
0.5639* 0.0441 8.1336* 10.8573* 0.0019
0.5506* 0.0544 7.4398* 10.1058* 0.0022
0.5457* 0.0598 7.1219* 9.7950* 0.0023
0.5564* 0.0494 7.7492* 10.4275* 0.0021
0.5748* 0.0384 8.5558* 11.3789* 0.0018
0.6101* 0.0277
9.5892* 12.9956* 0.0015
0.7126* 0.0168 11.4213* 17.7476* 0.0012

PITTING
DYNAMIC
ACTUAL
PI,2
( i n wg)
1.1531
3.2879
5.5728
7.8085
9.8518
10.9277
8.8517
6.6657
4.5298
2.3449

/ePl,2
0.0119
0.0229
0.0346
0.0461
0.0565
0.0621
0.0514
0.0402
0,0292
0.0180

PI, 2*
1.03*
0.70*
0.62*
0.59*
0.57*
0.57*
0.58*
0.60*
0.65*
0.77*

Jt

DOCT
301
302
303
Pvl ACTUAL
/PI,2
ePvl
304
(in g) (in g)
305
306
X
t
dx
307 0.0129 1.1531 0.0043
309 0.0386 3.2879 0.0050
309 0.0642 5.5728 0.0063
310 0.0890 7.8085 0.0078
311 0.1136 9.8518 0.0093
312 0.1270 10.9277 0.0102
313 0.1019 8.8517 0.0086
314 0.0764 6.6657 0.0070
315 0.0516 4.5298 0.0056
316 0.0245 2.3449 0.0043
317
318 file: 39PVOA.HKS
319
320
321
Pvo ACTUAL
/ePvo
322
PI.2
323
(in g) (in g)
324
X
T
dx
325 0.4848 1.1531 0.1755
326 1.4469 3.2879 0.2884
327 2.4071 5.5728 0.4330
328 3.3341 7.8085 0.5810
329 4.2581 9.8518 0.7317
330 4.7580 10.9277 0.8140
331 3.8198 8.8517 0.6600
332 2.8627 6.6657 0.5052
333 1.9347 4.5298 0.3601
334 0.9198 2.3449 0.2115

/-

PI,2
(in wg)
Al
0.0119
0.0229
0.0346
0.0461
0.0565
0.0(21
0.0514
0.0402
0.0292
0.0180

Pvl CALCULATED
PI,2
(in *g)

0.0129 1.1236
0.0386 3.3535
0.0642 5.5787
0.0890 7.7271
0.1136 9.8687
0.1270 11.0272
0.1019 8.8529
0.0764 6.6347
0.0516 4.4839
0.0245 2.1318

ORIFICE
/PI,2
(in wg)

dr

0.0119
0.0229
0.0346
0.0461
0.0565
0.0621
0.0514
0.0402
0.0292
0.0180

Pvo CALCULATED
Pl,2
(in g)

0.4848 1.1236
1.4469 3.3535
2.4071 5.5787
3.3341 7.7271
4.2581 9.8687
4.7580 11.0272
3.8198 8.8529
2.8627 6.6347
1.9347 4.4839
0.9198 2.1318

PLATE
SAMPLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

SPREADSHEETS

A
B
C D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED
FILE:TEST51B
PLATE:
5
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST |: 51B
FITTING DESCRIPTION:
ELBOW 90 DEG., RADIUS WITHOUT VANES, r/W=0.75, RECTANGULAR W/OUT REINFORCMENT
PITTING SIZE; (HXW):8X32
DATE: 8/25/89
ambient: tdo,two,pb

LI
-140"!<

-140"

->!<-

59.0417 '-

-Dspl-2-

iDps5-6|
ps5 ps6

42"---->!
,'<-28"->!

======

13.375

td5
tdl
!<-5 diameters-->',

28

L2

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

41
42
43
44
45

Ll=
3.9948 ft.
L2=
16.0573 ft.
Lt=llH2= 20.0521 ft.

ps7

= ps8 --

10
td2

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAHETER


TEST PERSONNEL:

KEN CHERR1NGTON
DAVE SHAEFFER

The Following Are Automatically Calculated

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

'

76.0000 Deg F
67.5000 Deg F
984.0000 mbar
29.0627

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

pe=0.000296two"2-0.0159*two*.41
*

0.6854 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.5949 in Hg

rho,o=70.73(pb-.378*pp)/(53.35*(tdot459.7) (ambient density)


0.0714 lbm/ft*3
LEAKAGE =

cfm

10.0000 inches WC

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO
slope bl
Correlation

30

Heriam 1 Dwyer 1 Heriam 2 Dwyer 2 HERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST SIZE (HXW)
TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DH)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

8.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

X
inches
inches
inches

32.0000

ORIFICE DIAMETER
0.7179 (calculated)

Beta:
METER TUBE DIAMETER
TEST AREA=

(HW)/144

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST

The Following Are Automatically Calculated

2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE PER ABOVE

'

1.7778 ft"2

75.0000 Deg F
68.0000 Deg F
984.0000 mbar
29.0627

END OF TEST
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

77.0000 Deg F
67.0000 Deg F
984.0000 mbar
29.0627

95
96
97
98
99
100

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113

114
115
116
117
118

119
O

120

.28
123
124
125
126
127
128
129

5, RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
POIHT

ps5
Dps5-6
(in WC) (in WC)

6.2900
7.5300
8.6900
9.9100
11.1100
11.8600
10.7200
9.5000
8.3000
10 7.1100

td5
Deg F

83
84
85
8!
86
86
85
85
84
84

3.3200
3.9600
4.5900
5.2400
5.8900
6.2900
5.6800
5.0300
4.3700
3.7400

DPs7-8
ps7
(in HC) (in HC)
0.1850
0.2250
0.2600
0.2950
0.3250
0.3500
0.3200
0.2850
0.2500
0.2150

td2
Deg F

83
84
84
85
85
85
85
85
84
84

0.2050
0.2450
0.2850
0.3200
0.3550
0.3800
0.3500
0.3100
0.2700
0.2350

6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)

POIKT

02723
02722
Meriam 1 Meriam 2
Dps5-6
pa 5
(in HC) (in WC)

6.2077
7.4283
8.5701
9.7709
10.9521
11.6903
10.5682
8 9.3674
9 8.1862
10 7.0149

3.3947
4.0464
4.6879
5.3498
6.0117
6.4190
5.7978
5.1359
4.4639
3.8223

td5
Deg F

83
84
8!
8
6
8
8.
8
8
8

Dwyer 1 Duyer 2
ps7
DPs7-8
(in HC) (in HC)
0.1887
0.2284
0.2632
0.2980
0.3278
0.3526
0.3228
0.2880
0.2533
0.2185

0.2037
0.2433
0.2829
0.3176
0.3522
0.3770
0.3473
0.3077
0.2681
0.2334

tdl
Deg F

83
84
84
85
85
8!
8!
8!
84
84

tdl=(td5ttd2)/2
Deg P

83
84
84
85
85
85
85
85
84
84

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
130 7. FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER
131
132
133
H=.7578016*Do"2*Y*K*Pa*(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)".5 (mass flow rate)
134
135
rho,w=62.195*.12181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03*tdo"2t.33429E-06*tdo"3 (density of water, lbm/ft*3)
136
137
=
62.2571 lbm/ft*3
138
139
Y=l-(.41+.35*Beta*4)*alpha/k (expansion coefficient)
140
141
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5+13.63*pb)
142
143
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
144
145
=
1.4100 (air)
146
147
(tdot459.7)(ps5U3.63*pb)
(tdot459.7)(psl*13.63*pb)
148
rho,5=rho,o*
rho,l=rho,o*
149
(td5H59.7)(13.63*pb)
(tdl+459.7) (13.63*pb)
150
151
Pa=(material expansion factor) =
0.999B
152
153
154
155
K=Ko(l*A/REd) (flow coefficient)
156
157
158
159 Do
Beta
A
Ko
160
161
9.6027 0.7179 4512.13 0.6973
162
163
164
REd=1363000*Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))".5 (approximate REd)
165
166
Flow rate 1-2 = M/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
167
168
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
169
170
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)*2, i n c h e s HC
171
172
173
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
174
175
DPf = f*Lt/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)*n
f = 2.030E-2 (from FRIC832C)
176
n =
1.9573
177
Pl-2 * total loss (Ps7-Ps8) - DPf
fitting lero length dynamic loss
178
179
Co = loss coefficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS
180

181
182
183
184 POINT
185
186

187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194

alpha

8
9
10

0.0155
0.0186
0.0214
0.0243
0.0272
0.0290
0.0263
0.0233
0.0204
0.0175

195
196
197
198 OPERATION rho.l
POINT lbm/(t"3
199
200
1.0000 0.0705
201
2.0000 0.0704
202
3.0000 0.0703
203
4.0000 0.0703
204
5.0000 0.0702
205
6.0000 0.07O2
206
7.0000 0.0703
207
8.0000 0.0703
208
9.0000 0.0704
209
210 10.0000 0.0704

211
212

rho,5
EEd
lbm/ft'3 estimate

<

lbm/min

0.9945
0.9934
0.9924
0.9913
0.9903
0.9896
0.9906
0.9917
0.9927
0.9937

0.0711
0.0710
0.0711
0.0711
0.0712
0.0713
0.0712
0.0712
0.0711
0.0710

1.6906E5
1.8491E5
1.9868E5
2.1223E5
2.2477E5
2.3234E5
2.2084E5
2.0784E5
1.9422E5
1.7964E5

0.7159
0.7143
0.7131
0.7121
0.7113
0.7108
0.7115
0.7124
0.7135
0.7148

01
cfm

VI
fpm

ul

Rel

lbm/ft-s

3698
4038
4329
4617
4883
5040
4798
4523
4234
3928

2080
2272
2435
2597
2747
2835
2699
2544
2381
2209

1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5

260.6460
284.1461
304.4953
324.4423
342.8614
353.9500
337.0962
317.9860
297.9044
276.3433

Pvl
in. wg

2.09E5
2.27E5
2.43E5
2.59E5
2.74E5
2.82E5
2.69E5
2.54E5
2.38E5
2.21E5

0.2534
0.3017
0.3466
0.3938
0.4402
0.4691
0.4253
0.3781
0.3316
0.2854

rho.l
Flow Rat
lbm/ft"3
cfm
0.0705
0.0704
0.0703
0.0703
0.0702
0.0702
0.0703
0.0703
0.0704
0.0704

Pl-2
in. wg
0.0946
0.1168
0.1354
0.1531
0.1663
0.1807
0.1666
0.1488
0.1308
0.1128

3698
4038
4329
4617
4883
5040
4798
4523
4234
3928

VI
fpm
2080
2272
2435
2597
2747
2835
2699
2544
2381
2209

Pvl
in w.g
0.2534
0.3017
0.3466
0.3938
0.4402
0.4691
0.4253
0.3781
0.3316
0.2854

inches WC

FITTING
LOSS
inches WC

0.0941
0.1116
0.1278
0.1449
0.1615
0.1719
0.1562
0.1392
0.1224
0.1057

0.0946
0.1168
0.1354
0.1531
0.1663
0.1807
0.1666
0.1488
0.1308
0.1128

DPE

REGRESSION ANALTSIS used to determine Co from a plot of Pvl


VERSOS Pl-2
FROM Pl-2 = Co'PvlHNTERCEPT
OPERATIOH
POUT

X
Pvl

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.2534
0.3017
0.3466
0.3938
0.4402
0.4691
0.4253
0.3781
0.3316
0.2854

;
:

SLOPE
INTERCEPT
CORRELATION

x*r

X"2

*"2

0.0946
0.1168
0.1354
0.1531
0.1663
0.1807
0.1666
0.1488
0.1308
0.1128

0.0240
0.0352
0.0469
0.0603
0.0732
0.0848
0.0709
0.0563
0.0434
0.0322

0.0642
0.0910
0.1201
0.1551
0.1937
0.2200
0.1809
0.1430
0.1100
0.0814

0.0089
0.0136
0.0183
0.0234
0.0276
0.0327
0.0278
0.0221
0.0171
0.0127

0.3846
0.0012
0.9961

0.3877

t
Pl-2

CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


P,l-2
P.l-2 ERROR
P,l-2,b ERROR
i n . wg in. wg
in. wg
0.0996
0.1172
0.1345
0.1526
0.1705
0.1816
0.1647
0.1466
0.1287
0.1109

0.0946
0.1168
0.1354
0.1531
0.1663
0.1807
0.1666
0.1488
0.1308
0.1128
AVERAGE
ERROR

4.30%
0.341
0.66%
0.321
2.521
0.46%
1.14%
1.50%
1.62%
1.65%

1.45%

0.0983
0.1170
0.1344
0.1527
0.1707
0.1819
0.1649
0.1466
0.1286
0.1106

3.90%
0.15%
0.72%
0.28%
2.64%
0.63%
1.05%
1.49%
1.73%
1.90%

1.45%

Ill
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287

ERROR ANALYSIS
eDo=
0.02864orific error for metering tube
el=
0.50004expansion coefficient error
eK=
l.OOOOtflow coefficeint error
ePa0.02004material expansion error
eRHO=
0,50004density error
eDps5-6=
((0.01*2{.05/Dspl-8)*2)*.5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error
eDps7-8 ((.005 - 2M.005/Dps7-8)"2)\5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05"2t(.05"2/Dps7-8)p)".5 if Dps7-8 >= 1 lest are pressure measurement error
eAi=
1.99764.1/Wt.l/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side
eL=
0.4156Uest length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
5.60004friction factor error based on test FRIC832C

ERROR ANALYSIS based on orifice


VELOCITY ERROR
eVl=[((eDo)*2)"2teY"2teK"2eFa"2teRHO"2teDps5-6"2teAi"2]'.5*100
VEL PRESS ERROR
evPl=(2*eVl), 4
eDPf ERROR
eDPf=(ef"2teAi"2eL"2teRHO"2t(neVl)"2)'.5, 4
Total ERROR
ePl,2=eDps7-8*eDPf (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
/-

eV14
2.67264
2.63574
2.61434
2.59924
2.58894
2.58404
2.59194
2.60374
2.62054
2.64624

eVl
55.5922
59.8727
63.6609
67.4965
71.1048
73.2601
69.9583
66.2373
62.4053
58.4599

/-

ePvl4
5.34524
5.27154
5.22864
5.19844
5.17784
5.16804
5.18384
5.20734
5.24114
5.29234

eDps7-84
ePvl
0.0135 3.15014
0.0159 2.68904
0.0181 2.39974
0.0205 2.17804
0228 2.02544
0242 1.91794
0220 2.04894
0197 2,23594
0174 2.47434
0151 2.78854

file: 51BA.WKS

Pvl
X
0.2534
.3017
.3466
.3938
.4402
.4691
.4253
.3781
.3316
.2854

/ACTUAL
*/PI,2
PI,2
ePvl
(in wg) (in wg) (in ug)
Y
dy
dl
0.0946 0.0135 0.0133
0.1168 0.0159 0.0149
0.1354 0.0181 0.0163
.1531 0.0205
0178
1663 0.0228
0192
1807 0.0242
0202
.1666 0.0220
0188
.1488 0.0197
0173
.1308 0.0174
0158
,1128 0.0151
0144

/-

eDps7-8
0.0058
0.0061
0.0062
0.0064
0.0066
0.0067
0.0066
0.0064
0.0062
0.0060

+/eDPf4
7.94594
7.89864
7.87124
7.85214
7.83904
7.83284
7.84284
7.85774
7.87924
7.91194

file: 51BC.HKS

Pvl

CALCULATED
PI,2
(in wg)
Y
X
0983
2534
3017
3466
1344
,3938
1527
,4402
1707
.4691
1819
,4253
1649
.3781
1466
.3316
1286
0.2854
1106

mo

eDPf
0.0075
0.0088
0.0101
0.0114
0.0127
0.0135
0.0122
0.0109
0.0096
0.0084

/-

,4

/-

ePl-2 ePl-24
0.0133
14.074
0.0149
12.734
0.0163
12.044
0.0178
11.624
0.0192
11.574
0.0202
11.164
0.0188
11.294
0.0173
11.634
0.0158
12.104
0.0144
12.734

PLATE 6
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

L
M
A
B
C
D
E
P
C
H
I
J
K
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED
FILE:TEST63B
PLATE:
6
PLATE TEST | :
7
OVERALL TEST | :
63B
FITTING DESCRIPTION:
ELBOH 90 DES.,HITERED WITH VANES, RECTANGULAR, SINGLE-THICKNESS, 1 . 5 " SPACING, 2" RADIUS
FITTING SIZE: (HXH):8X32
DATE: 1 0 / 3 / 8 9
ambient: tdo.two.pb

:LENGTH OF 14" DUCT NOT SHOWN


LI
I*

-140"!<

42"->|

-140"-

- > ! < - 22.0833 '

|<

Dps5-6|
ps5
ps6

|<-28"->!

=========

->!<

U.375

ps7

td5
tdl
|<-5 diameters-->|

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER


TEST PERSONNEL:

Ken Cherrington
RANDY

'I

46
47
43
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94

The Following Are Automaticallj Calculated


Drj-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

=
=
=
=

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST


65.5000 Deg F
55.0000 Deg F
988.0000 mbar
29.1809

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296nwo*2-0.0159*twot.41
=

0.4309 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.3187 in Hg

rho,o=70.73(pb-.378*pp)/(53.35*(tdo+459.7) (ambient density)


0.0734 lbm/ft"3
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

LEAKAGE = 6.2450 cfm g


10.1200 inches WC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd"0.5308

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO
slope bl
Correlation

Meriam 1 Dwyer 1 Heriam 2 Dwyer 2 HERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TORN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST SIZE (HXW)
TEST DIAMETER HYO. (DH)
METER TUBE DIMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

8.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

X
inches
inches
inches

32.0000

ORIFICE DIAMETER
Beta=-

0.7179 (calculated)
HETER TUBE DIAMETER

TEST AREA=

(H*W)/144

1.7778 ft*2

65.0000 Deg F
55.0000 Deg F
988.0000 mbar
29.1809

END OF TEST
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

66.0000 Deg F
55.0000 Deg F
988.0000 mbar
29.1809

&....,.;

v.:..;.?

;;.

>.

K
95
96
97
98
99
100

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113

114
115
116

p Hi
W
m

119
120

121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129

5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
Dps5-6
( i n HC)

ps5

td5

( i n HC)

Deg P

6.3100
7.5300
8.7100
9.9100
11.1200
11.8800
10.7900
8 9.5500
9 8.3700
10 7.1100

3.2800
3.9000
4.5300
5.1400
5.8400
6.2000
5.6400
4.9600
4.3500
3.6900

POINT

75
75
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76

DPs7-8
(in HC)

ps7

td2

(in HC)

Deg P

0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2150
0.1950
0.1750
0.1550
0.1350

0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2050
0.2250
0.2350
0.2200
0.2000
0.1750
0.1550

75
75
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
76

6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)


02722
02723
Heriam 1 He nam 2
POINT DpsS-6
ps5
( i n HC) ( i n HC)
6.2274
7.4283
8.5898
9.7709
10.9619
11.7100
10.6371
8 9.4166
9 8.2551
10 7.0149

3.3539
3.9853
4.6268
5.2480
5.9608
6.3274
5.7571
5.0647
4.4435
3.7714

td5
Dec P

75
75
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76

Dwyer 1 Dwyer 2
DP37-8
ps7
( i n HC) (in HC)
0.1241
0.1440
0.1638
0.1837
0.2036
0.2185
0.1986
0.1787
0.1589
0.1390

0.1394
0.1592
0.1790
0.2037
0.2235
0.2334
0.2186
0.1988
0.1740
0.1542

tdl
Deg P

75
75
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
76

cdl=(td5Hd2)/2
Deg F

75
75
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
76

J
B
C
D
E
130 7. PLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER
131
132
133
H=.7578016Do"2*Y*KPa(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)*.5 (mass flow rate)
134
135
rho,w=62.195*.12181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03*tdo"2*.33429E-06*tdo"3 (density of water/ lbm/ft*3)
136
137
62.3363 lbm/ft'3
138
139
Y=l-(.4U.35Beta*4)*alpha/k (expansion coefficient)
140
141
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5+13.63pb)
142
143
k:Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
144
145
1.4100 (air)
146
147
(tdo*459.7)(ps5n3.63*pb)
(tdo4459.7)(pslU3.63*pb)
148
rho,5=rho,o*rho,l=rho,o*149
(td5t459.7)(13.63*pb)
(tdlM59.7)(13.63*pb)
150
151
Fa=(material expansion factor) =
0.9998
152
153
154
155
K=Ko(lA/REd) (flow coefficient)
156
157
158
159
Beta
A
Ko
160 Do
161
9.6027 0.7179 4512.13 0.6973
162
163
164
REd=1363000*Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))'.5 (approximate REd)
165
166
Flow rate 1-2 = M/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
167
168
169
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
170
171
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOC1TY/1097)"2, inches WC
172
173
174
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
175
176
DPf = f*Lt/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)"n
f = 2.030E-2 (from FRIC832C)
177
n =
1.9573
178
Pl-2 = total loss (Ps7-Ps8) - DPf fitting xero length dynamic loss
179
Co = loss coefficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS

181
182

183

alpha

POINT

185
186
187

188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201

202
203
204
205
206
207
203
209
210
211
212

8
9
10

0.0155
0.0185
0.0213
0.0242
0.0272
0.0290
0.0264
0.0234
0.0205
0.0175

OPERATION r h o , l
POINT Ibm/ff3
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0720
0.0720
0.0720

rho,5
REd
Itoi/ft'J estimate K

H
Ibm/min

0.9945
0.9934
0.9924
0.9914
0.9903
0.9897
0.9906
0.9917
0.9927
0.9938

0.0727
0.0728
0.0728
0.0729
0.0731
0.0731
0.0730
0.0729
0.0728
0.0727

1.7123E5
1.8716E5
2.0133E5
2.1489E5
2.2781E5
2.3557E5
2.2436E5
2.1091E5
1.9732E5
1.8175E5

0.7157
0.7141
0.7129
0.7119
0.7111
0.7107
0.7113
0.7122
0.7132
0.7146

01
cfm

VI
fpm

ul

Rel

lbm/ft-s

3664
3991
4284
4561
4824
4982
4754
4482
4204
3884

2061
2245
2410
2566
2714
2802
2674
2521
2365
2185

1.24B-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5

264.0814
287.7112
308.6602
328.6540
347.6457
359.0091
342.5700
322.7923
302.7428
279.6839

Pvl
in. wg

2.14E5
2.33E5
2.50E5
2.66E5
2.81E5
2.91E5
2.77E5
2.61E5
2.45E5
2.26E5

0.2544
0.3019
0.3476
0.3941
0.4410
0.4703
0.4282
0.3804
0.3346
0.2856

rho.l
H OH Rate 1-2
1 bra/ft"3
ctm
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0721
0.0720
0.0720
0.0720

Pl-2
in. ug
0.0328
0.0360
0.0399
0.0436
0.0472
0.0520
0.0467
0.0434
0.0395
0.0368

3664
3991
4284
4561
4824
4982
4754
4482
4204
3884

VI
fpm
2061
2245
2410
2566
2714
2802
2674
2521
2365
2185

Pvl
in v.g
0.2544
0.3019
0.3476
0.3941
0.4410
0.4703
0.4282
0,3804
0.3346
0.2856

inches HC

FITTING
LOSS
inches HC

0.0913
0.1079
0.1239
0.1401
0.1563
0.1665
0.1519
0.1353
0.1193
0,1022

0.0328
0.0360
0.0399
0.0436
0.0472
0.0520
0.0467
0.0434
0.0395
0.0368

DPf

'

213 8. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to deternine Co from a plot of Pvl


214
VERSOS Pl-2
215
216
217

PROM Pl-2 = Co*PvHINTERCBPT

218 OPERATION
219
220
221

222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232

POINT
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

X
Pvl
0.2544
0.3019
0.3476
0.3941
0.4410
0.4703
0.4282
0.3804
0.3346
0.2856

SLOPE

233 INTERCEPT
234 CORRELATION

:
-

X*Y

X"2

Y"2

Pl-2
0.0328
0.0360
0.0399
0.0436
0.0472
0.0520
0.0467
0.0434
0.0395
0.0368

0.0084
0.0109
0.0139
0.0172
0.0208
0.0244
0.0200
0.0165
0.0132
0.0105

0.0817
0.0121
0.9898

0.1138

0.0647
0.0912
0.1209
0.1553
0.1944
0.2211
0.1833
0.1447
0.1120
0.0816

0.0011
0.0013
0.0016
0.0019
0.0022
0.0027
0.0022
0.0019
0.0016
0.0014

CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


P,l-2
P,l-2,b ERROR
P.l-2 ERROR
in. wg
in. wg
in. wg
0.0329
0.0368
0.0405
0.0443
0.0481
0.0505
0.0471
0.0432
0.0394
0.0354

0.0328
0.0360
0.0399
0.0436
0.0472
0.0520
0.0467
0.0434
0.0395
0.0368
AVERAGE
ERROR

0.161
2.011
1.37%
1.50%
1.86*
2.84%
0.79*
0.66%
0.25%
3.71%

1.52%

0.0290
0.0344
0.0396
0.0449
0.0502
0.0535
0.0487
0.0433
0.0381
0.0325

11.79%
4.64%
0.94%
2.81%
6.26%
2.97%
4.36%
0.36%
3.65%
11.65%

4.94%

237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247

9. ERROR ANALYSIS

4
eDo=
0.0286%oriic error for metering tube
eY=
0.50004eipansion coeffici snt error
eK=
l.OOOOtflow cqefficeint error
eFa=
O.02004material expansion error
eRHO=
0.50004density error
eDps5-6= ((0.01*2+(.05/Dspl-8)*2)" 5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error
eDps7-8 ((.005*2t(.005/Dps7-8)'2)\ 5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05-2t(-05"2/Dps7-8))"2)\5 if Dps7-8
eAi=
1.99764.l/W+.l/H, test area error .1 inch t >lerance each side
eL=
0.43034test length error 1 inch tolerance
ef5.60004friction factor error based on test 'RIC832C

248
249
250
251 ERROR ANALYSIS based on orif ice
252 VELOCITY ERROR
eVl:[((eDo)*2)*2teY"2teK*2*ePa*24eRHO"2+eDps5-6*2teAi"2]*.5100 , 4
253 VEL PRESS ERROR eVPl=(2*eVl), 4
254 eDPf ERROR
BDP=(ef"2*eAi"2*eL"2ieRH0"2*(neVl)"2)".5, 4
ePl,2=eDps7-8*eDPf (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
255 Total ERROR
256
257
//////ePvl4
ePvl
eDps7-84 eDps7-8 eDPf4
258
eV!4
eVl
eDPf
ePl-2 ePl-24
5.34374
0.0136
259
2.67184 55.0628
4.52954 0.0054 7.94574 0.0073 0.0127
38.654
5.27154 0.0159 3.97334 0.0056 7.89944 0.0085 0.0141
260
2.63574 59.1764
39.094
261
2.61404 62.9874 5.22804 0.0182 3.55204 0.0057 7.87164 0.0098 0.0154
38.644
5.19844 0.0205 3.22184 0.0058
7.85294 0.0110 0.0168
262
2.59924 66.6845
38.504
5.17774 0.0228 2.95614 0.0059 7.83984 0.0123 0.0182
263
2.58894 70.2530
38.474
5.16784 0.0243 2.78854 0.0060 7.83354 0.0130 0.0190
2.58394 72.4081
264
36.634
5.18274 0.0222 3.01754 0.0059 7.84294 0.0119 0.0178
2.59134 69.2947
38.114
265
5.20624 0.0198 3.29744 0.0058 7.85784 0.0106 0.0164
266
2.60314 65.6239
37.754
5.23874 0.0175 3.64744 0.0057 7.87854 0.0094 0.0151
2.61934 61.9361
38.094
267
5.29234 0.0151 4.09744 0.0055 7.91274 0.0081 0.0136
37.024
2.64624 57.8072
268
269
270 file: 61A.HKS
file: 61C.HKS
271
/272
Pvl CALCULATED
Pvl
ACTUAL
/"
ePvl
PI,2
PI,2
273
Pl,2
(in wg)
(in wg) (in wg) (in wg)
274
dj
X
275
X
Y
Y
dY
0.0136 0.0127
276
0.2544 0.0328
0.2544 0.0290
0.0159 0.0141
0.3019 0.0344
277
0.3019 0.0360
0.3476 0.0396
278
0.3476 0.0399 0.0182 0.0154
0.3941 0.0449
279
0.3941 0.0436 0.0205 0.0168
0.0228 0.0182
0.4410 0.0502
280
0.4410 0.0472
0.4703 0.0535
281
0.4703 0.0520 0.0243 0.0190
0.0222 0.0178
0.4282 0.0487
282
0.4282 0.0467
0.3804 0.0433
283
0.3804 0.0434 0.0198 0.0164
0.3346 0.0381
284
0.3346 0.0395 0.0175 0.0151
0.0151 0.0136
0.2856 0.0325
0.2856 0.0368
285

measurement error

PLATE 7
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

A
B
C
D
E
F
0
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED
F1LE:TEST65
PLATE:
7
PLATE TEST :
1
OVERALL TEST I:
65 .
PITTING DESCRIPTION: MITERED OFFSET, Z-SHAPED, RECTANGULAR
PITTING SIZE: (HXW):32X8
OFPSET(L): 4"
DATE: 9/15/89
ambient: tdo.two.pb

11
<->| <
-140"!<

42"->|

>!<

-140"

]Dps5-6!
pa 5
ps6

13.375

<

ps7

,'<-28"->!

=====:===

- > ! < - 22.0625

12--

Dsp7-8

->:

!
11=
2.0000 f t .
ps8 L2=
15.2074 f t .
!
Lt=LltL2= 17.2074 f t .

td5
Td2
|<-5 diameters>|

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER


TEST PERSONNEL:

Ken Cherrinjton
BILL ENGLISH

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST


71.7500 Deg F
63.0000 Deg F
985.0000 mbar
29.0923

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296two"2-0.0159*twoMl
=

0.5831 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


:

0.4899 in Hg

rho,o=70.73*(pb--378*pp)/(53.35*(tdoM59.7) (ambient density)


=
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

0.0721 lbm/ft*3

LEAKAGE = 8.9800 cfm t


10.0750 inches WC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd*6.5308

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO
slope bl
Correlation

Meriam 1 Dwyer 1 Meriam 2 Dwyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST SIZE (HXW)
TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DH)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)
ORIFICE DIAHETER
Beta:

32.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

X
inches
inches
inches

0.7179 (calculated)

METER TUBE DIAMETER


TEST AREA=

(H*W)/144

8.0000

1.7778 ft"2

72.0000 Deg F
63.0000 Deg F
985.0000 mbar
29.0923

END OF TEST
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

71.5000 Deg F
63.0000 Deg F
985.0000 mbar
29.0923

L
95 5. RECORD
96
97
POINT
98
99
100

VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AMD LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES

ps5
Dps5-6
(in HC) (in HC)

td5
Deg P

DPs7-8
ps7
(in HC) (in HC)

6.2900 3.2500
81 0.1000 0.1200
7.5000 3.8600
81 0.1150 0.1400
101
81 0.1350 0.1550
8.7000 4.4800
102
81 0.1550 0.1750
103
9.9100 5.1200
80 0.1700 0.1950
104
11.0600 5.7200
80 0.1800 0.2100
11.8900 6.1400
10S
81 0.1650 0.1900
10.6600 5.5100
106
81 0.1450 0.1700
107
8 9.5200 4.9300
81 0.1300 0.1500
108
9 8.2900 4.2750
82 0.1150 0.1300
10 7.1000 3.6500
109
110
HI 6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)
112
02723
113
02722
Dwyec 1 Dvyer 2
Meriam 1 Meriam 2
114
DPs7-8
ps5
td5
ps7
115
POINT Dps5-6
(in HC) (in HC)
116
(in HC) (in HC) Deg P
117
81 0.1042 0.1196
6.2077 3.3234
118
81 0.1191 0.1394
7.3988 3.9445
119
4.5759
120
8.5799
81 0.1390 0.1542
9.7709 5.2276
81 0.1589 0.1740
121
10.9029 5.8386
80 0.1738 0.1938
122
11.7198 6.2663
80 0.1837 0.2087
123
81 0.1688 0.1889
124
10.5091 5.6247
81 0.1489 0.1691
125
8 9.3870 5.0341
81 0.1340 0.1493
126
9 8.1763 4.3671
82 0.1191 0.1295
10 7.0050 3.7307
127

td2
Deg t

80
80
81
81
80
80
81
81
81
'

81

tdl
Deg F

80
80
81
81
80
80
81
81
81
81

dl=(td5Ud2)/2
Deg F

80
80
81
81
80
80
81
81
81
81

A
B
C
D
E
130 7. FLOH RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER
131
132
133
H=.7578016*Do*2*Y*K*Fa*(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)".5 (mass flow rate)
134
135
rho,w=62.195t.l2181E-01Udo-.17493E-03*tdo"2+.33429E-06*tdo"3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
136
137
62.2919 lbm/ft"3
138
139
Y=l-(.4H.35*Beta*4)*alpha/k (expansion coefficient)
140
141
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5*13.63*pb)
142
143
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
144
145
:
1.4100 (air)
146
147
(tdoM59.7)(pslU3.63*pb)
(tdoM59.7)(ps5tl3.63pb)
148
rho,l=rho,o*rho,5=rho,o*149
(td5t459.7)(13.63*pb)
(tdlM59.7)(13.63*pb)
150
151
Pa=(material expansion factor) =
0.9998
152
153
154
155
K=Ko(l*A/REd) (flow coefficient)
156
157
158
159
Beta
A
Ko
160 Do
161
9.6027 0.7179 4512.13 0.6973
162
163
164
REd=1363000M>o(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))*.5 (approximate REd)
165
166
Flow rate 1-2 = H/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
167
168
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
169
170
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)"2, inches HC
171
172
173
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
174
175
DPf = fLt/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)"n
f = 2.030E-2 (from FRIC832C)
176
n =
1.9573
177
Pl-2 = total loss (Ps7-Ps8) - DPf fitting rero length dynamic loss
178
179
Co loss coefficient from slope of line of Pvl vs FITTING LOSS

\
' I
181
182
183
184
185
186

187
188
18)
190
191
192
193
194

*.
*

alpha

POINT

8
9
10

0.0155
0.0185
0.0214
0.0243
0.0271
0.0291
0.0261
0.0234
0.0204
0.0175

195
196
197
198 OPERATION rho.l
199
POINT lbm/ft'3
200
201
1.0000 0.0710
202
2.0000 0.0710
203
3.0000 0.0710
4.0000 0.0710
204
205
5.0000 0.0710
206
6.0000 0.0710
207
7.0000 0.0710
208
8.0000 0.0710
209
9.0000 0.0709
210 10.0000 0.0709
211
212

rho,5
REd
lbm/ft"3 estimate X

Y
0.9945
0.9934
0.9924
0.9913
0.9903
0.9896
0.9907
0.9917
0.9927
0.9938

Ql
cfm
3684
4012
4314
4596
4846
5019
4762
4507
4214
3911

0.0715
0.0717
0.0718
0.0719
0.0721
0.0721
0.0720
0.0718
0.0717
0.0715

VI
fpoi
2072
2257
2427
2585
2726
2823
2678
2535
2370
2200

M
lbm/min

1.6964E5
1.8534E5
1.9974E5
2.1333E5
2.2562E5
2.3405E5
2.2135E5
2.0905E5
1.9485E5
1.8013E5

0.7158
0.7143
0.7131
0.7120
0.7112
0.7107
0.7115
0.7124
0.7134
0.7148

ul

Rel

lbm/ft-s
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5

261.5885
284.8746
306.1668
326.1879
344.2524
356.5977
337.9785
319.8834
298.9364
277.1485

Pvl
in. g

2.10E5
2.29E5
2.46E5
2.62E5
2.77E5
2.87E5
2.71E5
2.57E5
2.40E5
2.22E5

0.2534
0.3005
0.3473
0.3941
0.4386
0.4706
0.4231
0.3791
0.3312
0.2850

rho.l
Plow Rate 1-2
lbm/ft"3
cfm
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0709
0.0709

Pl-2
in. wg
0.0234
0.0237
0.0291
0.0344
0.0356
0.0357
0.0354
0.0292
0.0291
0.0285

3684
4012
4314
4596
4846
5019
4762
4507
4214
3911

VI
fpm
2072
2257
2427
2585
2726
2823
2678
2535
2370
2200

Pvl
in w.g
0.2534
0.3005
0.3473
0.3941
0.4386
0.4706
0.4231
0.3791
0.3312
0.2850

P
PITTING
LOSS
inches HC

DPf
icbes HC
0.0808
0.0954
0.1099
0.1244
0.1382
0.1480 ,
0.1334
0.1198
0.1050
0.0906

'

0.0234
0.0237
0.0291
0.0344
0.0356
0.0357
0.0354
0.0292
0.0291
0.0285

213 8. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to deter nine Co f com a plo t of Pvl


VERSOS Pl-2
214
FROM Pl-2 = Co*Pvl+INTERCEPT

215
216
217

X
Pvl

218 OPERATION
219
220
221

222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229

POINT
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

X*Y

0.0234
0.0237
0.0291
0.0344
0.0356
0.0357
0.0354
0.0292
0.0291
0.0285

0.0059
0.0071
0.0101
0.0136
0.0156
0.0168
0.0150
0.0111
0.0096
0.0081

;
:

0.0608
0.0084
0.9198

0.0832

Y*2

Pl-2

0.2534
0.3005
0.3473
0.3941
0.4386
0.4706
0.4231
0.3791
0.3312
0.2850

230
231
232 SLOPE
233 INTERCEPT
234 CORRELATION

X*2
0.0642
0.0903
0.1206
0.1554
0.1924
0.2215
0.1790
0.1437
0.1097
0.0812

0.0005
0.0006
0.0008
0.0012
0.0013
0.0013
0.0013
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008

CALCOLATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


P,l-2,b ERROR
P.l-2
P.l-2 ERROR
in. ug in. wg
in. wg
0.0238
0.0267
0.0295
0.0323
0.0350
0.0370
0.0341
0.0314
0.0285
0.0257

0.0234
0.0237
0.0291
0.0344
0.0356
0.0357
0.0354
0.0292
0.0291
0.0285
AVERAGE
ERROR

1.43%
12.501
1.50%
6.04*
1.59%
3.65%
3.67%
7.81%
1.88%
9.89%
5.00%

0.0211
0.0250
0.0289
0.0328
0.0365
0.0391
0.0352
0.0315
0.0275
0.0237

10.13%
5.50%
0.61%
4.79%
2.41%
9.64%
0.63%
8.14%
5.23%
16.92%
6.40%

237

238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
2
\
247
ja. 248
& 249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
?8i

A
B
9. ERROR ANALYSIS

H
.

%
eDo=
0.0286%orific error for metering tube
eY=
0.5000%expansion coefficient error
eK=
1.0000%flo coefficeint error
eFa=
0.0200%material expansion error
eRHO=
0.5000%densitr error
eDps5-6= ((0.01"2+{.05/Dspl-8)*2)*.5
OSIPICE pressure measurment error
eDpsT-8 ((.005'2(.005/Dps7-8)"2)\5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05'2*(.05*2/Dps7-8))"2)*.5 if Dps7-8 >= 1 Test are pressure measurement error
eAi=
1.0601%.1/Wt.l/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side
eL=
0.4843Uest length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
5.6000%friction factor error based on test PRIC832C
ERROR ANALYSIS based on orifice
VELOCITY ERROR
eVl=[((eOo)2)"2eY"2teK"2tePa*2teRHO"2teDps5-6"2*eAi"2]*.5*100 , %
VEL PRESS ERROR eVPl=(2*eVl), %
eDPf ERROR
eDPf:(ef"24eAi"2*eL*2teRHO"2*(neVl)"2)".5, %
Total ERROR
ePl,2=eDps7-8*eDPf (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
eVl%
2.0679%
2.0209%
1.9918%
1.9721%
1.9590%
1.9518%
1.9631%
1.9777%
2.0004%
2.0340%

/eVl
42.8569
45.6096
48,3314
50.9823
53.3958
55.1043
52.5815
50.1378
47.4164
44.7422

ePvl%
4.1358%
4.0419%
3.9835%
3.9443%
3.9181%
3.9036%
3.9262%
3.9554%
4.0007%
4.0679%

/epvl eDps7-8%
0.0105 5.2980*
0.0121 4.6976%
0.0138 4.0974%
0.0155 3.6474%
0.0172 3,3774%
0.0184 3.2218%
0.0166 3.4621%
0.0150 3.8574%
0.0133 4.2308%
0.0116 4.6976%

file: 65A.WKS
Pvl
X
0.2534
0.3005
0.3473
0.3941
0.4386
o 47<IF,

eDPf%
7.02501
6.9724%
6.9402%
6.9187%
6.9044%
6.8966%
6.9089%
6.9248%
6.9497%
6.9869%

file: 65B.WKS

ACTUAL
*//PI,2 ePvl
PI,2
(in wg) (in wg) (in wg)
Y
dx
dy
0.0234 0.0105 0.0110
0.0237 0.0121 0.0121
0.0291 0.0138 0.0132
0.0344 0.0155 0.0143
0.0356 0.0172 0.0153
now

/"
e0ps7-8
0.0053
0.0054
0.0055
0.0057
0.0057
0.0058
0.0057
0.0056
0.0055
0.0054

n mm

n nun

Pvl CALCULATED
PI,2
(in wg)
X
Y
0.2534 0.0211
0.3005 0.0250
0.3473 0.0289
0.3941 0.0328
0.4386 0.0365
n m<\(.

n.ow

/"
eDPf
0.0057
0.0067
0.0076
0.0086
0.0095
0.0102
0,0092
0.0083
0.0073
0.0063

/"
/"
ePl-2 ePl-2*
0.0110 46.79%
0.0121 50,89%
0.0132 45.29%
0.0143 41.43%
0.0153 42.91%
0.0160 44.85%
0.0149 42.16%
0,0139 47.64%
0.0128 44.02%
0.0117 41.13%

PLATE
SAMPLE
A

THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

PILE:TEST7U
PLATE:
8
PLATE TEST I:
1A
OVERALL TEST I: 71A
FITTING DESCRIPTION: MITERED OFFSET, RADIUS, RECTANGULAR
FITTING SIZE: (HXH):32X8
OPFSET(L): 4"
DATE: 1/22/90
ambient: tdo,two,pb

16
17
18
19
20
}l

22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

SPREADSHEET
M

i
|<
|<

140"
42"->,'
!<-28"->|

>!<
|Dps5-6|
ps5
ps6
!
|

140"

> ] < - 22.0625 '

tl
]<---->! <
Dsp7-8

ps7
|

,'
\ I

=========
=========
=========

td5

|<-5 diameters-->|

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER


TEST PERSONNEL:

RANDY TACOS
KEN CHERRINGTON

>:
t
! Ll=
1.9792 f t .
ps8 L2=
14.7292 f t .
Lt=LlH2= 16.7083 f t .
I

J.
/
Td2

/I

,'

[
13.375 "

L2

!<

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
' Barometric Pressure (pb)

The Following Are Automatically Calculated

pe=0.000296*two'2-0.0159twot.41
0.3911 in Hg

pp=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.2379 in Hg

rho,o=70.73(pb-.378*pp)/(53.35*(tdo+459.7) (ambient density)


0.0724 lbm/ft"3
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

LEAKAGE = 7.1800 cfm i


9.9900 inches WC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd"0.5308

3. HANOHETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO
slope bl
Correlation

H e n am 1 Dwyer 1 Heriam 2 Dwyer 2 HERI-CAL


0.0063 0.0048 0.0041 0.0008 0.0363
0.9868 0.9936 1.0246 0.9900 1.0010
I.0000 0.9999
1.0000 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST SIZE (HXW)
TEST DIAMETER HVD. (DH)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

32.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

X
inches
inches
inches

8.0000

ORIFICE DIAMETER
0.7179 (calculated)

Beta:
METER TUBE DIAMETER
TEST AREA=

(H*H)/144

1. RECORD IRE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST


67.0000 Deg F
52.5000 Deg ?
977.0000 mbar
28.8560

1.7778 t"2

67.0000 Deg F
53.0000 Deg F
977.0000 mbar
28.8560

END OF TEST
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

67.0000 Deg F
52.0000 Deg F
977.0000 mbar
28.8560

K
95
96
97
98
99
100

5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS JUID LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
POUT

Dps5-6
( i n WC)

ps5

td5

( i n WC)

Deg t

DPs7-8
( i n WC)

ps7

td2

( i n WC)

Deg P

6.2800
3.4500
78 0.3250 0.3600
7.5200
4.1300
101
78 0.3850 0.4300
4.7500
8.6700
102
78 0.4450 0.4950
9.8900
5.4300
103
78 0.5050 0.5600
6.0700
11.0800
78 0.5700 0.6300
104
6.5100
11.8800
105
78 0.6100 0.6750
5.8900
106
10.7300
79 0.5550 0.6150
107
8 9.5300 5.2300
79 0.4950 0.5450
108
9 8.3100 4.5500
79 0.4350 0.4800
109
10 7.1200 3.9100
79 0.3700 0.4100
110
111 6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by c omputer)
112
02722
02723
113
Meriam 1 Meriam 2
Dwyer 1 Dwyer 2
114
DPs7-8
POINT Dps5-6
115
ps5
td5
ps7
Deg t
( i n WC) (in WC)
( i n WC) ( i n WC)
116
117
6.2033
3.5391
118
78 0.3278 0.3572
4.2358
7.4269
78 0.3874 0.4265
119
8.5617
4.8711
120
78 0.4470 0.4908
5.5679
121
9.7656
78 0.5066 0.5552
10.9398
6.2236
122
78 0.5712 0.6245
6.6745
11.7293
78 0.6110 0.6690
123
6.0392
10.5945
79 0.5563 0.6096
124
125
8 9.4103 5.3629
79 0.4967 0.5403
9 8.2065 4.6662
79 0.4371 0.4760
126
127
10 7.0322 4.0104
79 0.3725 0.4067

f8
8
8
8
8

tdl
Deg P

8
78
78
78

tdl=(td5Hd2)/2
Deg F

78
78
78
78
78

Q R

A
B
C
D
E
P
G
H
I
J
K
130 7. PLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COHPUTER
131
132
133
M=.757a016Do'2'Y*kFa*(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)\5 (mass flow rate)
134
135
rho,w=62.195.12181E-01tdo-.17493E-03tdo-2+.33429E-06*tdo*3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
136
137
=
62.3264 lbm/ft"3
138
139
Y=H.4105Beta*4)*a)pha/k (expansion coefficient)
140
141
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5U3.63*pb)
142
143
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
144
145
=
1.4100 (air)
146
147
(tdoM59.7)(ps5*13.63*pb)
(tdo*459,7)(pslU3.63*pb)
148
rho,5=rho,o
rho,l=rho,o*149
(td5H59.7)(13.63*pb)
(tdl+459.7) (13.63*pb)
150
151
Pa=(material expansion factor) =
0.9998
152
153
154
155
K=Ko(HA/REd) (flow coefficient)
156
157
158
159 Do
Beta
A
Ko
160
161
9.6027 0.7179 4512.13 0.6973
162
163
164
REd=1363000Do*(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))*.5 (approximate REd)
165
166
Flow rate 1-2 = H/rbo,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
167
168
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Plow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
169
170
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l(AVERAOE VELOCITY/1097)"2, inches WC
171
172
173
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
174
175
DPf = f*Lt/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)"n
f = 2.030E-2 (from FRIC832C)
176
n=
1.9573
177
Pl-2 = total loss (Ps7-Ps8) - DPf
fitting tero length dynamic loss
178
179
Co = loss coefficient from slope of line of Ptrl vs FITTING LOSS

N
181
182
183
184 POINT
alpha
185
186
0.0156
187
0.0187
188
0.0215
189
0.0245
190
0.0274
191
0.0293
192
0.0265
193
0.0236
194
9 0.0206
195
10 0.0177
196
197
198
OPERATION cho.l
199
POINT lbm/ft"3
200
201
1.0000 0.0711
202
0.0711
2.0000
203
3.0000 0.0711
204
4.0000 0.0711
205
5.0000
.0711
206
6.0000
.0710
207
7.0000
.0710
208
8.0000
.0710
209
9.0000
.0710
210
10.0000 0.0710
211
212

rho,5
REd
lbm/t"3 estimate K
9944
9933
9923
9913
9902
9895
9905
9916
9926
0.9937

0716
0718
0719
0720
0721
0721
0719
0718
0717
0.07U

1.6968E5
1.8583E5
1.9968E5
2.1345E5
2.2610E5
2.3414E5
2.2224E5
2.0928E5
1.9526E5
1.8061E5

Ql
cfm

VI
fpm

ul
lbm/ft-

3680
4018
4305
4590
4850
5022
4779
4512
4221
3916

2070
2260
2422
2582
2728
2825
2688
2538
2374
2203

1 24E-5
1. 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5
1 24E-5

M
lbm/min
.7158
.7142
.7131
.7120
.7112
.7107
.7115
.7123
0.7134
0.7147

Rel
2.11E5
2.31E5
2.47E5
2.63E5
2.78E5
2.88E5
2.73E5
2.58E5
2.41E5
2.24E5

261.7240
285.6690
306.1478
326.4335
345.0256
356.8028
339.3611
320.2943
299.(182
277.9256

Pvl
in. wg
2532
3018
3465
3939
4400
4711
4265
3799
3325
2862

rhc-,1
Flow Rate 1-2
lbm/ft"3
cfm
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710
0.0710

Pl-2
in. wg
0.2494
0.2944
0.3405
0.3859
0.4367
0.4671
0.4258
0.3801
0.3348
0.2842

3680
4018
4305
4590
4850
5022
4779
4512
4221
3916

VI
fpm
2070
2260
2422
2582
2728
2825
2688
2538
2374
2203

Pvl
in v.g
0.2532
0.3018
0.3465
0.3939
0.4400
0.4711
0.4265
0.3799
0.3325
0.2862

DPf
inches WC

PITTING
LOSS
inches WC

0.0784
0.0930
0.1065
0.1208
0.1346
0.1439
0.1305
0.1166
0.1023
0.0883

0.2494
0.2944
0.3405
0.3859
0.4367
0.4671
0.4258
0.3801
0.3348
0.2842

213 8. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co coin a plot of Pvl


214
VERSUS Pl-2
215
216
217

213 OPERATION
X
219
POINT
Pvl
220
221
1.0000 0.2532
222
2.0000 0.3018
223
3.0000 0.3465
224
4.0000 0.3939
225
5.0000 0.4400
226
6.0000 0.47U
227
7.0000 0.4265
228
8.0000 0.3799
229
9.0000 0.3325
230
10.0000 0.2862
231
s
232 SLOPE
233 INTERCEPT
:
234 CORRELATION =

235
236

'FROM Pl-2 = CoPvl*INTERCEPT

:ALCULATE ACTOAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSOLUTE


Y

X*Y

X'2

Y*2

Pl-2
0.2494
0.2944
0.3405
0.3859
0.4367
0.4671
0.4258
0.3801
0.3348
0.2842

0.0632
0.0888
0.1180
0.1520
0.1921
0.2201
0.1816
0.1444
0.1113
0.0813

1.0018
-0.0040
0.9989

0.9913

0.0641
0.0911
0.1201
0.1552
0.1936
0.2220
0.1819
0.1444
0.1106
0.0819

0.0622
0.0866
0.1159
0.1489
0.1907
0.2182
0.1813
0.1445
0.1121
0.0808

P.l-2
in. wg
0.2497
0.2984
0.3432
0.3907
0.4368
0.4680
0.4233
0.3767
0.3292
0.2827

P.l-2 ERROR
in. g
0.2494
0.2944
0.3405
0.3859
0.4367
0.4671
0.4258
0.3801
0.3348
0.2342
AVERAGE
ERROR

0.13*
1.36%
0.801
1.24%
0.04%
O.20*
0.59%
0.91%
1.67%
0.50%

0.74%

P,l-2,b ERROR

in. wg
0.2510
0.2991
0.3435
0.3905
0.4362
0.4670
0.4228
0.3766
0.3296
0.2837

0.65%
1.63%
0.89%
1.19%
0.12%
0.01*
0.72%
0.92%
1.53%
0.17%

0.78*

237
238

239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
258
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287

A
B
9. ERROR M U S I S
%

eDo=
0.0286%orifie error for metering tube
eY=
0.5000texpansion coefficient error
eK=
l.OOOOtflou coefftceint error
eFa=
0.0200tmateria! expansion error
eRHO=
0.5000%density error
eDps5-6= ((0.01"2t(.05/Dspl-8)"2)\5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error
eDps7-8 ((.005"2>(.005/Dps7-8)"2)*.5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05*2*(.05*2/Dps7-8))*2)*.5 if Dps7-8 >= 1 Test are pressure measurement error
eAi =
1.0601*.l/Wt.l/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side
el=
0.4988%test length error 1 inch tolerance
ef=
5.6000%friction factor error based on test FRIC832C
ERROR ANALYSIS based on orifice
VELOCIH ERROR
eVI=[((eDo)*2)"2*eir*2<eK"2eFa"2*eRHO"2*eDps5-6"2*eAi"2]".5*100 , %
VEL PRESS ERROR eVPU(2*eVl), %
eDPf ERROR
eDPf=(ef"2*eAi*2eL*2teRHO*2*(neVl)"2)".5, %
Total ERROR
ePl,2=eDps7-8teDPf (DYNAHIC LOSS ERROR)
/eM
eVl
2.0681% 42.8087
2.0201% 45.6528
1.9921% 48.2405
1.9722% 50.9147
1.9587% 53.4355
1.9517% 55.1341
1.9622% 52.7530
1.97734 50.1817
1.9997% 47.4807
2.0330% 44.7846

ePvl*
4.1363%
4.0402%
3.9842%
3.9444%
3.9173%
3.9034%
3.9244%
3.9546%
3.9994%
4.0660%

/ePvl eDps7-8%
0.0105 2.0254%
0.0122 1.7907%
0.0138 1.6185%
0.0155 1.4869%
0.0172 1.3753%
0.0184 1.3184%
0.0167 1.3988%
0.0150 1.5066%
0.0133 1.6440%
0.0116 1.8423%

file: 71A.WKS
Pvl ACTUAL
//PI,2 ePvl
PI,2
(in vg) (in wg) (in ng)
X
1
it
dy
0.2532 0.2494 0.0105 0.0121
0.3018 0.2944 0.0122 0.0134
0.3465 0.3405 0.0138 0.0146
0.3939 0.3859 0.0155 0.0159
0.4400 0.4367 0.0172 0.0171
0.4711 0.4671 0.0184 0.0180
0.4265 0.4258 0.0167 0.0168
0.3799 0.3801 0.0150 0.0155
0.3325 0.3348 0.0133 0.0143
0.2862 0.2842 0.0116 0.0130

/eDps7-8
0.0066
0.0069
0.0072
0.0075
0.0078
0.0080
0.0078
0.0075
0.0072
0.0068

eDPf%
7.0263%
6.9725%
6.9416%
6.9198%
6.9051%
6.8975%
6.9089%
6.9254%
6.9499%
6.9869%

file: 71B.WKS
Pvl CALCULATED
PI,2
(in g)
X
X
0.2532 0.2510
0.3018 0.2991
0.3465 0.3435
0.3939 0.3905
0.4400 0.4362
0.4711 0.4670
0.4265 0.4228
0.3799 0.3766
0.3325 0.3296
0.2862 0.2837

/eDPf
0.0055
0.0065
0.0074
0.0084
0.0093
0.0099
0.0090
0.0081
0.0071
0.0062

*/"
ePl-2
0.0121
0.0134
0.0146
0.0159
0.0171
0.0180
0.0168
0.0155
0.0143
0.0130

/ePl-2%
4.85%
4.55%
4.29%
4.11%
3.92%
3.85%
3.94%
4.09%
4.26%
4.57%

PLATE 9
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
13-Aug-90, Page 1
PILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST 1 : 1
OVERALL TEST I: 77
PITTING DESCRIP: OIVERCING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIM TO ROUND TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db)= 6 inch
DATE:

04/24/90

TEST PERSONNEL:

Ken Cherrington
common L7-l=
branch L3-9=
straight L2-8=

2.7188 ft.
5.8542 ft.
11.4063 ft.

Dps7-8
Td,c5 (td5=t7)
PAN

(Td2=t8)

:M:

ORIFICE STANDAKD-->TRANSFORMAT10NL7-

-L7-1-

-L2-8-

Ps7

Ps,c5 Ps,c6

-L8--<TRANSFORHATION--Td2-/DAMPER-

Ps8
L3-9

M: Dps,c5-6

NOTE: L7-l,L3-9,L2-8 INCLUDE THE


PITTING CENTERLINE LENGTH

Ps9
H:
Dps7-9

L9
TRANSFORMATION
Ps,b CALIBRATED TUBE
Ps,b ID i 1/2D TAPS

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAHETER

Td,b5 (Td5=t9)
/ DAMPER
:H:

1. RECORD THE POLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST


Dsp,b5-6
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

77.0000 Deg P
63.0000 Deg F
985.0 mbar
29.0923

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE EHD OF TEST


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

80.0000 Deg P
63.0000 Deg P
984.0 mbar
29.0627

L7= 22.0313 ft.


18= 10.0104 ft.
L9-- 2.4896 ft.

13-Aug-90, Page 2
FILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST 1:
1
OVERALL TEST t: 77
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
(HcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 6 inch
DATE:

04/24/90

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

=
=
=
=

78.5000 Deg F
63.0000 Deg f
984.5 mbar
29.0775

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296two"2-0.0159*twot.41
=

0.5831 in Ug

pp=pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.4181 in Hg

rho,o=70.73*(pb-.378pp)/(53.35*(tdoH59.7) (ambient density)


=
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

0.0712 lbm/ft*3

LEAKAGE = 4.6200 cfm I


10.0050 inches HC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd"0.5308

3. HANOHETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO =
slope bl
:
Correlation =

Heriam 1 Dwyer 1 Hedam 2 Dwyer 2 HERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

DWYER
BLUE P
0.0283
0.9632
1.0000

DHYER
BLUE B
0.0256
0.9799
1.0000

13-Aug-90, Page 3
PILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST 1:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 77
FITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR HAIN TO ROUND TAP
(HcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db)= 6 inch
DATE:

04/21/90

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
COMMON
TEST SIZE (HcXHc)
TEST DIAMETER HKD. (DH,c)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt,c)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do,c)

BRANCH
32.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

X
inches
inches
inches

8.0000

BRANCH DIA. (Db)=


branch area.Ab =
(Db/24)"2PI

HETER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt.b) =


ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do,b) =

ORIFICE DIAMETER
O
en

6.0000 inches
0.1963 ft"2

Beta,c=
METER TUBE DIAMETER
RECTANGULAR
TEST AREA Ac,(H*W)/144

0.7179 (calculated)
ORIFICE DIAHETER
Beta.b:HETER TUBE DIAMETER

1.7778 ft"2
STRAIGHT
32.0000 X
12.8000 inches

TEST SIZE (BsXHs)


TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DHs)

.0000

5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COHPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
:--CALIBRATED ORIFICE TUBE:

STRAIGHT
BRAnch
td,c5 Dps7-8 Dps7-9
Ps7
td2
Dps,b5-6
Ps,b5
POINT Dps,c5-6 Ps,c5
(in. wg) (in. wg) Deg F (in. tig) (in. wg) (in. wg) Deg F ( i n . wg) ( i n . vg)
8.9000
9.8200
10.8500
11.8000
12.6500
13.1500
12.2500
11.3300
10.2500
9.3000

6.6100
7.3150
8.0850
8.7500
9.2550
9.6900
9.0600
8.3700
7.5700
8.9650

13.7235 inches
3.5024 inches

88

89
89
89
89
89
89

0.0500
0.0550
0.0600
0.0650
0.0700
0.0700
0.0650
0.0600
0.0550
0.0500

.1500
.1650
.1800
.1950
.2050
.2150
.2000
0.1850
0.1700
0.1550

2.0000
2.1750
2.4000
2.6000
2.7500
2.9000
2.7000
2.5000
2.2500
2.1000

90
90
'90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

1.3200
1.4450
1.5950
1.7450
1.8400
1.9350
1.7950
1.6650
1.5000
1.3850

1.8000
1.9800
2.1800
2.3650
2.5050
2.6500
2.4600
2.2750
2.0550
1.8950

td,b5
Deg F

87
87
87
87

FITTING
(t7U8U9)/3
Deg F

88
89
89
89
89
89
89

0.2552 (calculated)

13-Aug-90, Page 4

PILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST i: 77
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db)=6 inch
DATE:

04/24/90

6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by


COKHON
02722
02723
Heri-Cal Heriam 1
POINT D p s , c 5 - 6
Ps,c5
td,c5
Deg P
(in. wg) (in. wg)
1 8.9452
2
9.8(61
3 10.8971
4 11.8481
5 12.6989
6 13.1995
7 12.2986
8 11.3776
9 10.2965
10 9.3456

6.5227
7 2167
7 9746
8 6291
9 1262
9 5544
8 9343
8 2551
7 4677
8 8407

88
88
88
88
89
89
89
89
89
89

computer)
Dwyer 1
STRAIGHT
Dps7-8
(in. wg)
0.0545
0.0595
0.0645
0.0694
0.0744
0.0744
0.0694
0.0645
0.0595
0.0545

Dwyer 2
BRANCH Dwyer 2
Dps7-9
Ps7
(in. wg) (in, wg)
0.1493
0.1641
0.1790
0.1938
0.2037
0.2136
0.1988
0.1839
0.1691
0.1542

1.9807
2.1539
2.3767
2.5747
2.7232
2.8717
2.6737
2.4757
2.2282
2.0797

4eriam 1 Heriam 2
td2
Dps,bS-6
Ps,b5
Deg F (in. wg) (in. wg)
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

1.3581
1.4853
1.6381
1.7908
1.8876
1.9843
1.8417
1.7094
1.5414
1.4242

1.8468
2.0301
2.2338
2.4222
2.5647
2.7124
2.5189
2.3305
2.1065
1.9436

td,b5
Deg F
87
87
87
87
88
88
88
88
88
88

PITTING
(t7U8H9)/3
Deg F
88
88
88
88
89
89
89
89
89
89

13-Aug-90, Page 5
PILE:
TEST77A
HATE:
9
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 77
FITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 6 inch
DATE:

04/24/50

7. PLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER


m=.7578016Do"2Y*K*Pa*(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)".5 (mass flow rate)
rho,v=S2.195.12181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03*tdo*2+.33429E-06*tdo*3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
62.2350 lbm/ft"3
Y=l-(.4H.35*Beta"4)*alpha/k (expansion coefficient)
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5U3.63*pb)
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
1.4100 (air)

00

rho,5=rho,o*

(tdoM59.7)(ps5U3.63pb)
(td5M59.7)(13.63*pb)

Pa=(material expansion factor) =

(tdot459.7)(psM3.63*pb)
rho,l=rho,o4(tdlM59.7)(13.63*pb)
0.9998
:--CALIBRATED ORIFICE TUBE--:

K--Ko<(HA/REd) (flow coefficient)


K=Ko*b*Lambda (flow coefficient)
Do,c

Beta.c

9.6027

Aorifice

0.7179 4512.13

Ko

Do,b

0.6973

3.5024

Beta.b
0.2552

Ko,b
0.5961

b,b
0.0041

REd=1363000Do(rho,5Dps5-6/(l-Beta*4))*.5 (approximate REd)


Plow rate 1-2 = m/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)"2, inches DC
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
Dpf = fL/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)"n

RECTANGULAR DUCT (32x8)


f = 2.03E-02 (from PRIC832)
n =
1.9573

ROUND DUCT (6 inch)


f= 0.0247 (from L0SS6NEH )'
n= 1.5360

ROUND DUCT (10 inch)


f 0.0185 (from LOSS25D )
n 1.8116
ROUND DUCT (14 inch)
f 0.0208 (from LOSS25D )
n 1.8973

ROUND DUCT (6 inch)


f 0.0247 (from LOSS6NEH )
n 1.5360

13-Aug-90, Page 6

FILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST I:
OVERALL TEST J:
FITTING DESCRIP:
(WcXHc):
BRANCH DIA. (Db)=
DATE:

1
77
DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
32X8
6 inch

04/24/90

8. COHHON HASS FLO i RATE


POINT

alpha,c
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0.0222
0.0244
0.0270
0.0293
0.0313
0.0325
0.0303
0.0281
0.0255
0.0231

Yc
0.9921
0.9913
0.9904
0.9896
0.9888
0.9884
0.9892
0.9900
0.9909
0.9918

rho,5
ul,c
REd.c
l b m / f n lbm/ft-s orifice
0.0712 1 .26E-05
0.0713 1.26E-05
0.0714 1.26E-05
0.0715 1.26E-05
0.0715 1.26E-05
0.0716 1.26E-05
0.0715 1.26E-05
0.0714 1.26E-05
0.0712 1.26E-05
0.0714 1 .26E-05

9. BRANCH MASS FLOW RATE


ul,b
tho,9
POINT
lbm/ft-s lbm/ft"3 alpha,b
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05
1.26E-05

0.0705
0.0705
0.0705
0.0706
0.0705
0.0705
0.0704
0.0704
0.0704
0,0703

0.0034
0.0037
0.0041
0.0045
0.0047
0.0050
0.0046
0.0043
0.0039
0.0036

645491
677716
712047
742260
767299
782260
755262
726578
690591
659823

Kc
0.7022
0.7019
0.7017
0.7015
0.7014
0.7013
0.7015
0.7016
0.7019
0.7021

rho,7 Flow Rate


m,c
lbm/min lbm/ft"3
cfm
306.3106
321.6029
337.8941
352.2312
364.3736
371.4783
358.6576
345.0364
328.1812
313.5598

0.0704
0.0704
0.0704
0.0705
0.0704
0.0704,
0.0704
0.0704
0.0703
0.0702

4354
4569
4798
4999
5174
5273
5094
4903
4670
4464

COHHON DUCT LOSS


Rectan.

gc

Vc
fpm
2449
2570
2699
2812
2911
2966
2865
2758
2627
2511

Pv,c
Dpf
in. wg) (in. wg)
0.3507 0.0175
0.3864 0.0193
0.4263 0.0212
0.4630 0.0230
0.4957 0.0246
0.5150 0.0255
0.4803 0.0239
0.4448 0.0221
0.4030 0.0201
0.3680 0.0184
BRANCH DUCT LOSS BRANCH

Qb
Yb REYl.b
0.9990
0.9989
0.9988
0.9987
0.9986
0.9985
0.9987
0.9987
0.9989
0.9990

8.19E404
8.56Et04
8.98E404
9.38B04
9.61E+04
9.85Et04
9.49E404
9.15EM
8.69EHM
8.36E*04

K,b=Ko,b*
LAMBDA,b LAMBDA,b)
6.9178
6.7675
6.6069
6.4639
6.3845
6.3065
6.4268
6.5457
6.7140
6.8454

0.6246
0.6239
0.6233
0.6227
0.6224
0.6221
0.6225
0.6230
0.6237
0.6243

.
m,b
14.1510
14.7867
15.5142
16.2081
16.6256
17.0395
16.4193
15.8284
15.0447
14.4727

cho,9
Fl ow Rate
lbm/ft"3
cfm
0.0705
0.0705
0.0705
0.0706
0.0705
0.0705
0.0704
0.0704
0.0704
0.0703

201
210
220
230
236
242
233
225
214
206

ROUND
Pv,b
Vb
Dpf
fpm (in. wg) in. wg)
1023
1068
1120

U70
1201
1230
1187
1145
1089
1048

0.0613
0.0669
0.0736
0.0802
0.0845
0.0887
0.0825
0.0767
0.0693
0.0642

0.0183
0.0196
0.0211
0.0225
0.0234
0.0243
0.0230
0.0217
0.0201
0.0190

13-Aug-90, Page 7
FILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST I:
1
OVERALL TEST {: 77
FITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR HAIN TO ROUND TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 6 inch
DATE:

04/24/90

10. STRAIGHT MASS FLOW RATE

COMMON + STRAIGHT
Rectan.

0.S

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

rho,8
Fl OH Rate
lbm/ft"3
cfm

lbm/min

POINT

292.1596
306.8162
322.3799
336.0230
347.7479
354.4388
342.2383
329.2080
313.1366
299.0871

0.0701
0.0702
0.0702
0.0702
0.0703
0.0703
0.0702
0.0702
0.0701
0.0701

4166
4373
4592
4785
4950
5043
4876
4693
4466
4267

Vs
fpm
2343
2460
2583
2691
2784
2837
2743
2640
2512
2400

Pv,s
Dpf
in. tig) (in. wg)
0.3200
0.3528
0.3893
0.4227
0.4526
0.4700
0.4388
0.4062
0.3677
0.3356

0.0672
0.0740
0.0815
0.0883
0.0944
0.0980
0.0916
0.0849
0.0770
0.0704

LOSS COEFFICIENT FOR STRAIGHT-THROUGH

11. BRANCH LOSS COEFFICIENT Cb,3 t Cb

Vc
fpn

POINT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2449
2570
2699
2812
2911
2966
2865
2758
2627
2511

Vb
fpn
1023
1068
1120
1170
1201
1230
1187
1145
1089
1048

COMMON BRANCH BRANCH


BRANCH Rectan.
ROUND FITTING
Dps7-9
Pv,c
Pv,b
Dpf LOSS PI,3
Dpi
(in. wg) in. wg) in. wg) (in. wg) in. wg) in. wg)
0.3507
0.3864
0.4263
0.4630
0.4957
0.5150
0.4803
0.4448
0.4030
0.3680

0.0613
0.0669
0.0736
0.0802
0.0845
0.0887
0.0825
0.0767
0.0693
0.0642

0.1493
0.1641
0.1790
0.1938
0.2037
0.2136
0.1988
0.1839
0.1691
0.1542

0.0175
0.0193
0.0212
0.0230
0.0246
0.0255
0.0239
0.0221
0.0201
0.0184

0.0183
0.0196
0.0211
0.0225
0.0234
0.0243
0.0230
0.0217
0.0201
0.0190

0.4028
0.4448
0.4894
0.5310
0.5669
0.5901
0.5498
0.5081
0.4625
0.4207

Cb .3
1 .1488
1 .1512
1 .1481
1 .1470
1 .1437
1 .1457
1 .1446
1 .1425
1 .1478
1 .1432

Vb/Vs
0.4177
0.4157
0.4151
0.4160
0.4125
0.4147
0.4143
0.4151
0.4144
0.4173

Cb
6.5760
6.6530
6.6531
6.6172
6.7106
6.6521
6.6654
6.6260
6.6724
6.5558

STRAIGHT
FITTING
LOSS PI,3 Cs,c
(in. wg)
0.0004
-0.0002
-0.0012
-0.0016
-0.0015
-0.0040
-0.0045
-0.0040
-0.0024
-0.0019

0.0012
-0.0004
-0.0029
-0.0035
-0.0029
-0.0079
-0.0093
-0.0090
-0.0059
-0.0050

Vs/Vc

Cs

0.9568
0.9570
0.9571
0.9571
0.9566
0.9564
0.9573
0.9572
0.9563
0.9560

0.0013
-0.0004
-0.0031
-0.0038
-0.0032
-0.0086
-0.0102
-0.0099
-0.0064
-0.0055

13-Aug-90, Page 8

FILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST I:
OVERALL TEST I:
PITTING DESCRIP:
(WcXHc):
BRANCH DIA. (Db)=
DATE:

1
77
DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
32X8
6 inch

04/24/90

12. ERROR ANALYSIS

X
eDo,c=
O.OlOUorific error for metering tube in common
eDo,b=
0.0236%ori(ic error Cor metering tube in common
eY=
O.SOOOfexpansion coefficient error in common or branch
eK=
l.OOOOtflow coefficeint error in common or branch
eFa=
0.0200tmaterial eipansion error in common or branch
eRHO=
O.SOOOtdensity error in common, branch or straight
eDps,c5-6 ((0.01"2t(.05/Dsp,c5-6)"2)".5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error in common
eDps,bS-6 ((0.or2M.OS/Dsp,bS-6)*2)*.5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error in common
eDps7-9 ((.005"2M-005/Dps7-9)*2)".5 if Dps7-9<1, ((.05"2<(.05,2/Dps7-9eDps7-9
eDps7-8 ((.O05"2f(.005/Dps7-8)"2)".5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05'2*(.O5-2/Dps7-8eDps7-9
eAs-eAc
1.0601%.1/Wt.1/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side
eDb=
1.6667%test diameter error .1 inch tolerance
eL7,l :
3.0651Uest length error 1 inch tolerance common
eL2,8=
0.7306Uest length error 1 inch tolerance straight
eL3,9:
1.4235ttest length error 1 inch tolerance branch
ef,rect=
5.6000tfriction factor error based on test FRIC832C
ef,round=-0.80648E-04*Vb0.38321E-07*Vb'20.15881 X for 6 inch from LOSS6NEH

VELOCITY ERROR
VELOCITY ERROR
VELOCITY ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
eDpf,RECT7,l ERR
eDp,RECT2,8 ERR
eDpf,RND3,9 ERR
ePl,3 ERROR
ePl,2 ERROR
VOL FLOW RATE ERR
VOL FLOW RATE ERR
VOL FLOW RATE ERR
Qb/Qc ERROR
Qs/Qc ERROR
Cb ERROR
Cs ERROR

eVc=[((eDo,c)*2)"2teY"2eK*2*ePa"2eRHO"2teDps,c5-6"2*eAc*2]\5*100 , X
eVb=[((eDo,b)*2)"2teY"2teK"2tePa'2teRHO"2*eDps,b5-6*2t(2*eDb)"2]\5*100 , X
eVs=eVc*eVb, \
ePv,c=(2*eVc), X
ePv,b=(2*eVb), X
ePv,s=(2*eVs), %
eDpf7,l=(ef,rect*2*eAs*2teL7,r2eRHO*2t(neVc)"2)".5, X
eDpf2,8=(ef,rect*2eAc"2*eL2,8*2<eRHO*2+(neVs)"2)".5, X
eDpf3,9=(ef,round"2M2,eDb)'2teL3,9*2teRHO"2t(neVb)"2)*.5, X
ePl,3=[eDps7-9"2teDpf7,r2teDpf3,9"2]".5,RECT*eDpf,RND (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
ePl,2=ieDps7-8*2teDpI,7"2teDpf2,8*2]".5,RECT7,lteDp,RECT2,8 (DYNAMIC LOSS
eO.c=[((eDo,c)*2neY"2teK*2teFa"2teRliO*2teDps,c5-6*2]\5*100 , X
eQb=[((eDo,b)*2r2*eY"2*eK*2eFa"2teRHO"2teDps,b5-6"2t(2*eDb)"2]".5*100 , *
eQs=[eQc"2*egb*2]\5, X
egb/Qc =[eQb"2*eQc*2)".5
eQs/Qc =[eQs"2*eQc"2}*.5
eCb =[ePv,b"2tePl,3*2]".5
eCs =[ePv,s*2*ePl,2"2]".5

13-Aug-90, Page 9
PILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST |:
I
OVERALL TEST |: 77
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
(HcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 6 inch
DATE:
eVcl
1.9842%
1.97021
1.95841

04/24/90
ePv.cl
3.96841
3.94031
3.91671

eVbl
4.34011
4.07591
3.82081

ePv.bl
8.68021
8.15181
7.64151

1.95011 3.90011 3.61621 7.23231


1.94411 3.88831 3.50691 7.01371
1.94121 3.88231 3.41041 6.82081
1.94681 3.89361 3.55691 7.11381
1.95391 3.90781 3.71991 7.43971

1.96481 3.92961 3.97551 7.95091


1.97761 3.95521 4.19591 8.39191

eVsl
6.3243%
6.04601
5.77911
5.56621
5.45101
5.35151
5.50371
5.67381
5.94031
6.17351

ePv.sl eDpt7,U eDpf2,8% efl, RND eDpf3,91 eDps7-91 eDps7-8%


12.64871 18.82371 16.09421 11.64111 18.26661 9.18311 3.38651
12.09211 18.81801 15.67911 11.63881 18.12091 8.41861 3.08711
11.55821 18.81331 15.28861 11.65561 18.00011 7.77221 2.83801
11.13251 18.81001 14.98301 11.69091 17.92311 7.21851 2.62761
10.90201 18.80761 14.81981 11.72231 17.89231 6.73891 2.50461
10.70311 18.80651 14.68031 11.75911 17.87251 6.73891 2.39331
11.00741 18.80871 14.89421 11.70741 17.90591 7.21851 2.56461
11.34761 18.81151 15.13671 11.67071 17.96001 7.77221 2.76401
11.88061 18.81591 15.52351 11.64291 18.07081 8.41861 2.99911
12.34711 18.82101 15.86831 11.63791 18.18481 9.18311 3.28021

ePl,31
27.79081
27.44741
27.17261
26.96591
26.81931
26.80521
26.95361
27.14481
27.41291
27.73531

ePl,2%
24.99641
24.68771
24.40771
24.19111
24.07541
23.97751
24.12841
24.30301
24.57661
24.83531

eQcl
1.67731
1.66061
1.64661

eQbl
4.00731
3.71961
3.43811

eQsl
4.34421
4.07341
3.81211

eQb/Qcl
4.34421
4.07341
3.81211

eQs/Qcl
4.65681
4.39891
4.15251

eCbl
29.11481
28.63231
28.22671

eCsl
28.01451
27.49001
27.00611

1.63671
1.62971
1.62611
1.63281
1.64131

3.20921 3.60251 3.60251 3.95691 27.91891 26.62971


3.08551 3.48941 3.48941 3.85121 27.72131 26.42881
2.97541 3.39081 3.39081 3.76051 27.65941 26.25791
3.14231 3.54121 3.54121 3.89951 27,87651 26.52061
3.32561 3.70861 3.70861 4.05561 28.14591 26.82161

1.65431 3.60921 3.97031 3.97031 4.30121 28.54271 27.29761


1.66951 3.85071 4.19711 4.19711 4.51691 28.97711 27.73521

13-Aug-90, Page 10
PILE:
TEST77A
PLATE:
9
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 77
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO ROUND TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 6 inch
DATE:

04/24/90

13. Create Data Fil es


range name = ERRC

range name = C

file: 81Aerrc.WKS
Qb/Qc

Cb

file: SlAc.WKS
/Qb/Qc

di

/"

Cb
dy

Qb/Qc

Cb

0.0461
0.0459
0.0458
0.0459
0.0456
0.0458
0.0458
0.0458
0.0458

6.5760
6.6530
6.6531
6.6172
6.7106
6.6521
6.6654
6.6260
6.6724

0.0020
0.0019
0.0017
0.0017
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0017
0.0018

1.9146
1.9049
1.8780
1.8475
1.8603
1.8399
1.8581
1.8649
1.9045

0.0461
0.0459
0.0458
0.0459
0.0456
0.0458
0.0458
0.0458
0.0458

6.5760
6.6530
6.6531
6.6172
6.7106
6.6521
6.6654
6.6260
6.6724

0.0461

6.5558

0.0019

1.8997

0.0461

6.5558

range name = ERRS

range name = S

file: 82Aerrs.WKS
Qs/Qc

Cs

0.9568
0.9570
0.9571
0.9571
0.9566
0.9564
0.9573
0.9572
0.9563
0.9560

0.0013
-0.0004
-0.0031
-0.0038
-0.0032
-0.0086
-0.0102
-0.0099
-0.0064
-0.0055

6.6382
0.0459
AVG Qb/Qc AVG Cb
0.0436
0.0002
std dev std dev

file: 82AS.HKS
/Qs/Qc

dt
0.0446
0.0421
0.0397
0.0379
0.0368
0.0360
0.0373
0.0388
0.0411
0.0432

/-

Cs
dy
0.0004
-0.0001
-0.0008
-0.0010
-0.0009
-0.0023
-0.0027
-0.0027
-0.0018
-0.0015

Qs/Qc

cs

0.9568
0.9570
0.9571
0.9571
0.9566
0.9564
0.9573
0.9572
0.9563
0.9560

0.0013
-0.0004
-0.0031
-0.0038
-0.0032
-0.0086
-0.0102
-0.0099
-0.0064
-0.0055

0.9568 -0.0050
AVG Qs/Qc AVG Cs
0.0037
0.0004
std dev std dev

PLATE 10
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
14-Aug-90, Page 1
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST f:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 83
PITTING DESCR1P: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

TEST PERSONNEL:

Randy Takos
common 1,7-1=
branch 13-9=
straight 1.2-8=

3.0833 ft
7.2292 ft
11.0625 ft

Dps7Td,c5 ( t d 5 = t 7 )

O
FAM-

C*

(Td2=t8)

:M:-

-ORIFICB STAMDARD-->TRAl(SFORMATIONL7-

-L7-1-

-L2-8-

L7= 22.0313 ft
L8= 10.0104 ft
L9= 5.8958 ft

-L8-<TRAHSFORMATION--Td2-/DAKPER

*
Ps,c5 Ps,c6

Ps7

Ps8
L3-9

:H

H: Dps,c5-6

NOTE: L7-1.L3-9.L2-8 INCLUDE THE


FITTING CENTERLINE LENGTH

Ps9
H:
Dps7-9

L9
TRANSFORATION
Ps,b CALIBRATED TUBE
Ps,b ID i 1/2D TAPS

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER

Td,b5 (Td5=t9)
/ DAMPER
:H:

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE START OF TEST


Dsp,b5-6
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

71.0000 Deg F
57.0000 Deg F
982.0 mbar

29.0037

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE END OF TEST


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

70.0000 Deg F
58.0000 Oeg F
982.0 mbar
29.0037

14-Aug-90, Page 2
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST I:
1
OVERALL TEST f: 83
FITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Het-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)
O

=
=
=
=

70.5000 Deg F
57.5000 Deg F
982.0 mbar
29.0037

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296two*2-0.0159nwoK41
=

0.4744 in Hg

pp;pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.3363 in Hg

rho,o=70.73Mpb-.378pp)/(53.35(tdoM59.7) (ambient density)


=
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

0.0722 lbm/t"3

LEAKAGE = 4.9700 cfm $


10.0350 inches HC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd"0.5308

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO =
slope bl
=
Correlation =

Heriam 1 Dwyer 1 Heriam 2 Dwyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

DWYER
BLUE F
0.0283
0.9632
1.0000

DHYER
BLUE B
0.0256
0.9799
1.0000

14-Aug-90, Page 3
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST J: 83
FITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGIHG TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
COMMON
TEST S U B (HcXHc)
TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DH,c)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt,c)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do,c)

BRANCH
32.0000
12.8000
13.3760
9.6027

ORIFICE DIAMETER
Beta,c=
METER TUBE DIAMETER
RECTANGULAR
TEST AREA Ac,(HW)/144

X
inches
inches
inches

TEST SIZE (HbXHb) =


TEST DIAMETER HID. (DH,b)
branch area.Ab

8.0000

8.0000 X
5.3333 inches
0.2222 ft"2

METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt.b)


ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do,b)

0.7179 (calculated)

ORIFICE DIAMETER
Beta.b-"
METER TUBE DIAMETER

1.7778 ft*2
STRAIGHT

TEST SIZE (HsXWs)


TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DHs)

32.0000 X
12.8000 inches

8.0000

5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
-CALIBRATED ORIFICE TUBE--:
JTRAIOHT

( i n . wg)

Ps,c5
i n . vg)

7.9500
9.2500
10.3500
11.6000
12.7500
13.4000
12.1500
11.0500
9.8000
8.6000

5.8450
6.7900
7.6400
8.5450
9.3600
9.8400
8.9700
8.1650
7.2250
6.3050

POINTT Dps,c5-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

td,c5
Deg F

79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79

Dps7-8
Dps7-9
Ps7
in. wg) ( i n . wg) ( i n . vg)
0.0400
0.0500
0.0525
0.0600
0.0650
0.0700
0.0650
0.0575
0.0500
0.0400

0.0450
0.0500
0.0550
0.0625
0.0700
0.0725
0.0650
0.0600
0.0500
0.0450

1.7500
2.0500
2.2500
2.5000
2.7500
2.9000
2.6500
2.4000
2.1500
1.9000

td2

Dps,b5-6
Deg F ( i n . wg)

80
80
80
80
80
81
'81
81
81
81

0.1100
0.1300
0.1450
0.1600
0.1750
0.1900
0.1700
0.1550
0.1350
0.1200

BRAnch
Ps,b5
( i n . wg)
1.6600
1.9250
2.1600
2.4150
2.6550
2.9150
2.5500
2.3150
2.0550
1.8000

td,b )
Deg .'
6
16
7
7
7
11
17
78
8
17

FITTING
(t7U8H9)/3
Deg F
78
78
78
78
78
79
79
79
79
79

4.0000

13.7235 inches
6.5449 inches
0.4769 (calculated)

14-Aug-90, Page 4
PILE;
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST | i
OVERALL TEST I :
FITTING DESCRIP:
(HcXHc):
BRANCH DIA. (Db) =
DATE:

1
83
DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
32X8

8X4

05/07/90

6. CORRECTED VALUES ( c a l c u l a t e d by
COMMON
02722
02723
Heci-Cal Heciam 1
POUT Dps,c5-6
Ps,c5
td,c5
( i n . v g ) ( I n . wg) Deg P

o
J

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

7.9943
9.2956
10.3967
11.6479
12.7991
13.4497
12.1985
11.0974
9.8461
8.6449

5.7697
6.6999
7.5366
8.4273
9.2295
9.7020
8.8457
8.0533
7.1281
6.2225

79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79

computer)
Dwyer 1
STRAIGHT
Dps7-8
( i n . wg)
0.0446
0.0545
0.0570
0.0645
0.0694
0.0744
0.0694
0.0620
0.0545
0.0446

Duyer 2
BRANCH Duyer 2
Dps7-9
Ps7
( i n . wg) in. wg)
0.0453
0.0503
0.0552
0.0627
0.0701
0.0726
0.0651
O.O602
0.0503
0.0453

1.7332
2.0302
2.2282
2.4757
2.7232
2.8717
2.6242
2.3767
2.1292
1.8817

Heriam 2 Heriam 2
td2 Dps,b5-6
Ps,b5
Deg P (in. wg) (in. wg)
80
80
80
80
80
81
81
81
81
81

0.1259
0.1463
0.1616
0.1768
0.1921
0.2074
0.1870
0.1717
0.1514
0.1361

1.7043
1.9741
2.2134
2.4731
2.7175
2.8804
2.6106
2.3713
2.1065
1.8468

PITTING
td,b5 (t7U8H9)/3
Deg F
Deg P
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

78
78
78
78
78
79
79
79
79
79

14-Aug-90, Page 5
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST I:
1
OVERALL TEST |: 83
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db)= 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

7. PLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER


m=.7578016*Do"2*YK*Pa*(rho,5Dps5-6rho,w)*.5 (mass flow rate)
rho,w=62.195.12181E-01*tdo-.17493E-03tdo"2*.33429E-06*tdo*3 (density of water, lbm/ft"3)
=

62.3015 lbtn/ft"3

Y=l-(.4U.35*Beta"4)*alpha/k (expansion coefficient)


alpha=Dps5-6/(ps5*13.63*pb)

k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)


1.4100 (air)

o
(tdoM59.7)(ps5U3.63*pb)

00

(tdoM59.7)(pslU3.63*pb)

rho,5=rho,o*

rho,l=rho,o*(td5M59.7)(13.63*pb)

Pa=(material expansion factor) =

(tdlt459.7)(13.63*pb)
0.9998
:--CALIBRATED ORIFICE TUBE-:

K=Ko*(m/REd)

(flow coefficient)
K=Ko*b*Lambda

Do,c

Beta.c

9.6027

Aorifice

0.7179 4512.13

Ko

Do,b

0.6973

6.5449

Beta.b
0.4769

REd=1363000Do(rho,5*Dps5-6/(l-Beta"4))".5 (approximate REd)


Flow rate 1-2 = m/rho,l (volume flow rate 1 to 2), cfm
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Flow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho,l*(AVERAGE VELOCITY/1097)"2, inches WC
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
Dpf = f*L/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)'n

RECTANGULAR DUCT (32x8)


f = 2.03E-02 (from FRIC832)
n =
1.9573

RECTANGULAR DUCT (8x4)


f= 0.0190 (from FRIC48A)
n= 1.9051

(flow coefficient)
Ko,b

b,b

0.6158

0.0041

14-Aug-90, Page 6
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 83
PITTING DESCR1P: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIS TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

8. COMMON MASS PLO 4 RATE

:
,

alpha,c
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0.0199
0.0231
0.0258
0.0288
0.0316
0.0332
0.0302
0.0275
0.0245
0.0215

Tc
0.9929
0.9918
0.9908
0.9897
0.9887
0.9882
0.9892
0.9902
0.9913
0.9923

9. BRANCH HASS PLOW RATE


ul,b
rho,9
POINT
lbm/ft-s lbm/ft*3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05
1.24E-05

0.0718
0.0718
0.0718
0.0718
0.0719
0.0719
0.0718
0.0717
0.0716
0.0717

rho,5
ul,c
REd.c
lbm/ft'3 lbm/ft-s orifice
0.0721
0.0723
0.0725
0.0726
0.0728
0.0729
0.0727
0.0725
0.0724
0.0723

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05
24E-05

623279
671754
711062
752381
788459
808153
768972
733638
692082
648728

m,c
Kc
0.7023
0.7020
0.7017
0.7015
0.7013
0.7O12
0.7014
0.7016
0.7018
0.7021

lbm/min

rho,7 Flow Rate


lbm/ft*3
cfm

291.9624
314.6699
332.8416
352.1826
369.0701
378.2888
360.2095
343.6580
323.9571
303.6637

0.0714
0.0714
0.0715
0.0716
0.0716
0.0716
0.0715
0.0715
0.0715
0.0715

4090
4405
4653
4920
5153
5280
5035
4807
4530
4249

Vc
fpm
2301
2478
2617
2768
2899
2970
2832
2704
2548
2390

Pv,c
Dpf
in. wg) (in. wg)
0.3140 0.0179
0.3645 0.0207
0.4072 0.0230
0.4556 0.0257
0.5000 0.0281
0.5251 0.0295
0.4769 0.0269
0.4343 0.0245
0.3858 0.0218
0.3392 0.0193
BRANCH DUCT LOSS BRANCH

"

POINT

COHMON DUCT LOSS


Rectan.

Q4-

alpha,b

rb

0.0003
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0004
0.0003

0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999

REYl.b
4.93E*04
5.30E04
5.56E*04
S.81EKJ4
6.06E404
6.28E*04
5.97E+04
5.72Et04
5.37E+04
5.10E+04

K,b=Ko,bt
LAMBDA,b LAMBDA,b)
6.5229
6.2903
6.1417
6.0062
5.8845
5.7779
5.9273
6.0569
6.2492
6.4105

0.6426
0.6416
0.6410
0.6405
0.6400
0.6395
0.6401
0.6407
0.6415
0.6421

,
m,b
15.6543
16.8454
17.6831
18.4899
19.2626
19.9946
18.9995
18.2084
27.1103
16.2433

rho,9
lbm/ft"3
0.0718
0.0718
0.0718
0.0718
0.0719
0.0719
0.0718
0.0717
0.0716
0.0717

PI OH Rate

cfm
218
235
246
257
268
278
265
254
239
227

Vb
fpm
981
1055
1108
1158
1206
1252
1191
1143
1075
1020

Rectan.
Pv,b
Dpf
in. wg) (in. tig)
0.0574
0.0665
0.0733
0.0801
0.0869
0.0936
0.0846
0.0778
0.0688
0.0620

0.0179
0.0206
0.0226
0.0246
0,0266
0.0286
0.0259
0.0240
0.0213
0.0193

14-Aug-90, Page 7
FILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST I:
OVERALL TEST |:
FITTING DESCRIP:
(HcXHc):

1
83
DIVERGING TEE RECTANGULAR HAIN TO 45 DEG EKTRT RECTAKGULAR TAP
32X8

BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4


DATE:

05/07/90
COMMON t STRAIGHT
Rectan.

10. STRAIGHT MASS FLOH RATE


Qs
rho,8
Fl ow Rate
cfm
lbm/ft'3

01,3

lbm/nin

POINT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

276.3081
297.8245
315.1585
333.6927
349.8075
358.2942
341.2101
325.4495
306.8468
287.4203

0.0712
0.0713
0.0713
0.0714
0.0714
0.0714
0.0713
0.0713
0.0712
0.0712

3879
4178
4419
4676
4893
5020
4784
4565
4307
4037

Vs
pm
2182
2350
2485
2630
2755
2824
2691
2568
2423
2271

Dpf
Pv,s
in. wg) (In. wg)
0.2818
0.3271
0.3661
0.4102
0.4505
0.4729
0.4292
0.3907
0.3475
0.3051

0.0576
0.0667
0.0744
0.0832
0.0912
0.0956
0.0870
0.0793
0.0707
0.0623

LOSS COEFFICIENT FOR STRAIGHT-THROUGH

11. BRAMCH LOSS COEFFICIENT Cb,S 5 Cb


VC
fpm

POINT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2301
2478
2617
2768
2899
2970
2832
2704
2548
2390

Vb
(pin

981
1055
1108
1158
1206
1252
1191
1143
1075
1020

COMMON BRANCH BRANCH


BRANCH R e c t a n . R e c t a n .
FITTING
Dps7-9
Pv,c
Pv,b
Dpf
LOSS pi,3
Dpf
(in. wg) ( in. wg) (in. wg) (in. wg) (in. wg) in. wg)
0.3140
0.3645
0.4072
0.4556
0.5000
0.5251
0.4769
0.4343
0.3858
0.3392

0.0574
0.0665
0.0733
0.0801
0.0869
0.0936
0.0846
0.0778
0.0688
0.0620

0.0453
0.0503
0.0552
0.0627
0.0701
0.0726
0.0651
0.0602
0.0503
0.0453

0.0179
0.0207
0.0230
0.0257
0.0281
0.0295
0.0269
0.0245
0.0218
0.0193

0.0179
0.0206
0.0226
0.0246
0.0266
0.0286
0.0259
0.0240
0.0213
0.0193

0.2661
0.3070
0.3435
0.3879
0.4285
0.4460
0.4046
0.3682
0.3242
0.2841

Cb,s

0.8476
0.8423
0.8436
0.8513
0.8570
0.8492
0.8484
0.8478
0,8403
0,8374

Vb/Vs

0.4262
0.4259
0.4235
0.4184
0.4160
0.4217
0.4204
0.4227
0.4218
0.4268

Cb
4.6367
4.6174
4.6871
4.8440
4.9339
4.7631
4.7827
4.7317
4.7154
4.5854

STRAIGHT
PITTING
LOSS pi,2
(in. wg)

Cs,c

0.0013
0.0043
0.0045
0.0124
0.0006
0.0015
0.0009 0.0021
-0.0004 -0.0008
0.0015 0.0028
0.0033 0.0070
0.0018 0.0042
0.0003 0.0008
-0.0028 -0.0082

Vs/Vc

Cs

0.9482 0.0048
0.9483 0.0139
0.9496 0.0016
0.9503 0.0023
0.9506 -0.0009
0.9508 0.0031
0.9500 0.0077
0.9498 0.0046
0.9508 0.0009
0.9501 -0.0051

14-Aug-90, Page 8
PILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST I:
OVERALL TEST |:
FITTING DESCRIP:
(WcXHc):
BRANCH DIA. (Db)=
DATE:

1
83
DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEC ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
32X8
8X4

05/07/90

12. ERROR ANALYSIS

t
eDo,c=
0.0104lorific error for metering tube in common
eDo,b=
0.0153lorific error for metering tube in common
:
eY
0.5000Uxpansion coefficient error in common or branch
eK=
l.OOOOtflou coefficeint error in common or branch
ePa=
0.0200tmaterial expansion error in common or branch
eRHO=
0.5000tdensity error in common, branch or straight
eDps,c5-6 ((0.or2(.05/Dsp,c5-6)"2)".5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error in common
eDps,b5-6 ((0.01"2*(.05/Dsp,b5-6)"2)".5
ORIFICE pressure measurment error in common
eDps7-9 ((.005"2(.005/Dps7-9)"2)".5 if Dps7-9<1, ((.05"2+(.05"2/Dps7-9eDps7-9
eDps7-8 ((.O05*2*(.005/Dps7-8)*2)".5 if Dps7-8<1, ((.05*2(-05*2/Dps7-8eDps7-9
eAs=eAc
1.060H.1/W.1/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side,STRAIGHT
eAb=
3.7500%.1/W+.1/H, test area error .1 inch tolerance each side,BRANCH
eL7,l=
2.7027Uest length error 1 inch tolerance common
eL2,8=
0.7533Uest length error 1 inch tolerance straight
eL3,9=
1.1527Uest length error 1 inch tolerance branch
efcis.rec 5.6000%friction factor error based on test FRIC832C
efb,rect= 10.5600tfriction factor error based on test FRIC48A
VELOCITY ERROR
VELOCITY ERROR
VELOCITY ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
VEL PRESS ERROR
eDpf,RECT7,l ERR
eDpf,RECT2,8 ERR
eDpf,RECT3,9 ERR
ePl,3 ERROR
ePl,2 ERROR
VOL PLOW RATE ERR
VOL FLOW RATE ERR
VOL FLOW RATE ERR
Qb/Qc ERROR
Qs/fic ERROR
Cb ERROR
Cs ERROR

eVc=[((eDo,c)*2)"2eY"2*eK"2teFa"2teRHO*2*eDps,c5-6"2*eAc"2r.5*100 , t
eVb:[((eDo,b)*2)"2teY"2teK*2*eFa"2teRHO"2*eDps,b5-6"2t(eAb)"2]".5*100 , %
eVs=eVcteVb, %
ePv,C=(2*eVc), I
ePv,b=(2*eVb), %
ePv,s=(2*eVs), t
eDpf7,l=(efc,rect*2*eAs"2*eL7,r2teRHO*2+(nseVc)*2)".5, \
eDpf2,8=(efs,rect*2teAc*2*eL2,8"2teRHO"2t(nseVs)"2)*.5, %
eDpf3,9=(efb,rect'2teAb"2teL3,9"2*eRHO*2t(nbeVb)*2)*.5, \
ePl,3=[eDps7-9*2teDpf7,l*2*eDpf3,9"2]\5, (DYNAHIC LOSS ERROR)
ePl,2=[eDps7-8"2*eDpfl,7"2eDpf2,8*2]\5,RECT7,lteDpf,RECT2,8 (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
eQc=[((eDo,c)*2)"2teY"2teK*2teFa"2eRHO*2+eDps,c5-6"2]".5*100 , t
eO>[((eDo,b)*2)"2*eY"2elC2tePa*2teRHO"2teDps,b5-6*2*(2*eDb)"2]\5*100 , %
eQs=[eQc"2teQb"2]\5, %
eQb/Qc =[eQb*2*eQc"2)*.5
eQs/Qc =[eQs"2te0.c"2}".5
eCb =[ePv,b*2ePl,3"2]".5
eCs =[ePv,s*2tePl,2*2) .5

U-Aug-90, Page 9

PILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST I:
1
OVERALL TEST I: 83
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH DIA. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

eVc%
ePv.ct
2.00401 4 . 0 0 7 9 \
1.9784% 3.9568%
1.9637% 3.9273%
1.9516% 3.9033%
1.9435% 3.8870%
1.9398% 3.8796%
1.9475% 3.8950%
1.9564% 3.9129%
1.9704% 3.9408%
1.9898% 3.9795%

eVbl
39.9180%
34.4227%
31.2159%
28.5675%
26.3440%
24.4518%
27.0444%
29.3975%
33.2813%
36.9635%

ePv,b%
79.8359*
68.8454%
62.4319%
57.1349%
52.6881%
48.9035%
54.0888%
58.7949%
66.5626%
73.9270%

eVs%
41.9219%
36.4011%
33.1796%
30.5191%
28.2876%
26.3916%
28.9919%
31.3539%
35.2517%
38.9533%

ePv,s% eDpf7,l% eDp2,8% eDp3,9% eDps7 -9% eDps7-8%


83.8439% 17.8435% 82.7097% 77.1531% 11 .2238% 11.0398%
72.8022% 17.8325% 72.0022% 66.8574%
9 .1831% 9.9555%
66.3592% 17.8263% 65.7692% 60.8766%
8 .7842% 9.0657%
61.0382% 17.8212% 60.6328% 55.9580%
7 .7722% 7.9950%
56.5751% 17.8178% 56.3347% 51.8477%
7 ,2185% 7.1516%
52.7831% 17.8163% 52.6918% 48.3665%
6 ,7389% 6.9089%
57.9837% 17.8195% 57.6901% 53.1402%
7 .2185% 7.6925%
62.7078% 17.8232% 62.2432% 57.4971%
8 ,0825% 8.3225%
70.5035% 17.8291% 69.7769% 64.7259%
9 ,1831% 9.9555%
77.9066% 17.8374% 76.9487% 71.6115% 11 .2238% 11.0398%

ePl,3%
79.9810%
69.8014%
64.0383%
59.2394%
55.2970%
51.9823%
56.5113%
60.7364%
67.7617%
74.6482%

ePl,2%
85.3297%
74.8427%
68.7426%
63.7013%
59.5165%
56.0498%
60.8675%
65.2775%
72.7036%
79.7568%

eQc%
1.7006%
1.6704%
1.6529%
1.6386%
1.6289%
1.6245%
1.6337%
1.6443%
1.6609%
1.6839%

eQb%
39*7414%
34.2178%
30.9899%
28.3203%
26.0758%
24.1625%
26.7831%
29.1573%
33.0694%
36.7728%

eQs%
39.7778%
34.2586%
31.0339%
28.3676%
26.1266%
24.2170%
26.8329%
29.2036%
33.1111%
36.8113%

eQb/Qc%
39.7778%
34.2586%
31.0339%
28.3676%
26.1266%
24.2170%
26.8329%
29.2036%
33.1111%
36.8113%

eQs/Qc% eCb% eCs%


39.8141%U3.0077%119.6284%
34.2993% 98.0404%104.4106%
31.0779% 89.4351% 95.5463%
28.4149% 82.3025% 88.2243%
26.1773% 76.3793% 82.1155%
24.2715% 71.3702% 76.9912%
26.8826% 78.2248% '84.0652%
29.2499% 84.5325% 90.5175%
33.1527% 94.9854%101.2746%
36.8498%105.0598%U1.4925%

14-Aug-90, Page 10
PILE:
TEST83A
PLATE:
10
PLATE TEST |i
1
OVERALL TEST I: 83
PITTING DESCRIP: DIVERGING TEE, RECTANGULAR MAIN TO 45 DEG ENTRY RECTANGULAR TAP
(WcXHc):
32X8
BRANCH D1A. (Db) = 8X4
DATE:

05/07/90

13. Create Data Pil es


range name = ERRC

range name = C

file: errc .WKS


Qb/Qc

Cb

0.0533
0.0532
0.0529
0.0523
0.0520
0.0527
0.0526
0.0528
0.0527
0.0533

4.6367
4.6174
4.6871
4.8440
4.9339
4.7631
4.7827
4.7317
4.7154
4.5854

Qb/Qc

dx
0.0212
0.0182
0.0164
0.0148
0.0136
0.0128
0.0141
0.0154
0.0175
0.0196

file: c.HKS

/Cb
dy
5.2399
4.5270
4.1919
3.9867
3.7685
3.3995
3.7412
3.9998
4.4789
4.8174

range name : ERRS

Qb/Qc

0.0533
0.0532
0.0529
0.0523
0.0520
0.0527
0.0526
0.0528
0.0527
0.0533

4.6367
4.6174
4.6871
4.8440
4.9339
4,7631
4.7827
4.7317
4.7154
4.5854

Cs

0.9482 0.0048
0.9483 0.0139
0.9496 0.0016
0.9503 0.0023
0.9506 -0.0009
0.9508 0.0031
0.9500 0.0077
0.9498 0.0046
0.9508 0.0009
0.9501 -0.0091

4.7297
! AVG Cb
0.1014
std dev std dev

range name = S

1:ile: s.lWKS

file: errs .WKS


Qs/Qc

Cb

111

/-

/-

/-

Qs/Qc

Cs

dt

dy

0.3775 0.0057
0.3253 0.0145
0.2951 0.0016
0.2700 0.0020
0.2488 -0.0007
0.2308 0.0024
0.2554 0.0065
0.2778 0.0042
0.3152 0.0009
0.3501 -0.0101

Qs/Qc

Cs

0.9482 0.0048
0.9483 0.0139
0.9496 0.0016
0.9503 0.0023
0.9506 -0.0009
0.9508 0.0031
0.9500 0.0077
0.9498 0.0046
0.9508 0.0009
0.9501 -0.0091

0.9499 0.0029
AVG Qs/Qc AVG Cs
0.0009 0.0056
std dev std dev

PLATE 11
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
H
THE FOLLOWING GENERAL PROCEDURE SHOULD ALWAK BE USED
FILE:TEST89
PLATE:
11
PLATE TEST |:
1
OVERALL TEST |: 89
FITTING DESCRIPTION: ROUND TAP WITH CUSHION HEAD
(WXH):16X8
BRANCH DIA. (Dl)= 10 inch
CUSHION (L): 4"
DATE: 12/7/89

o
L7-1
-140"
!<

42" >J

-140"

>!<
|Dps5-6|
ps5 ps6

- > ! < - 18.0625 '-

!<

>:

17-1=
5.2760 ft.
1.3-9=
8.7292 ft.
Lt=LltL2= 14.0052 ft.

ps7

!<-28"->!

13.375

td5

->: L
!<-5 diameters--) |
L3-9

Ps9
td2

PROCEDURES: FOR A GIVEN TEST DIAMETER


TEST PERSONNEL: KEN, TOH H.

The Following Ace Automatically Calculated


Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (tf)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

=
=
=
-

1AII9I

1. RECORD THE FOLLOWING DATA AT THE


55.0000 Deg F
49.0000 Deg F
994.0000 mbar
29.3581

Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)


Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

iitoi ic i7eat

AAAA

START OF TEST
55.0000 Deg F
49.0000 Deg F
994.0000 mbar
29.3581

The Following Are Automatically Calculated


pe=0.000296*tuo*2-0.0159*twot.41
=

0.3416 in Hg

pp:pe-pb(tdo-two)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)


=

0.2771 in Hg

rho,o=70.73*(pb-.378pp)/(53.35*(tdot459.7) (ambient density)


0.0754 lbm/ft'3
2. TEST FOR LEAKAGE

LEAKAGE = 4.9000 cfm I


10.0100 inches WC
orifice tube 11086 leakage=3.4858*spd"0.5308

3. MANOMETER CALIBRATION
VALUES
intercept bO
slope bl
Correlation

Meriam 1 Dwyer 1 Meriam 2 Duyer 2 MERI-CAL


0.0165 0.0048 0.0139 0.0008 0.0363
0.9843 0.9936 1.0183 0.9900 1.0010
0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000

4. TURN FAN ON AND MEASURE ALL REQUIRED PARAMETERS FOR THE TEST
TEST SIZE (HXW)
TEST DIAMETER HYD. (DH)
METER TUBE DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIAMETER (Do)

16.0000
10.6667
13.3760
3.5024

X
inches
inches
inches

8.0000

ORIFICE DIAMETER

90

Beta=
METER TUBE DIAMETER
RECTANGULAR
TEST AREA= (HW)/144

0.2618 (calculated)
0.8889 rt"2

BRANCH DIA. (Di)=


branch area
=
(Di/24)'2PI

10.0000 inches
0.5454 ft*2

n Ante

" A AAIO

EHD OF TEST
Dry-bulb Temperature (tdo)
Wet-bulb Temperature (two)
Barometric Pressure (mb)
Barometric Pressure (pb)

55.0000 Deg F
49.0000 Deg F
994.0000 mbar
29.3581

95
5. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTINGS AND LET COMPUTER CALCULATE OTHER VALUES
96
97
POINT Dps5-6
ps5
td5
DPs7-9
tdl=(ti 5Hd2)/2
ps7
td2
98
(in HC) (in HC) Deg P
(in HC) (in HC) Deg F
Deg
99
100
8.5000
7.6800
80
0950
1000
75
101
9.2250 8.3400
80
1100
1050
75
102
1150
10.0400
9.0600
80
75
1100
1250
103
75
10.7800
9.7200
80
1200
1350
76
104
11.4200 10.3500
80
1300
1350
76
105
11.9500 10.7500
80
1300
1300
76
106
11.1400 10.0250
80
1250
1200
76
107
80 0.1200
10.3900
9.3750
1150
76
80 0.1100
108
9.6400 8.7150
1050
76
80 0.1100
109
8.9150
8.0700
110
111 6. CORRECTED VALUES (calculated by computer)
112
02722
02723
113
Meriam 1 Heriam 2
Dwyer 2 Dwyer 1
114
POINT Dps5-6
ps5
td5
DPs7-9
ps7
tdl
115
(in HC) (in HC) Deg F (in HC) (in HC) Deg F
116
117
118
8.3831
7.8344
80 0.0948
1042
9.0967 8.5065
80 0.1047
1141
119
9.8989 9.2397
80 0.1097
1191
120
80 0.1196
1291
10.6273
9.9118
121
80
1390
.1295
11.2572 10.5533
122
80
1390
11.7789 10.9606
.1295
123
80
1340
10.9816 10.2224
.1245
124
80
1241
10.2434
9.5605
.1196
125
80
1191
.1097
126
9.5052 8.8884
80
1092
8.2316
.1097
127
8.7915

<B

130 7. PLOW RATE CALCULATIONS BY THE COMPUTER


131
132
133
H=.7578016Do"2*YK*Pa(rho,5*Dps5-6*rho,w)*.5 (mass flow rate)
134
135
rho,w=62.195.12181B-01tdo-.17493B-03tdo*2t.33429E-06ndo"3 (density of water, lbm/ft*3)
136
137
=
62.3914 lbm/ft'3
138
139
Y=l-(.4H.35*Beta"4)*alphaA (eipansion coefficient)
140
141
alpha=Dps5-6/(ps513.63pb)
142
143
k=Cp/Cv (ratio of specific heats)
144
145
=
1.4100 (air)
146
147
(tdo459.7)(ps5H3.63*pb)
(tdoM59.7)(psltl3.63pb)
148
rho,5=rho,o*
rho,l=rho,o*
149
(td5459.7)(13.6Jpb)
(tdl4S9.7)(13.63pb)
150
151
Pa=(material eipansion factor) =
0.9998
152
153
154
155
K=Ko'(HA/REd) (flow coefficient)
156
157
158
159 Do
Beta
A
Ko
160
161
3.5024 0.2618 726.25 0.5984
162
163
164
REd=1363000Do*(rho,5Dps5-6/(l-Beta*4))".5 (approximate REd)
165
166
Plow rate 1-2 = M/rho,l (volune flow rate 1 to 2), cfn
167
168
AVERAGE VELOCITY, V, = Plow Rate 1-2/AREA, fpm
169
170
VELOCITY PRESSURE, VP, = rho.lMiVERACE VELOCITY/1097)*2, i n c h e s HC
171
172
173
Calculated friction loss of ductwork
174
RECTANGULAR DUCT
ROUND DUCT
175
DPf = fl/DH/12*rho,l*(V/1097)"n
f = 1.330E-2 (from PRIC168)
f= 0.0185 (from LOSS25D)
176
n =
1.8242
n=
1.8116
177
Pl-3 = total loss (Ps7-Ps9) - (DPfDPP) fitting lero length dynamic loss
178
179
Co,3 = loss coefficient from slope of line of Pvl vs PI,3
180
Co,b = loss coefficient from slope of line of Pv3 vs PI,3

181
182 TRIAL 11, CALCULATION OP PITTING LOSS

183
184
185
186
187

188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195

alpha

POINT

8
9
10

0.0205
0.0223
0.0242
0.0259
0.0274
0.0287
0.0268
0.0250
0.0232
0.0215

196
197
198

oo

199
200 OPERATION r ho,l
201
202
203

204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212

PI,3
PITTING
DPf
DPf LOSS
inches HCinches WCinches WC

Rectan. Round
rho,5
REd
lbm/ft'3 estimate K

1
0.9940
0.9935
0.9929
0.9924
0.9920
0.9916
0.9922
0.9927
0.9932
0.9937

0.0733
0.0734
0.0735
0.0736
0.0738
0.0738
0.0737
0.0736
0.0735
0.0733

6.2531E4
6.5161E4
6.8035E4
7.0551E4
7.2669E4
7.4370E4
7.1745E4
6.9235E4
6.6639E4
6.4037E4

H
Ibm/min
0.6054
0.6051
0.6048
0.6046
0.6044
0.6042
0.6045
0.6047
0.6049
0.6052

34.6350
36.0571
37.6084
38.9649.
40.1049
41.0197
39.6076
38.2560
36.8554
35.4498

rho.l
Flov Ratel-3
lbm/ft"3
( fm

479
499
521
540
556
568
549
530
511
491

0.0723
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722

fpm
879
915
955
989

POINT
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

lbm/ft"3
0.0723
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722

479
499
521
540
556
568
549
530
511
491

VI
fpm
539
562
586
607
625
639
617
596
574
553

ul

Rel

lbm/ft-s
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5
1.24E-5

Pvl
In. wg

4.66E4
4.85E4
5.06E4
5.24E4
5.39E4
5.51E4
5.32E4
5.14E4
4.95E4
4.76E4

0.0175
0.0189
0.0206
0.0221
0.0234
0.0245
0.0229
0.0213
0.0198
0.0183

Pl-3
Re
in. wg otri ice
0.0550
0.0616
0.0629
0.0694
0.0764
0.0740
0.0727
0.0712
0.0647
0.0679

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

03E5
12E5
21E5
29E5
35E5
41E5
32E5
24E5
16E5
08E5

539
562
586
607
625
639
617
596
574
553

1019
1042
1006

972
936
900
TRIAL 12

01
cfm

VI
fpm

V3

0.6005
0.6005
0.6004
0.6003
0.6002
0.6002
0.6003
0.6003
0.6004
0.6005

Pv3
in w.g

0.0175
0.0189
0.0206
0.0221
0.0234
0.0245
0.0229
0.0213
0.0198
0.0183

0.0464
0.0503
0.0547
0.0587
0.0622
0.0651
0.0607
0.0566
0.0526
0.0486

0.0016
0.0017
0.0018
0.0019
0.0020
0.0021
0.0020
0.0019
0.0018
0.0016

0.0094
0.0101
0.0109
0.0116
0.0122
0.0127
0.0120
0.0112
0.0105
0.0098

0.0550
0.0616
0.0629
0.0694
0.0764
0.0740
0.0727
0.0712
0.0647
0.0679

K.H.PLOW RATE ,PV3,AND PV1 CALCULATED WITH Re ORIFICE FITTING

M
K

Pvl
in w.g

lbm/min
34.3596
35.7822
37.3337
38.6904
39.8307
40.7457
39.3333
37.9814
36.5806
35.1747

rho.l
Flow Rate 1-3
lbm/Et'3
cfm
0.0723
0,0722
O.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722
0.0722

475
495
517
536
552
564
545
526
507
487

V3

fpm
872
908
948
982
1012
1035

999
965
929
893

VI
fpm
535
557
582
603
621
635
613
592
570
548

LOSS
Rectan. Round

Pvl

Pv3

DPf

DPf

in w.g

n w.g

in w.g

in w.g

0.0172
0.0186
0.0203
0.0218
0.0231
0.0242
0.0225
0.0210
0.0195
0.0180

0.0456
0.0495
0.0539
0.0579
0.0614
0.0642
0.0599
0.0558
0.0518
O.0479

0.O015
0.0017
0.0018
0.0019
0.0020
0.0021
0.0020
0.0018
0.0017
0.0016

0.0092
0.0099
0.0107
0.0115
0.0121
0.0126
0.0118
0.0111
0.0104
0.0096

FITTING
LOSS
in w.g
0.0556
0.0623
0.0635
0.0701
0.0771
0.0747
0.0734
0.0718
0.0653
0.0686

213
214
215
216
217
218
219

8a. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co,s from a plot of Pvl(P201)


8b. REGRESSION ANALYSIS used to determine Co,b from a plot of Pv3(Q201)
VERSUS P1-3(T201)
VERSUS P1-3(T201)
FROM Pl-3 = Co,s*Pvl+INTERCEPT or = Co,S*Pvl
FROM Pl-3 = Co,b*Pv3tlNTERCEPT or = Co,b*Pv3
with I
w/o I
with I
w/o 1
CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATED ABSOLUTE
CALCULATE ACTUAL ABSOLUTE CALCULATEABSO

LUTEE
220 OPERATION
221
222
223

XY

X"2

Y"2

P.l-3

POINT

Pvl

Pl-3

1.0000

0.0172

0.0556

0.0010

0.0003

0.0031

0.0598

0.0556

7.45%

0.0567

1.89% 1.0000

0.0456

0.0556

0.0025

0.0021

0.0031

0.0598

0.0556

7.45%

0.0567

2.0000

0.0186

0.0623

0.0012

0.0003

0.0039

0.0634

0.0623

1.80%

0.0615

1.19% 2.0000

0.0495

0.0623

0.0031

0.0025

0.0039

0.0634

0.0623

1.80%

0.0615

3.0000

0.0203

0.0635

0.0013

0.0004

0.0040

0.0674

0.0635

6.13%

0.0670

5.39% 3.0000

0.0539

0.0635

0.0034

0.0029

0.0040

0.0674

0.0635

6.13%

0.0670

4.0000

0.0218

0.0701

0.0015

0.0005

0.0049

0.0711

0.0701

1.45%

0.0719

2.57% 4.0000

0.0579

0.0701

0.0041

0.0034

0.0049

0.0711

0.0701

1.45%

0.0719

5.0000

0.0231

0.0771

0.0018

0.0005

0.0059

0.0744

0.0771

3.56%

0.0762

1.11% 5.0000

0.0614

0.0771

0.0047

0.0038

0.0059

0.0744

0.0771

3.56%

0.0762

0.0242

0.0747

0.0018

0.0006

0.0056

0.0770

0.0747

3.03%

0.0798

6.76%

6.0000

0.0642

0.0747

0.0048

0.0041

0.0056

0.0770

0.0747

3.03%

0.0798

0.0225

0.0734

0.0017

0.0005

0.0054

0.0729

0.0734

0.65%

0.0744

1.27% 7.0000

0.0599

0.0734

0.0044

0.0036

0.0054

0.0729

0.0734

0.65%

0.0744

0.0210

0.0718

0.0015

0.0004

0.0052

0.0692

0.0718

3.67%

0.0693

3.49% 8.0000

0.0558

0.0718

0.0040

0.0031

0.0052

0.0692

0.0718

3.67%

0.0693

0.0195

0.0653

0.0013

0.0004

0.0043

0.0655

0.0653

0.23%

0.0643

1.53%

9.0000

0.0518

0.0653

0.0034

0.0027

0.0043

0.0655

0.0653

0.23%

0.0643

0.0180

0.0686

0.0012

0.0003

0.0047

0.0619

0.0686

9.81%

0.0595

13.28% 10.0000

0.0479

0.0686

0.0033

0.0023

0.0047

0.0619

0.0686

9.81% 0.0595

with I
2.4594
0.0175

w/o I
3.2989

with 1
0.9259
0.0175

w/o I
1.2420

in. wg

P.l-3 ERROR
in. wg

P,l-3,b ERROR

OPERATION

POINT

Pv3

Pl-3

in. wg

X*Y

X*2

Y*2

P.l-3

P.l-3

in. wg

in. wg

ERROR

P , l - 3 , b ERRO
i n . wg

i.m
224
1.194
225
5.39%
226
2.57*
227

i.m

6.0000
228
6.76%
7.0000
229
1.27%
8.0000
230
3.49%
9.0000
231
1.53%
10.0000
232
3.28%
233
234
SLOPE Co,
235
236 INTERCEPT
3.85%

AVERAGE
ERROR

3.78%

SLOPE, Co
3.85%INTERCEPT

AVERAGE
ERROR

3.78%

A
237
238
239
240
241
242

CORRELATION

B
=

0.8627

L
CORRELATION

M
=

0.8627
i

9 a . ERROR ANALYSIS

\
eDo=
0.02861 o r i f i c error for metering tube
el0.5000*expansion c o e f f i c i e n t error
eR;
I.OOOOKIOH c o e f f i c e i n t error
eta0 0200%material expansion error
eRDO0.5000*density error
eDps5-6=
((0.01"2t(,05/Dsp5-6)'2)".5
ORIFICE pressure measurnent error
eDps7-9 ( ( . 0 0 5 " 2 t ( . 0 0 5 / D p s 7 - B ) " 2 ) " . 5 i f Dps7-8<1, ( ( . 0 5 * 2 ( . 0 5 ' 2 / D p s 7 - 9 ) ) ' 2 ) \ 5 i f Dps7-9 >= 1 Test are pressure measurement error
eAi1 . 3 7 2 6 1 . 1 / W t . l / H , t e s t area error .1 inch t o l e r a n c e each s i d e
tDl.OOOOUest diameter error .1 inch t o l e r a n c e
:
eL
0 . 5 9 5 0 t t e s t length error I inch t o l e r a n c e
ef,rect=
8 . 7 5 0 0 * f r i c t i o n factor error based on t e s t PRICKS
ef,tound=-O.23991E-03*V3t0.70057E-07*V3*2-0.71U5P.-UV3*3*.32389 * for 10 inch fron LOSS25D

243
244
245
246
247
248
245
750
251
252
253
254
255 ERROR ANALYSIS based on o r i f i c e
256 VELOCITY ERROR
eVl=[((eDo)2)"2W2eK"2*erV2eRHO"2eDps5-6"2*eAi"2]*.5U00 ,
257 VELOCITY ERROR
eV3=[((eDo)2)*2eY"2eK*2ePa"2eRHO"2*eDps5-6"2H2eD)"2]*.5nOO , *
eVPl=(2*eVl), *
258 VEL PRESS ERROR
eVP3=(2*eV3), *
259 VEL PRESS ERROR
eDPf = (er.tect"2eAi"2teL"2eRHO"2t(neVl)"2)\5, *
260 tDPf.RECT ERROR
261 eDPf.RND ERROR
eDPf=(ef,round"2l(2eD)*2eI,"2>eRHO'2(neV3) , 2)".5, *
262 Total ERROR
ePl,3=eDps7-9eDPf,RECT*eDP,RND (DYNAMIC LOSS ERROR)
263
264
/
////
265
eV!\
eVl
eDps7-9
ePvt*
ePvl
eV3*
eV3
ePv3*
ePv3
eDps7-9*
266
2.1779* 11.7406
4.3559* 0.0008
2.6190* 22.8264
5.2381* 0.0024
5.7723*
0.0055
267
0.0055
2.16564 12.1644
4.3312* 0.0008
2.6088* 23.6998
5.2176* 0.0026
5.2740*
268
4.3095* 0.0009
2.5998* 24.6417
5.1995* 0.0028
5.0585*
0.0056
2.1547* 12.6238
269
0.0056
4.2937* 0.0009
2.5933* 25.4726
5.1865* 0.0030
4.6812*
2.1469* 13.0312
0.0057
270
4.2825* 0.0010
2.5886* 26.1879
5.1772* 0.0032
4.3615*
2.1413* 13.3833
4.2745* 0.0010
2 . 5 8 5 3 * 26.7553
5,1706* 0.0033
4.3615*
0.0057
271
2.1373* 13.6630
272
4.2872* 0.0010
2.5906* 25.8805
5.1811* 0.0031
4.5150*
0.0056
2.1436* 13.2319
0.0056
273
4.3016* 0.0009
2.5965* 25.0492
5.1930* 0.0029
4.6812*
2.1508* 12.8237
0.0056
274
4.3195* 0.0009
2.6039* 24.1944
5.2078* 0.0027
5.0585*
2.1597* 12.4056
0.0056
275
4.3410* 0.0008
2,6129* 23.3452
5.2257* 0.0025
5.0585*
2.1705* 11.9924

RECT
/eDPf* eDPf.RECTef*. RND
9.7383* 0.0002 16.3303*
9.7292* 0.0002 15.8427*
9.7211* 0.0002 15.3377*
9.7154* 0.0002 14.9090*
9.7112* 0.0002 14.5520*
9.7083* 0.0002 14.2758*
9.7130* 0.0002 14.7042*
9.7183* 0.0002 15.1260*
9.7248* 0.0002 15.5754*
9.7328* 0.0002 16.0392*

ROUND
/eDPf* eDPf.RND
17.1404* 0.0016
16.6713* 0.0017
16.1874* 0.0018
15.7782* 0.0018
15.4388* 0.0019
15.1769* 0.0019

0.0072
0.0074
0.0075
0.0076
0.0078
0.0078

13.02*
11.86*
11.81*
10.89*
10.06*
10.45*

15.5834*
15.9851*
16.4149*
16.8601*

0.0077
0.0076
0.0075
0.0074

10.49*
10.57*
11.42*
10.75*

0.0019
0.0018
0.0017
0.0016

/ePl-3

/ePl-3*

Co,s
277 file: 89COSA.WKS
278
279
Pvl
ACTUAL
//280
ePvl
PI,3
PI,3
281
(in wg) (in wg) (in wg)
282
X
Y
dx
dy
283
0.0172 0.0556 0.0008 0.0072
284
0.0186 0.0623 0.0008 0.0074
285
0.0203 0.0635 0.0009 0.0075
286
0.0218 0.0701 0.0009 0.0076
0.0231 0.0771 0.0010 0.0078
287
288
0.0242 0.0747 0.0010 0.0078
289
0.0225 0.0734 0.0010 0.0077
290
0.0210 0.0718 0.0009 0.0076
291
0.0195 0.0653 0.0009 0.0075
0.0180 0.0686 0.0008 0.0074
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300

file: 89COSC.HKS

Pvl

f i l e : 89COBA.HKS

CALCULATED
PI,3
(in wg)

Pv3

0.0172
0.0186
0.0203
0.0218
0.0231
0.0242
0.0225
0.0210
0.0195
0.0180

0.0567
0.0615
0.0670
0.0719
0.0762
0.0798
0.0744
0.0693
0.0643
0.0595

X
0.0456
0.0495
0.0539
0.0579
0.0614
0.0642
0.0599
0.0558
0.0518
0.0479

Co,b

ACTUAL
/PI,3
ePv3
PI,3
( i n wg)
(in wg) (in wg)
Y
dx
dy
0.0556 0.0024 0.0072
0.0623 0.0026 0.0074
0.0635 0.0028 0.0075
0.0701 0.0030 0.0076
0.0771 0.0032 0.0078
0.0747 0.0033 0.0078
0.0734 0.0031 0.0077
0.0718 0.0029 0.0076
0.0653 0.0027 0.0075
0.0686 0.0025 0.0074
* /

f i l e : 89COBC.HKS

Pv3

CALCULATED
PI,3
(in wg)

0.0456
0.0495
0.0539
0.0579
0.0614
0.0642
0.0599
0.0S58
0.0518
0.0479

0.0567
0.0615
0.0670
0.0719
0.0762
0.0798
0.0744
0.0693
0.0643
0.0595

SCOPE 2 . 3
SAMPLE SPREADSHEET
1

PtISSORE CRJDIEET TEST

F!I,E:CRD13
PUTt:
OVERALL
FITTIJC
riTTlIG
DATE:

D
E
p
(SEE 1C1 FOR FITT1IG CHCOL

TEST |: GEAD13
DESCRIPTOR; 90 DEGREE r/D=1.0 E1BOK (1 D U UPSTREAM, 10 D U DORESTRERH)
SUE: 10"
04/19/19

!<12
13
-140"
-140"
>!<
14
!DpsS-C
15
psS psi
15
!<-!">!
17
II
IS
20
tdS
13.375
21
22
23
!<-5 diaeters-->!
24
!5
25
27
21
29
30
31 FSOCIDOKES: POR I GIVBI TEST DIAMETER
32
33 TEST PERSOEREl: GREG HEIER
34
35
3i
37
31
39 1. RECORD TIE POUOMEO DATA
40
Drf-bulb Teiperature (tdo)
73.0000 Deu F
41
Vet-bulb TeitperaUre (two)
57.0000 Deg F
42
Baroaetrie Pressure (lb)
980.000 ibar
43
laroietric Pressure (pb)
30.1500 U Eg
44
45
45
47 The PolloHing Ire jutonaticalli Calculated
41
49
SO
pe=0.00029J'Uo"2-0.0159'tiiot.41
51
52
=
0.4554 in I]
S3
54
pp=pe-pb(tdo-to)/2731 (partial vapor pressure)
SS
=
0.2888 in Rg
Si
rho,o=70.73'(pb-.37Ipp)/(53.35(tdot4S9.7) (anbieut deositj)
57
51

!<
->!<1'-10">'
!<
psL2

-1222.56(7 '
0spl2-l

->!<-Itl>|
>!
>!<-psl

-Dspl-2

tdl
HI

ps2

Dsp2-Ll

psll
4'-2"

II

2
3
OOIS HI
4
rsii
5
I
7
I
J
riTTHG TEST HIGH-(It)
10
11
111
1.1333 ft
12
l.US? ft
Ltl
13
11.0000 ft
it=itint2
14
IS
II
17
II
1)
20
21
22
23
24

n
2(
27
21
2)
30
31
32
33
34
35
3(
37
31
3!
40
41
42
43
44
45

a
47
41
45
SO
SI
52
53
54
SS
5(
57
51

22.(5(7

11

13

11

1H

II
10
IP
If)
II
/MI2'
mm
mum
DIPRIIT ISILOID DIP COMPRESS PRUT
PUt SPRUCIMTI 1 PtUT TSELOAD 1 DIPRIIT t PHI KITS COMPRESS PRINT 110 11
/KGM
/IH1I2'

/Cl(.Sa"l/PPRU.V5/PTDR"(PG/PPOQR(?)"OBl(ESC]!!Patrick J. Brooks
/M1I2*

/IH1I2'

59
(0
(1
(2
(3
(4

0.0148 I b n / f f l

2. M&IOKETEE CAU8RJTI0I ViLPES

65

(i
(7
(1
(9

Serin 1

bl
bO

81
IS
It
17

It
1)
90
91

0.9904
0.0001
0.9999

1.0304 bl=
0.0095 bO=
0.9991 r-

bl:
b0=
r:

91
99
109
101
102
103
10*
105
lOi
107
101
109

no

HI
112

1.0000
0.0000
1.0000

0.9942
-0.00(7
1.0000

KERI-CAl

bl
bO
r=

1.0010
0.03O
1.0000

3. TOM I 01 AID MEASURE 111 REQOIEED PARAMETERS FOR TIE TEST


TEST DIAMETEB (Di)
METER T01E DIAMETER (Dt)
ORIFICE DIMETER (Do)

10.0000 incbes
13.37(0 inches
(.5449 inches

ORIFICE DIAMETER

12
93
94
95
9(
97

1.0000 bl:
0.0000 b0=
1.0000 r:

Dvjer 2

Kerian 2

bl
bO

(not cilibrat ed)


Dnjer 3
Dvfer 4

Owjer 1

0.9143 bl=
0.0165 bO=
0.9991 r-

i=

70
71

72
73
74
75
78
77
71
7i
10
11
17
11

0.4193 (calculated)
METER TUBE DIAMETER
TEST AREA=|PIDi"!/4/144

0.5451 f t ' !

4. RECORD VALUES FOR 10 SETTIICS AID LET COMPOTER CUCOIATE OTHER VALUES
OUT

ORIFICE
Dpj5-S
ps5
(in g) (in no)

1 2.9100
2 3.(700
3 4.4200
4 5.3100
5 (.0950
( 7.1750
7 1.2800
1 9.3500
9 10.(800
10 11.4(00

2.7350
3.3500
4.0200
4.1(00
5.5(00
(.5350
7.5500
1.5250
9.7100
10.4250

td5
Deg F

14

!(

11
17
87
17
17
17
11
11

DFil-2
(in q)

psl
(in j)

0.1100
0.1400
0.1700
0.2050
0.2300
0.2800
0.3200
0.3(00
0.4100
0.4400

0.2550
0.31S0
0.3750
0.4450
0.5050
0.5950
0.(800
0.7700
0.8750
0.9350

td2 tdl=(td5ttd2)/2
Deg F
Deg F
93
15
85
86
1(
1(
86
l(
86
86

84
86

!(

87
17
87
87
17
17
17

DspU-1
Upstreai
Gradient
(in 9)
0.1100
0.1200
0.1400
0.1100
0.2100
0.2400
0.2100
0.3200
0.3(00
0.3900

Dsp2-Ll
Dounstreai
Gradient
(in H )
0.1000
0.1400
0.1500
0.1)00
0.3200
0.2500
0.2900
0.3300
0.3700
0.4000

in

1
1
C
D
I
5. COMECTED TUIIES (calculated bf coiputer)

US
lit

in

K e r l n 1 Heriaa 2
Dps5-(
ps5
tdS
( i s ?) ( i t <t<j) tt<t 1

POUT

Hi

in

120
121
122
123
124
12S
126
127
121
12)

1 2.)4)7
2 3.(21)
3 4.3(71
4 5.2431
5 (.0158
( 7.0719
7 9.1665
1 9.2197
9 10.5211
10 11.29(6

2.8276
3.4(13
4.1517
4.))((
5.7385
(.7432
7.7190
1.7937
10.0147
10.7514

Dnjer 1 Dwjer 2
DPsl-2
psl
( i n wo) ( U .9)

14
li
81
17
17
87
17
17
17
17

0.1090
0.1311
0.1(85
0.2031
0.2279
0.2774
0.3170
0.3566
0.4062
0.4359

yi
Dwjer 1
DspL2-l
Bpstreai
tdl Gradient
Deg 1 (in *))

0.24(8
0.3065
0.3661
0.4357
0.4)54
0.5141
0.(6)4
0.7511
0.1632
0.9229

14
16
16
17
87
87
87
87
17
17

0.1100
0.1200
0.1400
0.1800
0.2100
0.2400
0.2800
0.3200
0.3(00
0.3900

1
Dnjer 4
Dsp2-U
Downstreai
Gradient
(in 19)

0.1000
0.1(00
0.1500
0.1)00
0.3200
0.2500
0.2)00
0.3300
0.3700
0.4000

no
1)1

132 6. PIOI BITE C1LC0UT10IS I ! TBI COMPOTES


133

in

135
US

H=.7571016'Oo"2TlPa'(rho,5'Ops5-6rbo v)'.5 (nasi flow rate)

117
131
13)
MO
141

rho,w=(2.195t. 12181E-01'tdo-.17493H3tdo"2.3J429E-0('tdo*3 (dens i t j of water, lbi/ft'3)

62.2121 l b / f f 3

M - ( . 4 M . 3 5 ' B e t i " 4 ) a l p n a / l (expansion coefficient)

142
143
144
143

14<
147
148
143
150
151
152
153
154
155

ilphj:ps5-(/(pj5U3.63'pb)
k=Cp/C (ratio of specific heats)

1.4100 (air)
(tdot45).7Hp3lH3.(3'(b)

(tdot459.7)(ps5tl3.63'pb)
rbo,l=rho,o*-

(tdH45J.7)(13.63pb)

(td5M59.7)(13.(3'pb)
:

Fa (iaterial eipansion factor) =

0.9991

156
I=(o<{lil/Ed) {flow coefficient)
157
151
159
1(0
leta
1
(o
161 Do
1(2
6.54(9 0.4893 1250.96 0.6201
1(3
1(1
1(5
Hd--13(3000<to(rho,5Ops5-(/(l-leta'4)) '.5 (approiitate REd)
1((
1(7
Flow rate 1-2 = K/rbo,l (TOIUIO flow rate 1 to 2) cfi
1((
10
170
171
11!

IVEBIGI VELOCITT, ?,

= How late 1 - 2 / M i , fp>

VEIOCITT PRESSOBE, VP, = rho,l(VEBGE VELOCIT!/1097)"2, inches

POUT

ilpba
0.0071
O.OOtl
0.0105
0.0126

o.om

10

0.0164
0.0155
0.0220
0.0250
0.02(1

OPESATIOI rho.l
POUT bi/tn
1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
(.0000
5.0000
(.0000
7.0000
1.0000
(.0000
10.0000

0.0734
0.0731
0.0731
0.0730
0.O73O
0.0730
0.0730
0.0731
0.0731
0.0731

lEd
bo,5
bi/ft'3 e s t i u t e 1

1
0.9978
0.99)3
0.99(8
0.99(2
0.9958
0.9948
0.9941
0.9933
0.9924
0.9918

Cil
1005
1120
1229
1348
1444
15(7
1(83
1789
1912
1991

0.(203
0.(203
0.(202
0.(202
0.(202
0.(202
0.(202
0.(202
0.(202
0.(20!

VI
fpi

ul

lei

lbi/ft-s

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
(.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.2253
0.2723
0.3126
0.3527
0.3827
0.4181
0.4492
0.4757
0.5046
0.5200

-0.9588
-0.9208
-0.8539
-0.7447
-0.(778
-0.(198
-0.5528
-0.4949
-0.4437
-0.4089

-0.21(0
-0.2507
-0.2165
-0.2627
-0.2594
-0.2591
-0.2484
-0.2354
-0.2239
-0.2126

I'J
0.0508
0.0741
0.0977
0.1244
0.14(4
0.17(8
0.2018
0.22(3
0.2546
0.2704

73.7433
81.8812
89.8486
91.3939
105.4281
114.4122
122.9437
130.(8)5
139.7286
144.7901

Pvl
in. g

9.01((
J.91E6
1.09E7
1.20E7
1.78E7
1.39E7
1.49E7
1.59E7
1.7017
1.7(17

0.2071
0.25(2
0.3084
0.3705
0.4253
0.5008
0.5781
0.(531
0.74(4
0.8012

7. REGRESSIOI 1IUTSIS used to detersine f froi i plot of Dpsl-2 i s "n


using DpsH-l = f*{L/{D/l2)>*rho.1*(/1097)*a

OPEJAT10I
I
I
I!
POUT LOC(Vl/10LOG(0psL2-l)

bi/iin

4.2741E6
4.7481M
5.2133E6
5.712IE8
6.124816
6.S519E6
7.1537E6
7.6101E6
8.1443E8
8.4433E6

1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.25E-5
1.2SE-5
1.2(1-5
1.2(1-5
1.26E-5
1.26E-5
1.2(1-5
1.2(E-S

0.0734
0.0736
0.0737
0.0737
0.0739
0.0740
0.0742
0.0744
0.0746
0.0748

1843
2054
2253
2471
2(48
2873
3088
3280
3506
3632

1*2
0.9189
0.8479
0.7291
0.5541
0.4594
0.3841
0.3056
0.24(9
0.1919
0.1(72

9. REGRESSIOI AHAHSIS used to detenine t froi a plot of Dpsl-2 vs V'a


using Dpsl-2 = l*((0/12)/L)*tho,1*{V/1097)*n

(OPSmiH CEAD1EIT)
CilCOllT! ACTOAL ABSOLUTE
Dspl2-1 DspL2-l EKE01
in. g io. vg
0.1017
0.1254
0.1505
0.1803
0.20(5
0.2(25
0.2794
0.3150
0.3592
0.3852

0.1100
0.1200
0.1400
0.1800
0.2100
0.2400
0.2800
0.3200
0.3(00
0.3900

1 .57*
.481
.501
( .151
.67%
.054
.238
.51%
( .211
.238

OPERATIOI
I
I
POUT ,OG(Vl/10LOC(Psl,2

in

1*2

I"2

0.2253
0.2723
0.3128
0.3527
0.3(27
0.4181
0.4492
0.(757
0.5046
0.5200

-0.225
-0.231
-0.257
-0.254
-0.189
-0.251
-0.241
-0.229
-0.217
-0.208

0.0508
0.0741
0.0977
0.1244
0.14(4
0.1748
0.2018
0.22(3
0.2546
0.2104

1.0000
0.7291
0.(788
0.5202
0.2449
0.3(25
0.2890
0,2318
0.18(4
0.1584

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
8.0000
7.0000
9.0000
9.0000
10.0000

-1.0000
-0.8539
-0.8239
-0.7212
-0.4949
-0.6021
-0.5378
-0.4815
-0.4318
-0.3979

(DOKISTHEIH CP.ADIEIT)
CALCULATE tCTOAl
Dsp2-U Dsp2-Ll
in. vg in. vg
0.1101
0.1358
0.1627
0.1947
0.2229
0.2616
0.3012
0.3394
0.38(9
0.4148

0.1000
0.1400
0.1500
0.1900
0.3200
0.2500
0.2900
0.3300
0.3700
0.4000

tc

IE

tr

10

IB

ii

11. Calculated friction loss of ductnori MID rlttllG LOSS


DPI = f'Lt/0trho,l'(V/10)'o

f = 1.850E-2 (fioi LOSS25D)


n =
l.Sllt

PITT1I0 LOSS = total loss (Psl-PsI) - DPf


Co = loss coeficient froi slope of line of Pil is PltTIIG LOSS

POUT

DPf
(io l)

FITTIKG
LOSS
in. wj

0.045)
0.0556
0.01S8
0.0716
0.0880
0.1020
0.11(2
0.1297
0.14(4
0.15(1

0.0(32
0.0832
0.1021
0.1255
0.1399
0.1)51
0.200)
0.22(9
0.25)7
0.27)7

12. SEGRESSIDM 1IUIS1S used to deteriine Co froi a plot of Pvl


VERSOS riTTIIC LOSS
FBOK FITIIIC LOSS = Co'PvltUTEIICEPT

OPERITIOI
POUT

I
Pl

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
(.0000
7.0000
8.0000
9.0000
10.0000

0.2071
0.2S(2
0.3084
0.3705
0.4253
0.5001
0.57)1
0.(531
0.74(4
0.8012

I
I'!
F1TTIIC LOSS
0.0(32
0.0812
0.1027
0.1255
0.13)9
0.1754
0.2009
0.2269
0.25)7
0.27)7

0.0131
0.0213
0.0317
0.04(5
0.0595
0.0878
0.11(1
0.1482
0.1)3)
0.22(1

I'l

0.0429
0.0656
0.0)51
0.1373
0.1809
0.2508
0.3342
0.42(5
0.5571
0.(41)

1*2

0.0040
0.00(9
0.0105
0.0157
0.0196
0.0308
0.0403
0.0515
0.0(75
0.0182

CiLCOLATE ACtOlL ABSOLUTE


Ps.1-2 P s , l - 2 EER08
in. vg i o . *g
0.0(49
0.0821
0.1017
0.1243
0.1441
0.1715
0.1991
0.22(8
0.2(07
0.2801

0.0(32
0.0832
0.1027
0.1255
0.139)
0.1754
0.200)
0.22O
0.25)7
0.27)7

2.77%
0.48%
0.95%
0.99%
3.02%
2.21%
0.(2%
0.03%
0.37%
0.31%

228
=
ni SLOPE

230 IITERCEPT'
231 CORRELATIOI -

212
233
234
2)5
236
23!
231
23)
240
241
242
243
244
243
24C
247
248
243
230
231
232
253
234
25S
25(
25)
251
25)
2(0
2(1
2(2
2(3
2(4
2(3
2((
2CT
2(1
2(3
270
271
272
273
274
275
27(
277
270
273
210
211
282
28)
284

frho,l

1.9(89
-1.4380
0.39(1

AVERAGE
ERROR

XII rho.l

0.0013

HII r h o . l
lk/(t'3
0.0734
Ml! f
0.01(4

lbn/ft'3
average rho.l =

0.0731 l b i i / f t ' 3

average f

0.0183

0.0130
HII f
0.0183

1. DIFFEREICE 11 FRICTIOM BASED OK STAIDARD DEMS1TT (0.075 LBN/FT)


10.0000 inches
2 2 . ( ( ( 7 ft
11=12=
D =
(OPSTRIAH GR8DIRIT)
C1LCULSTED
VELOCITT CALCOLAUD
PRICI10I LOSS
FI1CTIOI LOSS
PEON HOVE
OR1C11AL'
DspL2-l
DspL2-l
( I D vg)
(in i f )
(fp<)
1000.00
1500.00
2000.00
2500.00
3000.00
3500.00
4000.00
(500.00

0.0312
0.0(93
0.1221
0.1195
0.2713
0.3(75
0.4110
0.(027

'(SEE FILE GilDFRIC)

0.0319
0.0(91
0.1211
0.1(73
0.2663
0.3517
0.4(42
0.5(28

2.57*

SLOPE
=
IITERCEPT =
CORRELATIOI =

1.9(12
-1.401)
0.9(04

f'rho.l

0.0015

average rho.l =
average E

v
AVERAGE
ERROR

HII rho.l
lk/ft'3
0.0731 lbn/ft"3 0.0730
HII f
0.0199
0.0199

HAI rho.l
Ihi/in
0.0734
HAI t
0.0200

10. DIFFEIEICE II FRICTIOM BASED 01 STAIDARD DEISITI (0.075 LBH/FT)


(DOHISIREAH GRADIEIT)

ORKSIIAt - H I S TfST
t DIFFEREICE

mocirr autumn

FRICTIOI LOSS
FROH ABOVE
Dsp2-ll

(ABS)

2.23*
0.14*
0.3(1

l.m

1.87%
2.4(1
2.97*
3.43*
AVERAGE
1.90*
DIFPEREICI1

(ip)

(In vg)

1000.00
1500.00
2000.00
2500.00
3000.00
3500,00
4000.00
4500.00

0.0339
0.0151
0.1121
0.2046
0.2925
0.395)
0.5143
0.(479

cucoum

FRICTIOI LOSS
ORIGIIAL1
Dsp2-ll
(in wfl)
0.0334
0.0122
0.1241
0.1909
0.2102
0.3(24
0.4(13
0.5848

otiGim - THIS risr


* DIFFEREICE
(ABS)

1.71*
4.09*
5.80*
7.15*
1.27*
9.22*
10.05*
10.79*

AVERAGE 7.14*
DIFFEREICE

iC
ID
SLOPE
"=
IITERCEFT =
CORIELATIOI =

AE
0.3630
-0.0102

ir

JO

IB

0.3(10

II

AJ
AVERAGE
EBEOB

IK
1.171

O.WJ

13. DIFFEREICE II PRESSURE LOSS CALCULATED AT STUDIED COKDItlOKS (0.075 LBH/FT'3)


OS 110 TEE VA10E OF Co CALCULATED FOR TEE 75 DIMETER DOMSTRBAH TEST
ORIOIIAL LOSS =

0.3707

VP t

VELOCITI VELOC1TI C1LC0L1TEI P1TTIIG


PRESSOR! LOSS BUSED OR THIS
(SID) TEST

0.0153
CALCULATED P1TT1IG
LOSS RASED 01
OR1G1IAL TEST (25D)

OR1G1IAL - THIS TEST


t D1PFEREICE
(8S)

dp)
1000.00
1500.00
2000.00
7500.00
3000.00
3500.00
4000.00
4500.00

(in vg) (in >g)


0.0(23
0.1403
0.2494
0.3897
0.5(11
0.7(37
O.H75
1.2(25

0.0124
0.0(07
0.0803
0.1312
0.1934
0.2(70
0.3511
0.4480

( U })
0.0314
0.0(73
0.1071
0.1537
0.2233
0.2)84
0.3(51
0.4133

il.M

38.531
25.411
17.8(t
13.37*
10.53%
1.(31
?.30\
AVERAGE
23.80%
DIFFERENCE

APPENDIX D
Test Equipment

FIGURE D.1
280"

140"
42"

140"

28"

"A" =70"

60"
SEE DETAIL " B "

30"
=^s-

^m

nn nn
II

II

II

II

14"

STD. WT. A 1 0 6 - B SMLS

V V
I

14"

"-vL

O.D.

A k

II II
II II
Liu uu

SEE DETAIL "A"^

THIS SECTION HONED TO SCH.20


" MAX. OUT OF ROUNDNESS-.020" "

<t>

<>
3/8"

(3) 1/4" PLUG WELDS


TOP Sc BOTTOM

FNPT

MAX. VANE
THICKNESS-.098"

156"

NOTES:
1. ORIGINAL PIPE TO BE SCHEDULE 30.
2. CROSS-SECTIONS (?) TO BE TAPERED FROM
SCHEDULE 20 TO SCHEDULE 30 INCLUDED
ANGLE OF 30* OR LESS. DIMENSION "A" MAY BE
INCREASED TO 73.5" TO DO THIS IF NECESSARY.
3. MAXIMUM OUT OF ROUNDNESS TO BE MEASURED
AFTER ALL PRESSURE CONNECTIONS AND WELDS
ARE COMPLETE.
4. DOW CENTERING PINS ARE TO BE INCLUDED ON
THE ORIFICE FLANGES SUCH THAT A MERIAM
MODEL 9 5 1 R A 1 - 1 4 ORIFICE WITH A 15 5 / 1 6
OUTER DIAMETER IS CENTERED TO WITHIN
1 / 3 2 INCH OF THE AXIS OF THE PIPE.
5. METERING STATION SHOULD BE SHIPPED ON A
2x4 PALLET AND TOTALLY ENCLOSED. IT MAY BE
SHIPPED IN 2 PIECES IF NECESSARY. SHIP VIA
BROWN TRANSPORTS.
NOTES ARE PER PAT BROOKS UNITED McGILL.

.0625^|^_

OIL & GAS SPECIALTIES CO.


P.O. BOX 56306

DETAIL "A"

DETAIL "BT
NOTE: F0UR(4) TAP HOLES
REQ'D. PER FLANGE
LOCATED 90" APART.

APPROVED BTf:
SCALE: NONE
DATE: 7 - 1 2 - 8 8

14"

HOUSTON, TEXAS 77056


DRAWN BY

RQN

REVISED

150# O.F.U. METER TUBE


DRAWING NUMBER

UNITED McGILL

3]McGill
JOB NAME.

JOB NO_

origmated by

data

checked by

date

SHEET.

T-OQE.
-A/Sfo^E

Assure

calculation sheet

SUBJECT _

O&PCE

Plane

Corporation

/h&re&wG-

>/#.

srxr/oA/

/?}/?S(j&

*fA/T

T.k+

I VIA

P'K-J
S

PMeo-P

Cu+/ei-

P>.wI
1

3
4

6
* /nettiurenKsvt

/Wade

<cf/VA

^o-f-ki^

i*lr'd<

Last- ia.(;b>tH.-h'o^ i /Hi'Me


.>K<\ Hi ill *'+***

7-'8-&&

3 /

3
.

?
10

i" Sleeve y*<s$;r\y ??<*** >Mik* s e / "


so used i" (xn/e 3/och
f-o s1~

T)IOL

(i".e.U)

'3.37.5
/3,3?5
/3,37-S
13.374
13. 3~?A>~b. 370
/3. 3 7 5 "
13.3-73
/3. 3 7 5
13-3-75

_?L*{7._?*tl_._'0-/cm-8&
D|2

?/'3/8&

OF_

FIGURE D - 2

ORIFICE METERING STATION

140"

14D"

28'

U"

H " O.D.

'
V

SEE VANE DETAIL

14 OA PLATE MINIMUM ON VANES


t. DO HOI OEHT PIPE AS IT IS TO BE USED FOR A PRECISION
AIR METERING STATION.
2. PIECES MUST BE CLEANEO OF RUST.

3/B" MINIMUM ROD

3. TIGHTEN SPECIAL MERIAM ORIFICE FLANGE ON PIPE WITH BOLT


PROVIDED. TLANGE MAY EXTEND PAST PIPE END FOR WELOING
PURPOSE. BUT NOT MORE THAN 1/6 INCH.

VANE DETAIL

4. FULLY WELD INSIDE ANO OUTSIDE OF FLANGE. REMOVE BOLT.


WELD SLIT IN RING.
5. GRIND WELD ON INSIDE SO IT IS NOT INTERFERING WITH THE
MATING OF FLANGES OR DUCT WALL.
6. rULLY WELD TW0(2) 150 LB. STEAM FIANCES, ONE TO EACH
Or TW0(2) 14 INCH TUBING. WELDS SHOULD BE AIR TIGHT.
MERIAM ORinCE FLANGE
7. STATIC PRESSURE TAPS ARE TO BE FREE FROM BURRS.

1/6" I.D.

1/4" 0.0.

1"

1 / 6 " I.D.

} 1/4" O.D.

r-HIGH GRADE WELD


TYP.

J
)X-

uu

///////A-^///////i^

1/18" I.D.

-REMOVEABLE
ORIFICE

DETAIL A"
NOTE: F0URC4) TAP HOLES
REQU PER SIOE LOCATED
9 0 APART.

8. SPRAY PAINT BOTH PIECES ENTIRELY WITH DEVCON PAINT ON


INSIDE ANO OUTSIDE. AVOID PAINT RUNS. CLEAN PIECES OT
ALL BURRS. WELD SPLATTER. ETC BEFORE PAINTING. PRIME IF
REQUIRED BY DEVCON PAINTING INSTRUCTIONS. AVOID PAINTING
PRESSURE TAPS.
9. FABRICATE AND INSTALL IN ONE OF THE ABOVE TUBING. AT
THE END WHICH HAS THE FLANGE, ONE(l) SET OF STRAIGHTENING VANES.
10. STPAIGHTOJING VANES ARE TO BE FULLY WELDED ALONG
CENTRAL ROD.
11. VANES SHOULD FIT SNUGLY (WITHIN 1 / 6 4 INCH) AGAINST
INNER WALL ANO SHOULD BE TACK WELDED INTO PLCE ON
THE END OF THE VANE AT THE FLANGE.

F I L E N O . 951:213-6

/Meriam Instrument

r
MODEL 951
MODEL 951U

a Scott Ritzer company


10920 MADISON AVENUE CLEVELAND. OHIO 44102
(216)281-1100
TELEX 980-188

ORIFICE PLATES
Concentric-Segmental-Eccentric
Universal Orifice Plates

SIGNIFICANCE
The most common primary flow element is the
concentric orifice plate, often called the "sharpedged" orifice plate. Its main advantages are: low
cost, accuracy, ease of installation, variety of
construction material, and quick delivery. Much
test data has been compiled about orifice plates
and, with the necessary information, exacting
design can be made providing for excellent
metering accuracy.

Meriam has furnished many orifice plates for


nuclear and fossil fired power plants, chemical
plants, refineries, steel mills and to original
equipment manufacturers for incorporation in
their equipment and systems.
Meriam can also provide readout instruments and
accessories for complete flow metering installation.

CONSTRUCTION
Engineered for each application, Meriam orifice
plates are precision bored to exact dimensions
with a sharp upstream edge to assure accuracy.
Orifice information is stamped on the unique
handle. This handle is designed to facilitate
storage of the plate without damage to the orifice
bore.
Standard Meriam orifice plates are 304
Stainless Steel. Monel, brass, P.V.C.,316S.S.and
other materials are available.
Meriam orifice plate dimensions meet I.S.A.
specifications.
Meriam will provide blank orifice plates for your
own boring, too.
Whether you size the bore or you want us to,
consult Meriam for your next requirement.

DESIGN CRITERIA & TOLERANCES


Standards and specifications for orifice plates are
listed by the ISA, AGA and ASME. All of these do
not agree in all ways. Please specify which
specifications you require so we will provide your
orifice plates the way you want them.
EDGES:

Square and sharp, will not reflect a


beam of Jight when viewed without
magnification.
FINISH:
15-32 micro-inch roughness.
FLATNESS: Flatness within 0.010 inches, per
inch of dam height.
BORE:
Orifice bore tolerance in strict accordance with A.G.A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3,
A.S.M.E. Fluid Meters Committee
Report, and with other societies'
recommendations.

D.4

-1'!)

NUMBER OP BOXES/CARTONS
IN T
SHIPMENT

/Herlam Instrument
[

/M

lit r"*1-*'*-!!!***
*l)<liWH09Utai>

a Scoflfttor cortipany^J

Fragile

' f O ^ Mddlioh Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44102 (216) 281-1100 Telex RCA 212526
D-U-N-S 00-494-9301

UNPACKWTTHCAM

TtMnt pwi tor b*y*nf H * T U M prvAietr Wt m*^*tm, f*^ ***


rtfr4 ht good tamdMkwt.
pectin* Hat wt tflctwM **4 n#

f080 - dDD

8r
0
L
D

&nK:

UNITED MC0ILL CORP


UNITED SHEET METAL
200 6 BRAODWAY
WESTERVtLLE

WPIB-O401A-P.&RD0K5
p
UNITED MCGltL CORP
UNITED SHEET METAL
200 I RRAODWAY
WISTERVULE
DM A 3 0 6 l i

t. A *
I. Clftm t Ur*4 Pr*l * n * ) W K M bf a.

I. DatHt9r(fMtyt*M*rtM**rv*f*4MoM4t*r.

lillfmsSH^^^*0^

1 mfm&mm

OTIIIAWM VtOfVD fctLOW,

*:r*W--ttO, HP8B-0401A
M^HVtnM:
nBBBUa@&EISu^^
C. LENT
SHIP PLATES

UPS - PPD/ ADD

ASAP

LW/MW
D

1 iinAi-iA

ORIFICE

EA

PLATE

QA-6
DWG NO A322"3
A- 15-5/16 E-l/8

i/H 623000-Bl

H f f v - r
"

<

' i

991IUWV
OA-fc

E-N0NF

STAMPl 500 SCFH


BORE D 3.3024
LINE SIZEt U
SERIES! 100
MATIRIALl 304SS

ORIFICE

PLATE

EA

CONTINUED"
JLL

ir

fcmtfii

^ ^ 1 / H ^ ^.K c
PACKING LIST

rv\

M L / M B C M ut- bUXfcb/UAHTONS

n*r

IN T'"s SHIPMENT

ytieriqm Instrument
F

/WHom fntfr

aScoIHrccKnpany__J

Fragile

,,10920 Madison Avenue Cleveland, Oliio 44102 (216) 281-1100 Telex RCA 212526

UNPACK WITH CAM

T>nh paw for bvr*"f **" pr+4veit W pprAcWU pw to*>


hrv p*et*4 thlt aMp***** with ** I *fc*e*r1ttt y rw*H
rd*r4I* oootf eM*tlft.

D-U-N-S 00-494-930)

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s+etlnf Hfi #fIneHxM ^l nl d f W f <.

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WESTERVILLE
43061i

62S000

bm#>mmm:

JSffjMtniAM PART NUMBER

fflE
0/00/00
!:r-'vji

DWG NO AJ2299
A-15-S/U E-l/8 E-NONE
S/Nl 623000-B2
STAMPJ
1800 SCPM
BORE

LINE

SUEt

SERIES!

II 4m*Q* hat BCenwM:

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Hir&{NT

6/15/88

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3. Ct*n t UnMM P*i ton-to Ntol to Bto*"toM
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owPTFidiPp] oiiH')iu)lN'j
A/29/88

WP8B-O*0tA~P8*DDKS
r- UNITED MC6ILL CORP
H1
UNITED SHBST METAL
I
200 I B R A D O W A T

MARK
FOR

UNITED MCGILL COR?


U N H I D SHEET METAL
200 C BRAODWAY
WESTEAVIllB

repair w tot>tocfi|.

OH 43D6li

lHv^nt^^nwtUfLmniWiUwif UMLtrwwovwwtutirni
UPS

onbEfiEb

P P D / ADD

BAfcK ORDERED

'.SHlPPMD

6.5449
14

100

MATERIALl 304 $S

ijinAt-H

ORIFICE PLATE

EA

QA-6
DWG NO A32293
A-15-5/16 f*l/8
$/Nt 623000-B3
5TAMP! 4300 SCPM
BORE D 7*6027

E-NONE

CONTINUED****

/{)

P A C K I N G LIST

FIGURE D.3a Upstream of Fitting Piezometer Station.

NO. PCS.

6"
10"
14"

14"
22"
30"

1
1
1

/ .BLACK

IRON
ANGLE RING
FULLY WELDED

LONG SEAM DUCT


PIPE SIZE
- F U L L Y WELDED LONGITUDINAL SEAM
- 2 2 GAUGE GALVANIZED

FIGURE D.3b Downstream of Fitting Piezometer Station.

BLACK IRON
ANGLE RING
FULLY WELDED

NO. PCS.

6"
10"
14"

12"
20"
28"

1
3
1

BLACK IRON
ANGLE RING
FULLY WELDED
LONG SEAM DUCT
- P I P E SIZE
- F U L L Y WELDED LONGITUDINAL SEAM
- 2 2 GAUGE GALVANIZED

D.7

FIGURE D.4 Piezometer Ring Pressure Taps.

0.625" DIA.

ir
0.250"

L
45

0.063" DIA.

JO. 125"

rS

1.000"

0.250" DIA.

0.125

D.8

DIA.

Figure D.5
Manifolding for Piezometer Rings
(SPC 120, Figure 3 of Draft 8b olLaburatory Methods of
Determining Flow Resistance of Air Duct and Fittings, 8 May 1990)

FLEXIBLE TUBING
(2 EQUAL LENGTH SECTIONS)

TO PRESSURE
INDICATOR

FLEXIBLE TUBING
(4 EQUAL LENGTH
SECTIONS)

MEASURING DUCT
WALL TAPS

D-9

lfl f c K)lf^lllll^MfWiM^I^MHHim

INSTRUMENTS

Air-Duct Type
ADJUST-ANGLE TYPE
Adjust-angle type permits easy adjustment for best viewing position right on
the job.

M&M&

EASY READABILITY
Lens front red reading mercury filled
thermometer tube is mounted on
V-shaped aluminum scale with bold black
lines and numerals.
ACCURATE
Calibrated against standards traceable
to the National Bureau of Standards and
guaranteed accurate to one scale
division.
CONSTRUCTION
Bronzed finish molded Cycolac plastic case
with glass front to exclude dirt and dust is
standard for ranges up to 400F (200C).
Bronze enameled die cast aluminum case
is standard for ranges 550F (285C) or over
and is available for all ranges on special
order. Non-breakable plastic front is
optional at additional charge. ._.._._. ,
SLOTTED SUPER-SENSITIVE
BARE BULB
Standard with protective slotted bulb
guard, J / i " diameter brass stem and 3 "
diameter union flange(Cat. no. A11-3). A
2 " lagging extension flange or % " NPT
threaded bushing is available, if desired,
as an option.

CATALOG NUMBERS
FORM

SCALE
SIZE

STEM LENGTHS

7"

AA6L-7

Adjust
Anole

AA6

FORM
Adjust
Anole

6-

STEM LENGTHS

SCALE
SIZE

6"

9"

AA6L-9

9"
AA6N-9

12"
AA6Q-9

STANDARD TEMPERATURE RANGES


NOTE:

FAHRENHEIT

!
!

- 4 0 t o 110*F

010

120F

ranges available only in scale sizes where smallest scale division

Specific
SCALE
SIZE

CELSIUS

7"

9"

- 4 0 10 40C

-15 to

50C

| '/,*

-15to

70C

, i J- I

O i o 160"F

21

2 0 t o 180"F

2'

30 t o

7'

2"

240F

' SCALE
! SIZE

7"

is shown.

D U A L SCALE ( B O T H *>F and *CI

| 9 " Only

1 9 " Only

'

1"

!
O t o 115C

- 4 0 t o 110"F and - 4 0 t o

43C

i 771*

0 t o 120F a n d - 1 7 t o

49C

O t o 160F a n d - 1 7 10 71C
20 t o 180F and - 6 t o

1"

30 t o 240F and

WHEN ORDERING: Specify (1) Thermometer Catalog No. Irom table above (2) Range(s) required.

Cat 125. PE 6

D.10

i SCALE
! SIZE

82C

0to114C

r/K'

j 2/1c
!

2 IT

2/1

DU

-VERTICAL MANOMETERS
SERIES 4 - 2 4 A C C U R A C Y T O % OF 1%

Dwyer No. 424 inclined-vertical manometers are extremely accurate instruments designed and made especially for
precision measurement of low differential pressures in laboratory and test applications. T h e inclined range bore has
a length of 20" to provide ample multiplication of indicating fluid movement
in this critical lower part of t h e range.

Features of the Model 424


.

1 V i " THICK ACRYLIC PLASTIC BODY


is a solid block, virtually unbreakable,
stable and absolutely free of the danger of distortion.

3 / 1 6 " BORES, ACCURATE TO - . 0 0 0 2 "


are permanently free of bends or
crooks, will not require recalibrafion
because of distortion.

GROUND GLASS BUBBLE LEVEL sensitive to 115-125 s e c / 2 mm. is "Wi"


long x .375" diameter and provided
with two red lines for easy visibility
and alignment.
PARALLAX-FREE READING for maximum accuracy and c o n s i s t e n c y is
achieved by simply aligning the meniscus with its image reflected in the polished aluminum scale.

Fig. 8 - 1 . No. 424-10 Inclined-Vertical Manometer, 0-10" water range. The inset shows a
segment of the inclined scale in actual size. No.
424-5, 0-5" water range is similar.
SERIES 420 INCLINED-VERTICAL MANOMETERS ACCURATE TO : 1 %
J5!g

SELECTED GAGE OIL with high wetability characteristics forms a consistent, well shaped meniscus for perfect
readability.
O-RING SEALED FLUID LEVEL PLUNGER ADJUSTMENT for easy zeroing.

Fig. 8-2. Typical of Series 4 2 0 Inclined-Vertical Manometers is this


No. 422-5 double column manometer with a total range of 0 t o 5 " of
water. Single column models are
also furnished. Design features are
essentially the same as for the Series 424. They are accurate t o
1 % and are particularly suited for
use with pitot tubes and in flow
measurement or similar applications.

RANGES A N D DIMENSIONS
Suitable for total pressure up to 100 psig, temperatures u p to 150F.
.257 Dia. Mtg. Hole

3
1" x V.\

a'

Mtg. r E
Slots
Fig. 8-3

Inclined
Length Vertical
Vertical Length
Range
Inof InRange
Minor
of
Inches clined clined
Dimensions
Inches
Div.
VertiMinor Scale
of
cal
of
E
A
B
C
D
Div.
Water
Scale
Water
10%"
254"
12%"
1"
10%'
424-5
.01
0-2.0
20*
2.1- 5
3 It"
.10
16%" 25'4" 12%" 1" 10%"
424-10 ' 0 - 2 . 0
.01
.10
9"
20'
2.1-10
9%"
4&"
6%"
9J4"
4 2 1 - 5 ^ 0-1.0
.01
4%"
6%" 1.1- 5
.10
5
9%"
4%" %" 6%"
.01
6%" 1.1-10
.10
10%' 15%"
8 421-10, - 0-1.0
6%"
9%" 4%"
421-23
.02
6%" 2.4-23.0
.20
0-2.2
10>/i* 15%*
6%" 1.1- 5
5%"
6%"
422-5
.01
4%" 10%' 11%"
0-1.0
.10
6%" 1.1-10
5%" %" 6%"
422-10 0-1.0
.01
.10
1 0 W 16%* 11%*
6%" 2.4-23.0
5%" %" 6%"
.20
.02
1CH4" 16%" 11%"
i 8 422-23 -'0-2.2
8%"
424-250MM 0-50MM .2MM 19%" 52-250MM 2.0MM
16%" 2 5 ^ " 12%" i" 10%"
'Single column metric-ranges and divisions in millimeters.

Weight
Ibs.ozs.

Model
No.

STANDARD ACCESSORIES furnished are two ^ - o z . bottles


lan extra refill) of .826 sp. gr. red gage fluid. (1.910 sp. gr.
Blue gage fluid for Models 421-23 and 422-23). one set of
Type "a" connections described on page T including two

b%"
5%"
314"
3>X"
3U"

10"
16"
9%"
15%"
15%"
10%"
3VA"
314" 16%"
3U* 16%"
5%"
16"

molded nylon tubing connectors, rapid shutoff type, two 3 ft.


length flexible Tygon plastic tubing, and two Vi." pipe thread
adapters Itwo sets for double models) unless other optional
connections also described on page 7 are specified

D.ll

14- 8
22-12
4-12
6-10
6-10
6-10
10-13
10-12
22-12

PORTABLE DIGITAL MANOMETER/


CALIBRATOR

m
mm
v

mrjwwiHJHi

mimuwu i w i M . .u.^j.

K0BC3

q n i

"iSf! Models Include Differential or


'mM Vacuum Measurement
The Meri-Cal8, is a portable digital manometer/calibrator
for pressure and differential pressure measurement,
featuring high accuracy and rugged design. It brings
to the field, laboratory test/calibration capability.
Meri-Cal's dual simultaneous display indicates pressure (or differential pressure) and electronic transducer/
transmitter output in any of 8 key selectable engineering
units.
Meriam manometers still represent the most cost
effective method of precise measurement and MeriCal is a most useful and affordable extension of this
capability.

* Certified *
Traceable
To
NBS

ACCURACY:
0 . 1 % of reading, ; 1 count (includes combined
effects of linearity, hysteresis, repeatability and temperature over calibrated range.) Optional * 0.05%.
Certified traceable to NBS.

Model

Range

Pressure Limits"

LP200I 0/200" H 2 0 (500 mbar) 15 PSIG (1 bar)


LP2000I 0/2000" HjO (5.0 bar) 150 PSIG (10 bar)
Voltage: 0/30 Vdc
0 . 1 % reading,
Current: 0/30 mAdc
2 counts
Specify Model DP200I or DP2000I for differential pressure or vacuum applications.
PERFORMANCE":
Meri-Cal's Piezoresistive sensor and digital electronics
design are computer calibrated and traceable to the
National Bureau of Standards. Accuracy is maintained
over the entire operating temperature range of - 20C
to +40C.
BEES

TO ORDER
Catalog No.

Model

Description

Price

MR84012
MR84013
MR84014
MR84015

LP200I
LP2000I
DP200lv"
DP2000I

0/200" HjO/0-7.2 PSI Manometer


0/2000" H,O/0-72 PSI Manometer
0/200" H&I0-72 PSI Manometer
0.2000" H,O/0-72 PSI Manometer

$655.00
$655.00
$745.00
S745.00

BBBEBH

MERi-CAEJBRATfON KIT
wammiBsmL'jj.iLMimM9K!Lmvm

Completely contained in this compact,


portable Meri-Cal Kit are all the items
necessary for the precise measurement
of pressure or differential pressure.
Portable digital Manometer/Calibrator
for pressure, differential pressure or
vacuum measurements. Displays 8
English & Metric units. Also measures
transmitter/transducer voltaqe/current
outputs W/SIMULTANEOUS "DISPLAY
OF APPLIED PRESSURE.

ALL KITS INCLUDE:


Digital Manometer/Calibrator
Precision Hand Pump

AC Charger
Test Lead Kit
14 Piece Calibration Fitting Kit
Rugged Carrying Case

TO ORDER
Catalog No.

Model

MR84022
MR84023
MR84024
MR84025

LP200l-Kit A
LP2000l-Kit B
DP200I-KH C
DP2000I-KH D

OAVIS

Description
. 0/200" H,0 & 0-7.2 PSI Manometer Kit
0/2000" H ? 0 & 0-72 PSI Manometer Kit
0.200" H 7 0 & 0-7.2 PSI Manometer Kit
0.2000" H^O & 0-72 PSI Manometer Kit

Price
$ 999.00
S 999.00
$1,100.00
$1,100.00

INSTRUMENTS

D.12

fcSri;^*

H O O K GAGES W I T H .001" ACCURACY


FOR U L T R A PRECISE L A B O R A T O R Y A N D C O M M E R C I A L A P P L I C A T I O N S
Dwyer Hook Gages are noted for their
extreme readable accuracy in measuring
low pressures and vacuum. They are
particularly suited for high precision industrial test work and {OT use in scientific
laboratories. Fan manufacturers find
Dwyer Hook Gages indispensable in
checking instruments for measuring air
flow. Oil burner manufacturers can make

exact laboratory draft tests. They also


provide the standard against which
other instruments can be calibrated.
Simplified action is the secret of the
Dwyer Hook Gage. The only moving
parts are two stainless steel hooks controlled by standard depth micrometersPassing through the leakproof stuffing
box at the base, each hook shows a slight

"dimple" at the point of contact with


the fluid. After leveling the gage and
zero-setting the hooks, pressure is applied and the resulting vertical movement of the water is read directly from
the micrometers, the sum of the two
being The pressure. A skilled operator
can locate one hook relative to the other
within : .001" of pressure.

N O . 1 4 2 0 H O O K GAGE W I T H 0 - 2 " F U L L S C A L E R A N G E

Fig. 14-1. No. 1420 Hook Gage.

Model No. 1420 Hook Gage is the ideal


low cost instrument for critical low range
pressure and vacuum measurements.
Full scale range is 0-2" of water. 2%"
diameter water columns reduce the effect of capillary attraction to a minimum.
Level vial has sensitivity of 115-125
seconds for 2 mm. of bubble movement.
The two depth micrometers comply with
Federal specifications GGG-C-105A and
are traceable to a master at the National
Bureau of Standards. Height: 11!:" max.,
width: 92".
Furnished complete with mounting
panel, 5> oz. bottle of fluorescein green
color concentrate and wetting agent, and
one set of type "a" connectors listed at
the right unless other connection option
is specified. For illustrations of connections, see Figs. 7-4 to 7-7, page 7.)

C o n n e c t i o n Options
Type a. Two rapid shutoff t y p e ,
molded nylon tubing connectors, two 3-ft. lengths flexible
Tygon plastic tubing, and two
X" pipe thread adapters.
Type b. T w o r a p i d shutoff t y p e ,
molded nylon tubing connectors, one 9-ft. length rubber
tubing and one brass terminal
tube.
Type c. Two !" pipe thread openings.
Type d. Two compression fittings for
J)" O.D. copper or aluminum
tubing.
Type e. 3-way vent valve, X" S.P.T. to
J." metal tubing, at additional
cost.

N O . 1 4 2 5 H O O K G A G E S W I T H 0-12" A N D 0 - 2 4 " F U L L S C A L E R A N G E S
Model No. 1425 Hook Gage provides a
reliable and extremely accurate standard
against which other instruments can be
checked or calibrated. Its range and accuracy also make it a valuable laboratory
instrument for maximum precision industrial test work.
No. 1425 is available in two models.
No. 1425-12 Hook Gage has a full scale
range of 0-12" water. .001" divisions.
No. 1425-24 Hook Gage has a full scale
range of 0-24" water, .001" divisions.
Both models have permanent = .001"
accuracv. Accuracv is assured because

Fig. 14-2. No. 1425 Hook Gage shown


with standard end measuring rods.

D.13

t h e r e are no hidden tubes to trap air


bubbles, no long lead screws with the
possibility of cumulative errors.
The depth micrometer and end measuring rods comply with Federal specifications GGG-C-105A and are traceable
to a master at the National Bureau of
Standards. Height of No. 1425-12: 24&":
height of 1425-24: 36%"
Furnished with % oz. bottle fluorescein
green color concentrate. 2 level vials,
dust cover, full set of 2-inch interval end
measuring rods with protective case. Rod
ends are spherical to eliminate misalignment errors. Also included is one pair of
type "a" connectors. See connection options for Model No. 1420 above for description of type "a" connectors and alternates
available.

2 . 3 . BAROMETER UZ 0 0 0 3 FOR A M B I E N T PRESSURE C O R R E C T I O N S


The sound pressure output given on the calibration chart supplied w i t h the 4 2 2 0 is
given for normal atmospheric pressure conditions (P 0 = 1 0 1 3 m b a r ) . For large changes
in ambient pressure (due to altitude changes, for example) a correction must be made.
The exact iormu)a for the SPL correction can be derived as:
ASPL = 2 0 l o g 1 0 ( )
o
where P a is the actual atmospheric pressure in mbar
and P 0 is the reference atmospheric pressure ( 1 0 1 3 mbar)
A barometer (part number UZ 0 0 0 3 ) graduated both in dB of correction and millibar, is
supplied w i t h the 4 2 2 0 for this purpose. The barometer range is from 7 9 0 to 1 0 4 0
mbar. See F i g . 2 . 1 .

Fig. 2.1.

Barometer

UZ

0003

Over this pressure range the accuracy of the barometer is better than 0,1 dB at an ambient temperature of 23C and better than 0,2 dB over the temperature range 1 0C to
5 0 C , for at least one year after calibration.
For variation of the ambient pressure above 2 0 0 0 m and up to 1 8 0 0 0 m i.e. d o w n to
8 0 mbar, the correction curve given in Fig.2.2 can be used.
A conversion chart giving the equivalence between the pressure expressed in different
units is shown in Fig.2.3.

D.14

Siainlsss steel Pffol Tufies

Standard Pitot Tube

Precision made to AMGA and


ASHRAE codes. Two diameters,
11 D#yer models

Air velocity in duct is quickly


checked with standard Dwyer
Pitot lube and Dwyer Inclined
Air Velocity Gage.

Pocket size Pitot tubes of


soringy Vi" stainless steel can
Be mooerateiy Hexed in use
without acquiring a bend.

SlwowtD
s/irou.

i. n ii. 71.31. u or ic-

Pl!0! 1UK

(r
Dwyer Stainless Steel Pitot Tubes are universally used for
checking air velocities and static pressures. They a r e ideal
companion tools for the many precision manometers and air
velocity gages offered by Dwyer.
Both our Standard *\t~ diameter and H"-diameter Pocketsize Pitot Tubes share these features and accessories:
Accurate, burr-free static holes.
Hemispherical tips aimost impossible to damage.
Dwyer Air Velocity Calculator (See bottom of page 7 ) .
Portable or stationary fixed mounting types.
Direct reading velocity charts.

is/inmnat'

?>>"

Pocket-size V i " diameter Pitot Tubes

Recommended for ducts 4'and larger in diameter.


Geometrically scaled down per AMCA code.
Unity coefficient design.
Springy, No. 304 hypodermic needle grade stainless steel
withstands flexing without damage.
Resist temperatures up to SOOT.
extended static connection serves as a guide for directing
tip into air stream.
Suitable for permanent mounting in OS.M applications.
Oliver soldered quality construction.
4 models - 6" or 12" lengths in standard or short tip styies.
>ec:a! Pitot tubes or modifications to customer's specincaiio.is are available for OS.M volume requirements to meet
almost any need.

nunir

. i - c~ sine mxcs
lowiir swat
j--.1,
- stc
i XXX;
i>.--s**:
i if uooc::: U - i
I ] (

v w. : i KX[

roan sir. H- DU.


W7DTlU3

- irr sine xxu


lOutl! VJCTD

5UJC WtSSWH -J

h1 DU- STANDARD PITOT TUBES) Yi" DIA. POCKET P1T0T TUBES

Standard */," diameter Dwyer Pitot Tubes


' Recommended for ducts 10" and larger in diameter.
Plainly inscribed inch graduations on both sides show
depth of insertion at a giance. This helps you find the exact
center of any duct and make an accurate traverse quickly.
Tubes comply with AMCA and A S H R A S specifications.
Test-confirmed unity coefficients.
Lifetime construction of No. 304 Stainless Steel.
Suitable for use in temperatures up to 1500' T.
Accurate readings when tip is directed within 15 of air
flow direction. Static connection extends 3 H " to serve as
guide for directing tip.
Swaged tip, silver soldered connections.
7 sixes from S" to 6 0 ' Jong. See table.

sine mtsjwt
pii iiomiretssiot

Description

160-*
16CM2 |

f insertion L t n p h
3?" Insertion Lenfin

I60-6
E" insertion Length
16&-12 jl?" insertion Lenflh

lfrG-U |

1 ! " insertion Lenflh

167-6 I t" insertion Lenplh. Short

16C*? |

2'** insertion Lenfth

Tip Sryte
167-12 \12" insertion Length. Snort

160-36 [ 36" insertion Length


}66~4 |

*8" insertion Length

160-*C I
III
|

6C" insertion Length


Soli! flange Mounting

A.yti

7.p Sty**
f Brjs Flange 1CF only)

T
)01 MKSSURS

^
H'rVl

(iotatr

* ~T~)

Packing Gland Mounting (-P)


For Sianoard Dwyer Pilot lubes only.
Uses on najaioous cas. corrosive fluid
or special service reouiring absolutely
leak-proof or hign-sirenoth mourning.
NO. 3 0 - stainless steel. Vi" pipe threads
(*'" and "" bushings available), asbesios-or2bniie seal. (Teflon seal may
De suosliiaieo - no extra cost). SDeciry
with oroer - unit is integral with tube can t be aooed laier.

rsetcitr sii -cr~>


Compression Fitting (-CF)
Duct Adapter
Solid brass. Split ferrule allows cnange of lube position
without disconnecting. Two
washers, jam nut inciuoed.
Aoapter integral with lube:
cant be adoed later. Mas v."
male pioe thread lor Sianoard
lubes. '/" tnread to' Pocnet
mooels.

No. 158 Spill Flange M o u n t i n g - N o t mieorai


30C anytime 10 Dwyer No. )60 Staneare Pilot
Tubes Caomiuro-piatec steel. Gasnei is pattern
tor mounting hoies. Secure llange loosely io
lube, fasten to ouct. aoiusi lube oeDth and
lionten screws Tight pas*el ol'/" Neoorene Ins
around tuoe and against Oucl tor lean-proof seal
Nuts, washers inciuoec

D.15

APPENDIX E
Pictures

f "

Li

Patrick Brooks
Manager SMD/AD Engineering

Manager of Air Flow & Acoustic


Laboratory and Product Development

E.l

Southwest View of United McGill Corporation's


Airflow/Acoustical Laboratory

Buffalo Forge SWAW Centrifugal Exhaust Fan Used for Test

ESS*
fin ',

Typical Ductwork Used in Test

One of the Meriam Instruments 0-12 in. wg Inclined Manometers,


Dwyer Hook Gauge Model 1425-12, and Dwyer Durablock Inclined-Vertical
Manometer Model No. 422-23

E.3

Leakage Metering System

Friction Loss Ductwork with Endcap for Leakage Test

E.4

affl

r^-?w

Main Orifice Metering Station

Piezometer Ring Upstream of Fitting

E.5

Measuring System Leakage

Measuring Friction Loss of Ductwork to be used in Elbow Test

E.6

Plate 1 Fittings

rw
Plate 2 Fittings

E.7

-a- _

=-*

"

Ductwork with Plate 1 Elbow,


R/D = 1.0 - View 1

Ductwork with Plate 1 Elbow,


R/D = 1.0 - View 2

E.8

T 3

VJ"

Plate 3 Fittings

Plate 3 Fittings
(elbows to make offset for L/D = "Min"

E.9

*o

Plate 4. 14-inch Fittings

Plate 4. 10-inch Fittings

E.10

Plate 4. 6-inch Fittings

k~>

Plate 4 Fittings Front View

E.ll

Plate 5 Fittings

Plate 5 Test Setup with 8 x 32 Elbow Reinforced

E.12

Plate 6 Fittings

Plate 6. Vane Type 1

E.13

Plate 6. Vane Type 2

V _ 1 A

Plate 7 Fittings

Plate 7. Offsets Attached to Rectangular Duct

E.15

Plate 8 Fittings

E.16

Plate 8. Offset Attached to Duct

Plate 8. Test Setup

E.17

Second Orifice Metering Tube Used for Plates 9 and 10

Plate 9 Fittings

E.18

WaMAdaBoSfa

Plate 9 Test Setup

Plate 10 Fittings

E.19

KL
-~*

tS^gl

^Bffifta

- A..

Plate 10 Fittings

4'J

IT:JI

ssjTJi

Plate 10 Test Setup

A JJ

Plate 11 Fittings

Plate 11 Fittings

E.21

2rffl

3S'-~*1
pas*.

Plate 11 Test Setup