of h os' :i ~ii..a.l) E'C:-~'21 AiirlbHJr'ne~ IE.-69 transport" Fi II'" S.to t he e nlfil. iin Ill""1049B (WV"ij. 1l617. 21 ali c 0 i t de ~:i'yered .~ilon '0" LOtckheed 1C.i mot"'f. nail lC!on'figulr.' ..p r WOIr .t 944. 1 .oclk.L. '0 Fig. D W'.tt .fj.~. es sed Gl'over:nment order IC31U CIIJ't.ed nose and t3.Sm.. J 1 N'Qse m Oft: ~"'" ...1e. rn iJ ng stat i10n..ar~.a/e.~ of UU!t N ~Y".A rm " s e'r ia~ :111 3~0 ~ le/n 19\61 tfh~w' Apr U 11 t 1m .

the Constella ion was .rformanee and he~d its.on .1!I. .na·1 ser·. ··. I born : n the Mate l'930s~ developed 'was one of those airplanes 0' the San ernando Valley. The ... (Ptl. '! ae Lockheed Ai C aft Corpor ation feu his.(J '1"b!!!. acy '\ hich ccnfron S us. the reconstruction t :olk w the viet y we mus firs t win "I'..F:eb.p.'l.-. BI' • lro .d me around her _.' . e. wa s under Icontin uau s develop . .S.ts were mar II! ~th.iol' n . well as ml C~J:nb done today.truts. The long' nose Ian din : . ra -.gthe. Thoren. ard sus h and.::eights ana ".gear was tested by installing Micro . the ship headed the moun taim for '~ a" 'rnlY s ui . A.ain~y . Boe]ng: Aircraft Company pilot and Mw..:JJlF.ero. part - _. .. were reached.. zontrols.. II is' esigned and built to do a necessary job as. . OT!' . ru1ce with t' ie world s ". Pre sident of ' ockheed .. Here fu rther tests.: . C' • i. F '43IE' '1 he c mtrols we I: ·d. Other : ons ·11at10. and any four-engined bomber then in combat sler'J·oe~'_l about haill:f'power tb . II . fif"sl went eW . Lawrence . '10 Bu rc ram. a . Rudy .ying probh ]1······ WIld Dick S anton. and for I during' the war made" ecntinen -spanning "airliner of the future". ~il"'" :'. were . IFILI'G 1-: T 'I I EST he· or stellation's first fli.:.1. -R"esearch 'n ~ .. ment from 1939 until 195:8. aior airline. uanee.d' 1 . Pan.1. when at Las' Lockheed ga e up 'try~ng to' increase irs performance 1 grew in pro ressive increases rf power. as concei ed '0 l·139 by.A. which was ICo.-dmitte it was B! good a ircraft by ..otO':' P'.0 test pilots. 11 and th lee by '. the Constenation ~erlrs an matured wi th jet a e'i It desi n :.) To some. ver flashy..a.) developed by the military during Wo:rld War II as a mgt! speed transport.1tthis time the t.~hen. a.-.-I anc landing '.o. _ohnson's assistant in rfect _ I'U d n't n _. " c ~ Dr-y . onnie C I I'. he : af Co rna ':.n·... were u ccd tUI indicate . payload. onste lla ion was ac ually aster than the fan. follcwin ~ tile war it S.". Edd ie Al ~.estern Air ines I W a the I 1" . ·0 ~ri~.' onstellation 'was produced in many versions for many I~' uties. critic J stres '. Lb .h.Jj'q.. aying . . he ru . A total 0' six :ft~gh.. t.A. ~t was an U1I11: I...ru It was "'D I.. 1011) 2 ter be.:IW internati .uud'a TlJUt. in jllgld.'r/'d A~'rways Cl'f).nes of a tin e. lieve this airplane is the greatest contribution '. hief _e· hanic who knew every working =•.t . in. Allen sai d aft~r hi· "turn at 1'1. 1a -Ie.. were Weight and centre of gravity positk n in fl~gh't were checked b~ Ole Ins of a wall r system with a central pumping station ICOmp'Q<'.. 'hiappmno. hap'. rf large d ~ 1m~tee piping system ~ 0 load the ai rcr aft for fl ight req u ued only at achment of a f 00inch fire hose and proper valve 0·' eration.. e its ~ppe. : '.{Z.e'· . pioneering nany of the nw "Ieng haul" routes of the po t-· ar world.h .0US Japane e . switches the sides and drag .eat~ut whate. Engineer.. ong and co ou fu career an d mr all guess es a re right there s st ll a Ie re~r-" left n . "T iis thine work ····0 J I. solvin the mar y te . 1-' ..rfI.uJ(y .a beautiful airplane.. He was' killed just 39 da s Ia ter in til crash of the first '.. uealer.~ old girl.o Burcham P-38 .ruar] j'rtJ~ J 94~~ into' . _H - €" . were ".. -- --- . Warning ligh .g11i11 .sel . L. ol'llmerciial service 'WIth this airline. Iranscontine nt 1& ~~-.Mer. took place 9tb Janu -y. own with post-war developed airel aft right up to the' jet age.' I~e .· 'the Co'nst..per" N 888d'2..at day in the pro toty .apt.. any more". ~~ hie .0 emei g.s.¥orfli:.25 00...:JiV~ -. Ihe .ed. 9·' Profile No. I many lara water tanks -rough the aircraft's fuselage connected by ~ eRn s. e. r nstellation had a "op speed or 347 m.ily timee for the war car..O~·e:_ '.~ 1(J).. J.A. Joe Towle and R.eUa ~ion ~ . since renan ed Edward A~ B which . o other . j"1 must surely rank as one of the great airp~a. '!I.04":.. I r.. th rite by .merlC'Qn.nparable to the cruisi speed of con u mpora y fir hter plane' b' s al capable of flying a li ht tank across the ocean.0 air transit yet made by ockh . horen. fli zh ts around i.. '. 11· ve ' a show ···. annie ha d.ellali{Nl.. ightning Tesi Pilot Also on board.

.m. and.the great circle for a tri-meter.: The prototype Constellation 3lli0310 'built at Lockheed's Burban'k .51p. . Shoup' of the Army Air r orps. Bu ild "'ng a.-61. IUr~ 'I'R .~ud (be/'a L) the X'C~(j9Ej 43-10309. In the ear ly morni ng hours Hughes elim bed ~ the nto k~'rt oenmcd the pno s centro '1 on tlae '~I f'r stoe. ..3 aircraft.~ CL-·_ .!!!.... and '[JooUng stages.j as removed. Others in the crew inc]ud e ".'!ac. When victory was in sign'c in :~945. (Photos.! Ctlfgo (Photo:: Lock11ced) . iH . The damaged engine Vi. . record pro bably stands alkJp . S~] ~Solom on . Leo Baron.)1 i - Standing on the field ..l~.oekheed for 40 Constellations but these had been turn ed over .homas WaJk.imesaving' for Lockheed.his g31ve thenfl an i8 ~n.19 by t11 f!U~S~ ··~ir.I.n·~ines and ' v 2:~ IUUU . Richerd de . of the C69' instead of developing an en tirely new aircraft. 19'4.'-' heed for a few C()ll'$tel{(~'ti(JJl wUh 4()O C'u. level. hou r .. GI.~new C.atocru iser RJJJd an even greater le~d on the' {c- 'pu b1it.J' if... wen ~ to 'W'rigM ·-. Cha irrnan of the Airline Committee on P..5l' in 1.5. -049 Cons'Lellatio:n saved jobs ~or' 15~OOO.the . Orvil Wlight~ who was the pilot on the first heavier-than-air flight 411 years earlier.. ILl 1. Service Designation of C-6.~ tOI tbe ' wes coas "cur tepa irs. rrw A. at WIigb~.ode'!. ive years this flight.tIl~ I~~ ~ bllL.e~ . C~ A.. ] 16th April '~. al of' TOW A ~ Richard -S'~alnt(ln~ R. 'fii.~.Army .' . Minser.3Lrnptl Lee S eWI~U an d 0 rvil R Olson. Later a "trimotored" Constellation was flown coast to COa. -lughes and Fry to ha ve many pill.ght engineer.m.iI.. First indiearion of 'the Lockheed Con.91~LO aircraft had 'been delivered.g :dltd")! .lJJ~~.experienoed. the Constellation planned. 1:· k ~'m coc S. IlIll '. .'.t .merican COlonie made a crash landing.g to rna intain n ned non foot.0 the' ." iC' I~ t!X t'ilr1JO~ .: Er-win J.. Jr.jt' the do:il'-~~.'Ol"l! Policy and Lieut. Its Iourengines used very Iittle fuel per coupled ww th great capac:ity ~vi r ~ua~l~lel ~ rn nated costly a nd time co nsu ming m' refuelling stops.1"l~ l. I~~I '!JII . Robert '~ Loomis Edward J.'"~ . when Howard Iughes and TWA. altitud a 0. that they would 'P~IfIlY the ir ace in the ho ~!t and bu Ud a commercial version. Cho osing to produce the '.d'ntlJ Con st ella tlon/. !!rl.) before file war as a high speed long range passenger jiner" the Lockheed Model ~04'9 Constellation was.•• '.g. Rain bow ~Decj d ~:]1 g build the 'Conn m.' nes in coast 'to coast veer off' . lant went to the A rmy 28th July.Iv'.on th. ~e~ ·'A ry into the co-pilot's seat.ov.ino.-.alld this economy "~l" ~:Jl.. employed un del' the' . new aircraft from scratch would result in laying or:ff many enmloyees during the d'f!swgn.[JlS'1 the U . ...Ilb~'Lu. president Jack Fry decided 1Ul3"t 1 1 .. Glover ~ radioman. or passenger service and TWA bad originally contracted with. Bad. all}" the ceiling could be boosted tOI 35 0001feet W case 0'[ need.[eldfor f u rther tests..-6 .1000 feet with only '[WO engines..!tlliJi:II !~~ ... (P'~H. 7:2 years o...S.54-.~./r.e paid off f 0''' 'CN. ~.e area f aired over a nd the aircraft was flown f (om. onstellarion ... ield Ohio..e. IlL lJJ _ . ~ hours.] and remained at t oekheed for test rung..r. . umber 31 03 I 0. . The t lonnie was dies ~. '.(.onstella jon was capable of flying above 20 000 feet while its -'re'ss:uriz'ed.~'~ ceU I U J. stellation's performance and utll~tY' was proved on a Sunday evening. lo I d' . I~.u e J. before ational Airport.~ Idis e tinctive features seen hore iFj' n fine /lyi1'J.e)the Con stellation S~31r~ed 'fo~]jng. materials and five pat tia ly completed IC.'. .gto:m 'I or route. looking like a streamlined whale with wings.~~ nmorili"Ow ~.. his. horen and .'e.· . Origi Dally ordered by Transcon lnen t and.1]1~ faster than a irl iners 11~ of that day.rI"'!onj~ . (Bastern War Time). and 'too k over 6$J' the controls in the air.9 Army . J ~:~h'ialpp..rn~J1ent cut .I} . weather inc. In 1 944... but 6 hours 51 minutes and S 1 seconds later . 'then. down at .~" _ \J . ad-van taee over ~lLie Doug:~asD' .OS'I-'W'a'. the triple tail Lockheed '. Sui ban s= I 3J1..··'·viatW. his was only his second tl igh in 2S years mind 'he was.ees! and resulted .]s C=69 order from 2. Howard Bohon.t this H1De 22. was ready 'for '~ake off.69s.d Lock hee d) cruised approximately L 00 111. that could be easily turned j nto the ranch-needed airliner. udi ng Ugh r icing condition s made it necessary for the plane to was {liver W'ashtn. and there was surplus tooling and fabricated parts.!iI' .in a great 'I 1 1 j '~. and twelve passengers:' L./~'!p(1i1. I~he east CO..ins ockheed... '!i" ii ' i. Col.11.mn.:JP.944. navigator.. l." c/n 196l.l.. made a SO'of nu te flight in .ransport Command.' . rn. t .U 'joti.. Th~'S happened when.. l. ". Western Airlines Inc. cabin maintained a su nercharced atmo sohere equ al 10 00"'01 luvl~. R Pro etor. .' . 'he war's end 'brought a "fiveday shut .60 to 7. The . '1ymg condItions were no't perfect i.~~ . after Wb01TI '~tie Lfieilld \V~S named. ockheed at which time Lockheed management decided...8.and Boe[ng 37'7 Str. an d after tbws. At 3-57 a . i.'n' three a...rn. C=6.tlt Burt art California.".~d. emp]oy. ':an ..i6c'War '.

in . L-.on stellations va u d a' .dmini stration put IOn a bargain ~le'~...... It fitte' beneath 1the: .. ' had set ..tril e in.PCD' putting ie rnodifa d . . short circui 'n an .he ae i. P[ennsyl. 0 iem ike by Ope ni -c-g an emergency exit hatcb in the passenger cabin ~n·[.. re to oil-sea ..'.n. . [9[4[6 .r In .(d' and no' ~ Cf)}~""w·a't.'te ~" er.e: n competi ion and '_ shrinking oost. 'right f1.. _ (y(a :"1': TYPE _ fiN ~ . and...'ar ... tnite . Ji neteen minute er ~ cockpit and forwe rd ts '0 1 c· 1 03 t..Y d __ e49. T '.b.p.!crvicc ~n. .[e TW ..' it najof' airf nes. ent investigation indicated that had U1C crew used a different P' -OCedlU:i' for clearina '['ne CDC' . .947.onst . A" this same 'ti []l1}C final assembly began on t l~ M .ashing' ten an ~ Paris. A. Time magazine reported in 945 that 'm one hop ~he .Iy injurin ~be s .'.1000 ani. ' '.u'ce: [crui.d.a_.n.stelJQU(j'n and lhe f eflaal DC-J:r v'()[/utiO..jlt .]:U)I' JO: CO ufte y :rV-f] 1 J.r ~ow.. k ~t. d(Jy~ [( . . 0'11 6."'. 6th -=.'raJ. vpproved Ty.'eat den rety rout:."..ge.'. President of ~ ern . 1.fu1elage.: u ust.' ssible to le If th a" . Iff from the Reading.. canee Ued order~ EoT' [eigh"[ mo de'm 04[9 8 alnd a '2(' mUliolI dna [c-ntr. of the fi r8m of [au rCeen.: [.. ·righ.and is old 'frorabout -650 000.. l [ca' r~ed 55 pass.pmt anc [cal ~'iJ1J. by the en of 'j)! • Jea.·· together 19 of the ~ .:cubdc ~..·5 million. sets .' ~t commer _i_ 1 air Iink betw en t .~J da tbe top of the he p' . cui ic '~ee of c -rco. utine frainhag aL"ght.~ ".l:I'lsp'!'l" t U~ the' ba kllrOtUul.I . e lyp Jj 01 ifUi.selling _'our [' onnies for 20.r. hard blow because [..' ['e't £ r l.'~. /'. 49' (or six weeks until ~. JPIV -1 -[ and ~d49'.est(mlg d. betweenb ew Yorl and -[ s Alllgele·~ T·". n~ T..my C-6.31·· a [at!' tub-like' 'pack th.ania . k "[e rru da route. [ the '.. 8~1·. About fbi time ~ ['. _. ca.·vela '[m n' wa.th. [On.· on tella ion Star of Paris".-[.' . flew . - 'W. .[64· hal . . [e'[ Cc.. n .•~:.burreton ~ '~ 0 wever pr duct .k . .. burn made 0 til.~ebruary. 40.un"th.. 'LI.i()). .' lacb.[97. ]rd .Jrd. rc ers wer e nov . lJOilh the oJ~.J~ the Conste Ilation.• mys a' ter ~vealed a· iatio mercia aircraft. 1946. whi h c msed the [ lIT ..:·rl[' s MOl. g[ 0. r. F!:I' l .' .'e' 0. ebruary.•-.: .sig]. On 1 m tb December.dvauced to b.he 'filrst tune 01]]. wh n Pan Ai erican flew it on the i·. [. in ernational routes between ". crast ed "0 a hay field killim five and . r use on [·h[ [r~ h[0[P5 o.or the cause. 'h This ground d the baggage comp irtment were cho ced with '.. r 1 engines and [ad Itional :fu~'1 ·aJJ'UJ'IS.f. Constellation to . E.e t in the record time 0'1' 27 ftyiI .r na' 4'-4.~[.'nes di d :n at 8 ow do· .w '.ad of the·f..the L-()49 ~ l~iI{.' ay 'C' The L.·. . .' ar .. Sates e ' ~rud" ranee.' Certl lcate a ier the .pa:~k.. w -entranee "--o.sllie. 0.A. 01 _ ddie RJ -k [ backer. ight ai rcraft a'[' an.S and 461 minu es. SO million were grc unded ong hours :-:['·-re:. disaster struck Lei khee ."'ddil1g 3'9~.. of the first of 27' model ' -0498 in '.s of cargo sp' ce !t..'ense smoke. rna.J '.049 Constellatic n wen 'Onto iviHan service for' .II I investigators prob ed .'1 eed ~. -04\9[ :ack into the ai -..A acce te '..' 4[. '[G [1~ ~ .:: overnber "945" . first domes ic secvice was smarted on 15th ebruary. 1946... ..p. ie o ~is .":9 ea u e eff the Iine for ".945: the ivd • "'eI 0'" It uti BO:31d g anted an.. "~ BhlC'. Fifty . ockhee d on on band for Tiff' D .':ol1_stena~io:ns Wllic:h ente cd [.s the " Sp e ..~. bUi.n ~tlllations.'. recirculating j y rem '0 fill the COCkPl' with smo el it \~[.~.I-1 injection ·. This W. for [fill. del L-649[ e "Gole Plate" Censtellado '.[Cfciat air operation s:'fJ in 1~. ·h. I m fYPE II u.. for in mid· Jul· a T..' The L~04 ..ons tellat ~ 1a d Cat rri [.5 0 SMne a ru'w-fram as the L-049~..ifli~' JS' ~ Fl"cship C(}'Pe~lulgmi"\ Pl 10tO~: ' ockhe d via ' . [One in/~!. ··l1e i_O an a' Ii e .':'n its own.ldi R'lMulliL Ull!ilkUL 'V~ "!I':I'~ I~::.e...I' frght ~ a's 19th Oc ober._ trieat Hitttn:...or:: powerful ·~.(Jurlug Variou tile' Constella: ifJ"" s do" .ep'lao.! Jha'·lin.t R-3[350-B -.nate cost _ of . if. eliv r .. P'~" ' ed by [Cape H arol d.' r 1..iT mt the _ t -... d 1ave been '. vien ~I . flight raking 19 hOI. '..Irpo 't on a f[. 0 6[51' on its. 19'46" the. 'r~"~.W trt.d about 285 nlHes pel' hour'.86511. he Loc rheec " . Thi . 'merica n A.lll ban) ·c r~bo~~(. conside: ed . 9.g hours. lin insulat ~Ol1~ .. two more went·.' POm1.9swere used 'by the . 1946.ct '.. ~l1.ail lines.1 .. ap 'Iloib..l1ised c(J'nln.[ aecep [cd dem i•.'.. ockheed kept mu tiple Jssemb ~y Hnes rnovin g as it _ urned out ' ~ 80s._-[ .. -1m 1946.ioth er (J:'et~.d Lockb ec deliv red nine mar. Tragedy S~a1lL'. a. B1lJ] b iaJ r. 'while 0 s NC90 922. 1. nation had a' ised j: s performance . rl~nes. . b uary 1. ·.

'per .~e~~ ~. '" "'" ."_"_ 4 ~_iCl~ . 'f1 " ..1100.B"".u.~U Major Puglisi. .. of Khartoum. integral wing tanks.. m' G'• .>. as his.I~..rS . -n .s. -1·ghts were 3.!!-.'" 1" boom began in overseas am traffle and r ockheed was there once more wlth the right airplan e at the righ time with 'he '-149.000 in ]'94·1'--4·8. a . to prove i'~ val ue 'by co n tinruing s to ~. Christensen. led a very C outstanding life.g a:n' provisions.2IlYAviatlen Services) .4 8~ but the . Its official name wa-s "Columbine [I" V·'C~12ID. ompany Se-ria~ No" 2602.al'[ every major airport .-35' lUIDtH l Oth JUl1e~ :~. ·thio.21 A.~·LO.. .~. joined the ~~JlJtl.IIWIi.' Icwever I 2:~ .0-0 lb.A t Transports Service 's "V[P"~ fleet for Military and Dlplomatlc officials on Iong missions. The L-7'49 cos t S:8'70." The Constella tion star ted. General ..3.c' m 1 i.~b~[I) i _c rn General Eisenhower's M3JcAr-lhu -'s "Bataan" "Columbine Il" transport Genera isenbower's personam aircraft. ~!!l I . 50'" '1Ii".~ mperor of .. gru'w he .. :.ro .. McClan~" Sgt.IL . Constellation production 1lnes almost came to a stop in. ti :.=LO'... Ma'ny l ocean crossings '\-vere aHHJ' made Later' . bur be aircraft was completely burned lea vin g IQ:WY the tai ~ section."". if' _ orce pbtoed.and about s .2ru. cal led..eclared surplus .~ viel ~ of t/~e' CO'W1£t'.grIQ'SS.~L. Ike's ~ 'E'!Jio'I-~"-_ Pilot was M o:iIl!llof"i.T'O' ·C'a. for removal seats and.I. .000 by 1'950.-649 only in having added outer. unoffic .L"..!f') picke .. AU twenty-six passengers and.1'of Calif(jrnia'~(:·. free urope.. a beefed-up landing gear and .'0 Paris.out to 'CO~.. Three were designated VC .." 111on" _._.'-even airlines ordered seventy-four of the '749A. (Tex) Slayers NJ' make a belly landing: about fifty miles north.]l1 bine lli" ave .PhotcL. = ~~ . aga rnn raising the take-off weight to 1Of1"OOO pounds.."~'e-''L'U .0'/ Qatl."". oW oM:.'!!' ~ III..):p I c ~.. number of ' -'64. averaged about th ~_Ylngl[l1e" A:. Ius a.t San F~-alu:ISC(j Lockheed and B...54. a life-saving order' for '[he Model L .. crew survived. When the Russi arms blocked =-.!!C&u..L'O (4!8~608) "Dewdrop".'· ".Ug.. As C' 121 A.lying Whm'te House' from 1.tas E':nlpiF'e AirwQJ"s f~efiu. 19.old 4[8-610 was not finished. (418 6 ~5). personal tr a n sport She woee the Lion of Judah and EAL colours and was numbered ET=T. BILIJ. 0.'1If" Hark ness. neral Gunther. and I(abii)'pe) an L-lf)491!' l'nt'e"'l~#on~lAirport in 1 JI'J8'.. rovernment w. . weight of ]02.'.nd affeetionately it was.Ptl'otoS: .~'G~ardi~I' New Yoric. the .oo:rin. .TO '~. _ '1l.LO' these 10 L-749 Connies became the Mi itary . Service serial numbers were 48-609' tIO 1617'. ~J~. .~10ll... ~JlU..efeo a.149 standards.Obe used bv . .included M-·· . Woodward.S via D'19lban) In 194. Forty .ella:I'ion.. Higgins and Sgt.. Capt.A. . '!i. This crew' was stationed in Paris . " .JL .h aere S~1e retamecd h er special 'V]P ..O 1~ JL\. Erwin J.. (48-6 10) and staff 1 but...660 miles non-stop (ron. uopian G •..].> !J6S03 '81'(1.'" '.9IS7' when broke out in an inboard engine causing the pilot. ockheed V"C~·1.. and. then back 'to Washinge ton for VIP d1J.. mender. I '.. """.in.. .9 s tha were retrofitted to . "Gen. hospital litters.e -.1uxury suite or Haile Selass li.. 749 modified with heavy 'H. 'when it bowed . ~1'C. with a. erlin Iea vi ng only the skyways open.950 to 19.piai. n r I me '1 Str'l'klliig' h'e:tul-i(J..rr " "U'a...".ially a. k~ ~~ WI Draper and '~k. 74·9 had a strengthened undercarriage. . higher take-off capacity. the Lockheed C-~ 21.I (Photo:' Lockheed NIEW' MIODEL.anding . it Wiant back to NA.HU another unofficial nickname as the . · four 0: these ocean hoppers were bought "'.tlliug a. New 'York . and included I 1 'I' ~'~rA "s N. .and acqu ired by TW A for the ' ~! • Er hl .. Capt.U. . It differed from the' L. ...sgt Snidler~Sgt.~Y until Apri] 1951 'when she was . the 0 eneral flew o ften and recorded a . ... .. plane gained $.

Q!v:ing the tank and Installing an Allison 'YT =56. . and were assigned the duty 0" spotting enemy airc r. The result was. Later designatio 11.' ..P'fOP' Cons.5""9 million passenger miles carrying supplies from...ali{1s~ T~x'(JJ...of T'W A and' Olelow) Sa~n. Army. in '~he 3 and 4 positions. ..I. i __ ..for .'OY4j.d pro. . .'V-..()'gtapl-u!d at . .: d l. Eastern.8 b out $'~ 2 5'0.3-10309) civilian registration NX 2:i. Later it was modifed by renl.a~servllioe on L5th December.95.~~ PiO" very successful.gbt as .U.~ 049 car ried 7 ru first clas s passengers.. m.ror'~Il'·. 1 position.4473) made ~ ts first fij'wght in June U~49:.. The in terior of thi s P. diucec .. .off..u...0 :~I C wh j... W '~h. N152JJfj' of Bfaniji' INte.. b:y (Photo = K.Thompson) .t flew in A u.. 'were also added to her wings.ater . . r... followed with.1.. L-I0419~sbuilt.7 911" eo U..R3350-BD~ engines..320 m.'I 049 was p owered "by 4 Wright ( yclone R=3350l"C. ~Pi.'.. "Simon Bol'lvtJr~~ {if Linea Aefo. Greater protection against frost and fog was obtained by 'the circulation of D110re air between the windows' dou ble p.Aim.. Huge i ip 'I 'auks.'.800 h ~ each.._. as :fI.C.ad 72 B cu.2700 h. 'W. .. l't was.. The L... Maximum visl b~'lity 'was possible through the installation of rectangular panorama windows" Reloca tion of windows in relatio n ~IO seals mad e fa r rels xed v j ew j ng CO'M fo rt and. they proved B'cdlcr. Massachusetts. Take-off weight 'was '20~OOOlbs. IOn overnight transcontinental flights this aircraft WtJlS equipped with 8 berths and..:n.ey were q_uickly nicknamed "Po' Ones" '. The prototype P'O~m W (BuA if" '0. l049C. greate r payload) at lower 'cost per seat mile.'!!4. T he Cop do me was for The .L.eth~lrnons long r..l..anes~ The -ockheed Super Constellation prototype was.. engi nes tha t developed 2.IS.yw'mg radar srups. the first passenger shjp with w:~'ng.. imHNi 0'11'. its. 1. Transocean L-749A (F-BI'/-~I was fitted with the [lose from e/n W.&n:::nL' t W' h ·'llj3I. 0" to 1 1 jj if ccmi. I" . t hough ~ '~h 1600 gal ~ e on 'ta.~~ !41_ '_~::I: u from the services added up to' more than S35'0 million wortb of business. 55 'first class sears.p.j e' ~~_Ig. and 'mater' reacquired 'by 'Lock heed where engineers lengthened the fuselage -8 ft 4 In. and redesignate it .~'. 12.. _t started Iif e as the first C~69A(4. purchase ~ of 14.35 O=CA 1 in 'the .K.3'h 1 1 L-l:049G ... increase of 400 h.p.pltl_'fed a . L.rc~.ii9·· .c).l1 I 9 6 1.p. and more w®re om..Ones" ~ prototyp e radar as an aerodynamic test aircraft. hitch ill the.~ 3lVY task . _.Q~ . Ones" we re :fi. . .'.t:ip tanks. hie remaining ew ~O went to TW'A '~O be used on their ······.Nl'ol .QWS An number. fitted with 'the WV ~2. to RheinM. fC' .e me . a. .cent.[O totype was on ce again fl~ led wi th Instruments l1111e5 of wi re. 049 was 1. 'tII. enez() iafi'Q " · ph().y this time many Df the comforts had been removed including pressuriC October. increased na t ural lig ht.. 'Other changes included the Wright R-33sn-CAI Cyclone 'that delivered . and used them on tbe'~:r _..~De FlJ~il1g IJliu:/~fn'OjJtj':.. In the first month seven C 2 :~.~S the case with Model L-649 ~ Eastern Air Li nes was the first to buy the ~04:g' w:~h t an order for 101.riU. aerial bridge of pers onne ~ coal.J){J!iN~ f(n ..\[ld it became the prototype "-1.tion ~ heat and soun d proofing.ch firs. it was bought by Howard. . 1. With a new paint job. :[in ked water tanks. \Vestov'e'r Air -oree Base. a.a.".' ~. (Photos: Mitch an L~J()49 of M ayborn and.54 in an. and T\tV'A.A:I.ahtt '& Whhil~Y' R~2800s.gust of the same YI®ar. other supplies into Ternplehof Airport r~(nrllWest Geru13UJJJY.L:i'nes put tll'ie firs.e '.5.xC-69B.s wou Id . . L"..h.ft an d surf ace -vessels. ow wearing ci vllian (:II TOW'E h m GA.. and a big star on the side.I_01tC' Field~ IJ'..sOO~ with 1-33501Engines.5 coach.ll: J~'3. U1url. The first change W'.. the last J. York '[0 Mlam i route. h"a. or g. (Photo: M1tch Mayborn) v~ _.ed L-049. The L~10419sold for . L" 'I'_.049. food and e= . Charles 'D'. turboprop in the o.' za.tll1.250 pounds.fJierJ Isse. cj n.~·:'67900 take. J\.l This old airplane was.me. Hughes.below . The . Alter its. c/. finally pickled for storage aner completing engine tests for the Electra. The ori gina ~ weight 'was 86'.ellaC' Holl(J::n:'dern~"'TIH! scheme dts.M Ii. first rn.1 Bulban) ! of 'r he onstel a :~ n can almost be to'~ o d i[IJ one airplane. Angeles route starting in Sep tember. dial gauges and recorders.2 nosition and .tto 1Jy a.o:re fuet lnvenNJr was ••. IlL ihe larue d'om-. 62.. over pfJeVi.1'iJ..~'i()twIJi ex-V A. the L-I04!9 Super Constel lation which could carry more passengers (40 per cent. 'b. THIE C'ONIS:TELlATIION I o rders Attraeitve Vlieg.iThS.L. and.9611 and at ~eagt part flew again. 19 52 . radar umbrella for a ..lled with electron ic equi~p'men.O''.fI"' .ain.L" 'KleUy~'! ..t ocUtheed L~ 1049 S[lpe:r ConsteUfJ\'u'on into COll1. 'ft.. Originally designated po=.1 W. chalked "s 1JP' .. Later' the Navy purchased two L-'749'_ Connies for e3Lr.~:.:J .:--d~·· .. Germany.-::I 0..ework Y LOiS.ing :50 per .. the way.Jt~ the is urface. B. was" .~ng8 desp~t~ engines req.. .gi vie tu rrbo.000" p.ir" . 1951 ~ Tb]s was aircraft :>.L. . ] 915. There was a R3. of cargo space an d crui sed at .L V.~y warming and picket planes. an. \tVllelll. Eastern received 14 tbe '4.uir. to equip it with Pr..QU5 engines.. on..nk. scannine.oceneeo 232 Constellations including the prototype."..• f©ree.

~ n:s.AEIF ._'f 552nd A~I~Wi~ c... .' men Gil Cal.. Sa.ulfer~S se If'.a"r~y 'Wa.t.rD. .KH !lEDI RC .I I_IOC.i 'Iniil .111~ O·13B44.' la. 20 .cr.~. Wing & U..A!.ac.r n iInll' Ai 'ind C..Qntrol Win."6!6.S.. m 'nrLflf.IF.IIIS. al 4121~'Ill'" the 5 ~ llriu:1I1 rbo rn e E. ".l..

~ Comlm.S~A_F • ili .[In:S. I - - ~ - .----------_. _.nd U".lilgn ia o'r A Iir Defe n s:.

.-·· ]F" serv ']. .'h-.''~1'] n t:h:i S conflguration 'the Constellation.n Wo.~11dit cruised at 340 m. The 'U'iSm Navy gave their ~ ockheed Constellations -n ames aecordi ng to . The radar used covers.n'fiw!~(!1} tke Clt.V~-I.'" ~ li ~~ 5'4-4076. design Engineer ~ and some . . The.d..11'!l"iE··.~ CO. £"'"' 1-2---: 1 =W'·..' see1\.~'f~"c duties wid~ the' spares fo'l' !~nflig'ht repairs to f!quipl.'a:lif"~' 5~--4-... .1 D49'IB..' was • a vc.a! air ambul ance 'W ith tiers.ed.._leM equipment.·' A·:. I ' ..8 I o 30 men.••.' boai '-s '. '-1 - "Iill. n ]'952. Bul ban) . 1 u.for the L. assembly of radar scopes.u 'u't1 d"I.i1lg' the . The ui'rt'u.1 . nl~ . of lead v in the f orward baggage compartmen t.J..the: avy o rdered ~ Constell ation j n several versions of the " -1049 B he runc:~nd.miles w ith one sweep.~"·'.1. dorsal "saucer" radome.nt· to err equivalent load of (leigh t" 't was also ftm..'.. .. he . nurn rn.o. carr ies a crew of 2. Mary'. -ifbol'IU: Eal"ly w'~n.s 0/ 1...-!lJ4_9.m .r-~V" ~--------:. 1. an..* lII. . blll. .~..~~t·lfdlaU(J..i "Columbine ]11.. transpor ~ WV.€! :~nrn"'a'h:~ """'0'. • .'" 'nIDI series._.I-'m: caw~.cC?(jcql~i. I .@'f' adr_'~1. .2..2 J G-) lettmg down (Photo: via Erwin J.--2 baltast was." 1'[1 . E was 2 deli vered tOI the N CI1 y in 1195 8 'w.700 m be.. i11 1 '..""". "1'- .· mstration operates two Sueer ... l The .. .".8S$) deli voted .. Stor .rs . Nevy a' xent River by the names of "Paisano Dos" arne "Kiwi Spec'~811~' mapping the ocean..ie dftt:~1 (Photo: via Erwin J.~. . . the WV-2Q.3.ru:~ane Hurn. _~e h 1 i-~ .e.. :W' .turbo eye one engines of .."eronau t.!" -W"-:. C! 2~.'~ed.2 ~ K is called the Warning Star" About half of the 'cabin is occupied by the etc. as an for inftigh t rep air s to electronic equipment ~ The Super Constellation .' bl" J!Ill _ .lr.t_ill.. ._ T[I.d ~H' m. ~ 'll .5 5'0 were j nco rp orated in this 1 L .. Ih.rRJ1}..-.H~uJ'tdi.e. . a.. tluur !11...":i _!!l.IIJ. .. '!.Ihek duty.~l~()ud .:ri.~. 954... .s Ojl'...~l. res.---...f'j ~ '-. 7'..!II' - '... hey have the " n umbers . -'_"i . s . which 'was..d W~~2'. v 1 I~ = ..nt hCIC· _ equipment 'for er early warning duties. .1.hllnd.i~~ese'.2 'I ~ and are manufacturers ~c/n 4143 and . r>_i3> ~-~ '''.l!a. ....rJ~1?()I~t_Se'l"I?i. ..250 h..p~h~he WV-..J'~~...31. ~ 'P.']. There are two :C-. ·1'[.th 3.' atus 'b..~ers .~'.m~'fN:d beeeme ae..l (C-. the R-7V -1 'first flew lId N OV.'eu"riW'.~ni~lS"~Q.• ..1~!I'erD'ia'.!1. anti tr" " " 't'h "-~.12iL carried a nine ton radome a tId support pylon on top of the fuselage just 'to the rear of the \\Jwng..000 sq uar . . They are unique in that they bear neither <: ~ nnmber or military number..81iS~UI0 Dos" i ~!~. .Y.-.-. Foreseei ng a need for a Iar ge fleet of aircra Ire 'to carry' tro ops and cargo across the Pacific . .'" ~uddenly ru':!tlb(H'.lf~~uffici. 1111]'·' ..t . . I.U_·.!!!.'" 'f.·2. ....' 1 =' m GI.1/t C(Jrl'r)~ femarkab.-:C-12 K's ar-e also known . as C .ally to have been tbe YC-134' -0 President 1 .. res ···p.uno ·fE··· ""a.'1 2'1 L Wl. rep lac ed by elec ronic equipment a's it was delivered from the man ufacturers .p.!.. 'W'C-.": .-_'~~ err.-~.~'.~ ~-·'r:·onner U ~ -" Gill.tonai.(ill an.are se.W1..I'and . ~. Ifn. -jsenbow'er's i The R7V-1 carried a: crew of "'Ou.l'ler~'f: ul1iJ. .dbam) J ohnson ') Chief Research improvements much improved Connie. communications ..CO. LEliti. m.4 51n.Ji!L'!:!L\_t ~ .llJcll).' . The first: W·V·.JI.'!I !!l IL)~. Y V"'"Ie _or J or. ne ..' C and D AE'W stations and"C121F.2.iaJ'g(! ..he ·L.. and 80 the EC.ii .. . earnest . icf .F Su-P'e. 'i' ... .'" ~ 0 . t Au gu st.- ..ors all'e " nlm ' .:..C-' 2. 'V···...s... each.)~JIL (Ii - Ii 'if .C 'transport s.Head~. a ~..~v.. .J2illK working ou of N.gea~. carry relieferews fer long ocean _lJ'UlfOils..6111'ber... the /{.. of stretehers ..n£.7'V. an'd-I ·S--"··" Ad Jilfhl~. .12IN weather stations.' I.R. pectively.!I!.1.: A:'. Warning Stars are also . .106 passengers (U S.~"C~lqwlilra Pusa« ~nul..¥1 IS a~ R? V-. Much of th is Loc-kf~e(!.y V'.f R~·:l350~DAJ.. • - .AS Patu.:j.~04'9B Con stella tions were powered 'by 'OU. ]_. =lll.C-121':" and 'WV=3 and.". .20 and . "'I'L?"JI.~l1ilit'~FY_ A_~F_T"{1.. _' .I". an area of some 19 6._ Force also p: aced orders with Lockheed . lC~..". R.e first .y . 'S' l~eJt\.r 8 t . J S...1ese_ very much like a shi p as there are bunks for lUeTI off duty and a galley for hot meals a nd many spare 'j[J arts ..~04g B.~te·.•• 'onstellations out of the Goddard Space' Center.j3-7.' .~'IJJ 'S A.-. W:· ... control consoles.

.lpu itin service on the Amsterdarn=-New 'York. '". ~E..0' !li' ~ or road rn radition of " I] when many . 11_: .sc:. I.of'Id .. .~' :D 12 J' DI picke t" aircraft oj" tire UiS. . I.ixty.W. S 55/.. th ~ L. Specially medlfled ockheed S:· uper C:o·. be--no ~ar.L49 C ~ service to brine ihe on I n~ . Over 3 0 . cruised at about 3130 111. (Pho tos: "..arnim :S· uadron four ( . e rl g inr~s·~h' ..e .ye which reorese rts the storm s centre.· L·~10491 which 10nJy tw 0 years ~-I I. .oekheed reported th a. ' d on Ion g range rn iss to ns Viol hile ~ c iw i Special " handles the sb 0" t·· nes ~ B.till en "the assembly lines L' ...e Florida.i 11 "h.uary~ 19.uper Constellation... Hi' . as i~ had . r he Southwest ... __ IIooio'_ .p..d at b AS Jacksonvun.:...•.' bs.F. oosevel t .'.)bi d lormally known as a Chapparel TUml-:... and.ore and aft.) .~.. sin the coyote at rl.: . .53. t4. 1...mor _ powerful R-3. (U·. . ber produced to .958 . -4. \ve·'e built ighteen ~ r ckheed Super for . wai tz.·· ra Seaboard and.~ vm he engine.m 7th . !. ictor' . By mid-i eason .:oa""" P uen 0 Rico ~ _"ir.. Sri' nev x. 0 f eight couk b. .adOn.~1t!..rbo-'~yclone R.· . was namer I. r Constellation.Al Wright TnI' b o-C clone CI gines tha t increased i origin 1 .: r.mard K~ . mgin ..049 We t to .B ..·n~ten..~o. rans W. il!Jil DiU .. ight Lcckhee d W·· ~12" aircraft. Y throu -b. .addition 10 rnai bese at AS Roosev It Roads" a detatchmen is station ...lil . rsion of the' I L}·fJ4"C 0.p._ large cargo d 00 rs b O'~ b ... 'th.~ Ma. with its 20 per' cent gain in h. 3·. VI.. '. .. a val ta 'ion.h.954. had been phased out and rep aced by "1' -' 2~ Super .il.'i 1049.A.l2'JA serf1l48-60'A . ~ 5 OO'lllOO~ -1...ing b sed at Otis A.wel' of V'C-. rf Cdr. Hew th _ first Lock hee ..in Septem er in' 1. .SNGchu.WIll ~ - I.. t W.rcial sales as Ii ': onstella ion.nstell at ion with the '0 . on 19t11L 0 cto ber 1953 ~ :Eigh'other airlines put ttl L..insignia Includes the Gold. Dallas • piml'o'gnJphed In S Texas.~. Overall are engaged i vbat ha b en ca led the mos d .. e detat! and Uleral s v.2"s . d rrn g' a.-:ftI04. in 1 art is stationed the AnotherC-12' K goes by the nam at :. ill1 known cartoon te am ir the U..1049C ~·<u'. -. " =.. the Red and Black flag svmbolizing the u . The non-stet for abou t . aircraft of the Hurricane ~ unter's Squadron are based at .S.ricane a nd a BI ue .ngerous flyiro~ in the world. and sold 1.2Sq h.astern 11a. rst al rcraft.a1J 'the' P'V'. loa runner are a ..· . KLr. 'pushed abe Id of i'[': competitor ~ tb e ~n transcontinental routes. j ten May born) I...1 I . seven air lines wit h Igl. n· . However. tur in e: and . 'S'~:~eed ~.. me r new wing w til greater strength which upped the 'ltli ke-off W' .S...35U-D..104.mos of the -' 049' ~ were converted to -10490 W lU..n. n::1He~_ rer hour. ThIs..TIC Patux ent Coyote . . .bou I ~I Lockh .. I J Paisano' k aft .9D 'EI'St. '0 pis ~01]. lopec 3.tes . ~ Pai sa n 0 D'~ the same org riz uion' s . The four-engine -1049C was a sig . 2 is U·.. gave . g']itf~ati }' " an .rtS'm in 19:55~ 11 . 1 ' ions for the ill'S'1 tim" . i 1 . iver.--:0:.onstellatlons.. 'eb . .ali new leas on lif . can tly improve. '.. r . carried at n. Aerographer's Mark.~rcraft bore names of carte on char IC·t rs. .I lilT·iIl.i um -IeI' the C0111m". ed suit with. 0·.. 0 _ y ~U'.p.1 ..$1.-:1 1n ~I _.d fi IS t pur irr o service earlier. West rn put '[he first L onstellation cargo ersion of th -1':4" in service. w- '!l . p._fori .~'!'II . 50m C. ' JIJIl. mal ing possib !e I 1' . la ge gre cloud ov r blue v..JII ~11 .~y. ettin 11' ..eptel'J7iJer J 9j(jJ at oJo'e Pi 'Id. ater wit high \'lfll_ ves stand all kinds f we ther. ugust. 'V u tilizi ng ex haust gases. oner . ". '··... di: h ctor of comm . The W. ~'lines £ollo\... '11\1: . mute irt . .: I dj. I~.\ .

-L. bu ilt b~lLockheed iTIl " :tur~Srch ur~j1. la:[~~~.9:5~l budget . cargo.2 aircraft are now In wide use h.e:~ auents. Navy ordereda similar transport.. COl1vers~on from cargo to 9~. 1959. ."" X·. charge ()c'" tile 'pn~.wgna:~d.lel 1049Fs were delivered to the Air . o:n~ stella non order to improve the ]\1] litary ~".S. Josef Sedlack an entomcloglst from Bernice Bishop Museum in Hawail. oeru .J111u".19'0 Super Constellation i]l-O comrnerc al service Nor hwest Airllnes Fifty-three LI'"'(l4 H~s \Ve(.atEon to-passenger' 'W. '~_ 1 /I . 20th September.on. "..ng and Seoul towards a beachhead tat Pusan.'~'.J. 'with a fuselage especially stressed and desru.~ 1049_" was a vcargo-convertible- i. . 2].. I ' .Koreans and chased Allied troops OU~ of Pyongya.ew Zealand toAJltarrc~ica. rom '::..m The 'C-i2'-.t.S.'h~help bui~d.. i~b. "he _com-' plicated trap was designed. and 'was.v~mlbe'! ~ m. built ~ ~. 6. Th.t2 hours a day with ~ Ioad factor of 8~4per. .'9. N. went to Flying ger ~ ir Lines in .al Guard Sqnadrons.2SC. .cent..g~ed for cargo loads upwards or 2.'. w~s m.3. and was later delivered version of' the -1049G ~uper ICo~te]~ lation.?...88 J 'feet long.od.:~.. 958.121'G ~ " .I~rm~l lli..DF _I_ --:1- the Chinese Communists reinforced the North. '. C...transport IcapabUity~ Thirty "'hree~.~:~~.s~ sidewall Nati.J= (R-: -V' '[[1"ame d tile "P. . lavatories. C .. the AIr '~ I.m~re l than thirteen airlines. the '. buffets. Thjj~.'9'".Loc:kh~ed 104.'0 A. However . accomplished by. the len gth of tw o ~r'" = - . . fat the C"" 121 C was 75 passengers or 4 7 h~. ject. ~ lining..~ O ne '. The ~'. acccmmodated a maxtmum ~ IL. 'B' .1-.' 1r No" 1311 624) was es peciallyequi sped U)_ catch insects in fl1~ghts. l'"'i04. and other facilities. _ynng Tiger utilized tb~~r fleet of ID4 Loekheed L . adding cabin r.'. :1956 as VH-EAM.~.04'9H·"s. he L-1049'[~ SLUpe'" Constellation first flew. tD4..6 built and fl~W]"l by .. the American Congress approved four supplemental appropriations to..._res:u~~~d S ul_a.?ad./ I..the llllt\'~~cr~: fir strength. 1149IH' '. of_ :106 passengets or 40~OOO lbs. sc that the bugs ~ould not be killed.2IC and the 'U.e. f '.3' of the b avy Constellations went to the /jr" -oree as C.. passenger (crew of 9) C~lnll'g'If1.). 2 . The -UJ49'H nl~ln cargo eompartmen twas ].. to Oantas. By December.9G placed the first . orce as C-l.~ ast LB' 104.. he few remaining with the When I.. ""' c '~' '" 1 Navy 'were dfs. Transp ort ur Service's long-range.0 tons.':I ~ ~ .

21 . 'low deck there W3~' addi tional cargo space.~. ·t June. New c.• I '.1 pound.. The ~ 1. It carried S8 first class passengers .. L..I r-.ll B . '_. werle'" .1649 ~ fea -ur s an ext remely low cabin sound co~~jl':ler. ~~ e e Starliner -I ·'49-'" sold for about "2.00 h.. eneine was the targest pi _ n engiru ty'" passenger liner pro_ uced by ~ny U. stellation . l could :fly tbe Atlantic. cabin._ B d) est On Ist leptemcf.50.. '-.. ie (': '. ICo1]stellaUQr~ G-A 'iE:: De. uel or: .'7!'" .rt SU -~er (R1V.-:..-249 -8 maximum take-of weight was .m. 1-.lPi ld A'~·-lines. to 1 SO ft .d ible leve ill by ." L -.. .~ _!' cruised a( 3.49A r..airline ord!.iug tak--o' on.' S.•.. C __P.hree ..31D.. . aximum S'- eed of uel supply including .h.. Corporati . 1 -1ft. for~..era' '. -'eneine turned over at 11 ~o. ion r ported that the = ." -' (Bu Air Nos. for CUI I ctuation .· 1a 01u ...on could b_~ Ical'.y.'1 ew ".. of 1 I': -rankiu. k Airwa .S.'. -.31VY and two 'C.. Air Force. while Ih cabin... pressuriz ition svstem only required . harnessed to t . 1954 a 5 5001 _. was..s IYCI . he span was incn ~_S d.uf ham a Tr.2mB an th Boeing (_~.ln.ck heed's sound proofing te ts developed a quiet Su-r IG _'n nella ion.r. 13US6IO & Ill661.•.ried dur. 24"H 1 engine r "It' 70 :'.. w au.'C. loll' ' way sin: -e'44m I.. rn th . -"he . nugdien _ and Wo... -0'( the U.croSon in I'he S.~J re --1.ydroma i'propellers were '5 f .-C:n. . lrcraft .23 ... i._ : ckheed .II s. ondon tO San.A.0 '~c.0' . • 17J. Jo [l]}son chief Ol1::1 l.-ions pel" m. t 7C bu the Intr duction of .in _ th Hamilton Standard pro:.u~:_ 'tba:[ .0 k '~O Athens: and . .ns .ev. "n '3'tb Dece m er m 957 TW _.. Censtel lat -on ~ I I or I... while the pro :5 were g ared down to 1 000 r. orne a. engines me nt:-.p.i_h 371 m..r~·nes~ (J.53-81518 'or the .l~~ta. I nrrying]6 on loads across the con Ine ' nonstop in less th.000..._1 00 gallon wing . l The only alrcraf using this p:.-~_ ···t I{ lner into comme rcial s ervice on .l-Ha'till had ..b e of cruising at' '.... engine.Ai. . .orkGan er-London . S .S~ . '.m.'E -U ther T'..tatt _ \Vhjtney T ~34 urbine prop -j'~.' ndon. r pressuei .. anc .2I'-.acturer._ -- .. "r ---: t wid ttl' Din t__ keoff '.' clawed a record 0- cars '\ itb 5' J fiew 61.heed ba m fact for two...-2.ic ft. 3J1..61. Condor. gallons.. i. rs on tl Sup: ron .. the L..:: ti vel· IDr.'. imited service as did two other T. Among thes the engines..'__han the Douglas '.ith '_':'.- level because of 'he engine locations~:.. 6 hours.2 14..157.. and (abov) -1049C~ 450J del:i'lJefl d 10' mL. r 0 space and 1'1 The ' -1649.peed ... a' y tOI have been the C-134-LO'~ he -1241 I. VIr}.L Iwed dIe blade tffip . rve I · 64!'.run~raduced the first L. ._J...S. TW:~ urope i icluding .· ~ as Pfl~rFPI ock eed v~ ~he a:ohor_ 20t/1 --_. or I) 'I h ~awaii. iet· and [IS. manu .. ranee .CW"> o.~'O_ ft.I 34 0 Turbo -Pror ." run d"ameter and the Iades .. to Chrisbn3ls mail to Army personnel dn G rm ny.~~.h.'.p..: . irlines . :the' n -O'~ stellation IU.p. m ng:'1 -e lnany .~~ptanks was i ~O gallons..yo' hropha ... The -1. 1951~ This la t [.. luxury configuration or up to 92 tourist S'~~ Ie. 1_' l~I-2.:. Changes included 9 U e ttra 'pounds of insulation. r duction of propeller th -0" bel. : nd its s ervice ceiling was 3:5'~I·I·.abm. ater rao_.:p•.0 m. SPI.-~O. La" . ch engine . 'I'll: YC-121 WI' or'. ~-. n and range. _he Hrugl1t from Burbank '0 Paris was aCCI~) plished in 1.-urhallik tal ~aris'" Burb __ '.arlhier fir· t 'flew 1 mth October 1956~ Tran World . 45 min .!_ l.f ma~ carried I verseas in one day..0 m.. (pIloto s: ' '.r system bad b een mod ifie d.". Nos. . 9 .t o the l1~'W wing which tad been designed for maximum I..0 '0 Ibs. I. p. Ca rying 58 to 162 passenger: :in t1 ~. ri.ngeles 1'0 .0 '...ht c:' I I' .cubic feet of cargo space. .'st Ojgbt" oc ...'..vlet1 no ~ siest section.. rna" 'it~· .V_ er plant to go Into production was '~h~Douglas C-133~ The L-I-'49 I" LBi'J49A -" .(.s. . ng n. opposite the Il!n.."49· Super S .'. J t airlin rs cut reduct ~on short.A Starlin .. letnbe-r l!Jj 3'.n. 5-..649.00 -'. i. . w: re built and..'.S. I " I we e . > and . five f ". a. the four I amilton S' andard _urbo .g.. ]50 00.•• -o_t . e stop i -8 h s. at 1 s.rId A:m rways.' 10) s. ~'Ba..~.Ilation " M i'l- ~. to Iambu .rion f .• a nr-rr_aJ 1(..ginl. I. to use D[. ru lifo cabln supereharg 10]1· d '. ia Bulb afi and Cftl :_ &.ltimo'Fri'. .. . in II all ' mail Lac "he.011- ..rjss~:" rl. sv Iopmen t o'~the Su ' Constel la "ion diffe' ed primari Iy in ha vir B' an en t ilnie]y new wl g of thinner ecti 'U.. capacity 'WI[I S 9.:_ alifc rnia run "0 well under fi heurs.' ..'-'~.34 PI:V red airc a t I he' :ugI.1-- with its " u.r 75 eoachl had 5'9 3 C ·.p~h.~'r~l' .n]y .A t Starlit er had a gr. it.-.:lw.! feet many n W records a' .'6houn 21 min.. I amilton Standard propr U. l~_J .

Panair do. (Great Britain). at 24. Trans-Canada Air Lines..'.detai I and fIJli ~~gvi e WJ' of' .. e (J?'hotQSI: Lockheed) . Varig (Brazi~)...INT AND :STRU1C.'ermany). Pan American . tunnel tests.A. Seaboard & We ster 11.Q.rr ays wanted the Excali'bur :~rger . Pakistan Interna tional."~J!Jirndia.2 version. L.11 d faster to carry 34. Next development was the Exealibur built in. Cubana (Cuba).1 m..YIU'R'E =' he Lockbeed Constel ~ arion W'.. wlu:n' . Thaw Airways (_ hailand).i.~chine became the fastes: (}.V (Venezuela). A.9 as a four engine air iller with twin . -0 ckheed Mo del 14 and Hud BOrn.W'o:rld Airlines.p.n tas Emplre Airways. and South TWA-Trans Eastern Air I ines Northwestern Orient A.30"s. Brasil. rom '[he ..olland).i('}1! transoor! in d~ world.p. powered by Pran at:~'d Ht'l!U1tey T~14 m. "his design aroused much interest but ao orders./~: :m..'f riean '" irways . .A.([ s develo p ed from a canard design in the late ill9. .h. . irlines.. ockheed s at 300 m. Iberia (Sp ain).SI. E~w(}'Pe-Ai'r : 'ranee. D'eutscheLuftha.tails.:711-. EAR 'y DiEVElO"ME. W'wth sealed up wings of the Lockheed Lightning 'G'()Ul1d~.'P"l1~-·_ct that tM11e .a. K. B. . oekheed-Fowlei Flaps .Asia 1& AJri:r.'fOp-df'iI. mockup in 1938-3.A.:nsa ( :.. .A us t raUa-Qia. 'outh Am'erican-Aviarnca (Colombia). 1(1'.it {~p'fJ(!twed $~I Sep ~'e~'ibi?r 19j4 #1 is 44rJ - --- . Whld. pas sen gers plus crew a C:U. Pan American World Airways.. ~ .': Israel. North and _-:.L .. 'nile designers began.'O. 'P'38 and improved .tlu. 11..turbo-pro/)s. Portugal. 0:[ the Excalibur indicated it could carry 24 passengers P'~U8 crew omer.C. having horizontal controls in the nose.

M'DOn·· 'fliT .1 Ill. Mall".it:l!d b~' N . .. E: • 'S ~ 1I . E lIHi Ii" I Mil ill in!Siiilfl ~'1~ n.t.~'I'649A Star' I ilTIe'II".a.jI. .:i!l:1<! 1M "".. A L~UM9E mll!"w.gllo . . Super A U5!tl'a Iii <!J" Ct(!lli'i!:s:telliilJ~ i !ll. .f 1 .!ilador:51 Inc. !5im~fiJiiii~ A.. I '~61..Iii.p. '. VIH.tielil' II A!I:!~IiIITI~ytiit!5i Adlmillfin stll"ii3JJtitI.. ilr'oiPostal Ve:"ei!ol~n '" L. L.1Ll' op Fam: d b L~:s V g-~ IHaciend.i!!! CenU'u.. ]1: Il.- nil::a5.."ri.• '~'M..-S~~G:.V.j'. ~Y5 ~~g. h rn 195.. 'V H· . YV·C· A'MS of !line A.g Am. ·iI"a.E·AI U.ai!la.pe!l' -d ~ilbil1ll wi!l1dws.iI.' Il' 'M9'Bli cjn 41591 Ii!Ix.an Ke:ny. N i . iii:{n ~00]'1 N 7.54~ Conl:lj.'iI!. . HCH::III lne..r . ~1.Ul!d.)i'5..A. B". ito. HI 1~I"~t rl nod I ·U1491E "U. Hililtii1i!I'I..illl· 1L.rlitl.I.ite.1'I. ::!II :Ji.J!!'!I1I Glcuj'da ird S:Pi. ei(~ HI9 .(l'4i1 Corn'lt£ II arlen N 9-411 cj{~F 8~' ZA of Ai If' r:aJJ1. z:11~ :SOY tfl1 ght.:}.tJ.'lD1C of RII)!'ijrli.. . 1i'6S.·lrilli1:iIj!l.:u.1..ert Ihl! ri A'S ._:'U !5'~II"liIIlia. a L:!i1!i.J. iCal 5 ~!ol~ iii I G iPof I"~ilit ug ~. .s!I!l Qf II'IriI A. Vee ~ NI 1j1.od Sp. 9HI of H T" W... 19. .r6..[I ag:i!!Sc. o.d ~ iB...

. in.th " '13 {t" ''] 'iJ n. Will. by lIS'~'mg 'the knov ledge gained from 'he firs.~therhi'ead..ed by the .:940 mill es. B~lx 26. S.aJ'~ion~s L't:d. 1-'.. ~..i(Ul-teD'1 'the ph.12 im" p" h. Loc ._J~ r~:~ed tat 3: .gh.W r i..gh...ding edges and flowed from the rear or the engine to exb a U8't behind the large prop spianer at the fron t or the engine ~ Wind tunnel test p roved ~he drag reduction 'W.d fo. 1 iIFl1. ".p'. ill 8 Cylind.g.heed's XC~35~ This was the Air .io.lid rad iai eng i n !is.q.e Cons'~eUatiou was desru. One 'Vier)' interesting feature (luring' the developmentof the engine hlstan~eltion was an effort '~O obtain minimu m d rag.o U 'Ii CuJIr-t iiss..en-' ".sq '.IP. over rubber boots".." Stand.e with! Sp~c" Hmit :!.h C ru n ia't is ~ng.~:ft. ~.Loc'. C in. l'el)g...p~ex .~I'~illJ..di 1 ~. P RIIINliED' ~N EN G. £ng'in.6111 b.1.eld:ed." L"e n gt h 11.~16 m" p.G. . :j pia1!:tO ~ S'IPeied 2. ~ luVTh. .rfor.p. ..m!tlln ~'e'. ~b.1:5.00Ib. W'e/ili es': E:lrrll ~..I~.121 C Drmens.. 3.ght D1J.· ue s orne ca..~. -. 7 in. :3~25 P'e..r.n. Eng-ira es:' f.th 1'1' ft. 13:10 mliIes phi Si re~er'V e$. ft. When Lockheed completed the Constellat ion test programme'.4 rho ccm Pr~ u n dl ht t'l.ed '1'~O. resultant savings rnn C011S~J1npUo[[ on ong mghts~ .ard .. the Wr ~ t R J. ft" Wei g~ ~s.Ie J i~J .le w'ith liliiJ:aJximlUiJm f'JU!el l(lad .!:n. ""'0' '1"llAi'p.gs.~ftl1ll '~'t.3350~35' engines.j ~[bQ C.~!!I a .. The wing srructure 'W. 2..mlu IiTlI .en eyl lnder L~1IC~.. by reversing the O:ow' of air thro ugh the cowling.~!6S.: H ~ i.. Wi [l.5 . ran. L~1649A STAIRUN ER O.t}l'" 1'. ~ if" COO ied .all1tkClse I"urtis. Iation' .tf .lOCO.~:'H.:5 in. 2nd ell ~s s M.9G jI"ijlU"iIlo UA.000 lbs~ The l~lamrn]'h]. W~ nl: area 1~.JiS m . 'W. seriou's dam~ge:~ and h. And(!rl()n..~400 f[..p.200 h.. Lockheed engineers borrowed another "star"..d .1 cru usin.. D i.31 rn.P rformed am.t 3'1~'OOIft.~OOOlib" f.X irn IU! 1m h ." . Il.A3fifte. and equipped it with Conste lation power plant s. M:a. I~ ad . Wi:rnd 'tunnel tests were .0 Iii fa.he Cons:telb~1~.~.· fo r M CIC:O II'lq U'odaJJ. "- It!!.tr.1.OO~I lb. <:-.eac:b.!6~!O .ejj.pprox" m j 1 l r. 'c. F'.7 1m ".p"llil. ~.Wr~.'It :3 ~. F~1a '1"ISO sq ~ '~t. .. x im I!J m 5 pe~d 195 m '. . .56 T.. 86. a..: IH'eigl'lIt 23 fit".ed! 1 S'6.~'i.s'~ee~ .Bine -l:J fiQ'b~Jen]s Wf'flS.Il"m'~.J. of ills wings 'were spot w.e~ gl~It 23: ~t. the Lockheed Ventura.MS. gh It was promptly chr istened 'U1. provided capacity for fun cabin pressuri za tion in the even t of the faj 1UJ['.IP .e~e:n cy I~' n d !i!'Ir' it U~ co 0 led t iJ.g araa.!!lms ions: .p.~ e il' &" So fTi s' Littd.n e:ivil uSia the maxjmum \lveIgh.~1. 'art 25. particularly around fuel tank areas.=Wri.d bj/ G.j 101 h ~.ou.S~J.eJ~a~~i..' M~)(irn I~ m s peed .u~:sing'~p." 51 in..cr.3. 1m ~. .:: Wing.~33S0-D'.t G. .'OU'S reas 011 S..\~fl'rked.Wri.n.en£~'~ 1116 f.~ P.. to be us. ra:t: " St6lQClI n.400Ii. others caned it "Sweater.'-1minutes. ft~ W[e'ig.tt he air recirculated grea tilly improved the over au' pressurizati en . ap p I ie.'OOO {t..alnc. ~CA~'s High Speed Tunnel: conven tional type: wings from the ockheed P'-38 Lightning with a S... vented.p. 't-_.~an opera.6$4. h.e's~' if. p" Ii! .-Wru!.g J..~eft '~he gr'o'un d ~ Fully "5 pet O~l]rt..t lO'I.IIl.rs urne(J..LANID! ~ Profliille Pulblh:..gr\OISS. IIk.peed .: L~ngdm 111:3 fl~..'e:[ R.:: !oad.S: S. 1 .~ 19.: He Ig:h t 2.[~ © 1l()t:"'~les.. m.O.e ng. ft.a.rnIIIt~ 80 . a : speciall 'Wrigh'~. 'j IIQaded 1.~ es: ! 1.. '~c.t was 'ill be around.Pi" hi '.oaJde. 'by using.eiCl y i' PIIPc dI .Uc' co~up~ in. 1a NJ.~1ii ge 4.3~..110 ~.R.t ...~_.S: e f$i~i. '24..400 mil e'Sm f Cy~ind. D... . Fo~~ 'Curi:iss=WW'~gh[ R. irl he "Ven-Tellation" was! found 1[0 have [a very simililli3lf performance to the Cons tellation and wa s therefore ideally sui ted for eng j. ~an:g.e'Tl S u_perchargers.t~on was..on1'sm~'e:rruor fusel:1lllge surfiJ"oe and.~'mitu. ~'t '21.... j' Wi [ii.150 lin '.te.. ~.. . Oi".ty tel! 686.. ·•• ·~I~'fbrnru~-'-ID.g' ~ re~.3:jl~1'6..~OOO mile:s.e f o elither The large perce -ntage of .'-.·heed Aerodynamic Laboratory.less th~Ulh~f"'of the .~\~rr.'6~Oft. Wimg area 1 ~~:50 sql.osta. IL .6S0f't. .aft s.t.driv.cr.ropeUe.) 0-:35. W~i.gear... ' RC .h~':s. engine install arion eha nge record was Sf t at 2 .'l6. ual superchargers.t~o Ii'} 'the m.10 rn ~p" h.1600 f'~ ffi. PI2(filltffl. Bxperience fto:m another "star" was drawn upon for cabin pressurization.~i'Iii ill ~I R a. G max i11m UJ m er u us in.e cmm'~d be confin..vo' s. =V Q 'IL.$.~).~gh t of ~rl'veir 90. 10 per Q~nt...m'fli1si(iifJlS : Span '12] 'if t. e..h..es~..iS com" anmented and..ee-tt lle..rfo r.g' 1!60 rn .6!H) s ~I.g. omplete fire protection fire warning devices and 'fi re ext ing ushers WleJ:1! prov ided to all four engines. Pime~:s..4CO h~. i h . .g:~t 24 oft.'. L-1104'9H • be...ad six:t1een t11. Surl!l-ey~ Ell1gllan...of ~.:: jl.l .D'1 eighteen (:y.r Cu'rlt'iJ:s:s".: Heilght .~5"iQ\.e[~ ~8!ow' control with the.. 1! in.ps version or the first " :-16ctra~ Cabin pressuri ati on with refrigera tion as wen as air conditioning '~O reduce humidity and fumes was incorporated inthe basic d. were adopted over severa] different wings including laminar flow types. ~.alnJ~113: ~t.p.TI D'N S 1IL"..U1 IOf m23 feet. '.4 it~ '9 in.42 m. ml:aJximliJilm .t [1R.the University ' of Washingt "fl.tt!. .designed gear reduction system .fM:e: Mitaj:ximlll ml spee~d1 ]:-4. ].3.!fated at ]. Ven-Tellation " for . F~!ur C ~rtn ss . 'W!!l'!'i.s.~d 11015. at 12 ..ydfo:m... ft. Wi Inl! are a 1 ~.celle ~or fire warning" B.~ E m ply" S'6..~S smal]..s: to =s- SPEC:~1FliC:A.. ~ I oa.'m'Gil'ns:i Oi1..rth S.h.' IF. e 1'\.mya:t a .ne$. 113 f~'.t 191. h" i Pe ~fbrmQr1lce : M ax~mlu m s'p'e~eI 3.an'ksh.i ng'I' 3.-.'~ lIfang'~ ..~ Sparr.. W r ~...'of' be ii'"'Ii..' IIIii. I~=_~.y llsing. MIli3J')( mum s p~edl . WJ ~I 16·.D '~rt.COQ' ft.ghes: IE.~ic P..P'i.mn-.h. '[':fPka.p" h . I 'hermal deicing was chosen.e 11 a ~lIIi.g'h E mllYt'1 .p. IIb...000 {e._"3 aii F' 'WOh. out W:Hht four 2.: Em P ty ~ 13 ~ 3 lib i~: I c'adl'ed 1 33:.SO=B.' e:lfiid lu"".o:n.ollr Cu FIDiSi~. 1~.~f:-. ':'. 'i be "-'V.atnd cow Hnp without causi:l:ru.' i cf'uis.~ uiin A'.OJilGe Irm3Jxii.d it ~ en-.ir Q~'@! led r adl ialii ~'ng ilI'1I'es 'ffart~d :tU.. .a.power and. D driven directly 'b!)' the engines.4.Eng. fll. 3Jt l'~).t American pressure cabin aircraft. the 'Co'n8teUa.~ t5:' E. ~. 'tile Wr~ ght en gine company bought the a wrcr.60 lb.-3.!: Jmc III " b E..e~I ~'.•.. f or flight tests.'~f\m-...~'I~aJ1!j '123.d ~t 1 . we.h Pe.miJ'~ ce . ~ .' D'n 1~.'ec}ul01ogy''''and. p'.'ed SO thtlt an engine '6 .es:.g R-3 350~.h.14<9 pimeP!'i:s:ioi1s .3:46 1m.aft fro!' her d: evel ~lIiu..ed for 30 minutes within the g'Uli -n] ess steel engine nalc~l1es .eed 31" m.h~~ns.ngine:s:' FO'Uf' C!JJIr'tiiss.. 3Jt 23~OOD it. '~t. The air' entered through the wing lea..gi(Jes . 9S8 1'1(:18 EA6 eight c:y ~in dell" ali'r' ooo'~'e I~(·. '9 i11il.O f'ril po!u riI d ra:te d ~.h.e City P'fU rr~1 g IJ i'il'i is iQ Dl! La 11don.t~-.crusurn'8 SP'~'(H~ ..peed. 1 1 1 perfo.e .~.p. Passageways in. . d Perfo rm fllJfu:e : MI~x im U 1111 S pe~:d .'j":~na[[ly en. irii .s..3!50-IEAl e:~g'ht. 123 h.gn..ght IR-J.a.. U..erm.U.. 0 Le'~l~th 95.i.. He~ght 21' 'ft. 'o-r. 31 j:500 I b" .$".CtJO I~ b.~n. wings permitted the engineer ito reach all engines in ffight. ~ an 1 S. iiIll.lb'D..n n j . 1 ~~" .121/EC-'111. Tb.5 iIrIJ.40 m. ne test.3.3.s peed aili: ('D% pOlwe [") :29'8 m '.p. '.'~ nd er e~!( ra ted ~t 115 00 h.et:. 1:B~~OO ft.

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