Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank

Restoration Systems, LLC
September 2011
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Final Piospectus

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1.1 PR0}ECT 0B}ECTIvES ........................................................................................................................................................ 2!
1.2 BANK SP0NS0R ANB C0NTACT INF0RNATI0N............................................................................................................ S!
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2.1 REu0LAT0RY NEEB........................................................................................................................................................... 4!
2.2 ENvIR0NNENTAL NEEB................................................................................................................................................... 4!
2.S TECBNICAL FEASIBILITY .................................................................................................................................................. S!
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8.1 SITE INTR0B0CTI0N.......................................................................................................................................................28!
8.2 PBYSI0uRAPBY, T0P0uRAPBY ANB LANB 0SE.........................................................................................................29!
8.S WATER Q0ALITY .............................................................................................................................................................29!
8.4 vEuETATI0N.....................................................................................................................................................................Su!
8.S S0ILS ..................................................................................................................................................................................S1!
8.6 BYBR0L0uY......................................................................................................................................................................S2!
8.7 FL0vIAL uE0N0RPB0L0uY...........................................................................................................................................SS!
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9.1 BAN REN0vAL.................................................................................................................................................................SS!
9.2 FL00BPLAIN BEST NANAuENENT PRACTICES..........................................................................................................S7!
9.S WETLANB INPACT Av0IBANCE ANB NININIZATI0N...............................................................................................S8!
9.4 C0NSTR0CTI0N ANB STAuINu AREAS .........................................................................................................................S9!
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11.1 INPR0vEB AQ0ATIC C0NN0NITY.............................................................................................................................S1!
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11.2 INPR0vEB WATER Q0ALITY ......................................................................................................................................SS!
11.S RE-C0L0NIZATI0N BY RARE ANB PR0TECTEB SPECIES .......................................................................................S6!
11.4 ANABR0N00S FISB PASSAuE.....................................................................................................................................S8!
11.S RESERvE S0CCESS CRITERIA ......................................................................................................................................S9!
11.6 WETLANB BYBR0L0uY N0NIT0RINu......................................................................................................................S9!
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1S.1 REB-C0CKABEB W00BPECKER (FLI=L:D&%R=CDKZL&) ..........................................................................................6u!
1S.2 BWARF WEBuEN0SSEL (KZK&PL:=B-K%XD-DC=:=B) .........................................................................................61!
1S.S NICBA0X'S S0NAC (CXO&%PLIXKO[LL) .....................................................................................................................61!
1S.4 PRELININARY BI0L0uICAL C0NCL0SI0NS...............................................................................................................61!
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FIu0RE 1: NILB0RNIE BAN WATERSBEB.........................................................................................................................68!
FIu0RE 2: NE0SE RIvER BASIN ...........................................................................................................................................69!
FIu0RE S: FINE SEBINENT ACC0N0LATI0N L0CATI0NS ...............................................................................................7u!
FIu0RE 4: WETLANB NEX0S S0RvEY.................................................................................................................................71!
FIu0RE S: WETLANB BELINEATI0NS WITBIN INP00NBNENT.....................................................................................72!
FIu0RE 6: P0TENTIAL WETLANB uAINS ANB L0SSES ....................................................................................................7S!
FIu0RE 7: WETLANB BELINEATI0NS B0WNSTREAN 0F BAN......................................................................................74!
FIu0RE 8: NILB0RNIE WATERSBEB T0P0uRAPBY.........................................................................................................7S!
FIu0RE 9: S0ILS IN vICINITY 0F BAN ................................................................................................................................76!
FIu0RE 11: ANBIENT N0NIT0RINu STATI0N L0CATI0NS ............................................................................................78!
FIu0RE 12: SERvICE AREA ...................................................................................................................................................79!
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PB0T0 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................81!
PB0T0 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................................82!
PB0T0 S ...................................................................................................................................................................................8S!
PB0T0 4 ...................................................................................................................................................................................84!
PB0T0 S ...................................................................................................................................................................................8S!
PB0T0 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................86!
PB0T0 7 ...................................................................................................................................................................................87!
PB0T0 8 ..................................................................................................................................................................................88!
PB0T0 9 ...................................................................................................................................................................................89!

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 1 of 89
1.0 Introduct|on
Restoiation Systems, LLC (the Sponsoi) pioposes to iestoie appioximately S2,S9u-lineai
feet (LF) of the Neuse Rivei, which iuns fiom noith to south along the eastein euge of the
Extia Teiiitoiial }uiisuiction of Raleigh, Noith Caiolina. The iestoiation effoit will be
achieveu by iemoving Nilbuinie Bam. The uam is locateu on the Neuse Rivei
appioximately 1S miles uownstieam of Falls Lake in Wake County, NC (Figuie 1), within
the 8-uigit 0niteu States ueological Seivice (0SuS) cataloging unit uSu2u2u1 (Neuse u1)
anu NC Bivision of Watei Quality (NCBWQ) sub-basin uS-u4-u2 (Figuie 2). The iestoiation
pioject is pioposeu as a compensatoiy mitigation bank, heieaftei known as the !"#$%&'"()
*+,)-.&(+,)!"."/+."0')1+'2)3!*!14.

Since Febiuaiy 2uu2 the Nilbuinie Bam has been uesignateu as a piioiity foi iemoval by
the NC inteiagency Bam Removal Task Foice (BRTF), which was compiiseu of staff fiom
the N.C. Wilulife Resouices Commission, NCBWQ, N.C. Bivision of Naiine Fisheiies, N.C.
Bivision of Coastal Nanagement, N.C. Natuial Beiitage Piogiam (NCNBP), National Naiine
Fisheiies Seivice, 0.S. Fish anu Wilulife Seivice (0SFWS), anu the 0.S. Aimy Coips of
Engineeis (0SACE). The piioiity uesignation was assigneu to the Nilbuinie Bam foi
vaiious ieasons÷piimaiily because it is a known baiiiei to the movement of migiatoiy
fish, incluuing stiipeu bass (!"#"$%& '()*+*,*') anu Ameiican shau (-,"'(& '(.*/*''*0(). The
uam cuiiently impounus appioximately S2,S9u-LF of the Neuse Rivei main stem. In
auuition, the uam blocks anauiomous fish passage foi an auuitional 8.S-miles above the
impounument until the next baiiiei, Falls Bam. Removal of the uam woulu iestoie the

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 2 of 89
cuiiently impounueu ieach by ieestablishing the iivei's fiee-flowing (lotic) chaiactei. The
ie-establishment of lotic conuitions will iesult in multiple beneficial ecological changes,
each of which will be monitoieu to uemonstiate success (oi lack theieof) as pait of the
Sponsoi's obligations puisuant to the most iecent BRTF guiuance (BRTF 2uu8).

A piospectus was oiiginally submitteu foi the NBNB in Febiuaiy 2u1u. Aftei the Su-uay
Public Notice peiiou, the 0SACE piepaieu an Initial Evaluation Lettei, which iuentifieu a
list of issues inauequately auuiesseu in the Febiuaiy 2u1u Piospectus. Accoiuingly, the
Sponsoi has incluueu supplemental infoimation heiein to auuiess the inauequacies of the
oiiginal piospectus in accoiuance with SS CFR SS2.8(u)(S)(iii) foi ieview anu appioval by
the Inteiagency Review Team (IRT). Numeious pie-pioject investigations have been
completeu oi aie unueiway since submitting the initial piospectus.
565)7&08(9.):$8(9.";(<)
The iemoval of the Nilbuinie Bam is pioposeu in oiuei to achieve the following two
objectives: (1) the iestoiation of lotic anu anauiomous spawning habitat along
appioximately 1S-miles of the Neuse Rivei as measuieu by a set of success ciiteiia (Section
11.u), anu (2) the geneiation of stieam mitigation cieuits iesulting fiom successful
iestoiation. The success ciiteiia anu associateu stieam mitigation cieuits aie pioposeu
unuei the most iecent BRTF guiuance (2uu8). This guiuance uesciibes geneial ciiteiia that
will be monitoieu foi impiovement in oiuei to geneiate stieam mitigation cieuits. The
following foui piimaiy success ciiteiia aie pioposeu foi the NBNB.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 3 of 89
56 =,>&0;() ?+.(&) @%+#".A: The impounueu ieach is chionically affecteu by hypoxia
anu anoxia associateu with theimal stiatification anu low flows along the iiveibeu
within the impounument.
B6 C<.+$#"<D)+')+>>&0>&"+.()+@%+."9)90,,%'".A: The existing aquatic community is
pieuominately compiiseu of lentic species, typical of lakes anu ponus. The
iestoiation effoit will tiansfoim the impounueu wateis into a iiveiine system;
theieby suppoiting moie ecologically appiopiiate lotic communities; foi example,
filtei feeuing macioinveitebiates anu fish species such as uaiteis.
E6 F+9"#".+.()D+$".+.)&(<.0&+."0')G0&)+'H)&(I90#0'"J+."0')$A)&+&(K)('H+'/(&(H)+'H)
.D&(+.('(H) +@%+."9) <>(9"(<: The NCNBP lists element occuiiences foi eight iaie
species that aie state- anu¡oi feueially-listeu. These species occui upstieam anu¡oi
uownstieam of Nilbuinie Bam. Bam iemoval woulu open anu iestoie habitat foi
some of these species.
L6 7&0;"H() +'+H&0,0%<) G"<D) >+<<+/(: Nilbuinie Bam is a well-known baiiiei to the
migiation of two anauiomous species, stiipeu bass (!"#"$% '()*+*,*') anu Ameiican
shau (-,"'( '(.*/*''*0(), anu its iemoval will open appioximately 1S miles of iivei
main stem to spawning migiatoiy fish.
56B)1+'2)->0'<0&)+'H)M0'.+9.)='G0&,+."0') )
Restoiation Systems, LLC.
}ohn Pieyei
11u1 Baynes Stieet
Suite 211
Raleigh, NC 276u4
jpieyeiÇiestoiationsystems.com
919.7SS.949u

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 4 of 89
2.0 Genera| Need and 1echn|ca| Ieas|b|||ty
2.1 kegu|atory Need
Neuse u1 is a laige uiainage aiea (~2,4uu-mi
2
) within the Neuse Rivei basin. Its
population giowth iate is among the highest in the countiy (0S Census Buieau 2u1u), anu
theie aie almost 9 million LF of stieams within its bounuaiies (NCBWQ 2uu9). These uata
suggest lanu uevelopment activities aie likely to inciease in fiequency, as will local
conflicts between uevelopment anu aquatic iesouices. Theie is theiefoie an immeuiate
neeu foi auequate compensatoiy mitigation in the aiea.
2.2 Lnv|ronmenta| Need
The Neuse Rivei basin contains appioximately one-sixth of the state's population anu,
peihaps moie impoitantly, it nouiishes one of the nation's laigest anu most piouuctive
coastal estuaiies (the Albemaile-Pamlico). This complex ecosystem seives as a nuiseiy foi
9u% of the commeicial seafoou species caught in Noith Caiolina (Neuse Riveikeepei
Founuation 2u11). The Neuse u1 extenus fiom its ultimate heauwateis in Peison anu
Buiham counties to neai uolusboio (Figuie 2). This pait of the iivei passes thiough highly
uibanizeu, as well as highly agiaiian lanuscapes. Population uensity of the Tiiangle is
expecteu to inciease by moie than 6u% in the next 2u yeais. The Neuse Rivei has long
been listeu as an impeiileu iivei uue to the giowing piesence of algae, as eviuenceu by the
high chloiophyll-a concentiations of its wateis. Such conuitions aie known to be
piecuisois to fish kills uuiing hot summei months. The oveiabunuance of algae in the
iivei is known to be a function of excessive nutiient loauing, paiticulaily of nitiogen inputs
fiom uiban anu agiicultuial lanuscapes. Ecosystem iestoiation effoits aie necessaiy anu
shoulu be taigeteu at impioving anu extenuing valuable lotic habitat foi native fauna

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 5 of 89
stiesseu by the cumulative anu iecuiiing impacts associateu with uiban anu agiaiian lanu
uses.
2.3 1echn|ca| Ieas|b|||ty
As uiscusseu in moie uetail within the Restoiation Plan (Section 9.u), the pieuominant
iestoiation mechanism at NBNB will be the iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam. Bam iemovals can
have piofounu anu neaily immeuiate effects on fluvial ecosystems÷both positive anu
negative. It is theiefoie impoitant that uam iemoval piojects aie caiefully evaluateu,
planneu anu executeu so ecological benefits aie maximizeu anu unuesiiable outcomes aie
minimizeu. The potential benefits of iemoving Nilbuinie Bam aie well iecognizeu by the
NC aquatic iesouice agencies, as eviuenceu by the piioiity given to the Nilbuinie Bam by
the BRTF as one of the most impoitant uams to iemove in the state (BRTF 2uu2). Inueeu,
much uiscussion in this piospectus is focuseu on the likely ecological benefits of the
pioposeu iemoval (see Section 11.u). Bowevei, the possibility of unintenueu ecological
outcomes is ieal anu well iecognizeu by the Sponsoi, but the public anu the IRT uoes not
yet unueistanu theii piobabilities anu magnituues.

Among the possible unuesiiable outcomes with potentially significant consequence(s) aie:
the tianspoit of stoieu seuiments containing toxic substances, high iate anu fiequency of
seuiment tianspoit (toxic oi otheiwise), potential loss of floouplain wetlanus anu
violations of state watei quality stanuaius (i.e., tuibiuity, uissolveu oxygen anu nitiogen).
Below is a pieliminaiy analysis of the specific challenges ielateu to the iemoval of
Nilbuinie Bam. Each of the above conceins is auuiesseu in uetail in successive
subsections. Any iepoits citeu heiein will be maue available to the IRT (upon iequest).

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 6 of 89
2.3.1 Sed|ment 1ox|c|ty
Seuiment toxicity is an impoitant consiueiation uuiing the evaluation phase of any uam
iemoval. Initial investigations iegaiuing the potential of NBNB seuiments to be souices of
toxicity if tianspoiteu uownstieam have been conuucteu. Below is a biief summaiy of the
ongoing seuiment toxicity stuuy anu its pieliminaiy conclusions to uate.

Assisting the 0SACE, the 0SFWS's Bi. Tom Augspuigei completeu the 2uu8 iepoit titleu,
"1*%#&2&3#%,*0*$(#4&56(,7(+*"$&"8&3",,7+($+&9"7#:%'&+"&+;%&20."7$/%/&<%(:;%'&"8&=*6%&>(0'&*$&
+;%& ?%7'%& <*6%#& @('*$A& ?"#+;& B(#",*$(" (0SFWS 2uu8). The iepoit concluues the
assessment aieas uiaining into the Nilbuinie impounument aie uibanizeu anu aieas of
well uocumenteu watei quality uegiauation. In auuition, two laige municipal anu one
inuustiial facility with contiolleu oi uncontiolleu pollutant ieleases weie iuentifieu in the
NBNB assessment aiea. The iepoit iecommenus any pioposeu seuiment uistuibing
activities (e.g., uam iemoval) aie evaluateu only aftei auuitional uata collection, with an
emphasis on heavy metals anu hyuiocaibons (maikeis of uiban iunoff anu othei souices).
The Sponsoi is funuing the appiopiiate Tiei II seuiment toxicity investigations, which
began 11 August 2u11, leu by Bi. Tom Augspuigei. The Tiei II evaluation will ueteimine
the piesence¡absence anu ielative concentiations of vaiious heavy metals anu
hyuiocaibons. In auuition, the Tiei II evaluation will evaluate seuiment uownstieam of the
uam foi compaiison puiposes.

The 0SFWS pioviueu a uiaft Tiei II Stuuy Plan to the IRT foi ieview (0SFWS 2u11) in }une
2u11. Seuiments weie sampleu fiom within anu below the Nilbuinie impounument in
August 2u11. Bi. Augspuigei is cuiiently ieviewing seuiment chemistiy uata anu

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 7 of 89
piepaiing the Tiei II uiaft iepoit. The foithcoming Tiei II evaluation (anu all suppoiting
uata) will be shaieu with the IRT anu useu along with othei seuiment investigations (see
next subsection) to ueteimine whethei the pioposeu iemoval is likely to cause
unacceptable effects on local anu iegional watei quality.
2.3.2 Sed|ment 1ransport
Fine seuiment tianspoit is an impoitant consiueiation foi NBNB, especially in the contexts
of toxicity, tuibiuity, uissolveu oxygen anu nitiogen. The mineial suifaces of fine
seuiments aie known to be suitable binuing sites foi oiganics (the uisassociation of which
can affect uissolveu oxygen anu tuibiuity levels uuiing tianspoit). Fuitheimoie, upon
mobilization anu uisassociation fiom the substiate, aquatic oiganisms coulu be exposeu to
seveial types of potential toxins, incluuing heavy metals anu hyuiocaibons (the substances
iuentifieu in 0SFWS 2uu8). Theiefoie, the most likely mechanism of tianspoit foi toxins (if
piesent) anu othei pollutants associateu with uam iemovals is suspenueu seuiment
tianspoit. To bettei anticipate the likelihoou of fine seuiment tianspoit, the size, oiganic
content anu uistiibution of impounueu seuiments was assesseu.

Seuiment chaiactei (size, oiganic content anu uistiibution patteins) was suiveyeu on thiee
sepaiate occasions within the existing impounument. Bi. Auam Riggsbee conuucteu the
fiist suivey (}une 2uu9). Bi. Riggsbee concluueu the impounument stoies mostly coaise
sanu with low oiganic content within the channel, while floouplain backwatei anu wetlanu
aieas contain oiganic, fine seuiment accumulations. ENTRIX of Raleigh, NC (now Caiuno-
ENTRIX) conuucteu the seconu suivey (ENTRIX 2u1u). ENTRIX sampleu S8 sites within
the active channel of the impounument. Neaily 9u% of the ENTRIX samples weie

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 8 of 89
chaiacteiizeu as "sanu", anu 4S% weie chaiacteiizeu as "coaise sanu". 0nly foui sites
containeu "fines" (clay oi silt; see Figuie S, which also incluues a floouplain site noteu as a
potential fine seuiment souice by Riggsbee). The laigest ueposit obseiveu by ENTRIX was
locateu just upstieam of the uam, neai a cloggeu tiash iack (uiscusseu below anu in 0SFWS
2u11); the seconu laigest ueposit was obseiveu at the wetlanu confluence on the west bank
~16uu-feet upstieam of the uam. Bepth of iefusal (B0R; a means of appioximating
seuiment uepth) measuiements thioughout the impounument inuicateu the vast majoiity
of sites exhibiteu less than one-foot of accumulation (similai to othei fiee flowing ieaches
of the Neuse Rivei); howevei, the fine seuiment site locateu neaiest the uam (by cloggeu
tiash iacks) hau significant accumulations (7.7-feet; see next paiagiaph uiscussing 0SFWS
2u11 finuings).

Bi. Augspuigei anu Bi. Riggsbee peifoimeu a thiiu seuiment suivey (Nay 2u11) within
anu uownstieam of the impounument as pait of the Tiei II Stuuy Plan (0SFWS 2u11). In
all, Augspuigei anu Riggsbee confiimeu thiee of the foui fine seuiment locations iepoiteu
by ENTRIX (2u1u). The fouith site (7.7-foot accumulation neai tiash gate) was iemoveu
fiom consiueiation foi fine seuiment sampling, as the site was chaiacteiizeu by coaise
paiticulate oiganic mattei, inteispeiseu with fine seuiments. Theiefoie, this paiticulai site
uoes not appeai to contain much seuiment. An auuitional site was auueu to the list (leesiue
euuy of islanu neai Beaveiuam Lake), which was uesciibeu as a "small anu shallow aiea" of
ueposition.


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 9 of 89
All thiee suiveys concluueu the majoiity of seuiment stoieu within the impounument is
sanu. In auuition, each stuuy founu only patchy, localizeu ueposits of fine seuiments. These
iesults fit expectations baseu on the ieseivoii seuimentation anu uam iemoval seuiment
tianspoit liteiatuie. Bam engineeis anu uam iemoval piactitioneis utilize a simple, yet
effective, uimensionless iatio iepiesenting seuiment stoiage efficiency of an impounument,
the "aspect iatio" (Noiiis anu Fan 1998). Specifically, the aspect iatio is uefineu as the
iatio of ieseivoii wiuth to the fiee flowing channel wiuth. The concept is baseu on the
unueistanuing an impounument's moiphology uiiectly affects its stoiage efficiency, which
in tuin ueteimines an impounument's piobability of ieleasing seuiments following uam
iemoval. The meaning: wiuei impounuments (ielative to fiee flowing channel wiuths) aie
capable of stoiing moie seuiment than naiiowei impounuments. Riggsbee et al. (2uu7)
showeu the aspect iatio coulu be useful when explaining (anu pieuicting) suspenueu
seuiment tianspoit uuiing anu aftei uam iemovals (uemolition anu post-iemoval floous).
The mean aspect iatio of Nilbuinie (using a mean impounument wiuth of 1S9-feet) is 1.u.
The max aspect iatio (using a max impounument wiuth of 18S-feet) is 1.2. Riggsbee et al.
(2uu7) founu iatios in this iange (<<S) weie likely to contiibute little auuitional total
suspenueu solius (TSS; a measuie of suspenueu mateiial tianspoit) ielative to upstieam
inputs, especially uuiing high uischaige events.

In combination with the thiee seuiment suiveys (2uu9, 2u1u anu 2u11) anu the use of
Nilbuinie's aspect iatio, it is ieasonable to concluue fine seuiment tianspoit is unlikely to
iesult in the chionic, sustaineu ieleases of concentiateu seuiment suspensions to
uownstieam enviionments, especially if appiopiiate best management piactices (BNPs)

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 10 of 89
aie implementeu (see Section 9.u). Insteau, it is ieasonable to expect the pieuominant
mechanism of seuiment tianspoit will be beuloau tianspoit. Theiefoie, in the absence of
seuiment ielateu uam iemoval BNPs, the accumulateu sanus woulu most likely move in
uunes with a piominent fiont uune initially auvancing iapiuly then slowing ovei time.
Bowevei, if BNPs aie utilizeu÷as The Sponsoi pioposes heiein, the accumulateu sanus
will be tianspoiteu in seveial small inciements, avoiuing concentiateu uune foimation anu
movement (see Section 9.1).
2.3.3 1urb|d|ty and D|sso|ved Cxygen
When assessing the potential foi incieaseu seuiment tianspoit associateu with uam
iemovals to negatively affect local anu iegional watei quality (acute anu chionic), the
chaiactei of stoieu seuiment is impoitant to consiuei. Seuiment assessments have
concluueu stoieu seuiments aie mostly sanus with low oiganic content (e.g., Photo 1). So
in-channel stoies aie unlikely to pioviue fine, oiganic anu nutiient iich seuiments that will
negatively affect tuibiuity oi uissolveu oxygen concentiations within uownstieam
ieaches÷at least not so much that state watei quality stanuaius aie likely to be violateu
(Su NT0s foi tuibiuity; 4.u mg¡L foi B0). Bowevei, these stuuies also inuicate theie aie
backwatei aieas (out-of-channel, floouplain stoiage) within the impounument that coulu
pioviue significant souices of fine, oiganic iich seuiments. The Sponsoi intenus to take
pieventive measuies that will ieuuce the chances of mobilizing these seuiments uuiing the
uam iemoval piocess (see Section 9.u). In auuition, the Sponsoi will woik with the IRT to
uesign anu implement tuibiuity anu uissolveu oxygen monitoiing uuiing the iemoval
piocess.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 11 of 89
2.3.4 Wet|ands
Buiing the initial site evaluation phase (}une 2uu9), Bi. Riggsbee conuucteu a thoiough
wetlanu-iivei nexus ieview within the impounueu ieach. The fiist step of the ieview was a
uesktop uIS assessment to iuentify the locations anu appioximate extents of iipaiian
wetlanus anu open watei aieas. Each iuentifieu aiea was then visiteu by boat to asceitain
if a nexus was piesent anu the hyuiological contiol foi each wetlanu. Each nexus was
photo-uocumenteu (Figuie 4). Bi. Riggsbee ueteimineu the vast majoiity of wetlanu aieas
with possible nexuses with the Neuse Rivei weie hyuiologically contiolleu by one of the
following: manmaue uams (e.g., Photo 2), natuial levees (e.g., Photo S), manmaue giaue
contiol featuies (to piotect City of Raleigh sewei line; e.g., Photo 4) oi beavei uams (e.g.,
Photo S).

0nly one location was ueteimineu to be unuei the uiiect hyuiological contiol of the
Nilbuinie Bam (Wetlanu 1). Anothei location was ueteimineu to be unuei the contiol of
seveial beavei uams (Wetlanu 2); howevei, uue to the pioximity of Nilbuinie Bam, the
Wetlanu 2 ueseives fuithei attention. In auuition, an open watei aiea was also iuentifieu
as an aiea capable of suppoiting wetlanu establishment following uam iemoval.

The Catena uioup (TCu) conuucteu a seconu, two phase suivey of the aiea (TCu 2u1u anu
TCu 2u11). The fiist phase uelineateu floouplain wetlanu aieas÷using the thiee methou
appioach (0SACE 1987)÷within the impounueu ieach (TCu 2u1u). The iepoit concluues
theie aie 11S-acies of juiisuictional wetlanus in the floouplain aieas associateu with the
impounument (Figuie S). The iepoit also obseiveu the pieuominant hyuiological contiol
of floouplain wetlanus within the impounument (similai to Bi. Riggsbee's conclusions)

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 12 of 89
weie natuial levees, beavei uams anu manmaue giaue contiols associateu with the City of
Raleigh sewei line.

Baseu on the obseivations of Bi. Riggsbee anu TCu, it is ieasonable to concluue the vast
majoiity of wetlanus along the Nilbuinie impounument aie not hyuiologically contiolleu
by the uam's piesence. Still, the Sponsoi acknowleuges the piesence of alteinative
hyuiological contiols uoes not necessaiily mean the uam iemoval will have no effect on
wetlanus along the cuiient impounument (see Section 11.u foi floouplain wetlanu
monitoiing plan). Neveitheless, the Sponsoi believes any negative effects on these
hyuiological contiols as a iesult of uam iemoval will be /%& 0*$*0*'. Nanmaue giaue
contiol stiuctuies aie unlikely to be affecteu by impounument uewateiing. Likewise, the
piesence of levees appeais to be a natuial featuie extenuing beyonu the uam's influence
anu aie theiefoie likely to iemain stable following uam iemoval. Beavei uams in theii
cuiient locations, howevei, aie susceptible to failuie, which is a significant contiol on
floouplain wetlanu hyuiology. But baseu on high levels of local beavei activity, most
beavei uams aie likely to be iepaiieu oi ieplaceu if uamage iesults following the iemoval
of Nilbuinie Bam. To ieuuce the occuiience of uamage ielateu to Nilbuinie Bam's
iemoval, specific BNPs will be employeu to limit the iate of ieseivoii uiawuown
(uewateiing), which will pievent oi uiamatically ieuuce the iate anu numbei of bank
slumping events that might unueimine existing beavei uams (see Section 9.u).

It is theiefoie ieasonable to concluue theie aie only two wetlanu aieas (anu one open
watei aiea) likely to be negatively anu immeuiately affecteu by the pioposeu uam iemoval

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 13 of 89
(see Figuie 6). Nilbuinie Bam hyuiologically contiols Wetlanu 1. While numeious beavei
uams contiol Wetlanu 2's hyuiology, this aiea is locateu in Nilbuinie Bam's immeuiate
vicinity anu coulu be geomoiphically affecteu if Nilbuinie is iemoveu. ENTRIX was
engageu to fuithei investigate the potential effects of the pioposeu iemoval on these
specific wetlanu anu open watei aieas. The stuuy useu BEC-RAS hyuiological moueling to
appioximate post-iemoval hyuiology within the stuuy aiea. ENTRIX concluueu in a
technical memoianuum (ENTRIX 2uu9) if "uam iemoval (was conuucteu) in the absence of
any action to minimize (wetlanu) change", appioximately 1S.S-acies of wetlanu woulu
potentially be impacteu (Figuie 6) anu S.7-acies of open watei may be conveiteu to
wetlanu (a net anticipateu loss of 11.8-acies). These conclusions weie also baseu on the
high level of local beavei activity in the aiea (Photo 6 anu Photo 7).

Buiing the seconu phase of the TCu stuuy (TCu 2u11), the geneial extent of floouplain
wetlanus immeuiately uownstieam was ueteimineu÷using the thiee methou appioach
(0SACE 1987)÷anu chaiacteiizeu to pioviue some basis of compaiison foi ENTRIX's
iesults, which suggest the piesence of floouplain wetlanus is a natuial featuie of this ieach.
This seconu iepoit inuicateu theie aie appioximately 1u7-acies of juiisuictional wetlanus
(Figuie 7) within the floouplain aieas associateu with the S.S-miles of the Neuse Rivei
immeuiately uownstieam of Nilbuinie. (Foi compaiison, the Nilbuinie impounument is
~6-miles long anu contains 11S-acies of floouplain wetlanus.) TCu concluues wetlanu
types, hyuiology anu aieas above anu below the uam aie geneially similai. TCu's stuuy
theiefoie suppoits the following hypothesis: the piesence of floouplain wetlanus along this
section of the Neuse is a natuial featuie laigely inuepenuent of the uam.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 14 of 89

While it is incieasingly appaient wetlanu aieas anu functions upstieam of Nilbuinie Bam
will not be entiiely lost if the uam is iemoveu, the Sponsoi acknowleuges theie is
ieasonable concein some losses will occui in the absence of pieventative measuies.
Avoiuance of wetlanu impacts is theiefoie an impoitant consiueiation foi the Sponsoi. To
this enu, the Sponsoi is cuiiently investigating vaiious engineeieu appioaches that woulu
avoiu anu minimize any unintenueu, uiiect anu inuiiect impacts to upstieam wetlanus.
The Sponsoi will shaie this infoimation (once available) with the IRT uuiing the NBI
uiafting piocess.
2.3.3 Nutr|ent ketent|on
As the Neuse Rivei basin is subject to a state nutiient management plan iegulating
phosphoius anu nitiogen, the Sponsoi has consiueieu the effect of uam iemoval on the
system's oveiall nutiient ietention. The analysis to follow auuiesses both watei quality
constituents (phosphoius anu nitiogen) within the Nilbuinie system anu uiaws
conclusions iegaiuing the likelihoou the pioposeu iemoval will leau to algal blooms anu
fish kills within ieceiving wateis (the impetus behinu the nutiient management plan).

<*6%#&($/&C%+,($/'&
Nilbuinie has numeious inunuateu oi wetlanu floouplain aieas, which unuoubteuly
pioviue impoitant watei quality functions foi local subuiban catchments. In the vast
majoiity of cases, local floouplain wetlanus aie suppoiteu fiom souices othei than the
impounument (e.g., local hill slopes aujacent to the iivei). As uiscusseu in Section 2.S.2,
these wetlanus (incluuing theii watei quality functions) aie not expecteu to be affecteu by

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 15 of 89
the pioposeu iemoval. Bowevei, two wetlanu aieas (Wetlanu 1 anu Wetlanu 2; Figuie 6)
weie iuentifieu foi concein iegaiuing the potential foi wetlanu impacts, which may in tuin
affect nutiient ietention.

In auuition to wetlanu aieas, the cuiiently impounueu iivei assumeuly pioviues some
uegiee of nutiient ietention. The ietentive capacity of the iivei is ceitain to change
following uam iemoval, as in-channel watei stoiage will be loweieu. Anticipateu changes
in both components of the Nilbuinie system (iivei anu wetlanus) aie consiueieu below.

3;"'.;"#7'&
Inoiganic phosphoius often limits piouuctivity in fieshwatei systems (Wetzel 2uu1) anu
stieam metabolism specifically (Newbolu et al. 198S). Theiefoie uissolveu phosphoius is
usually not founu in high concentiations. Fuithei limiting phosphoius concentiations,
inoiganic anu oiganic phosphoius have high affinities foi the mineial suifaces of fine
seuiment. Theiefoie phosphoius ietention in aquatic systems is contiolleu laigely by the
physical piocess of seuimentation (Schlesingei 1997). Thus, a iivei's capacity to ietain
phosphoius is uiiectly ielateu to its seuimentation iates (i.e., highei seuimentation iates,
highei phosphoius ietention). Conveisely, following uam iemoval, phosphoius expoit is
uiiectly ielateu to fine seuiment expoit (foi a uam iemoval example, see Boyle et al.
2uuSb).

As uiscusseu above (Section 2.S.2), the Nilbuinie impounument is inefficient at fine
seuiment stoiage, anu is theiefoie unlikely effective at phosphoius ietention. Following

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 16 of 89
uam iemoval, the efficiency of phosphoius ietention is likely to ueciease in some iespects,
as fine seuiments will be iouteu moie efficiently thiough the ieach.

While a ieuuction in seuimentation iates (anu associateu phosphoius ietention) is
expecteu, this anticipateu loss is likely to be small (cuiient seuiment stoiage is low) anu
coulu be offset thiough the enhancement of anothei nutiient ietention pathway, piimaiy
piouuctivity. Benthic light availability will inciease (with lowei uepths), which will
suppoit highei piimaiy piouuctivity of benthic macioalgae anu maciophytes, theieby
incieasing local uemanu foi uissolveu phosphoius.

?*+#"D%$&
Nitiogen ietention in fieshwatei systems is contiolleu moie by tiansient stoiage
(hyuiaulic iesiuence time) as well as aquatic plant anu miciobial community inteiactions.
Benitiification (the most peimanent means of iemoving nitiogen) iequiies anoxic
enviionments, which aie suppoiteu in systems with long hyuiaulic iesiuence times (Nitsch
anu uosselink 2uuu). Anoxic fieshwatei miciobial communities aie iecognizeu as being
globally impoitant in uenitiification (e.g., Schlesingei 1997, Nitsch anu uosselink 2uuu).
Bowevei, uenitiification is often limiteu by N0S concentiations (Schlesingei 1997).
Aquatic plant ioots pioviue oxygen (bypiouuct of photosynthesis) to otheiwise anoxic
seuiments, which also coveits ammonium (NB4) to N0S (iefeiieu to as nitiification). Thus,
uenitiification iates inciease uiamatically in the piesence of maciophytic vegetation (laige,
iooteu aquatic plants; Wetzel 2uu1). Nitiogen ietention is fuithei enhanceu as aquatic
plants also sequestei nitiogen. Neaning, nitiogen ietention is highest in systems with

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 17 of 89
tiansient stoiage anu aquatic plant anu miciobial inteiactions÷the cuiient conuition in
Wetlanu 1 anu Wetlanu 2. Assuming impacts to these wetlanus aie unavoiuable (which
may not be the case), losses in watei quality function aie anticipateu. Bowevei, theses
loses may be offset by wetlanu establishment in othei aieas of the system as well as
auuitional gains in watei quality function fiom within the iivei channel.

Incieaseu benthic light availability (uiscusseu above) following uam iemoval is expecteu to
inciease, which will pioviue a limiting iesouice to local macioalgal anu maciophytic
communities. Incieaseu benthic piimaiy piouuctivity will inciease uissolveu inoiganic
nitiogen uemanu. In auuition, incieaseu watei exchange between seuiments anu the iivei
following uam iemoval will potentially fuithei inciease nitiogen ietention. Aieas of iivei-
seuiment watei exchange (the "hypoiheic zone") aie well-iecognizeu as aieas of high
uenitiification potential (e.g., Buff anu Tiiska 199u; Tiiska et al. 199S; Cuiie et al. 2uu9;
Zainestske et al. 2u11).
2.3.4 Lxot|c Spec|es
Two invasive species have been obseiveu within the Neuse Rivei in the geneial pioximity
of the impounument, Byuiilla (E4/#*,,(& 6%#+*:*,,(+() anu Chinese Nysteiy Snails
(B*.($D".(,7/*$(& :;*$%$'*'& 0(,,%(+(). Byuiilla is an aquatic habitat geneialist (e.g., lakes,
iiveis, maishes, uitches, spiings, etc.) that has been obseiveu well upstieam anu
uownstieam of the impounument (NCWRC comment lettei auuiessing NBNB Biaft
Piospectus). It is theiefoie unlikely the uam's piesence oi absence will have any effect on
this species' uistiibution with the Neuse Rivei.


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 18 of 89
Regaiuing the Chinese Nysteiy Snail, one population has been obseiveu neai the tailwateis
of Falls Lake Bam (peis. comm. Tim Saviuge of TCu). Bowevei, these same snails weie not
obseiveu uuiing baseline mollusk suiveys within the impounument. As this species
piefeis lentic watei bouies with silt, muu anu sanu (0SuS 2uu7), the iemoval of Nilbuinie
Bam woulu ieuuce the numbei of sites available foi the snail's expansion.
2.3.S Þro[ect Ieas|b|||ty Conc|us|ons
Baseu on the analyses piesenteu above, it appeais the impounument is inefficient at
seuiment stoiage÷paiticulaily fine seuiment stoiage÷anu is theiefoie unlikely to cause
unacceptable chionic anu peisistent watei quality pioblems locally oi iegionally (i.e.,
toxicity, tuibiuity oi uissolveu oxygen). Bowevei, final conclusions iegaiuing any
anticipateu watei quality effects associateu with the pioposeu uam iemoval will be maue
in close cooiuination with the IRT. In auuition, final watei quality conclusions shoulu not
be uiawn until the foithcoming Tiei II evaluation is complete anu all public comments have
been ieceiveu anu consiueieu.

If the Tiei II evaluation inuicates stoieu fine seuiment may thieaten uownstieam
ecosystems, one of the following actions may be appiopiiate: a) toxic seuiments aie
iemoveu, b) toxic seuiments aie secuieu in place, c) some combination of a anu b, oi u) the
uam is left in place. Regaiuless of whethei the Tiei II evaluation ueteimines toxins aie
piesent at unacceptable concentiations, BNPs will be utilizeu to limit the mobilization of
any accumulateu fine seuiments uuiing oi aftei the iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam (if the uam is
iemoveu). (Please see Section 9.u foi specific uiscussions iegaiuing pioposeu BNPs.)


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 19 of 89
Regaiuing the likelihoou of wetlanu losses upstieam of the impounument following the
pioposeu uam iemoval, initial investigations suggest the thieat of total loss is limiteu to
11.8-acies (ENTRIX 2uu9). Although the iipaiian aieas along the impounueu ieach aie
extensively coveieu with wetlanus, hyuiological contiols foi these aieas consist of natuial
levees oi beavei uams, not Nilbuinie Bam. In auuition, the piesence of floouplain wetlanus
appeais to be a natuial featuie of this section of the Neuse Rivei, as inuicateu by the extent,
type anu hyuiology of neaiby, uownstieam floouplain wetlanus. These conclusions aie
baseu on multiple stuuies that piouuceu complimentaiy iesults. In all, theie appeais to
only be two aieas of immeuiate concein (Figuie 6). These two aieas aie cuiiently the
focus of engineeiing investigations assessing the potential to constiuct hyuiological contiol
featuies capable of maintaining existing heau within these wetlanus once the uam is
iemoveu. In auuition, BNPs aie pioposeu (see Section 9.u) that aie intenueu to minimize
the iate of ieseivoii uiawuown so existing hyuiological contiols aie not compiomiseu by a
suuuen loss of in-channel stoiage (a souice of hyuiostatic piessuie). The Sponsoi is
committeu to monitoiing the wetlanu hyuiology thioughout the impounument, especially
in Wetlanu 1 anu Wetlanu 2 (Figuie 6). Thus fai, 1S peimanent giounuwatei-monitoiing
stations have been stiategically locateu to suppoit pie- anu post-iemoval monitoiing (see
Section 1u.u foi moie uiscussion) uesigneu to uocument the effect of uam iemoval on the
wetlanu netwoik upstieam of Nilbuinie Bam (Figuie S). Nonitoiing station locations weie
selecteu foi the following puiposes:

• Quantify any change in hyuiology in wetlanus thioughout the length of the
impounument;

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 20 of 89
• Quantify any change in the hyuiology in paiticulai wetlanu types baseu on
hyuiological contiol;
• Concentiate well locations in the lowei impounument to bettei quantify impacts to
wetlanus most likely to be impacteu fiom uam iemoval.

Watei quality functions within the systems aie not expecteu to be affecteu uiastically,
mostly because wetlanu losses will be minimal. In auuition, the ietentive capacity of the
iivei itself is expecteu to iemain unchangeu oveiall÷as enhanceu piocesses (e.g., benthic
piouuctivity anu hypoiheic exchange) shoulu offset the loss of the system's most impoitant
existing piocess ielateu to nutiient ietention, tiansient stoiage.

In all, it is ieasonable to concluue, if appiopiiate pieventative measuies aie taken, negative
outcomes associateu with seuiment uischaiges, wetlanu losses anu watei quality functions
aie avoiuable oi can be minimizeu. In Section 9.u (Restoiation Plan), the Sponsoi pioposes
seveial BNPs intenueu to ieuuce the iate anu magnituue of stoieu seuiment uischaiges
(fines anu sanus) as well as avoiu oi minimize the loss of local iipaiian wetlanus.
Regaiuing wetlanus specifically, any losses not consiueieu /%& 0*$*0*'& oi otheiwise
avoiuable will be mitigateu. The Sponsoi is expeiienceu at locating anu iestoiing iipaiian
wetlanu ecosystems. In fact, the Sponsoi cuiiently has an inventoiy of moie than 1S-acies
of iipaiian wetlanu iestoiation in the Neuse u1. In auuition, the Sponsoi has iuentifieu
seveial auuitional sites that coulu also be useu to geneiate the appiopiiate wetlanu offsets
if neeueu. Although the Sponsoi is piepaieu to pioviue mitigation if necessaiy, vaiious
avoiuance mechanisms aie cuiiently being investigateu.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 21 of 89
3.0 Cwnersh|p and Long-term Management
The Sponsoi owns an option to puichase a conseivation easement to peimanently piotect
all paicels compiising NBNB. The pioject's foithcoming Nitigation Plan anu Nitigation
Banking Instiument (NBI) will pioviue ciitical uetails foi the long-teim management of the
NBNB site. Following appioval anu execution of the NBI, the Sponsoi will exeicise its
iights unuei the pieviously mentioneu ieal estate option anu iecoiu a conseivation
easement on NBNB piopeity. Aftei the uevelopment of a long-teim management plan
incluuing a maintenance plan, the Sponsoi will assign the conseivation easement to a non-
piofit entity appioveu by the IRT. 0iganizations unuei consiueiation incluue the Tiiangle
Lanu Conseivancy, the N.C. Wilulife Babitat Founuation, City of Raleigh, anu Ameiican
Riveis.
4.0 Çua||f|cat|ons of Sponsor
The Sponsoi is the state's most expeiienceu fiim in iemoving uams foi compensatoiy
mitigation. Caibonton anu Lowell Nill uams weie iemoveu fiom the Beep anu Little iiveis,
iespectively, uuiing the wintei of 2uuS anu 2uu6. Both piojects weie peifoimeu to
pioviue stieam mitigation cieuit to the NCEEP, anu both have uemonstiateu iemaikable
ecological successes. The Sponsoi anu its team of technical consultants have the
expeiience necessaiy to successfully conceive anu caiiy out the iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam,
which piesents seveial challenges (see Section 2.S). The Sponsoi will woik uiiectly with
the IRT to ensuie this iemoval is peifoimeu using the most effective anu piacticable BNPs
to limit any negative outcomes ielating to seuiment tianspoit anu upstieam wetlanus.


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 22 of 89
The Sponsoi is among the state's most ieputable mitigation banking fiims. They'ie
iesponsible foi the uevelopment of numeious successful aquatic mitigation sites acioss
Noith Caiolina ovei the last 14 yeais. The qualifications of the Sponsoi aie best illustiateu
by its tiack iecoiu in selecting high quality sites anu using highly skilleu technical
uesigneis anu expeits in implementation. The Sponsoi has uesigneu anu implementeu
numeious wetlanu, stieam anu iipaiian buffei mitigation sites in Naiylanu anu Noith
Caiolina, anu is in auvanceu uevelopment of mitigation piojects in Texas, ueoigia,
Naiylanu, Tennessee anu viiginia. The Sponsoi emphasizes quality contiol uuiing pioject
planning anu implementation. In auuition, the Sponsoi is auamant about ioutine site
inspection; staff visits each site at least quaiteily in auuition to iequisite technical
monitoiing. Incluueu among the stieam anu wetlanu mitigation piojects completeu, oi in
auvanceu planning by the Sponsoi aie:


) !=N=OPN=:Q)7R:SCMN) ) ) ) ) ) )))))))-NPNT-)
• Anueison Swamp Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Angola Bay Wetlanu Nitigation Site Besign
• Big Bull Cieek Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Bioguen Roau Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Biown Naish Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Buiiows Cove Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 2
• Butleis Bianch Nutiient Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 2
• Cane Cieek Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Caibonton Bam Stieam Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Casey Baiiy Buffei Nitigation Site Closeu 0ut
• Causey Faim Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Closeu 0ut
• The Cliffs Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Besign
• Columbus Swamp Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Conetoe Cieek Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Cutawhiskie Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Elk Shoals Stieam Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Fox Run Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 2
• Fiog Bollow Pieseivation Site Closeu 0ut
• uatlin Swamp Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 23 of 89
• uiay Faim Stieam Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Baw Rivei Wetlanu Nitigation Site Closeu 0ut
• Beath Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 2
• Beiman Baiiy Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Constiuction
• }aimans 0ak Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Lick Cieek Stieam Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Little Buffalo Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Lloyu Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Lowell Nill Bam Removal Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Noigan Cieek Stieam anu Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Salisbuiy Wicomico Wetlanu Nitigation Site (Naiylanu) Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Sleepy Cieek Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• Summit Seep Wetlanu Nitigation Site Constiuction
• Thiee Nile Cieek Stieam & Wetlanu Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai S
• vickis Thicket Buffei Nitigation Site Nonitoiing Yeai 2
• Walnut Cieek Buffei Nitigation Site Closeu 0ut

P77R:UC*)1PQV-) ) ) ) ) ) ) )))))
• Beai Cieek Wetlanu Bank Closeu 0ut
• Cianston Nill Ponu Nutiient Bank (viiginia) Constiuction
• Ciipple Cieek Stieam & Wetlanu Bank Constiuction
• Lane Nutiient & Buffei Bank Nonitoiing Yeai 4
• Wellons Nutiient Bank Nonitoiing Yeai 4

1PQV-)=Q)*CUCW:7!CQN)) ) ) ) ) )))))
• Bass Nountain Stieam Bank In-Bevelopment
• }esuit Benu Wetlanu Bank (Louisiana) In-Bevelopment
• Little Bazel Stieam & Wetlanu Bank (ueoigia) In-Bevelopment
• Nilbuinie Bam Stieam Bank In Bevelopment
• Pancho Stieam, Wetlanu & Nutiient Bank In-Bevelopment
• Salisbuiy III Stieam & Wetlanu Bank (Naiylanu) In-Bevelopment
• Waiien Cieek Stieam Bank (Texas) In-Bevelopment

S.0 Lco|og|ca| Su|tab|||ty of S|te
Low-heau uams aie well iecognizeu as agents of habitat alteiation anu fiagmentation (e.g.,
Stanley et al 2uu7; Catalano et al 2uu7; Santucci et al 2uuS). In fact, low-heau uams aie
consiueieu one of the most peivasive anu uiffuse piessuies to fieshwatei habitats in Noith
Ameiica (Ricciaiui anu Rasmussen 1999). Theiefoie uam iemoval is often consiueieu a
iestoiation mechanism with consiueiable powei (Boyle et al. 2uuS). Raiely in fluvial

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 24 of 89
iestoiation effoits, can piactitioneis actually iemove a souice of habitat impaiiment.
Restoiation piojects that can iuentify anu iemove a system's pieuominant souice of
uecline aie the most likely to succeeu. The successes of Noith Caiolina's thiee iun-of-iivei
uam iemoval mitigation piojects (Caibonton, Lowell Nill |both peifoimeu by the Sponsoij
anu Billsboio |peifoimeu by Buke Eneigyj) suggest uam iemoval is inueeu a poweiful
mechanism of ecosystem iestoiation. At both Sponsoi-suppoiteu sites, state anu feueially
piotecteu species have ie-colonizeu newly available fiee-flowing habitat within foimei
impounuments: the Cape Feai Shinei (?"+#".*'& 0%F*'+":;",('), Cieepei (9+#".;*+7'&
7$/7,(+%'), Notcheu Rainbow (G*,,"'(& :"$'+#*:+(), Savannah Liliput (1()",('0(& .7,,7') anu
Yellow Lampmussel (H(0.'*,*'& :(#*"'() at Caibonton, anu the Tai Rivei Spinymussel
(5,,*.+*"& '+%*$'+($'($() anu the Cieepei at Lowell Nill. Noieovei, each iemoval met all of
theii iespective success ciiteiia, which incluueu anauiomous fish passage at Lowell Nill.
So uam iemovals peifoimeu by the Sponsoi have pioven to be iemaikably successful.

Since its constiuction (ciica 18SS), the Nilbuinie Bam has limiteu habitat availability foi
common anu iaie lotic species, theieby ieuucing uiveisity within the ieach (the
impounument extenus ~6-miles). The uam cuiiently seives as the last iemovable
obstiuction to anauiomous fish iuns on the Neuse Rivei÷paiticulaily stiipeu bass
(!"#"$%&'()(+*,*') anu Ameiican shau (-,"'(&'(.*/*''*0(). By slowing stieam velocity anu
pioviuing an incieaseu in-channel stoiage (uepth), Nilbuinie Bam has cieateu a
homogenous 6-mile stietch of slow, ueepwatei habitat that has uisplaceu numeious native
species auapteu to shallowei, swiftei wateis÷incluuing seveial iaie anu enuangeieu
species (e.g., mussles, iaie fishes anu an amphibian; see Section 11.u).

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 25 of 89

Removing Nilbuinie uam will piofounuly anu quickly iestoie quasi-natuial hyuiaulic
function. ("Quasi-" because this section, anu all lowei sections, of the Neuse aie iegulateu
by uischaiges fiom Falls Bam.) As soon as moie natuial hyuiaulics aie iestoieu to the
NBNB ieach, iestoiation of lotic habitats will begin. Immeuiately following uam iemoval,
mean stieam velocity will inciease (most likely by an oiuei of magnituue) anu mean uepth
will ueciease. These simple changes to the iivei's physical stiuctuie will iestoie native
habitats, ie-establish moie natuial seuiment tianspoit anu benthic light availability, which
collectively will suppoit native fish anu inveitebiate communities founu in othei neaiby
natuial lotic ecosystems. The ietuin of moie natuial flows in the iivei will uiive the iivei's
chemical, physical anu biological iestoiation.

As uiscusseu in the Technical Feasibility section (2.S), uam iemovals can sometimes be
accompanieu by unintenueu negative outcomes. Initial investigations of the Nilbuinie
impounument concluueu the potential loss of wetlanus woulu be, at woist, 11.8-acies of
the gieatei 11S-acie iipaiian wetlanu complex. Some, if not all, of these losses may also be
avoiuable; the Sponsoi is cuiiently investigating methous that coulu be useu to avoiu all
wetlanu losses associateu with the uam's iemoval. Initial seuiment investigations
concluueu post-iemoval seuiment tianspoit woulu pieuominately occui as beuloau, not
suspenueu loau. In auuition, stoieu seuiment contains low levels of oiganic mattei; thus
watei quality violations associateu with tuibiuity anu uissolveu oxygen aie not anticipateu,
especially if appiopiiate piecautions aie taken (see Section 9.u).

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 26 of 89
6.0 Assurance of Water k|ghts
The State of Noith Caiolina is a iipaiian iights state, iathei than an appiopiiateu watei
iights state (Anuiy 1996). 0nuei iipaiian watei iights piinciples, all lanuowneis with
piopeity aujacent to a bouy of watei have the iight to make "ieasonable use" of it. In the
event theie is not enough watei to satisfy all useis, allotments aie fixeu ielative to ieal
estate fiontage on the watei souice. These iights cannot be solu oi tiansfeiieu othei than
with aujoining lanus. Theiefoie, theie is no existing legal stiuctuie within Noith Caiolina
watei law that woulu pioviue assuiance of watei iights foi NBNB. Bowevei, as uiscusseu
below, theie is ieason to concluue the NBNB will ieceive sufficient hyuiology to suppoit
its establishment anu opeiation.

The Neuse Rivei is subject to hyuiological iegulation by Falls Bam, locateu ~1S-miles
upstieam of Nilbuinie Bam. Falls Lake is capable of stoiing 6S% of its wateisheu's 12.S
inches of aveiage annual iunoff (peisonal communication with Nichael Young, Watei
Contiol Nanagei, Wilmington Bistiict of 0SACE). This stoiage is then paititioneu into two
sepaiate pools: 1) the "conseivation pool" anu 2) the "floou stoiage pool". The
conseivation pool is fuithei subuiviueu into two subsections. Raleigh owns the iights to
42.S% of the conseivation pool foi watei supply puiposes. The iemaining S7.7% is
ieseiveu foi "watei quality ieleases" (0SACE 1986). These watei quality ieleases aie
allocateu as necessaiy to maintain "minimum seasonal uaily aveiage taiget flows" on the
Neuse Rivei gage at Clayton (0SuS gage # u2u87Suu) of 184 cubic feet pei seconu (cfs)
Novembei thiough Naich anu 2S4 cfs Apiil thiough 0ctobei. ueneially, ieleases of about

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6u cfs (Novembei-Naich) anu 1uu cfs (Apiil-0ctobei) aie necessaiy to maintain the watei
quality taigets at the Clayton gage (0SACE 2uu8).

All uaily gage iecoius fiom u1 }anuaiy 1986 to 22 Febiuaiy 2u11 weie analyzeu (fiom
0SuS gage u2u8718S) to bettei unueistanu the hyuiological iegime of NBNB. 0f the 9184
ietuineu iecoius, only 16S weie below 6u cfs (142 iecoius occuiieu between Novembei
2uu7 anu Naich 2uu8). The statistical moue of ielease uischaiges fiom Falls Lake is 1Su
cfs. The 2S
th
-peicentile flow is 129 cfs, anu the 7S
th
-peicentile flow is 441 cfs. The
maximum ielease was 742u cfs (16 Septembei 1996), anu the minimum was 26 cfs (4
Naich 2uu8).

Theiefoie the most common expecteu ielease fiom Falls Lake (compaiable to baseflow in
natuial systems) is expecteu to fall within the iange of 129 to 441 cfs. (Releases below the
lowest "watei quality" taiget |6u cfsj have occuiieu in less than 2% of the iecoiu, anu
shoulu theiefoie be consiueieu extieme, infiequent occuiiences.) Auuitional flows will
also be pioviueu fiom time to time fiom the wateisheu aiea between NBNB anu Falls
Lake, which is ~96-mi
2
. The aveiage annual iunoff foi Falls Lake is ~u.u16-inches¡mi
2
.
Assuming similai iunoff levels foi the auuitional NBNB wateisheu aieas, an annual
aveiage iunoff of 1.4 inches will contiibute to the Falls Lake ieleases.

Pioject success ueteimination will be baseu on the ecological conuitions of iefeience
ieaches locateu above anu below the existing impounument (see Section 11.u foi moie
uetails), which have seveial moie uocumenteu populations of iaie species, bettei watei

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 28 of 89
quality anu moie appiopiiate habitat foi lotic species than NBNB. Refeience ieaches aie
also subjecteu to the iegulateu flows pioviueu by Falls Bam. It is theiefoie ieasonable to
concluue theie is an auequate anu consistent supply of watei to suppoit the establishment
anu opeiation of the pioposeu NBNB.
7.0 I|nanc|a| Assurance
The Sponsoi will pioviue financial assuiances foi constiuction anu monitoiing phases of
NBNB in the foim of suiety bonus. Suiety bonu amounts will be sufficient to ensuie the
pioject can be constiucteu anu monitoieu shoulu the Sponsoi become financially unable to
complete the pioject.
8.0 Lx|st|ng Cond|t|ons
8.1 S|te Introduct|on
Touay's Nilbuinie Bam is a masoniy block stiuctuie measuiing ~1S-feet (height) by ~Suu-
feet (wiuth). It was built in place of a timbei ciib uam in 18SS to suppoit the opeiations of
Nilbuinie Nills (a papei mill). The uam was eventually useu as a souice of hyuioelectiicity
to powei the Raleigh Ice anu Electiic Company as well as Raleigh's stieetcais until 1916.
The plant was uismantleu by one of its many owneis, Caiolina Powei anu Light, in 1918.
The uam iemaineu iule until the miu-19Sus when Waiien Twiggs puichaseu the site anu
constiucteu the Nilbuinie uiist Nill, which opeiateu until ciica 1944. The uam was once
again iuleu until 198u when it was useu foi hyuioelectiic piouuction. Byuioelectiic
opeiations continueu until 1997 when the plant was again uismantleu; the uam has
iemaineu iule since that time.

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8.2 Þhys|ography, 1opography and Land Use
Locateu in the Pieumont physiogiaphic piovince of Noith Caiolina, NBNB's wateisheu is
~866-mi
2
. Topogiaphy (iiuge to valley slope) within the wateisheu vaiies fiom low- to
moueiate-giauient. The maximum elevation within the NBNB's wateisheu is 88u-feet
National ueouetic veitical Batum (NuvB; Figuie 8). Stieamsiue elevations within the
NBNB's bounuaiies iange fiom 174 to 172-feet NuvB. The majoiity of NBNB's 866-mi
2

wateisheu is contiolleu by Falls Bam (~77u-mi
2
). Lanu covei is ~7u% foiest¡wetlanu,
~S% watei, ~8% uiban anu ~19% agiicultuie (NCBWQ 2uu9). Lanu use within the
impounueu ieach is a mixtuie of livestock giazing, natuial wetlanu¡foiesteu covei, anu
iesiuential uevelopment.

The Neuse Rivei fall line is locateu neai the site of Falls Bam ("Falls of the Neuse"), anu this
section of the Neuse Rivei exhibits a low to moueiate channel slope (S), S = u.uu1. As the
iivei tiansitions fiom the fall line to the upstieam limits of the impounument, channel
slope is consiueiably lowei, S = u.uuu2. The impounueu channel itself exhibits an
exceptionally low-giauient, S < u.uuu1. Similaily, the ieach uownstieam of the
impounument is also low, S = u.uuuS. The NBNB channel anu the S.S-mile uownstieam
ieach have foimeu along with a ielatively wiue, flat floouplain suppoiting extensive
wetlanu aieas (as uiscusseu in Section 2.S).
8.3 Water Çua||ty
NBNB is locateu in NCBWQ Subbasin uS-u4-u2. This paiticulai section of the Neuse Rivei
is classifieu as Class C, NSW. The Class C uesignation uenotes wateis piotecteu foi
seconuaiy iecieation, fishing, wilulife, fish anu aquatic piopagation, anu agiicultuie. The

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NSW classification uesignates nutiient sensitive wateis, oi wateis susceptible to algal
blooms iesulting fiom fiequent, episouic nutiient eniichment oiiginating fiom non-point
souice iunoff. NCBWQ uata collecteu at the two Ambient Nonitoiing Stations (ANS) within
NBNB's immeuiate vicinity suggest the aiea has expeiienceu uissolveu oxygen stiess anu
tuibiuity exceeuences, two metiics commonly associateu with eutiophication. In both
categoiies, ~1u% of all samples collecteu to uate have violateu state watei quality
stanuaius (NCBWQ 2uu9).

In auuition to ANS uata, the Sponsoi has iecently completeu baseline monitoiing at NBNB.
In teims of watei quality, the site was monitoieu foi tempeiatuie anu uissolveu oxygen
uata monthly fiom Naich to Becembei 2u1u. These uata inuicate the piesence of seasonal
theimal stiatification anu associateu hypoxia within the impounument.
8.4 Vegetat|on
The Nilbuinie Bam sits on two lanu paicels, one a tiiangulai-shapeu tiact of 8.S acies on
the west bank of the iivei anu the seconu, a much smallei (u.9 acie) iectangle of lanu on
the east siue of the iivei.

The plant community is pieuominately mixeu haiuwoou, mostly ueciuuous, although
eveigieen species anu even ueciuuous conifeis aie piesent in veiy small numbeis.
Eveigieens aie iepiesenteu mostly by piivet (H*D7'+#70&'*$%$'% anu HI&,7:*/70), Ameiican
holly (2,%)& ".(:(), Loblolly pine (3*$7'& +(%/(), eastein ieu ceuai (J7$*.%#7'& 6*#D*$*($(),
sweet magnolia (!(D$",*(&6*#D*$*($() anu wax myitle (!4#*:(&:%#*8%#(). 0f couise, the only
ueciuuous conifei obseiveu was balu cypiess (1()"/*70&/*'+*:;70). viitually all the othei

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 31 of 89
tiees anu shiubs aie ueciuuous, although some species, like watei oak (K7%#:7'& $*D#()
exhibit semi-eveigieen chaiactei. They ietain leaves until wintei befoie leaf buus give iise
to fiesh foliage. Laigei, canopy species incluue tulip poplai (H%#*"/%$/#"$&+7,*.*8%#(), sweet
gum (H*L7*/(0M(#& '+4#(:*8,7(), sycamoie (3,(+($7'& "::*/%$+(,*'), sugaibeiiy (B%,+*'&
,(%6*D(+(), box eluei (-:%#&$%D7$/") anu balu cypiess.

Subcanopy species, incluuing saplings of canopy species, shiubs, vines anu seasonally
spaise appeaiances of heibaceous plants incluueu Ameiican holly, loblolly pine, iionwoou
(B(#.*$7'&:(#",*$*($(), floweiing uogwoou (B"#$7'&8,"#*/(), black cheiiy (3#7$7'&'%#"+*$(),
watei oak, iivei biich (@%+7,(& $*D#(), eastein ieu ceuai, black willow (9(,*)& $*D#(), sweet
magnolia, box eluei, Ameiican elm (N,07'& (0%#*:($(), wingeu elm (N,07'& (,(+(),
peisimmon (>*"'.4#"'& 6*#D*$*($(), wingeu sumac (<;7'& :".(,,*$70) anu souiwoou
(O)4/%$/#70& (#M"#%70). Also noteu weie balu cypiess, blackbeiiy (<7M7' spp.), piivet,
ciossvine (@*D$"$*(& :(.#%",(+(), Inuian woouoats (B;('0($+;*70& ,(+*8",*70), fescue
(=%'+7:( spp.) anu }apanese stiltgiass (!*:#"'+%D*70& 6*0*$%70), wax myitle, giape (G*+*'
spp.), poison ivy (<;7'& +")*:"/%$/#"$), wilu onion (-,,*70 spp.), anu switch cane
(-#7$/*$(#*(& +%:+(). A single specimen of heavenly bamboo (?($/*$(& /"0%'+*:() was
obseiveu along with sugaibeiiy, gieenbiiei (90*,()& #"+7$/*8",*(), honeysuckle (H"$*:%#(&
P(."$*:(), sugai maple (-:%#& '(::;(#70), white oak (K7%#:7'& (,M(), mistletoe
(3;"#(/%$/#"$&8,(6%':%$') anu ieu maple (-:%#&#7M#70).
8.S So||s
Soils within the immeuiate vicinity of the uam, wheie constiuction activities will be
concentiateu, aie almost equal paits hyuiic anu non-hyuiic (Figuie 9; Table 1). As

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 32 of 89
uiscusseu fuithei in the Restoiation Plan (next section), no peimanent wetlanu impacts aie
anticipateu in oi aiounu constiuction aieas.

N+$#()5X)Nappeu soils within Cottonwoou Cieek*
-0"#)-(&"(<)3,+>)%'".4) YAH&"9)-.+.%<) PHH"."0'+#)*(<9&">."0')
Appling Sanuy Loam
(ApC2)
non-hyuiic
faii infiltiation, iapiu suiface iunoff; seveie
eiosion hazaiu; on site slopes iange fiom 6-1u
peicent
Appling Sanuy Loam
(ApB)
non-hyuiic
moueiate to goou infiltiation, vaiy iapiu suiface
iunoff; sevei eiosion hazaiu; slopes iange fiom
1u-1S peicent
Chewacia Sanuy Loam
(CmA)
hyuiic
goou filtiation anu low suiface iunoff; seveie
floouing hazaiu, veiy seveie wetness hazaiu;
slopes iange fiom u-2 peicent
Congaiee Sanuy Loam
(CoA)
hyuiic
goou infiltiation, slow suiface iunoff;seveie
oveiflow hazaiu; slopes iange fiom u-2peicent
Louisbuig Loamy Sanu
(LoB)
non-hyuiic
goou infiltiation, meuium suiface iunoff; sevei
eiosion hazaiu; slopes iange fiom 2-6 peicent
Louisbuig Sanuy Loam
(LoC)
non-hyuiic
goou infiltiation, iapiu suiface iunoff; sevei
eiosion hazaiu; slopes iange fiom 6-1u peicent
Wake-Wateiee Complex
(WkE)
non-hyuiic
loamy sanu oi giavelly loamy sanu; goou
infiltiation, veiy iapiu iunoff; slopes iange fiom
1u-2S peicent
Wehaukee anu Bibb
(WoA)
hyuiic
loam, sanuy loam anu silty clay; floouplain soils,
veiy fiequently flooueu; faii infiltiation, slow to
ponueu suiface iunoff; slopes iange fiom u-2
peicent
* souice: NRCS (197u)
8.6 nydro|ogy
NBNB is locateu in 0SuS B0C uSu2u2u1 of the Neuse Rivei basin (Figuie 2). Climate is
chaiacteiizeu as humiu subtiopical with moueiate spiing anu autumn tempeiatuies.
Summeis aie usually waim to hot, anu winteis aie typically milu anu wet. Aveiage annual
piecipitation is 4S-inches, which is faiily well uistiibuteu acioss the seasons. Channel
hyuiology is mainly suppoiteu by ieleases fiom Falls Lake (see Section 6.u), hill slope
iunoff anu piecipitation uominateu giounuwatei flow. Cuiiently, Nilbuinie Bam

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 33 of 89
impounus ovei S2,Suu lineai feet (6.2 miles) of the Neuse Rivei. The National Wetlanu
Inventoiy categoiizes the aquatic iesouices as 12 uistinct types (Table 2; Figuie 1u).

N+$#()BX NWI wetlanu types anu aieas associateu with NBNB (Figuie 1u)
QZ=)-A,$0#) Z(.#+'H)NA>() P9&(<)
L10BBh Lake 44.72
PABSBh Fieshwatei Ponu 12.62
PEN1C Fieshwatei Emeigent Wetlanu 1.62
PEN1Fb Fieshwatei Emeigent Wetlanu 1.u9
PEN1uh Fieshwatei Emeigent Wetlanu 21.62
PF01A Fieshwatei Foiesteu¡Shiub Wetlanu 89.9u
PF01Ah Fieshwatei Foiesteu¡Shiub Wetlanu S.S7
PF01C Fieshwatei Foiesteu¡Shiub Wetlanu 27.67
PF01Ch Fieshwatei Foiesteu¡Shiub Wetlanu 1S.97
PF01Fh Fieshwatei Foiesteu¡Shiub Wetlanu 4.84
P0BBh Fieshwatei Ponu 12.46
R20BB Riveiine S8.29

8.7 I|uv|a| Geomorpho|ogy
NBNB geomoiphology can be summaiizeu as a homogenous ueepwatei pool extenuing
upstieam fiom Nilbuinie Bam foi moie than 6-miles. As is chaiacteiistic of
impounuments, channel wiuth anu uepth inciease with pioximity to the uam. Channel
geometiy within the impounument ianges fiom S.u to 12.S-feet in uepth anu 1Su to 18S-
feet in wiuth. Stieam channel velocities within the impounument ueciease with pioximity
to the uam (fiom 1.u to u.S ft¡s). Channel banks aie composeu mostly of a sanuy loam,

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 34 of 89
which aie the pieuominant souices of seuiment to the NBNB ieach as Falls Lake tiaps
most wateisheu contiibutions of seuiment.

Seuimentation patteins within NBNB aie consistent with the piinciples of ieseivoii
hyuiaulics (e.g., coaise seuiment uelta is piesent anu geneial seuiment fining is seen in
uownstieam uiiection). In-channel seuiments consist mostly of sanu anu coaise sanu, with
few, isolateu fine seuiment (silt anu clay) accumulations. Floouplain geomoiphology is
ielatively wiue anu flat with numeious wetlanus suppoiteu thiough a combination of
giounuwatei, aujacent hillslope iunoff anu oveibank floouing. Floouplain wetlanus aie
sites of off-channel fine seuiment stoiage.
9.0 kestorat|on Þ|an
The majoi objectives of the pioposeu iestoiation aie listeu below. In geneial, the pioject is
intenueu to iestoie many of the ecological functions to S2,S9u lineai feet of the Neuse
Rivei main stem in Wake County, NC.

56 =,>&0;() ?+.(&) @%+#".A: The impounueu ieach is chionically affecteu by hypoxia
anu anoxia associateu with theimal stiatification anu low flows along the iiveibeu
within the impounument.
B6 C<.+$#"<D) +') +>>&0>&"+.() +@%+."9) 90,,%'".A: The aquatic community is
compiiseu of lentic species, which will be ietuineu to the ecologically appiopiiate
lotic communities (filtei feeuing macioinveitebiates anu fish species such as
uaiteis) following uam iemoval.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 35 of 89
E6 F+9"#".+.()D+$".+.)&(<.0&+."0')G0&)+'H)&(I90#0'"J+."0')$A)&+&(K)('H+'/(&(H)+'H)
.D&(+.('(H)+@%+."9)<>(9"(<: The NCNBP lists element occuiiences foi eight state-
anu¡oi feueially-listeu species upstieam anu¡oi uownstieam of Nilbuinie Bam.
Bam iemoval woulu open anu iestoie habitat foi some of these species.
L6 7&0;"H()+'+H&0,0%<)G"<D)>+<<+/(: Nilbuinie Bam is a well-known baiiiei foi two
anauiomous species, anu its iemoval will open ~1S miles of iivei main stem to
spawning migiatoiy fish.
9.1 Dam kemova|)
Restoiation of the NBNB ieach will be accomplisheu by means of uam iemoval, which is
wiuely iecognizeu as a paiticulaily effective iestoiation mechanism (Boyle et al. 2uuS;
Stanley et al. 2uu2). Bam iemoval immeuiately anu piofounuly alteis upstieam channel
hyuiaulics, specifically affecting stieam velocity anu baseflow wetteu-peiimetei. In-
channel habitat is theiefoie iestoieu fiom aitificially homogenous slow, ueepwatei pools
(stietching foi miles) to heteiogeneous fiee-flowing featuies (e.g., iuns, iiffles, pools, etc.),
suppoitive of native biology.

While the iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam is expecteu to pioviue numeious ecological benefits,
negative outcomes aie possible (see Section 2.S). 0f specific impoit is the possibility uam
iemoval will ielease excess seuiments of compiomiseu quality to uownstieam
enviionments. While in-channel seuiment stoiage coulu ielease unacceptably high loaus of
seuiment to uownstieam ieaches, of gieatei concein aie the floouplain wetlanus anu othei
fine seuiment stoiage aieas (Figuie S). If these aieas of the impounument aie subjecteu to
eiosive flows uuiing oi immeuiately following uam iemoval, theie is a high likelihoou they
will contiibute oiganic anu nutiient iich seuiments, potentially violating state watei

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 36 of 89
quality stanuaius. Finally, floouplain wetlanus within the impounument piesumably
pioviue impoitant ecological functions. Accoiuingly, the Sponsoi wishes to piotect anu
pieseive these iesouices in theii cuiient status. It is theiefoie impoitant Nilbuinie Bam is
iemoveu only aftei extensive planning is completeu in cooiuination with the 0SACE anu
the IRT. Piesenteu below aie conceptual plans auuiessing the phaseu-iemoval of the
stiuctuie anu othei BNPs uesigneu to avoiu anu minimize unintenueu wetlanu losses as
well as limit the iate anu quantity of suspenueu anu beuloau seuiment tianspoit ielateu to
uam iemoval activities.

The Nilbuinie Bam iemoval will be conuucteu giauually ovei seveial months (i.e., six oi
moie), uepenuing on flow conuitions. In geneial, the iemoval piocess can be uiviueu into
thiee bioau phases: 1) uewateiing, 2) loweiing anu S) complete iemoval. This phaseu
appioach is uesigneu to slowly ielease stoieu watei fiom the impounument, theieby
limiting the magnituue of seuiment tianspoit anu geomoiphic iesponse (Riggsbee et al.
2uu7). Ceitain floouplain aieas will be subjecteu to vaiious BNPs anu othei pieventative
measuies (see following subsections 9.1.S anu 9.1.4). Timing of the vaiious uam iemoval
phases will be cooiuinateu with the IRT.

Bewateiing will be accomplisheu by mechanically iemoving small sections of stone fiom
the top of the uam (most likely on the opposite siue of the channel fiom the poweihouse),
cieating a notch. This phase of the iemoval will initiate the ielease of watei stoieu within
floouplain aieas uiiectly connecteu to the channel. The final uimensions of the notch will
be baseu on flow conuitions anu the size of specific stones iemoveu fiom the uam. The

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 37 of 89
initiation anu uuiation of this phase will uepenu on stieam flow anu will be cooiuinateu
with the IRT.

Loweiing will occui following the uewateiing phase, once the connecteu floouplain aieas
have effectively ieleaseu suiface watei stoiage. This phase, which will incluue sub-phases,
will limit beuloau tianspoit iates of seuiment cuiiently stoieu within the impounument
channel. Removing entiie levels of stackeu stone (fiom bank to poweihouse) will giauually
lowei the uam's elevation. It is anticipateu the uam (1S-feet in height) will be loweieu at
least thiee times ovei a peiiou of appioximately six months. Each loweiing sub-phase will
inciementally ueciease the seuiment anu watei stoiage capacity of the ieseivoii
(inefficient at seuiment tiapping; see Section 2.S), theieby limiting the availability of
seuiment foi beuloau tianspoit anu avoiuing oi minimizing the possibility of uune
foimation anu tianspoit.

The final iemoval, will be conuucteu ~two months aftei the last loweiing sub-phase. This
phase will focus on iemoving any iemaining uam mateiials fiom the channel, incluuing
poitions of the poweihouse. Poweihouse iemoval will be completeu in accoiuance with
SBP0 consultation (see Section 12.u). The banks will be giaueu pei engineei uesigns anu
appiopiiate eiosion contiol measuies will be utilizeu, incluuing bank stabilization with
native vegetation.
9.2 I|oodp|a|n 8est Management Þract|ces
In auuition to the phaseu iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam, BNPs will be utilizeu to fuithei ieuuce
seuiment entiainment fiom floouplain aieas uiiectly connecteu to the impounument.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 38 of 89
Floouplain aieas (wetlanus anu open watei) iuentifieu as potential fine seuiment souices
(Figuie S) will be monitoieu uuiing the uewateiing anu loweiing piocesses. These aieas
aie expecteu to iapiuly ie-establish vegetateu covei following uewateiing, as has been
noteu in seveial uam iemoval stuuies (Riggsbee et al. In Piess; 0ii anu Stanley 2uu6;
Shafioth et al. 2uu2). In natuial flow iegimes, these aieas woulu likely become inunuateu
uuiing peiiouic high uischaige events. Bowevei, the iegulateu hyuiology of the NBNB
ieach may ueciease the fiequency of floouplain inunuation. Still, these aieas aie likely to
expeiience peiious of uiying anu wetting, which coulu affect ie-vegetation success.

The Sponsoi will monitoi the floouplain anu othei fine seuiment ueposition aieas (Figuie
S) uuiing the uewateiing anu loweiing piocesses to assess natuial ie-vegetation anu
localizeu eiosion. If any of these aieas expeiience unacceptable levels of eiosion,
coiiective measuies will be taken. Such actions may incluue the manual ie-vegetation with
native wetlanu plants, hyuio-seeuing, geotextile cloth applications, etc.

9.3 Wet|and Impact Avo|dance and M|n|m|zat|on
As iuentifieu in Figuie S, theie aie two laige wetlanu aieas within the vicinity of the uam
that coulu be inuiiectly affecteu uuiing oi aftei the iemoval piocess (Figuie 6). Specific
thieats incluue the loweiing of local giounuwatei tables, heaucut foimation anu bank
slumping; all of which can ieuuce wetlanu aiea anu function. As uiscusseu in Section 2.S,
theie is the potential foi a net loss of ~11.8-acies of wetlanu to occui following the
pioposeu uam iemoval. The Sponsoi is exploiing vaiious engineeiing appioaches to ietain
the hyuiology of these existing wetlanu aieas.


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 39 of 89
Wetlanu 1 (Figuie 6) is the most likely to be affecteu uuiing the uam's iemoval, as theie is a
gap in the natuial levees of ~7S-feet in wiuth (Photo 9). This gap is cuiiently being
consiueieu foi constiuction of a levee, a sheet piling weii oi othei hyuiological contiol.
Wetlanu 2 (Figuie 6) is consiueiably less likely to be affecteu by uam iemoval. Bowevei,
the aiea most susceptible to uistuibance is the valley bottom, which cuiiently seives as the
site of a significant beavei uam (Photo 7). This specific aiea will be monitoieu uuiing the
uewateiing piocess, anu if necessaiy, tieateu in the same mannei as Wetlanu 1.
Engineeiing investigations aie ongoing; as pieviously stateu, the Sponsoi will pioviue the
IRT with hyuiological contiol investigations uuiing the NBI uiafting piocess.
9.4 Construct|on and Stag|ng Areas
All constiuction staging aieas foi equipment anu mateiials will be iestiicteu to uplanu
aieas. No wetlanu aieas will be useu by contiactoi foi any puiposes. Constiuction plans
will be piepaieu that will uepict constiuction access ioutes anu constiuction staging aieas.
The lattei will incluue poitions of the iivei bottom, which will be iequiieu by contiactoi
foi access to the uam uuiing iemoval of masoniy blocks. 0ntil the impounument has been
substantially uewateieu, the only equipment that will be able to access the uam will be
tiackeu hoes. Routes of ingiess anu egiess will be iuentifieu foi appioaching the uam anu
foi iemoving masoniy blocks.
10.0 Lnv|ronmenta| Þerm|tt|ng
Following appioval of the NBI anu Nitigation Plan by the IRT, the Sponsoi will piepaie anu
submit applications foi a Section 4u4 Inuiviuual Peimit, a Section 4u1 Watei Quality
Ceitificate, Neuse Rivei Ripaiian Buffei Ceitificate, anu appioval of the Eiosion anu
Seuimentation Contiol Plan fiom the 0SACE, the NCBWQ anu the Noith Caiolina Bivision

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 40 of 89
of Lanu Resouices (NCBLR), iespectively. (Note: Stieam iestoiation activities aie
exempteu fiom iipaiian buffei ceitification iequiiements, but sponsoi is piepaieu to
submit uocumentation to NCBWQ ie: Neuse Rivei Ripaiian Buffei issues.)

These feueial (Section 4u4 Inuiviuual Peimit) anu state (Section 4u1 Watei Quality
Ceitificate anu Eiosion¡Seuimentation Plan Review anu Appioval) authoiizations aie
iequiieu essentially because the action(s) pioposeu by the Sponsoi will (a) iesult in a
uischaige of spoil (seuiment) into Wateis of the 0.S. (the Neuse Rivei), which is also a
Watei of the State, anu (b) may iesult in losses to wetlanus lying aujacent to the piesently
impounueu ieach of the Neuse Rivei upstieam of Nilbuinie Bam.

The uischaige of seuiment is likely to iesult fiom the Sponsoi's activities ielateu to
uewateiing the impounument, as well as activities ielateu to the ueconstiuction anu
iemoval of Nilbuinie uam. Specifics of contiactoi activities uuiing uewateiing anu
ueconstiuction activities will be uepicteu in constiuction plan sheets, which will
accompany peimit application submittals to state anu feueial iegulatoiy agencies (see
pieliminaiy plan sheets 1-8 in Appenuix).

The 0SACE will be pioviueu Engineeiing Foim 4S4S. Consultation with the NCBWQ's
Ripaiian Buffei Cooiuinatoi will be conuucteu to ueteimine if an exchange of papeiwoik is
iequiieu foi the subject pioject. The covei lettei, which accompanies the application
packages to the 0SACE anu the NCBWQ will be the vehicle foi communicating essential
pioject infoimation in naiiative foim to the iegulatoiy agencies, who will, in tuin, pioviue

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 41 of 89
copies to commenting agencies, incluuing those with membeiship on the pioject IRT.
Topics to be exploieu in the covei lettei incluue:
Puipose anu neeu
Alteinatives analyses
Anticipateu impacts to wateis of the 0S
Avoiuance anu minimization
Compensatoiy mitigation
Neuse Rivei Ripaiian Buffei
Substiate investigations
Seuiment Nanagement
Pioposeu action on iiveibeu uebiis
Be-constiuction (uemolition)
NEPA
Section 1u6 (National Bistoiic Pieseivation Act)
Raie species issues (incluuing Section 7)
Seuimentation Pollution Contiol Act of 197S
10.1 Þurpose and Need
In simple teims, the puipose of the pioposeu action is to iemove an aging, fast appioaching
uysfunctional iivei uam to iestoie anu uiamatically impiove the aquatic ecology of a
S2,S9u lineai feet ieach of the Neuse Rivei in Raleigh, Noith Caiolina anu, in uoing so,
establish stieam mitigation units that can be useu to offset the impacts of legitimate
uevelopment piojects appioveu by the state anu feueial iegulatoiy ieview anu appioval
piocesses within a well-uefineu seivice aiea.

In geneial, aquatic ecologists view uams as impeuiments to the natuial physical, chemical
anu biological uynamics of stieams that aie necessaiy to sustain healthy anu uiveise
populations of fish, amphibians anu inveitebiate fauna. This is the woiking hypothesis that
has been valiuateu in the scientific liteiatuie (see Santucci et al, 2uuS). The iesults of many
of these investigations uemonstiate that values of the Inuex of Biotic Integiity (IBI) foi fish,
Nacioinveitebiate Conuition Inuex (NCI) anu the Qualitative Babitat Evaluation Inuex

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 42 of 89
(QBEI) foi fish anu maciobenthos weie consistently anu significantly highei in lotic
poitions of the iivei (uownstieam of uams) than in lotic ieaches of the same iivei. We
piopose to uemonstiate the valiuity of this woiking hypothesis foi the ieach of the Neuse
Rivei impounueu by the Nilbuinie Bam.
10.2 A|ternat|ves Ana|ys|s
The iestoiation of the Nilbuinie Impounument fiom a lentic, essentially lacustiine system
to a fiee-flowing, lotic, system can only be achieveu by iemoving the Nilbuinie Bam.
Accoiuingly, only one "builu" alteinative has the potential to systematically iestoie the
impounueu ieach to its natuial conuition. Consequently, the Sponsoi pioposes to iestoie
the impounueu wateis behinu the Nilbuinie Bam by iemoving the stiuctuie (see plan
sheets 2-8 in Appenuix). 0f couise, the "no builu" alteinative woulu not accomplish the
stateu puipose anu neeu.
10.3 Ant|c|pated Impacts to Waters of the US
*"&(9.)=,>+9.<: Pioposeu uewateiing of the impounument anu ue-constiuction of the uam
will iesult in ielatively minoi mobilizations (uischaiges) of iivei bottom substiate. These
uischaiges will iesult when incieasingly moie anu moie of the masoniy uam is slowly
iemoveu ovei a peiiou of seveial months, initially to "vent" the impounument wateis anu,
ultimately, to iemove all eviuence of the uam stiuctuie. Nobilization of equipment each
uay fiom uplanu staging aiea(s) to the uam woik zone anu the seuiment management woik
aieas will inevitably anu unavoiuably ielease seuiment (see plan sheets 2-S in Appenuix).
Tuining tiackeu equipment in a iiveiine setting will uischaige seuiment. Foitunately, the
bounuaiies of woik zones will be well uefineu in the constiuction plans anu theie will be

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 43 of 89
no toleiance foi opeiating equipment outsiue these bounuaiies. No wetlanus occui within
oi aujacent to woik zones (see plan sheet 2-S in Appenuix).&
&
?"+%Q&1;%&9."$'"#&;('&.7#."'%,4&(6"*/%/&:;(#(:+%#*R*$D&+;%&($+*:*.(+%/&/*#%:+&*0.(:+'&('&/%&
0*$*0*'S&;"T%6%#A&*+&T"7,/&$"+&M%&7$#%('"$(M,%&+"&/"&'"I&&E(6*$D&"M'%#6%/&'*0*,(#&".%#(+*"$'&
(+&+;%&H"T%,,&!*,,&($/&B(#M"$+"$&>(0&#%0"6(,'&($/&0*$/87,&+;(+&+;%&/%T(+%#*$D&".%#(+*"$'&
(+&!*,M7#$*%&T*,,&+(F%&.,(:%&"6%#&($&%)+%$/%/&.%#*"/&"8&+*0%&+"&(6"*/&7$$%:%''(#4&/*':;(#D%'A&
+;%& 9."$'"#& M%,*%6%'& +;%& #%,%('%'& "8& '%/*0%$+& (+& !*,M7#$*%& :"7,/& ,%D*+*0(+%,4& M%& /%':#*M%/& ('&
/%&0*$*0*'I&&14.*:(,&+;7$/%#'+"#0&(:+*6*+*%'&*$&+;%&,":(,&T(+%#';%/&:"7,/&%('*,4&#%,%('%&0"#%&
'%/*0%$+& +"& +;%& #*6%#& +;($& +;(+& #%,%('%/& /7#*$D& /%T(+%#*$D& ($/& /%U:"$'+#7:+*"$& (:+*6*+*%'&
:"0M*$%/I&
&
='H"&(9.)=,>+9.<: As noteu above in Section 2.S, the Sponsoi acknowleuges that wetlanu
functions aie likely to be impacteu within ceitain wetlanus lying aujacent to the iivei. 0n-
going analyses will enable Sponsoi to quantify these anticipateu impacts. These
anticipateu impacts will be piesenteu in the peimit applications followeu by a vigoious
piesentation of potential compensatoiy mitigation pioposals.
10.4 Avo|dance and M|n|m|zat|on
Total avoiuance of uischaiges into wateis of the 0.S. is not feasible puisuant to
accomplishing the puipose anu neeu of the pioject. Bam iemoval anu its associateu tasks
will always iesult in the unavoiuable mobilization of seuiment anu othei uebiis.
Ninimization effoits can anu shoulu be unueitaken. Foi example, uefining the limits of
contiactoi's activities is an attempt to minimize use of iivei bottom foi equipment

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 44 of 89
opeiation, which will limit the amount of seuiment that can be mobilizeu (see plan sheets
2-S in Appenuix). Fuitheimoie, the uecision to ieutilize the uam's masoniy blocks within
the iivei beu iathei than loauing into tiucks anu hauling away will minimize impacts by
eliminating the intiouuction of a laige-scale tiucking opeiation that woulu have to gain
access to anu fiom the iivei, cieating special eiosion pioblems. These masoniy blocks will
be useu to stabilize the shoieline along the west siue of the iivei at the uam's location (see
plan sheets S anu 6 in Appenuix). The embayment that has foimeu along the iivei's west
siue is obviously the iesult of shoieline ietieat, ieflecting the histoiical hyuiaulics since the
uam stiuctuies weie intiouuceu. The masoniy blocks will seive as a toe line that will aiu in
stabilizing +¡- 1S,uuu cubic yaius of sanuy seuiment ueposits that have accumulateu within
~ 1,uuu lf upstieam of the uam. These mateiials will be iemoveu to the west siue shoieline
anu stabilizeu with eiosion contiol measuies. This will piecluue the uownstieam
tianslocation of ~1S,uuu cubic yaius of (mostly) sanu that has accumulateu since the uam
was built. Contiactoi will utilize constiuction mats to fuithei stabilize ingiess anu egiess
in the constiuction zones. Seuiment tiapping uevices will be ueployeu uownstieam of the
ue-constiuction activities. Contiactoi will utilize special giaue of hyuiaulic oil that is
ielatively non-toxic in conjunction with a manuatoiy uaily inspection of all hyuiaulic hoses
on all equipment useu in the iivei. Finally, unueiwatei suiveys foi iaie mussel species will
be conuucteu by The Catena uioup's mussel team piioi to contiactoi access to constiuction
woik zones. This will ensuie that inuiviuuals of iaie species can be iescueu befoie heavy
equipment enteis constiuction zones.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 45 of 89
10.S Compensatory M|t|gat|on
The Sponsoi commits to pioviuing appiopiiate compensatoiy mitigation foi losses to
iivei-aujacent wetlanus that iesult fiom the iemoval of the Nilbuinie Bam. Beteimination
of losses of wetlanus will be maue in cooiuination with the 0SACE anu the NCBWQ
following an appiopiiate peiiou anu level of monitoiing activity.
10.6 Neuse k|ver k|par|an 8uffer
Although the ieach of the Neuse Rivei involveu in the pioposeu uam iemoval action is
subject to the iequiiements of the Neuse Rivei Ripaiian Buffei Rules, the pioject itself, a
stieam iestoiation, is exempt fiom the iequiiements of the iule. Bowevei, following
completion of all constiuction activities, any uistuibeu aieas within the buffei zones will be
iepaiieu anu ie-stabilizeu with woouy vegetation.
10.7 Dewater|ng of the Impoundment
Two possibilities exist foi uewateiing impounument above Nilbuinie: 1) Notching uam:
iemoval of incieasing numbeis of masoniy blocks ovei time to iesult in a slow, giauual
loweiing of the watei level behinu the uam; oi 2) inciemental iemoval of watei behinu the
uam thiough gate{s} in the uam (see plan sheets 7-8 in Appenuix).

0f the two options, iemoval of watei via gate{s} in the uam will offei less contiol anu may
iesult in moie mobilization of seuiment uue to ioute watei must tiavel. At this point in
time it is likely that notching will pioviue the most contiol ovei the iate of uewateiing anu,
uue to uistance fiom iivei beu to notch, less seuiment mobilization. Notching is the
piefeiieu methou of uewateiing anu will be executeu slowly anu uelibeiately to avoiu
mobilizing moie than /%&0*$*0*' seuiment.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 46 of 89
10.8 Substrate Invest|gat|ons
Cioss-sections of iivei bottom have been taken up to 1,uuu lineai feet (lf) above uam so the
volume of unconsoliuateu seuiment is known foi this uistance upstieam (see plan sheet
4|piofilej, 6 anu 7-8 |sectionsj in Appenuix). Evaluations of the iivei bottom fiom 1,uuu lf
upstieam of the uam to the top of impounument will be conuucteu in the neai futuie anu
volumetiic calculations will be unueitaken. Qualitative sampling of substiate has been
unueitaken fiom uam to a point neai top of impounument. Samples confiim the
oveiwhelming composition of seuiment to be sanu. Limiteu piesence of fine seuiment
(muu) has been iuentifieu at a few locations. Recommenuations will be maue to the IRT foi
a seuiment management appioach well in auvance of peimit application submittal.

The 0SFWS completeu a Tiei I investigation on behalf of the Nilbuinie Bam iemoval. Tiei I
investigations ueteimine the potential foi the piesence of pioblematic chemicals in the
iivei beu baseu on the histoiical occuiiences of inuustiies that weie licenseu to uischaige
effluent, potentially containing such chemicals in close pioximity of the iivei. The iesults
of the Tiei I stuuy suggests a ieasonable potential foi the occuiience of such chemistiy in
the iivei beu. Consequently, a Tiei II was iecently initiateu.

Sampling of the substiate foi chemical analysis was conuucteu unuei the guiuance of the
0SFWS (Bi. Augspuigei) in August 2u11. Samples of substiate, containing fine seuiments
weie collecteu anu stoieu in accoiuance with stiict piotocols. An IRT-appioveu laboiatoiy
is cuiiently completing assays foi oiganic anu metal composition in stiict confoimance
with stanuaiu piotocols auvocateu by the 0SFWS. Following ieceipt of assay iesults fiom
the testing laboiatoiy, the 0SFWS (Bi. Augspuigei) will piepaie anu issue a final iepoit.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 47 of 89
Peimit applications foi the uam iemoval will not be submitteu piioi to uistiibution of the
0SFWS iepoit.&

10.9 Sed|ment Management
As inuicateu above, moie than ~1S,uuu cubic yaius of accumulateu sanuy ueposits will be
giaueu¡excavateu fiom the upstieam iiveibeu within 1,uuu lineai feet of the uam (see plan
sheets 2,S anu 6 in Appenuix). The knowleuge that this volume of seuiment ueposition
exists was ueteimineu fiom conventional suivey methouologies. Similai woik may be
unueitaken upstieam of this aiea in the coming weeks. These new uata will be fully
analyzeu anu a iepoit piesenteu at a futuie IRT meeting. The Sponsoi will be collaboiating
with the pioject IRT on the potential consequences to the iivei ecology fiom extiaction of
seuiment ueposition thioughout the impounument vs. allowing the stoieu seuiment to
cycle uownstieam uuiing anu aftei uewateiing anu uam ue-constiuction. This
piesentation will be closely cooiuinateu with the 0SFWS' toxicology iepoit. &
10.10 Þroposed Act|on on k|verbed Debr|s
Following iemoval of the uam theie is a stiong likelihoou that fallen tiees anu othei uebiis
will become piominent featuies of the iiveibeu. To the extent this conuition is seen as
positive oi negative by the public anu¡oi iesouice agencies will uepenu on whethei the
uebiis inhibits iivei tiansit by canoeists anu kayakeis, anu whethei iemoval of the uebiis
woulu be consiueieu uetiimental to the ecology of the iivei in the view of the NCWRC,
0SFWS anu othei agencies. "Covei" anu "stiuctuie" aie often vieweu as positive habitat
featuies in aquatic ecosystems. The neeu foi canoeists anu kayakeis to make an occasional
poitage uuiing a iivei outing is also a subjective topic that shoulu be exploieu with canoe
anu kayak gioups. It is highly likely that the Sponsoi will be making some type of

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 48 of 89
commitment to peifoim "snag anu iemove" opeiations following uam iemoval baseu on
the outcome of uiscussions with the IRT, wilulife agencies anu iivei usei gioups. Such a
commitment will be ieflecteu in the peimit application(s) anu will be shapeu to some
extent by the anticipateu cost of such unueitakings. &
10.11 De-construct|on (Demo||t|on)
As inuicateu in 1u.7 above, uewateiing is likely to iesult fiom notching anu loweiing the
uam's elevation, which is likely to iesult in less seuiment mobilization thioughout the
piocess of giauually loweiing the heau ponu behinu the uam. Notching simply iemoves a
small gioup of masoniy block fiom the top of the uam, theieby ieleasing some amount of
stoieu suiface watei, exposing inunuateu floouplain aieas. The "loweiing" piocess is
essentially a piocess of inciementally iemoving the uam fiom the top uown. Each iow of
masoniy blocks will be iemoveu by tiackeu hoes ieaching up, giasping anu iemoving one
block at a time. As blocks aie iemoveu they aie likely to be placeu in the beu of a ielatively
small tiackeu uump tiuck, which will tianspoit its loau to the west siue of iivei wheie
blocks will be useu to builu a toe wall, behinu which 2u,uuu+ cubic yaius of iivei beu
ueposition will be placeu. This piocess will continue until the uam ceases to exist (see plan
sheets 2,S, 7-8 in Appenuix).

This topic also uesciibes the fate of the stiuctuies along the west embankment aujacent to
the uam, which seiveu as the poweihouse uuiing the piouuction of electiicity foi iesale to
CP&L. These stiuctuies will be uemolisheu anu hauleu to a suitable uisposal site. The
entiie site will be giaueu anu planteu in accoiuance with the giauing anu eiosion contiol
plans to be appioveu by the NCBLR (see plan sheets S, 7-8 in Appenuix).

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 49 of 89
10.12 NLÞA
No iequiiements exist foi the Sponsoi to conuuct eithei N.E.P.A. oi S.E.P.A. stuuies;
howevei, since the 0SACE has ueteimineu infoimally the pioject will iequiie an Inuiviuual
Section 4u4 Peimit (IP), the 0SACE will piepaie an Enviionmental Assessment (EA). &
10.13 Sect|on 106 (Nat|ona| n|stor|c Þreservat|on Act)
Consultation between the Sponsoi anu SBP0 was initiateu by lettei on Naich 2, 2u1u anu
is on-going. The site may be a canuiuate foi inclusion on the Registiy foi Bistoiic Places.
SBP0 has inuicateu iecoiuation, uocumentation, anu auuitional aichaeological mitigation
measuies may be neeueu. The Sponsoi intenus to meet with SBP0 anu a piivate
aichaeological consultant to uiscuss the specifics of SBP0 iequiiements puisuant to
Section 1u6 of the Bistoiic Pieseivation Act. The Sponsoi intenus to have completeu all
necessaiy woik to the satisfaction of SBP0 in auvance of piepaiing anu submitting peimit
applications.&
10.14 kare Spec|es Issues |nc|ud|ng Sect|on 7
The 0SFWS lists thiee species foi Wake County, incluuing the enuangeieu Reu-cockaueu
Wooupeckei, enuangeieu Bwaif Weugemussel, anu the thieateneu Nichaux Sumac. Two
othei iaie species aie listeu by the state of Noith Caiolina anu aie known to have occuiieu
in the pioject aiea. Suitable habitat foi the ieu-cockaueu wooupeckei, anu Nichaux sumac
aie not piesent within aieas to be uistuibeu oi affecteu by pioposeu actions. Suiveys foi
the Bwaif Weuge Nussel anu state-listeu mussels will be unueitaken by The Catena
uioup's mussel team piioi to the mobilization of constiuction iesouices.
10.1S Sed|mentat|on Þo||ut|on Contro| Act of 1973
The NCBLR's Lanu Quality Section iequiies that the Sponsoi submit copies of pioject
eiosion contiol plans foi ieview anu appioval. This ieview often iesults in

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 50 of 89
iecommenuations foi the inclusion of methous anu uevices that will pioviue maximum
piotection of the wateiway thioughout the uewateiing anu ue-constiuction activities.
11.0 Mon|tor|ng Þ|an
To evaluate the ecological success of NBNB, the pioposeu post-iemoval monitoiing plan
will be caiiieu out foi five yeais oi until success ciiteiia aie met, whichevei is longei. The
monitoiing plan stiuctuie, incluuing success ciiteiia, is baseu on BRTF (2uu8). In auuition,
the Sponsoi anu its consultants have uevelopeu the pioposeu monitoiing plan using theii
collective expeiience gaineu uuiing the iemoval anu monitoiing phases of the Caibonton
anu Lowell Nill piojects.

Baseline (pie-iemoval) monitoiing has been completeu÷the methous of which weie
iecently piesenteu to the IRT foi ieview. Baseline iesults will be pioviueu in the Nitigation
Plan, as is customaiy with mitigation bank establishment. This phase of the monitoiing
plan is intenueu to uocument existing ecological conuitions. Following the complete
iemoval of Nilbuinie Bam, monitoiing will take place at iegulai inteivals (ueteimineu in
cooiuination with the IRT), anu monitoiing iesults, incluuing compaiisons with baseline
conuitions, will be iepoiteu annually. Final iepoits will be submitteu by Becembei 1
st
of
each yeai to 0SACE anu maue available to any inteiesteu IRT agencies.


NYC)!P=Q):1SCMN=UC-):F)NYC)7R:ORP!)Z=WW)1C)N:)
• Beteimine if local watei quality has impioveu;

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 51 of 89
• Beteimine if an appiopiiate lotic biological community is ie-establisheu;
• Beteimine if ie-colonization of the iestoiation ieach by iaie anu enuangeieu species
occuis;
• Beteimine the total extent of anauiomous fish passage within anu upstieam of the
impounument; anu
• Beteimine if human values ciiteiia (paik uevelopment anu suppoit of inuepenuent
scientific ieseaich) have been met.
11.1 Improved Aquat|c Commun|ty
ueomoiphic iesponses associateu with uam iemovals can quickly impiove habitat foi lotic
biological communities (Boyle et al. 2uuS; Stanley et al. 2uu2). To uocument
hyuiogeomoiphic aujustments within the iestoiation ieach, peimanent geomoiphic anu
biological monitoiing stations aie locateu within, upstieam anu uownstieam of the
iestoiation ieach.
11.1.2 Geomorpho|og|c Mon|tor|ng
Stations aie spaceu ~2S bankfull wiuths apait; in some cases, spacing was mouifieu to
avoiu uevelopment. Stations locateu within one-half mile of the uam aie spaceu moie
closely togethei with the intention of uocumenting the most uiastic geomoiphic
aujustments following uam iemoval. Each station will be ioutinely monitoieu to follow any
changes in channel geometiy (a means of assessing stability), stieam velocity, seuiment
chaiactei, geomoiphic featuie classification (e.g., iiffle, pool, iun, etc.) anu NCBWQ habitat
assessment. Stations may be ielocateu following iemoval to ensuie the full uiveisity of
geomoiphic featuies is monitoieu. Foi example, if the majoiity of baseline stations aie
locateu in what become pools following uam iemoval, some will be ielocateu to iiffle anu

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 52 of 89
iun aieas to moie accuiately uocument geomoiphic anu biological changes within the
iestoiation ieach.

Stieam velocity will be measuieu to captuie changes in local hyuiaulics, an impoitant
habitat paiametei that affects species uistiibutions anu seuiment tianspoit.
Neasuiements will be taken at compaiable uischaige levels as much as possible (~9u cfs as
measuieu at Falls Bam 0SuS gage u2u8718S). At stations with uepths <2.S-feet,
measuiements will be taken once at the 6u% uepth. At stations with uepths >2.S-feet,
measuiements will be taken at 2u% anu 6u% uepths.

Substiate coaisening following uam iemoval has the potential to piouuce moie
heteiogeneous habitats thioughout the iestoiation ieach. Seuiment at each geomoiphic
station will be chaiacteiizeu uuiing the monitoiing piocess to captuie substiate
coaisening. At stations with waueable uepths, seuiment chaiacteiization will be conuucteu
using Wolman pebble counts oi sieve analysis, uepenuing on geneial chaiactei (coaise vs.
fine). Stations with ueepwatei will be sampleu using a petite-Ponai uieuge. All Ponai
samples will be measuieu (pebble counts oi sieve analysis).

ueomoiphic featuie classifications will also be assigneu to each geomoiphic station baseu
on channel geometiy measuiements. Classifications incluue, but aie not limiteu to, the
following: 1) pool, 2) iiffle, anu S) iun. In auuition, NCBWQ Babitat Assessments will also
be peifoimeu at each station.


Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 53 of 89
Success ciiteiia foi geomoiphic monitoiing along the iestoiation ieach incluue the
following:
• Establishment of geomoiphic heteiogeneity, i.e., establishment of iiffles anu
ieuuction of homogenous, low-velocity ueepwatei habitat coveiage.
• Bemonstiation of stable channel geometiy
• Coaisening anu size uistiibution bioauening of seuiment paiticles (habitat
substiate)
• Incieases in NCBWQ Babitat Assessment scoies
11.1.3 8|o|og|ca| Commun|ty Mon|tor|ng
Nacioinveitebiate sampling will be conuucteu at ten peimanent stations (six within the
iestoiation ieach, anu foui iefeience stations). Sampling station locations (iestoiation
ieach anu iefeience ieaches) taigeteu iiffles. Sampling will follow NCBWQ's Stanuaiu
Qualitative Nethou. Results will be analyzeu foi ielative abunuance of Ephemeiopteia,
Plecopteia anu Tiichopteia taxa (often iefeiieu to as "EPT") as well as total numbei of
benthic taxa.

Auuitional biological monitoiing will occui at six peimanent iestoiation ieach stations anu
foui iefeience ieach stations. Sampling at these locations will chaiacteiize the fish, mussel
anu snail communities. In auuition, aquatic salamanueis may also be taigeteu at these
locations. Fish suiveys will be conuucteu annually following uam iemoval anu will utilize
timeu electio-fishing anu seine netting. In ceitain conuitions, NCIBI methous may be
employeu. Nussel suiveys will be conuucteu in yeais 4 anu S to pioviue ample time foi
mussel community ie-establishment within the iestoiation ieach (similai appioach was

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 54 of 89
puisueu successfully at both Caibonton anu Lowell Nill piojects). Semi-quantitative, timeu
suivey methous will be employeu by suiveyois with compaiable expeiiences in fixeu
locations unuei similai conuitions (e.g., time of yeai, watei levels, visibility, etc.) to
geneiate species-specific "Catch Pei 0nit Effoit" (CP0E) uata sets.

Baseline conuitions weie not sampleu within the impounument because of site access
challenges. Typically, iun-of-iivei impounuments aie best sampleu using boat-mounteu
electioshocking equipment. Bowevei, the only boat iamp within the impounument
(Elizabeth Biive Canoe Launch) was ieuesigneu to pievent use by tiaileieu motoiboats.
The uam was consiueieu as launch site but was iemoveu fiom consiueiation because of
safety conceins. The Sponsoi intenus to uevelop baseline monitoiing methous foi the
impounument in cooiuination with the IRT.

0nce locateu, iestoiation ieach biological-monitoiing stations may be ielocateu following
iemoval to taiget appiopiiate habitat foi lotic species. Foi example, if the majoiity of
baseline stations aie locateu in what become pools following uam iemoval, seveial will be
ielocateu to iiffle anu iun aieas to moie accuiately uocument biological changes within the
iestoiation ieach.

Biological success ueteiminations will be baseu on iefeience ieach compaiisons.
Specifically, success will be uemonstiateu if the iestoiation ieach values conveige oi
exceeu iefeience ieach values. ueneial success ciiteiia foi biological community
monitoiing along the iestoiation ieach incluue the following:

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• Incieases of ielative abunuance (CP0E), size class uistiibution (paiticulaily young
post-iemoval ageu), amount of occupieu habitat oi uistiibution, anu species
uiveisity of fieshwatei mussel fauna
• Establishment of a suite of lotic-auapteu fish species
• Incieases of ielative abunuance anu species uiveisity of aquatic snail fauna
11.2 Improved Water Çua||ty
Watei quality impiovements aie expecteu to occui within the iestoiation ieach following
uam iemoval. Such impiovements will allow foi lotic species ieciuitment anu ielieve
extenueu peiious of chemical anu theimal stiess foi benthic uwelling species. Watei
quality monitoiing will focus on measuiing watei tempeiatuie, uissolveu oxygen
concentiations anu benthic biotic inuices within iestoiation anu iefeience ieaches.

Watei tempeiatuie anu uissolveu oxygen uata will be gatheieu fiom existing Ambient
Nonitioing Stations (ANS) uatabases. Bata collecteu fiom two stations (}2S6uuuu anu
}2SSuuuu; Figuie 11) will be analyzeu annually anu iepoiteu in annual monitoiing iepoits.
Auuitionally, uissolveu oxygen anu tempeiatuie measuiements will be collecteu monthly at
S sampling stations to augment ANS uata. Suiface anu stieambeu measuiements will be
collecteu at non-ANS locations to uocument anticipateu changes in fiequency anu
uistiibution of theimal stiatification within the iestoiation ieach following uam iemoval.

Benthic biological inuices will be measuieu using NCBWQ Stanuaiu Qualitative Nethous at
1u sampling stations: S within the impounument anu S iefeience stations. Riffles weie
taigeteu foi iefeience stations anu impounument stations have been locateu wheie iiffles

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aie expecteu to uevelop following uam iemoval. Impounument sites may be ielocateu if
iiffles uo not uevelop wheie anticipateu; in such a scenaiio, impounument stations will be
ielocateu in aieas best suiteu foi macioinveitebiates (e.g., iiffles that may uevelop in
unexpecteu locations).

Success ueteiminations will be baseu on iefeience ieach compaiisons. Specifically, success
will be uemonstiateu if the iestoiation ieach values conveige oi exceeu iefeience ieach
values. ueneial success ciiteiia foi watei quality monitoiing along the iestoiation ieach
incluue the following:
• Reuuction of fiequency anu uistiibution of theimal stiatification anu associateu
hypoxia
• Impiovement of benthic biotic inuices scoies (ueciease = impiovement)
11.3 ke-Co|on|zat|on by kare and Þrotected Spec|es
Nost iaie anu piotecteu aquatic species aie associateu with lotic habitats, an inuication
that lotic habitats, not lentic habitats aie geneially unuei moie stiess. NBP uata anu
baseline monitoiing iesults (to be pioviueu to IRT with uiaft mitigation plan) iuentify
numeious iaie anu piotecteu species (Table S) aie piesent at vaiious locations upstieam
anu uownstieam of the Nilbuinie impounument. Theie aie also two iaie anu piotecteu
species piesent within the impounument (Table S); howevei, these paiticulai species weie
founu in low numbeis anu weie limiteu to small pockets of suitable habitat along the
stieam banks. All iaie anu piotecteu species monitoiing will be peifoimeu by TCu. TCu
staff holus the appiopiiate peimits to conuuct population suiveys of sensitive anu
piotecteu taxa.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 57 of 89
)
N+$#() E: Raie, enuangeieu anu thieateneu aquatic species of the Neuse Rivei Basin in
Wake County.
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-,('0*/"$+(&7$/7,(+(& Tiiangle Floatei
a,b,c,u
mussel ~ T
5,,*.+*"&,($:%",(+(& Yellow Lance
e
mussel FSC E
5,,*.+*"&#"($"F%$'*'& Roanoke Slabsheel
a,c,u
mussel ~ T
=7':"$(*(&0('"$*& Atlantic Pigtoe
e
mussel FSC E
H(0.'*,*'&#(/*(+(& Eastein Lampmussel
a,b,c,u
mussel ~ T
H(0*D"$(&'7M6*#*/*'& uieen Floatei
c,u
mussel FSC E
9+#".;*+7'&7$/7,(+7'& Cieepei
c,u
mussel ~ T
G*,,"'(&:"$'+#*:+(& Notcheu Rainbow
e
mussel ~ SC
?":"0*'&#($%4*& Bull Chub
a,b,c,u
fish ~ W1
?"+7#7'&87#*"'7'& Caiolina Nautom
e
fish FSC PT
H4+;#7#7'&0(+7+*$7'& Pinewoous Shinei
e
fish FSC W2
?%:+7#7'&,%T*'*& Neuse Wateiuog
a,u
amphibian ~ SC
O#:"$%:+%'&:(#",*$%$'*'& NC Spiny Ciayfish
u,f
ciustacean ~ SC
a
Founu upstieam of impounument
b
Founu within impounument
c
Founu uownstieam of impounument
u
Potential to ie-colonize oi expanu within impounument
e
0nlikely to ie-colonize uue to lack of known souice population
f
Not taigeteu uuiing baseline suiveys


Specific success ciiteiia foi iaie anu piotecteu species monitoiing will be cooiuinateu with
the IRT, but aie anticipateu to incluue the following:
• Re-colonization by iaie anu piotecteu species (e.g., uieen Floatei)
• Inciease in numbei of iaie mussel species

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 58 of 89
• Inciease in ielative abunuance (CP0E) of Eastein Lampmussel anu Tiiangle floatei
• Impiovement anu expansion of habitat appiopiiate foi iaie anu piotecteu species
• Re-colonization by any known associate species of taigeteu iaie anu piotecteu
species
11.4 Anadromous I|sh Þassage
Nilbuinie Bam is iecognizeu as the last iemovable anauiomous fish baiiiei within the
Neuse Rivei main stem. Seveial uams have been iemoveu fiom the Neuse anu its
tiibutaiies ovei the last seveial yeais (i.e., Quakeineck, Cheiiy Bospital, Rains Nill anu
Lowell Nill). 0nce iemoveu, an auuitional 1S+ miles of anauiomous fish spawning habitat
will become accessible to the iivei's anauiomous species, which incluue Stiipeu Bass anu
Ameiican Shau.

A combination of sampling techniques will be employeu in ieaches of the Neuse as fai
upstieam as Falls of the Neuse. Specific methous will incluue gill net sweeps, electio-
shocking as well as hook anu line sampling. Sampling is expecteu to begin neai the
tailwateis of Falls Bam. Bepenuing on the iesults of initial suiveys, sampling may be
ielocateu to any of vaiious uownstieam locations.

Success ciiteiion foi anauiomous fish monitoiing is as follows:
• Piesence of spawning conuition anauiomous fish in ieaches within anu upstieam of
the iestoiation ieach

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 59 of 89
11.S keserve Success Cr|ter|a
In auuition to the ecological success ciiteiia monitoiing pioposeu above, ieseive cieuit will
also be puisueu. The Sponsoi pioposes to builu a paik in the immeuiate vicinity of the
poweihouse, oi unuei a coopeiative agieement with the city of Raleigh, on the east siue of
the iivei, which will pioviue public access to the iestoieu iesouice. In auuition,
inuepenuent acauemic ieseaich will be funueu that will focus on ecological aujustments
within the Neuse iesulting fiom the Nilbuinie Bam iemoval. Cieuits geneiateu within the
ieseive categoiy aie to be useu in the event othei NBNB success ciiteiia aie not met. In
annual monitoiing iepoits, piogiess iegaiuing paik constiuction anu ieseaich funuing will
be iepoiteu. As-built uiawings will be pioviueu once the paik has been constiucteu, anu
ieseaich piouucts (e.g., publisheu papeis, iepoits) will be incluueu as maue available.

Success ciiteiia foi ieseive cieuit monitoiing incluue the following:
• Public paik is constiucteu (as-built uiawings anu photos as ueliveiables)
• Funuing pioviueu to inuepenuent acauemic institution, suppoiting giauuate level
scientific ieseaich focuseu on Nilbuinie Bam iemoval
11.6 Wet|and nydro|ogy Mon|tor|ng
TCu has installeu 1S giounuwatei-monitoiing wells at stiategic floouplain locations
upstieam of Nilbuinie Bam (Figuie S). These gages will electionically collect giounuwatei
elevations on a ioutine basis. These uata will be analyzeu anu pioviueu to the 0SACE with
NBNB annual monitoiing iepoits.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 60 of 89
12.0 n|stor|ca| and Archaeo|og|ca| Invest|gat|ons
The Sponsoi iequesteu Section 1u6 consultation (2 Naich 2u1u) fiom the Bepaitment of
Cultuial Resouices |State Bistoiic Pieseivation 0ffice (SBP0)j. SBP0's iesponse (1S Apiil
2u1u) inuicateu iecoiuation, uocumentation anu aichaeological mitigation measuies may
be neeueu. The Sponsoi has since pioviueu auuitional infoimation foi SBP0 (lettei uateu
28 }uly 2u1u). At this time no uecision iegaiuing mitigation iequiiements has been maue.
Coopeiation with SBP0 is ongoing to ensuie the Sponsoi pioceeus with the pioposeu
uemolition activities in full compliance with Section 1u6 of the National Bistoiic
Pieseivation Act.
13.0 Lndangered and Þrotected Spec|es
Theie aie thiee enuangeieu species known to occui within Wake County, NC. Below aie
biief habitat uesciiptions foi each species anu pieliminaiy biological conclusions. The
souice useu to geneiate the species list below was the 0SFWS.
13.1 ked-cockaded Woodpecker (!"#$"%&'()$*&+,"')
This iaie biiu lives in matuie pine foiests (7u yeais anu oluei) in the Southeast. This
species seeks out matuie, living pines, often those infecteu with ieu heait uisease (a fungus
affecting the tiee's heaitwoou), in which it caives out nesting cavities. uioups tenu to nest
in colonies, ieusing cavities fiom yeai to yeai. Foiestiy piactices have limiteu the available
habitat by cutting foiest befoie matuiity. In auuition, fiie suppiession policies have
iesulteu in unueistoiy ciowuing, which also negatively affect this species that piefeis open
foiests.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 61 of 89
13.2 Dwarf Wedgemusse| (-,+'."%$/0+(1&0&*$%$/)
The Bwaif Weugemussel occuis in stieams anu iiveis with slow to moueiate cuiients anu
sanu, giavel oi muuuy bottoms. Reseaich has confiimeu the species has at least thiee fish
hosts: 1) the tessellateu uaitei, 2) }ohnny uaitei anu S) mottleu sculpin. It is thought this
species is impacteu by inuustiial, agiicultuial anu uomestic pollution.
13.3 M|chaux's Sumac (213'(."#1+34"")
This ihizomatous, uensely haiiy shiub with eiect stems can giow one to thiee feet in
height. This species is thought to be enuemic to the Coastal Plain anu Pieumont of the
Caiolinas. Nichaux's Sumac appeais to piefei sanuy oi iocky soils in association with open
woous. Suivival seems to be highest in aieas subjecteu to peiiouic uistuibances, incluuing
fiie anu aitificial cleaiings.
13.4 Þre||m|nary 8|o|og|ca| Conc|us|ons
Since the pioposeu pioject is not being conuucteu within a matuie pine foiest, impacts to
the Reu-cockaueu Wooupeckei aie unlikely. Bwaif Weugemussels weie not founu uuiing
baseline suiveys anu aie unlikely to be affecteu. Bowevei, eveiy effoit will be maue to
ensuie constiuction activities (uam iemoval anu associateu BNP installations anu
implementations) will not impact these anu othei iaie mussels. Regaiuing Nichaux's
Sumac, this species was not obseiveu uuiing the iecent uam site vegetative suivey (see
Section 11.4), anu the habitat seems inappiopiiate. Bam iemoval activities, incluuing ue-
wateiing will not uistuib habitats useu by Nichaux's Sumac; howevei constiuction
equipment anu mateiial stoiage anu staging aieas will be suiveyeu once these aieas aie
iuentifieu. This suivey anu all ciitical biological conclusions foi these species will be
cooiuinateu with the 0SFWS uuiing the enviionmental scieening phase of this pioject.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 62 of 89
5L6\)C<.+$#"<D,('.)+'H):>(&+."0')
The maximum cieuit potential of NBNB will be ueteimineu in cooiuination with the IRT.
Cieuit ueteimination will confoim to BRTF (2uu8). All cieuits piouuceu at NBNB shoulu
be useu to offset peimitteu impacts to peiennial channels within the pioposeu seivice
aieas of the Neuse Rivei basin (see next section). Cieuiting anu uebiting the bank will be
iecoiueu on a leugei that will be submitteu annually to the 0SACE along with annual
monitoiing iepoits. Table S uetails the pioposeu cieuit ielease scheuule. NBNB will be
opeiateu by the Sponsoi thioughout pie-constiuction cooiuination anu plan uevelopment,
constiuction, anu continueu post-iemoval monitoiing foi success evaluation. The Sponsoi
will be iesponsible foi the NBNB's success, foi the sale of cieuits in accoiuance with an
appioveu cieuit ielease scheuule, anu foi tiansfeiiing NBNB's conseivation easement to
an appiopiiate entity such as a lanu conseivancy.

The Sponsoi has consiueieu the use of the cieuit ielease scheuule piesciibeu by the
agencies in a Bepaitment of the Aimy Public Notice (uateu S }une 2uu8); howevei, the
Sponsoi is foimally iequesting a laigei upfiont ielease be pioviueu foi this specific pioject.
As this mitigation bank is not a tiauitional stieam iestoiation pioject anu is chaiacteiizeu
by an entiiely uiffeient anu moie complicateu set of iisks, constiaints anu expenses, the
stanuaiu stieam cieuit ielease scheuule is not appiopiiate. The Sponsoi acknowleuges
theie aie numeious conceins with this pioject incluuing but not limiteu to the following:
seuiment quality, seuiment quantity, seuiment tianspoit, as well as the potential loss of
upstieam wetlanus aieas anu functions. The Sponsoi fiimly believes each of these
conceins can be auuiesseu to the satisfaction of the iegulatoiy agencies (see Section 2.S).

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 63 of 89
Bowevei, the necessaiy pieventative measuies will iequiie consiueiable time anu expense
to be peifoimeu effectively (see Section 9.u foi uiscussion of specific pieventative
measuies). Theiefoie the following cieuit ielease scheuule (Table 4) is pioposeu in
anticipation of the auueu time anu expense involveu with the iemoval piocess. )
)
N+$#()LX)Pioposeu Cieuit Release Scheuule
)!"#(<.0'() N+<2<) M&(H".)R(#(+<()3]4)
Pieconstiuction

1) Execution of legal instiument by
Sponsoi anu 0SACE
2) Appioval of mitigation plan
S) Beliveiy of financial assuiances
4) Recoiuation of conseivation
easement coveiing uam site

2S
Constiuction

Successful completion of pieventative
measuies anu uam iemoval as outlineu
in the appioveu iestoiation plan

1S
Yeai-1 Nonitoiing Attainment of inteiim success ciiteiia 1u
Yeai-2 Nonitoiing Attainment of inteiim success ciiteiia 1u
Yeai-S Nonitoiing Attainment of inteiim success ciiteiia S
Yeai-4 Nonitoiing Attainment of inteiim success ciiteiia S
Yeai-S Nonitoiing Attainment of final success ciiteiia 1S
Full Site Success* Attainment of final success ciiteiia 1S
*Release is contingent on achieving success foi each of the ciiteiia iuentifieu in the BTRF (2uu8), as uesciibeu
in the foithcoming Nitigation Plan.
1S.0 Serv|ce Area
The pioposeu Piimaiy ueogiaphic Seivice Aiea (PuSA) is NBNB's native 8-uigit Cataloging
0nit, uSu2u2u1 (Figuie 12). While the Public Notice issueu by the Wilmington Bistiict on
}une S, 2uu8 makes it cleai the "use of the bank foi impacts locateu outsiue the PuSA may
be consiueieu on a case-by-case basis uuiing the peimit evaluation piocess", the Sponsoi is
foimally iequesting consiueiation the NBNB be gianteu a Seconuaiy ueogiaphic Seivice

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 64 of 89
Aiea (SuSA; Figuie 12). The iequiiement that compensatoiy mitigation effoits be locateu
in the cataloging unit wheie the stieam impact(s) occui is stanuaiu position of the IRT;
howevei, the Sponsoi believes flexibility may be appiopiiate in this paiticulai case. While
the pioposeu NBNB pioject is unique foi Noith Caiolina since iestoiation effoits have
nevei taigeteu the main stem of a majoi iivei in the state, theie is anothei, moie
funuamental ieason foi the iequesteu SuSA. BRTF (2uu8) states, iathei uncleaily,
"Compensatoiy mitigation cieuits geneiateu thiough uam iemoval will constitute no moie
than 7S% of the iequiieu mitigation within any cataloguing unit, with the exception of
those piojects involving the uischaige of fill mateiial anu subsequent impounument of
upstieam wateis." The Sponsoi feels this stipulation is vague, especially with iegaiu to
timefiame, anu theiefoie open to uiffeient inteipietations. The piovision of a SuSA will
inciease ceitainty anu piacticability of this pioject while satisfying the spiiit of the BRTF
2S% stipulation. Alteinatively, the iequest foi a SuSA will be withuiawn if the IRT agiees
not to holu NBNB cieuit sales to the BRTF 2S% stipulation.

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 65 of 89
keferences
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http:¡¡www.bae.ncsu.euu¡piogiams¡extension¡publicat¡aiep¡wateilaw.html
Catalano, N}, NA Bozek, anu TB Pellett. 2uu7. Effects of uam iemoval on fish assemblage
stiuctuie anu spatial uistiibutions in the Baiaboo Rivei, WI. ?"#+;&-0%#*:($&J"7#$(,&"8&
=*';%#*%'&!($(D%0%$+&27: S19-SSu.
Cuiie, F, A Buchaine, N Sebilo anu B Benujouui. 2uu9. Benitification in a hypoiheic zone
contiolleu by iivei iegulation in the Seine iivei basin (Fiance). E4/#","D*:(,&3#":%''%'
2S: 6SS-664.
Bam Removal Task Foice (BRTF). 2uu2. Neeting minutes fiom Febiuaiy 21, 2uu2.
Recoiueu by Baviu Schillei, NC Bepaitment of Tianspoitation.
Bam Removal Task Foice (BRTF). 2uu8. Beteimining Appiopiiate Compensatoiy
Nitigation Cieuit foi Bam Removal Piojects in Noith Caiolina.
Boyle, NW, EB Stanley anu }N Baiboi. Byuiogeomoiphic contiols on phosphoius
ietention in stieams. C(+%#&<%'"7#:%'&<%'%(#:; S9: uoi: 1u.1u29¡2uuSWRuu2uS8.
Boyle, NW, EB Stanley, CB 0ii, AR Selle, SA Sethi, anu }N Baiboi. 2uuS. Stieam ecosystem
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244.
Buff, }B anu F} Tiiska. 199u. Benitiification in seuiments fiom the hypoiheic zone aujacent
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1147.
ENTRIX. 2uu9. Nilbuinie Bam Removal Pioject Technical Nemoianuum: Nilbuinie Bam
Removal Wetlanus Stuuy.
ENTRIX. 2u1u. Nilbuinie Bam Removal Pioject Technical Nemoianuum: Assessment of
Impounument Seuiments.
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Yoik, pp. 92u.
Noiiis uL anu } Fan. 1998. Reseivoii Seuimentation Banubook: Besign anu Nanagement of
Bams, Reseivoiis anu Wateisheus foi Sustainable 0se. Ncuiaw Bill: New Yoik.
NC Bivision of Watei Quality (NCBWQ). 2uu9. Final Neuse Rivei Basin Watei Quality Plan.
http:¡¡h2o.eni.state.nc.us¡basinwiue¡Neuse¡2uu8¡NeuseRiveiBasinPlanBRAFT.htm
Neuse Riveikeepei Founuation. 2u11. Neuse Rivei Basin Fact Sheet.
http:¡¡www.neuseiivei.oig¡images¡Neuse_Rivei_Basin_Facts_anu_Infoimation.puf
Newbolu, }B, }W Elwoou, Rv 0'Neill, anu AL Sheluon. 198S. Phosphoius uynamics in a
wooulanu stieam system: a stuuy in nutiient spiialing. 5:","D4 64: 1249-126S.
0ii, CB anu EB Stanley. 2uu6. vegetation uevelopment anu iestoiation potential of uiaineu
ieseivoiis following uam iemoval. <*6%#&<%'%(#:;&($/&-..,*:(+*"$'&22: 281-29S.
Ricciaiui, A anu }B Rasmussen. 1999. Extinction iates of Noith Ameiican fieshwatei fauna.
B"$'%#6(+*"$&@*","D4 1S: 122u-1222.
Riggsbee, }A, }P }ulian, NW Boyle anu Ru Wetzel. 2uu7. Suspenueu seuiment, uissolveu
oiganic caibon, anu uissolveu nitiogen expoit uuiing the uam iemoval piocess. C(+%#&
<%'"7#:%'&<%'%(#:;&4S: uoi: 1u.1u29¡2uu6WRuuSS18, 2uu7

Restoration Systems, LLC Milburnie Dam Mitigation Bank 66 of 89
Riggsbee, }A, NW Boyle anu Ru Wetzel. In Piess. Physical anu plant community contiols on
nitiogen anu phosphoius leaching fiom impounueu iiveiine wetlanus following uam
iemoval. <*6%#&<%'%(#:;&($/&-..,*:(+*"$'I
Santucci, v}, SR uephaiu anu SN Pescitelli. 2uuS. Effects of multiple low-heau uams on fish,
macioinveitebiates, habitat anu watei quality in the Fox Rivei, IL. ?"#+;&-0%#*:($&
J"7#$(,&"8&=*';%#*%'&!($(D%0%$+&2S: 97S-992.
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Acauemic Piess: San Biego, pp.S88.
Shafioth, PB, }N Fiieuman, uT Auble, NL Scott anu }B Biaatine. 2uu2. Potential iesponses
of iipaiian vegetation to uam iemoval. @*"9:*%$:% S2: 7uS-712.
Stanley, EB, NA Luebke, NW Boyle anu BW Naishall. 2uu2. Shoit-teim changes in channel
foim anu macioinveitebiate communities following low-heau uam iemoval. J"7#$(,&"8&
?"#+;&-0%#*:($&@%$+;","D*:(,&9":*%+4&21: 172-187.
Stanley, EB, N} Catalano, N Neicauo-Silva anu CB 0ii. 2uu7. Effects of uam iemoval on
biook tiout in Wisconsin stieams. <*6%#&<%'%(#:;&($/&-..,*:(+*"$'&2S: 792-798.
The Catena uioup (TCu). 2u1u. Pie-Removal 0pstieam Wetlanu Belineations.
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tiansfoimation in the hypoiheic zone of a giavel-bottom stieam÷examining teiiestiial
aquatic linkages. =#%';T(+%#&@*","D4 29: 2S9-274.
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Stoiage Capacity anu Rules Woiking uioup. Wiitten by Colonel Wayne A. Banson. }une
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0S Aimy Coips of Engineeis (0SACE). 1987. Coips of Engineeis Wetlanu Belineation
Nanual. Technical Repoit Y-87-1. 0S Aimy Engineei Wateiways Expeiiment Station.
vicksbuig, NS.
0S Aimy Coips of Engineeis (0SACE). 2uu8. Falls Lake Biought Contingency Plan.
0S Census Buieau. 2u1u. http:¡¡www.census.gov¡newsioom¡ieleases¡aichives¡population¡cbu9-99.html
0S Fish anu Wilulife Seivice (0SFWS). 2uu8. Tiei I Pieliminaiy Evaluation of Pollutant
Souices to the Impounueu Reaches of Five Bams in the Neuse Rivei Basin, Noith
Caiolina.
0S Fish anu Wilulife Seivice (0SFWS). 2u11. Biaft Stuuy Plan÷Nilbuinie Bam Tiei II
Seuiment Evaluation.
0S ueological Suivey (0SuS). 2uu7. Chinese mysteiysnail fact sheet. Available online at
http:¡¡nas.ei.usgs.gov¡queiies¡factsheet.aspx.SpeciesIB=1u4S
Wetzel, Ru. 2uu1. H*0$","D4Q&H(F%&($/&<*6%#&5:"'4'+%0'. Thiiu euition. Acauemic Piess: San
Biego, pp. 1uu6.
Zainestze, }P, R Baggeity, SN Wonuzell anu NA Bakei. 2u11. Bynamics of nitiate
piouuction anu iemoval as a function of iesiuence time in the hypoiheic zone. J"7#$(,&"8&
V%".;4'*:(,&<%'%(#:; 116: uoi:1u.1u29¡2u1u}uuu1SS6.





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