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Science 8B Human Body Research

Mihnea N. Ryley O. 2011-02-15

Human Body Research Sensory Awareness (The Nervous System) - The Nervous system is the bodys central controller and communicator. Through the different neurons and neuroglia, the nerves transmit received information from the outside to the brain and back with a response to the muscular and skeletal systems in less than a second. Spinal cord- The Nervous systems major highway for connection between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord is made up of 31 segments. Of these 8 are cervical, 12 are thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. A pair of spinal nerves exits from each segment of the spinal cord. The average length of the spinal cord is 45 centimetres in men and 43 centimetres in women. The five senses- Five special sensory organs of the nervous system that can be found on the head. Using the eyes, the brain is able to process imaging around a person. Sound waves are transmitted to the brain using the sound heard by the ears. The tongue is divided into 4 sections that help detecting bitter, salty, sour, and sweet tastes. The taste is converted into nerve impulses, which help you make the decisions of the liked and disliked tastes. The nose is an olfactory organ. The tiny hair cells in the nose capture the smell and send it to the olfactory bulb, which has a separate set of sensory nerves. The impulses travel along a complicated route towards the smell sensory cortex of the brain. That section is located between the eye and the ear. The brain- The nucleus of the cell, the brain is the operating system inside the body. Controlling easy yet complicated manoeuvres such as walking and talking. Without it, a body would not function. All nerves send their information to the brain. It is separated into five sections. The frontal lobe takes care of complex thinking, imagination, and reasoning as well as planning. The parietal lobe processes messages sent by the senses, as well as the motor cortex, which controls movement. The temporal lobe deals with memory retrieval and the process of hearing. The occipital lobe processes sight and without it we would see everything upside down. The cerebellum helps control fine balance and movement. Quick fact- The brain still functions for approximately 15 seconds after decapitation. The Neurons- Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to regular cells because they have a cell membrane, have a nucleus that contains genes, contain cytoplasm and other organelles, and carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production. These neurons are specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process. The Glial Cells (Neuroglia) - These cells are more common than neurons have the not so fun yet essential job of protecting and supporting the nervous system. They provide nutrients and a supporting framework of tissue for the neurons. Some of them protect brain cells by killing invading microbes and clearing away dead cells. Unlike neurons, they can reproduce and fill in the spaces left by neurons. The nervous system:

Senses your external and internal surroundings Communicates information between your brain and spinal cord and other tissues Coordinates voluntary movements Coordinates and regulates involuntary functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature.

The Nerves- Millions of nerves that connect the central nervous system brain and spinal cordto the rest of the body. Together they are known as the peripheral nervous system. They register sensations which are sent and analyzed in the brain then are carried back out to the body. Parkinsons Disease- This shows the role of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals released by a neuron, in the brain. It is accompanied by muscle tremors, rigidity, slow movement, and loss of balance. It starts with

Science 8B Human Body Research

Mihnea N. Ryley O. 2011-02-15

the damage of the cells that create dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps the signals that control voluntary movement. Over time, the ventricles in the brain, large interior spaces in the forebrain and brain stem which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, enlarge as the brain tissue decreases. This causes involuntary movement and loss of control over muscles. The Cardiovascular System- This is the first system to develop. It protects every cell in the body by pumping blood through a web of vessels which circulate the body. Together, if laid end to end, they would measure up to 96 500 kilometres. The heart is the most vital organ in the body. Without it, blood would not get pumped in and out of it, stopping circulation. Blood is mostly made up of plasma, a pale yellow liquid. Plasma is 91 percent water the rest is proteins produced by the liver that helps maintain the proper levels of water in the bloodstream and help blood to clot when needed. The Heart-The heart is the main organ of the cardiovascular system; it pumps fresh, blood through the body and out through the veins to the rest of the body's organs. The heart also sends the blood with low levels of oxygen back to the lungs to add the oxygen back into it. The blood circulated goes throughout the body to stabilize body temperature as well. The heart is protected by four valves. There are two between the atria, two upper chambers of the heart. These are called the atrioventricular valves. When he contracting muscle of the heart pushes blood against the two, they are forced open. When the muscle relaxes, then they are shut once again. Between the ventricles, lower chambers of the heart, and the big arteries among the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, carries blood from the left ventricle to the branch arteries are the two semilunar valves. They open when blood is pushed out. Fun Fact: Your heart is about the size of your fist. The Lungs- By breathing, the lungs pump oxygen into the blood via the heart. This blood circulates around the body and as long as the lungs function properly then the blood circulation is at a proper functioning level. The lungs can be affected by smoking. Veins, Arteries, and Capillaries- The body is made up of a series of tubes that are filled with blood. Veins carry blood from the body to the heart while arteries send blood away from the heart to circulate throughout the human body. Capillaries connect arteries and veins. These capillaries change into venules, small veins that lead from capillaries to veins. Red cells, white cells, and platelets- Red blood cells dominate the bloodstream. These cells are nucleusless and have one job: to carry respiratory gases to and from the bodys tissues. The platelets are the next most common. They are cell fragments and they repair rips in blood vessels. The white blood cells are part of the immune system. They fight off bacteria, viruses, as well as toxins and other foreign material. Since blood cells dont live long, they must be constantly replaced. The bone marrow, which is a spongy material found in bones, creates the cells and are sent out throughout blood vessels in the bone. Smoking- By smoking just one cigarette, an individual is narrowing their blood vessels and slowing circulation throughout the body. Lack of oxygen to certain small veins, may cause inflammation and blocking of blood vessels. Resulting in infection, this may lead to amputation.

Science 8B Human Body Research

Mihnea N. Ryley O. 2011-02-15

Respiratory System- This included the lungs, the sinuses, the heart, diaphragm, the bronchi, the trachea, as well as the esophagus. Using these different organs, a person can easily breathe air in and out of the mouth and nose. As the oxygen enters the nose, the air gets sent towards the lungs where it is used by the heart to oxygenate blood for circulation. The oxygen is also used to air muscles for better use. As we breathe we cool ourselves down for a controlled body temperature. The nose- As the air is taken in through the nose, little hairs called cilia filter the air of dust and other (possibly harmful) substances. The nose is an airway that transports oxygen to the lungs and carbon dioxide away from it. Upper Respiratory Tract- Inside it can be found the nasal cavity, also the inside of the nose, which is separated by the nasal septum, the separation between the left and the right nostril. The pharynx is divided into three parts. The nasopharynx allows an effective air passage through the throat, in either direction. Behind what is also known as the oral cavity or mouth, the oropharynx connects the larynx to the esophagus. The laryngopharynx is the low section of the throat and it leads to the larynx. This is where the airways and digestive passages separate. The larynx also houses the vocal cords; with the mouth and other parts of the respiratory system speech is possible. The larynx also directs food towards the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that sends food from the pharynx to the stomach. Lower Respiratory Tract- The trachea or windpipe is a tube extending from the lower part of the larynx into the two bronchi. The bronchi (sng. bronchus) are two branches extending from the trachea into the lungs. They carry air to and from the lungs expelling carbon dioxide and other (potentially harmful) substances. The bronchioles are tubes extending from the bronchi into the alveoli, tiny air sacs where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood. The lungs are also part of the lower respiratory tract. They are the most important organs of the respiratory system and one of the most important organs in the body. Without them the oxygen would not be transferred around the body causing death. Epithelium- The epithelium is a membranous tissue covering organs. It is made up of different cells throughout the respiratory system, which help exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen. Carbon Monoxide Intoxication- This can happen from the chemical discharge from a car or a bad furnace in the house. Since CO is invisible, tasteless, and odourless, nobody knows about it until the symptoms occur. What happens? The carbon monoxide inhaled, is absorbed by the lungs and into the blood, and it can reach the heart and brain via blood vessels, while causing severe headaches and nausea. This causes the body to believe it is suffocating. This is how a person dies from carbon monoxide intoxication. Excretory System- The excretory system helps eliminate toxins and harmful chemicals from the human body. The kidney It helps cleanse the blood of toxins and other unknown substances, as well as produce urine and send it towards the bladder from where it will be eliminated from the body. The kidney also balances fluid and salt levels in the body. The Ureter- Is a tube connecting the kidney to the bladder. Urine travels through this tube in order to reach an exit at the urethra. The Bladder- The bladder is a temporary storage for urine. It expands upon the amount of liquid received. Fully expanded, the bladder can hold one litre of liquid and pressure grows as more fluid is added. Cells- They produce water and carbon dioxide as by-products of metabolic breakdown of sugar, fat, and protein. Diarrhea- Diahrrea can be caused by medication, mixed foods, such as water and yogurt, viruses, and parasites, as well as diseases. The most common cause is the large amount of liquid that passes through the intestines at a faster rate causing the feces to exit the body in a more freely manner.

Science 8B Human Body Research

Mihnea N. Ryley O. 2011-02-15

Body Tissue- First of all there are five main types of tissue in the human body. The lymphatic, the connective, epithelial, muscular, and the nervous system. Connective- This tissue is made up of cells and protein that protect other body tissues. There are five types of connective tissue. The bones, fat storage (loose connective tissue), dense connective tissue, blood, and cartilage. Epithelial- This provides many functions such as protection, absorption, and excretion. It is comprised of tightly packed cells that form layers. The epithelial tissue is made up of two main tissue types. Glandular, which is found in exocrine and endocrine glands. Lining epithelium forms the outer layer of the skin and in some internal organs. Muscular Tissue- Allows body movement, and provides stability and support for the skeleton and internal organs. The muscle tissue makes up approximately 60 percent of the bodys mass. Three types of muscle tissue can be found in the body. The cardiac is found in the heart. The skeletal muscle tissue is usually attached to the bones. Smooth muscle tissue is found inside blood vessels in the digestive system, respiratory system, and the eye. Nervous Tissue- The nervous system is made up of the Central and Peripheral nervous systems. Inside of both, neural and nervous tissue can be found. These tissues help transmit signals from the brain to the rest of the body. Lymphatic Tissue- This is found at the opening of the digestive system and respiratory system. They provide protection for the two systems. Membranes- They are thin layers of tissue that provide protection to the surface of the organs as well as body structure. There are four types of membranes. The cutaneous is the skin and provides protection to sublevels of the skin, muscles and bones. Mucous membrane is a lubricated membrane lining an internal surface or organ. One of these is the gums. The serous membrane line cavities that secrete serous fluid, which is a bodily fluid pale yellow in colour. Synovial membranes are dense connective tissue membranes, secreting synovial fluids, which are lubricants for joints.

The digestive system


The digestive system is made up of a lot of hallow organs joined in a long and twisted tube from the mouth to the anus. There are a lot of organs that make the digestive tract like the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and the large intestine which is also known as the colon or rectum and anus. There is a lining in side these hallow organs called the mucosa. In these three organs the mucosa has tiny glands that produces juice to help digest food and those three organs are the mouth the stomach and the small intestine. The liver and the pancreas are two digestive organs that produce digestive juices that flow to the intestine through very small tubes called ducts. Esophagus- The esophagus is a long tube that brings the food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus starts at the back of the oral cavity and runs through the diaphragm and to the stomach.

Science 8B Human Body Research

Mihnea N. Ryley O. 2011-02-15

Liver- The liver is located just a little bit to the right of the stomach and a little bit below the diaphragm. The liver is a very large organ so big that it is the second biggest in the body next to the skin. The liver produces liquid acid called bile. Bile helps break down fat in the digestive system. When toxins are sent into the liver it cleans them out and makes them less toxic substances. Any alcohol that you consume gets processed in the liver. Stomach- The stomach is located just below the esophagus and a little bit to the left of the liver. The stomach plays a big role in the digestive system. The stomach has to store any food that you consume. The acid that the stomach produces helps break down food to smaller pieces so that it is easier to digest. The stomach also helps to get rid of bacteria from the food we eat. Small intestine- The small intestine is the largest portion in the digestive system. It is up to six meters long. The small intestine has three main parts they are the duodenum the jejunum and he ileum. The duodenum receives bile from the gallbladder and other digestive enzymes. The bile gets to the duodenum through little small tubes or ducts. The fats carbohydrates and protein first take place in the duodenum before traveling further into the small intestine. The jejunum and the ileum is the last portion of the small intestine in the digestive system. The jejunum and the ileum break foods down in to small pacific groups and those groups are smaller molecules, vitamins, minerals, slats, and water. There are very small inner lining bumps in the jejunum and the ileum and they are called villi. Villi helps absorb the nutrients in the food we eat and in the liquid we drink. All of the nutrients that the villi absorbs goes straight to the blood stream and the liver and any of the digestive mixture that makes it past the small intestine and in to the large intestine which is also known as the colon is fibre with water and vitamins. Large intestine (Colon) - the role that the large intestine plays in the digestive system is to take any of the left over waste from the food we eat and it will process it into faeces. The large intestine has four main parts in it and they are the caecum, Appendix, colon and rectum.