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Employee health and safety is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people

engaged in work or employment. The goal of all occupational health and safety programs is to foster a safe work environment.[1] As a secondary effect, it may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by the workplace environment. It may involve interactions among many subject areas, including occupational medicine, occupational (or industrial) hygiene, public health, safety engineering, chemistry, health physics.

Definition
Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health. It was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its twelfth session in 1995. The definition reads: "Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social wellbeing of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job". This standard is based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)

Reasons for Occupational health and safety


The event of an incident at work such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, from customers and from the wider community.
For smooth functioning of an organization, the employer has to ensure safety and security of his employees. Health and safety form an integral part of work environment. A work environment should enhance the well being of employees and thus should be accident free. The terms health, safety and security are closely related to each other. Health is the general state of well being. It not only includes physical well being, but also emotional and mental well being. Safety refers to the act of protecting the physical well being of an employee. It will include the risk of accidents caused due to machinery, fire or diseases. Security refers to protecting facilities and equipments from unauthorized access and protecting employees while they are on work. In organizations the responsibility of employee health and safety falls on the supervisors or HR manager. An HR manager can help in coordinating safety programs, making employees aware about the health and safety policy of the company, conduct formal safety training, etc. The supervisors and departmental heads are responsible for maintaining safe working conditions. Responsibilities of managers:

Monitor health and safety of employees

Coach employees to be safety conscious

Investigate accidents

Communicate about safety policy to employees

Responsibilities of supervisors/departmental heads:

Provide technical training regarding prevention of accidents

Coordinate health and safety programs

Train employees on handling facilities an equipments

Develop safety reporting systems

Maintaining safe working conditions

The Constitution of India provide detailed provisions for the rights of the citizens and also lays down the Directive Principles of State Policy which set an aim to which the activities of the state are to be guided. 1.2 These Directive Principles provide (a) for securing the health and strength of employees, men and women; e) that the Government shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of employee in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Government of India firmly believes that without safe, clean environment as well as healthy working conditions, social justice and economic growth cannot be achieved and that safe and healthy working environment is recognized as a fundamental human right. Education, training, consultation and exchange of information and good practices are essential for prevention and promotion of such measures. GOALS: The Government firmly believes that building and maintaining national preventive safety and health culture is the need of the hour. With a view to develop such a culture and to improve the safety, health and environment at work place, it is essential to meet the following requirements:2.1 providing a statutory framework on Occupational Safety and Health in respect of all sectors of industrial activities including the construction sector, designing suitable control systems of compliance, enforcement and incentives for better compliance. 2.2 providing administrative and technical support services. 4

2.3. providing a system of incentives to employers and employees to achieve higher health and safety standards . 2.4 providing for a system of non-financial incentives for improvement in safety and health. 2.5. establishing and developing the research and development capability in emerging areas of risk and providing for effective control measures. 2.6. Focusing on prevention strategies and monitoring performance through improved data collection system on work related injuries and diseases. 2.7 Developing and providing required technical manpower and knowledge in the areas of safety, health and environment at workplaces in different sectors. 2.8 Promoting inclusion of safety, health and environment, improvement at workplaces as an important component in other relevant national policy documents. 2.9 Including safety and occupational health as an integral part of every operation. OBJECTIVES: 3.1 The policy seeks to bring the national objectives into focus as a step towards improvement in safety, health and environment at workplace. The objectives are to achieve:a) Continuous reduction in the incidence of work related injuries, fatalities, diseases, disasters and loss of national assets. b) Improved coverage of work related injuries, fatalities and diseases and provide for a more comprehensive data base for facilitating better performance and monitoring. c) Continuous enhancement of community awareness regarding safety, health and environment at workplace related areas. d) Continually increasing community expectation of workplace health and safety standards.
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e) Improving safety, health and environment at workplace by creation of green jobs contributing to sustainable enterprise development.