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GEOGRAPHY

HIGHER 3 (Syllabus 9806)


[For school candidates only]

CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION SYLLABUS DESIGN AIMS KNOWLEDGE SKILLS VALUES ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES H3 GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS ASSESSMENT CRITERIA SUGGESTED REFERENCES FOR GEOGRAPHY EXPLORED SUGGESTED REFERENCES FOR GEOGRAPHY ENQUIRY APPENDIX A: RESEARCH ESSAY PROPOSAL FORM APPENDIX B: DECLARATION AND SUBMISSION FORM APPENDIX C: RECORD OF GUIDANCE

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9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

INTRODUCTION
The Higher 3 (H3) Geography syllabus provides candidates who have exceptional interest and ability in the subject with opportunities to be engaged in geographical theory and research. It challenges candidates to explore the theoretical and critical discourses of Geography in the way it is perceived, defined and practised. The syllabus provides a foundation for academic engagement in Geography at tertiary level.

SYLLABUS DESIGN
The H3 Geography syllabus is designed on the assumption that candidates have knowledge and understanding of Geography at Higher 2 (H2) level. It is pitched at a level higher than that of the H2 Geography syllabus. It builds on the knowledge, understanding and competencies acquired in H2 Geography and requires candidates to demonstrate greater depth of understanding. The Aims, Knowledge, Skills and Values are an extension of those stated in the H2 syllabus. The syllabus is based on about 112168 hours of teaching and independent research.

AIMS
The syllabus aims to enable candidates to: 1. Develop critical acquisition of knowledge of the characteristics and distribution of physical and human phenomena; 2. Develop a critical understanding of the processes affecting the physical and human environments; 3. Provide an understanding of the dynamic and changing outcomes resulting from physical-human relationships; 4. Develop skills in acquiring, communicating, applying and evaluating geographical knowledge; 5. Develop an informed concern about the quality of the environment and the future of the human habitat, and thereby, enhance candidates sense of responsibility for the care of the Earth and its people; 6. Develop awareness of contrasting opportunities and constraints which people face in local, regional and global environments; and 7. Develop an appreciation of the dynamic nature of geography over time and space.

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

KNOWLEDGE
Candidates should develop in-depth knowledge of: 1. Geographical concepts, terms, facts, trends, theories and principles; 2. Potential and limitations of evidence, approaches, theories, models and concepts in geographical knowledge; 3. Components of physical and human environments; 4. Spatial patterns of physical and human phenomena; 5. Relationships and interactions between and within physical and human phenomena at local, regional and global scales; and 6. Spatial and temporal changes in physical and human environments.

SKILLS
Through an independent enquiry, candidates should further develop the skills to: 1. Identify and classify physical and human features of the environment; 2. Observe, collect, record and evaluate geographic information from both primary and secondary sources; 3. Extract relevant information from geographical data (numerical, diagrammatic, pictorial and graphical forms); 4. Interpret, recognise and critically analyse patterns in geographical data and deduce relationships; 5. Use and apply geographical concepts, terms, facts and theories to new contexts and issues; 6. Synthesise and evaluate geographical data and knowledge; and 7. Organise, present and communicate information in a coherent manner.

VALUES
Through their geographical training, candidates should develop: 1. A sense of appreciation and responsibility for the quality of the environment and the desirability of sustainable development at local, regional and global scales; 2. Sensitivity towards the attitudes, values and beliefs of people in different human environments; 3. An ability to critically analyse, evaluate and make judgements on perspectives, values and attitudes in the use and management of resources; 4. Personal perspectives, values and attitudes in relation to geographical issues; and 5. An awareness of the vulnerabilities, constraints and challenges faced by the local, regional and global communities.

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES
H3 Geography requires candidates to demonstrate their abilities to apply and communicate effectively their knowledge and understanding of Geography, using the skills of critical analysis, creativity, synthesis of information and ideas, and evaluation. Specifically, candidates should be able to: AO1: Knowledge Demonstrate relevant knowledge geographical facts, concepts, processes, interactions, principles, theories, models and trends AO2: Critical Understanding and Constructing Explanation Select, organise and apply facts, concepts and terminology Make judgements, recommendations and decisions

AO3: Interpreting and Evaluating Geographical Data Comprehend and extract relevant information from geographical data (numerical, diagrammatic, pictorial and graphical forms) Use and apply geographical knowledge and understanding to interpret and evaluate geographical data o o o o o o Recognise patterns in geographical data and deduce relationships Analyse and evaluate evidence Compare and contrast different views Draw inferences from given information Recognise values and detect bias Draw conclusions based on a reasoned consideration of evidence and arguments

Design a research strategy to understand human and/or physical phenomena in detail

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

H3 GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS
The H3 Geography syllabus includes two components. The taught component is based on Geography Explored which introduces concepts and themes central to the practice of the discipline. The syllabus challenges candidates to think critically and creatively about a range of ideas, perspectives and methodologies of enquiry. In the process, candidates will develop the ability to formulate informed opinions about the discipline and geographical issues in the real world. It is recommended that this component be conducted over 20 hours. The second component Geography Enquiry is based on an individual investigation. Candidates can choose to collect primary data and/or use secondary data sources (see below). Geography Enquiry should be completed over a period of nine months, commencing in November in the first academic year. Completed essays should be ready for submission to CIE by end September in the second academic year. H3 Geography is assessed as a Research Essay to enable candidates to demonstrate the application of their skills and knowledge in Geography.

Geography Explored
Geography Explored provides the academic foundation for Geography Enquiry. The syllabus outlines the key themes which capture the nature of Geography. Teachers should cover all the themes listed in the syllabus and may introduce other themes as they deem necessary. The examples listed for each theme are intended only for guidance and teachers are encouraged to illustrate the themes with relevant examples. Where appropriate the discussion of the themes should incorporate elements from both physical and human geography and the interaction between these elements. Geography Explored involves a critical examination of six themes. Each theme requires a brief introduction/overview and should then be studied in relation to the main topics of, and issues arising from, the Higher 2 (H2) Geography syllabus. Candidates are also encouraged to explore topics outside the H2 Geography syllabus to demonstrate their awareness of a range of geographical issues and concepts (e.g. ecosystems, coastal environments, tourism). The six themes are: Space (e.g. location, relative space) Time (e.g. the past as key to the future, evolution, change, dynamism, dynamic equilibrium, frequency) Scale (e.g. politics of scale, magnitude, threshold) Patterns (e.g. distribution, uniqueness vs generalisations, catastrophes vs regular events) Approaches (e.g. process-based, systems-based, human-environment, regional, systematic, models, multidisciplinary) Methods and Techniques (e.g. quantitative research, qualitative research, Geographic Information Systems) Suggestions for the interpretation and illustration of each theme are highlighted by the examples in parentheses. The themes could be discussed separately or as a combination. For instance, scale and patterns could be considered under Inequalities of Development from global, regional to local scale with particular emphasis on the dynamic nature of patterns and the change in the nature of issues according to the scale at which Inequalities of Development are considered.

Geography Enquiry
The purpose of Geography Enquiry is to amplify, reinforce and extend the principal geographical concepts and skills. It challenges candidates to conduct an in-depth study of a topic and adds to knowledge, understanding and awareness. Candidates will submit a Research Essay based on a topic of their choice.

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

The Research Essay is of length 30003500 words The essay must extend the candidates work beyond the requirements of H2 Geography to demonstrate new discussion and learning. The submission should include the following: (a) Research Topic and Literature Review (b) Methodology (c) Data Analysis and Evaluation (d) Conclusion

Suggested Areas of Research The Research Essay should display some degree of originality, and extend the candidates appreciation of the topics and concepts beyond that of the H2 Geography syllabus. The research topics listed below are intended as a guide to the scale of research that students could possibly engage in. The list is not intended to be exhaustive but to assist teacher-supervisors in the supervision of the research essays. Some suggestions are: Concept of threshold as evaluated against the number of taxi operators in Singapore Mandai Reforestation Site: A study of vegetation renewal in Singapore Reasons for migration among transnational domestic workers in Singapore Comparison of the microclimate between one public housing estate and one private housing estate of comparable size Generational differences in Singaporeans responses to earthquake tremors Geography and Art: How paintings by local artists reflect the urban changes in Singapore over a period of time An analysis of the provision of amenities in Singapore that are elderly-friendly A survey of attitudes towards sustainable development among students in Singapore An analysis of the factors for success in the operation of budget airlines A study of how climate affects the design of buildings in Singapore

Planning and Writing the Research Proposal


1. Identifying a Research Topic 1.1 Candidates are encouraged to consider two to three possible areas of research. They should do some basic reading on the proposed research topics to establish their viability. Candidates should finally select one research topic which is focused and will contribute to existing geographical knowledge.

2.

Approval Process for the Research Proposal 2.1 Candidates are required to submit a soft copy of the Research Essay Proposal Form (Appendix A) to SEAB by a specified date in Term 1 of the second year of study. Deadlines for submissions will be specified by the Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board (SEAB) in a circular to schools each year. The proposal must include the following details: the research topic; rationale for the choice of research topic; the title of the Research Essay; a synopsis which states clearly the objective(s) and scope of the research area, as well as an indication of any potential problems or limitations; a literature review giving an overview of the current state of research and knowledge in this area of study; if applicable, a description of the qualitative or quantitative methodology to be used in gathering data; and the proposal should not exceed 500 words. The hard copy of the proposal must be dated and signed by both the candidate and the teacher supervising the study. The hard copy should be retained by the school and submitted with the completed Research Essay by the date specified by SEAB.

2.2

2.3

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2.4

Proposal submissions will be sent electronically to CIE for approval by the Principal Examiner. If a proposal is acceptable as it stands, the Principal Examiner will approve it without further feedback. If the Principal Examiner rejects a proposal, or indicates that a proposal needs to be revised before it can be approved, s/he will send feedback accordingly. This feedback must be retained and submitted with the completed Research Essay, along with the hard copy of the original submission, signed by both the candidate and the teacher and retained by the school (see paragraph 2.3). If a candidate has been advised by the Principal Examiner that s/he must make a resubmission of the amended proposal for approval, or submit a second proposal, the candidate must do so by the date specified by SEAB.

2.5

2.6

2.7

Notes of Guidance for Supervisors on the Research Essay


3. The Research Essay submitted for assessment must be candidates own work and should represent their ability to work independently; nevertheless, all candidates will need support from their Centres in the form of monitoring the work in progress and giving some degree of guidance. The extent of teacher guidance is outlined below. 3.1 3.1.1 At the Proposal Stage Before candidates embark on the writing of their paper, teachers are expected to: guide candidates on the selection of an appropriate research topic; guide candidates in the formulation of their research proposal and in the interpretation of examiners comments on their proposal, if necessary; advise candidates on work schedule; advise candidates on research ethics; guide candidates on research skills and techniques; advise candidates on the suitability of resources/references selected; explain to candidates what they will be assessed on and how their performance will be assessed; and draw candidates attention to the importance of the declaration they will be required to make in the Declaration and Submission Form (Appendix B). During the formulation of proposals, teachers may guide candidates as required. This guidance includes any interpretation of feedback given by the Principal Examiner, as well as the formulation of a second proposal, if necessary. During Writing The teacher may have up to 3 conferences with the candidate. The first and second conferences are compulsory while the third conference is optional. a. First conference (compulsory) this must be conducted at the latest by midMay. The teacher will not be required to complete the Record of Guidance (Appendix C). b. Second conference (compulsory) this must be conducted at the latest by mid-July. The teacher will be required to complete the Record of Guidance (Appendix C), giving details of key points of guidance provided during the conference. This will aid examiners in evaluating the candidates work. c. Third conference (optional) this, if needed, must be conducted latest by midAugust. The teacher will be required to complete the Record of Guidance (Appendix C), giving details of key points of guidance during the conference.

3.1.2

3.2 3.2.1

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

The third conference can be conducted: 1. at the request of a candidate, or 2. should the teacher feel that a candidate would benefit from a third conference, s/he may suggest it to the candidate. However, it should be the candidates decision whether or not to take up the suggestion. 3.2.2 There is no time limit on the duration of the conferences, as the length of time required will depend on each candidates needs. However, the conferences should each take place over one sitting. This means that Centres should schedule their conferences in such a way that each of the conferences takes place over a single session within one day. Teachers may accept a draft of a candidates work in advance of the conferences, for discussion during the sessions, but teachers are not allowed to give any written feedback on the work submitted. Teachers should encourage candidates to take notes during the conferences, so that they can refer to these notes subsequently, when working independently. It should be noted that the nature and extent of guidance given during the conferences may be taken into consideration during the marking of the candidates work. All completed Record of Guidance forms must carry the teachers signature and date. The candidate should be given the opportunity to see what has been noted down on the forms and should sign his/her acknowledgement of the guidance given. All completed Record of Guidance forms must be submitted with the candidates essay. Acknowledgement of Guidance Candidates are permitted to seek advice or information from people outside of the school environment who have expertise that is relevant to their research. However, as part of their guidance on the ethics of carrying out independent research, teachers should advise candidates that it is not acceptable for them to either seek or accept help from any outside agency, including family and friends, in the actual writing of their Research Essay. Candidates must acknowledge guidance or information provided by people other than their Geography teachers. They may do this through the use of footnotes, or endnotes, or in their bibliography. On Submission and on Suspicion of Plagiarism When candidates submit their Research Essay for assessment, teachers are expected to ensure that candidates have completed the Declaration and Submission Form (Appendix B) and attached it to the front of the work, along with the Record of Guidance (Appendix C). Teachers should also attach the hard copy of the proposal(s). While teachers do not need to assess the work that is submitted, or check that requirements for the Research Essay have been fulfilled, nevertheless, they will need to read the work in order to satisfy themselves that it is authentic.

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

3.2.6

3.2.7

3.3 3.3.1

3.3.2

3.4 3.4.1

3.4.2 3.4.3

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

3.4.4

If the teacher is satisfied that, to the best of his/her knowledge of the candidate and the progress of the Research Essay, the work is authentic, s/he should sign and date the declaration on authenticity on the Declaration and Submission Form (Appendix B). It is understood that the declaration is made in good faith by the teacher and that ultimately, the authenticity of the work is the candidates responsibility. If the teacher has cause for suspicion of plagiarism in the work submitted, s/he should circle reason [to believe that the candidate has plagiarised work in this Research Essay] and give details in an Irregularity Report (to be issued by SEAB) which should be submitted to SEAB, along with the work in question, including the candidates approved proposal. All documentation regarding cases of suspected plagiarism, proven or otherwise, must be submitted to SEAB. The examining authority will take disciplinary action against any candidate found to have committed or aided the offence of plagiarism. If there are no irregularity cases, a nil return must be submitted by the school.

3.4.5

3.4.6

3.4.7

Notes on the Submission of the Research Essay


4. The Research Essay must be submitted to CIE by end of September of the second academic year. It has to be typed on A4 paper using Arial 12 font, double-spaced and appropriately referenced where necessary. All pages except the cover page must be paginated at the lower right hand corner. It is essential that all direct quotations or ideas borrowed from authors, which are paraphrased in the candidates own words be acknowledged when referencing. All diagrams, maps and graphs should be folded down to A4 size. A complete bibliography of all resources used/referred to must be attached to the work. The research essay must be accompanied by: 5.1 5.2 Research Essay Proposal Form (Appendix A) Declaration and Submission Form (Appendix B)

5.

This form should be signed by the candidate and the supervisor confirming that the Research Essay submitted is the candidates own original and unaided work. The supervisor has to declare that the work is conducted under the specified conditions and record details of any additional assistance. It should also indicate the word count of the research essay. The word limit for the Research Essay is 30003500 words. Candidates should be informed that the following do not constitute part of the word count: titles and content of diagrams (e.g. graphs, charts, tables, maps) footnotes bibliography appendices acknowledgements page numbers 5.3 5.4 Record of Guidance (Appendix C) Appendices (where necessary)

Appendices are supplementary reference materials that may assist the marker in assessing the Research Essay. Examples of these materials include maps, charts and questionnaires. Materials that are not relevant to the Research Essay and are used solely for the purpose of interest and decoration should not be appended.

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

Framework for the Research Essay


The format for the Research Essay is as follows: Framework of the Research Essay (Weighting) Research Topic and Literature Review (25%)

Comments

Candidates should be clearly focused on one or two key questions. This section of the research essay should introduce the question, issue or problem. Given the time available for the research, focused rather than broad topics should be encouraged, for instance, A study of the air quality in Singapore rather than Air Quality in South East Asia. This section should outline the key questions in the research study and provide details of the location of the investigation including an annotated site map where possible. The key questions should indicate clearly the geographical perspectives of the research. The critique of the existing literature should show evidence of a range of relevant reading and should critically assess the existing state of knowledge. It should also explain how the literature review contributes to the understanding of the research topic.

Methodology: Candidates are encouraged to use multiple data sources which may include: (Data selection, Primary data (e.g. information collected from field investigation, National collection and Archives) recording) (15%) And/or Secondary data (e.g. published sources from the United Nations (UN) agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), government publications like population census, statistical yearbooks, telephone directories, censuses, the Internet, CD-ROMs)

This section should: state the nature of the information required in order to answer the research question, issue or problem posed describe what kind of data was needed, when and how it was collected (including the correct use of sampling techniques and questionnaire design where applicable) discuss any problems encountered in the data collection show evidence of the data collected in the field (e.g. fieldwork notes could be included in the appendix) record the data in an organised manner, with appropriate selection

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Framework of the Research Essay (Weighting) Data Analysis and Evaluation (40%)

Comments

This section includes the presentation and representation of data collected in various forms (e.g. cartographic, diagrammatic, photographic, graphical) and critical analysis of the data collected. Candidates should: describe and explain the results in an analytical commentary interpret the results using suitable techniques (e.g. statistical analysis) where appropriate synthesise and integrate the different types of data to highlight trends and patterns apply or test the relevance of models, theories, or hypotheses appropriate to the enquiry assess the effectiveness of the data collected

Conclusion (20%)

In this concluding section, candidates should: address the research question summarise and link the findings to draw a conclusion evaluate the research findings state and evaluate where relevant possible solutions to the question, problem or issue being investigated evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the enquiry

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ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

All research essays will be assessed using the criteria itemised below. These criteria are based on the Framework for the Research Essay. Levels (Marks) Level 4 (2025) Level-descriptors A clear, feasible geographical question or hypothesis is stated, with a thorough explanation for the choice of investigation. A detailed plan for all parts of the investigation, showing an understanding of possible limitations. The investigation is based upon detailed and wide ranging research and critical assessment of the relevant literature. The research essay is within the word limit of 30003500 words.

Criteria

Research Topic and Literature Review (25 marks)

This section should outline the key questions in the research study and provide details of the location of the investigation including an annotated site map where possible. The key questions should indicate clearly the geographical perspectives of the research. Level 3 (1519)

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11 Level 2 (1014) Level 1 (09)

The critique of the existing literature should show evidence of a range of relevant reading and should critically assess the existing state of knowledge. It should also explain how the literature review contributes to the understanding of the research topic.

A clear, feasible geographical question or hypothesis is stated, with a reasoned explanation for the choice of investigation. A thorough plan of the investigation with some indication of possible limitations. The investigation is thorough and based upon a number of sources. There is some critical assessment of the literature. The research essay is within the word limit of 30003500 words. A feasible but rather vague geographical question or hypothesis is stated, with some explanation for the choice of investigation. A plan is produced but lacks clear thinking and shows limited understanding of possible limitations. The investigation is based upon limited sources which are generally reported rather than critically analysed. This level is the highest that can be achieved if the research essay exceeds the word limit of 3000 3500 words. A geographical question or hypothesis is stated in basic terms, with little or no explanation for the choice of investigation. Planning weak with no indication of possible limitations. The investigation is based upon very limited research which is largely descriptive. The research essay may have exceeded the word limit of 30003500 words.

Criteria Level-descriptors

Methodology: Data Collection, Selection and Recording (15 marks)

Levels (Marks) Level 4 (1215)

Data collection is well justified with respect to the aims of the investigation. Data collected show a balance between primary and secondary sources appropriate to the aims of the investigation. Data are recorded and organised clearly and precisely. All secondary source material is accurately referenced. Data collection is justified with respect to the aims of the investigation. Data collected show a balance between primary and secondary sources that is largely appropriate to the aims of the investigation. Data are recorded and organised in line with the needs of the investigation. All secondary source material is accurately referenced. Some justification of data collection. Data are largely appropriate but incomplete or lacking balance in terms of the investigation. Data recorded with little organisation and some shortcomings. Referencing is thorough, with occasional lapses in accuracy. Little or no justification of data collection Data collected are incomplete and not entirely relevant to the investigation. Data are disorganised. Referencing is sometimes lacking, incomplete or inaccurate.

Level 3 (911)

Level 2 (68)

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12 Level 1 (05)

This section should: state the nature of the information required in order to answer the research question, issue or problem posed describe what kind of data was needed, when and how it was collected (including the correct use of sampling techniques and questionnaire design where applicable) discuss any problems encountered in the data collection show evidence of the data collected in the field (e.g. fieldwork notes could be included in the appendix) record the data in an organised manner, with appropriate selection

Criteria Level-descriptors Appropriate techniques are used accurately. Results are described, analysed, synthesised and explained in detail and in line with the aims of the investigation. Evaluation of the data collected and its analysis is incisive and thorough, with ideas for further investigation supported by evidence. Techniques are largely appropriate and are used accurately. Results are described and analysed in line with the aims of the investigation. Synthesis and explanation show some weaknesses/misconceptions Evaluation of the data collected and its analysis is competent with ideas for further investigation incompletely supported.

Data Analysis and Evaluation (40 marks)

Levels (Marks) Level 4 (3240)

Level 3 (2431)

Candidates should: describe and explain the results in an analytical commentary interpret the results using suitable techniques (e.g. statistical analysis) where appropriate synthesise and integrate the different types of data to highlight trends and patterns apply or test the relevance of models, theories, or hypotheses appropriate to the enquiry assess the effectiveness of the data collected Level 2 (1623) Level 1 (015) Level 4 (1620)

Techniques are largely appropriate, though possibly simplistic. Results are described and analysed with limited synthesis and explanation Evaluation of the data collected and its analysis is limited with little thought as to further investigation.

9806 H3 GEOGRAPHY (2010)

13 Level 3 (1215) Level 2 (811) Level 1 (07)

Conclusion (20 marks)

Techniques are limited in scope and/or largely inappropriate. Results are mainly descriptive with some explanation. Little attempt at synthesis. Evaluation of the data is superficial. Conclusions relate to the original aims of the investigation and are fully supported by the evidence provided. Detailed evaluation of all parts of the process and findings is undertaken such that the degree to which the original aims were met is assessed. Conclusions relate to the original aims of the investigation and are supported by the evidence provided. Evaluation of the process and findings is undertaken such that the degree to which the original aims were met is assessed. Conclusions generally relate to the original aims of the investigation and are supported to some extent by the evidence provided. Evaluation of the process and findings is attempted but the degree to which the original aims were met is hardly addressed. Conclusions are basic in nature and may lack supporting evidence. Evaluation is simplistic or incomplete.

Candidates should: address the research question summarise and link the findings to draw a conclusion evaluate the research findings state and evaluate where relevant possible solutions to the question, problem or issue being investigated evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the enquiry

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SUGGESTED REFERENCES FOR GEOGRAPHY EXPLORED


Cloke, P., Crang, P. and Goodwin, M. (1999). Introducing Human Geographies. London: Arnold. Gould, P. (1985). The Geographer At Work. London: Routledge. Gould, P. (2000). Becoming A Geographer. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Gregory, K. (2000). The Changing Nature of Physical Geography. London: Arnold. Haggett, P. (2001). Geography: A Global Synthesis. Essex: Prentice Hall. Haines-Young, R. and Petch, J. (1985). Physical Geography: Its Nature and Methods. London: Harper and Row. Harvey, D. (2000). Spaces of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press. Holloway, S., Rice, S. and Valentine, G. (2003). Key Concepts in Geography. Oxford: Blackwell. Holt-Jensen, A. (1999). Geography, its History and Concepts: A Students Guide. London: Sage Publications. Johnston, R.J. (Ed.). (1997). Geography and Geographers. London: Arnold. Johnston, R.J. and Sidaway, J.D. (2004). Geography and Geographers: Anglo-American Geography Since 1945. (6th Ed.). London: Arnold. Mathews, J.A. and Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (2004). Unifying Geography: Common Heritage, Shared Future. London: Routledge. Peet, R. (1998). Modern Geographical Thought. Oxford: Blackwell. Rogers, A., Viles, H. and Goudie, A. (Eds.). (2003). The Students Companion to Geography. Oxford: Blackwell. Yeoh, B. Geography Is Everywhere: Spaces, Places and Environments in Yeoh, B. and Chua, B.H. (Eds). (1994). World of Humanities, Singapore: Gifted Education Unit, Ministry of Education and Faculty of Arts, National University of Singapore.

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SUGGESTED REFERENCES FOR GEOGRAPHY ENQUIRY


Abbas, T. and Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage. Babbie, E. (2004). The Practice of Social Research. (10th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Blunt, A. et al (2003). Cultural Geography in Practice. London: Arnold. Bell, J. (2000). Doing Your Research Project. (3rd Ed.).Buckingham: Open University Press. Briggs, K. (1989). Practical Geography. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Clifford, N.J. and Valentine, G. (2003). Key Methods in Geography. London: Sage. Crang, M. (2002). Qualitative Methods: The New Orthodoxy? in Progress in Human Geography. Vol. 26(5): pp647655. Cvancara, A.M. (1985). A Field Manual for the Amateur Geologist. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Dorling, D. and Fairbairn, D. (1997). Mapping: Ways of Representing the World. London: Harlow. Ebdon, D. (1985). Statistics in Geography. Oxford: Blackwell. Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). (1998). Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. London: Sage. Flowerdew, R. and Martin, D. (Eds.). (2004). Methods in Human Geography. (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Fotheringham, A.S., Brunsdon, C. and Charlton, M. (2000). Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. London: Sage. Frew, J. (1993). Advanced Geography Fieldwork. Surrey: Nelson. Graham, E. (1999). Breaking Out: the Opportunities and Challenges of Multi-method Research in Population Geography in Professional Geographer, Vol. 51., pp7689. Hammond, R and McCullagh, P. (1978). Quantitative Techniques in Geography. (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University. Hays, I. (2000). Qualitative Research Methods in Human Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Holmes, D. and Farbrother, D. (2000). AZ Advancing Geography: Fieldwork. Sheffield: Geographical Association. Kitchen, R. and Tate, N.J. (2000). Conducting Research in Human Geography: Theory, Methodology and Practice. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Kneale, P.E. (1999). Study Skills for Geography Skills. London: Arnold. Kraak, M. (2003). Cartography. (2nd Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education.

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Johnson, W.A., Petting, R.P., Scott, G.M., and Garrison, S.M. (2002). The Sociology Student Writers Manual. (3rd Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Lenon, B and Cleves, P. (2003). Fieldwork Techniques and Projects in Geography. (2nd Ed.). London: Collins Educational. Limb, M. and Dwyer, C. (Eds.). (2001). Qualitative Methodologies for Geographers: Issues and Debates. London: Arnold. Luck, M. (1999). Your Student Research Project. Hampshire: Gower. Matthews, M.H and Foster, L.D.L. (1989). Geographical Data: Sources, Presentation and Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. May, T. (2001). Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process. Buckingham: Open University Press. McQueen, R and Knussen, C. (2002). Research Methods for Social Science. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Monmonier, M. (1996). How to Lie with Maps. (2nd Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Monmonier, M. (1993). Mapping it out: Expository Cartography for the Humanities and Social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Philip, L.J. (1998). Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Social Research in Human Geography an Impossible Mixture? in Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30(2). pp.261276. Rogerson, P. (2001). Statistical Methods for Geography. London: Sage. Seale, C., Giampietro, G., Gubrium, J. and Silverman, D. (2004). Qualitative Research Practice. London: Sage. Sharp, J., Peters, J. and Howard, K. (2002). The Management of a Student Research Project. (3rd Ed). Hants: Gower. Shurmer-Smith, P. (2002). Doing Cultural Geography. London: Sage. Silverman, D. (1999). Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. London: Sage. St John, P. and Richardson, D. (1997). Methods of Presenting Fieldwork Data. Sheffield: Geographical Association.

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[APPENDIX A]

H3 GEOGRAPHY (9806) RESEARCH ESSAY PROPOSAL FORM Candidates Name: Centre Name: Year of Examination: If this is the 2nd submission, please tick here Index Number: Centre Number:

Research Topic:

Rationale for Choice of Topic (e.g. potential contribution of study to existing knowledge / research):

Proposed Title of Research Essay:

Synopsis of Research Essay: [State clearly the objective(s) and scope of your research, and identify any potential problems or limitations.]

Literature Review (i.e. an overview of the current state of research and knowledge in this topic):

Methodology (if applicable): [State clearly which, if any, qualitative and/or quantitative methods will be used]

Candidates Signature:

Date:

Teachers Name:

Signature:

Date:

School Stamp

[APPENDIX B] [To be attached to the front of Research Essay / Project / Independent Study]

RESEARCH ESSAY / PROJECT / INDEPENDENT STUDY DECLARATION AND SUBMISSION FORM Subject: Candidates Name: Centre Name: Teachers Name: Title of Research Essay / Project / Independent Study: Subject Code: Index Number: Centre Number: Year of Examination:

Word count for Research Essay / Project / Independent Study: _____________ words Plagiarism Warning: Plagiarism is using someone elses work without acknowledging the source of that information. (Refer to the examination syllabus for more details on what constitutes plagiarism.) Plagiarism amounts to intellectual theft and is seen as an act of dishonesty. An investigation will be conducted when there is cause for suspicion of plagiarism. Where clear and convincing evidence exists, disciplinary action by the examining authority will be taken against any candidate found to have committed or aided the offence of plagiarism. Candidates who have contravened the examination regulations will not be given a grade and a T symbol for the subject will be indicated. Candidates Declaration: I declare that the attached work was produced solely by me. I also declare that the subject area and content used in this Research Essay / Project / Independent Study is not used in any other H2/H3 Research Essay / Project / Independent Study that I am submitting in the same examination year, or have submitted previously. I am aware that if I am submitting two or more pieces of research work, only one of the works will be assessed if it is found that there is substantial overlap of content in the various pieces of research work submitted. Candidates signature and date _________________________________ Teachers Declaration: In supervising this candidate, I declare that I have / have not* supervised this candidate in accordance with the Notes of Guidance contained in the Examination Syllabus. * If have not, please attach an Irregularity Report containing the details to this Form. Teachers signature and date___________________________________ I have no reason / reason** to believe that the work submitted by the candidate contains plagiarised material (please circle accordingly). ** If there is evidence to suggest plagiarism may have occurred, please complete an Irregularity Report and submit it to SEAB with the candidates work. Teachers signature and date___________________________________

School Stamp

[APPENDIX C]

RESEARCH ESSAY / PROJECT / INDEPENDENT STUDY RECORD OF GUIDANCE

Subject: Candidates Name: Centre Name: Year of Examination:

Subject Code: Index Number: Centre Number: Date of conference:

2nd compulsory / 3rd optional conference (delete as appropriate) Title of Research Essay / Project / Independent Study:

The guidance given to this candidate is recorded below.

Teachers Name:

Signature:

Date:

Candidates Signature:

Date:

School Stamp