Lady iralconer from the books of the late Sir itobert jfalconer, K.G.M.U. President of the University of Toronto, 1907-1932.























without interfering with the lecturer s work or imposing any fetters upon it. Hence I have made it my task to give my readers a pic ture of the contents of the philosophical systems. which would facilitate preparation. and add to my larger work on the Philosophy of the Greeks a short sketch of the same subject. or in . But until the third edition of the History was brought to a conclusion I had not the will leisure for the work.AUTHOB S PEEFACE. which should put into their hands the more important literary references and But as in the last points I have not gone sources. FOR some years it has been my intention to respond to a request arising from various quarters. and the course of their historical development. so in the historical account I have as a rule indicated the parts very briefly with which historical considerations of a general kind or special explanations and inquiries are connected. Sketches of this kind proceed on different lines according to the aim which is held in view. and save the time wasted in writing down facts. My object has been primarily to provide students with a help for academical lectures. contain all the essential traits and also to beyond what is absolutely necessary.

must not content himself with a compendium. furnished with the necessary hints on the value and contents of the various A works. (An addition of the latter kind. BERLIN : September 27. it is my opinion that intention if every scientific exposition must set out with an It is highly objectionable accurately defined aim.viii AUTHORS PREFACE. Nor will it my the present work finds readers beyond its immediate object.) first found in sections 3 and My outlines are intended in the a rule place for form the majority of an beginners. but more in selection. 1883. in some detail. trustworthy bibliography. Anyone who wishes to study the history of philosophy or any part of it more minutely. or a chrestomathy strict on the plan of Preller. I am well aware that manuals may very properly be constructed on a different plan from mine. At the same time. overwhelmed with the of books of which they will only see a very small portion. But these are rather confused than assisted audience. . would be very be against valuable aids in instruction. as if who the historical material or they are is given in too great abun titles dance. it which seemed proper to supplement my earlier work. that an author should constantly strive after other ends than that which is the main purpose of his book. will be 4. for instance. THE AUTHOR. but consult the sources and the more comprehensive works upon them. Nevertheless.

the words * first part. when the present work was ended. is the work of the Miss Alleyne. and for the revision of the whole. to translate the History. 1884. The theories of the Greek Philosophers. London. of University College. This was followed in 1881 by the two volumes of &amp. series of translations of &amp. Plato and History of Philosophy with the the Older was a labour of love. The excellence of her work has received universal It recognition. whose manuscripts were entrusted to me. It was also her intention. Goodwin. and their efforts to conceive the world in which t iey lived.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. last life. Miss Alleyne began her Zeller s &amp. after a month s published in 1876 in conjunction with Prof. OF the following pages. had a deep interest for . down to the late practical life on p. she died. August 16. volume of the and in the full But in the prime of vigour of her powers. 90. I am responsible. For the remainder. The Pre-Socratic Philosophy/ and in 1883 by The Eclec

she perceived a begin ning or foreshadowing of modern thought. before she could be satisfied with Hence the excel But though her were of an uncommon order. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. An inward sympathy with them gave her an in meaning of speculations which by many idle vagaries . She knew the value of accuracy. and would turn a sentence three or four times it. sight into the are deemed To her they were steps or stages in the progress of the human mind. her writings would not have been understood who cherish her memory as a great posses and feel that they have lost a friend never to be replaced. BALLIOL COLLEGE. In the being of Parmenides. to those literary powers who were personally acquainted with her they form only a small part of her claim to remembrance. Plato was 4 one of the books she would have taken with her to a desert island.x her. in the dry light of Heracleitus. and was at great She had also a keen sense of literary pains to secure it. style. not merely words or opinions. OXFOBD November 10. EVELYN ABBOTT. : . For lence of her work as a translator. There are many by whom sion. themselves not caring to be known. she united with rare intellectual gifts a truly noble and womanly character. 1885. She was one of those who live for others.

8. The history ancients 5 of philosophy among the 7 4. PAGR 1 3. 7. 3i) . METHODOLOGIC AND LITERARY. THE PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Its B. INTRODUCTION. THE THEEE EAELIEST SCHOOLS A. 9. 1.CONTENTS.14 HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. A. The history of philosophy Greek philosophy Original sources. . Origin of Greek philosophy. 11. supposed derivation from 18 the East 6. Native sources of Greek philosophy 21 The development of Greek thought before the sixth cen 24 . 5. Course of its development 35 I. SECT. Thales Anaximander . 37 . THE ANCIENT IONIANS. 10. tury B. Modern aids . 2.C Character and development of Greek philosophy 28 FIRST PERIOD.

and character of Sophisticism Eminent Sophistical teachers The Sophistical scepticism and Eristic The Sophistic ethics and rhetoric . PLATO. 26. 12.C.92 95 SECOND PERIOD. method 103 107 . THE SOPHISTS. 45 : Pythagoras and his school 15. 30. . 33.xii CONTENTS. The sources. Life 32. Later adherents of the ancient Ionian school. THE PHYSICISTS OF THE FIFTH CENTUKY 22. and personality of Socrates The philosophy of Socrates. 34. 24. PACJK SECT. 28. SOCRATES. 58 19. number and the elements of number 16. 21. 66 71 Empedocles The atomistic school Anaxagoras III. Xenophanes Parmenides Zeno and Melissus II. Anaximenes 41 13. ARISTOTLE. 29. . 76 83 25. B. . 20. Heracleitus 23. 31. The Pythagorean physics Eeligious and ethical doctrines of the Pythagoreans Pythagoreanism in combination with other doctrines C. 43 THE PYTHAGOREANS. 101 principle. 50 52 . THE ELEATICS. 18. 55 56 . The Pythagorean system 14. 60 63 B. Introduction I. 99 SOCEATES. . 88 91 . The nature of the Socratic teaching The death of Socrates . 17. Diogenes .112 . Origin 27.

. Aristotle s 57. The character. 187 194 201 204 209 .181 . of the Platonic philosophy 43. 36.. .. 126 128 39. Aristotle s writings 54.161 . Plato s ethics 48.197 ..CONTENTS. . .. . . . s life . . Plato s views on religion 50. and art The later form of the Platonic doctrine. 62. 150 152 154 158 . The propaedeutic foundation 44. Plato s politics 49. The life of Plato 40.. . Aristotle ARISTOTLE AND THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL.. or the doctrine of ideas 42. . 60. The Peripatetic school 219 222 .. .213 .172 . 38. 179 . .165 IV. . xiii THE SMALLER SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. metaphysics Point of view and general principles its The universe and Living beings parts 59.. 56. . . . Plato s physics. . 37. : SECT 35.114 117 122 PLATO AND THE OLDER ACADEMY.. Khetoric 64.. . . . The Aristotelian logic Introductory . matter. Dialectic. Aristotle s physics.. . . 53. . and divisions of system the Platonic 134 . 52. . . 63. and the world-soul . politics of Aristotle and Art. 55. Plato s anthropology 47. 136 140 145 45. II. 170 .. 51. The Laws 163 . Attitude of Aristotle to religion . . . The The The The school of Socrates Xenophon Megarean and the Elean-Eretrian schools PAGE 113 Cynic school Cyrenaic school III. The philosophy of Aristotle. Plato s writings 41. 58. The old Academy .. . . Man The The ethics of Aristotle 61. The universe and its parts 46. method.

231 Character and divisions of the Stoic system 234 The Stoic logic 238 The Stoic physics the ultimate bases and the universe 243 Nature and man 244 The Stoic ethics their general traits Continuation. SECT.. Introduction PAGE 228 FIKST SECTION. 67. 71. 72.C The Peripatetic school . Pyrrho and the Pyrrhonians The New Academy SECOND SECTION. . THE STOIC PHILOSOPHY. I. . . . Boethus. 68. STOICISM. 73.C. . to religion II.. 75. . . 65. SCEPTICISM. 82. .. Panastius.. and character . THIRD PERIOD. 268 269 77. RENEWED I. Epicurus and his school The Epicurean system. Its origin 80. 69.. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. 274 276 279 282 The Stoics. The Canonic The physics of Epicurus. ECLECTICISM. Posidonius The Academicians of the last century B. . ECLECTICISM. . 81. Applied morals. .. 70. 250 THE EPICUKEAN PHILOSOPHY. . 229 The Stoic school in the third and second centuries B. SCEPTICISM. THE POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY. . . 74. EPICUREANISM. 78.XIV CONTENTS. . 66. . The relation of Stoicism . 76. The gods The ethics of Epicurus III. 255 257 259 264 SCEPTICISM. 79.

305 I. the Sextians . . 93. . xv PAGE 284 . Introduction THE PURELY GREEK SCHOOLS. and development of Neo-Platonism 96. . Plotinus doctrine of elevation into the supersensuous world 337 99. Plotinus doctrine of the phenomenal world Porphyrius . . SCEPTICS. . character. . .. 97. 84. . 83. The first centuries A.. and his school . 90. The Stoic school The later nics The Peripatetic school in the Christian period The Platonists of the first century A.PL A TONISM.. The supersensuous world . Varro. . lamblichus 101. . . 88. Philo of 316 320 THIRD SECTION. 340 343 347 of Athens INDEX 357 .. 92. . 87. The school The school of Plotinus. Cicero. .Pythagoreans The Pythagorising Platonists II.. The system of Plotinus. . 85.D. SECT. 95. 286 293 295 297 299 II.. Lucian. ^Cnesidemus and his school III. 86. 100. NEO. . . 98. 300 THE PRECURSORS OP NEO-PLATONISM. THE JEWISH GREEK PHILOSOPHY. . and Galen C&amp. 326 328 333 . 306 311 91. THE LATER . The period before Philo Alexandria 94.D Dio.CONTENTS. . The Neo. 89. .

for Zeigler read Ziegler. 13 from top. 136. from foot. line 5 6 from foot.Errata. for advantages top. for mystic read mythic. for read incidents. for Hildebrand read Hildenbrand. 8 1 from top. 83. Page 17. 51. 62. from 50 read .

and in how they undertook to solve them . in what form men first became conscious of its to extent that connect problems. A. The History of Philosophy. multifarious repetition of this process arose all the B 9 . of philosophy is to investigate scienti the ultimate bases of fically Knowledge and Being. METHODOLOGIC AND LITEKAEY. and new answers to them . The history of philosophy must point out by what causes the human spirit was led to philosophic in quiry . and THE problem comprehend all Eeality in its interconnection with The attempts at the solution of this problem form the subject-matter with which the history of philosophy is concerned. themselves with greater they wholes. how.OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. 1. with interdependent series of development. progress of time. INTRODUCTION. But they are so only to the them. thought subdued wider domains and found new statements of questions neces and how out of the sary.

2 INTRODUCTION. like all history. it is at the same time impossible to understand the progress of historical events unless we put together the particular facts not only in relation to their contemporaneous or successive occurrence. must begin with the and indirect testimonies. In a word. interests. it must describe the development of philosophic thought. its historical connection from as its earliest as completely the condition of our sources of knowledge allow. [ 1 philosophic theories and systems with which we are at various periods more or less perfectly acquainted. the examination of their origin and credi bility. but also in relation to cause and effect. As we are here concerned with the knowledge of historical facts. the history of philosophy. But if this problem cannot be solved without regard to the historical connection in which the particular fact first receives its closer determination and full verification. partly through the mode of thought and the character of their authors. But . and explained in reference to its causes and its influence on contemporary and suc ceeding phenomena is pointed out. the convictions. Now the theories and systems with which the history of philosophy is concerned are chiefly the work of individuals. in beginning. unless each phe nomenon is conditions. and efforts. and as such must be explained partly through the expe riences which have given occasion to their formation. under the influence of which they originated. and as facts which we have not our selves observed can only be known to us through collection of direct tradition. and the establishment of facts in accordance with such evidence.

if 3 even our authorities enabled us to carry out this biographical and psychological explanation far more be in completely than sufficient. it would still would only inform us as to the historical immediate reasons of the phenomena. but of j. upon the circle of presentations from which their spirit has derived its nourishment. On the other hand. the farther we follow it. and through them are stimulated to the completion. though not in all instances same degree. first authors. they spread is themselves in a scientific schools. and under the influence of which it has been developed . these views do not remain confined to their maintain writings . and the problem arises not merely of explaining this whole by means moments conditioning it. and find contemporary acknowledgment. and and by means of formed. leaving unnoticed their more remote causes and the more com prehensive connection to which they belong.he particular likewise of explaining these moments by one another. thus appear as the members larger historical interconnection . dependent they may be. and cor rection of their results. the more the individual becomes united to a whole of historical development. for it is the case. and similarly their historical action is conditioned by to the the fact that they correspond to the necessities of the time. The views of individuals always depend. B2 .1] THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. the later tradition members learn from the earlier. and the search systems of of a after new answers and methods. to the asking of new questions. in respect to this alone can they be perfectly understood. continuation. however. however peculiar and The self- philosophy.

we confine our selves to the last. for this purpose. and the concatenation of the Individual which was the result. (3) the indivi dual character of the several philosophers. (2) the influence of the earlier systems upon the later . progress. [ 1 and consequently the individual by the whole. or out of the idea of the purpose to be attained through this history. shall the general state of mental and the development of the other sciences. from already spoken. the consideration that philosophy is not an isolated domain. and character. culture. By a purely historical on the basis of historical tradition. we shall fall into that biographical and psychological pragmatism of which we have If we start.4 INTE OD UCTION. it is conditioned by religious and political circumstances. the causes from which it pro ceeded. so far as the history of philosophy is concerned. does This not mean that the historical facts are to be constructed in an a priori manner out of the con ception of the sphere of life whose history is being considered. we then make an attempt to understand it in rela If tion to these culture. may be reduced to three classes: (1) the general conditions of culture in the particular nation at that time . we must method. we universal conditions of the history of lay the greatest stress on the continuity schools of scientific tradition. If for the explanation of philosophic theories. but only a particular member in the collective life of nations and of humanity. on the internal connection and historical interaction of the philosophic and . that in its origin. ascertain the conditions under which the actual course of events took place. These causes and conditions.

Greek Philosophy. The question and human of life as to the causes by which the world man are determined has occupied the spirit from the earliest times and in the most various places. proceeding from a definite starting-point. These. and to draw a plan of the historical course and interconnection of the phenomena of which it consists. the direction and form of philo sophic thought is. and consequently the whole. as Hegel undertook to prove. any given case. self-included progression. likewise determined by the other considerations. each later phenomenon to be the logical consequence its predecessor. sometimes the systems upon operation of the universal conditions of culture. But that which called it forth was originally not so much the desire for knowledge as the feeling of . do not always stand in the same relation to each other in itself regard to their influence and significance the creative energy of prominent felt. the history of an isolated. The historian has to inquire how much importance in the bringing about of historical results in belongs to each of these elements. however.1] THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. But though this moment increases in importance the more independently philo sophy develops itself. on the basis of this inquiry. at the same time. to its own internal according a progression which we shall the more thoroughly understand the more completely we succeed in showing laws . 2. sometimes personalities is more sometimes the dependence of the later strongly the earlier. a development of fulfilling with dialectic necessity. . philosophy appears as 5 systems.

begins when man Philosophy first experiences and acts upon the neces of explaining phenomena by means of natural sity This necessity may have appeared indepen causes. among and more strongly and with more the Hellenes than in either of from them alone that a con it is tinuous scientific tradition extends to our own times. has for us not merely an historical. the Indian and Chinese systems of doctrine some which are far enough removed from the theological specula tions of these nations to be truly described as their But the thought of a rational knowledge philosophy. however. not as philosophic theories proper. The founders Greek philosophy are at the same time the ancestors of our own their knowledge therefore of . duced in course of time theological and cosmological speculations which try to gain a more comprehensive view of the origin and constitution of the world. but also a very important practical and scientific interest the former. tions of it dently in different places when the preliminary condi were present and we actually find among .6 INTRODUCTION. and the wish to secure while the path on which an answer was . but as long as these speculations continue are to start from mythological tradition. exceeds all that the remaining science of the ancient world can offer. [ 2 their favour dependence upon higher powers. and satisfied with the amplification and remodelling of mythical intuitions. they can only be reckoned as precursors of philosophy. as much as Greek philosophy . sought was not that of scientific inquiry but of mytho Among a few nations only this pro logical poetry. . of things asserted itself abiding results these countries .

D. and 550 A. by its 7 itself. its spiritual content. 3. may evidence for the standpoint and views of the circles from which they emanated. and Gellius. which is .).Kr) (about 330 A. Eusebius TrpoTrapao-Ksvrj svayys\i.D. occupy the first place. and establishment of their after him Aristotle. the existing writings of the philosophers and fragments of their lost works. rich and logical development. its scientific complete ness. so far as we know. as immediate sources. transcends all the rest of ancient science. so far as any portions have been preserved. all the works in be used as and doctrines of the philo mentioned. sophers. so far as they are genuine.). their origin Unauthentic writings. . later on.). as Plato. divided between the Eclogues and the 6 Florilegium A. The indirect sources comprise besides independent historical accounts of the personality. The History of the Ancients. was the first to do in a comprehensive manner.D. Philosophy among Among the sources from which our knowledge of ancient philosophy is derived. and Photius Library (he died in 891 and partly from the writings of authors who for the &amp. Johannes Stobseus great work (probably composed between 450 A. formation is which these are occasionally the latter the most valuable in Among obtained partly from books of extracts. Original Sources. lives. still more thoroughly. in proportion as and date of composition can be determined.-] GKEEK PHILOSOPHY. for us which have preserved such as those of Athenasus fragments of older writers. own theories enter minutely into those of their predecessors.

of the second cen- .lt.8 INTRODUCTION. Plutarch. the commentators on Aristotle and Plato. and the Christian Fathers. Sextus Empiricus. which Theophrastus undertook in the eighteen books of his &amp. Tertullian. and was already used by Cicero and Varro (an epitome of it has been compilation of the 80-60 B. Philo of Alexandria. principles of his predecessors contained in the first book of his Metaphysics. 1879).) gave in connection with the criticisms of Carneades. Origen. and also as facri/cr) icrrop la. 5 ff. while Eudemus treated of the history of Arithmetic. came the first impulse towards the independent treatment of the history of philosophy. Hippolytus. perhaps also of theological views. History of Physics ). work Aetius the date of its compilation would seem to fall in the first third. and Astronomy. through the critical survey of the &c.C. [ 3 authors like Cicero. On Theophrastus History of Physics were founded. TraOrj^arwv Theodoret calls the author of OspaTrevTiKT).D. Theodoret. the Placita. those reviews of the doctrines of the various philosophers which Clitomachus (about 120 A. iv. From Aristotle. Clemens. Augustin. in separate works. and Theodoret s EXA^/can. Plutarch ic Placita in the middle. lamblichus. Seneca. Porphyry. Doctrines of the Physicists (quoted as (frvcri/cal 86at. Galen. the c Eclogues of Stobseus (vide supra). and in numerous monographs . as Diels has shown ( Doxographi. and that of the this . Proclus. Justin. Numenius. to a great extent preserved in the Pseudo-Plutarchic Placita Philosophorum ). Geometry. which was made about by an unknown author. and which seem to have formed the chief treasury of the later sceptics.

arpw^arsLS (about 150 preserved in Euseb.i\o- About 70 B. and whatever is to be considered historical in the dialogues of Plato . in Irenseus (about 190 A. Eudorus the Academic and Arius Didymus the Eclectic Stoic followed him in a mus. and Hermias &amp.3] SOURCES. 4 Eel.D. Augustin (died in 430 A. and unite the exposition of their doctrines with accounts of school with their lives. see similar direction.\ocr6(f)a)v. .gt. Further traces of this literature can be discovered in the Fathers of the Church. ii.D. i.). Towards the end of the same century. Ev. To these belong Memorabilia of Socrates. ANCIENT WRITINGS. and partly according to schools.) Besides these dogmatic and historical surveys of the of the philosophers. Doxogr.os Jfo&amp. Pr. The author A. tried to justify his Eclecticism by a syncretistic exposition of the Aca Stacrvpjj. chus of Ascalon.D. fragments of them are 8).). Eusebius (died about 340 A.f&amp. of the Pseudo-Plutarchic .lt. Antio(f)i. The last offshoots of it that have been preserved are the treatise Trspl aofav la-ropias by the pseudo-Gralen. its the common doctrines of a those of &amp. Clement (200A. Diels.). Peripatetic.D. formerly designated as Philosophumena of Origen ) and Diogenes Laertius. Epiphanius (died in 403 A.) would seem to have drawn directly from Theophrastus. as also did two doxographs used by Hippolytus (alpecrswv e\syxps. which was therefore based on motives not altogether historic. there is a second series of opinions writings. 9 tury after Christ. 445 which treat of them in a biographical manner partly as individuals. Xenophon s . Stob.). (For fragments of Arius &amp. Didy 32 if. B. i. TMV demic. the Academic.C. and Stoic doctrines.

Hermippus the Peripatetic o his ftioi Ka\\L^d^sios another filot. Antigonus of Carystus wrote about 200 B. entitled TTIVCLKSS rwv sv Trdar) TraiSsta About 240 B. another Peripatetic. composed in Alexandria his great literary and historical work. concerning their of Heracleides of Pontus. in the Peripatetic school. y the authority for the division of particular philosophers among the schools . Philippus.. composed a work Trspl svbb^wv dvBpMv about 225 B. This branch of the literature of the history of philosophy has its chief seat. the celebrated Callimachus of Gyrene About 250 B. [ 3 the lost writings of the Platonists. Monographs on particular philosophers. . are mentioned by Aristotle and Theophrastus.C. Clearchus. the similar work of his countryman Sosicrates seems to have appeared rather later (130 B. Xenocrates.C.C.C. and Sotion a 8taSo%^ TWV ^iKoo-o^wv^ which continued to be a)i&amp. (ftioi dv&pwv. Satyrus.).).10 INTRODUCTION. concerning the . To the Academic school belonged . Pythagoreans of Lyco the Pythagorean (about 320 B. . and Hermodorus.C.T6&amp. also by the Aristotelians. extracts from the two works last men tioned were made by Heracleides Lembus (180-1 50 B. Peripatetic. the Aristarchean. a rich mine of biographical and literary notices for the later writers. and extracts from their books. Dicsearchus. concerning Pythagoras.). which was of much importance for the history of philosophy. Alexandria and among the scholars of who were connected with it.pc0v About the same time Antisthenes the Rhodes.C. Siaha/jL-frdvTcov Kal also wrote /3loi. Neanthes of Cyzicus. however. of (j)L\o&amp.C. and Phanias. teacher. wrote his SLaBo^al . Aristoxenus TLvOayopLfcal aTrofyda-eLs).

who seems to have followed him almost entirely in his Chronica .). Somewhat earlier in Alexander Polyhistor.).C. also the treatises of Cleanthes Nor does Epicurus appear to have given any historical accounts of the earlier philosophers.piXocr6(f)Q)v a mere compilation. the former of whom wrote on authors of the same name. a avvaywyrj rwv Soy parwv.C. Hippo- botus catalogue of the philosophers. perhaps not distinct from that mentioned on p. From the school of the Stoics scholar came Eratosthenes (274194).). this &amp. and Apollonius of Tyre. and his treatise . from which the two last.C. Among the con temporaries of Philodemus are the two Magnesians. by Philodemus (about 50 B. ANCIENT BIOGRAPHIES. and an interpretation of the Pythagorean symbols. the celebrated dates were whose chronological adopted for the history of philosophy . Apollodorus (about 140 B.).) a avvra^ts . an untrustworthy treatise on the Socratics by Idomeneus (about 270 B. and a work of Pansetius on the schools of philosophy. who wrote a treatise ITS pi (fiva-ioXo ywV) and the work of Clitomachus irspi aipscrscov. and Sphserus on indi vidual philosophers. also a Stoic. probably Herculanean catalogues of the Academic and Stoic phi losophers seem to have been taken. who wrote a history of the philosophic schools ^CKouo^wv Sm&o^cu). but how far the three lastmentioned bore an historical character is doubtful. From his school came a few works which attempted to do this . the Stoic TWV whose date is life of Zeno is quoted. Demetrius and Diocles. 11 Aristippus (about 210 B.C.C.3] SOURCES. and the latter on the lives of the philosophers . and a life of Epicurus by Apollodorus (about 120 B.

same From the century of our era. may have been made. l [ 3 aip scrswv appear to belong first also to about the period.D. may be indebted for it. down to Plato. the learned Porphyry (about 232-304 A.D.INTROD UCTION.D. by his commentaries. is This information is as a rule given at second or third but very often with the names of the authorities hand. and by Nicomachus. for example. The copious biography of Pythagoras of Pytha- . The writings of Favorinus (80 to 150 A. history and doctrines of Pythagoras were continually expounded in the Neo-Pythagorean school . probably dating from the second quarter of the third century A. the by Moderatus and Apollonius of Tyana.. Among the Neo-Platonists. the in formation of the it contains more of priceless worth.D. since most ancient sources have been entirely lost. about 130 A.D.. For however carelessly and uncritically this compilation. the ten books of Diogenes Laertius on the lives and doctrines of celebrated philo sophers. and Eusebius has preserved fragments of a critical survey of the philosophic systems by Aristocles the Peripatetic only in fragments. 60-80 A. and through isolated quotations. and also by his (piJXocrotyos the laTopia^ from which life has been preserved. it is these fragments and quotations we owe a considerable portion to a single work.) has done good service for the knowledge of the older philosophers. that the great majority of the wxxrks hitherto spoken of are known to us. or the authors transcribed by him.D.J contain many notices of the history of the philosophers. to whom Diogenes. and of (about 180 A.). But these expositions are altogether uncritical and without historical value. Indeed.

For the history of the Neo-Platonic school.).) Eunapius ftioi tyikocrofywv KOI o-ocfrio-Twv (Rhetoricians) . of the commentators But the most activity first flourishing period commences about the middle of the first century B. At how early a period the necessity of such explanations was felt is the shown by the fact that about 280 B. From him .) are chiefly The treatise. however.C. At this time Andronicus the Rhodian.D. of si&amp. and that Aristophanes of Byzantium (about 200 B.D.. the works devoted to the explanation of their writings occupy an important place.D. commented on Plato s Lexicon (between 1000 A.D.D. and 1150 A. Hesychius of Miletus com TrcuSsla ^iakajju^avrcov^ from posed his work Trspl TWV which the articles on the ancient philosophers in Suidas 520 A. Theophrastus established in the Peripatetic school the learned study of Aristotle s writings. as is also the so-called Violarium of the Empress Eudocia (1060 to 1070 A. from Diogenes and Suidas.). ANCIENT COMMENTARIES. Grantor.) on the treatise of Heracleitus..3] 13 goras by his pupil lamblichus served as an introduction to a dogmatic work by the same author. the chief authority is (about 400 A. Subsequently to 550 A. probably a forgery of the sixteenth century.) arranged the works of Plato in trilogies. treated of in Damascius the later period of the school was Icrropla fyiXocrofyos (about which only some fragments remain. the Stoic Cleanthes (about 260 B.C.C. Academic philosopher. and &amp. the editor of Aristotle. Among the sources of our knowledge of the ancient philosophers. which we possess under name of Hesychius is a late Byzantine compilation the taken.

D. to us. we must first mention Brucker critica ff. are of special importance in the history of our science.) on Plato. only such as last two centuries . Thrasyllus first Eudorus. and of Proclus (410 A. and after the time of Plutarch this philo sopher was as zealously expounded in the Platonic school as Aristotle in the Peripatetic. 4. and then Dercyllides and their treatises made themselves known by on Plato.14 INTRODUCTION. The NeoPlatonists (and individual scholars even earlier) devoted themselves with equal energy to both. to [ 3 down Alexander stretches expositor. are of conspicuous value for the history of philosophy . though its Historia Ancient . until the sixth Of the commentaries that have come down century. only those will be quoted here which have appeared during the and of that number. to 485 A. those of Alexander on Aristotle s Metaphysics.D. 6 As a foundation. and those of Johannes Philoponus (about 530 A. s Philosophise .D.) on the 6 Physics. or of practical use in regard to its study at the present time. Andronicus. Of modern writings on Greek philosophy.) on the works of Aristotle. This example Soon after was followed by the Platonic school. and of Simplicius (about 530 A. next to these come the remaining commentaries of the same writers. the renowned a long series of men who dis either cussed these writings in commentaries or in introductory and comprehensive works. a learned and critical work of conspicuous worth. of Aphrodisias. and ii. (1742 Philosophy is treated of in vols. Modern Aids.).D. i. and the books De Cselo.

vols. which was followed after his death by his concise and suggestive History of Philosophy. Soon &c..4] MODEltN AIDS. 1791 ff. the appropriate por tions of J. on Plato. iii. ii. that of Tennemann retained its &amp.. Next. philosophy whole extent in three comprehensive works Tiedemann s Geistder speculativen Philosophie (1791-1797). and but especially the introduction and iii. 1) . philosophy asserted itself. Phil. Greek philosophers ( Sammtliche \Verke. 15 its standpoint of historical criticism is not beyond that of time . and ancient science began to be treated in a new spirit. with its original points of view (1839. in regard to Ancient Philo sophy. come the works of Meiners ( Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Griechenland und Kom. 1852) sec.).). Buhle s Lehrbuch der Geschichte der treated of in : considerably enlarged in the edition of Harless. and Bockh s writings (the most important are those printed in vol. Unterten. A. Fabricius Bibliotheca Graeca (1705 ff. Zur Phil. Philosophie (1796-1804).lt. vol.) and Fiilleborn Beitrage. &c. Schleiermacher s treatises on various (&amp. of the nineteenth century. the history of was At the end of the eighteenth and beginning its &amp. of the Kleine SchrifLife of Philolaus.. 1819 . the influence of the post-Kantian however. &amp.. 1790 ff. side by side with this. works has its value . in spite of the one-sidedness with which Kant dominates its histo rical judgment. iiber das kosrnische suchungen System des Plato. ( Platon s and Tennemann s Geschichte der Philosophie Each of these (1798-1819). &amp. 1804-1828). notes to his translation of Plato ii. . well-merited reputation the longest. 1781 ff. and.).

lt. Phil. is the task proposed to itself by my own Philosophic third edi der Griechen (first edition. 1835-1866) are allied with Schleiermacher To mediate between as to their general tendency. entering more deeply into the special character of the ancient philosophers and the inner laboratories of their thoughts. Hegel s Vorlesungen on the History of Philosophy (published after his death. xiii.16 INTRODUCTION. not without some one-sidedness. [ 4 gave the type for a treatment of history. in six volumes. the standpoint of the school of 1840. 1829 f. and to gain a knowledge of the importance and inter dependence of the individual from tradition itself through critical sifting and historical connection. and Brandis Handbuch ( (&amp. der learned inquiry and the speculative view of history. of his Works) emphasise the dialectical necessity of the evolution of the later philosophers from the earlier. Greschichte der praktischen Philosophic der Griechen von Aristoteles. but they have power fully contributed to the scientific comprehension and The historical criticism of the philosophic systems. 1836 f. 1861. 1844-1852. c Geschichte der theoretischen Philosophic der Grriechen.. 1833. Griechisch-B6m. vols. Fragments philosophiques.-iv. in his 1 Introduction a histoire de la Philosophic. by whom the history of philosophy in modern times has been advanced.. 1869-1882 &amp. meritorious works of Ritter i. in vols. Among the scholars of From 1854. in a more concise manner. are Victor Cousin (1792-1867). . der Gesch. der Phil.. tion..-xv. and his his . has written his Striimpell.) Gesch. 3 Th. fourth edition of the first part. 1876). and 6 other countries.

may pendiums which deal with this be mentioned Brandis.. 1882. Theil. i. 1879) has edited the Greek doxographers and investigated their autho rities. der second edition. Phil.. i. Theil the most important are the following : Prantl. Preller (subsequently Preller only). the following Gesch. Phil. 1838. Abth. Die Ethik der alten Griechen. Erdmann. der edition. Diels ( Doxographi Gneci. Phil. im Umriss. George Grote (1794-1871). lungen sophise der Griech.und Staatsphilosophie. 1860. d.Logikim Abendland. der EntwickEitter and Historia Philo locis &amp. der 1879. der Psychologic... B. . E. 8-32. 1866. third edition. eleventh edition. der Phil. Grundriss der Gesch. Gesch. eighth History of Philosophy. Gesch. 1880. vol.. viii.. Heinze. . his Plato (1865). Grseco-Komanse sixth edition. der Ethik. 1872 . 1885 Griech. Hildebrand. Lewes. Gesch. 1882 Gesch. ex fontium contexta. vol. Z^igler. Meyer. 1 . Gesch. &amp. 1881 L. Schmidt. der Griech.. Ueberweg. : subject. 1882. in portions of his History of Greece. pp. der Phil. 17 Histoire Generale de la Philosophic . sixth edition. fourth Die Lehre vom Logos in der i. the literature of the Florilegia is discussed by c . i.4] MODERN AIDS. Gesch. 1848. 1867. vol. riss der Gesch. 1880.. especially vol. &amp. Among the works which are con cerned with the history of special philosophical subjects. Grund i. Gesch. i. 1882. 1878. . Theil Die Psychologic vor Aristoteles. 1 edited by Kdstlin. 1862-1864. and the un finished ( Aristotle Of the numerous com(1872). Schwegler. Theil edition 1882. Phil. 1862. und System der Eechts. 1873. Phil. Leitfaden zur Gesch. Lange.

An old tradition affirms that several of the most Greek philosophers Pythagoras. perhaps first introduced by Orientals. set up a similar claim for the prophets and sacred writings of their nation and the Christian scholars from Clement and Eusebius till after the close of the Middle Ages supported them in it. and from the third century before Christ and onwards we meet with the opinion. Plato. graphs on particular philosophers and their works will be mentioned in the proper B. Its 5. 1881). three parts.. 1882). from the second century before Christ. Florilegien. or at any rate many of its most influential doctrines and The Jews of the Alex systems. the most complete collection of fragments of the ancient philosophers as yet made is that of Mullach ( Fragmenta Philosophorum Grsec.Wachsmuth INTRODUCTION. 1867. that the whole Greek philosophy. but readily adopted and further developed by the Greeks. and others owe their scientific Even in the time of doctrines to Eastern nations. important of Democritus. I860. andrian school. Origin of Greek Philosophy. the to the Greeks as the fathers of the Herodotus the Egyptians tried to represent themselves Greek religion. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. . Eastern origin of Greek philosophy as such continues . These Jewish fables indeed but the theory of an are now generally abandoned . The most important mono places.18 &quot. came from the East. ( [ 4 Studien zu der Griech. derivation supposed from the East.

latter in a series of works since 1841 i.5] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND THE are EAST. modern times vol. 19 to find advocates. that he has taken it from a trustworthy p. especially the Phoenicians. trines late But that they borrowed philosophic doc and methods from thence (irrespective of certain phenomena) cannot be proved. cf. . may also give credit to the tradition which says that the Hellenes afterwards received the first elements of their mathematical We and astronomical knowledge from the East. 1846. vol. so do the supposed instructors of their c 2 . On the contrary we are confronted with the remarkable phenomenon that the authorities become more and assertion made by authors from one that goes back to the more silent the nearer we approach the period of the supposed events. Its most strenuous defenders in Koth Gesch. or facts themselves. vol. in this new home they experienced for centuries the influence of through the their Eastern neighbours. Often as this is of the Alexandrian and not one of them can show post-Alexandrian ii. i. There is no doubt that the forefathers of the Hel lenes brought from their Asiatic abodes into their new home. and that in proportion as the Greeks become acquainted with more distant Oriental nations. 35). der abendl. Zeller s &amp.Pre- Socratic Philosophy. Phil. and are more and more copious the farther we recede from them . certain religious and ethical presentations akin to those itself of the other Indo-Germanic peoples . 1858) and Gladisch (the (&amp. together with the groundwork of their language. and effects of such influence the later Hellenic nationality developed itself out of the Pelasgic. 1862.

not merely indemonstrable. whom the Greeks down in contact. hand we seek to infer the dependence of Greek philo on Oriental speculations from their internal sophy as soon as we regard similarity. are not If on the other testimonies. had indeed mythologies and mythical cos mogonies. none made an attempt at a natural explanation of have served the Greek thinkers as things. but none of them possessed a philosophy. This state of things decidedly indicates that the later statements are not derived from historical recollection. which could and if even some or pattern of their own the source had been found among them. but has weighty and posi The Eastern nations with tive reasons against it. bears Hellenes. in the way of its transfer to the great hindrances Greek philosophy. thing of philosophy the difficulties arising from language would have put . so far as came our knowledge respecting them to the time of Alexander extends. on the other hand. and ascribe them both neither to the Greeks nor the interpretation Orientals what their later has introduced into is doctrines. but mere conjectures. [ 5 ancient philosophers increase in number. this appearance vanishes in their historical defmiteness. no conflict of indi- . Even in its most ancient representatives it displays none of the phenomena which elsewhere universally appear when a nation derives its science from without . an altogether national stamp. Their coincidence then in regard to which we seen to be confined to points do not require the explanation that the Greek philosophers wholly or partially derived This theory is their doctrines from Oriental sources.20 INTRODUCTION.

moral. Native Sources of Greek Philosophy. before himself. and real origins of The the course taken by its religious. i. and . 931 b. i. in the Greek philosophy are to be found happy endowments of the Greek nation. but the Greek people were more and more absolutely devoid of any special priestly class or hierarchy the farther we remount towards their earliest If we antiquity. though he carefully notices all traces of later doctrines In the time of Herodotus even the Egyptian priests do not as yet seem to have thought that philosophical knowledge might have come to the Greeks from them. no use of uncomprehended formulae. 747 C) ascribes to the Egyptians and Phoenicians TO ^CKo^t^a-rov^ and to the Hellenes TO ^iXo^aOss as their characteristic quality. in the incitements afforded by its situation and history. political. not only was Greek philosophy from free very and self-dependent. v. Democritus (Clemens. 304 A) allows no precedence to the Egyptian sages even in geometry. and Plato iv. science is And while among the Orientals a monopoly of the priesthood. 435 E. 6. no trace of slavish appropriation and imitation of the traditional. 1. Laws. 23) allows that the Egyptians vrere the discoverers of the mathematical but sciences. lastly.5] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND THE EAST. 21 genous with alien elements. and entirely its therefore dependent on priestly institutions and tradi tions. Aristotle ( Metaph. commencement wholly take the older and more trustworthy evidence. 4 Strom. in the earlier philosophers. ( Kep. he never mentions Egyptian or Oriental philosophemes.

so long as these retained their superiority in power and were considerably influenced (vide supra. Those views of Nature from which the worship of the gods in the .22 artistic INTRODUCTION. the foundations of a culture unique in historical effects. but only bestowed its gifts on those who knew how to earn them settlements on the by their own exertions. the shaping of a agreeable To this natural beautiful and self-consistent whole. . With their Europe and Asia. which afforded stimulus and resources of the most diverse kinds. and in its were early developed. with such a remarkable genius for the orderly and combination of individuals. and to open for p. Thus operation through extensive in the small commonwealths of the Hellenic cities. they but they also knew how to free themselves in time from this influence. the healthiest the acutest perception of individuality much ideality. culture. [ G in which we development down to the period first No attempts at philosophic inquiry. was endowed from the very other nation of antiquity commencement with so many and various advantages as the Hellenic. itself. in none do we find prac of discover the disposition tical address feeling thirst for for and active power united with so delicate a the beautiful and such a deep and keen realism with so knowledge. field of colonisation. in islands and on bridge connecting of moderate fertility. 19). the Greeks richly developed coasts were marked out for the liveliest intercourse with each other and with their neighbours by some of the latter. must be added the favourable character temperament of the position of their country. to conquer or Hellenise the their own nationality a wide strangers.

that subordination of the individual to the whole. without lican constitutions of the Greek cities which the repub could not have . however. manifold variations. it asserted itself to an extent that was of great importance for moral scientific labours. which needed only to be developed in order to do so. And because it was more concerned with worship than doctrine because it possessed no uni form and universally acknowledged dogmatic system. that respect for custom and law. and in Athens and the Ionian colonies. it goras. had no regularly organised priest hood endowed with external power for all these reasons. No less important. above all. generally speaking. and if religion as such (in the mysteries as little as in the public worship) did not transcend the limits of an anthropomorphic polytheism. it opposed. and kept by the active imagination of the people and the poets in a constant state of flux . a Socrates were subjected (Aristotle is scarcely to be included here). 23 pre-Hellenic period arose were ethically deepened and artistically transformed . the gods were raised to moral powers.6] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. no obstacles to the free movement and progress of thought among the Greeks at all comparable to those which had to be combated in the Middle Ages and in the The same freedom reigns in the Oriental kingdoms. but only a mythology handed down by tradition with . despite the attacks to which an Anaxagoras. a Prota because. the ideals of human activities and conditions. it contained living and powerful germs. in this respect was the second fundamental feature of Greek life. life and civil institutions of the Hellenic people. precisely those portions which did the most for its science.

we shall find at first theological presentations of a general kind. easily be seen. which in its epic. pre thought had attained in the If vious to the sixth century before Christ.24 subsisted. had to consider. as is natural. and either endorse or reject. moreover. lyric. 7. and sayings which were re Greek tribes in pictures of universally recognised truth garded as the expression and thus by the contemporary and succeeding period indicated to the rising philosophy the presuppositions it . How essentially.C. and didactic forms was so richly A the first developed in the four centuries preceding it embraced the beginnings of Greek philosophy. the taste for order and law which had developed itself in civil life in all the relations of demanded also that in the theoretic view of the world the individual should be comprehended in a whole and made dependent upon the laws of that whole. and ethical intuitions of the theological. the formal training of thought and must have been advanced by the animated move speech ment and numerous claims of civil life. may similar service was rendered by poetry. From the freedom with which [ 6 men moved derived the life. the then we survey the position to which Greek directions indicated. cosmological. INTRODUCTION. The Development of Greek Thought before Sixth Century B. scientific thought and boldness which we admire even in independence the most ancient Greek philosophers. upon the soil of the traditional moving . and how greatly scientific activity must have thereby benefited.

tiplicity of gods. 373) doubts are expressed of the latter. for Zeus as the uniform representative and protector of the moral order of the world begins to come forward more prominently from among the mul On the one hand (Solon. Aristotle. their groundwork is the Theogony of Hesiod.) the difference between divine and human justice v. but on the other (Theognis.7] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND COSMOGONIES. is f. 4 17. are not far removed . Fr. and Chthon as the first and everlasting. Chronos. and the earth . He describes Zeus. and of the most an cient Orphic Theogony used by Plato. unmistakably belong to the post-Aristotelian reflections period. Nevertheless. As to cosmological theories.) approaches it somewhat more closely. from which the meagre fragments of some other expositions (tho. and the question of the natural causes of things is not as yet entertained. with their theological syncretism and pantheism. and Eudemus. while other Orphic Theogonies better known to us. which could traditional ideas.C. acknowledged. only lead to a critical state of mind in regard to the But the need of worthier conceptions of the Deity first asserted itself more definitely and powerfully in the poets of the fifth century. 25 Homeric and Hesiodic mythology. 13. Pherecydes of Syros (about 540 B. about 540. the traces are perceptible of a gradual purification of the idea of God. when philo sophy had already commenced its attacks upon the popular polytheism. the ideas and which in these ancient cosmogonies combine to form a representation of the origin of the world are of a very simple description. of Epimenides and Acusilaus). among the poets of the seventh and sixth centuries.

the universally recognised moral laws are referred to the will of the gods. together with the increasing spread of the mysteries and the Orphicthis to Dionysiac mysteries especially contributed the dogma of the transmigration of souls nevertheless seem that the predominant it it through would of mode the belief in a thought was not deeply affected by until towards the end of the sixth century. future life. through though change had gradually been taking place since the eighth and seventh centuries. by Zeus in its . appears throughout Among the Greeks. . But the mythical form of representation conceals thoughts under enigmatical symbols. But ing. which the belief in immortality of the Homeric tive justice. and the shadowy existence in Hades. and that which ought to be explained by as the its natural causes still uncomprehended work of the gods. forces of nature were only gradually overcome. beyond life and mean period never went. under the influence of Pythagoreanism that the belief . and that it was itself primarily only a means for recom was through hope and fear it mending dedications. as everywhere else. was filled with greater the doctrine of a future retribution.26 as clothed INTRODUCTION. Thus his exposition seems to be based upon the thought that the formation of the world is a con the heavenly upon the sequence of the operation of and that in this process the unregulated terrestrial.coloured garment he also speaks of a conquest of Ophioneus by Chronos and the gods. and their is founded on the belief in Divine retribu inviolability This belief gained considerably in power from the time that the ideas concerning a future state entered its service. [ 7 many.

27 appears first to have been more universally spread. so lively and capable a people as the Greeks that the development of intelligent moral reflection should go on side by side. their meetings but also as to the theory that seven men were acknowledged by their contemporaries to be the wisest. in Solon. and turned to account in a purer moral tendency. Of the rest those : Thales. Periander. and Theognis. their maxims. in Plato. it. Pittacus. names are very variously given we are with twenty-two belonging to widely dif acquainted ferent periods. not merely as to the statements concerning the tripod. and Solon. through the fragments of the later poets they are most marked in the Gnomic poets of the sixth century. With this religious it treatment of ethical questions. however.7] PHILOSOPHY AND GNOMIC MORALITY. as then universally Protagoras. and Anacharsis. Myson. ! . The development of such a tendency in this period is also indicated by the fact that most of the called men reckoned among the so- Seven Wise Men Wise Men (which we first recognised. and Hesiod s practical rules of . Chilon. The story of the meet with. Bias. The traces of this was inevitable in may life. racter be followed from the Homeric portrayals of cha and moral sayings. 343 A) is for the rest exhibit entirely unhistorical. Only four are to be found in all the their : Even enumerations. The connection of this practical wisdom with the beginnings of Greek science is shown by the signifi cant fact that the same man stands at the head of the seven who opens the series of Greek physicists. viz. and letters. most frequently mentioned are Cleobulus. Phocylides.

of which the first turns to the consideration of Greek himself a part. to its object a philosophy of nature for its essential inquiry into the origin and causes of the universe. As a product of the Hellenic spirit. therefore. and especially to a people like the Greeks. in interest in its first period was in respect . a dogmatism i.28 INTRODUCTION. Greek philosophy. it seeks to obtain before it has given account to of the objective world : itself of ledge. and even Finally. the problem and conditions of scientific know it is realistic. an increasingly important factor in that development. The problem of the nature lay the of man was treated in an isolated and rather in a popular than a scientific form.e. on such familiar terms with their gods. this philosophy was. self-confidence which is so natural to early difficulties inquiry before awaiting it or natural discouraged by disappointments. Having grown strong in practical life. Character [ 8 8. Further. in it is acquainted with the the main. the leading power in the life of the Greek people. and. becomes exhibits the . and stood. after the loss of political independence. in its results . at the awakening of felt scientific necessity. manner. Greek philosophy same characteristic features it accompanies the development of that spirit with its own. who were so happy and so much at home in the world around them. and in which he was already accustomed through his re immediate original revelation ligion to adore the most It does this with the simple of the divine powers. and Development of Greek Philosophy. in respect to its pro and mission a theory cedure. thought the world.

and as man But though this was an advance not only beyond the . and to govern the lower by means of it. and on the other by metaphysics (Plato s Dialectic. but for philosophy in general. the spirit is distinguished as thinking essence acknowledges it as his proper develop this higher part of himself. and Aristotle. and require in its stead a knowledge that is practically useful and subservient to the ends of the subject. however. By Socrates. as the end of its production. but Socrates was the first to lay a new foundation. The one side by ethics. Greek philosophy consideration of the problem and conditions of knowledge leads to the development of logic . Plato. task to from its body. Already. 20 materialistic not until the end of this period was the and corporeal brought to consciousness by Anaxagoras. physics are supplemented on the was brought to its scientific climax. not only for this practical philo sophy. in connection with the change which.8] DEVELOPMENT OF . to its manifestation in object of philosophic thought. and combination of con cepts constitutes the fixed nucleus of the scientific method the immaterial essence of things which is the &amp. so the creative activity of nature is directed to bringing the form. the idea or the form of the idea opposes itself to its phenomenon as a higher reality. the Sophists destroy by their Sceptic and Eristic doctrines belief in the cognisability of objects. classification. and Aristotle s First Philosophy ) . &amp. . since the Persian War had taken place in the conditions difference between spiritual and needs of the Greeks. in terest had begun to be diverted from this wholly physical inquiry. the formation.

30 INTRODUCTION. and still more of Plato. Far human Greek standpoint was transcended by the ethics of Socrates. and though . by his preference for scientific activity goes beyond this. they products of thought either divine or stand in plastic objectivity. too. this change had nevertheless been preparing in the development of the Greek nation. his doctrine of virtue is wholly Greek he. and in it the features which distinguish ancient philosophy from modern are undeniable. the forms of . out of the multiplicity of pheno mena the common traits. In the concept-philosophy of Socrates and his successors a forward movement was made in the scientific sphere. This idealism. [ 8 philosophy of the time. as prototypes of things. though the harmony of the inner and the outer. similar to that achieved by the plastic art and poetry of the fifth century in the region of art . the simple unity of spirit with nature which had formed the original presupposition for the classic beauty of Greek life was interrupted. in these were seen the proper object of artistic exposition and of scientific knowledge . science and art coincide in their common direction towards the ideal. over against the spirit which contemplates them. upholds the connection of ethics with politics. the unchangeable forms of things were taken as the essential element in them . the lofty contempt of material work for the purposes of . does not bear the modern things are not subjective character. the latter nevertheless remained true to the aesthetic as well as as the ancient the political character of Greek morality Aristotle . even in Plato. but also beyond the general standpoint of the Hellenic view of the world.

however.8] DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY. widely as those philosophers differ from each other in . who placed the centre of gravity of philosophy in Ethics. partly of an abstract cosmopolitanism . as in the whole sphere of Greek thought. taste for natural and purely theoretic investigation inquiry unmistakably retrograded the Academy and the . but even Plato is not hindered by his idealism from intense admiration of personality is rights are very them. side by side with Peripatetic schools. the strongest expression of which is his defence of slavery. appeared the Stoics and Epicureans. imperfectly recognised by of nature is not only pursued with the liveliest interest by Aristotle. con ditions brought about The by Alexander s conquests. 31 gain. of and its The study the beauty and divinity of the visible world . especially by Plato. themselves to the pre-Socratic systems. appropriating Ethics themselves among the Stoics and Epicureans have the character partly of individualism. The stricter conception wanting in Plato and Aristotle. and before long decidedly preponderating over them. after the end of the fourth under the influence of the century. and that opposition of Hellenes and barbarians. and he his disciple are agreed in their conviction of the adaptation of means to end in nature. in that aesthetic and view and worship of nature which clearly show the reaction of those intuitions whose most ancient product was the Greek natural religion. An important change took place in philosophy. for the most part only those elements which bore upon the moral and religious view of the world. while in Physics they allied and developing from these.

likewise in harmony with them. and only phenomenon from foreign continues to exist in combination with in elements in the service of a new form of culture of modern times. others or adopted them into itself. a reaction set the New namely. developing itself Oriental philosophy partly on Greek lenism. [ 8 many schools require elevation above the respects.. During the soil and partly on that of Judaic Hel first centuries after Christ this mode of thought increasingly spread.32 INTRODUCTION. but they sought to practical end by entire abandonment of knowledge. and among the Neo-Pythagoreans eclectic and Platonists connected with them the of the time unite to form a halfsceptical tendencies of revelation. independence of all things of the wise man in his inner nal. With sixth the dissolution of the Neo-Platonic School in the as a distinct century Greek philosophy disappears the theatre of history. both exter limits of nationality. and in the middle of the third it was developed by Plotinus as Neo-Platonism into overcame all a which comprehensive system. that eclecticism which Academy: was strongest in the Academy. while the school of ^Enesidemus scepticism acquired a new and the centre. through From the inter course of these schools with each other and with their the second half of the second predecessors after in against the scepticism of century B. the science of the Middle Ages and It is undeniable that this development led Greek .C. attain the same another road. the self-satisfaction On these points the contemporary sceptics are life. but likewise found in entrance among the Stoics and Peripatetics.

life according to nature continues in physics the Stoics went back to be their watchword : from the Platonic. But even the phenomenon which announces most clearly the transition from the Greek world to the Christian. the harmony of the sensible and spiritual life. but his aesthetic though inadequate gods and if in his ethics he dis cards the political element of ancient Greek morality doctrine of the . also. and in their theology they under took the defence of the same notions with which science had in truth long since broken. which is his practical ideal. 33 thought further and further from points. more completely than the Stoics.Aristotelian dualism to the hylozoism of Heracleitus. mode of thought plainly perceptible. The sceptical schools.8] DEVELOPMENT OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. Abrupt as is the opposition in which reason and sense are placed by the ethics of the Stoics. sets himself in the most marked opposition to the popular belief as well as to the teleological explanation of nature needs oblige him to adopt a new . Though it places makes . But show that we its original startingcertain important features still remain to are always on Greek soil. by his mechanical physics. while on the other hand they accept the impossibility of knowledge as a natural destiny with a placidity which is no longer so easy in the Christian period. approximates on that account more nearly to the original Hellenic view. the Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic its connection with the ancient speculation. are not far from that view in their practical principles. Epicurus. by their teleological view of the universe they approximate to the anthropomorphism of the popular religion.

. the former is with divine powers. [ 8 the visible world far below the invisible. the world.34 INTRODUCTION. perfect of the world is defended against the The beauty s Christian Nature and its eternity against the theory of a creation and those orders of super human essences in whom the divine powers descend to contempt for . as a still regarded as filled in its kind. manifestation. and with whose assistance man is to raise himself to the Deity. of the higher world. of which these philosophers were the last champions. are the metaphysical counterpart of the popular polytheism.

e. whose Through the origin dates from the sixth century before Christ. These three most ancient schools. discovering Thus the ancient Ionian s inquire of what matter the world was _formed and in what way the world arose from it. and of the universal arose. and later by Diogenes of Apollonia and other representatives of the ancient first THE explanation Ionian school. and derive their existence and qualities D 2 . who was followed by his countrymen Anaximander and Anaximenes. but they do not as yet definitely face the problem of explaining origin.35 FIEST PEBIOD. these endeavours were transplanted to Lower Italy and carried on with such independent inquiry that from each of them there arose a new school. Pythagoras and Xenophanes. that from in which. attempt among the Greeks at a scientific of the world was made by Thales the Milesian. The Pythagoreans seek the essence of which things consist m number. decay. which they and cause of these phenomena. that in regard to the causes of things which science has to point out. and change as such. they think primarily of their substantial causes i. according to their essential nature. lonians. THE PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. agree only herein. they consist . 9. Course of its Development.

These primitive substances are conceived by Empedocles as qualitatively distin from each other. from the unity of the world. ^In asserting that in the begins ceaseless change of matter and the combinations of matter there is nothing permanent except the law of this change. Anaxagoras to infinity. starting of phenomena. Empedocles. unlimited in . [ 9 from the fixed and numerically determined regularity The Eleatic philosophy. A new he proposed to his successors the problem of explaining this phenomenon itself. conditionally excluding declares the multiplicity of things ception of Being. by Leucippus as homogeneous in unlimited in number. all Non-being from the con and motion to be unthinkable.36 PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. Leucippus and Democritus as different in quality. which differed Becoming indeed from the Being of Parmenides in respect of its but had otherwise the multiplicity and divisibility same essential qualities. through Parmenides and by un its essence in Being as such recognises . and guished divisible to infinity . number. imperishable. and indivisible by quality. departure of natural philosophical inquiry with Heracleitus. limited as to number. In order to explain motion. Leucippus. Empedocles annexes moving forces to elements in a mythical form . and in themselves and thereby deriving unchangeable material substances. . of stating the reason of change and motion. itself from one original Being. on and divisible which all combination and division of substances is the based. and Anaxagoras attempted this by reducing all Be and separa coming and all change to the combination tion of underived.

THE THREE EARLIEST SCHOOLS.).e. 1. are evidence of the esteem in which assigned his practical wisdom and statesmanlike ability held. i.C. His mathematical and astronomical were knowledge.C. 58. it was abandoned in This denies principle by the Sophistic doctrine. Thales. 640 B. and in part indirectly. 39. The former of these dates appears to be founded on that of the solar eclipse in 585 B. Thales. 35. or 624 i. i. A. according to Diog. 548-5 B. Here the standpoint hitherto occupied is by physics all in point of fact transcended . in 01. The position him as the head of the Seven Wise Men (vide sup. a contemporary of Solon and Croesus. according to Eudemus. i. inasmuch as character of its it rendered that reform a necessity through the one-sided and doubtful own results. 27) and what is said of him in Herod. i70 and Diog. was probably. i. and even deprives practical life of any universally valid rule. whose ancestry was derived from the Boeotian Cadmeans.e.C. (it B. 25. His birth was placed by Apollodorus. THE ANCIENT IONIANS. restricts philosophy to the questions of practical life. 1. acquired. Anaxagoras takes refuge in the world-forming Spirit. and his death in 01. 37. was a citizen of Miletus. in part directly. (vide infra). possibility of knowledge. in 01.COURSE OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. 37 lastly. Thus it brings about the Socratic reform of philosophy. I. in Phoenicia and . remove the atoms into empty space .C. p. 10. however.

the most did not extend beyond a mathematics. it is consistent ancient Greek elementary character of these. it attracts iron. this theory. i.) It was no doubt in connection with these mathematical studies and the scientific taste awakened by them. i. with the and. occurred. As quoted to the way in which things arise from water. 21 (Diels. Pliys. that all is fall of gods.. that his physics first beginning. and conceived this force in the . together mentioned by from them.C. De An. and doubtless none existed . 1 seen in the assertions (Arist. [ 10 Egypt and transplanted to Greece. 5. and may have found something _in the latter about which nothing was recorded in reference to Thales. and Hippo together. with the doctrines later writers. 3. according to the Julian calendar. Theophrastus expresses himself . Thales he does not seem to have explained himself further that the efficient force was directly probably thought combined with matter. and that the magnet life since b. as is analogous to living 6 41 1 a. all He declared water to be the matter l from which and that the earth things arose and of which they consist^ Aristotle floats upon the water. on the other hand. old natural religion as spirit of the forces. that he May undertook to answer the question concerning the ultimate basis of things in an unmythological form . 7. 983 22. on 28 (Herod. but only from speaks about the reasons of for he possessed no writing of his own conjecture. among the proofs given of this. more he is distinctly in Simpl. 74 and elsewhere.38 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. i. are to be regarded as forgeries. is that he predicted the solar eclipse which famous in 585 B. That he MetapJi. 19) has a soul i. Doxogr. 23. those which are Thales. are likewise cele the most brated. 475) but here speaking of Thales .e.

on t. 44-273. the oldest Greek prose writer.10] TIIALES. We find thus con siderable progress already achieved by Anaximander.C.. 1 1 As is maintained by several of the Greek commentators on Aristotle. we have no reason to suppose. and the first philosophical author. 11. he conceived neither as composed of the later four elements. 1878).C. his time for astronomical and geographical knowledge. being thus. nor as a substance intermediate between air and fire. he prosecuted the cosmological inquiries raised by Thales with independent investigations. ever meagre this first But how commencement of a physical theory may seern to us. . the force that forms the world as God or Spirit or World-soul. s (Leipzig. from matter. (1883).e. their (Diog. it was of great importance that a beginning should be made. and jinto which they to render to each for their offence Phys. Pre-eminent in 2). or air and water. ii. (Simpl. He_jbakes as the beginning of all things (dpx n) th e unlimited (aTrsipov). The second of the as- sumptions given above is defenLiitze. with whose theories he must certainly have been acquainted. 24. the infinite mass of matter . however. &amp. This important and influential thinker was a fellowcitizen of Thales. This primitive matter. Anaximander. in order things arise. partly in contradiction to their own statements elsewhere. Ueber das faeipov A. side by side with Pherecydes. 39 expressly discriminated. 18). and both together by Neuhauser. He was born in 611-610 B. Anaxi- ded by mander Miles. s. of whiph nil ireturn by other atonement and punishment against the order of time. and wrote down the results in an original treatise which was early lost. on the other hand. i. and died soon after 547-6 B.

iii. filled which surrounded the earth as a spherical When this burst asunder wheel^shaped husks. we may rather infer that Anaximander either dis tinguished self at all his unlimited is from likely. ff. by some. 22. 1 tively statement of Theophrastus (ap. 4. Plut. with fire and having apertures. iii. 292) &c. fire On this assumption. as distinct from particular never explained him particular nature. upon his division philosophers into De ff. and the sphere of fire crust. 154. from both arose the damp. as more its by it concerning matter in general. 303 b. 18 8. or. in an inclined horizontal b. Phys. 27. i. the air. Phys. 208 a. The 5. 204 234 ff. or it would 3 As otherwise be exhausted in the creation of things. Cf. 240. and from the utterances of Aristotle. and its is underived and im eternal. Simpl. revolve around the earth. i. an Mechanical and Dynamic assumption which is still shared Arist. this primitive matter must be unlimited. (Stob. 3. the shape of which drical. 13 which Eitter bases of Cf. 8. Pre-Socratic Philosophy the Ionic 256 3 . but meant that argued.). He primitive matter the unlimited perishable. . i. [ U nor lastly as a mixture of particular substances in which these were contained as definite and qualita From the express distinct kinds of matter. 5. motion is also From the latter doctrine follows the separation ($Ktcplvs(r6ai) 9 First the warm and the of particular kinds of matter. * Placit. 4. iii. 17 2 ff. see Pre-Socratio Philohy. Ccrlo. Phys. cold were parted off.40 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 4. i. note 4. doubtless wrongly. 2 i. init. 1 conceived as cylin direction. c. 14 ff. 203 b. all definite material substances. were formed : these being moved by currents of is air. Eel. from the damp were separated the earth. Pre-Socratic Philosophy i. kinds of matter.

but attempt to explain the a conception which may seem is in truth the first known so far progressed as to be able themselves on land. beginning with men. and is which continually renewing itself by means of the exhalations of the earth.). that his = the 40th year 7). and wrongly discredited by Schleiermacher. The earth was at first in a fluid state from its gradual drying up. and under this hypothesis ment (Hippol. living creatures were produced. 195 A. Weik. On the ground of the stateItefut. also a Milesian. 1 (548 3. That Anaximander. can . and 524 TLC. is maintained by a trustworthy tradition traceable to Theophrastus. in the manner of the heavenly later theory of the spheres.K/j. is Anaximenes. develop in harmony with the presuppositions of his cosmology. that the data in Diog.C. without beginning or end. l 12. to the years 1 His life may approximately be assigned between 588 E.C. be changed. which they only . ( i. who were first in the form of fishes in the water.e. 41 from which the wheel-shaped rings allow to stream forth their apertures during their revolutions. a. and that denotes the a/c^. quitted when they had to held a periodical alternation of renewal and destruction of the world. called by later writers the disciple of Anaximander. and in consequence a series of successive worlds. Anaximenes. ii. 3 Abth. which is at least so far true that he clearly betrays the influence of his predecessor. 2 Of a of life) fell in B. 2 Uebcr AnasKimandros. fj 01. IKCT. very strange to us. moving through space regular movement of the bodies mechanically. 58.11] ANAXIMANDER. gives the appearance of stars . ii.

6. (Anax. a change which is properly of a two-fold kind : rarefaction (navwcris. [12 treatise of his in Ionic prose. stones an idea which Anaximenes no doubt deduced in the first instance from the atmospheric processes and precipitates. prinpip]A~~^nf matt ejr_ without . only a small fragment has been preserved.. equally appeared to for this principle a substance to qualities of belong. avscris) . and the latter cooling.. it is flat like a .more. Plut. ap. the whole world. -precise. but is also conceived in perpetual motion and change. but he again coincides with Anaximander in choosing infinite which the essential Anaximander s primitive essence. In the air both are to be found. The former is at the same time Through rarefac heating. through condensation it becomes wind. It not only spreads itself boundlessly in space. dpalcocris) or loosening (^aXapov. the earth was first . Plac. formed. earth. and proves itself (according to the ancient notion which makes the soul identical with vital air) to be the ground of all life and all motion in living beings. In the creation of the universe. the motion. Anaximenes differs from Anaximander in taking for his first. and condensation (TTVKVOXJ-LS) or contraction (avcrsX- \saOaiy sTTiracns}. In his physical theory. then clouds. As the air as our soul holds us together.) Through air suffers its without beginning or end. unlimitedness and unceasing motion. 3. tion air becomes fire. so the blowing breath (Trvsv^a) and the air embraces i. water. determination.42 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. but with Thales a qualitatively determined matter . according to Anaximenes..

are mostly allied with those of Anaximenes. and from the conquest of water by fire. 13.C. Plac. who taught that the air was the primitive matter . 220). Even so late as 440-425 B. Diogenes of Apollonia According to the statement of p. The school which the Milesian philosophers had founded in the sixth century also appears in the fifth. Pkys.ypov) was the primitive matter of the world. 18 f. From water arose fire. 1 to Thales this statement appears to rest on supposition only in Hippo it seems to have the supof his treatise. Diogenes. Plut. . 23. which is to be gathered from Simpl. Accord ing to credible testimony. In this he was led by the analogy of animal life as also he regarded the soul as a moisture originating 1 : from the seed. Diels. . 39. 3. 1 (cf. note). they revolve around it laterally floating upon the air (supposing this was not intended to apply merely to the planets). 43 and therefore borne upon the air the vapours the stars ascending from it are condensed into fire plate. are portions of this fire pressed together by the air . came the world. . port . or more precisely the moist (y&amp. of a similar shape to the earth. Doxogr. Later adherents of the ancient Ionian School. Hippo.12] ANAXIMENES. i. Anaximenes agreed with Anaximander in maintaining an alternate construction and destruction of the world. In regard . held with Thales that water. who lived in the second third of this century. those inter mediate theories also which are mentioned (sup. and which Aristotle repeats without naming their author. Anaximenes was followed in his doctrine by Idseus.

the earth and the heavenly bodies arose through the revolution effected by the warm. Their transformation (according to Anaximenes) consists in rarefaction and condensation. this essence : them would be possible and. saying that Anaximenes found those qualities in the air itself. and hand. If. on the other matter must be a thinking and rational proved partly by its distribution as is accord ing to design. plants. in further process of development.44 PRE-80 CRATIC PHILOSOPHY. in The denser and heavier sank heating and cooling. according to characteristics united in air. and human beings were produced: the soul of living creatures consists of a kind of air which though not nearly so warm as that of the sun.matter must be assumed for reaction of all things. as otherwise no mixture . all Diogenes. the lighter ascended. or. which Anaxagoras believed could be ascribed only to spirit. and thus the two masses down. we find these very It is air which ferments and (as soul) produces life. one common . were separated from which. animals. motion. is warmer than the atmospheric air. . and things thought in animals. on the one hand (in opposition to the innumerable primitive substances of Anaxagoras). and partly and especially by the life and thought of men and animals. which is the same. All things are air (sTSpoiwxTsis). Air is therefore. unlimited rational essence which governs and orders merely transformations of all things. From the terrestrial slime (no doubt by the influence of the solar heat). the underived. [ 13 made an attempt of Anaximenes to defend the monistic materialism against Anaxagoras doctrine of the world-forming Spirit .

especially the circulation of the blood and the activity of the senses. When I had of proved that forge- them were 12 f. and those statements laus. All the fragments of Philolaus have been edited by Boeckh. a (1819). and as to their doctrines only for such portions its is school and founder 1 learn from the genuine fragments of Philothe utterances of Aristotle. Schaarschmidt Repeated examination only . 45 the particular character of this air. 14. THE PYTHAGOREANS. Philolaos der Pythagor. He agreed with the ancient lonians and with Heracleitus in maintaining an infinite series of successive worlds. successive His doctrine especially after the rise of the Neo-Pythagorean school. Pliilol. The phe On nomena of corporeal and animate life. 2 known to us. Schriftstcllerel d. and The became so more and more traditions. 1864)j attempted to prove the same of all. Leliren (Die angebl. history of Pythagoras was very early overgrown with many unhistorical legends and conjectures. concerned. B. part ries. and the extensive forgeries of Pythagorean writings which prevailed there. a higher degree of can only be attained in regard to a few main certainty points. as it was handed down by also. 9. has been so mixed up with later ele ments that it requires the most careful criticism to distinguish the unhistorical constituents in the accounts As far as the history of the Pythagorean preserved. Diogenes endeavoured not without ingenuity to explain by means of his theory. DIOGENES. as 2 1 we can On the Greek biographies of Pythagoras p. cf. Pythagoras and his School. that of the various kinds of living creatures depend.13] LATER IONIANS.

446 ff. romancing disohen um. dbendliiuvol.C. Philogenuine. much weight to untrustworthy TIvQayopri. in Pelagians. which we are [14 justified of the later doxographers 1 referring to Theophrastus. by lateness of the accounts. Mvn&amp.6 n}v refers we do not know) Cf T&amp. this son of Mnesarchus. From the in only can be accepted as probable. historical recollection. iv. that he was born about 580-570 B.. so2) exact statements in respect to the time when he 2 Fr.C. which are in are part confirmed by though giving too ou ao-0ej/e&amp. who were Tyrrhenian Samos. 95. whither had migrated from Phlius. KaKOT^x^W. Koth s uncritical and Gescli. Cf Pre-Socratic 392 &. can only be used with the greatest care. in Diogenes. 1873) as .To$lf)v .lt.rdpxov viii. EAA^i/wz/ (piarrrj Herod. . which are often contradictory in particular details.\Krra KO.rvyypa&amp.a. UvQa. treatises iroXvij. and that the rest of the fragments...\ e /cAeld/uei/os Tavras ras &amp. Even Heracleitus calls him the most learned man of his 2 time. proves to me that the fragments from the treatise nepl fyvxys are not genuine. Chaignet s Pythayore et a la pyih. authorities.y6pr}s la-ropl-^v iravrwv this tfa-K-nae avdpu-rrccv fj. the his ancestors. 6. The statements of later writers con in the cerning his travels and the culture acquired of them in the countries of the South and East. and the suspicious circum 19) under which they cannot be regarded as traditions based upon appeared. and died towards the end of the sixth or much soon after the beginning of the fifth century.46 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. besides wellknown and more comprehensive works. Philosophic. cro- careful book. ii.pas (to what &amp. 1 Among the later accounts of the Pythagorean philosophy we may mention. eVo/Tjo-e eaim& 17. (1858). Byw came to Italy about 540530 B. course reason of the untrustworthiness of the authorities. but only as conjectures to which stances (mentioned supra. was born in pliil. but how and where he gained his knowledge we do not know. 318 note 2. (2 vols.

11) seems to rest on a mere probable (vide sup. i. Pherecydes was his instructor (attested from the middle of the fourth century ap. &amp.). Having begun he found its his activity in his home Italy He settled in Crotona and established an (vide sup. 21) very im probable that they derived so influential a system as the Pythagorean from The statement that Egypt. 28. 12. c. The earliest evidence for it is an oration of Isocrates which does not even lay claim to historical improbability to all is the doctrine internal according credibility ( Busir. 123. association there which found numerous chief sphere in Lower adherents among the Italian and Sicilian Greeks. p. Diog. 81. which he transplanted thence to Greece even Isocrates doubtless means not so much any scientific doctrines his whole In regard to reformatory procedure. it Vit. nothing is known appearance in the older tradition. but also not certain and though the assertion that he was a disciple of Anaximander . ] 19. Pyth.14 1 PYTHAGORAS. 53) seems sojourn of Pythagoras in cf. conjecture. of 47 transmigration and some OrphicPythagorean usages especially gave rise. Even as to the presence of Pythagoras in Egypt. and others) is more trustworthy. cf. unacquainted with any and by the philosophy Egypt. to which no opposed. 41) that the astronomical theory of Anaximander influenced that of Pythagoras. 11. Herodotus to be quite (ii. 118. is 2. his school as a society of ascetics living under a strict rule and having . The later legend describes his position in these regions as that of a prophet and worker of miracles. (ap. as it Plato and Aristotle it is (vide sup. p. as 49. 33). Porph.

of gymnastic. With this endeavour was combined not only the cultivation of many arts and crafts. 36) of is its leading dogma. to bodily and mental soundness. and sworn to inviolable From an historical secrecy with regard to their order. Diog.48 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. . 81) form its centre. on them however. Plato. From the initiated life was demanded The Pythagorean society was from all kindred phenomena by the distinguished ethical and reformatory character which was here given of an oppressive nature. and these not x. vi. the orgies mentioned by Herodotus (ii. music. to morality and self-control. which was prac to the mystic tised within the society after the example of its founder. only a few abstinences. and woollen clothing. and the endeavour to educate its members. common. purity (jrvOayopsLos TpoTros rev {3lov. dogma and to the cultus of Pythagoras. but also scientific activity. apart from the mysteries of the school. Kep. and medicine. was probably seldom attained by any except the members. according to the which enjoined best testimonies. in harmony with the Doric customs and view of life. the doctrine of the transmigration of souls mentioned by Xenophanes (ap. ethical reform like that attempted by Pythagoras must of necessity become a political reform was inevitable . The mathematical sciences until the beginning of the fourth century had their chief seat in the Pythagorean school with them was connected that : doctrine of nature which formed the essential content I That an of the Pythagorean system of philosophy. beans. abstaining from flesh [ 14 their goods in diet. and participation in which. point of view the Pythagorean society appears primarily as a form of the mysteries then in vogue . 600 B).

which had for their end the strict subordi nation of the individual to the whole. Pytha even in Italy. of that 49 period .. who both lived in Thebes. and mentioned by Aristoxenus as the last About the beginning of the fourth century we meet with Cleinias in Tarentum. were upholders of the Dorian aristocratic institutions. probably about 440-430 B. Eurytus was a disciple of the former. and the remainder were dispersed. appears to have been gorean science.14 1 PYTHAGORAS. his scholars are fugitives. p. and they governed by their influence many of the cities of Magna Grascia among the Greeks in this spirit. soon after his time the . through whom Pythagoreanism once more attained the leadership of Pythagoreans. and soon afterwards with the famous Archytas. while the Pythagorean mysteries. of many years irritation. were Philolaus (sup. spirit of their doctrine. not only maintained themselves but even spread and increased. 45 note 2) and Lysis. where he died. on the great a community contrary. in which many of the Pythagoreans lost their lives. the teacher of Epaminondas. the burning of the Pythagorean meeting-place in Crotona. gave the signal for a persecution that extended itself over the whole of Lower Italy. move from Crotona which determined Pythagoras himself to re to Metapontum. extinguished or to have sunk into a state of insig nificance. Meanwhile this political attitude of the Pythagorean society gave occasion to frequent attacks upon After it. .C. these Among through whom middle Greece first became acquainted with Pythagoreanism. in their politics the in accordance with the whole Pythagoreans.

that all is number. as the Pythagoreans as mathema is that everything in the world is ordered according to numerical relations . is . rules divine things (the cosmos). 11. and J allows M no falsehood. and the leading ideas of which no doubt originated with Pythagoras. /j-i^ffeiTa ovra fyaalv clvai . EcL i. and the works of men. Stob. according to Philolaus (up. 1 All is so far formed according to to their unpractised realistic thought this proposition is immediately converted into another namely.e practical endeavours of Pythagoras their had for object the harmonious and orderly shaping of human life^ so the theory of the world which is connected with them. and consists of number and to cancel the obscurity which herein lies. 8). and things ordered according to numerical relations. and handicraft. i. and to ascribe to the Pythagoreans a definite distinction between numbers . kept mainly in view that order and harmony through which the totality of things combined into a beautiful whole. 15. and the Elements of Number.50 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. and in the regular motion of the heavenly bodies. But number. [15 The Pythagorean System: Number. Metaph. Numbers are some of them odd and some even. and individual numbers are also composed of these 1 Arist. 6. would be to mistake the peculiar character of their whole point of view. The reason ticians remark. number. that number is the essence of things. of this. As_th. a cosmos and which is chiefly perceptible to us in harmony of tones. is that which makes the hidden cognisable. music. 987 b.

we have E 2 . . and the odd number more lucky than the even. . right and left 5. i. (Fr. the symbol and the conception designated by it. irfpas %x ov . good and evil. limited and unlimited 2. straight and crooked 8. are the fundamental constituents of numbers and of all 6 /coo-pets. which was as follows: 1. no attempt is made to discriminate not only 1 Called by Philol. long. 10. . . odd and even 3. the even are those which do not . . and Since therefore all said that all is c is agreement called number. From this the Pythagoreans even. or.). one and 4. are those which set a limit to bi-partition .) irtpaivov : in Tlato and Arist. the it discordant. . the limiting ! jind the unlimited. runs through everything. this principle is account of this opposition in the primary con was necessary to unite harmony. 9. as it is concluded that the odd and more generally expressed. square and ob . Uneven numbers 51 constituents. things (the Trpdy^ara Jf &v o-vvscrra And as the limited was held by the Greeks to be more perfect than the unlimited and form less. owing to the obscurity of the school in co-ordinating the particular and the universal. and a table of ten opposites was drawn up (no doubt first by later members. they connected therewith the assertion that the opposition of the limited and unlimited. Philol. of as unity of also be the manifold. the former are limited. rest and motion 7.15] THE PYTHAGOREAN SYSTEM. On stituents of things. sue) as Philolaus). of the better and the worse. the latter unlimited. masculine and feminine many 6. light and darkness. a principle the opposites . may harmony but. .

On numerical relations. determined by founded . anything. and concord of tones are discovered.52 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Stob. to it the as the all-embracing number. the well-known (later. next . form of it is said. were placed in rela and these consequently. from the octave. same number was used no doubt. octachord). tion one with another (e. the Kaipos. and their things were arranged according were explained by numbers. and computed division of the heptachord according to the diatonic is thus given by Philolaus (ap. in the cosmic [ 15 harmony called . When they found a number or a numerical relation in it as the essence of the thing . 16. and for the most various objects. the acuteness relation of these tones. and the sun). they explained the same object was designated thus. But a more methodical development of the doctrine of numbers was attempted when the various qualities classes of to numbers. which was also but musical harmony Harmony. oath was connected. The funda mental scheme of numbers is itself the decadal system and each of the first ten figures has its own power is pre-eminent Among these the decad significance. not unfrequently still more commonly the by different numbers. The Pythagorean Physics. .g. perfect the Tetractys with which potential ten. their founder) first as the Pythagoreans (and. the the length of the vibrating strings. the procedure for the most part very arbitrary aSd unmethodical. sense from musical harmony. In applying their doctrine of numbers to given of the Pythagoreans was phenomena.

But in order to preserve the perfect number ten for these heavenly bodies. and here for the first time the thought appears of explaining the daily motion of the heaven by a motion of the the dodecahedron to the uni number of the Philolaus made the three line. for the tone 8 9. i. the cube to the earth. the doctrine of the spheral harmony.n. the octahedron to air. which. From numbers (in which Greek mathematics were accustomed to exhibit numerical two was called the number of the relations) were derived geometrical forms .e. later Sib rsaadpwv) 3:4. the icosahedron to water. the citadel of Zeus. This astronomical which can be proved system. The formation of the otfe& four of the solid! world verse (perhaps to the aather). starting from the &amp. &c. Around this central fire the earth. the counterearth is inserted between the earth and the central fire. centre. elementary nature of matter dependent on the form (of its smallest parts). -JTEVTS} for the fifth (& : o^lav. later Sib irawv) 1:2.XXaa. world began from the 53 &amp. later Sib 2:3. is attributed to The eternity of the in contradiction to Aristotle. seems to have first pro ceeded from the successors of Pythagoras . for of the five regular solids he assigned the tetrahedron to fire. for the fourth (&amp. the plane. frqnuj^re^f^he &amp. In it lies the central point and union of the it is world. fire Attracted to itself andliinited the nearest portions of the unlimited. together with the other heavenly bodies. Pythagoras only by later writers.. Hestia. popu- . to have been held by moves . an( 462): for the octave (ap^ovla.16] THE PYTHAGOREAN PHYSICS.

animation to to seven. and it may be true that Philolaus placed the seat and germ (dp^a) of reason head. 16) . p. perhaps likewise as the harmony of the body. is more ancient. that of growth and germination in the navel.54 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Aristotle only states in regard to that they held the solar corpuscles. 985 a. assigned the physical qualities to the intelligence (z/oOs). treats the seven planets as the sounding strings of the heavenly heptachord. or. i. to be souls (* De An. in connection with body (sup. number 6 five. in Metaph. The soul is also described as harmony. was foreign to them. 30. his derivation of the 56) that Philolaus. Theol. The theory of a world-soul was attributed to the Pythagoreans in spurious writings of a Neo-Pythagorean origin but it is clear from what Aristotle says . and light and wisdom. that of seed and generation in the sexual parts. 5. The further in the particulars handed down by the ancient tradition as belonging to but bearing a stronger Pythagoreans. he also enumer human under the category of things reduced by the Pythagoreans to number. Arith. that of the soul in the heart. soul and understanding and thereby confirms the statement (Iambi. subject also. 404 a. and practical knowledge to eight. 53). (vovs) ates . resemblance to the Platonic psychology. love. health. 2. six. that which moves them. i. . Nor do they seem to have instituted any more particular inquiries in regard that | it to the this soul. [ 16 lar conception. are not to be considered authentic.

or floating about in the air (vide p. a scientific foundation of ethics. which arose independently. and the rest bear no The ethical precepts of the philosophical stamp. 48). utterances attributed to some~~thebTogical Philolaus of which the one 1 Xenophanes and his purer conception has no certain authority. of that recalls God Pythagoreans were combined. ETHICS. p. has nothing in common with . all with those determinations. and the theory con nected with it (mentioned by Etidemus as Pythagorean) that after the expiration of the Great Year (probably reckoned at 10. 55 Religious and Ethical Doctrines of the Pythagoreans. or none at To these belong first of all.000 years) the previous course of the world down to the smallest details will be repeated. a number of doctrines have been handed down to us as Pythagorean. A collection of such prescripts (dating at earliest from the third . by means of the doctrine of future retribution. the doctrine of the trans- \ migration of souls. Together with the scientific determinations of the Pythagorean system. with the dogma of transmigra tion of souls but this religious motive which is not exclusively Pythagorean. Likewise the belief in demons. by which are chiefly meant the souls waiting in Hades. Nor is such a founda tion to be found in the practical rules and prescripts which have been handed down to us partly in symbo lical maxims. Finally 54). and partly in other forms. and have been brought into very slight combination. taken by Pythagoras from the Orphic mysteries (sup.17] PYTHAGOREAN RELIGION AND 17.

love of country. from a practical point of view. [ 17 century before Christ) contains the so-called Golden Poem (a second. 18. was not yet experienced. A combination of the Pythagorean doctrine with other standpoints produced the physical theories of Hippasus and Ecphantus. because the proposition that justice it returns equal for equal. The only authenticated attempt to apply their theory of numbers to the sphere of ethics lies in is an equal number multi that it is one of plied by an equal (or more accurately the two first square numbers. for the necessity of such a treatment. and purity of demands are as little based on scientific life. temperance. therefore. the asserts contribution of Pythagorean philosophy to the scien tific treatment of ethical questions was but meagre .56 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. fidelity to friends. ethical tendency of the Pythagorean society was most valuable. The expression was composed by Aristoxenus. four and nine). Hippasus of Metapontum described as a (about 450 B.C. ethical principles of the Pythagoreans here find . the government. probably enlarged by his own addi tions. p. who is generally . Though the nothing particular about it.). but these formulae as in the proverbial maxims of the people and the poets. self-examination. as distinguished from directly ethical and religious exhortation. however. vide sup. they require reverence for the gods. Pythagoreaniam in Combination with other Doctrines. which. It may also be true that they described virtue as harmony. and the laws. 10).

on the other hand. but he assumed. ETC. Ecphantus (who lived. ECPHANTUS.C. which are the elements of number. that a Divine spirit had formed the world. but we are not justified in calling him. Hicetas of Syracuse. we are reminded of the corresponding doctrine of the Pythagoreans . is shown. we find. for it resembles the imperishable heavenly natures. Epicharmus (about 550-460 B. about the beginning of the fourth century) united the doctrine of the Pythagoreans with that of Democritus . like Anaxagoras. . together with certain propositions of Xenophanes and Heracleitus. a Pythagorean. with substituted whom he round herein agrees. the stars being like them involved in In the perpetual motion. and there is a reminiscence of their doctrine of immortality in his saying that the soul is immortal. philo who did not belong to the Pythagorean society were affected by certain of its doctrines. the Crotoniate physician (first half of the fifth century). life When he remarks that moves between opposites. be the primitive matter of the world. as some of the ancient philo sophers do. had exchanged the of the earth around the central fire for a its movement movement sophers own axis.18] HIPPASUS. he corporeal atoms. seems to have combined the Pythagorean central fire with the first principle of Heracleitus for . That. but also by that of Alcmseon. human fragments also of the famous comic poet. 57 Pythagorean. not only by the examples of Parmenides and Empedocles. Previous to his time.). instead fire to he declared of the units. it would appear. the Pythagorean doctrine of immortality .

Grieeh. &amp. His irony not only by the human form &c. and aversion are excited of the gods and the 1845. ix. as of the Pythagorean was an Ionian who had immigrated into Lower school. 19. The startingseems to have been the bold point of that doctrine criticism of the Greek popular belief. as Apollodoms which was maintained probably said. Doxogr. Fragm. we are indebted for our to the frag knowledge of his philosophical theories ments of a didactic poem (ire pi ^txrsws *). on the other hand the supposed Aristotelian treatise. et Gorgia. 101 . [19 C.58 PEE-SO CEATIC PHILOSOPHY. and others Diels. as a disciple of Anaximander. Xenophane. De account of the doctrine of which come Simpl. . (01. 1 Collected and edited by Karsten. & PMl. is neither Melisso. by which Xeno in the history phanes assumes such an important place of Eeligion. 1). 480 f. 40. Arist. instead of 01. Mullach. Born about 576-2 B. Xenophanes. i. having passed his ninety- second year (therefore in 480 B. &amp. he travelled as many cities of Greece. from it . 1835. 50. 21) describes him His poems were on many and various subjects . and finally years through the settled at Elea. Eel. ff. is spoken of even by Heracleitus ( Fr. Diog. Theophrastus (ap. nor a trustworthy a work of Aristotle or Theophrastus.C. i. of the Eleatic. His polymathy 16. ap. The founder Italy. ix. and the communications of Aristotle and Theophrastus (ap. Diog.). De Melisso.. where he died. Gr. a poet and rhapsodist for by tradition). THE ELEATICS.

i. can only be One . Metaph. therefore. it is expressly to be neither limited nor unlimited. thought. Phys. When he : looked around upon the universe. without inquiring how the two ideas were compatible.19] XENOPHANES. With Xenophanes. of the spherical shape of the heavens. Simpl. he says. or wander about from one place to another. all ear. 22. all things.(Arist. 242 D). however.n__thinga HTR Ope ? is known from Plato ( Soph. 59 unworthy stories about them related by Homer and Hesiod he finds also that their plurality is incompatible with a purer conception of Deity. * neither comparable all to mortals in shape. did not discuss when. eye. 977 b. . and without referring these expressions to the Divine nature. who without trouble. says TO %v TOVTO Kal to be the J)eity. and. ap. the state proved &amp. changeable or Xeno the treatise 3. that he was the first to bring forward the doctrine that n. As little can we suppose that the gods had a beginning. . none of the gods can be governed by another. The Best. nor in thoughts. 3. This One Divine Being is eternal and un whether^lknited. in . this governs (rod coincides with the world. by his thought. There all is therefore only one God. 986 b. That he declared the world to be underived and imperishable is also credible in saying this. 5. he declared the One (or asTheophrastus. 30. . It is more likely that he spoke in another connection of the infinity of the space of the air and of the depths of the earth. ment deserves no credence. Trav) 20) . according to the explicit testimony of Aristotle and Theophrastus. De Mel. . unlimited^ on the other hand. he can only have had its material substance however.

. Xenophanes maintained the unity and eternity of God and the universe.&quot. as he proved from the petrifactions he . cannot have been born earlier than 520-515 B. and antiquity. usually assigned to a man fortieth year). from the the earth. p. 23) is nearer the truth when s (doubtless following Apollodorus) he places his most nourishing (d/cjjir). 41).C. and and variability and especially by Plato. trines shows. c Diogenes period (ix. and would again partially sink into it the sun and the stars he supposed to be burning masses With of vapour. [ 19 in view. probably belongs to the anachronisms of which Plato allows himself so many on artistic grounds . Parmenides. they were able appeal in support of this assertion to expressions of his which deplore the uncertainty and limitation of human knowledge . notwithstanding. according to his representation in the Parmenides. as the inevitable inference from of plurality conception were consequently explained as mere appear things This great thinker. When the later sceptics reckoned to Xenophanes among themselves. had observed. which are formed anew day. Parmenides ascribed the same If qualities to all reality. construction will be again created (from it. the earth the human race will also be destroyed. but the dogmatic tenor of his other doc how far he was from scepticism on principle. that . and every&quot. according to his theory. at its new vide sup. how ever. 20.60 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. formed itself jjea. who was so revered in ance. for in regard to the universe he did not assert it. This statement.

i. Stein. 59 (544-0 B. spreading itself equally from the centre to distinct all could be divided. and never will frsjindividedly present (vijv ECTTLV OJAOV nraiTsv ^ws^ss).gt. wfpl will be found Philol. If~Ts~TTrdl Visible. in the works mentioned. p.yos\ The senses. Being cannot is begin or cease to be. jput . origin. are the sources of 1 all error. and he 1 his philosophical theories have led a Pythagorean life.C. Philosoph. change. ! reason on the other hand. for it can neither come from non-being nor become non-being be. everywhere equally. p. Doctrina. and therefore his birth in influenced said to 01. Berl. M) the fundamental principle from which he derives his determinations of being. 43 f.20] PARMENIDES. but in he is allied to Xenophanes. the mass that fills space./&amp. Thought. and there is nothing by which it unmoved. but by the existent he understands not the abstraction of pure being. Two Pythagoreans himself is his education. . Rel. which show us a multiplicity of things. It is sides. in the S?/mb. 33 ff. 1864 ff.).s of his poem in 2 . 58 Th. 2 The fragments &amp. thought of the existent. it ff. but the full. 69. 703 2 On the other hand. everywhere self-identical. moreover. nonany more precise definition. without being this all Only being is.reo&amp. Karsten. decay. Only that knowledge therefore has truth which shows us in all things this one invariable being. Bonne ns.y&amp. starts is The conception from which he that of the existent in its opposition to the non-existent . Farm. 18fi4 . I cannot agree with the view of Eernays . 61 in 01. and may be compared with a well-rounded sphere. is not and cannot be thought ( Fr. complete in itself. and (\6&amp. . is not. for it is that which it is. and this is for it is from being. Mullach.

each of ing to the elements recognised Qml which is akin to it.62 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. . the heavy and he also called earth.Trie&quot. Pre-Socratle PMlosopliy. how the world was to be the standpoint of the ordinary mode explained from In truth. According to Theophrastus.j&amp. He seems to have from terrestrial slime. the mydtic form of the goddess who guides He undertakes to show how upon these passive some dark. and others that Parmenides was in his crithinking of Heracleitus ticism of those who regard being and non-being as the same. spheres grouped Of these spheres some are fast arch of heaven. and night : light (&amp. of which one explains all things the other to non-being namely. principle. Of. or the or fire aWepiov TrOp). n. but very few of these have come down to us. two 011 which the character of the presentations depends have therefore greater truth when predominates. only being exists. ^ supposed thatmenjonginjited accordTheir jthoughts and perceptions are regulated material constituents of the body. however. corresponds to being. man places non-being beside it. light. the of presentation. and thus opinion of out of two elements. in the second part of his poem. and some mixed.\oyos the cold. we can explain to ourselves the origin presuppositions and constitution of the world . which Parmenides also dark. and the described the former as the active principle. placing. He describes the explanations and the various universe as composed of the earth and spanned by the stead around &quot. Parmenides nevertheless undertook to [20 show. latter as the beside all them things. they the warm element is in the ascendant.

must in : limited manner must be preceded by another part. are directed partly against the theory of a plurality of things.21] ZENO AND MELISSUS. from which it is separated. 127 B). Parm. because the units of which it is com as follows: posed must be indivisible. (2) Again. it small as well as infinitely must be infinitely great infinitely small. 21. because each of its parts must have a part before it. G3 Zeno and Melissus. and so on for ever. were being many. it respect to number be limited as well as un limited because there would be no more . by refuting the ordinary mode of presentation with such skill that Aristotle (according to Diog. calls him the inventor of Dialectic. ix. as far as we are acquainted with them. and according to Plato (&amp. Zeno of Elea. (3) Since all things exist in a space. 57. because in order to be many. . was the favourite disciple of Parmenides. third generation of Eleatic philosophers is re presented by Zeno and Melissus. he defended the doctrine of Parmenides in an indirect manner. and partly against motion. The arguments of Zeno. In a prose treatise written in his earlier life. and consequently without magnitude infinitely space itself must be in a space. and this third thing must have another between itself and each of the other two . multiplicity is The argument against : (1) If being were many. and the space in which it is . things than there are unlimited. 25). this in like and so ad infinitum. twenty-five years his junior. viii. whose A heroic death in withstanding a tyrant is so celebrated. between two things there must in every case be a third.

Therefore to the the laws facts. and consequently also during the whole time of it. another body twice as fast if the latter is moving towards it with equal speed as if that other were at rest. (4) Equal spaces must be traversed in equal time. of motion are later here in these opposition At a period. The (Arist. &amp. therefore. but from the manner in which he pursued this end he gave a powerful impulse . the tortoise has arrived at c. so. Achilles cannot overtake the tortoise. the tortoise has arrived at a second. and so this : vi. B . and in order to have arrived at the half. if it has at all got the start of him . 9. But a body in motion passes if the speed be equal. more famous and important and his commentators). [ 21 (4) Finally it the shaking out of a bushel of corn produces a sound. at each moment only in one and the same space it rests. each grain and_. for while he arrives at the standpoint A of the tortoise. and so forth. That is. is must be and so on ad infinitum. in every moment of its flight.64 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY.eaeh part of a But the four arguments against grain must do so. first is In order to have traversed a certain distance. rest. if maintained that motion are * still Phys. it must first have reached the half of that half. arguments were used in the interests of scepticism . Zeno himself only designed them to support the propositions of Parmenides. * (3) The flying arrow is at for it is . (2) Another application of the same argument (the so-called Achilles). it must in a limited time have gone through spaces unlimited in number. when he reaches B. a body must first have accomplished half of that distance.

ft .. and in consequence (in opposition to Empedocles) all division and mixture. conquered the Athenian fleet. Lastly. 442 In 6 Melissus of Samos. among whom were seem. set forth in his l treatise irspl fyvo-sws this. 05 not only to the development of Dialectic. Fragm.C. Phil. however. he re ceivable jected the evidence of the which i. denied all He also applied the argument that the void is incon against motion in space.21] ZENO AND MELISSUS. With him also he change and motion. He sought. time.&quot. but also to the discussion of the problems involved in the conceptions of space.9 would be impossible The fragments in Ionic prose in Mullach. He proved the eternity and imperishableness of Being with the I same arguments as Parmenides . Parmenides doctrine of Being. the unity and indivisibility of Being.&amp. with Parmenides. For he steadily maintained. F . charging them with the contradiction that things often show themselves changed 1 in the sequel. as it would while defending Physicists. the doctrine against the included. De Melisso. the same who as navarch in B. he sought at the same time points of contact with it even in them. but differed from him I \ in drawing from thence the inadmissible conclusion that Being must also be unlimited in space. for without the void neither motion nor rarefaction and condensation would be possible. and further applied this denial of the void to oppose the theory of a plurality of things. and previously in his edition of Arist. with Parmenides. and motion. 2. to establish this doctrine by denying the exist ence of empty space. Empedocles and Leucippus.

c. vide supra. Oxford. his death may be Heracleitus placed about 475 B. 5). 1873 Mullach. Phil. i. he went his own way in pursuing his inquiries (sSL^crdfjiTjp SJJLSWVTOV. Heracliti Reliquice. in pregnant. 1 1 His fragments are collected and treated of in monographs by Schleiermacher. .C. moving as it did more in intuitions than in conceptions. Of an earnest and thoughtful turn of mind. ( WerJte. . and not satisfied even with the most honoured sages of his 4 time and nation. Heraklit. p. . Lassalle.C. The results he laid down in his treatise without particular demonstration. 6 Fr. 310 ff. . This mode of ex him the surname of the Obscure (first position gained found in Ps. in 535 B. 1877 (I quote from this . pic turesque sentences. 52).66 if PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 80 sis s/nol /^vpioi. To himself it to correspond with the dignity of the subjectmatter. 113). Fragm. Arist. 61 note 2). viii. . [ 21 they were really so constituted as they at represented themselves to us. z. Dunlteln.C. which were often oracular and laconic to the point of obscurity. 1858. full of contempt for the doings and opinions of men. Herakleitos d.. Schuster. B. if he was really sixty years old when he died (Diog. a of Parmenides (concerning his relation contemporary to him. ii.. Hcrakleitos (1807) 1-146) . 2 Bde.. his birth. and to us it gives a true representation of his seemed thought. Heracleitus. Die Philos. Fr. Bywater. was an Ephesian of noble family. first II. THE PHYSICISTS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY 22. and directed rather to the combination than the discrimination of the manifold. Phil. De Mundo.

. the of the human race has One for All. the transitoriness of all the particular. is so profoundly impressed with the ccnsclcss rliMiige of things. \g. But this essential nature. on the contrary. universal law of the world. tion so exclusively on the continuance of substance in the universe that the plurality and change of pheno mena are altogether cancelled in a mere appearance. All is Grod comes from One. Teichmiiller. and shall be.s&quot. xal Plato. ix.. . 59). and transposed into perpetually new shapes. F 2 . 90 ft . iraylws i. 4 war and peace. summer and winter. . according to Heracleftpa. 402 A.. which as such neither Like starts But while they fix their atten arose nor passes away. . 36). 67 Xenophanes and Parmenides. Hvraditea. D. Mm. 1876. satiety and hunger ( Fr. Further the reader may ovQev. that (Fr. 81) continually passing over into some thing else. and he too regards it as a uniform whole. Ctflo. into the same stronm e everything is conditions. 401 H. yueVei. neither one of the Gods nor made but it ever was. The foundation of this theory ultimately lies in the fact that fire appears to the philosopher to be the substance edition).frrp. compare Bernays. thai he&quot. Trdvra 29. dcr Begriffe. and_can only regard the cosmos as being involved in continual change.ees in it the most Heracleitus.22] HERACLEITUS. Ncue Stud un zur Gesch. i. N. and One from All V day and night. vii.. ovra Uvai re irdvra Kal TTOJ/TO ^v^iv ouSej/ x^P^ Crat. and this proves that it is one nature which assumes the most opposite forms. nothing has permanence :Y he cannot Hrsc-ond twice Fr. 20). and pervades the most various ( . ^eli/. Heracleitus from the consideration of nature. b. Id. All things are in constant flux. an eternally living fire ( Fr. 25)8 1848. 4 This world. 41. and is. 241 if. TO. ouSeV. elvai 5e iii. Arist. De . F. llkc-in.

That supports itself (avri^ovv crv^spov. \Vp7]S KOI TO^OV. it moves. the father and king of Fr. as wares for gold. fate. exchanged and gold for for wares Fr. comes together with itself ( Fr. &amp. to it 56). rules all things. but warmth in general for which . All is and ( fire for all. But not less strongly did he maintain that the c hidden harmony (ryvw/ATj).os) is the things That which strives against another 62. reason it is also designated as vapour (dvaOvfjbiao-is) or breath (tyv)(rj). and that the divine law (8/^77). it never produces anything perma nent. like that of the lyre and the bow TpOTTOS.TozW.oT:ners read 7ra\lv- ap/jLOVLTj OKOXTTTSp Fr. and in the same way they return fire. Strife (jir6\s^. which separates. 22). &amp. wisdom the universal reason (\d&amp. of nature ever reproduces concord from everything is conceived as in perpetual transition from one state into its opposite. or the Deity. Heracleitus spoke. least of all has a .lt. . 6 (W\/z&amp. therefore. and therefore has the tion never stands contradictions. Fr. 44). 46). 242 D). c (&amp. . contemporane rule all ously present of the world (A /A:??). and again retires from them. of Zeus- Polemos. Things arise from fire through its transmutation into other But as this process of transforma still. Sophist. The harmony according to Plato.68 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 45. and censured Homer for disparaging Discord. of the world rests upon opposite KO(7/jiOV\ Zeus. [22 which it fire in another permanent consistency or allows and he consequently understood by his not merely flame. the primitive essence recomposes itself anew in all things according to fixed laws. between which in itself.

lt. Hegel. stances of a particular kind flows into them from the one side as they give off on the other. A prominent example of this change is afforded by Heracleitus s proverbial opinion that the sun is new every day. their opinion contradicts not only the unani of the ancients since Aristotle. and from water. tha. All things are con tinually subject to this change. the latter the &amp. but likewise the utterances of Heracleitus himself. but they appear to remain the same so long as the same number of sub (&amp. nor can mous testimony . and Lassalle deny that Heracleitus held this primitive fire. and in the opposite direc tion from earth comes between the state of divided being and that of the union of all in things fire the When Schleiermacher. Heracleitus (in harmony with Anaximander and Anaximenes) applies the same As the world arose from point of view to the universe.rvvt}). for the fire collected in the boat of the sun is extinguished in the evening and forms itself afresh during the night from the vapours of the sea. its again. from water.rpo&amp. its 69 In transmutation the primitive essence passes : through three fundamental forms out of fire comus water.way upwards and the way downwards is one. by be again recon stituted from the same substance after a fixed time . (xopos). way upwards. in order to means of less alternation. 69).lt.22] HERACLEITUS. and thus the history of the world is to move. (XW&amp. in end the primitive fire. The former is the way downwards. and that both lie through the same stages is asserted in the sentence Fr. so when the cosmical year has run course it will return to primitive fire conflagration. earth .

&amp. he is upon himself: r. man must follow. physical hand it is quite consistent that the philosopher who. should not be extinguished at the departure of the soul from the body. 121). 242 the 6 Cf. 4 order of the world arises that contentment (svapscrrTjwhich Heracleitus is said to have declared to a-isf) be the highest good . 91).mpxe__perfect is the soul is. convinced. 100) . should only ascribe value to rational knowledge. 91).gt. and that Heracleitus should ac cordingly maintain like the Orphic s that the souls for all but he must extinguish arrogance like From trust in the divine a conflagration ( Fr. The well-being the of the of (&amp. 74).gt. c [ 22 Soph. 103).6os av6pw7ru&amp. but should continue in an That individual existence. . fight for law as for walls Fr. directed to the Fr. therefore. his life to a higher On the other theory affords no justification. and should set up for practical con duct the principle that all human laws sustain them selves by One. should declare eyes and ( common element ears to be bad witnesses (&amp. ^aijjiwv ( depends Fr. common : wealth depends people must upon dominion its law the . be supported by the passage in Plato. regards nothing but the universal law as permanent. how ever. in passed from this the change of individual things.70 it PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 4). : the dry soul is the wisest and best ( Fr. this. the soul-fire is subject like all else to perpetual transmutation. The soul of man purer this fire. it must be supplied by the senses and the breath it from the light and the air without us. a part of this divine fire the . the happiness of man. the Divine ( Fr. Fr.

By of his impassioned eloquence and practical energy. which his remarkable personality. enabled him to exercise.C. but also the worship of statues and bloody school sacrifices. and against the democracy which had banished his friend Hermodorus he launches the most violent censure. says the aristocratic philosopher. the teacher of Plato. these later Heracleiteans. came some deifying him. and died at the age of sixty. others depreciatory. The itself till not only maintained the beginning of the fourth century in his of Heracleitus own country. about 435-0 B. resembling that of Pythagoras.C. 71 but this also is law. belonged to it. Empedocles* Empedocles Agrigentum was born about 495-0 B. and worker of miracles. 23. to follow the counsel of an individual ( Fr. long maintained himself at the head more importance of the Agrigentine democracy . physician. and had fallen into such extravagances.22] HEItACLEITUS. like his father Melon. But Cratylus. but he attached still to the functions of religious teacher. the most probable account . that Plato and Aristotle both use very contemptuous language respecting tlTeTir. With the same rude independence he opposed him the religious opinions and usages of his people. 110) .. prophet. attacking with sharp language not only the Dionysiac self to orgies. had become so unmethodical and fanatical in their procedure. he. but also found encouragement in Athens . and Cratylus in particular. Concerning his death many romantic early stories. into circulation .

only the two didactic poems. of underived imperishable and invariable substances. these four substances can pass over into another. Empedocles . Fragm. he conceives as qualitatively distinct from each other. but as elements. viii. he died Of the writings which exile in the Peloponnesus. Mnipedoclls Carm. the ^VCTLKCL an and the KaOapfioi. the term indeed is of later origin . ap. and change to the partial separation and combination. KarEel. and so. Diog. [ 23 that having finally lost the popular favour. fire. 1 . . i. Also the fourfold number of the elements. bear his name. Neither of water. decay to a separation. Phil. (1838) (1852) 13 if. he which Parmenides opposed. Stein. : oppose the plurality of things. he seeks a middle course between Parmenides (whose disciple he is called by Alcidamas. on the other hand. denies that origin and decay in the strict sense are thinkable but he cannot resolve on that account to . . perhaps following the example of Leucippus. These sub stances. originates with Empedocles.72 is PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. Empedoclis Fraym. Empedocles calls them the c roots of all. is allied with the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines in his physics. air. all mixture of 1 Collected and explained by Sturz. he adopts the expedient of reducing becom ing to a combination. earth. He is the first philosopher who introduced this conception of elements . not as atoms. . In his mystic theology. can with certainty be ascribed to him numerous fragments of both have been preserved. sten. however. 56) and the theory of the universe With Parmenides. Mullach. or combine with another to form a third . their becoming and variability . and quantitatively divisible . Empedocles (1805).

periodically comjn^forth from the . The opposite counterpart of Between in arise these extremes lie those conditions of the world which individual natures and decay. In the formation of the present world love first produced a whirling motion in the midst of the substances separated by hate. and the latter Hate (velicos. 73 substances consists in small particles of them being mechanically assembled together. as in the case of the magnet and iron.endless . so_JEmpedpclej_say^_thai__^e elements _are in . from this aether first separated itself. Empedocles calls the former Love (^XOTT/S aropy^\ or also Harmony. mixture.. As Heracleitus represents the world as . is brought about by small particles (aTroppoal) of one becoming detached and entering into the pores of the other where the pores and effluences of two bodies . as a perfect mingling of all substances. that the substances may come together or separate. which substantially separated bodies exert on each other.primitive. But these forces do not always operate in the same manner. hate is banished from this is the entire separation of the elements.. moving forces must also be present. correspond to one another. and the influence. and these were gradually drawn into it . they attract each other. the world is sphere.23] EMPEDOCLES. In order. however.alternation. now brought_tOr_ gether into unity^by love* and now separated_byiate. fire and__ again returning to it. air or and thence was formed the . and of these there must be two a combining and a separating force. through the rotatory movement. In the former of these conditions. which forms the globe-shaped described as a blessed god because all it.. KOTOS).

the latter of the night. 1 Phys. the former is the heaven of the day The sun. which occupied the . with masses of fire sprinkled in it . according to Empedocles. See my treatise. s. earth. and . The sky consists of two halves. as the moon those of the sun. of the heavens [23 next fire. griechuclien Vorgdnger Darwin s. the lower atmosphere. from the earth below the aether place immediately water was pressed out by the force of the rotation. is neither probable in stotle ( 1 human itself. then these united together as it chanced and produced strange and monstrous forms similarly when the present . explained the construction of organisms according to design by the theory. animals and beings arose. Empedocles. they were at first shapeless lumps which only received their organism in That Empedocles.74 arch. so in the origina tion of living creatures he supposed that a gradual First separate progress led to more perfect results. The swiftness of the to rotation occasions the earth and the whole universe remain in their place. der Berl. if . like the Pythagoreans. on the contrary. 8). plants and animals were produced . PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. one of fire. held to be a mirror which collects and throws back the rays of the heavenly fire. from the evaporation of the water came once more i. air. course of time. that of the creations of chance only those capable of life maintained themselves. 115 . the other dark. He nor is it asserted by Ari seems to have occupied himPhilol. Abh. ii. Akad. masses were thrown up from the earth. Ueber die und Hist.e. but as the union of substances From the by love only came about by degrees. time. 1878.

75 self considerably Concerning with the subject of living creatures. the elementary composition of the bones and flesh. &c. he brought eye. nor his prohibition of animal sacrifices and of animal food. though it is evident that these doctrines . does not deter sensible him any more than Parmenides from placing decidedly below rational knowledge. he thought that emanations from the the skin) and similar : \ water of the eye meet the light coming towards the To explain the activity of thought. Mull. He jectures tried to explain the activities of the senses by his in regard to doctrine of the pores and effluences fire and sight. 378. Fragm. He did not even try to explain away the contradiction turn of the purified between them. ed. their generation and development. and of the subsequent souls re to the gods . forward the general principle that each element is recognised by the similar element in us (as also what is akin and aversion by what desire is evoked by is opposed).23] EMPEDOCLES. With this system of natural philosophy Empedocles made no attempt to reconcile scientifically his mystic doctrine (allied to that of the Orphics and Pytha goreans) of the sinking down of souls into terrestrial existence. which thought. regulated according to the constitution of the body is the chief seat of This materialism. and that therefore the quality of thought l is and especially of the blood. animals. . of their transmigration into the bodies of plants. and men. he set up con which were of their kind very ingenious. the process of breathing which is effected partly through (^ phenomena. however. v.

4) calls him a disciple of Parmenides. 389) has. he is amply confuted by Diels (Verhandl. Simpl. 96 if. it is equally hard to say where this idea could have found a place in his physical system or even how it could have been compatible with it. but does not know whether he came from Miletus or Elea. and therefore born about 1 Hence we can explain why Epicurus denied the existence of Leucippus (Diog.) attempts to prove that Epicurus was right. 417 M. was. which to his date. der 35. When. a citizen of Abdera. Philologenversammlung. s. 1881. but that he was exactly forty years younger than Anaxagoras. ix. 741 ff. set up a purer idea of Grod in opposition to the anthropomorphic presentation of divinities. Philologenvers. Phil. 28. Jahrb.) refers . x. however. Rohde ( Ueber Leucipp wwd Z?m0cH. Nor do we know whether and where room was left in the physics of Empedocles for the golden age to which a fragment (v. and that unity and harmony are supremely blessed. Phys. a contemporary of Anaxagoras and Empedocles. the nearest approximation we can make Theophrastus (ap. The founder is of the atomistic school was Leucippus. s. .Verhandlungender 34. 41). like Xenophanes. 24. The Atomistic School. f. 13).y6pav) . still young when Anaxagoras was already old (vsos /cara irpzo-ftvaccording to his TTJV Avat. [23 involve the conception that strife and opposition are the cause of all evil. 1882. The writings from which Aristotle and Theophrastus took their accounts of his doctrines seem to have been 1 among those of Democritus. and if the philosophic poet (v.).76 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. own assertion (Diog. subsequently found This renowned philo sopher and student of

he main . v. in its essential constituents. Phil. his age is variously given as ninety years. but it is difficult. An. Fragm. f to be regarded as the all work of Leucippus. to discriminate what is spurious. But Being (as in Parmenides) Mullach that which fills space. parts of natural science appears to Leucippus (as composite things) Parmenides had shown. and since this. nor genesis and decay (i.) we do not 1. et Corr. 6 Mull. is to be included in the Socrates. an unfounded assumption of ApolPart. . &amp. like Parmenides. B. especially in regard to the moral sayings. Fragm. as tained that Non-Being exists as well as is Being. itsi application to 8) was convinced. His passion and probably also to Babylonia. 1843 Gen. of the impossibility of an absolute genesis and decay . 1078 17) places for him as a philosopher before knowledge led him to Egypt but whether his inter course with Leucippus. to be (&amp. of have been chiefly that of his Aristotle says. writings fragments have been preserved. lodorus. whose disciple he was according to Aristotle and Theophrastus. and even more. The year of his death is unknown . i. 26. Vemocr. Of his 1 numerous The Atomistic is theory. He was acquainted also with other older and contemporary philosophers besides Leucippus. being himself the first of the savants and natural five years (&amp. a 77 460 seems b.C. while disciple. 4. the i. but he would not deny the plurality of things.e. motion. philo sophers of his time. Aristotle xiii. 642 a.24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. i. cannot be conceived without Non-Being. Metaph. he spent abroad Fr.

of the of separate composite consists in the coming together magnitude have a atoms . . if two compound bodies of similar their. another by the Void. therefore. Leucippus and Demo- Plenum and the Void to critus. is a mechanical oper and impact all influence from ation. in order to be able to explain phenomena in reference to them. for this reason they are called atoms (aTopou) or also. These atoms are constituted precisely like the Being of Parmenides. weight must exactly correspond with their consequently.78 PRE-SOCRAT1C PHILOSOPHY. the reason can be that there are more empty spaces in the one only than in the other. they are distinct from one another only their form and magnitude. changes matter. thick bodies (vaara). All . light and each other operation of things on . All derivation. but. [24 Full Non-Being is the Void. imperishable. which on account of their minuteness are not perceptible separately these are separated from one . we must refer the qualities and As all atoms consist of the same of things. To qualitative change them alone. homogeneous throughout as to their substance. but must themselves be indivi sible because they completely fill their space and have no vacuum in them . and all decay in the separation of combined and similarly with all kinds of change. they conceived the Plenum as divided into innu merable atoms. or genesis. if we imagine this as split up into innumer able parts and placed in an unlimited empty space . declared the be the primary constituents of all things . through pressure a distance (as between the magnet and iron. different weight. therefore. atoms . size . underived. and are capable of no by but only of change of place.

only is earth . there must always have been innumerable multitudes of such worlds existing under the most various conditions. (Dem. and arrangement of their atoms . their gradual drying up and ignition. and on the other. and the mass of atoms and of empty space has no limits. and strike against them together. things depend upon position. The supposed by Leucippus and Democritus to be a round plate. from the concussion and rebound of the atoms. through the entanglement of variously shaped atoms. The conjectures of Democritus con cerning its origin. thus the smaller are impelled upwards. VQfJLU) ^V^pOV^ VO fJLW XpOtl]. Of these innumerable worlds our world is one. The heavenly bodies of which the two largest. on the one hand the homogeneous atoms are .24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. Fr. vojup TTlKpOV. segregated and externally sundered. all the atoms from eternity move downwards in infinite space but.. a whirl In consequence of ing movement is produced. Phys. complexes of atoms.) On account of their weight. ing to the atomists. &c. the sensible qualities the eye) effected which we ascribe to them merely express the manner in which they affect our senses: vo^w J\VKV. brought As motion has no beginning. and from the collision of these two motions. the larger and therefore heavier atoms fall more quickly than the smaller and lighter. accord. magnitude. All properties of the form. the formation of the heavenly bodies in the air. and having the most various forms. VOp. floating on the air. are in harmony with his general presuppositions. are formed. is 79 by effluences. this. . STsfj Bs aro/jLa teal KSVOV. 1. or worlds. the sun and moon.W Osp^GV.

body he ascribes still greater value to the soul and spiritual man . In regard to the four elements. the soul is the noblest and divinest element in man. Perception consists in the change which produced in the soul by the effluences going forth from things and entering through the organs of the senses . while in the other elements various kinds of atoms are intermingled. example. De Respir. life. Nevertheless. the cause of sight is that the images (tUSwXa. indeed. chiefly occupied with and though the structure of the human is an object of the highest admiration to him. however. soul have their seat in particular organs. [24 entered our universe after the earth had begun to be formed. and to these Democritus seems to have devoted special attention. : thing corporeal it consists of fine he can only explain as some smooth and round atoms. and therefore of fire which is distributed through the whole body. and by the process of inhala tion is hindered from escaping and is also replenished from the outer air but the particular activities of the After death. and in all other things there is as much : soul and reason as there of the air. for example. us through the breath (Arist. .80 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. before the inclination of the earth s axis. Democritus thought that fire consists of smooth and round atoms. He was. The soul. Organic beings came forth from the terrestrial small slime. revolved laterally around the earth. Ssl/csXa) flying off from objects give for . is warm matter in them Democritus said that there must be much reason and soul (yovs and ^%^) in it. otherwise we could not receive 6 them is into 4). the soul-atoms are scattered.

That which is most desirable is to enjoy oneself knowledge sceptic. though at the same time he admits that our knowledge of things It is also.77 a/cori^ and 7^770-177) in respect of their relative value and only expecting information concerning the true constitution of things . for . xiv. and this comes in contact with the effluences from our eyes. rj J n. so likewise is the value of our life. . SVSO-TCO. from the tion. eViflt^iV is the title of the treatise from which all or much of the ethical fragments of the philosopher seem to have 1 been taken. from discriminating sharply between per ception and thought (71/06/1. does not prevent Democritus.24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. the imperfection of the sensible knowledge which occasions the complaints of Democritus as to the uncertainty and limitations of our but he is not therefore to be considered a he expressly opposed the scepticism of Prot agoras. and to vex oneself as little. must begin with observa no doubt. latter . See Herzel in Hermes. 81 their shape to the intervening air. As the value of our knowledge is conditioned by elevation above the sensible. This material through ism. 354-407. when the soul has attained the proper temperature the movements it experiences. Each particular kind of atom is perceived by the cor responding kind in us. much. apfjLovi and aQa^irf) and these are most surely attained by fulness 1 the daemon. so far as they are genuine. Happiness essentially consists in cheer and peace of mind (svOvptr). Thought also consists in a similar change of the body of the soul: it is true. like other philosophers. as possible but svSaifjLovla and KafcoSai/jiovla of soul dwell not in gold nor in flocks and herds. however. but the soul is the dwelling of as .

another and more realistic expla nation harmonised better with his sensualism. The theory it impossible to share that belief as nevertheless seemed to him necessary to such. An. 1078 Part. 2. while he did not discard explain it. in spite of his scientific ethics 4. to have tried to combine them scientifically appear of : and if the leading thought . moral sayings. but in truth it is quite consistent with his explanation of nature. and pure principles. so Democritus supposed that in the atmosphere were them beings of a similar form to men. For this purpose. i. He does not subtle observation. but far surpassing in size and duration of existence. the is desires and symmetry (o-vfifjiSTpiT)).82 PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. the theory that extraordinary natural phenomena have Though he found it occasioned their being attributed to the gods as their authors. and makes begin with Socrates ( Metaph. whose influ ences were sometimes beneficent. Aristotle consequently reckons Democritus. which show abundant experience. of his ethics lies essentially in the proposition that the happiness of man entirely depends upon his state of with his physical theory mind. of [24 of life moderation . or that certain universal conceptions are presented in the gods. and sometimes . 642 a. xiii. there with his is no proof that he undertook to establish by general 6 : this proposition reflections. b. 17 . of Democritus concerning the gods of the popular belief sounds strange to us. among the Physicists. This the spirit of the practical precepts Democritus. 26). as Socrates did maxim Virtue consists in Knowledge. As the popular religion peopled the atmosphere with daemons.

p. possibility of Anaxarchus o ^LvSai/jbovucos. he likewise thought that natural indications of certain means advantages were to be deduced from the sacrificial entrails of animals.c. and was more in his death than in his life. he diverged from him as to the details of his natural philosophy in many points. who introduced Epicurus to the doctrine of Democritus . 80) which emanate from them. or 500_E. and drew however. ii. . can hardly have intended to deny the knowledge. 25. ConG 2 . 83 malign the images (vide sup. Democritus also attempted to give a naturalistic explanation of pro phetic dreams. he from his sensualism sceptical inferences. but he is likewise said to have attended Pyrrho the Sceptic. born in 01. by of his doctrine of images and effluences . and distin guished himself greatly as a mathematician. by which. 7. is meritorious a disciple of Metrodorus or of his scholar Diogenes. disciple The most important Democritus is of the school of Metrodorus of Chios. devoted himself y to science. 70-1.24 J THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. Diog. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. came to be regarded as gods. Anaxagoras. who was instructed either by Democritus himself or by his scholar Nessus. perhaps. Nausiphanes is also to be connected. While he agreed with Democritus in the main features of his doctrine. With Metrodorus. to the neglect of his property. and the influence of the evil eye. according to Apollodorus (ap.). who probably follows Demetrius Phaler. and appear to men either in sleeping or waking. who accompanied Alexander.

rdai. of substances already 2 existing. where he died in 428 B. ii. 1 airoXXvcrQai ol OVK 6p6&amp. as the world. without any sufficient ground.s vojj. Anaxagoras agrees with these philosophers that 1 genesis and decay in the strict sense are in the composition of which From his treatise irspl $vcrhe seems to have been already acquainted with the doctrines of Empedocles and Leucippus. attempt to make him a disciple of Hermotimus of Clazomense.v(rOai 8iaKpive&amp. rb Pliys. et Diogenis FTagmenta.xAA a?r5 eovrcav -xp-^fj-drcav av^iffyfrai re whose knowledge and power extends over all This can only be the work of an essential nature. that all genesis consists merely in the combination. oi&amp. m. yivecrdai KO! Kal SiaKpLverai Kal OVTCDS av opOus KaXoltv r6 re yiveffQau (n^tufryeadai Kal rb a7r6\A.84 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 243 Schaubach. (Simpl. 7. EAArjz/es. 17 20).gt. Diog. i. Anax. into whose legends (accord c ing to Arist. [25 cerning his teachers nothing is known . 1827. of vovs was at an early time interpolated. In Mullach. 7). important fragments have been preserved. so)$. Fragm. explained by Anax. some moderns.C.iov&amp. But the motion through which the com bination and separation of substances is brought about he knows not how to explain by matter as such .).. - Frafj. he came into close relations with Pericles . and so full of design. accused by enemies of that statesman of denying the gods of the State.). 18) Anaxagoras doctrine In Athens. whither he migrated (according to Diogenes. ap. 5e 163.8e ouSei/ yap xP^P.nv ff. and all decay in the separation. a far more ancient and mythical wonder-worker.a 5 -yiverai airoXXvrai &amp. He removed to Lampsacus. .C. still less the well-ordered motion which has produced such a beautiful whole. Metaph. about 464-2 B. Schorn. Pragmenta. (Apollodor. ii. 984 b.C. he was forced to leave Athens (434-3 B.

nor corpuscles of specific .lt. mixed with nothing. 85 of the work of a thinking. but yet not . presents a mass in which nothing is sundered from another. later writers call them.quality . most is essential mark is characterising this is distinction that mind altogether simple. rational. these expressions its in corporeality is not indeed adequately described. Anaxagoras describes these his indivisible primitive substances as a-rrsp^ara or ^pi^ara . but yet is unmistak ably homogeneous mass. primitive substances as the elements of Empedocles. the rarest and purest of &amp. unchangeable. ./&amp. for itself eavrov). flesh. and this power and rationality can only belong to vovs if it be mixed with nothing else. is therefore restrained by no alone all Mind &amp. bones. and almighty essence. &c. or the atoms according to Anaxagoras it rather con sists of a medley of innumerable. But as all things arise out of this mass mere may through separation of their constituents. particles of gold. invisibly small.?&amp. imperish able. in half-Aristotelian terminology. Its operation essentially consists in the separation of the mixed. (^ovvos . as a discrimination. and matter altogether j compound. before mind has worked upon it. Matter. The concep tion of mind as distinguished from matter thus forms the leading of and the and thought for Anaxagoras. underived.2f) ] ANAXAGORAS. it must not be conceived as a as a mixture of such simple. on the contrary. while the question of its is things in personality still altogether untouched by the philosopher. and to this separation its also knowledge be mind or vovs.

988 b.86 PEE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 18 hand. the light. if dark it could not well as brightness The rare and the warm were be changed into water. division of substances proceeds with the continued movement. the earth is formed from the latter. these are the aether precisely. the ness were not in dense and the moist into the centre. the dry. the substances drawn into it are divided O into two masses. like the older lonians. and for confining himself like his predecessors to blindly working material causes. the other the cold. vapour. and Anaxagoras. the dark. and only on this account is it becomes changed by the emergence possible that a thing of substances . Through the whirl ing motion. on the other for not having applied his newly discovered principle to a teleological explanation of nature. . both censure him (&amp. which spreading more particles of the infinite mass. by producing a whirling motion at one from thence drew in more and point. and the dense. and the thin . 6).lt. all 1 : substances were entirely mingled together Mind effected their 6/jiov irdvra xpifaaTa %v). 985 a. ar/p. substances are and the air. i. but never comes to an end . That Anaxagoras supposed mind to inter fere at other stages of the formation of the universe is not stated. 97 B if. and will continue separation to do so. or more The in all parts of all things. 4. 7. fog. carried by the rotation towards the circumference. the moist. .lt. Plato ( Phjedo. conceives it as a flat plate borne upon the air. (&amp. [25 In harmony with these presuppositions Anaxagoras of the state in began his cosmogony with a description which Fr. of which one comprehends the warm. if snow were not black it as that is.) and Aristotle Metaph.

Through the solar heat. in course of time dried up. air. and sought to give a naturalistic . From the terrestrial slime which fructified the germs contained in the air and in the aether. mind. which at first was composed of slime and mud. horizontally.25] ANAXAGORAS. and at one part of their course. and alone is therefore inadequate. was like the earth and inhabited . Keason entirely knowledge. guarantees Anaxagoras himself lived for his inquiries. and hurled into the first These at moved the sun. but is apportioned to them is In man. which is many times larger than the Pelo ponnesus. where they become ignited. but it is effected by means of the bodily organs but (in which it is called forth not by the homogeneous by the opposite). That he occupied himself with ethics in a scientific manner. 87 The heavenly are torn from the earth bodies consist of masses of stone. around. we know from some of his apophthegms. even sensible perception is the work of mind. and this is the same in all things. and subsequently. the earth. tradition does not assert and not one religious philosophical maxim is known to have emanated from him. gave the greater part of their light to the moon and all the other stars. living That which animates them creatures were produced. which by the force of the rotation. Personally he maintains towards the popular religion an attitude of full . true How scientific freedom. under the earth. and some further utterances of his which are related reveal a noble and earnest view of life. including in different measure. The moon. from the inclination of the earth s axis. plants. Anaxagoras thought.

the supposed teacher of Socrates.88 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Metrodorus of Lampsacus is only known by his allegorical interpretation of the Homeric mythology. The statement that he derived the distinction of good and bad from custom only (Diog. As he is never mentioned by Arijlptle. 16) appears to be due to a mistake. such as the meteoric stone of ^Egospotamos. of the fifth century. Origin and Character ojBophisticism. represented spirit as mingled in air. Though agreeing with Anaxagoras in other points. among whom may be reckoned Euripides. first separated in this manner cold. . and the boldness with which they opposed the ordinary mode of presentation. and termed the The masses which were he called the warm and separation of materials rarefaction and condensation. [ 25 explanation of reputed miracles. Of the pupils of Anaxagoras. tended to excite mistrust against these attempts at a scientific explanation of the world. there began the Greeks certain views the dis From the beginning to prevail among semination of which after some decades wrought an important change in the manner of thought of the cultured life. ii. THE SOPH] IIIT Ti 26. IT. circles and in the tendency of scientific Already the conflict of philosophic theories. it is probable much that he was not of mi*ch scientific/ aBiportance. We have a little more information about Archelaus of Athens. this physicist approaches more nearly to Anaximenes and Diogenes in that he named the original mass of matter air.

26] CHARACTER OF SOPHISTICISM. This necessity was met by the persons called by their contemporaries wise (ao(f)OL. an Empedocles and a Democritus had disputed the truth of sensible perception. 89 Further. and the more brilliant the prospects thus opened to anyone who could win people to himself. as a rule. and above all in Athens. national life scientific activity. and such . did the general development of Greek tively. the more com victorious democracy gradually set aside all pletely the limits which custom and law had hitherto placed to the will of the sovereign people. the more valuable and indispensable must have appeared the instruction. wandering. which was now the centre of its intellectual and political life. and even Anaxagoras did not employ his doctrine of vovs for this purpose. requiring in return a proportionately high remunera- . demand a change in the direction of The greater and more rapid was the progress of universal culture since the Persian War in the whole of Hellas. because the materialism of these philosophers furnished them with no means of estab lishing scientifically the higher truth of rational know ledge . Still more impera however. by means of which a man could become an orator and over the popular leader. more general doubt in the capacity of man for knowledge might the more easily be connected therewith. men or Sophists ao(f)Lo-Tal\ and announced by themselves as they offered their instruction to all who desired to learn. since a Parmenides and a Heracleitus. the more did the necessity of a special preparation for political activity assert itself in regard to those who desired to distinguish themselves . from city to city.

came forward as the most the so-called Sophists eminent exponents and agents in the Greek illumi nation (Aufklarung) of the fifth century. all . and to qualify them for the management of a household or community. in and that our knowledge cannot pass beyond subjective phenomena. This view could not be without a reflex action upon ethics and the natural result was that the rebellion against all rule. moral. or legal. which . and we find that men who were counted among the Sophists.90 tion PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. found Thus in Sophistic theories a superficial justification. taught quite mechanical arts. This instruction might include all possible arts and knowledge. who came forward as virtue professional teachers of (using the term in the comprehensive meaning of the Greek apsrrf) . who Plato undertook to make their pupils adepts in action and speech (Seivovs Trpdrrsiv /cal \sysw). instruction was the and since the time of it has been usual to call those persons Sophists. and by the majority was put eristic practice in their that objectively true science is impossible. civil. even some of the most important among them. in the narrower sense of the word. grew up in the feuds and factions of the period. and they share this the advantages and all the weaknesses of The current condemnation of the position. [26 a practice for which in itself they are not to be blamed. but which hitherto had not been customary. But the principal object of Sophistic preparation for practical life. . This limitation to practical objects rests among them which was expressed by the all upon the conviction most eminent Sophists in the form of sceptical theories.

316 D f. Hermann. and in the course came more and more to the surface. Born about 480 B. through Hellas for forty years. The first came forward Eminent Sophistical Teachers. Larissa in Thessaly. On his voyage to Sicily he was drowned. On several Athens under the protection of Pericles. Protag. and compelled to leave the city. writings only a few fragments remain. K. or a little earlier. Grote.C. Contemporary with Protagoras was Gorgias of Leontini. 349 A). which superficial. and others. man who called himself a Sophist and publicly as a teacher of virtue (TraiSsv&amp. who have brought to light their historical Grote has even failed to notice the importance..C. but we are acquainted with certain ethical definitions and sceptical arguments which he embodied in a separate treatise (apparently . more than a hundred In his later life he desired to confine his years where he died. and dangerous element which w as united with anything that was r of and meritorious in them. Of born 490-480 who first came forward as a teacher in Sicily. according to Plato. but after 427 frequented Athens and other Afterwards he settled at cities of Central Greece. devoting himself with brilliant success to his occasions he resided at work as a teacher. Protagoras of Abdera (Plato. Sophists. from the justifiable first unsound. 91 dominated by Plato s view of them. his B. but at length he was accused of atheism.20] CHARACTER OF is SOPIIISTICISM. has been opposed by Hegel. he wandered . asws Kal aperrfs &LSdcrKa\os\ was. instructions to rhetoric. in the seventieth year of his age. F. time 27.

28. moralist. 160 C. the rhetorician. Alcidamas. Critias the leader of the Thirty. Protarchus. Of the remaining c the best known rhetorician are Thrasymachus of Chalcedon. rwv OVK eo-ri. c the brothers Euthydemus and Dionysodorus of how it : Even is . Polus. x/&quot. 152 A. 53. Lycophron. Mull. a Sophist who. vii. 130). and poet. was mentioned by Democritus. as early as Protagoras the altered position of to its object was expressed in the proposition thought . Diog. 51.s A tt/T / )OJ/ avOpuiros. who poured out his mathematical. in Plato. 1 Fr. Prodi cus of lulis in Ceos. for every person true and real which appears so to him.e. ii. Xeniades of Corinth appears to have lived about the same time. the rhetoricians of the school of Gorgias. Man is the measure of all things . vii.92 PRE-SQCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. physical. according to Sextus. Evenus of Paros . Math. and for is not. 60. . Tkeaet. Math. ix. TTCII/TCOI/ . Phil. &c. and technical information with vainglorious superficiality (according to his opponents). Somewhat later than Protagoras and Gorgias are the two contemporaries of Socrates. a whose character has been unfavourably : portrayed by Plato. how it is not l . The Sophistical Scepticism and Eristic. sense. and Hippias of Elis. of what is that i. like Callicles in the Platonic was not a Sophist in the technical Gorgias. (Fragm. et scepe Sext. historical. of what is.?/ u TWI/ &amp. the comic heroes of the Platonic Euthydemus . i. who enjoyed considerable reputation in the neighbouring city of Athens. [27 in his youth). r&v fjCfv ovrwv OVK etrrt. but a pupil of the school.

and relative. this principle. Math. Toiov ^ loiov TWV irpay/LLaTftiv fKaa- ^ know from 65-87. not only availed himself of the fact that the same thing makes an entirely different impression on different persons. Adv. Sext. (3) and that which was known could not be impositions of In the school of Gorgias we meet parted to another. and therefore it is im possible to maintain one thing rather than another of any treatise Gorgias. 2 made Zeno s dialectic his pattern.). principle ^5AAo/ elWi of^ Protagoras. as he did with a certain acuteness. 5 f.SOPHISTICAL SCEPTICISM. no In order to establish Theaat. on the other hand. In the constant change of objects and of the organs of sense each perception has a value for a definite only person and a definite moment. Col. critus controverted the Hel. 1 On Zeno and Melissus in order to prove. 2. . (1) that nothing could exist . with the assertion that no predicate can be given to a The pro subject. Pyrrh. Ps. 2 f. TOV. vii Cf . because one thing cannot be many. 216 ff. De Melisso. and the all the apparently opposite principle applied to time. and also availed himself of pro object. If the last-mentioned Sophist deduces from the 1 Plut. of Protagoras also lies at the base of the position principle of Xeniades. . but also of Heracleitus s doctrine of the flux of all things. (2) that what did exist could not be known by us . 4. who maintained that opinions of men were false. 152 A ff. &amp. Protagoras (according to Plato. Arist. this reason there is only a subjective 93 an objective and universal truth. c. i. Isocr. in his the Non-being or Nature. that everything anything at any time and at the same of Demo- 2 The contents of which we Sextus.

and Hippias extended his tions instructions even to mathematics and natural science. 15). 145) countryman Democritus and st rap-plait ers of his day. 33. and the kindred . a part Isocrates. a man cannot contradict himself. on the other hand. over the wranglers we find the theory and practice of this art in Even Protagoras maintained Subsequently an equally melancholy condition. and a ( Sophist are almost that synonymous be supported or confuted with any proposition could In his conversation and in his writings good reasons. Mor. is the art of disputation or eristic. made use of certain assump although they occasionally of the Physicists. 183 b. According to Aristotle ( Top. an Eristic titles. and in the dialogue. The more common. and his fellowlaments ( Fr. which seeks its object and but triumph not in gaining a scientific conviction.94 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. he introduced pupils to this art. the theory consisted in making pupils learn the most common . Independent the physical part of philosophy are not inquiries in known to have been undertaken by any of the Sophists. Aristotle. proposition. [28 Eleatic presuppositions the inference that a man can neither utter nor think what does not exist and is there fore false the same result appears in connection with Heracleitean and Protagorean doctrines . is But the practical pro cedure of the majority of the Sophists shows even more theories how deeply rooted clearly than these sceptical of objective knowledge in the whole was the despair character of this mode of thought. that found even in Protagoras himself. in contradicting and confusing those who take merely To Plato. ix.

ix. becomes for the first time aware of the full extent of its power. as yet unacquainted with the conditions ficulties necessary to correctness of method.). is not a mere caricature is shown by Aristotle s treatment of fallacies ( Top. Platonic Euthydemus. degraded to empty repartee. if even Aristotle thought it worth serious ex amination. If. their patterns. but we cannot fail to recog nise one as the direct descendant of the other. that is true for every man which appears to him to be true.28] SOPHISTICAL SCEPTICISM. which does not conceal its satiric nature. no universally valid truth. from whom also the Megarian Eristics took catches * . in which the examples are almost entirely borrowed from the Sophists of the Socratean period. 29. The virtue what was universally meant by the word the^jinderstood by at the . this is only a proof how little practised in thinking the men of that time were. The Sophistic Ethics and Rhetoric. If they came forward as teachers of virtue. right older Sophists did not deduce these consequences from their presuppositions. nevertheless. this Eristic was able to bring most dis putants into difficulties and excite admiration among many . and even to formal badinage and that this picture. and what dif could be thrown in the way of their training the confusions which can hardly be avoided when by thought. It is true that the pitiful trivialities of a Dionysodorus and Euthydemus are not attributed to Protagoras and Gorgias . that must be of If there is which he approves. 95 The practice is seen in the by heart. there cannot be any universally valid law .

Yet &amp. by promising to make the weaker cause appear the he recom stronger (rov TJTTCO \dyov Kpsirrw 7roiziv\ mended his rhetoric precisely on the side where it was open to abuse. &c. became one of the leading thoughts of the Sophistic art of 1260 a. In the myth in Plato ( Prot.). they did had they been at variance with the moral views of the time. and always) as a gift of the gods vouchsafed to all men . 4. 14 ff. 173 a. The fi [ 29 Heracles and other moral lectures of Pro- * which Hippias put into the mouth of would never have received the approval which Nestor. the counsels 4 which. of the no doubt.) in a contrast of which places law in opposition to nature. Meno. which the authorities of the time had made in their own interest. On . as they were popularly conceived (Plato. even in the Sophists of the first generation some of the of their scepticism come to the practical consequences surface. is taken from him. of the slave.. Memor. Pol. 71 D f. Protagoras very properly met with opposition when. Protagoras regards the sense of justice and duty (St/e?. of the woman. 7). fore recognises a natural justice. i. iv. Hippias ( PHILOSOPHY. &amp. 12. If justice was generally commended this merely arose from the fact that the mass of men found it to their advantage. Polus. 27). 13. ix. . that natural right was the right of the stronger. Plato puts into the mouth of Thrasymachus. he himself makes very doubtful applications. Arist. and which &amp. and all positive laws were merely capricious enactments. he there C ff. 320 dicus. Grorgias described the virtue of the man. and Callicles the view which Ari at a later time stotle also phistic circles ( shows to have been widely maintained in So Top.

speech. 6. 3. they do not to men. ordinances were to be reckoned the and worship of gods . the higher rose the value of the means by which men could win for themselves this sovereign will Sophists all the power of which. which they caused their pupils to learn by heart. the fruits of the earth.29] SOPHISTIC RHETORIC. pro nounced and wrote pattern speeches. and. the elements. With the these means were included in the art of Hence of the great majority of the Sophists it is ex pressly handed down that they came forward as teachers of elocution. I have nothing to say either that they exist or that belief in . distinction between law and nature was also used to set men free the doubts to which according to nature Pol. felt 07 the other hand. It was a neces- H . wrote Protagoras. was quite extraordinary at that time. of all things useful exist. and make it their subject. and was altogether over estimated by those who owed their whole influence to it. religions is a proof. Among human Prodicus saw in the gods personi fications of the heavenly bodies. who The more completely the human will freed itself from the limitations which religion. anyone who that he had the power to rise above these laws had the right to do so. That the&quot. composed introductions to the art. of this the variety of Of the gods. i. generally. it is true. is In the Sisyphus of Critias the belief in gods explained as the discovery of a politician employed it as a means to terrify men from evil. custom and law had hitherto drawn around it. from national prejudices is shown by it gave rise whether slavery was doubts which Aristotle mentions.

copious ness of expression. .98 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. delicate. even in antiquity. the three genders of nouns. though and insipid. and Prodicus by his dis tinction between synonymous words.elaborate these Sophistical rhetoricians. the tenses of distinguished Hippias laid down verbs. [29 character of the Sophis sary concomitant of the whole tical instruction that greater weight should be laid on the technicalities of language and exposition than on The or actual correctness of the discussion. select. though he doubt less ascribed an undue value to it. gave a great impulse to lexicographical inquiries and the formation of a scien tific terminology. From them into also pro ceeded the language. for the first time. and exuberant more especially owed to these language. peculiarities it is Gorgias the brilliant success of his speeches. did real service in the cultivation oratory and its technicalities. as for instance Thrasyof the art of machus. by^startling turns in the treatment. and the kinds of sentences. the logical tempted were exhibitions which at speeches of the Sophists an effect mainly by a clever choice to create of subject. first investigations the science of no doubt. Yet many of they seemed over. true that to a riper taste. Protagoras. rules on metre and euphony.

30. power of knowledge must be given up also the effort after the knowledge of truth. As the existing basis of moral conviction laws the absolute supremacy of human and divine was also abandoned. and this inquiry received varied upon. demanded obedience from all authority. SOCRATES. On the other hand. ARISTOTLE. the questions which were of the first importance for human life had been so H 2 . In the questions of the theory of knowledge and of ethics a new only incidentally touched was] 99 SECOND PEEIOD. this alarm was not yet well grounded. the moral and civic life of the Greeks appeared to be in no less danger than the scientific life. thought. From the beginning of the fifth century the moral and religious intuitions of the nation had undergone such a refinement and amplification by the poets and writers of the time. PLATO. IT was inevitable that the illumination of the Sophistic period should have a double effect upon scientific life. On the one hand. Introduction. the investigations of the Sophists had merely ended in the conclusion that a scientific foundation of ethics field of inquiry. exercise in the Sophistic dialectic. in the consciousness of its power. As a fact. hitherto was as utterly hopeless as a scientific knowledge of the world and with the surrender of the belief in man s .

it . ciples In opposition to the sensuous view. the smaller Socratic schools separate elements of his philosophy were retained in a one-sided manner. i : and regarded everything from this point of view. and immediate perception. in order to acquire a new and firm foundation for moral action.eyond of the scientific life : Socrates founded by demanding knowledge through concepts. though not in a scientific form. by introducing men to the formation of concepts by dialectic. had never been able to emancipate them must recognise as the^true object of science the nature of things as comprehended by thought. This new form passmgT&amp. on the other in inquiries . the central point of which lies on the one side in the intuition of ideas. But this reflection could only be the work of a science which was free from the doubts by which the confidence in the science of the day had been destroyed. and by applying the In process to ethical and kindred religious questions. to its metaphysical . and in an equally one-sided manner connected with older Plato carried on the work of his master doctrines. it must proceed from firm prinabout the problem and conditions of knowledge. Socratic doctrines. which he supplemented by all the kindred elements of preconsequences. In this manner he created a grand system of an idealistic nature. from which the physicists selves. He developed the Socratic philosophy of SOCRATES. [30 variously discussed. In opposition to the dog matism i of such science. with a deeper and more comprehensive intelligence. that nothing was needed beyond a deeper reflection on the part of the Greek mind upon itself and the gains already won.

Crito. iv. Life and Personality Socrates was born in 470 B. he held closely to the leading principles. This is clear from the statements about the time of his death and condemnation (Diog. . At a later time he may have sought to increase his knowledge from books. 4-1 and Xenophon. . B . 2. and Archelaus by Aristoxenus not by Ion of Chios. at latest. as also are expressions and Xenophon are against both these assump which Plato puts into the Phasdo. 8. 19. . in the 1 said on the sixth first months of the His father. Sophroniscus. 7. 23. ii. of Socrates. xiv. and by extending them so widely that they seemed adapted to embrace the entire world of reality.C. limits common in his country. Phsenarete. or. and attended some of their lectures 1 . 59 D) and about his age at the time (Plato. 97 6 &amp. (it of Thargelion). Plato. Mem. was a sculp In youth tor. f. his education does not seem to have gone beyond the following year. B . 17 D. 45. is 31. 37 Xen.). 1. but he owed his philosophy rather to Memor. SOCRATES. a midwife. Apol. iv. . this nature and duty of man. 52 E).30] SOCRATES. his contemporary (Diog. Pkfed. Symp. The absolute silence of Plato tions. he brought the Socratic philosophy of concepts to the highest scientific completeness. I. &c. mouth of Socrates in &amp. his mother. Laert. mixed with the Sophists. 5. 52 i. Crito. tlie 101 about mented nature. Aristotle supple by the most vigorous researches into! While controverting the dualistic harshness of the Platonic idealism. Anaxagoras is men tioned as his teacher by later writers ii.

33 C). Apol..C. he not only dis in the field un charged his civic duties in peace and and rank. . a and intellectual. he became an object of failing cheerfulness enthusiastic veneration to men of the most varied cha racter son of his nation. and to the means of culture which Athens then provided to conversation with leading men and women than to direct scientific instruction. subtle and calm. an indifference to outward appearance. but in his whole nature and conduct. and piety. A unshaken by any danger. Aristophanes represents him as thus engaged and Plato even before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. to the end. He appears to have learnt his father s art but his . of others higher mission of influencing the development known to him by the inward voice which he was made himself regarded as divine (Plato. he shows himself a Greek and an Athenian. yet at the same time full of genuine human kindliness. of an unparalleled singularity (aroTria). an intellec tual pedantry. He devoted himself to his work in 424 B. as well as in his views. At the same time we can find in him traits which gave even to his con falteringly. neither the care of his family nor participation in public A pattern of business withdrew him from his mission. He asked for no reward . On the one hand there was a prosiness.102 his SOCRATES. of neverpleasant companion. of moral purity. renunciation was complete. His self- poverty. and this voice was at a later time confirmed by the Delphic oracle. and temporaries the impression of something strange remarkable. even under circumstances of the greatest and with Xanthippe at his side. a life of few needs. justice. [ 31 own reflection.

Even in dreams he believed that he But the ultimate basis of received prophetic warnings. 32. and a power gave the impression of emotion so potent that the dim feeling which even in his youth held him back when about to take this or that step appeared to him a daemonic sign and an inward oracle. out character is stamped on his philosophy. Among the As Socrates left writings later writers Aristotle alone sideration. the only authentic sources of our knowledge of his teaching are of his pupils Xenophon and Plato. at times of absence of mind. The Sources. susceptibility was an absorption in his own thoughts which. Principle. there of Attic taste. can be taken into con us nothing that cannot be But these two authors has given us the views of Socrates in their true . in his the first object of which was apologetic Memorabilia . we have to any deduction in the mouth of ask whether the unphilosophic Xenophon.LIFE OF SOCRATES. no writings behind him. and he tells found in Plato or Xenophon. all these traits lies in the devotion with which Socrates withdrew himself from the external world in order to interest to the problems which arise give his undivided The same of the intellectual nature of man. The Philosophy of Socrates. Method. different picture of the Socratic give us an essentially Plato places his own views without philosophy and if his master. but stood in sharp contrast to the On the other hand. 103 which suited very well with the Silenus figure of the philosopher.

with the help of Plato and Aristotle. suspect the fidelity of Xenophon s account to the extent which Dissen contrary. On the clear that the statements of Xenophon bear an historical stamp. dc Socr. Like the Sophists. agree with those of Plato which in all essential points . s Kl.) . and the need of science is so strongly felt by him that even . and if. But while the Sophists denied objective truth and universal laws. but govern it. comment. Sclir. 2 Ueber den Wertli des Socr. So crates is on the contrary convinced that the value of our notions. Werke. he restricts himself to practical questions. in Xenophon s account he constantly oversteps the limits 1 De Pltilosopliia morali in als iii. 1812. 57 ff. Pliilosoplien (1818) : Xenopli. But though this ob we have no reason to jection is not without ground. and fix its aims . depends entirely upon their harmony with that which is true and just in itself. Socrates ascribes no value to natural science. his leading idea is the reform of moral life by true knowledge science must not be the servant of action. the correctness of our actions. 2.104 SOCRATES. If. Like them also he demands that every one should form his convictions by his own reflection. meaning without any abbreviation. 293 ff. he makes correct action depend on correct thinking . therefore. and would restrict philo welfare of sophy to the questions which are concerned with the men. tradita. it is l and Schleiermacher 2 have done. Gott. (D. independently of custom and tradition. doctrine gives we penetrate the meaning of the Socratic we can form from the accounts which Xenophon of his teaching and method a consistent picture which answers to the historical position and importance of the philosopher.

his activity consists in the examination of men. must begin with fixing concepts. it becomes inquiry in common by means of conversation. after knowledge. they give rise to a more energetic search which here assumes shape in the fact that the philo sopher turns to others in order with their assistance to gain the knowledge which is wanting in himself. indeed felt as a necessity. the principal question is What are the This question he answers conditions of knowledge ? with the proposition that no man can say anything therefore. self-examination can only end in a Yet the belief in the possiconfession of ignorance. : upon any subject until he knows the concept of it is it what for in its general unalterable nature. which he states to be his . scientific bility and the conviction of the necessity of knowledge are in Socrates far too vigorous to allow him to remain Rather satisfied with the consciousness of ignorance.32] METHOD OF HIS PHILOSOPHY. he has to inquire how the case stands with this supposed knowledge . But inasmuch as the new idea of knowledge wasi all but not yet formulated in a system. quiries which have no practical object. 105 which he has imposed upon himself. Hence this philosopher the first thing necessary is the testing of his own notions in order to ascertain whether they agree with this idea of knowledge. All knowledge. and the conditions of all right action. therefore. in the 6 proving of himself and the rest of the world (J f zrd&iv savrov KOI TOVS aXXous). Inasmuch as other men believe that they have a knowledge of some kind or another. the self-examination and self-knowledge which in his view were the beginning of true knowledge. by dialectical in For Socrates.

he compels thought to form such ideas as are adequate to all from sides. so far appears as simply irony. towards those who respond young to his influence. 1078 yap ea-nv a TLS av KaQ6Xov. and propositions universally acknow ledged. 987 28. vs \6yovs Kalrb rovs T where. xiii. 8uo : Metaph. 1. t [32 mission in the Platonic Apology (28 E. tests the whole subject. i. and the request for instruction on the part of Socrates c On the other hand. . b. 6. 1 This induction does not begin with exact and exhaustive observation. which arises in any man marked out by nature to teach and educate. and constantly brings forward new cases. the examination only leads to the proof of their ignorance . as the partners in the conversation undertake to accompany him in the search for knowledge. Aft. But as the philosopher looks at every object every definition by contradictory instances. and com whom he mit themselves to his guidance in the way which he has discovered and this is especially the case with the younger men become with him the object of that inclination. and the is midwifery (maieutike) of the Theaetetus inasmuch as the true idea of knowledge absent in those (149 ff). b. else- 642 a. Part. The central point of the inquiries which Socrates carries on with his friends is this always the fixing of concepts. and the method by which object is attempted is induction by dialectics. and airoSoir] Sco/fparei SiKaicas. But found to be subjects to his tests. and unite 1 all the essential characterIb. but with well-known experi ences of daily life.106 SOCRATES. 4. though his love is not for a beautiful body but for a beautiful soul. 1. i. 38 A). 27 Arist. Socrates is according to the Greek view a lover.

always lead to the result. the object in a manner beyond any contradic With Socrates the measure of truth lies in con 1 ceptions. since Aristotle ( Metaph. avrw . apart from that knowledge 33. 107 istics of tion. . Mem. 28) confirms it. rbv \6yov. 1. Socrates confined him Only these have a value for to men. the Socratic Teaching. 7. (Xen. 642 a. 11 if. of the Socratic ethics consists in reducing virtue to 1 Xcnoph. But Socrates never established any theory of is the general principle logic or methodology. through concepts. 987 b. eVi Trjv t 5e TIS . 1. or own views. unfruitful but objectless . 6. irepl presupposition with which the decision has to begin) &v travra.. the leading thought general direction of his philosophy.) We have all the less reason to mistrust this state ment. as Schleiermacher does. and it agrees with the general As we should expect from the attitude of Socrates. and the obvious harmony among difficulties them alone is The speculations his power of knowledge into which they had brought even such a man as Anaxagoras. on adequate. iv. 17 i. and of natural philosophy. are not only the want of nay. 6. . as is shown by the professors of them. 6. 13 rov avrtXtyoi viroQfViv (the general : Mem. i. . 4. 1078 b. and that only. In contrast to the Physicists. ought to be asserted of any con thing which corresponds to its idea when rightly ceived. Part. they that that. 1 . An. iv.32] METHOD OF HIS PHILOSOPHY. they are even mistakes. to prove his However different the means of which he avails himself to contradict the opinions of others. The Nature of self to ethical inquiries. xiii. i. the other hand.

to make men to tion. and their useful ness to men. who .which agrees with the laws of the State and the unwritten laws of but on the other. In order. On the one hand (Xen. &c. 333 D.Prot. he is at pains to point . are reduced to one knowledge or wisdom . impossible to do right without knowledge . 4. 9. &e. 4 . Plato. iii. that is good which and beautiful are therefore relative ideas. so it is inconceivable in the opinion of Socrates that any one should not do that which he recognises as good. who knows what is right towards the gods just. For. Socrates finds it the more difficult to say. who knows how to conduct himself in danger pious. No one is voluntarily bad.108 SOCRATES. Everything is good and beautiful in reference to that for which it . and everyone desires his own good. impos For as the good is nothing else than that which is most service able to the doer. He is brave it is is . 8. out the basis of moral laws in the success of actions which are in harmony with them. virtuous them what and all only necessary to make quite clear good . 353 C Mem. and even the moral basis and problem is the same in all knows what men. as just . Mem. But what the good is of which the knowledge makes men virtuous. is right towards men. All virtues. he explains that. as he has no substructure for his ethics in anthropology and metaphysics. it is sible not to do right if what is right is known. as he says more than once (Xen. Good is useful for men. &amp. and this is the more the gods common and consistent view. iv. According to Socrates it is [33 not merely knowledge. iv. 8.). if. virtue arises through instruc virtues consist in knowledge. 6. 6). therefore.

Mem. D *2 f. commends friendship. by moderation and endurance . Without any with great emphasis. 8. i.. this external prosperity which follow from their fulfilment or neglect to be the sole motive of our conduct. But as knowledge alone qualifies for right action. He recognises in full measure a the importance of civic life . Apol. and 9. In Plato and in Xenophon also (Plato. morality even where the unsatisfactory is in itself very noble Socratic trace of asceticism Socrates and pure. in Xenophon at any point of view strictly. 6. iv. deeper definition of an aim is frequently crossed by a eudaemonistic foundation of moral duties. 47 109 is useful. and condemns psederastia in the lower sense. Crito. he considers it a duty for man to take part in it according to his powers. 29 6. It is true that the is scientific basi&quot. 9. benevolence towards others. and is at pains to form excellent citizens and officers for the State. which considers a regard to the consequences upon our rate. that a man shall make himself independent by limitation of his needs. 6) Socrates regards as unconditionally useful . 5.38] NATURE OF HIS TEACHING. and that he should ascribe greater importance to the cultivation of his mind than He demands justice and active to all external goods. D f. but his unsystematic treatment of ethical questions does not allow him to carry out this Hence. necessary before all things the care for souls and their perfection . he would only allow the right of political action to those . Xen. He requires that unconditional obedience to the laws which he himself observed even to the death. insists. though his conception of marriage does not rise above that usual among the Greeks..

but wrongly of cosmopolitanism is placed Tusc. he thing. among his Socrates considered our duties to the gods to be those which are essential. 35. and almost against his will.). 334 6. prevailing contempt in his mouth. 108 &c.). cannot of the grounds of this belief. iv. 4. and Plato ascribes to him (Cicero. [33 these and these alone election of officers by who have the requisite knowledge The does he recognise as rulers. and Socrates looks on the whole world in . v. This point of support moral teaching cannot dispense with.110 SOCRATES. . But even here the guiding thought is the same Man fashions his life aright when he as in his ethics. the principle that a man ought to do no evil to his enemy phon. refers all his actions to his own true benefit as a final its object . choice or lot he considers perverse. he had not the means of proving the necessity of the connection between acts and their consequences on which moral laws are founded. and regards the On the other hand. 37. thereby contradicting Xeno- Mem. B ff. in spite of his radical aversion to all theoretical speculation. i. and is opposed to the A confession of trade and labour. ( Kep. and the less so because. But the examine every thinker. the author of a view of nature and a theology which it is to has exercised a leading influence even to the present time. ii. whose first principle must take account rest in mere belief. has shaken off the Greek prejudice. he rule of the masses as ruinous. and thus these laws present them c the unwritten selves to him in the customary way as ordinances of the gods ( Mem. and in attempting to do this he becomes. 19). as he was limited to ethics.

3. . which we can nowhere seek but among the gods. since the gods knew best what is good for us. 4 Apol. he does not neglect to mark out the intellectual powers and prerogatives of men as the highest gifts which nature has vouchsafed to them.). Cyrop. 4 . In speaking of the gods Socrates thinks first of those of his own nation. 3) and. 9. this principle for the most part with a very superficial and unscientific teleology. he did not venture distinctly to main tain its immortality (Plato. 13) he distinguishes the Creator and Euler of the universe from the other as with the great poets of the fifth century. Xen. providence takes care for the world. and especially for men.33] NATURE OF HIS TEACHING. conceiving of him. i. the plurality of the gods ends in a unity. serves for the advantage of men ( Mem. so divine if. 17 As the soul takes care for the body. . This arrangement of the world can only arise from the wisdom and beneficence of the creative reason. Ill relation to this aim. 19 if. iv. For the worship he lays down the principle that everyone should adhere to the custom of his city. the other hand. 40 C f. compared with the special blessings him who offered and were not to be prayed for. As to the an offering was of spirit of little rest the value of importance it. He had no doubt of the relationship of the human soul to the divine on . cf. the smallest and the greatest. but with him. as the mind (vovs) dwelling in the world (i. though he works out .). and in the Memorabilia (iv. &amp. 7. He finds that everything in it. 4. after the analogy of the human soul. viii. Socrates finds a remarkable proof of this care in the various of the gods modes of prophecy.

[ 34 34. the enmity of the Sophists as some though it was not Yet the deciding motive lay in the have supposed. and That personal enmity played philosophic cheerfulness. The Death of Socrates. a barrier upon which was regarded as chiefly responsible for the its leading disasters of the last decades. attempted to intro their place. When Socrates had laboured in Athens for a com plete generation the by Meletus. . He refused to escape out of prison as drank the cup of hemlock with contrary to law. 36 would not have been passed to only three. thirty of five or six A. him charge was brought against he denied the and Lyco that of the State. which his accusers proposed was passed by a larger majority. by punishing on the part of the It was an attempt representative. a part in his accusation and condemnation is probable.112 SOCRATES. according hundred heliasts had voted otherwise. or. him had been carried by a few votes and the punish ment was being discussed. Apol. he came forward before the and the sentence of death court with unbroken 1 pride. defence before a court had he made a few concessions no doubt to the usual claims of the judges. he would . Anytus. democratic reaction to restore by violence the good old the times. and corrupted the When the sentence against have been acquitted. if it According to Plato. to place determination of the ruling democratic party the innovating Sophistical education. 1 This attempt was not only a grievous outrage another reading. existence of the gods duce new deities in Had he not despised the common method of youth.

The School of Socrates : 35. the culmination of his the philosopher.34] HIS DEATH. of all in this manner. The death of Socrates later invention that the was the greatest triumph of his cause. Xenophon. least deception. so the sentence itself had precisely the opposite effect from that which his opponents wished. by insisting on moral reform. and as an was a gross anachronism. THE SMALLER SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. the greater part had more feeling for his moral great ness and the ethical value of his speeches than for his ientific We see from Xenophon (born importance. in all probability. but history has all the more completely erased it. But just as might have escaped the sentence. It is doubtless a Socrates Athenian people cancelled the sentence by punishing the accusers. had he been less independent. life. Among the numerous persons who were attracted and retained by the marvellous personality of Socrates. out 430. he had pointed out the only successful way of improving the present condition of affairs. Eegarded from a legal and moral point of historical fact it view. brilliant the apotheosis of philosophy and II. On the contrary. and Socrates was by no means the cause of their disappearance. his execution was a judicial murder. manner in 113 for in in the which it was carried out no respect had the philosopher laid himself open to legal punishment but it rested upon a most dangerous The old times could not be restored. and died about ninety years old) how the I .

under the influence of with Socratic. trines of four pupils of Socrates who Euclides.114 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. . as men of Phsedr. the follower of Socrates. Socratic dialogues. and the picture of but we know no Cebes which has come down to us sides Plato. Antisthenes the influence of the Sophistic of Gorgias Cynic. The Megarian and of the Elean-Eretrian Schools. Be we know founded schools. his intelligence of its philo However worthy of life. faithful Euclides Megara. how it respect he however great his merits in preserv nobility of feeling. a con- . had also become acquainted Eleatic teaching. applied to human was for his practical wisdom. the Socratic teaching. pupils of Philolaus. his piety.sense side in his Plato describes the two Thebans. was [35 and Socratic philosophy was set forth in this respect. Simmias and Cebes. In a similar manner JEschines seems to have set forth the doctrine of his master from its practical and common. a passionate opponent of Aristotle . Phasdo founded the kindred Elean. 36. He was succeeded by Ichthyas as leader of the school. under the and Aristippus the Cyrenaic. younger dialectician. is certainly so. A the contemporary of the latter is Eubulides. Protagoras. even Pansetius de thing clared their works to be spurious. perhaps before he met with the After the death of Socrates he came philosopher. 242 B). and ing sophic meaning was limited. with the forward in his paternal city as a teacher. by combining Eleatic doc founded the Megarian school. philosophic nature ( further of either of them.

Soph. ix. which our senses exhibit to us. first pre In order to establish i 2 . decay. as seems probable by the Socratic teaching of concepts. while Pasicles To the last thirty years and the later. younger contemporaries of Stilpo are Alexinus the Eristic. 246 B ff. Metaph. and as Being was placed on an equality with the good. The startingpoint of the Megarian doctrine was formed. the knowledge of this good. and Stilpo of Megara (370-290 B. the Megarian s arrived at the conclusion that there was only one good. even by Euclides that only what was real was possible But all Being leads us back (Arist. to the unchangeable essence of things. end of the fourth century belong Diodorus Cronus (died 307 B. Parmenides ) to Being as a in the last resort (as in unity. and therefore it was maintained apparently other hand. If only know ledge by concepts has truth (so Euclides concludes with Plato). reality can only belong to that to which this knowledge is related. Origin. ceivable. referring that passage to this doctrine.C. Every beside the good was non-existent . 115 came somewhat temporary of Eubulides was Thrasymachus. Divinity.C. change. is on the not Being and motion are incon at all.36] MEGARIAN AND ERETR1AN SCHOOLS. The world of bodies. and thus the thing plurality of manner there was only incorporeal forms which was at supposed was again given up. as Insight. though known by different names. In like one virtue. Keason. and Philo. and the various virtues are but different names for this one. &c. the ao~a)^ara iiSij. 3). unchangeable and un alterable.). the pupil of Diodorus. which is the highest concept of the Socratic ethics and theology.) . according to if Schleiermacher is right in Plato.

who had Dio teaching of his school. and a demonstration of the Megarian doctrine of the possible. on this Socrates and tlie and on the Kvpi- the Sitzvngs ber. well as Thrasymachus. Megarian Megarian and the Cynic schools into the 1 no subject admits a predicate different But in other respects he was faithful to the His pupil Zeno combined the school. can move. Stoic. Akad. [36 these views. Most of the applications which they made use of the veiled man. Cf. We hear of four proofs of the impossibility of movement given by Diodorus. and were for the quite most part treated in quite the same Eristic spirit as the Sophists treated them. Socratio Schools. my treatise in . Bcrl. 1882. availed themselves by the refutation of opponents and their pupils pursued . the founders of the school.116 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. which was admired for centuries under the title of the Kvpievwv. the sorites are in the manner of the Sophists. . d. the liar. or can be is possible Stilpo. which are imitated from Zeno. it was a singular been moved but nothing Still further did Philo deviate from the contradiction. by the apathy and self-sufficiency of the strict wise man which he inculcated in by his free attitude to the national religion. this dialectic with such eagerness that the whole school derived from them the name of the Dialectic or Eristic. s. following the of indirect proof example of Zeno. the horned man. genes the Cynic for his teacher as showed himself a pupil of the former by his ethical tendencies. in particular. When nevertheless he merely asserted [that what 1 is that a thing may have . and the assertion that from it. word and deed. 151 ft .

Mullach . the founder of the Cynic had enjoyed the instruction of Grorgias. and was himself active as a teacher before he had become acquainted with Socrates. with school was closely related to the Me was founded by Phsedo of Elis. Of his numerous which : (&amp. writings. in whose spirit he combined with the Megarian dialectics a view of life related to the Cynic. even earlier he had attended Stilpo. but at the same time going back to the Megarian doctrine of virtue. He appears to have been considerably older than Plato according to Plutarch Lycurg. were distinguished for the excellence of their style. to whom he henceforth attached himself with the greatest devotion. 1 Socrates he opened a school in the gymnasium of Cynosarges. the Eleans. who. after his 1 Fr. Moschus and Anchipylus. Antlsth. the favourite Yet nothing further A pupil of made us acquainted. The Cynic School. Collected by Winckelmann. the eccentric being of coarse humour and indomitable will.C. 261 ff. 1842. Antisthenes of Athens. and partly from partly from their mode of this place of life.oGJ THE ELEAN-ERETRIAN ii. But the extent and continuance of this (Eretrian) school can only have been very limited. of Socrates. After the death of only a few fragments remain. known to us of his teaching. 37. 30 end\ he survived the year 371 B. his adherents were known as Cynics. Fragm. school. was Plato has is whom Menedemus of Eretria (352-278) . It U7 The Elean garian. meeting. Among his immediate pupils we only know Diogenes of Sinope. Phil.

and for of a Socrates it was a matter of action. [37 from home. both of whom From of the third century. 11). Among the last members of known to us are Menedemus and Menippus third belong to the second this date the school appears satirist. What Antisthenes admired and imitated in Socrates his was in the first instance the independence of character. requiring know the doctrine in a manner which made all actual In passionate contradiction to the ledge impossible. to Platonic ideas. From this the pattern he deduced the conclusion (apparently after of Gorgias) that no subject can receive a predicate of a different nature. a cultivated man. of his pupils whose mendicant the school the life was shared in admiring affection by his wife Hipparchia. from which it did not emerge again for 300 years. he applied Socrates in . His scientific researches he considered of action. definition by he allow an enumeration of its was composite would . characteristic He rejected. mathematics and natural science and if he followed definition by concepts. value only so far as they bore directly upon he said (Diog. to have been absorbed in the Stoic. Hence he and his followers despised art and learning.C. the Virtue. there : marks only for what fore. vi. lived generally at Athens and died at Corinth at a great age in 323 B. strength .118 exile THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. and did not require many words or much knowledge. The most important is Crates of Thebes. was sufficient for virtue nothing was requisite but happiness. receive its own name (the olicslos \6yos) and no other. he allowed the individual being only that everything should and hence demanded exist.

. sickness. is proper to him (ol/ceLov\ and this can only be his good. itself. to Virtue itself is referred. themselves death are not goods . 2. of a negative character externals. least of all can pleasure be re in themselves evils garded as a good. wisdom or insight is and hence it is also with Socrates. slavery. but in this case of will coincides with insight. and moral strength In itself this virtue is chiefly practice with instruction. Thus he gave a thoroughly Sophistic turn to the Socratic philosophy of concepts. With Protagoras he maintained that no man could contradict himself. when it delighted (fMavsirjv pa\\ov rj r^aOei^v). in evil. and it appears (according to Arist. in eschewing what is . The result of this want of a scientific basis was seen ! The leading thought in the simplicity of his ethics. poverty. NV ii. 119 constituent What was simple might be ex but it plained by comparison with something else. Eth. are not in honour. parts. The pattern for himself and his pupils was the laborious life of Heracles. as . for plea . Antisthenes used to say he would rather be mad than sure. health. vice only . intellectual possessions life : all else. is expressed in the proposition that virtue only is a is an evil everything else being That only can be good for a man which indifferent. for if he said what was different he was speaking of different things. becomes a man s governing principle. or labour and work as an evil . leads and labour educates him to virtue. freedom.37] THE CYNIC SCHOOL. shame. maintained that virtue ! one and can be taught . it consists in independence of freedom from needs. could not be defined. property. to his destruction.

for he was at Their ideal nature in which all men lived polity was a state of In their conduct they purposely a herd. . and content with the most meagre clothing (the tribori). The their contemporaries. without any habitations of their own. a citizen of the world. in . even though a slave. but not unfrequently against the feelings of natural shame. they proved As a rule they renounced it. Cynics found this virtue among the more exclusively did they divide the world into two classes of the wise and the fools . is free and a born ruler. together as rebelled. by voluntarily abandoning family in the place of which Diogenes proposed the community of women . After the time of Diogenes. living on the simplest food. and sorrow . The virtue of the wise lost. 24) to [37 1104 as have been described even by the Cynics less that the apathy and repose of feeling. 34 ff. Even Antisthenes boasts (Xen. they ascribed no value to the life. not only against custom and decency. Symp. the Cynics led a profes sional mendicant life. Civic life was not a requisite for home everywhere. the wise man. disas their indifference to life ter. possessed a dwelling.) the wealth which he gained by restricting himself to what was absolutely indispensable but he however humble it might be. b. because the wise man. contrast of freedom and slavery.120 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. Their principle was to harden themselves against renunciation. the more abso to the former all perfection lutely did they ascribe and to the latter all vice and misery. and happiness. man was a possession which could not be as their ideal In their own conduct they c exhibit an exaggeration of the Socratic freedom from needs. 4.

it is custom (vofjios) which has created a In the same way the Cynics saw a variety of gods. and the corrup only one God.v(n. order to exhibit their indifference to the opinions of They opposed the religious faith and worship of their people. in a pharisaic contempt of mankind. prophecies. they expressed them Homeric and other selves with the greatest contempt. But science could expect little from these mendicant philosophers.v) Xenophanes. myths were recast by Antisthenes for a moral object. by an unbending hardened almost to the point of savagery. yet the harshness of their conduct has its sympathy with the misery of their fellowmen. as enlightened persons . gods vows. dedications. which made the wise friends with regard to temples.j&amp. for in truth there was. and no doubt they had a beneficial influence as preachers of morality and physicians of the soul. If they were reckless in attack ing the folly of and in the freedom of spirit to which Crates and root in Diogenes knew how to elevate themselves with cheerful humour. . of the . who is unlike anything visible . real worship in virtue only. as Antisthenes says with (/cara &amp. prayers. if they opposed over-cultivation by the coarse wit of the tion of their times common people. 121 men.37] THE CYSIC SCHOOL. and even among the most cele brated representatives the extravagances of the school are unmistakable. The Cynics regarded it as their peculiar mission to attach themselves to moral outcasts . sacrifices.

. no doubt. 18. xiv. The Cyrenaic School. is perhaps connected with the Cyrenaic school. and so. he appears for a long time to have resided as a Sophist in various parts of the Grecian world. the well-known common-place rationalist. 42 D f. This is proved partly by the unity of the school. at Yet he did not unconditionally renounce After the death of and views. according to Diog. ii. out Socrates in Athens and entered into close relations with him. who. and indirectly Aristippus Hegesias and Anniceris were pupils of Antipater (all three about 320-280). 83. a school which was known as the Cyrenaic or Hedonistic. was Theodorus the atheist. and partly by the reference to the doctrine in Plato ( Phileb. in spite of the Cyrenaic doc of Eusebius ( Prsep.122 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. . 53 C) and Speusippus. was older than ^Eschines. which he was not present. 5). according to Diogenes (iv. who. Syracuse Arete educated her son Aristippus (o /jLr)TpoSi$aKTo$) The pupil of in the doctrines of his grandfather. Their contemporary Euemerus. trine The systematic development must be ascribed. [38 38. his habits of life Socrates. some what older than Plato. appears to have become ac quainted with the doctrines of Protagoras while yet At a later time he sought resident in his native town. Aristippus of Gyrene. to the elder Aristippus. 31). more especially at the court of whether under the elder or the younger In Gyrene he founded Dionysius or both is not clear. His daughter Arete and Antipater were members of it. Evang.

Our perceptions. be the object of our life. we feel That of these three condi neither pleasure nor pain. But (Protagoras). adopted what was of use in establishing .38] THE CYRENAIC SCHOOL. Aristippus believed to be declared is desirable. pleasure .lt. Like Antisthenes. for us as this would be the absence of any feeling but of positive state. instruct us only about our own feelings. and of discus tigations to be without object sions concerning the theory of knowledge he only his ethics. because they he considered physical inves is wholesome or harmful or value . belongs to us. following Protagoras. in his for enjoyment. of his ethics is Thus the crowning all principle the conviction that our actions must be directed to the object of gaining much plea does not. that the by the voice of nature. Aristippus measured the value of knowledge by its practical usefulness. is only the present uncertain. and the bad to everyone sant. if tions pleasure alone good coin with the unplea cides with the pleasant. the result is pain . and therefore it was the justifiable to gather law of action from sub-. By pleasure Aristippus for Epicurus after him. cannot. So far as any indications of the writings ascribed to Aristippus go. &amp. the future gone. and the past is . if the feeling consists in motion motion is gentle the result is all if no rough or hasty. think only of repose of spirit. 123 composed an Aristippus. as a opinion. not about the quality of things or the feelings of other men . He did not inquire what despised mathematics. Even happiness. at least a part were genuine. or but a slight motion. he said. like sure as possible. jective feelings only. motion takes place.

though the feelings of and pleasure are the more original and bodily pain potent. STTL- TraiSsia) or philosophy. circumstances he remained master of himself and his life. all the art of living. It is this which shows us what use we are to make of the goods of This decision. thoroughgoing But under of the world. the Cyrenaics would not contend that there was not a among enjoyments. on which depends (&amp. He is also the superior mind. and from these they disdistinction of degrees . did not arise immediately out of bodily conditions. we owe to prudence G-rtj/jiTj^ povrjo.124 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. He is not merely the capable man who is never at a loss when it is needful to provide the means of enjoyment (occasionally in an unworthy manner). they were aware that they were pleasures which suaded their followers. Nor did overlook the fact that many of them were pur they chased by far greater pain. in his rules of life and in his conduct so far as tradition allows us to judge of this in a manner all to enjoy life as much as possible./&amp. It is therefore happiness of first Agreeably with these principles Aristippus pro ceeded. it liber ates us from fancies and passions which disturb the apply everything in the manner best suited for our welfare. What kind [38 of things or actions bring us pleasure is Yet indifferent. Along with this they recognised the necessity of correctly estimating the relative value of various goods and enjoyments. it qualifies us to the condition of all happiness. Finally. or to find a witty and clever turn in order to defend his conduct. which can adapt itself to every situation. for every pleasure as such is a good. extract the .

are opposed essentially to the teaching of his master. Hegesias. the TreiaiOdvaros. but in a gladsome frame of mind (xapd\ of which insight had the control. Mein.THE CYRENAIC SCHOOL. Ep. Tentantem majora. fere priusentibus itquum. in spite of the extent to which they rested on the foundation of the Socratic ethics. . of the Socratic spirit. the warmest veneration for his great teacher . just as his sceptical despair of knowledge con tradicts the concept-philosophy of Socrates. he sought to place it. render the happiness of the wise man independent of external circumstances. we cannot fail to recognise the influence Yet his doctrine of pleasure. kindly spirit and in his later years certainly sought to 1 withdraw himself from civic life (as in Xen. Hor. 17. had such a lively sense of the evil of life that he despaired of any satisfaction in positive 1 Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res. by prudence and He met his fellow-men in a gentle and self-control. In the Cyrenaic school this contradiction of the elements contained in it came to the surface in the changes which were made in the doctrine of Aristippus about the beginning of the third century. ii. . and had in the value which he ascribed to insight (prudence). in the cheerfulness and inward freedom which he gained by it. Theodorus professed himself an adherent of the school. i. secure his own cheerfulness and contentment by limiting his desires. not in particular enjoyments. He 1). 23. and from their presuppositions he deduced the extreme conse But in order to quences with cynical recklessness. and his search after enjoyment. 125 best from everything. in order to lose nothing of his independence.

r.. Stein.nKU ACAPKMV. sums (J8(M).wi Ui ivnt monographs on tho Honnann.) :u&amp. the poetical attempts of his youth. after his grandfather. At first he was belonged The social called Aristocles.le . 7 Uticher s. La ri? /* (ami II. 2. in The art istic talent which excites our admiration expressed itself in the writings of Plato He 1 tfU/&amp. though he would not give up the. subiivt Me: K Gttek u Hv*t tier Plat. PJ7 H. &quot. 1875.&amp. TMK Oi. 1S( . 1 The Life of /Y^/o.p. n& placed a essential when he ascribed so high value to love of family and country.) as his Both his parents. IS:W. hart. / /. and ancient tradition tixed the in Ol.). PLATO. Finally doctrine of pleasure as u limitations upon it. . &amp. gratitude. was first instructed in philosophy by Cratylus (see his 7 IV. PLATO 39. AM&amp. and on the other inclined tirst his superior nature from the to the aristocracy. principle.()-7 or l& 1871. of his family secured for him on and political position his great gifts of the one hand the careful cultivation of intellect . :?rd odit. Ptototi* Le&m. [pain and pleasure by Anniceris. the wise man would not shrink from sacrifices on their account. of llermoAccording to the trustworthy statements Halo was born B. Theodorus he found enjoyment. d.\ 1 v seventh of Thargelion (May* . % ii. 1 r. ( l& v. 1873.l_v. to the ancient l&amp. Aristo and nobility. and passing beyond of the highest object of life in keeping himself clear inditVerenco to all external things. his connect ion with Socrates began in Phi f&amp. that friendship. SteinPlato*. Porictione. Io8 ft ff. dorns and Apollodorus (Piog. Phil. 1 only) vol. 111.!/ .

as is proved be yond a ill favour that the tyrant handed a and he was sold as a slave in the market of yKgina. the members of the society were brought together every month at common .7 twentieth y e:i r.39] THE LIFE OF PLATO. Being ransomed by Anniceris the Cyrenaic. for the later period . in which he was one of the greatest pro ficients of his time. Athens. and afterwards in his own gardens. to Lower return where for eight years H. he was occupied. Hero he remained for no long time and then set out upon travels which took him to Kgypt and Tyrone.C. according to the statement in the Phuulo (. ho repaired with the other Socratics to Euclides at Mcgara in order to withdraw himself from some kind of persecution. and to have formally is him over now said for the first time opened a school in the Gymnasium of the Academy.01) 15) which is probably without foundation. and eight years of friendly confi dence he penetrated more deeply than any other into the spirit of his master. 324 A. On his he appears to have first remained . Hut these years wore R!HO employed in making himself acquainted with the doc trines of the older philosophers. at any rate in a narrow Then he proceeded (about 388 circle. with whom he fell into such to Pollis. Besides philosophy he taught mathematics. After the death of Socrates. but also as a teacher. Here he visited the court of Dionysius the elder. which were close at hand. in li&amp. riot in writing only. He not only gave instructions in conversation but also delivered lectures. at which he was not pre * sent. being now forty years of age.) Italy and Sicily. ho returned to Athens. accord ing to Kpistle vii.

the death of Socrates. The picture of an ideal in in the harmonious tellect. after the death of Dionysius the elder (368 B. he did not refuse the invitation. he continued his scientific him till his death. considered as spurious even in antiquity. deity. apparently ended. from was only liberated by Archytas and his friends. s an author extends over more dialogues . he was invited by Dion to visit his successor. and the verdict is confirmed by his writings. is also expressed in those which the philosopher at a very early time myths by was brought into connection with the Delphian 40. beyond and continued to the end of his life.log PLATO. cheerfulness above the world of change and decay. which took had completed 1 (347 B. with almost unanimous veneration. time he found no sphere But when. he repeated On years afterwards. badly as the attempt at Dion s wish. we than . activity as It fifty years. All the works which he intended for publication have come down to us but in our collection not a little that is spurious Besides seven small is mingled with what is genuine.). when he place in 01. and. [ 39 meals. to Athens. some it.C.). of the tyrant brought which he the second occasion the suspicion Eeturning activity with unabated vigour into great danger. and doubt immediately after.C. 108. Plato s Writings. developed into moral beauty and elevated in Olympian equipoise of all its powers. which his writings present to us. Plato began apparently before. of his He renounced politics. because in the Athens for his action. Of his character antiquity speaks his eightieth year.

lt. the L. 54 ff. the Hippias 129 a collection of definitions. 1 & the Apology are referred to by Ari stotle inlTmanner so unmistakable that we can neither & Of these writings internal evidence. .lt. when we can prove that. apparently 598.Aristotelian ( the Timseus. &amp. any internal characteristics for must not distinguishing the genuine and spurious. the Cratylus. the Politicus. which is 1415 b. 14. cf. Index Aristotel. p. the Sophist. the Grorgias/the Meno. knew we can with a work only conclude that he is unacquainted because he does not mention it. and thirteen (perhaps eighteen) letters. the Menexenus in a part of the Rhetoric. doubt his acquaintance with these writings nor his The case is the recognition of their Platonic origin.40] PLATO S WRITINGS. and the Hippias Major. we 1 With regard On which see Bonitz. iii. the Protagoras and the Crito (44 A . &amp. but by part are supported not only by the witness of Aristotle. We the Lysis. 32). &amp. &amp.v\vs/ the Phsedrus. 14. The Republic. 15). if he had known it. the Philebus. But to he must have mentioned it this in fact we never can prove. 30). possess thirty-five dialogues. The Euthydemus is referred &amp. same with have less certainty in regard to Arist. maintained that Aristotle must But as it cannot be have mentioned all the works of Plato which he in the writings which have come down to us. the p. in a particular place. Plato and the Older Academy. are quoted by Aristotle as Plato s either by such a manner that their Platonic origin is name or in as assumed The Thea3tetus.-edo. 1247 b. to only in the Eudemian Ethics (vii. (&amp. certain. the Sympo Ph. the * Charmides. the Minor ).

F. ii. ill. 4. chap. Zeller. Natiirl. &amp. 1865. Aeclitu. Bitter. plat. Ph^edrus. or almost Eepublic. licit Grimdriss. K. ii. d. scholars the genuineness of the &amp. Plato s Ueler 1816. p. Untersiich. Prot Platonismiis. partly by the evidence of Aristotle and by references 1 Besides the numerous dison cussions separate works we may quote Schleiermacher. Die Sammlung d. Ent- Ast. Ideenlekre. Susemihl. 181 (sup. 1855 Munk. Grote. Stallin the introductions to his Steinhart in edition of Plato. 1855 f. Form der platonischen ScJiriften.130 PLATO. Socher. Plato s WerTte. . much century. ff. 1804 (2. Phil. the fact that on the [40 one overlook hand a clever imitation in an interpolated treatise would give the a impression of genuineness. Schr. Plato. Genet. and Timseus has been universally 6 1 universally acknowledged. . . Hermann Schriften. and Parmenides have been rejected by Socher and Schaarschmidt. H. &amp. d. Plato and the Older Academy. Plato s Werke libers. Miiller. &amp. The c Genet. 1861.lSG3f. note)-. 1850 ff. Schaarschmidt. leaving the last word unspoken . 1862.Thl. . 126. baum Brandis. Sclir. Aufl. Eibbing. 1816).lt. plat. Phaedo. Stein. Gesch. a. Politicus. 151 ff. 1866. d. So rich an intellect could not be restricted to one form of to content him exposition he may have had reasons in some of his dialogues with merely preparatory self discussions. By recent &amp. i. and his : views no less than his style changes in the course of half a may appear to us strange merely because we have no and rela acquaintance with his special circumstances tions. EntwicJd. Zeitfolge plat. Grorgias. ii. may have undergone Lastly. wield. 1857. v. 7 Biiclwr z. v. Suckow. Ordnuiiy d. and in part by Suckow and Ueberweg and Philebus the Cratylus by Schaarschmidt 4 the Meno and Euthydemus by Ast and Schaar schmidt but partly by their internal character. plat. 4 Thesetetus. Plato s Leben und Scliriften. and on the other even Plato cannot have produced works equally perfect. 1861. and . 1820.ii.

in K . the Alexandrian of the 6 lists (see Diog. but not one was written by Plato. may be defended as a work of youth.) Suckow. the Menexenus is justly given up by most authorities against the the Ion. The spuriousness Definitions is beyond doubt the t Letters are : the work of various authors and dates. Farm. the Euthyphro as an occasional treatise. and which was published. Prakt. Ast. * Lysis. Arist. D 2 ff. of the writings of Plato can only be fixed approximately in the case of a few by their relation to 1 The date certain events ff.). i. 14 C. 37). Strumpell i. iii. and the The the Alcibiades the Theages. Meno.. and the balance the II. and which d. 72 E f . Charmides. by Philippus of Opus (according to Diog.. Phil.. 457). i is strongly I. the the Clitophon are only defended by Grote Minos. for which we have good evidence. 6 Apology. sider] PLATO S WRITINGS. and Oncken ( Staatsl. 194 con must be regarded both on internal and external grounds as a work of Plato which he left un Crito. following my Platonic Studies. Hippias Major. on the ground of the supposed genuineness of the Anterastse. I attacked in The &amp. Epinomis. 5G ff. there is less difficulty still. which Ast considered un-Platonic. and Laches. they are proved to be genuine... Hipparchus. Laws. which Socher and Suckow rejected. 80 Pluedo. Gr. E ff. ff. 6 . not without alteration. which. 15 B. The Hippias Minor. ( Euthyphro. 129 B 130 are plainly referred to in Philebus. (&amp. Bibbing. 331 1 The same in Plato. and in regard to the &amp. Alcibiades &amp. On the other hand. the Apology and the Crito. holds good of the Critias.

or the tetralogies which Thrasylus (20 the A. or by see above). and in the most secure grounds are afforded by the references. all three as correct within effect however different their verdict on the upon the result. or the trilogies into which Aristophanes (about 200 B. from Plato s own development. Following these lines. With we this exception therefore of a few chronological data. are limited entirely to internal evidence .lt. and Hunk s assumption that the dialogues be arranged according to the age of Socrates in them breaks down entirely. No assistance can be derived for the decision of the question and the settlement of of each the order in which the various treatises were composed from the traditional classifications of the dialogues. in the dialogues to one another. or from the accidental relation of the various occasions and impulses which led to the composition of each work.132 &amp. c vn. 193 A).) into arranged fifteen of the dialogues. we can first of all assign a portion of the dialogues. or Meno. while re cent scholars have considered limits.. PLATO.D. with Hermann. the third by Socher and Ast . the second by Hermann.C. can be explained either by a certain arranged and the philosophic views set forth in each. direct or indirect. Next in importance is the character of the artistic To gather from one or the style and of the language.) arranged the whole. L40 & other a decisive criterion for the arrangement of the whole works of Plato is an attempt which hitherto has can failed. The first principle only has been regarded by Schleiermacher. A Thesetetus. to the Socratic . 90 . The order trustworthy statements ( Laws. Symp.

the as the final and culminating point in the agoras his travels to Egypt. xxxv.C. 6 Laches. 133 period of Plato. assigning more precise acquaintance with the Pythagorean philosophy to his Sicilian journey. the proofs of an acquaintance with Pythagorean- Thesetetus. the doctrines of ideas. Parmenides. the therefore. advanced essentially beyond the position of his This period seems to have come to an end with &amp. If. though the Phaedrus cannot. before the Grorgias. is s On the] PLATO S WRITINGS. in 402-3 B. of pre-existence. with if.). and in the dialectical dialogues Plato proceeds step by step in the investigations of which he had given a summary in the Phsedrus. the Crito. or Mus.C. in the still 4 Grorgias. in these . the Charmides. and the Theaetetus (not before 394). &c. 387-6 B. and &amp. and 4 Euthydemus. there is much to show that ( Kh. the Minor. Meno. series. to bring down the Phsedrus to the period subsequent to this. and the Prot Lysis. was it composed about 396 B.C. along with them. and Sophist. the dialectical dialogues ( Theuetetus.C. i. the Socratic period . the Apology. for which indeed there Plato no sufficient historical evidence. ism are too distinct to allow us to follow Hermann in Meno. and. and Gorgias in placing the Euthydemus. Cratylus. the Meno (which cannot have been written before 395 cf. immortality and the migration of souls. more definitely in the Politicus.) in the Megarian period. as yet to the period in which he had not teacher.e. with Schleiermacher. To it we may ascribe the Hippias the Euthyphro. A). and. Plato. On the other hand. 90 B. be regarded as the earliest treatise of placed. 131 Usener.

Philebus appear to be later. The whole conduct of man is to be penetrated and guided by the thoughts which the philosopher furnishes . and that~the only true knowledge is that which pro But he desires to ceeds from the science of concepts. 1876. cf. L40 reason (not is that he has in view a methodical foundation and development of his doctrine. he is convinced that this reform can only be founded upon knowledge. and was not published 41. The Symposium 385 B. the continu Critias.C.134 PLATO. his moral life is to be re formed by philosophy. but certainly not long after. Like Socrates. t Plato has not. Die develop this knowledge he first reviews all his predecessors among Greek philo and avails himself of all the points of contact sophers. Laws. and &amp.supplement philosophy of Socrates. owing which less perhaps to Plato is Sicilian travels. With the last-mentioned is connected the Kepublic. 193 A). . at once the continuation The Platonic philosophy and the is of the & a merely theoretic inquiry in view. and Divisions of the Platonic System. D. With this aim into a system. any more than his master. till after years. an unfinished work. Fraye. On the Republic is follows the ation of which the s Timseus. for there is no reason to break up this dialogue with Hermann and Krohn 1 into different and heterogeneous parts. Method. Phsedo.platon. as we see from the direct reference in 505 B. Staat. the most comprehensive work of Plato. 1 1878. &amp. The . The Character. . doubt a series of occupied the aged philosopher during his death. before.

Socrates forms the centre of the dialogue. and partly from artistic reasons.icjil principles of ideas . in working out his system. Socrates mode but only as an independent discovery. Out of the Socratic dialectic grows of his master a out of tKe~eEn&quot.41] THE PL ATOXIC SYSTEM. inas much as they are only introduced where the subject cannot be treated with exact scientific precision. no less than in the But at the same brilliant mimicry of many dialogues. Physics. time the myths point to the gaps in the system. he passes far beyond theHmilsTof the Socratic philo his doctrine sophy. . but the rules of this method are fixed more definitely. and above because philosophy as a living power can only be completely exhibited in the perfect philosopher. But the per sonal dialogue becomes artistic. 135 which they present then. Yet in the Platonic writings of developing ideas in dialogue is re because truth cannot be possessed as a tradition tained. detailed ethics and politics. and approaches more and more to continuous speech. and thus the way is prepared for the logic of Aristotle. and both are supple mented by a philosophy of Nature. The division of philosophy into Dialectic. It is due to this need of forming a system that not only is the scientific method of Socrates extended in fact in the* direction of the formation of concepts and their development. partly from feelings of affec tionate regard. yet fills up the most remarkable deficiencies in the Socratic philosophy in harmony with his whole point of view. all This exposition is enlivened by the myths in which Plato s poetical nature is exhibited. which though inferior in importance to the other branches. .

[4l and Ethics (cf.. ( Meno. space in the writings of his earliest years. hand. the In order to justify philosophy and define its pur poses. practical character is expressed in ordinary virtue and seeks in the common principles of morality. The Propcedeutic Foundation of Platonic Philosophy. Tim. Plato points out deficiencies both in the ordinary consciousness and in the sophistical illumination which sought to usurp its place. is found in fact though not in form in Plato but these systematic inquiries are in ferior to the propaedeutic. is not conscious of its principles . This ception.136 PLATO. 97 ff. it does not rest on instruction but on simple persuasion. These deficiencies can only be met by philosophic knowledge and life. and therefore under the most variable and opposite forms. but presentation may be true or false.) The case is the same . which occupy the largest . 51 E. even though correct in regard to what is pre sented. Theaet. 42.) Presentation. nor in right presentations. on the other ( . and recur in the later works.. Know ledge is always true. Ordinary consciousness in its theoretic it side is consciousness truth partly in per making presentations . 5Q). partly in presentation or opinion (Sofor). 187 ff. Plato shows on his part that knowledge does not consist in perception. Sym. Even right presentation is only midway between knowledge and ignorance. 202. and is always in danger of being transformed into error. 151 E ff &c. Perception does not show us things as they are but as they appear to us. Theaet.

that pleasure is the highest object of and that everything eyes. over truth. which a man should make the ff.) To maintain life. . Hence in his s \ earlier writings.). Socrates. for action is It is always governed by the views of the person -acting. 170 f. pleasure and profit (&amp. Plato. 334 B ff.) of his life. asserted.42] FOUNDATION OF PLATO S SYSTEM. Meno. 362 E ff. its 89 D if. The principle that man is the measure of and that what seems true to a throws all man is all things. it is entirely at the mercy of accidents (Osla Ifc i fjLOipa. only knowledge which can furnish a secure guarantee for the correctness of action . including the proof of the principle so (&amp. i. 137 according to Kesting on custom and right presentation. true for him. and no one is voluntarily evil. But insight is not to be found among Like 68 Socrates. On the contrary. and therefore without real teachers.). . is permitted to a man which is right in his to confound the good with the pleasant. not on 82. is so uncertain of own enemies and good to friends) so impure in its motives that it has no other foundations for moral claims than Rep. and to which he should sacrifice every object thing else. that it permits evil as well as good (evil to . But he does not say whether and how far it is possible to speak of a plurality of virtues. their teaching would destroy all the foundations of science as well as of morality. like to insight. ii.. 177 ff. B as that alone the Sophists who come forward as the moralists of their time. also. refers all virtr he explains insight ( Phsedo. Pkto with ordinary virtue. the is essential and unchangeable with the phenomenal.. &c. ciples prin

It is philosophy the sensual to the intellectual. 223 E &amp. or scientific Gorg. Phileb. and rhetoric. But ideas are Symp. from the individual to the general. &amp. . [ 42 which admits of no fixed limitation.. is as a rule conditioned ff. inferior. ff. This &amp. 264 D ff Ph^do. This division brings us down by natural intermediaries from the general to the particular. Eep. (&amp.). but he puts these principles in more precise ff. vii. It forms concepts by which we rise from the individual to the general. in the intuition and exposition of the concepts Plato follows the same principles as his master. c thought has a double mission. 348 vi. 23 Rep. Pheedr. pain. (&amp. 505 C. by its Gorg. which puts appearance in the place of reality. 201 D ff known by means of thinking in concepts or dialectical thought (Sia\SKTLfC7) /jisOoSos. can only be sophistic. and and thus instructs us in the mutual relation of concepts. their arrangement as In the formation of superior.) which maintains these doctrines.138 PLATO. .. which gives them a practical application. A . 259 E ff. and can only be regarded as a sort of second ary art. 243 E ff. . . 533 C). 232 ff. . the effort of the mortal to win immor tality. f. Soph.) and philosophy only which renders the service promised by sophistic. The root of philo sophy is Eros. (&amp. 462 ff. and it divides them. i. 488 ix. . which attains its proper aim by the progress from ff. the possibility or impossibility of uniting them . Such a principle mingles that which has an absolute value with what may be good or bad. 583 Hence regarded as the opposites of the true art of life and science .lt. 466 ff... 254 A ff. or co-ordinate. the conditioned to the unconditioned.

.). which in the presuppositions by Parinenides assumes the form of a development of special concepts by antinomies. 401 B vii. Philosophy in his view of it not only includes all knowledge when this is pursued in the correct manner. according to 17 A. means for this object is 139 found in the testing of their consequences. it is a mistake to from words conclusions which are only warranted gather has to describe. 537 C. Kep. shows in the Cratylus. vii. is exactly the distinction between SiaXs/cTi/cws 1 rovs \6yovs). 16 B ff. . and proceed progressively without omitting Phileb. ff. any intermediate step (this. 511 B. vi.: Polit.. Soph. man out of the life of t&quot.42] FOUNDATION OF PLATO S SYSTEM. is iii.). lie. the dialectician has as Plato and spio-TiKws iroielo-Oai on the correctness of expression in since on this entirely depends the extent to language. merely a preparation 521 C ff. but it also secures the unfailing ful filment of moral duties. . 376 E ff. education 514 ff. which accustoms a man to do what is 1 The chief passages in support of this are: Phtfdr. which he sets forth the nature of the things which be also to decide On the other hand. 251 ft . 265 C ft. entire It is the elevation of the . by the concept of the senses the application of the intellect to the idea : all other cultivation and for it ( . 135 C. But as knowledge by concepts and moral action were most closely united by Socrates.. whether it be the cultivation of the character by music and gymnastics. In regard to classification he demands that it should rest in the qualitative difference of things. . ii. so also in Plato. Parm. Hence dichotomy But is preferred before any other kind of division. 262 ff P/tilcb. 533 C f.

the truth of our con is conditioned by the reality of their and keeps step with it. ( Eep. Tim. v. or ideas. there Theaet. tic). in the forms of things. as Heracleitus had shown. that only Being.eye(r0cu ouSe OTTOL eaii/ e|et. . can be known . Dialectic. 51 D. . owing to the presupposition in which Plato agrees with Parmenides (see supra. All that we perceive. 1 and exhibits none of elf its qualities avr)]v pure and elj/a:. . which are mainly concerned in leading men from what is sensuous The peculiar organ of philo to what is not sensuous. and 43. ideas of scientific thought.) 51 1 D fore. dialec ideas are the essential object of this thought. E flf. vi. as such. av jj/t] . This principle arose out of the Socratic. it is ever alternating between two opposite conditions. 188 D. 476. [42 right and love what is beautiful .n 8iaA.) From this point of view the reality of ( ceptions therefore &amp. ^ rpe ^ei ryv t5eW rwv OVTOIV . p.. and maintains that it is only by reflection in further. that true and original Being can be 4 concepts. or the cultivation of thought by the mathematical sciences. must be as distinctly separated from what is presented as thinking from forming presentations. Socrates had explained that only the knowledge of Plato goes concepts guarantees a true knowledge. eatrei et^Tj rcav &VT(av OVTW r^v TOV TravTdTra&amp. 61). object. is subject to cease less change. f. the contemplation of becomes the necessary condition of the possibility The same result follows from 1 Being as such.140 PLATO. 135 B. ye ris 877 fKaffrov r^jv ael Kal . sophy is the art of thinking by concepts (that is. What is thought. or the Doctrine of Ideas.

in that which is found in common makes up the concept common assume one idea when we denote things by one Theset. 523 C ff. on the other hand. 8 S. 1 in a series of individual things. 1086 a 35 if. Metaph. of separate name (&amp.43] PLATO S DIALECTIC. 6. . 990 b. and We B . a such (as perhaps the soul. and in like manner all our activity should be directed to some rational aim.. consistent. of which Ritter and others believed this to hold good) con_nj5ver 1078 b. ISsa the two are identical in meaning).lt. things become that which is they are only by the common All that so. 507 B i. it is unchangeable originals of things in the belief of Plato. Rep. 74. vii. sible to the vi. 131 E Phileb. 54 . cf. . fP. As is clear from what we have said. in the general. These objects can only lie in the realisation of that in which thought discovers the because apprehended in the concept. separate thing as 990 b. xiii. if. 596 A. 141 That only can be lasting. 596 A Tim. . ground to distinguish the non-sensuous essence of things as the only true Being from their appearance as objects of sense. . 78 D f. . as Anaxagoras and Socrates taught. &c. 9. are compelled on every 1 Hence. 176 init. x. cf. to them all. iapli. a number &amp. A . 185 4. 9.. and free from admixture with everything else which is inacces entire. nature which is phenomenal it is good that it should be so (the world. 1 PJttrtlo.. Arist. that is individual has and known by thought only. Theirt.. Parrn. 132 C Arist. is the work of reason). 68 E Parm. Me- B-103 C Hep. 6. v. 30. 27 E. E.) . 478 E ff. f. has its object in a Being. 9. xiii. we in concepts. &amp.. All number and parts but individual .e. i. x. i. . 97 P . Plato sees this essence of things in their form (sl&os..

&amp. & whose contention with Antisthenes turns on this point (see p. the self-existence. &c. is accustomed to denote them. 46 if. 507 B hence in Aristotle not only avrb rb aya66v. only 493 E. They are named the scmv ov. 118). and in a word 2 aurb e/cao-Toi/. but separate from it and only to be contemplated with the intelli (xcopls). or ova-la. 507 B). 100 Tim. this universal does not exist merely in our thought or in It exists purely for itself the thought of the Deity. 51 . we can 1 had time of the Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic schools till now. vi. owes what reality it possesses. Farm. and CLVT}. f. 28 A.. ideas are also termed Thus they are evdSes or povdSes ( Phileb. 51 B. .Q&v.&amp. I . 507 B Phsedo. 78 D. . eTTifTTTjUTj. with Heracleitus find nothing but a becoming. 211 Kep. 15 A f. x. to which everything ^copio-rd and it is due to . 597 B cannot be quoted in its favour : An assumption which many adherents from has the Farm. aurb rb a-ya66v. Kep. 52 if. 133 Phileb. A . 65 D. this independent existence that they are the only true and original elements of that becomes or changes reality. subject Und in PLATO. &amp. If in the world of the senses unchangeable to change. vi. Phcedo. & : ficao-rov. & having unity 132 C & avTodv6pa)iros. cwrb /caAoV. to the plurality of things. 132 B: Tim. b 2 of things.) the are as Aristotle . avroCf. it is the eternal pattern of 1 that which participates in it. avroaya. 131 E. and because there is the essence (an sich) one idea of each class of things ( Farm. 78 D aurbs 8e&amp. B B . .r&amp. But according to Plato. 12i b. Bonitz. Symp. .lt.. in the same form. 123 b. c. as opposed.r7roT7]S & ecm . and is always to no change of any kind . Arist. *v /ecu ov. aurb TO Ka\6v. Plato expressly opposes it Farm. avToeKaarov. gence 135 A ideas (&amp.a7pa aurr? -rj 0e/a. the OVTWS ov. C 43 be an idea.). 62 fffriv D A . vi. Hep. but also avrb aya6bv. .

Phredo as the &amp. and in the Parmenides Plato indirectly contradicts both &amp. and are at once limited In the same way the unchangeability must not be taken to mean that it is impos them as the causes of what becomes and changes. is. . includes in spite of its unity a plurality of ! qualities. 143 Parmenides real ideas present to us Being. as admitting no distinctions. (99 D ff. This form of exposition is not found in his writings.) Plato actually denotes the ideas causes by which all that is. In his later period he followed the Pytha goreans in designating the ideas as numbers (cf. like whom he so highly honoured. the assumption that there is only plurality without unity. otherHence in every concept we must ask what are being). in the Sophist (244 B ff.Kep. found the Being But he does not regard this object of science. but vii. where with a distinct reference to the doctrine (and Philolaus not Pythagorean only things but of one particularly) he arguesthat also the unified eternal esseaces more consist and unlimited. shows that everything that has Being. and in the & cause of According 517 B.e. though he approaches to it in the Philebus (14 C). like the Being of the Eleatics . of all Being and knowledge. the other concepts with which it can or cannot combine. and in being distinct from everything else it possesses an infinite amount of not-being (i. 251 all 508 E.43] PLATO S DIALECTIC. It is only from them that what is change able receives the Being which it possesses. as a definite object. of ideas sible to conceive and many. in which alone he &amp. and the assumption that there is only unity without plurality. the idea of good is the 50).. to vi.

not of writings we find ideas substances only. and with him this dynamic must be kept conception of ideas as operative powers in the rear of the ontological conception. E f. and in the Philebus coincident with the good ( Phil. the slave-in-himself the idea of filth. forth systematically . and to set their relation the mission of science (see p. relations and activi creations ties . tice.144 PLATO. to one All these ideas stand in a definite relation another. bad and the cause from which &amp. must be assigned (248 A ff. comes place order and reason in the world occupies the Phil. regarded as operative life.). but of what is find the great-in-itself. to show that true Being is which therefore motion. 138).. 26 elsewhere taken by the ideas all (&amp. &c. itself. word. the Yet not only is the thought of an a priori construction of this system of . 28 C ff. p. in which they are the unchangeable forms of things. not only of what is valuable. but of qualities. How this and reason can be har monised with the unchangeability of ideas Plato has not attempted to show.period not-being. injus It was not till his later . Still more definitely does the Sophist force. but of the of art .). soul. 142). that Plato limited ideas to natural objects (cf. the becl-inthe double-in-itself. As the ideas are nothing else than general ideas raised to a separate existence as metaphysical realities. not of natural things only. We . is [43 the Pivine reason 22 C). and denoted by a corresponding This conclusion was drawn by Plato. 23 C f. there must be ideas of everything which can be referred to a general concept. In his of all possible things.

Matter. For! ( Phgedo. Kep. Though each under it idea is are infinite in number one. Stob. But the question whether the good. best so . which like all ideas is a universal. good as the absolute ground of all Being is coincident with the Deity. just as presentation. vii. of is and unchangeable. concepts 145 unknown to Plato. is vi. he speaks All that is at length (&amp. gives to the existent its reality and to him who knows his capacity for reason and his the knowledge. 504 is. but he hardly makes any at to set it forth It is only of the logically. indeed For Plato. Plato this thought assumes the that the good is shape the final ground of all and is the Being knowledge . with it (&amp. idea so. though the what it is. supreme apex. that tempt &amp.~it idea of good which. but things waver between Being and not-being. can be at once the in the world as it because it is 517 B). therefore. Plato s Physics. and thus become a person. 58). things are regarded as deri perishable. and in constant change. &amp. he never inquired about the personality of God. the things which come . which is described precisely as Being. i. and is explained to be identical (&amp. elevated above both. 22 C. and it is only really conceived when it is referred to the good as its final object 97 B).PLATO S E ff. Eel. though the ideas are eternal vative. 37 A). 44. Tim. pure and complete. and the World-soul. are never .lt. and as the highest idea must be the most universal and the highest class. which as such is called the idea of good. things Ideas possess complete Being.. Plato never raised . 28 C.

and unknowable. following Aristotle. as something which cannot be known by them thought or perception. 13). but lies at the base of all the changing forms of phenomena. had already placed empty space on an equality with not-being.). For Leucippus and Democritus is said. 8. as describes it as the unlimited ( Phil. 201 b. as (according to Aristotle). can only be explained that it of its only springs in part from the idea. Pliys. we are accustomed matter. to call the Platonic He or. i. to have spoken of it simply as not-being. ever-changing. 2. Eude- nms in Simpl. that Plato ! according to Aristotle and Hermo6 dorus (ap. 57 E. distinguishes the phenomena of sense It can only be thought of as unlimited. but about which only laborious conclusions can be drawn (by a &quot. L44 which they are the object. 248. 20. while part another and different origin is derived from principle. 192 a. Plato believes. cf . . Simpl. or presentation. the nature of the second principle can only be sought in that which from the idea. as space (^copa) which allows room to all that becomes . 6 .gt. As all that it from the pleteness springs possesses of reality and com idea. wavers between knowledge and ignorance. and includes . 431. iii. Phys. Tim. 52 E. 9. 24 A ff. finitions which Plato ascribes to that basis of sensuous existence which. and all the Being is derived from the 1 PJnjs.Xoyio-fios vo6os&amp.148 PLATO. he asserted later and small . and also Tim. 36. These are the de non-existent. 191 b. 49 A to 52 D). This incompleteness of sensuous exist from the fact ence. It harmonises with this. as the great that which is in itself formless. and if Being and not-being are mingled in sensuous things.

To carry this theory ( was f. there is nothing to prevent us from supposing that the condensation of space into matter is one of those mythical traits in which the Timseus is so rich.14] PLATOS PHYSICS. bodies are formed when certain portions of space are thrown into the shapes of the four elements. Hence by Plato s matter we have to understand not a mass filling space but space itself. 477 A) is the object of knowledge by Though it is said to be not-being which distinguishes the same. things from ideas. difficult and in another place Tim. Deity. 147 idea..). That it is not a corporeal mass out of which they arise in this manner is clear from the assertion when they change into one another they are broken into their smallest plane dimensions in order to be up that compounded anew out out strictly of these. but is otherwise without chaotic mass moving without cannot in form and definition (/Tim. 52 D i rule. object of presentation and perception. 45). the real in both is Things L 2 . be known in either way must be not-being. or matter. i He never mentions it as that arise. 69 B) he represents the matter as if the when engaged in the formation of the elements. If we must make some distinction between this form of exposition and 5 Plato s own opinion. 49 E ff. and that which hovers between Being and not-being is the which cannot. had found all that is visible already in existence as a 30 A. that v. out of which but only that in which things According to him (cf. only not-being is left for the second constituent element. . for it would not suit any with a mass which fills space. &amp. If true being (according to Eep. But this description case be taken strictly.

Besides that which things bring into life from ideas. KOivwvia). or carry neither from ideas. but to sity. From 176 E. for the copies.). there is in them a second element to which we must also attribute a being. or attempt to unite both into an harmonious whole. these are this point of view the Platonic system. all [44 owe the being they have to the presence (jrapova-ia) of ideas and to their participation in But as. an intermediating member is needed to combine the two. Tim. TheaBt. 98 realising them ( Tim. The soul alone. and this member can only be the soul. as the element . though 1 not pantheistic or emanations monistic.148 PLATO. for ideas are separate from things and things But its peculiar nature can only be when it is known why Plato did not aban recognised don one or the other of these views. not-being is which the corporeal the source of all the qualities by is distinguished from the incorporeal. B the being of ideas. 46 C f. &c.). we must recog nise in them a second kind of causality besides that of the ideas and the causality of a blind. them (/xeflffts. from another the : first Ideas and things appear separate are the patterns (TrapaSsly^ara. the conditions of their realisation.. out without regard to the other. for things are im From the other point of view it is dualistic. 56 C . only of a different kind from ff. pure idealism. irrational neces not to the natural aims. which is related. on the other hand. If the corporeal is separated from the idea by such a wide interval as Plato assumes. of the numerous ideas are not parts a supreme idea is nevertheless It is a manent in ideas. 28 C. and limits reason in Phaedo. 48 A..

in which. 30 A). the power of thought /cwrforscos) for which moves and life(a/)^r/ can be the source of movement and presentation in individual natural beings. and moving measure . and unites both. be brought about Phaed. itself all It includes in it the relations of number and the world. &amp. 891 E ff.. like ideas. veiled amid &amp. &amp.) the same position which is here taken by the world-soul is assumed by the Limit all (irspas) which is also said to be the basis of order and measure and in the Aristotelian account of the Platonic doctrines (see infra. it by virtue of its own original in the soul the moving and enlivening power. the form. Only by its intervention can reason be planted in the world. The question of its rationality is and obviously personality not so much as raised by Plato. their close rela tionship cannot be mistaken. but spread abroad through the world. is the connecting link between idea and same. x. (&amp. Tim. however. Here. But though Plato has not put them both on the same level. by mathematics. much that is fantastic. creates all the regularity and harmony of All reason and knowledge in the universe its and in the individual are caused by knowledge. and the order of the universe. 245 C. Phileb.. the study of which even in Plato himself forms the transition to the study of ideas. 30 A f.41] PLATO S PHYSICS. Laws. . 50). the true meaning seems to be that the soul stands midway between ideas and the corporeal It is incorporeal and ever the world. In the Philebus (25 A ff. 149 the corporeal world. The Timasus gives a description of the formation of the wqric^spul.

Plato in his Timseus &amp. more the distinction of the creator from the ideas (or of the ideas) is part of the exactly from the highest not appear exoteric traits (cf. he has not he is chiefly occupied for his object. its In order to explain the world from its ultimate avails himself of the cus sources. [ 45 45. and peoples it with organic of this exposition mythical to a only are the details the whole is cast in such a mythical great extent. versal. in That he recognises the true cause of the world is beyond doubt. but reason. We this notion with that idea. of the world in the shape of the he takes the matter the four elements. and the deity. in ideas. Though he does the notion of a beginning of the consciously to use the thought world in time as a mere form for clothing of all things upon ideal sources. of the dependence other is in striking contradiction to yet this notion to the eternity of definitions in his doctrine. especially must therefore assume that in the human spirit. but form that it is difficult to state accurately how much of it expresses Plato s own scientific conviction. The Universe and Parts. represents the creator the soul of of the world (Srjfuovpyos) as compounding to the world from its constituent elements in reference He Then the pattern of the living being (the avro^wov). p. and out of these finally constructs But not creatures.150 PLATO. The more important in his eyes is the Uni As the work of reason the world is con- . tomary form of a but is necessary whether the origin of the world in time in or in itself conceivable. quired. world. 144).

and the precedence given to the first. When the elements pass into one another (as is possible into only among the three higher) they are decomposed the triangles. and teleological than on the physical Timseus he expresses this by the external in the &amp. separation of the two. for only be truly material causes are merely they are impossible. and formed anew out of them (p. then. and earth. explained by the conditions without which final causes. Plato therefore places a much higher value on the view of nature. by the revolution of which they are carried round. which must consist of two proportionals. air. For From the teleological these Plato gives two sources. the four elements. the stars are fixed in spheres or rings (as seems to be the case with the planets). 147). by The world is regarded by Plato as a complete orb . Phenomena can 151 structed with an object. 53) he denotes four of the five regular bodies as the base-forms of fire. because we have here to do with bodies and with Philolaus (p. Each element has a natural locality towards which it strives and all the space in the world is entirely filled the whole sum of them. The first step towards the construction of a world was the formation of the material. . . When all the stars return to their . the earth ls~a~ solid orb resting in the middle . and he also de mands a link between the two. water. out of which their limiting planes are composed. point of view he requires fire and earth as a condition of the visibility and tangibility of bodies . passing beyond he constructs these bodies from the most minute right-angled tri angles.[45 THE UNIVERSE AND ITS PARTS.

the most perfect and glorious of created things.) and the &amp. but cf p. by its power of self-movement the origin of motion in the body. it is 1 have descended from a higher world into the earthly body. the avro^Mov. The soul of man is in its man only has an inde on plants and animals he merely bestows a few occasional remarks of no great importance. 102 Tim. 41 D f. if their lives have been 1 C f Meno. like pattern. 245 Phado. 69 C f. 149. the great world-year (of 10. 677 A ff. and in like manner the Cosmos is the one perceivable god. includes in itself all kinds of pendent interest . It is part of the perfection of the world that its it. they return after death. of immortality in . Plato s Anthropology. According to Phcedr. including in himself all other natures. 46. for Plato &amp.000 years) its course. With this cycle Plato possibly connects those devastations of the earth by fire and water which he assumes in the Timseus (22 C ff. and what follows . physio stand in any close connection with logical assumptions the Platonic nature homogeneous with the soul of the universe. In the Timaeus he enters into special detail about the human body yet few of these living beings. the copy of the super-sensuous.. But of these . [45 has run original position.). . from which it springs ( Phil. Being of a simple and incorporeal nature &amp. Otherwise in the from the proof Timceus. The stars are rational blessed inseparably connected with the idea of life it has neither end nor As the souls beginning. 30 A. the ( visible gods.). Laws (iii.152 PLATO. 86 A.

is which is eternal. D Rep. Tim. through the assumption of future retri bution with his ethics and theology.46] PLATO S ANTHROPOLOGY. for Plato On the other hand. x. or explain as merely metaphorical and conventional what he declares to be his most distinct tions scientific conviction . 153 pure and devoted to higher objects. with his entire meta above The proofs for what is said are found besides the Pita-do. Yet they express his con and it is only in regard to the migration of question arises souls that the whether he seriously souls into the bodies of assumed the entrance of human animals. while those who need correction in part undergo punishments in another world. Die ylatoniscke Fraye. G08 C ff . . which vary greatly. The further discussion of these principles Plato has given in mythical expositions. Meno. the attempt to disclaiir the assumption of personal immortality and 2 pre-existence compels us not only to alter the explana and proofs of the philosopher in the most unjusti fiable manner. to this higher world. 1876. and in part migrate through the bodies of men and animals. perishable. Gorg. inPhfrdr. Teichm Ciller. 41 given for immortality 215 C ff. where five proofs are 1 80 D ff. which physics. and the corporeal. it also overlooks the fact that the belief in through immortality in Plato is closely connected the doctrine of reminiscence with his theory of knowledge.. 107 If. In its earlier it is existence our soul has seen the ideas of which reminded by the sight of their sensuous 1 copies. in regard to which he indicates himself that he ascribes no scientific value to the details. - . . ff. through the oppo sition between the intellectual. 523 . St it (lien ztir Gesch. viction. der Begriffe (1875) s. ff .

617 E. x. no indication how we are to unite with &amp. . vovs). 904 B).154 PLATO. how there can be an inclination to the world of sense in a soul which is free from corporeal ele ments. courage and the desires (TO sTridv/jbrjTiKov als Eeason has her seat in the head.. Nor do we find in him any inquiries into the will. yet we have this the Socratic is principle. . to which part self-consciousness and volition belong. Plato s Ethics. 47. 86 (&amp. nature of self-consciousness and the assumes clearly the freedom of the will and x. v. equally distinctly expressed. voluntarily evil Tim. 860 D ff. 358 B). 22 C . 4 E ff. ix.Prot. Plato s Ethics received their scientific form and ideal his character from the connection into which the ethical with principles of his teacher were brought own . iv. It nature. 77 B &amp. &amp. 72 D D ff. ( Kep. 435 B Phsedr. 246). 345 D. But in what 69 C f.. ff. not till it has entered the body is it connected with the mortal part. if he 619 B. which again falls into two sections. that no one &amp.Tim. .lt. how bodily conditions and procreation can have the deep influence on the characters of men which Plato on these questions Plato gives us no ascribes to them help. . Meno. Laws. alone is the divine and immortal part of it . 734 B. &amp. Tim. courage in the heart. desire in the lower body ( Kep. [46 In accordance with these views Plato can only look for the peculiar essence of the its 6 soul in its intellectual reason (\OJLO-T IKOV. Phileb. 731 C . relation the unity of personal life stands to this triple division of the soul.

and sensual on the elevation into that higher world. he does not require insensibility. and is the source desires and all disturbances of intellectual activity. The as true mission of from this man. 176 A. just as. which has received its irrational elements of all through combination with it. is the grave~and prison of the soul. 155 in its true metaphysics and anthropology.). regards world. other hand. 61 ff. As the soul nature belongs to the world above the senses. but a lsp_pleasure so far as this is compatible with health of mind . This is the point of view from which Plato proceeds in his principles about Eros (p. on the other hand. the which forms the possession of the good or happiness of human effort can only be obtained by final goal The body.) so far as the visible is a copy of the invisible. an approach to the divine nature. that philosophic death to which the Phsedo reduces the life of the But. x. and art. for even though he seeks the most valuable &amp. but mastery of and moderation in feeling. philosopher (64 A-67 B. 138). he desires to part of the good in reason and insight. so . therefore. As in this he 603 recognises the importance of externals for men.47] PLATO S ETHICS. and in the inquiry in the Philebus into the summum bonum (the result is given in Phil. right presentation. it is a for duty to use the sensuous phenomenon as a means an intuition of the idea. when treating of pain ( Kep. his conception not only knowledge gained by adopt into experience. .). E f. and in that only can find a true and lasting existence. and to introduce obtaining the ideas into objects of sense. on the other hand. lies in that escape which the Thesetetus.

this 410 B ff. Eep. 401 B f. It is the rule of the divine in men over the animal. punished For as being the beauty and health of the soul. . 353 A ff.. ix. Charmides. Theset. 443 C ff. Plato at first adhered closely Ordinary virtue he does not recognise as virtue at all. i. and maintains that not only are they one. p. 376 E. iv. c and (96 Protagoras (cf. and in the (ii.156 PLATO. 177 B ff. on the contrary. D ff. his virtue.. which makes us and . in Plato. but the just man would be absolutely happier than the unjust if he were treated by gods and men like the unjust. [47 the essential condition of his happiness is. because it is not founded on insight. to Socrates. he reduces all virtues to insight. right presentation. it brings its reward with it as vice brings its punishment. and the justice unjust received the reward of the just. but they can be taught. 609 B ff. 583 B if.) free rich. anoTo for a 5e&quot. &c. and as such the only thing and assures us lasting peace and repose of mind ( Gorg. In his theory of virtue. But even in the Meno . sentation can incite us to virtue.~ better than to go unpunished..) he recognises in which rests merely on habit and incomplete virtue. This view is found in the Laches. To do in is worse than to suffer injustice. This is so not only owing to the reward whicrTTs as sured to virtue in this world and the next. 1 37 ).) he allows that besides knowledge right pre Republic iii. exclusively his intellectual and moral nature. virtue is misdeed is at once happiness ... the indispensable preparation for the higher virtue which is founded on scientific knowledge. But now he not only allows that the capacities for . but. x. 504 A if.

force of will. sensuality. and part of the soul fulfils its mission it ( the whole extent of this relation. and his recognition of slavery. 157 morality. principal virtues he enumerates four.). yet in other respects. vi. which he is the sible for first to establish and explain. Plato has not attempted to : in develop this scheme into a complete system of ethics his occasional expressions on moral activities and duties he puts the ethics of his people before us in its noblest form . when every and does not overstep iv. and power of thought ( Bep. we have courage . iv. just as the number also appears to have been first fixed by him. . and if he sometimes goes beyond it. When the spirit maintains the decision of the reason on that which or is is not to be feared. Wisdojn consists in the right quality of the reason. the quiet and eager temperament ( and dvSpsla. Polit. inasmuch as he assigns to each of the unity Of these principal virtues a special place in the soul.47] PLATO S ETHICS. 435 E. as in forbidding us to do evil to an enemy. as in his conception of marriage. and against pleasure and pain. 441 C ff.). 306 f. he is unable to break through its fetters. self-control (aco^pocrvvTj) means the harmony which justice is is of all the parts of the soul on the question to command and which is to obey. 487 A) are unequally apportioned in individuals and whole nations. Rep. 415. his contempt of manual labour. iii. but his psychology makes it also pos him to combine a plurality of virtues with the of virtue.

on the con pass almost entirely He is carries back political duties to moral. The civic life is as a rule mainly i necessary because it is the only means to maintain virtue in the world and raise it to the sovereign place Rep. and even in the part in politics ( Rep. 500 D. and only in the second place for the com Under existing circum Symp.). &c. they while the old Greek conception allows moral duties to into political. [48 48. stances he finds no room for the philosopher to take a 488 A ff. . and the happiness of the is citizens . its chief mission (&amp.158 PLATO. 490 E ff. the education of the people in virtue Gorg. 372 D & the rule of the philosopher ( Rep. A f. Plato. Polit. knowledge and philo Thus the first condition of every sound polity is sophy. 293 C). 6 Rep. 521 D ff. Plato s Politics.. 473 This rule must be absolute and 500 B). It is a truly Hellenic trait in Plato s Ethics that But are closely connected with his Politics. munity ( ideal State which he 347 I offers to he regards such participation as a sacrifice the community ( Rep.. C c &amp. which comes to the All true virtue rests in scientific same thing. convinced with Socrates that man should labour first for himself. . 369 B ff. . 309 C.) a society which was limited to the satisfaction of those needs (like the natural state of a State ( of the Cynics) does not deserve the name Rep. trary.).). 216 A).lt.. . 464 B f. or. 272 B). Thus the essential object of this ( life is virtue. the dominion of philosophy. Though in the first instance it arises out of physical needs ( 6 Rep. Polit. 519 C ff.

the abso lute rule of the competent persons. 294 A ff. the acquisition of money ( Rep. 428 E. or philosophers. 415 these functions f. and inasmuch as he also presupposes (Rep. and to protect the State ex ternally. 159 for can only be entrusted to the few who are capable of] PLATO S POLITICS. The constitution of is therefore an aristocracy. The State takes care that the citizens shall be begotten by the best parents under . and artisans.) that the capacity for as a rule hereditary. 293 A. 373 D ff. form a third lation.Polit. But in order that the two higher classes may discharge their mission satisfactorily (the aristocratic philosopher cares for the third order and its banausic arrange little ments) their education and the arrangements of their life must be entirely conducted by the State.). the division of the three orders approaches to a distinction of castes. as he had apportioned the virtues of the individual soul. but its special motive lies in the con viction that only a minority are capable of cultivation for the higher political functions is . 433 ff. Plato himself compares them to the three parts of the and apportions the virtues of the community to them. to the three parts of the soul (427 D ff.).f)v\aKEs. 428 D). philosophy is not a matter for the multitude (&amp. In order to give the ruling. the Platonic State Eep.. Pol it. restrained by no law ( Eep. 297 A ff. . sTTircovpoi) must while the mass of the poputhe agriculturists. the order of warriors (&amp. order excluded from all political activity and confined to be added to it as a second 1 .lt. order the necessary power. This separation of orders Plato founds on the principle of the division of labour.). and directed to its aims.

and regards them not only as wholesome but as capable of being carried out. the members of which conduct the of the State in succession. is be yond a doubt. in which (cf.).160 PLATO. and from regarding it as the means of realis existence ing the idea. 162) even the women participate. . the ultimate basis lies in the fact that the whole character of his system prevents the philosopher from seeing in the sensual and individual side of human anything more than a hindrance to true morality. viii. This State cannot be explained merely by &amp. just as they subsequently It trains the future share in civic and martial duties. the pattern of Spartan or Pythagorean arrangements. ix. or by opposition to the excesses of the Attic democracy . with these proposals. except his own. 5 .lt. many years of practical side. 300 ff. [48 the most favourable circumstances music it gives them by and gymnastic an education. in order that after activity. &c. mathematical sciences and dialectic for governors by their duties. when they have been approved on every highest they may in their fiftieth year be adopted into the order. Eep. cf. for by the removal of private property. and four in Eep. the State cuts asunder the roots of those private interests which are the hereditary foes of the That Plato is quite in earnest unity of the State. . management For the rest of their lives they are compelled to belong wholly to this order. All other kinds of constitution. he regards as perversions (he enumerates six in Pol. p. and the family.. 449 A.

&c. though M . and Hellenic myths as the first foundation of instruction. and expresses himself very severely on the numerous immoralities of mythology. had never raised the question of the personality of God. which are quite unworthy of divine beings ( Rep. he wishes to retain the Hellenic religion as that of his State. 40 D).). 377 E. they pass the more easily beyond the strict consistency of his system. belief in world is are conceived His more popular utterances about (rod or the gods in the same sense. above all. the Cosmos and the stars as visible gods. in which the Deity coincides with the idea of good. the. and their works took the place of revealed documents when is also of view. while the philosopher does not conceal the fact that he regards the gods of mythology as creatures of imagination ( Tim. providence with the conviction that the the work of reason and the copy of the idea. Plato s Vieivs 161 on Religion and Art.49] PLATO S RELIGION AND ART. while divine worship is one with virtue and knowledge. Besides the deity in the absolute sense we find the ideas denoted as eternal gods. Plato s own religion is that philosophic monotheism. and. the theatre bore an important part in religious worship art and religion stood in the closest interconnection. Nevertheless. In regard to his belief in providence especially and in his theory of divine justice. 49. because he never critically compared the form of that belief in concep more tion and in presentation. Plato s attitude towards the religion and art of his nation determined by moral and political points In an age when poets were theologians.

is By this canon the public guidance and the to be directed. he cannot properly esti mate pure art. In the Socratic manner the conception of the beautiful is referred to the conception of the good without any more art as subtle analysis of its peculiar nature. What he requires is not the expulsion but the reform of the national religion. Precisely because he is himself a philosophic artist. ness of vice.162 PLATO. and be treated as a means of it must seek its highest mission in moral culture emphasising the goodness of virtue and the worthless. claims our sympathies equally bad or good in many of its . in comedy. to which Plato will sub minutest this especially poetry and music. though it arises from a dim objection to enthusiasm for (/juavia). supervision ject art. it flatters the productions. as. In the same manner. an imitation (niprja-ii). in his two great political works . [49 these are to be purified from any harmful admixture. and by its varied play endangers In order to simplicity and directness of character. but of their appearance it ^ that. it what is false or true. art is examined by Plato primarily with regard to its ethical effect. but also all extravagant and effeminate music. and his things. and the whole body of imitative poetry. including Homer. Like religion. Plato . which subserves no other object. for instance. art must enter into the service of philosophy. and he himself applies when he banishes from his State not only all immoral and unworthy narratives about gods and heroes. down to details. not of the He regards essence of to the senses . attain to a higher position. lowest inclinations.

&amp. the ordinary practice of which is most emphatically condemned. 50. which he placed on the same level as the good. 138). but distinguished these ideal numbers from the mathematical by the fact that the former do not consist of homogeneous unities.49] PLATO S RELIGION AND ART. from the mathematical the mathe matical magnitudes. These he found in the^One. The ideas he denoted as numbers (p. 149). and the Unlimited. when he heard him. 143).lt. According to Aristotle. but inquired into the constituent elements of the ideas (CTTOL^SLO).lt. Plato. which he called the great and small (/jLEja teal fjiiKpov\ because it is not limited upwards or as much downwards. considerable changes in the later part of Plato s life. and made a help to philosophy (cf. But in what rela &amp. The later Form The &amp. perhaps after his return from his last Sicilian journey. confined the circle of ideas to the various kinds of natural objects. tion the unlimited element stood to that which is 2 the M . 1C3 requires that rhetoric. shall be reformed of the Platonic and therefore cannot be reckoned. he did not now content himself with finding the ultimate basis of From phenomena in ideas. in as numbers arise from it. and plurality or undefined duality. mathematics occupying a place intermediate between the ideas and things in the world of sense (p. Laws. 9 The system which is set before us in the Platonic writings down to the Timoeus and Critias underwent &amp. Moreover. the ideal numbers proceed the ideal magnitudes.

Stvdien. 1 remarkably depreciated in Finally. it is true. fifth body from the In the years to which this form of his doctrine be c longs. on which compare Alexander s commentary. we have a board of the Wisest without definite is .164 PLATO.ris) 9 Its place is is which taken by practical insight hardly distinguished from Sois phrosyne. which in to carry out. 6. and thus arose the appearance of its complete Like the Pytha uniformity which Aristotle assumes. Plato made the attempt in his Laws (cf. religion. Plato and Academy. to whom he distinguished the ^Ether as a four elements. p. magisterial scientific and in the place of dialectic or knowledge of laws we have mathematics and duties . now abandoned in the place of the philosophical rulers. but it as a compensation for dialectic. Arixiii. which he now thought it impossible The dominion of philosophy. d. Plat. Nor can the conduct of the individual soul be handed over to wisdom in the higher sense. tlie in regard to the The chief passages i. [50 basis of the corporeal world he does not seem to have 1 inquired. 517 fL Platon. stotle are Metajjh. Genet. ff. the ( Republic is the only means of assisting humanity.p6vr}&amp. This religion. while bravery comparison with 6. in 9. he approaches in these doctrines. goreans. 131 ) to show how an essential improvement of political conditions could be brought about even under existing circumstances and without the hypotheses of the philosophical State. (&amp.. is in harmony with does not in any respect go beyond that improved and purified natural religion which in the Republic is merely assigned to the masses s Plato principles. 217 ff. older 509 532 fT.f&amp. . and Susemihl. Further.

Plato in his later work does not abolish private property. he does not \ now destroy the family. men 51. are carried out wisely and well with a solicitude which basis. Philippus of Opus. but contents himself with limiting it by law. and intercourse with foreign is carefully controlled and limited. the son of his sister. Every law is preceded are not required to act out of blind obedience. by his fellow-pupil Xeno- of Chalcedon. and it gave to succeeding ages the pattern for the organisation of scientific instruction. the best known. no less than the civic and penal laws. or is more properly oligarchical. made the extends to the smallest details. and agriculture are the exclusive care of the metceci and slaves. and democratic elements while the organic regulations of the constitution. tion of the State. so that of the three orders of the As to the constitu republic only the second remains. are Heraclides of Pontus. Among the other immediate pupils of Plato. but from their own con for by an explanatory preamble. life. after his death. The Old Academy. in his Academy under special leaders.C. but carefully supervises marriages and domestic The principle of one public education for boys and alike is still girls maintained. society The scientific which Plato founded and conducted was carried on. countries business. Trade. followed in 339 B. an equal combination of monarchical. and retaining a fixed number of plots of land (5040).50] THE LAWS: 165 arrangements of the State. viction. excluding Aristotle. His first who was crates successor was Speusippus. Hestiseus of .

perhaps for the sake of the migration of souls. and appears to have combined with the Pythagorean central fire. merely going beyond in directly maintaining that pleasure was an evil. So far as we the Pyrrhsean. Menedemus [51 Perinthus. the first instance he derived only the numbers from . are acquainted with their views. he denoted the unit and plurality as the Pythagoras. and from the Good. which he conceived as the world-soul. 2) that he . he regards as separate from things and a fragment of Like his on the Decas has quite a Pythagorean ring. by putting mathe These numbers matical numbers in the place of ideas. but he entirely gave up in its Platonic form the doctrine in which Plato had come poviicr) forward in the most diametrical opposition to the ordinary modes of presentation. In his Ethics he it followed the Platonic model. adhering to Pythagoreanism. most general sources of things but he distinguished the . With combined the mathematical sciences closely together. he allowed the lower parts of the soul to continue beyond death. which was In a result arising from the arrangement of the world. the Pythagoreans (and Plato) he added ^Ether to the four elements. and. unity and plurality while for superficial magnitudes and for the soul he assumed analogous principles but it is at the same time recorded (Diog. . Xenocrates did not go quite so far in his approxi- .166 THE OLD ACADEMY. a greater value to appears not only to have ascribed than Plato (STTLO-TT]knowledge gained by experience aivQ^ais). iv. all these men. followed the direction which Plato s Speusippus philosophy had taken in his latest period. unit from the creative reason.

as he also expressed it. the exist ence of good and evil spirits. the father and the physics. He was a man of pure and noble character. he assumes the the most minute and indivisible lines. He the expressly distinguished the three chief parts of philosophic system dialectic. and was apparently the first to do so.51] XENOCRATES. By the addition of Same and the Other to number arises the (world) which Xenocrates (on the ground of the Timseus ) defined as a number moving itself but this origin of soul. the elements. inasmuch as he assimilated the unit Their first offspring were the ideas. he assumed to have arisen out of the smallest corpuscles. to which he also added ^Ether. and perhaps the souls of animals also. which he conducted till 313-4 B. and. denoted as gods . &c. The elements. In Pythagorean fashion he denoted as original sources the unit. without doubt. which must be also mathematical numbers. 167 mation to Pythagoreanism. . a copious author. and the indefinite duality. or even. with The forces the national religion and the Pythagoreans. Like Speusippus. or the odd. operating in the different parts of the in the sky. he seems to have world. but of melancholy humour. and ethics mother of the gods. in which he was apparently influenced by Aristotle. to survive death. by the side of them he assumed. . he allows the irrational parts of the human soul. In order to derive magnitudes from numbers. to Nous or Zeus. or. He dis couraged a meat diet because by that means the brute nature of animals might obtain an influence over us.C. the chief repre sentative of the Academic school.. the soul he did not conceive as taking place in time.

lt. Philippus was rather a mathematician than a philosopher. three classes. who was the ideas to be mingled as matter in things. Cnidus. &amp. and. and what we know of them shows that he remained 4 true to the Platonic ethics. rently he first interpolated into the Laws (x. he has but a poor human life and earthly things and appa . above the misery of earthly existence and assured of a future return to heaven.of a mathematician. which was most probably his work. who opened a . He . that we are raised and astronomy.) It is by mathematics the bad world-soul (988 D f. in addition to virtue. 4 we may judge from the Pseudo-Platonic Epi- nomis. school of his own in his native of Pontus. gives the name of wisdom insight. about the heavenly deities. combined with correct presentations depends. deviated far more than Philippus from the doctrine of Plato. also The famous Eudoxus . but he Heracleides declared pleasure to be the highest good. scientific between If and practical Aristotle. set forth in [ 51 His ethical views were numerous treatises. He placed happiness in the possession of virtue and of the means which sub He distinguished more precisely than Plato serve it. 896 E if. like to the first only. and on them. whom He not only allowed he. In his view mathematics and astronomy secure us the : wisdom consists in acquaintance highest knowledge with them. all piety follows Plato in rejecting the gods of this account spirits are of the mythology and on more importance in his eyes as the intermediaries in all He divides them into intercourse with the gods. opinion of On the other hand.).168 THE OLD ACADEMY. like Archytas. had attended.

and died before was the first commentator on the Timreus. Crates of Athens became the leader of the Academic school. He belonged to Xenocrates. POLEMO. himself Of Hestiseus we know that he busied with those metaphysical and mathematical speculations. and also the author of famous ethical writings entirely in harmony with the doctrines of the Old Academy. as composed of sethereal matter.) was held in repute as a moral philo His ethical principles. ETC. the successor of Crates. like Xenocrates. and Arcesilaus ( gave an essentially altered character to 78). regard as conceived in time. The successor of Xenocrates. His most distinguished pupil was Grantor of Soli in Cilicia. in which he coincided sopher.51] EUDOXUS. ICO borrowed from the Pythagorean Ecphantus not only the assumption of small original corpuscles (avapfioi oy/coi. but also the doctrine of the The soul he regarded We are also reminded of the Pythagoreans in the credulity with which this learned but uncritical writer accepted a belief in miracles and soothsaying. the psychogony in which he did not. After Polemo. about 339 B.C. daily revolution of the earth. its doctrines. in to addition those quoted. were comprehended in the single requirement of a life according to nature.. who also Polemo. with Xenocrates.) out of which the divine city intellect built the world. of which Aristotle preserves a few. without any mention of names. . Polemo the Athenian (died 270 B.C.

in to Isocrates.C. After Plato s death he repaired with Xenocrates to Atarneus in Mysia. [ 52 IV. during his twenty years of study at Athens. In 342 he opposition obeyed a summons to the Macedonian court to under take the education of Alexander. Three years later. Aristotle s Life. he nevertheless ex his objections to the doctrines of ideas pressed in them and his conviction of the eternity of the world. ARISTOTLE AND THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL. His father Nicomachus was physician to Amyntas.C. whose niece. or sister. In he came to Athens and entered the continued till circle of s Plato the pupils of Plato.). the assertion that Aristotle disregard for his teacher and for a his ingratitude caused a difference between them On the contrary. Thence he appears to have returned to Athens. his eighteenth year. Pythias. who at that time was . he subse quently married. we may assume that Aristotle. King of Macedonia. 52. long time before Plato s death. 1 (384 B. but also laid the foundation for other his torical knowledge.170 ARISTOTLE. 01. the prince of that state. If in a series of writings he adhered to Plato in form and contents. but after the death of his parents Proxenus of Atarneus attended to his education. is B.. Aristotle was born at Stagira. 3667 death. combined with a sufficient contradiction of s other ascertained data. to his fellow-pupil Hermias. where he opened a school of rhetoric. 90. after the fall of Hermias. he went on to Mitylene. where he This fact. not only studied the pre-Platonic philosophy.




he remained

on the threshold of his youth (born in 356 B.C.). Here till Alexander set out on his Asiatic cam The beneficial influence of the philosopher on
his brilliant pupil,

and the respect of the pupil for his celebrated by Plutarch, Alexander, c. 8. master, are Aristotle had to thank the favour of Philip or Alex
ander for the restoration of his paternal city, which In the year 334 or 335 at the Philip had destroyed.

Athens and opened a which received the name of the Lyceum but from Aristotle s Peripatetic, not from the place, while giving instruction. His teach habit of walking besides ing extended to rhetoric as well as philosophy continuous lectures, dialogue was doubtless introduced, and the scientific society, like that of Plato, was at the

Aristotle returned to

school in the


same time

a circle of friends with fixed
of his own,



With ample means

if he required it a position to obtain all exaggerations), Aristotle was in the assistance in his researches which his age could

and secure of royal (apart from any later




he was the




a large

His writings are evidence of the extent to which he availed himself of these means. After the violent death of his nephew Callisthenes Aristotle s relations to Alexander were less harmonious ;
collection of books.

him a part in the of Alexander, which is indeed a supposed poisoning The unexpected death of the king party falsehood.
it is

sheer calumny to ascribe to

brought him into the most immediate danger, for on the outbreak of the Lamian war he was attacked on a false charge of sacrilege, owing to political hatred, and fled



to Chalcis in Euboea, where he fell sick and died in the summer of 322 B.C., a few months before Demosthenes.

His character, which from a very early period was grievously traduced by his political and scientific op ponents, appears in his writings as thoroughly noble, and there are no certain facts which give us any
reason to doubt this impression. His scientific emi nence is beyond a doubt ; and in the combination of

an extraordinarily wide knowledge with independent judgment, acute penetration, comprehensive specula tion, and methodical inquiry, he stands alone, or if
not alone, Leibnitz only can be compared with him in
thi? respect.

53. Aristotle s Writings.

has come

Under the name of Aristotle down to us, which

a collection of writings in all essentials un

doubtedly goes back to the edition of the Aristotelian writings published by Andronicus about 50-60 B.C.

There is no doubt that the largest and (Cf. 82.) most important part of these writings is genuine, though some of them are apparently not free from later additions and alterations. But besides the works which
have survived we are acquainted with a large number of lost writings of which, it is true, the greater part seem to be spurious partly from the quotations of
later writers,

and partly from two


which are


in existence.


older of these


which seems


have been derived from the Alexandrian Hermippus

In Diog.



and with

several omissions and additions in the so-called Anonymus Me-

nagii, a biography of Aristotle, apparently the work of Hesy-

chius (about 500 A.D.)




(about 200 B.C.), puts the total of the Aristotelian writings at nearly 400 books ; but as important works in our collection are not found in the list, it seems

only to contain the works of Aristotle which were in the Alexandrian Library at the time of its compilation.


which has come down to us in an in complete state from Arabian writers, was compiled by
later list,

Ptolemaeus, apparently a Peripatetic of the first or second century A.D. It mentions nearly all the works in our collection, and (with Andronicus) reckons the books of the entire writings at 1,000.
collection contains the following works : (1) Logical Treatises (first collected together in



zantine times under the title

The Cate Organon ) gories, apparently mutilated from c. 9, 11 b. 7, and enlarged by the addition of the so-called Post-predica ments, c. 10-15, from a later hand; IT. sp^vsias (or on propositions), probably the work of a of


the third century

Analytics (avakvrnca Trporspa and vcrrspa), of which the first deals with con 6 clusions, the second with proof; the Topica, which treats of dialectic, i.e. thejirt of the proof of probability; the last (ninth) book is generally quoted as a sepa


the two


rate treatise,


aofyiGTucwv s^syycov.

History: Physics aKpoacri$\ in eight books, of which, however, the seventh book, though derived from an Aristotelian





sketch, appears to be a later interpolation ; De Ctelo, four books; About Origin and Decay, two books; Meteorology, four books; the spurious book Trspl There are also the (see 82). investigations





into the nature of living creatures, the three books on the soul, and the smaller treatises connected with them, from which we must separate the work ire pi TTVSVparas

comprehensive zoological description of animals (TT. rd in ten books, or nine, if we deduct the spurious la-Topidi) On the tenth book ; and the three systematic works








On the Progression of Parts of Animals, four books ; On the Origin of Animals (five books, of ; which, however, the fifth book seems to be a separate

the spurious treatise irspl ^axov work), together with Whether Aristotle carried out a work which KiVTjcrscDs.

he contemplated on plants
case the treatise


not quite certain




which we have,


So also are the works



Oav^acTLwv dKovo-pdrwv, the ^vdio^vw^LKd^ the the treatise on indivisible lines (pro prjxavitcd, and
Aristotle also wrote bably the work of Theophrastus). but in our thirty-seven books of problems Problems,

the remains of the Aristotelian are buried beneath a

mass of

later additions.

The metaphysical writings of the philosopher which we possess are limited to the Metaphysics (TO. psrd rd ^vaucd), which, so far as we can see, is a col


formed immediately

after Aristotle


death of


that was found in his remains referring to the








due to


position in the collection of Andronicus.

The bulk





formed by AriBonitz

1 Best editions Schwcgler (1847 f .)

and commentaries






First Philosophy, incomplete work on the the originally independent treatise which forms book v. has been incorporated. Book xi. 1 8,

in which



26, seems to be an older sketch which was

Books xiii. changed afterwards into books iii. iv. vi. xiv. are discussions which were at first intended for one
work, but subsequently rejected and in part embodied in books i. 6, 9. Book xii. is a treatise

separate written before the main work, perhaps as a basis for



(a) and



c. 8,

confessedly spurious. on the Eleatic philosophy mentioned on p. 58. (4) Ethics are treated by Aristotle in the ten books of the so-called ; Nicomachean Ethics, in books

The same

1065 a. 26) are the case with the

which additions greater or smaller seem to from the Eudemian and Politics in the proceed eight books of the Politics. In the last-mentioned work not only do books vii. and viii. find their proper place between books iii. and iv., but much that is needed to
v.-vii. of

complete the plan is wanting. Like the Metaphysics, it seems to have been left a fragment owing to the death

of the author.

The Eudemian Ethics

are a revision

of the

Aristotelian Ethics

by Eudemus, but of

only books i.-iii. and vi. are preserved the Magna Moralia are a sketch compiled from both, but more The small treatise especially from the Eudemian.



Virtues and Vices

belongs to the period of later




book of the

(Economics, which




col. 7, 27) ascribes to Theonot Aristotelian, and the second certainly










the three books of the (5) On Rhetoric we have Rhetoric, of which, however, the third does not seem to be the work of Aristotle ; on Poetry we have the Poetics,

which as it now stands is only a part of an Aristotelian work in two books. The Rhetoric to Alexander is an

interpolation. All these treatises, so far as they are genuine, and unless intended by their author for his own private use,

was perhaps the case with Metaphysics xii., appear been didactic works which Aristotle wrote down for his pupils and imparted to them only. He
to have

and perhaps

seems to have had no thought of wider publication, This is the at first did not permit it.

we draw from the quotation of published works (see infra), and more especially from the address to his pupils at the end of the Topica, and from the numerous facts which show that the last hand of the author was wanting. Moreover, in some treatises which are demonstrably earlier in date, we
find reference to later writings, which appear to have been added long after they were composed, but before they were published. Of the lost works the Avaro/jial, so often quoted by Aristotle himself, and the aarpo-






3, 8.


b. 7.



29), besides the work on plants, belonged to these didactic treatises ; of the numerous other writings of the class, which are still



mentioned, perhaps no single one was genuine. From the didactic writings of the Aiistotelian

we must separate those which

Aristotle himself










\6joi sv

Koiva) yiyvo/jisvoi

\ and which apparently he means by the De An. i. 4, init.^, and (

possibly by the sy/cvtcXia (j)i\o(ro(f)?j/jLaTa ( De Ca?lo, ii. Eth. i. 3, 109G a. 2). Of these, however, 9, 27 9 a. 30;

none is expressly quoted in the books in existence, which are proved to be a connected whole by the numerous cross-references in them. All the writings
of this class

appear to have been composed before

last residence in



a part of


were in the form of dialogue, and
reference to


can only be in

them that


commended by

Cicero and others for the copiousness and charm of his Even exposition, the golden stream of his speech.


these there was at an early time much that was 2 spurious. Among the dialogues was the Eudemus,

which in form and contents was an imitation of Plato s Phsedo, and was apparently composed in 352 B.C. the three books on Philosophy, in which the criticism of

the doctrine of ideas begins


the four books on justice


the three books

trspi Troirjrwv.

The remaining writings

of the earlier period contained the


on the Ideas and the Good, and accounts of

the contents of the Platonic lectures, the History of Rhetoric (TS-^VMV o-vvaywyrj)., the i Rhetoric, dedicated
to Theodectes, which, like the treatise jrspl /3ao-i\ia$,





whether the old commentators are right in referring, after Andronicus,

view. Diels attacks it Sitznngsber d. Berl. Akad. 1883; Nr. 19.


The remains have been




often mentioned by Kudemus, to a particular class of Aristotelian writings. Bernays,

\dyoi, so Aristotle and

lected by Rose in his Aristotcles Pseudejpiffra/phus, and the Berlin edition of Aristotle, p. 1474 ff., by Heitz, vol. iv. b. of Didot s editioii.

with most scholars, defends this





dedicated to Alexander, must have been composed in Macedonia; and the SiSaff/caktai, besides which many

works relating to poets and arts are mentioned whether with good reason is very doubtful. On the
other hand, the excerpts from some Platonic works, and the writings on the Pythagoreans and other philosophers, so far as they are genuine, are only sketches for private
is probably the case (as Heitz with the ( Polities, a collection of accounts of assumes) 158 Hellenic and barbarian cities from which numerous


and the same

statements are preserved, the vo^i^a ftappapuca and

TWV nroXswv.
of the Letters,

How many

which had been collected

in eight books by Artemon even before Andronicus, are genuine, cannot be ascertained ; in what we know

there is much that is obviously besides a good deal that may be genuine. interpolated, have no reason to doubt the genuineness of some
of the


small poems and fragments. As all or nearly all the didactic writings of Aristotle appear to have been composed in the last twelve years
before his death, and present his system in the ripest form without any important variation in contents or

terminology, the question of the order of composition

becomes of little practical importance. Yet it is probable that the Categories, the Topica, and the Analytics are the oldest parts of our collection these were followed by the Physics and the works which are connected with




in order are the treatises

on the soul and

living creatures

then the








(with the exception of the older

The Philosophy of Introductory. 1. more especially in the central point of the doctrine of ideas. were finished. 54) and tive given in Strabo (xiii. Plutarch to which the writings of Ari Sulla. but contradicted by the fact that the use of all the works of Aristotle with unimpor tant exceptions can be proved for the period between Theophrastus and Andronicus. and there hidden in a cellar. notwithstanding the fragmentary character of the literary tradition of this period. yet his whole philosophy is far more deeply and completely defined by its connection with Plato than by its opposition to him.53] ARISTOTLE S WRITINGS. 26). and republished by Tyrannio and Andronicus. and sharply as he contested the doctrine of its founder in many points. and disclusively It N 2 . 54. the assumption is not only improbable in itself. but never completed. 179 them) were then commenced. But if it is presupposed in consequence that facts. rediscovered by Apellicon in Sulla s Scepsis after the death brought by Sulla to Rome. 4 of Theophrastus. Aristotle considered himself a member of the school of Plato. Aristotle. the Peripatetics after the time of Theophrastus were acquainted with but few and those for the most part exoteric works of their founder. according stotle and Theophrastus were carried to Neleus at portions incorporated in . may be correct in the time. though begun later. is true that he limits philosophy more ex than Plato to the region of science. while the Poetics and Rhe The narra toric.

Yet he. in the works which have come down to us. Aristotle has brought this process to the highest state of perfection. the individual is to be referred to general concepts. is a science of concepts . He is not only a scholar. he finds with Plato in things. like that of Socrates which make up the content of our con and Plato. following the pattern of Plato. he did not despise in the writings of his youth. (siSrj). But as the philosopher did not think of the forms as essences existing independently and separate from things. places the peculiar mission of philosophy in the know ledge of unchangeable Being and the ultimate bases of This essence of things. both in the direction of dialectical induction and in that of logical demon the poetical and mythical adornment. Excluding all it out with scientific severity. among but an . Hence his philosophy. and his extraordinary brevity skill in creating a philosophical terminology. which. at any rate. as it is behind Plato in artistic finish. but only as the inner essence of individual things. the forms cepts. the true and original real. and explained by deriva tion from concepts. he com bines with the philosophy of concepts such a decided demand for the most comprehensive empiric knowledge. the general and necessary. like Plato. while on the other hand he assigns a greater importance for philosophy to empiric knowledge. By the incisiveness and of his mode of expression.180 ARISTOTLE. he knew how to gain for his exposition those advantages by which it is as far in advance of the exposition of Plato. he carried stration. [ 54 tinguishes it more distinctly from moral activity. as can only be found at most in Democritus his predecessors.

Under the &amp. and to add something by way of supplement to these Mathematics. methodology. arid his penetrating researches. tinguishes three sciences and theoretic. equally eminent for his mul knowledge. For our purpose it is best to make the division into Logic. practical. p. Physics. which is also called Theology. though it is obvious that we must not expect from him what could only be obtained by the scientific aids and methods of our own century. productive. but the whole is also called Politics. scientific knowledge in the narrower sense (STTLO-TI^TJ) consists in the derivation of the special from the general. main divisions. first are included Physics. and the First Philosophy ( Metaphysics. the conditioned from its causes. Aristotle has created Logic as a special science on the foundation laid by Socrates and Plato. extending more especially to the earlier philosophers. The indications which Aristotle gives for the division of the philosophic system can only be with difficulty to the contents of his own applied He dis writings.ARISTOTLE S PHILOSOPHY. The Aristotelian Logic. the chief basis of our exposition of the Aristotelian system.e. cf. But it and treats as the development of knowledge in time takes the reverse path. the introduction to the art of investiga scientific tion. He calls it Analytic. and Ethics. 174). practical philosophy is divided into Ethics and Politics. for his comprehensive knowledge of nature. i. Accord ing to his view. Metaphysics. observer of the tifarious first 181 rank. Though the soul in its thinking nature possesses .

and it is ledge ( Anal. and is therefore composed of two concepts (opoi).182 ARISTOTLE. 1. and rise by steps from perception by means of memory to experience. known and more certain in itself . Post. ii. ( Anal. 184 a. as part of his metaphysical in quiries.).lt. called TrporaaLs by Aristotle). all [55 is the possibility of knowledge. Prior. A These presuppositions are expressed in the premisses. 19 2. &amp. syllogism is a speech. . He is . it attains to What is the better actual knowledge by degrees only. a subject and a pre dicate. 24 b. A Nevertheless Aristotle only treats concepts more at length in connection with the doctrine of the definition of the concept. 1. In the proposition or judgment . and to that extent dynamically possessed of all knowledge. and from experience to know Metaph. &c. Hence the Analytics ) both are preceded (in the First Analytics ) by the doc trine of the syllogism. 71 b. 1 6) we must abstract the general concepts from the individual ob servations. suppositions there arises something new (&amp. and therefore in propositions (both are i. which is the form common to both. It is only in connection with the syllogism that Aristotelian Logic (in the Second deals with induction as well as proof . 1. is not so for us . 33 Phys. 18). i. but Aristotle deals with concepts and judgments. in which from certain pre Anal. the senses as such never deceive us all of opinion that error springs c out of the false reference and combination of their evidence. proposition consists in an affirmation or negative assertion. i. I importance of experience for knowledge that Aristotle expressly undertakes the defence of the owing to this truth of sensuous perception. i.

sp^vsias^ into general. Finally he remarks that from the combination of concepts in a judgment arises the con trast of and false. of which the second and third receive their validity thetical by being referred to the first. and a complete demonstra tion (a complete science) is only realised which has to be proved is derived through when that all the in termediary members from its highest presuppositions. He shows what judgments can be converted simply. Proofs are compounded out of syllogisms.55] THE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. particular. . and singular). The presup positions of a proof must therefore consist of necessary and universal propositions. contradictory (avrifyacns) and contrary (ivavTtorijs). The object of all demonstration (aTroSsigi?) is the deriva tion of the conditioned from its sources. he distinguishes the two kinds of opposition. Further. which he divides according to their quality (now so called) into affirmative or negative. and according to their modality into assertions about Being. particular. 183 he thinks only of the categorical judgments. and possible Being. The syllogistic of his First Analytics gives an exhaustive account of the categorical syllogisms in their three figures. and indefinite (TT. in which (see supra) knowledge as such consists. But the doctrine of the forms the chief contents of this part of syllogism Aristotle was the first to discover in the his Logic. and he also gave the name to it. necessary Being. Into hypo and disjunctive syllogisms he does not enter. the radical form in which all advance of syllogism true thought moves. and what require change in their quantity. according to their quantity into general.

Both the most general principles from which the de monstration proceeds. owing to the number . Aristotle looks round for a simplification of the inductive process. That even these convictions may not be without a scientific foundation. he introduces into them induction (s7raya)yrj) in the place of proof. for which he establishes different formulae in its logical and its metaphysical form though they agree in fact. and the actual fact to which the principles are applied. and if the facts are known to us by perception in a direct manner. and therefore unerring knowledge of the most general principles. Aristotle recognises in reason (vovs) All mediate knowledge. inasmuch as it shows that it actually holds good of all the individual cases brought under it. or whether concepts with a definite content (as possibly the concept of the Deity) can be known in this manner. He regards the rule of contradiction.184 ARISTOTLE. sitions. intuitive. as the highest and most certain principle of human thought. were in turn derivative. Induc tion emphasises a general definition. therefore. Whether these principles are merely formal. must be known to us without proof. immediate. he establishes induc tion on those assumptions which. presupposes the power of direct. [ 55 Such a derivation would not be possible if the suppo from which it starts. an which in more precise terms is twofold. or if there were an endless series of intermediate members between the presuppositions and that which has to be derived from them. and so ad infinitum. Aristotle did not inquire. But as a complete observa^tion of all individual cases is never possible. Following the pattern of Socrates.

rb added (as rb avepfary e?j/eu). the elements which make them what 1 they are. which we are now accustomed to require. By the dialectic comparison and examination of these as sumptions. the criticism.55] THE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. denotes the essence of things. rb ri oirep uv. he endeavours to obtain correct definitions. (SicKpopa slBoTToios) is When the specific difference the species (elSos). . rb with a dative i\v elVcu. the concept in the narrower sense. may be supposed to have arisen out of actual experience (svBoj-a). it is a generic concept (ysvos). which of necessity and always is attached to the things of a particular class. aids to scientific research which his time The fixing of concepts or definition (opiapos} rests in part on direct knowledge. eTSos. 185 or the authority of their supporters. their form. irrespective of their matter. we obtain the 1 added to the genus. and this process has been continued as long as possible. and in his use of the statements of others. and though it is true that in his observation we miss the accuracy and completeness. t?j/cu rb ri eVri. the result is \Vhen this has been more closely ovffta. yet even in respect he has done everything which can be reasonably expected from one in his position and this with the afforded. in which it is the object of definition. defined by further distinctive marks. which must be emphasised by induction. If all our concepts denote something general. common to If such a concept expresses that which is many things different in kind. has applied this process with singular ability and wisdom in the aTropiai with which it is his habit to He open every inquiry .

pas sivity {ovaia or rl sari^ ARISTOTLE. a^/jiara TwvKariTyopiwv).. [55 lowest specific concepts. Post. 9) under one or more of the main classes of assertions (7^77 or c . but in a correct order. which denote the various points of view from which may be contemplated. All our concepts fall ( Categ. while there is no concept which comprehends them as a class. and to those of having derivation. X SLV iroielv. the categories c of possession and place are named in the Categories and the &amp. i. non-A). applies these species of the contradictory to the con and ceptions of relation. but two concepts Two are in contradictory opposition when one is the simple But Aristotle also negative of the other (A. Hence the definition of the concept must contain the marks which bring about the derivation of its object from its generic concept. possession. things which are furthest removed from one another in the same genus are opposed as contraries (svavrlov). aid for the definition of concepts is an exhaustive defi nition. where. TTOTS. when. and these make up the concepts of every object ( Anal. TTOIOV. things : relation. TTOI). 13). &amp. activity. Of these categories Aristotle enumerates ten substance. ii. Topics. which cannot now be divided into species but only into individuals. Trda^siv). but passed over in all later enumera- . irpos rt. but no definite principle is to be found for its origin . or Categories (/ear^yo/nat). quantity. 4 Top. corresponding to the graduated The essential process from the general to the special. not only with completeness. KsicrOai. He is convinced of the completeness of this scheme. place. proceeding logically.

410. most penetrating and annihilating criticism (in spite In this criticism of some injustice and inaccuracy). 1 end. and among these the category of substance. 1017 . if i. to the &c. i. concerned with. and he consequently described the ideas as self-existent essences. tions). 21 b. . 56. concepts. 1. v. It is therefore all the comprehensive Speaking more precisely.). which are independent of indi He vidual things. that the essence cannot be ex1 Anal. Aristotle s Metaphysics. Phys. 9. 83 a. which is the cause of all movement and form most in the world. a. v. and the assumptions connected with it. This science is concerned with the inquiry into the ultimate basis. with Being as such. to be the original This forms the content of our and bare reality. and valuable of it is sciences. 15. Aristotle is in harmony with him. the moving and the moved. with the eternal incorporeal and immovable. 187 Of the remainder all have not the same value the most important are the four first.55] I 1 HE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. the universal. categories which form the essential object of the first philosophy or metaphysics. Plato will allow only the ideas. xiii. The Individual and the Universal.the three questions of the relation of the individual and the Universal. 22. to which all the rebt are related It is these as what is derivative to what is primary. 24. ( Metaph. 1. the most decisive objections are that the Universal is subjects the doctrine of ideas I nothing substantial. Post. Met. form and matter.

is For if this name 1 only given to that which can neither be predicated of another. . 1 a. 2. rivi Cf. or and better known. nor adheres as an accident to another. but they must not be regarded as anything existing outside things. C. ^T tv % ^Tjre WTro/ce^eVou nv bs uTro/m^eVy It . Ae^erai ZVTLV. is allowed to have the higher degree of reality (cf. can be the object of knowledge (pp. . 2. that ideas do not possess the moving force without which they cannot be the cause of phenomena. as a substance (ovaia). They can therefore be called substances in an improper and derivative manner (Bsvrspai ova. His own definitions of form and matter were rather an attempt to carry the subject out in a theory more tenable than that of Plato.188 ARISTOTLE. we have here a contradiction of which the results run through the is that which in itself earlier entire system of Aristotle. only the individual nature is substance. 5.tat. 180. express merely certain and even generic concepts only express the common essence of certain substances. the form. he is not inclined to surrender the leading thoughts of the doctrine. [ 56 ternal to the things of which it is the essence . 182). 20 . and only the general. They But are not a sv -rrapa TroAXa. 5e eVrij/ . On his part he could only regard the individual as the real in the full sense. peculiarities of substances. on the other hand. However vigorously Aristotle contests the inde pendent and separate existence of the Platonic ideas. but a sv Kara of form and material. infra).). Ka. All general con cepts. which is always something universal in comparison with that which is compounded if 7ro\\wv. The object 1 Categ.6 ovffia.

Swa/jusi ov). if we examine it closer. the form of a thing is the reality of it. all Becoming something not in process of becom ing . it can be and not be an svSs^o/jLSvov KOI elvai /cal fjurj slvai) only that which is beyond sense and thought in our con (is . the material it becomes in the result. which. note). 185. an expression coined for the purpose . as such is not yet that which on the other hand. never existed and never could exist. On the other hand. for Aristotle is the more important assumption that every change presupposes something unchange able. the slSos a word used for the Platonic ideas (also jj. it definition. the qualities are called the form. and form generally reality (svtyysia. The substratum is by Aristotle the v\rj. can only be the necessary and unchangeable . the it common substratum is of all Yet as what is merely possible. As. As the object of its becoming is attained when the material has assumed is form. 189 of knowledge. matter is also the possibility or the possible (Siivafjus. he says with Plato. all that is perceived by the senses is accidental and changeable . #^77). svrsXs^sca) or the real (svepysia 6V). which becomes some thing and upon which the change takes place.op(f)rf. also called the (qualitatively) unlimited. the forms are . we get the first matter (TT^COTT. and this something.56] ARISTOTLE S METAPHYSICS. 6 If we think is of material without form. being without limited matter. cepts Still is as unchangeable as the concepts themselves. is of a twofold nature a substratum. Other terms are used. but must have the capacity to become so. see p. and the qualities in the communication of which to the sub stratum called the change consists.

It is due to the resistance of matter to form that nature can only rise by degrees from lower forms to higher and it is only from matter . the formal. . never was. [ 56 . the male and the female. only and is not merely the concept and the essence of each thing. the first is denoted as the form or But as a actual. not. just as the ideas of Plato.190 ARISTOTLE. the second as the matter or potential. eternal and . This runs through everything. On the quality of matter rests all imper fection of nature. and often in fact in particular of cause cases (as in the relation of the soul to the body and of the Deity to the world). universal form not merely modifications or creations of our most each is. in the eternity of the world. Though these different relations are as a rule apportioned to different subjects. but also its aim and the power which realises that aim. and Aristotle in consequence frequently enumerates four different kinds the material. Wherever one thing is related to another as the more complete. From it arise natural necessity (avdy/cTj) and accident (avro/jLdTov and Tv%r)\ which limit and encroach upon the power which nature and man have of realising their aims. the motive. fact matter acquires in Aristotle a meaning which goes far beyond the concept of simple possibility. outside things. The form it is unchangeable as that particular form. on the contrary. and also differences so vital as the difference between the heavenly and the earthly. and cause yet the three last mentioned coin the final cide in their essence. The only original difference is that between the form and the matter. the definite. like the idea. and operating element.

Motion is. and however great the advantages which the philosopher derived from his doctrine of form and matter for the explanation of phenomena. When . realisation can only be given by something which is already that which the thing moved will become (77 the possible as such TOIOVTOV. The moving element can only be the actual or the form the moved element is the potential or ma terial. fj to this 1. and even if Being moves itself. 192 b. 188). The first operates upon the second by rousing it to move towards reality or definiteness of form. From the relation of form and matter comes the motion. ii. 9. 191 that Aristotle can explain that the lowest special con It is cepts diverge into a number of individuals. we nevertheless find great difficulty in the obscurity which arises from the fact that ovcria is sometimes placed on a par with the individual and sometimes with the form (p. 192 a. both these two elements must be separate in it. i. endowed with a power of its own. 3). in fact. 16. 6/0/477) after the form of the good and divine ( Phys.56] ARISTOTLE S METAPHYSICS. the same thing. xii.). is what reXe^em. . obvious that matter thus becomes a second principle beside form. &c. Phys. to the movement. The impulse owing Hence every movement presup an element moving and an element poses two things moved. 3. the change to which everything in the world which contains matter is subject. as soul and body in men. rov bwdfjusi ovros Jz iii. 1072 b. opsyeo-0ai. nothing else than the realisation of or. From its exists a desire nature (so far as in every structure there for its realisation in use or activity) matter has a desire (tyisaOat. 18 Metaph. . 1. 7.

which is itself not moved. motion can never beginning and end (cf. it is only the incorporeal which is unchangeable and un moved. must be eternal (for about by which cannot be thought without motion. the first. The ultimate basis movement can only lie in something For if all movement arises through the that which is is moved. well arranged. If. and still less movement without a beginning. motion must of necessity always arise. pre supposes a separate moving element. But the mere . as also time and the world. therefore. there were no unmoved moving cause. are without 57. the first can indeed only be the moving cause can only be one it final object. and matter incomplete. [56 form and matter touch. hut also the relation of the two on which motion rests. and the motion of the orb of the world is uniform and con tinuous. of this eternal unmoved. and referred to a single end. or pure actuality. the process from the potential to the actual. both of its have begun and can never cease. and consequently no movement whatever. And as not only form and matter. the moving element. But if mov ing cause is unmoved. 58). it must be immaterial form without matter. and movement .192 ARISTOTLE. Moreover. there could not be such a thing as a first operation of that which moves upon moved. as it also moving the first cause. As the form is complete Being. . moving cause must also be the absolutely perfect. and this goes on till we reach a moving cause. origin and decay can only be brought motion). For wherever there is matter there is the possibility of change. or that in which the series of Being comes to an end. as the world is a uniform whole.

f.56] THE METAPHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE.. or an interference of the deity in the course of the world. 5. and the life of the Aristotle has not assumed a divine will di rected to the world. self. 17 Fragm. but by his mere existence. is As the highest good the simply also the final object of all perfect being things. the uniform order. . object. for the value of thought is in proportion to the value of its contents . perfect spirit. . the deity as the pure. 6 i. which is inconceiv Troislv) able in the activity of the perfect. 9 f . 6. that to which everything strives and moves . the cohesion. 12-16. ff. lies in being is nothing but thought or spirit Therefore the ultimate basis of all movement in power. it is a ceaseless activity of contemplation It can only be its own (Osagia?)* object. infinite The activity of this spirit can only consist every other activity (every Trparrsiv andj has its object beyond itself. but only the divine spirit himself is the most valuable of and complete the this &amp.sufficient being. The spirit does not operate on the world by passing from himself and directing his thought and volition towards it. De Cfrlo. or a creative activity of the deity. . 1 1 The most important passages for the theology of Aristotle are Phys. thought. xii. This thought can never be in the condition of mere in. 193 incorporeal (vovs). on it depends world. 279 for potentiality. thought of thought. viii. Hence the thought and God is his happiness consists in unchangeable contemplation of self. Metapli. 10. 9.

includes all four (/zsra/JoTu. while the conception of change (&amp.opd. of change by examines more minutely than any of his predecessors the conceptions which were related in the first instance to this kind of movement. substantial. All other kinds .) He shows that the unlimited can only be remains doubtful. ii. every and in this sense he enumerates four kinds of : realisation supra) understands in of what is movement tative. If the First Philosophy is concerned with the im movable and incorporeal. Aristotle (see every Aristotle ( are conditioned iv. (&amp. or origin as addition and decay quanti and subtraction qualitative or . . local movement and Phys. 1. 192 b.f&amp. Aristotle s Physics. the object of physics is the movable and corporeal. and more precisely that which Nature has the source of its movement in itself. in . . little right By movement general possible. his system gives him but to assume as a substance such a power. Much as the philosopher the deity. is in the habit of treating nature as a real power opera ting in the world. and what is the relation in which it stands to .). [ 5. 20) but how we are to conceive this source more pre cisely. local change of place). 9 Point of View and General Principles. alteration (aXXotoxTts-. the transition of one material into another) .f)va-is) is the source of movement and 4 rest in that in which these are originally found ( Phys.194 ARISTOTLE. But only the last three are considered motion in the narrower sense (/clwrja-is). 57.

in Yet movement view of nature which in space. and. locality. limit of is more rarely %w/oa) which. and in the existing state of He also assumes. He defines space (TOTTOS. while attacking physical knowledge. presupposes a numbering soul. and time as the number of motion in regard to what is earlier and later (apiOfjbbs /civtfo-sws /cara TO irpQTSpov KOI varspov). movement in a circle. By this change the qualities of one are changed under the influence of another. but also the theory of Atoms. which can be without time. in its the opposite theories. for reasons against which this theory could not be defended Democritean form. and that like every number. He maintains against it the qualitative difference of matter. is the only uniform and constant motion.&quot. 195 the infinite multiplication of numbers. beginning and end. among such movements. and more especially of the elements.] THE PHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE. and not only contests Plato s mathematical construction of the elements. is not sufficient Aristotle s opinion to explain phenomena. it can never be given in reality. however. He proves (to mention a few things out of many) that movement in space. and the divisi bility of magnitudes . passivity only possible to each other which are is This relation of activity and when two bodies are opposed partly similar and partly o 2 . From this he deduces the fact that beyond the world there is neither time nor space that empty space (as is stated more at length in opposition to the Atomists) is inconceivable. a qualitative change of matter. he does not sharply distinguish from as the which the surrounding body towards that surrounded. into each other. and the mechanical corresponds to it.

there is something divine. as by a good house some useful object. The all becoming is the development of potentiality Thus the to actuality. which allows us to perceive a most marvellous design in the arrangement of the world.196 dissimilar. In the same spirit Aristotle defends the notion according to which the intermixture of matter con sists not merely in combination. is a preponderance of the teleological explanation of nature over the physical. and in all natural objects. Aristotle explains. does nothing without an ( aim. but in the formation of a new matter out of that which has been mixed. even the smallest. ARISTOTLE. That this is the case is shown by the observation of nature. 6 Nature. when they are opposed within the [ 57 same genus. Hence the real source of natural . she is always striving after the best is . like perfect art. the creation of form in matter. she always makes the most beautiful that possible. creates what suitable to her aim with the unerring certainty which is excludes choice. a Still more notion opposed to the mechanical theories. or in vain. i. to or small. this only proves that she. or incomplete . for him is the principle that the operation of important nature must be universally regarded not merely as phy sical. result of the Aristotelian doctrine of form and matter. however great wife. as of the Platonic doctrine of ideas. end of but essentially as a striving towards an end. and even failures are applied by her. We are compelled to refer this design to an all- pervading movement towards an end by the considera tion that whatever occurs regularly cannot be the result If we cannot ascribe reflection to nature of accident. Nothing in nature is superfluous. in all her works.e.

hand. the cosmogonic part of physics is Owing to this doctrine of the world first to establish. has already been observed (p. are regarded by Aristotle. objects lies in final causes . as by Plato as conditions 151). on the other hand. 190). together all with the absence of beginning and end in motion (see supra. follows the eternity of the universe. 192). and hence only individual things which come into decay. p. consequence limited. but not as the positive causes of objects. But what resistance these intermediate causes make to the teleological activity of nature. From the eternity of form and matter. 197 material causes. he was the trates which and which deeply pene into his system. of earth it is Even in the world being and without beginning. though it has come into being. TO ov OVK avsv TO sv). though. as Plato also assumed. 58. so that in the earthly world (for in the heavenly material is of a different species) this activity is forced into a how its effects are in graduated progress from imperfection to perfection. are men have always been in existence. genera.THE PHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE. will last for ever. and indispensable aids (Jf viroOsa-zws avayicalov. . The Universe and its Parts. the race has been from time to time partly destroyed and partly re duced to savagery over wide districts natural by great catastrophes. overlooks the fact that origin and decay mutually condition each other. and that that alone can be imperishable the nature of which excludes both the one and the other. p. The assumption that the world. on the other (cf. crvvainov.

the world above and the world below the moon. which opposition . and moist. [ 58 of little importance for Aristotle. which and metaphysical grounds. which is capable of change in space only and no other. unity of theprimum mobile. sition Owing to this oppo they are constantly passing into each other. and dry and moist original qualities water cold (fire is warm and dry. that they are dis tinct in their material from perishable things which are subject to constant change. as a proportionately smaller part of it. the which arises results from the various possible combinations of their warm and cold. The foundation of his explanation is the division into the two unequal parts. The imperish able nature of the stars and the unchangeable regularity of their motions prove. those that are at a greater distance by the mediation of those that are between them. Aristotle proves on many other physical also secured only the unity of the world. the body without opposite. the heavenly and the earthly world. He has not to explain the origin of the world but only its nature. But things consist of the four elements which stand to one another in a double opposition of weight and lightness.198 ARISTOTLE. from their peculiar direct motion to their natural localities. out of which the universe is composed. not by the but also its spherical form. SKSL and ra svravOa). earth cold and dry). which. They consist of aether. In the centre of the world rests the earth. . the Beyond and the Here (TO. however. what Aristotle also attempts to demonstrate on general grounds. and the qualitative opposition. and has no movement besides circular movement. From this is follows. air warm and moist.

follows them. in concentric spherical layers. Thus the independent movement of each planet must be disturbed by the motion of the whole number of circumambient spheres. though occupying no space. surrounds it (cf. which cause the motion of the planets. lie water. p. air. which. just as the outermost does. but proves it in detail of the Hence. round the earth. then come the heavenly spheres. 195). for flame is v7rsp/3o\rj Trvpos). which carries them round in its daily revolution.58] THE UNIVERSE AND ITS PARTS. at twenty-six. The outermost of these spheres is is the heaven of the fixed stars (TTpwros ovpavos). the moving to the moved. first contemporary astronomy. and Callippus at thirty-three. the daily revolution of which brought about by the deity. which proceeded from Plato. the including seven spheres in which the planets are fastened. On this hypothesis Eudoxus had already fixed the number of the spheres.substance. . following a view of the problem sphere. every sphere must impart its movement to all the spheres which it in all cludes. we must assume the number which the of spheres and ascribe to them those motions it is actual necessary to presuppose in order to explain movements of the seven planets from merely uniform circular motions. {/Tnr /c/cau/m. and fire (or more precisely the warm. 199 which in form is also a sphere . The movement of its every sphere consists in a perfectly even revolution upon This Aristotle assumes with Plato and all axis. of which the material is thought to be purer in proportion to their distance from the earth. but as according to his external Aristotle theory the spheres stand to the internal as form to matter.

. But owing to the inclination of the course of the sun this result occurs in a different degree for every place in the different seasons of the year. standing far above But he will not assign anything more than probability to his assertions about the number of the mankind. its motion must be imparted by an eternal and unlimited. the flow and ebb of matter. 498 ff. as to the first heaven. this copy of the eternal in the perishable. Schol.200 ARISTOTLE. and by adding them to the spheres of Callippus he obtains fifty-six as the entire number of heavenly spheres. the motion of the heavenly spheres gives rise to light and warmth in the air. For this reason Aristotle also extols the stars as animated. by a spirit belonging it . De Cselo. spheres and the sphere-spirits ( Metaph. divine especially in the places lie beneath the sun. in Arist. Simpl. and to therefore incorporeal substance. as are required to neutralise the influence of the one upon the other. To each of these. and the transposition of elements into each other. [ 58 unless special precautions are taken to prevent it. 8. c which In consequence of friction.). out of wilich arise all the atmospheric and terrestrial is phenomena with which Aristotle s meteorology occupied. avsKiTTovaai) revolving in the opposite direction. including that of the fixed stars. and thus there must be as many sphere-spirits as spheres. rational. Hence Aristotle assumes that between the spheres of each planet and those of the planet immediately beneath there are as many backward-moving spheres (crfyalpcn. The number of these spheres he puts at twenty-two. Hence follows the circle of origin and decay. xii. &amp.

like the word. ii. Aristotle has devoted a great part of his scientific labours to the study of organic nature (see p. Trpoorrj O-GO/JLCLTOS (fivcri/cov De An. but also the chief founder of comparative all indications. it is also its object (see p. for inquiries of physicists and physicians instance. the form is the soul of the living being. as form does everywhere with matter. the soul is defined rj as the Entelechy of an it organic body ^svrs\s^sLa opyavifcov. and systematic zoology among the Greeks. nor is it corporeal. and a material which is moved. 4). the soul. The material is the body. was first made by Aristotle). it stands in the same connection with the body. 201 59. as Plato thought . there fore. 173). and not a moving element. This is the conception of the organic (a conception which. And even he did not write his work on Plants. If. 190). self- same time it is unmoved. Living Beings. from went so far beyond theirs that we need have no scruple in calling him not only the most eminent representative. 412 b. and its body is only the instrument of the nature is determined by this office. 1. Life consists in the capacity of movement. But movement presupposes two things a form which every : moves. For this purpose he could doubtless avail himself of many as.59] LIVING BEINGS. this means that . but his own contributions. Hence the and at the soul is not without body. of Democritus. As the form of the body. yet from his activity as a teacher he deserves to be called the first if founder of scientific botany.

in animals we have the and. kinds of souls. In the treatises which have come down to us. the great majority. by the aid of gradual transitions. and reproduction. Hence harmony with Plato (p. in additional factor of sensible perception. fixes its structure. or plant soul . and the rational. 154). can only overcome the resistance of matter by degrees (see p. therefore. which when combined into one individual soul become three parts of the further and attain partly in soul. of local movement. 192). the [ power which moves the soul and It is. Aristotle only allows them a passing notice. The gradation from the most imperfect to the highest. because in the surface very beginning all is most plainly to them from the calculated with regard to the soul and the that activity But if operations proceeding from the soul. to thought. the soul. assumes three. show that the whole laws. they are functions of nourishment without any uniform centre (fjiscrorris) for their life. in man we go Aristotle. or human of living beings corresponds to the progressive development of the life of the soul. and are therefore incapable of feeling. while the numerous analogies. quite natural that the comes teleological activity of nature in living things. which we find between the various parts. the life of the soul is The life of plants in itself very unequal in quality.202 is ARISTOTLE. There is sensible. series is governed by the same Limited to the Plants form the lowest stage. or animal soul. consists in nourishment and reproduction . on the other . the nourishing. With animals. It proceeds constantly.

even among certain fishes and insects. the body from the second. and makes it his object throughout to unite the knowledge of their importance for the whole. which is in turn is a mixture of feeling (the elementary nerves were a later discovery). The chief seat of living warmth is the central organ. 13. a body connected with the aether. 1855. the body. 1 203 hand. various forms which the philosopher has carefully in Besides sexual generation. with which it passes in the seed from the father to the child. generation. Arlstotcles Thierktmde. which in san guineous animals is the heart. and their position in the whole. he occupies himself in great detail. In the heart the blood is prepared from the nourishment conveyed to it by the The blood serves partly for the nourishment of veins. The mode in which the organism is shaped consists in general in the development from 1 1 J. he assumes an vestigated. is the breath as the source of living warmth. The male sex stands to the female original as form to matter. Flesh the seat of is thus of ! The direct repository of the soul special importance. The body of animals is composed of matter consisting of like parts (o^otoyLtsp}). and partly also (see below) gives rise to The genesis of animals assumes certain presentations. and matter. Yet the first kind of genesis is in his eyes the more perfect. with the most exact acquaintance with particular facts. .59] LIVING BEINGS. Meyer. owing to its colder nature. reason of this different relation lies in physiological the fact that the female sex. clusively from the cannot sufficiently prepare the blood needed for the generative material. The soul of the child comes ex The first.

But in regard to their genesis. of which he himself remarks ( Hist. [ 59 the vermicular shape. but we cannot be astonished if he has failed to carry this point of view ences among animals. or establish upon it a natural classification of the animal kingdom. as in regard to their bodily structure. molluscs. scaly (viviparous quadrupeds. and the organs of speech and all organs. he has the purest it . oviparous quadrupeds. In his bodily loftier calling and the symmetry of blood and the most of proclaimed by his upright position his figure . all is Man is distinguished from in by spirit animal soul. through without some deviation. and progression. 516 b. highest temperature. birds. the most important contrast is that between the bloodless and sanguineous animals. perception . which gradual progress he assumes. in all these respects. animals. through the egg. the hand he possesses the most valuable of in the the largest brain. their habitats. there are the most remarkable differ Aristotle is at pains to prove the from the lower to the higher. to an organic form. their mode of life. 22) 4 that it coincides with the distinction between inverte brate and vertebrate animals. and insects). Man. whales. Of the sensuous activities of the soul. those with soft scales. 7. iii. Among the nine classes of animals which he usually enumerates fishes.204 ARISTOTLE. (yovs) which him other living beings combined with the Even his bodily structure activities of his soul answer to the they have received by this structure this is and the lower which combination. An. 60.

and more precisely it consists in the fact that the form of what it. If motion in the organ of sense continues beyond the duration of the perception. is perceived is person perceiving only. time. its seat equally in the common A change in the central organ . refer the pictures which they present to objects. The organ of this common sense the heart. we do but only through a special sense. on the other hand. the is also given to This. unity and (the aio-Oricris But the separate imparted to the senses. The general qualities of things. rest impressions of the senses meet. Sense (ala-QrjTijpiov KOIVOV) in which all the and figure. about which we obtain information through all the senses. inform us on those qualities of things. what they tell us of this always true. to which they stand in a special relation . and become conscious that our per is ception is our own. as such TWV IS lav) is number.60] MAN. is recognised as a copy of an earlier perception (in regard to which deception is not un common) we call it a remembrance ^vi]^ri\ the conscious evoking of a remembrance is recollection (dva/jLvrio-is). communicates itself to the central organ. through the medium of the body . It is by this common sense that we compare and distinguish the perceptions of the various senses. is 205 is a change which brought about in the soul by that which is perceived. and there calls up a new presentation of the sensuous picture. not size know by any Common and motion. can be not only true but false. the result is an imagination (^avraa-ia^ which term imagination as a power). Hence memory has sense. like all utterances of common an imagination If sense.

can be indications of an When an incident unnoticed in our waking life. 7. iii. enters into the soul-germ from without has no bodily organ and is not subject to (aTraOrjs). result in dreams . they reach the dreams. like Plato. judgment attain or avoid. organ. it is influenced by In the individual the the change of circumstances. opposes sTnOv^ia and Ovpos as the purely sensual and the nobler form of irrational desire. . 11). is made between emotion and desire. under the Grood or the object of perception is ranged to pleasure or aversion (feelings Evil. under certain circumstances. An. cit. . courage. the central point of feeling (the aia-0r)TiKrj No further distinction loc. he has not more closely denned the conception of Under the term he understands anger. produces death. suffering or change nor is it affected by the death of the body. [ 60 caused by digestion produces sleep and the extinction Internal move of living warmth in it or even such as are ments in the organs of sense. and if Aristotle. it gives rise De. therefore. to all which in these functions belong as such to the animal man there is added for the first time the spirit or thinking power (vovs}. if central evoked by external impressions. in connection with a soul. But as the spirit of a human in dividual. But soul. Qvftos. of value) and from these comes a desire to These conditions also proceed from /JLSCTOTTJS. always contain a as is indicated which.206 ARISTOTLE. the spirit is without beginning or end. and feeling. Before procreation it it (dvpaOsp) . 431 a. While the animal soul is born and perishes with the body of which it is the form.

3 More exact definitions on the nature of passive reason. nor latter has he he even raised the question. the active and the passive. Herl. . i. the other atBios). b. 14. but by the intuition of vorjrd). ((^avrdorfjiara). 4. accordare not uddr) J\ r. 602 ff. any of those activities which. will be sought in vain in Aristotle . 7.. d. .. 2. the former he terms vovs For the above. The Siavofta-eai. /*i- (re?i/. writers. c. the connection between the vovs and the animal soul but he does not show us how the various qualities which he ascribes to it can be united without contra diction 1 . Sitziniysber. An. calls vovs of the vqvs but of the KOIV&V. 207 power of thought precedes actual thought his spirit is like a tabula rasa. 566 ff. i. ing to DC An. . as individuals. 5.CO] MAN. 1 The latter is considered as being born and decaying with the body. 3 TraO-r)TLK6s. DC. cf. 4t&amp. and that which becomes everything . 431 a. 24 Gen. and its relation to the active. rb The phrase iron]TiK6s is first found in later 4&amp. are found only in beings compounded of vovs and soul. 2 432 413 a. and thought is always accompanied by sensuous images kinds of vovs Hence Aristotle distinguishes two that which does everything. we do indeed see that he attempted to find a bond in them which is to establish . 8. But inasmuch sible as our thought. 2 be ascribed to the bodiless spirit either before or after its present life. Phil.. ii. 8. b.i\e?j/. 1882. 3. Gr. ii. . Cf. b. is only pos the co-operation of both. 18 ff. The TTOIOVV. An. 4. which. on which a definite subject is first written by thought itself (this does not mean by sensuous perception. Akad. according to Aristotle. iii. 408 b. 4. d. fjLVf]aovvfiv. c. we have no remem by brance of the earlier existence of our spirit nor can . while the active vovs is eternal in its nature (the one is (frOapros.

1144 a. of the eternal without nature compounded On the combination of reason with the lower powers of the soul rest those spiritual activities is raised with the perishable. distinguishes mediate knowledge as Sidvoia or sTnarr^ vi. such. it is \6&amp. is [ 60 what the seat of the human personality life . If desire is of one or the other. how the memory bodily vovs can lead a personal & that immediate grasping of the which has been already mentioned. TO \oyL(7TiKov. and that the On 13.. on the other hand. the other hand. correctness of our aims judgments). voluntary. following Plato. and how the of both can be their subject. and from purely as this again opinion. by which man above the animals. we universally Hence. and held accountable for our acts. 6 &c. reflection must fix on the best means for these ends. in TrpaicTiKoS) distinction to STTLO-TTJ^OVLKOV^ and prudence (insight. .fos So far as reason renders this service called the reflective or practical reason (vovs or Bidvoia TrpaKTiKtj. how. . he also maintains that our volition decides on the final aims of our action (the most universal moral is Aristotle unconditionally presupposes it by the fact that virtue and freedom of will.208 highest truths. logical explanation accompanied by reason proves are it becomes volition (j3ov\r)&amp. consists in the improvement of this reason. self-consciousness and it is the expression. depends on virtue (&amp. unity of personal life.rt. which is related to what is not But Aristotle gives no further psycho necessary. From this. Aristotle.). is The activity of the of which the combination of the vovs with the animal arise by soul.

in general. two kinds of activity and two series of virtues are to be distinguished the theoretic and the practical . the perfection of the specially human is consists in activity. 7. 1 ff. Hence the the Or if happiness of men. the sake of something else. For every living creature the good consists in the perfection of its and . the possibility and the limits of the freedom of the will. consists in virtue. 1178 . c. are not found in More which acts of Aristotle. doubt. scientific or 1072 b. and virtue is the activity of reason in harmony with its mission. individual from this perfection is only a consequence existence as such Eudaimonia consists in the beauty not the ground upon which its value rests. This activity of reason. from the subjective feeling. 8. _ pure activity of thought is the more 1 valuable. The Ethics of Aristotle. 7. x. b. 61. according to Aristotle. by which the conditions of happiness are determined. But Aristotle does not derive the measure. all The aim Happiness. of it. and on its extent depends. of human is activity is. and not and perfection of the enjoyment which arises in each . practical activity or ethical virtue is the second essential constituent of happiness. On this fact no Greek moralist had any desired for its Happiness alone for own sake. 24 : TJ Oewpia rb ^iffrov /cal &PUTTOV JSth. which activity it therefore for men. but from the objective character of the activities of life. 209 precise inquiries about the internal processes by will are realised. as such.CO] MAN. But there xii.

and does not deserve the reproaches which every perfect activity. i. further considerations. For though it is result of inseparable from it.210 are ARISTOTLE. only inward excellence is the positive constituent To this. and who joyfully sacrifices everything else to this activity ( Eth. 12-15). and influence secure to it . yet its value depends entirely on that of the activity from which it has arisen. element goods are related merely as negative conditions (like material causes to final causes in nature). 1-9. sickness. is as yet incapable of any complete Poverty. the advantages of thought and volition. cf. of the highest good in the sense that independent part it can be made an object of action. which placed . He only the performance of what c is is virtuous who is satisfied by and beautiful without good any addition. The conception notes : of ethical virtue is defined by three is it is a certain quality of will. and withdraw from virtuous activity the aids which wealth. But beauty. x. noble birth are in themselves valuable. health. Of the qualities on which happiness rests. external and corporeal of happiness. [61 of life are a part of happiness Maturity and perfection a child cannot be : happy because he activity (apsrri). as the natural Plato and Speusippus have heaped upon it. the latter only are the object of ethics. and misfortune disturb happiness. power. even the extremity of misfortune cannot make a good man miserable (ad\ios\ though it may stand in the way of Just as little does pleasure form an his eudaimonia. vii. intercourse with friends. delight in children. 5-11. the dianoetic and ethical virtues.

not with the knowledge of moral rules. for what is correct for one person may be too much or fore too little for another. 9 v. the second (1) All virtues rest on certain natural capacities (dpsral (pvcrifcai) . But the determination voluntary. 6. virtue as ethical has its seat specially in the will. 1-8 the third in Book vi. specially. but they only become virtues in the proper sense (/cvpta apery) when they are accompanied by insight. (2) will is to Regarded as to its contents that quality of be called moral which preserves the right mean between excess and defect. a firmly established quality sentiment. init. \6ya) Eth.). The nature of this mean depends upon the peculiar nature of the actor. a mean between two defects.). but with their application.61] THE ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE. 4 Mp(. 15 . and then more in iii. On the other hand. 9 . i. . the first in iii. When Socrates referred it to knowledge. iii. first in a general manner in Eth. mean (s%is 211 in the and in the manner fix it suitable to our nature. he overlooked the fact that in virtue the free decision of the will is concerned. 13-ii. Every virtue is there of which somep 2 . such as can only be found in mature men. of will only becomes virtue when it is a lasting tion of the will (eft?). as fixed by reason in which the prudent man would yu-so-or^Tt oixra rfj TTpoaipSTi/cy ev Trpos rj/jid?. with the government of the passions by the reason. opiasisv These definitions are carried out fypovifjios /cal cos- av 6 further. &c. Aristotle devotes a special examination to the tions Hence concep which denote the various forms of the determina Eth. the conception of what is ( what is intended.a-/jLEvr) ii.

the cardinal virtue of civic life.. consists in a correction of the second by the Who mean is to decide in any given case where the is proper lies ? Aristotle tells us that this 60. i. however. the more Aristotle proves this more at length in the case of the individual virtues. Justice in the strictest sense is for equals. the end). and that of offence cesses. is [ 61 times the one and sometimes the other distant. like vovs and (cf. that which holds good This is partly natural* and partly legal (3) . the principle of geometrical proportion holds good. self-control. the second must see that the balance of gain and loss is kept on either side in voluntary contracts (o-vva\\djfiaTa SKOVO-LO). work of insight . and equity first. without. fully. for the second the principle of arithmetical proportion. political justice. deriving them according to any fixed in his cardinal virtues.ia\ law he distinguishes justice in dividing (^iavs^riKrf) from justice in correcting (SiopOcoriKij ). most the whole fifth book of his Ethics. and punishment in involuntary legal pro For the first. &c. The first has to apportion the honours and advantages which accrue to the individual from the community according to the worth of the recipient. bravery. such as Plato follows treats justice. because these are partly directed to what is necessary only..212 ARISTOTLE. principle. He regards as its object the correct apportionment of rewards and punishments (/cspSos and and according as he deals with public or private rjfj. devoting to it He a treatise which remained through the middle ages the basis of natural law. which differs from the other dianoetic virtues.e. as Aristotle perversely maintains.

2.61] THE ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE. and even that every man is related and friendly to every other (viii. and this common life The impulse towards lies in the very nature of Pol. From virtues and vices in the proper sense will 1-1. 1. they make production and not action their aim (cf. 1155 a. and complete his physical existence. 10). and on the other to the passions excess and effeminacy. 5). The Politics of Aristotle. 213 p. 13. a common life with his fellows man (civ Op (OTTOS fyvcrsi 7ro\iTi1253 a. but above all because it is only by this means that a good education and an arrangement of life by law and justice is possible Eth. though concerned with what is changeable. 1161 b. in his beautiful sec tion on love and friendship (for faXia means both). . i. 13. KOV is Zfiov. i. 208). i. (cf. like r^wr). 62. 16 ff. This trait is the foundation of the family and the State. as from the strength or weakness of the will in regard moderation and endurance (sy/cpdrsia and Kaprspia) on the one hand .~). (&amp. and that a common justice unites all men ( Rhet. secure. 2).e. and partly.).lt. he turns his attention to a moral relation in which it is already announced that man in his nature is a social being. Aristotle arise 1) those conditions which not so much from an habitual direction of will. Finally. c. p. needed not only to sustain. and crofyia which arises from the two . 181). from correct and perverse qualities of distinguishes (vii. init. . x. so full of the most delicate observations and the most pertinent remarks (Books viii. ix.

^a)rjs rs^sias X^P LV Ka L ^ 1288 b. is iii. like Plato. in its nature prior to the individual and the family. A State is not merely something uniform . it is a whole consisting . ii. is [ 62 The aim life not limited to secu and sustaining ring legality. And as virtue is the most essential part of happiness. the combination of several villages makes a State-com .214 ARISTOTLE. i. Aristotle shows in the most strik ing manner ( Pol. which Aristotle does not distinguish from the State. at any rate. its mission is something far higher and more . but proceeded from a false notion of this unity. On the other hand. being nothing less than life (77 TOV sv gfjv of the citizens in a perfect common icoivwvia or 9. The village-community is merely a stage in the transition to the State. repulsing foreign enemies. as in truth the parts of a whole are invariably conditioned by the whole as their aim to which they are sub servient ( Pol. of the State. Nature in the first But instance brings man and wife together to found a household families extend into villages (/cco/iai) . recog nises the chief object of the State to be the education of the people in virtue. 33). families and communities precede the State. munity (TTO}UP). in which it ends. 2). the happiness comprehensive. Aristotle. the State Pol. therefore. and he distinctly disapproves of any arrangement by which a State is devoted to war arid conquest instead of the peaceful care of moral and scientific education. in point of time. For this reason avrdp/covs. 1) that Plato s desire to sacrifice the family and private property to the unity of the State was not only impossible to realise in every respect.

Under different circumstances different things are correct. &c. contrary he sees that the arrangements of the constitu tion must be adapted to the character and requirements of the people for whom they are intended. the form of the constitution is common depends on the apportionment of political power. and what if is itself imperfect may possibly be the best that can be obtained under the circumstances.). good of his discussions on trade and industry (i. 14. various parts. rest of the relations of family life i. i. 215 of many Aristotle treats of marriage and the with sound] THE POLITICS OF ARISTOTLE. 8 ff. and the rest as perversions. not the advantage of the the final object of the State. and those are correct constitutions in which the good. On untenable attempt to justify slavery by the presuppo are men who are only capable of labour and must therefore be ruled by others . In his theory of political constitutions Aristotle does not follow Plato in regarding a single form as the On the only correct one. 13. while all ruling party. and considers free ( banausic work to be unworthy of a man. 4 He will allow only those kinds of acquisition to be natural which directly satisfy our needs.). when he makes the moral intelligence viii.). ( Pol. others are perversions. bodily and this he considers to be in general the relation of sition that there barbarians to Hellenes The same holds ff. This . Pol. ( the other hand he also pays his tribute to the national prejudice of the Greeks. All trade concerned with money he regards with contempt and mistrust.Eth. &amp. For the the correctness of constitutions depends on fixing aim of the State.

unless it has and unequal rights i. yet he does not omit to observe that this numerical division is cracy. cf. when lence the ruler of the State.) 6 Polit. and thus (like Plato. differences they are unequal. aristocracy when the same is the case and polity when all the citizens . Aristo &amp. On similar principles. Democracy. Polity (called also Timocracy. Hence though tional division of constitutions according to the number 308 of the ruling class. 12). so far as But the most important relate to their virtue.e. as correct forms . . Monarchy naturally arises when one person is so far superior to all the rest that he is their born ruler . and Tyranny as perverse forms (rj/jbaprrnjisyai. viii. their Aristotle adopts the tradi everything upon which the welfare of the State depends. stitution is not likely to live. their property. [ 62 must be determined by the various classes in the nation for the State actual importance of the for a con . the participation of one or other element is determined in the mixed forms of constitution (iii. ff. are nearly equal in capability (by which in this case with a minority martial vigour into being is chiefly meant). and it is only just when it assigns equal rights to the citizens so far as they are equal. among the citizens to their personal capability in or ignoble origin. their noble freedom. c. 6-13. only derivative. Oligarchy. 17. enumerates f six leading forms. Traps/cftac-sis). oligarchy when the mass a minority of the rich and noble men are the rulers tyranny when a single person becomes by vio . Monarchy. Democracy comes of the poor and free have the guidance of the State in their hands .216 ARISTOTLE. stronger supporters than opponents.

age. a. more particularly iv. like Plato. Yet. State it must be. 217 iv. the conditions necessary for a monarchy in his sense civic order possible. 175) Aristotle. 2. he prescribes an education which is to be entirely carried out by the State. 4 . who life they placed among those of riper in the best State those only are to be citizens are qualified to lead the State by their position in when are But and their education. nor has he carried them out with perfect consistency. and they are to be summoned to the exercise of this duty. cf. Aristotle demands that all bodily labour.. neither the section on education nor complete the description of the best State is brought to a close. At the basis of the description of his best State (vii. Greek places the arrangements of a Greek republic. 1288 8 . This educa tion closely resembles that of Plato. on the one hand.). . p. . and industry must be undertaken by slaves or metics. 11 f vi. Yet we cannot deny that Aristotle has not succeeded in bringing these different points of view into complete harmony.62] THE POLITICS OF ARISTOTLE. on the other. Hence. . iv. in our in work. 13. an aristocracy which in its plan the Platonic. freedom and 3) that no single person can rise so far above the rest that a free people would voluntarily endure his sole dominion. 14 if. for it is only among the Hellenes that he finds the qualities A which make the combination of It must also be a re because it is only in the heroic age that he finds public. agriculture. All the citizens are to have the right to participate in the of the is His model State management State. f..). init. and. 1313 a. f. and in his own day he believes (v. (iii. however far removed from approaches it in many of the details.

He examines the conditions on which depend the origin. Aristotle has also dis cussed the incomplete forms with minute care. Ethics is also . [ 62 Besides his pattern State. But left the Aristotelian &amp. He distinguishes the various kinds of democracy. Next to the form usually termed aristocracy (iv. and the arrangements and principles of government which belong to them. without explaining its relation to the constitution which bears the same is name among the correct forms. and decay of each form of State. part of unfinished. maintenance. and preservation of the correct mean. He finds the answer in a combination of oligarchic and democratic arrangements by which the centre of gravity of civic life is thrown upon the pro middle class. Hence he secures for the sperous progress of his State that regularity.218 ARISTOTLE. which arose partly out of the different natures of the ruling body and partly out of the fact that the characteristics of each form are carried out with more or less thoroughness. which are the best security for the continuance of a constitution. and at the same time best correspond to the ethical principles of the philosopher. Aristotle calls this form of State a c polity. and Finally he inquires what form of constitution for the majority of States is best and under ordinary circum stances. this comes 7). but it which nowhere explained in detail. oligarchy.

173). Attitude of Aristotle to Religion. and accurately distinguished from that of the good. or any com The conception of the beautiful. he considers art is not Like . The most important point &amp. 176).. is as indefinite in Aristotle as in Plato (p. 162). see p. for rhetoric. and as his fine arts but poetry have come down to us in a very mutilated form. to and skill in action. Rhetoric 219 and Art.G3] ARISTOTLE S RHETORIC AXD ART. as a subsidiary branch of dialectic (in the sense mentioned on p. Rhetoric occupies a kind of middle place between On the one sciences. we cannot gather from the writings of the Poetics philosopher any perfect aasthetic theory. 63. Aristotle ascribes a very subordinate and conditional value to the power of exciting anger or sympathy. down to his time had been accustomed to look for her strength. therefore. in the various orator is provinces to which senatorial. is the doctrine of oratorical proof. Aristotle does not appear to have treated any of the in independent works. artistic introduction to such conviction. Compared with this. plete doctrine of art. and poetic the practical treated as an art (re^v^i) on tne other. as imitation (/il/t^ow) but . The object of the Ehetoric is the conviction by probability. to which the first and second books of the Ehetoric are devoted (on book iii. Plato. and epideictic speech are related. it is 5 the first to the aims of the latter. and of politics and ethics an application of hand. in which rhetoric of grace language. which is the leading idea of modern esthetics.






art presents in imitation is not in Aristotle the sensuous phenomenon, but the inner nature of things, not what has happened, but what ought to happen accord

ing to the nature of things (the avay/caiov rj eltcos) ; its forms are types (TrapdSsiy/jia) of universal laws ; hence poetry is nobler and nearer to philosophy than history


9. 15).



If Aristotle


this is the cause of its peculiar Pol. viii. 5, 7) a


quadruple use of music (1) for amusement (ira^La\ (2) for moral culture, (3) for recreation


connected with $p6vr)cris\ and (4) for purification if all art (icdOapvis) may be applied in one of these
directions, yet

mere amusement can never be

its final

the other three operations from the fact that a work of art brings into



sight and

application the general laws in the particular object. The Katharsis, i.e. the liberation from disturbing emo

be regarded, with Bernays, as merely an opportunity to the emotions to relieve them giving selves by occupation. As belonging to art it can only be brought about by an excitement of the feelings in which they are subjected to a fixed measure and

tions, is not to

and carried away from our own experiences and circum stances to that which is common to all men. In this sense we have to understand the famous definition of


In regard to religion we have nothing from Aristotle




b. 24.





TpaycpSla irpd^ecos (nrovScuccy Kal reAeias ^eytQos e xouo-Tjy,

Aeis, and yueAos) eV (dialogue and. chorus),

Spuvruv Kal ov

a7ra77eAias, SL







(the kinds of

eAeou Kal (f>6&ov Trepaivovaa rrjv rwv roiovrwv va0ijfidTuv Ka0apffiv.




but scattered expressions. His own theology is an abstract monotheism, which excludes any interference on the part of the Deity in the course of the world
(cf. p. 193). Though he sees something divine in nature and her adaptation of means to ends, and more immediately in the human spirit, the thought of re

ferring an effect to

any but natural causes


so far



that he does not accept the Socratic belief in Provi dence, even in the form which Plato adopted it (p. 161 ).

equally without any belief in a future retribu In the Deity he finds the final source of the coherence, order, and movement of the world, but every individual thing is to be explained in a purely natural way. He reverences the Deity with admiring affection, but demands no affection in return and no



providence. Hence the religion of his country is for him true in so far only as it contains a belief in a deity and in the divine nature of the heavens and the
to it as to every all besides is general and primeval conviction myth/ which the philosopher derives partly from the incli nation of men to anthropomorphic and


a truth which he concedes


partly from political considerations

















ii. 1.


Meteor. i. 3. 339 b. 19 Pol. i. 2. 1252 b. In the State he desires to retain the 24). existing religion ; a reform, such as Plato held to be necessary, is not required.



The Peripatetic School.
of its




After the death
school was led

founder, the



his faithful friend, the learned


of Lesbos (who died 288-286 eloquent Theophrastus of eighty-five, according to Diog. v. B.C., at the age 40. 58. By his long and successful labours as a

which cover the teacher, and his numerous writings, 1 field of philosophy, whole Theophrastus contributed


to extend

bequeathed to

and strengthen the school. He also On the whole he adheres it an estate.

as a philosopher to the soil of the Aristotelian system, but in particular points he endeavours to supplement


correct it

by independent investigations.



logic received


alterations from him and Eudemus.

The most impor

tant of these consist in the separate treatment of the doctrine of propositions, the limitations of their dis

modality to the degree of subjective of the discussion of the certainty, the enriching doctrine of hypothetical conclusions, syllogism by the which are also reckoned the disjunctive.


Moreover, as


shown by the fragment of his
12), Theophrastus found

treatise on


in essential definitions of the Aristotelian metaphysics, more especially in the adaptation of means to ends in to nature, and in the relation of the primum mobile

the world.


do not know how he solved these



which have

of preserved, and the fragments those what are lost have been

edited by Schneider (1818 and Wiomier (1854, 1862)
p. 8.







but he refused to abandon the determinations He modified Aristotle s doctrine on move ment, and raised considerable doubts against his defi nition of space. But in the large majority of cases he


follows the Aristotelian physics, and especially defends his doctrine of the eternity of the world against the Stoic Zeno (in Ps. Philo, /Etern. Mundi, c. 23




two works on plants, which have come down to and which in their leading thoughts closely adhere

became the great authority on botany He deviated past the end of the middle ages. from Aristotle in denoting human thought as a move
to Aristotle, he

and with minute care removed the diffi which stand in the way of the distinction between the active and the passive reason, without,
of the soul


His ethics, which he embodied in several writings and carried out into detail with great knowledge of mankind, was charged
however, removing this distinction.

by (Stoic) opponents with attributing too much value to external goods yet there is at most a slight differ ence of degree between him and his teacher in this He is further removed from him by his _disrespect. inclination to marriage, in which he feared a disturb ance of scientific labour; and in his disapproval of blood-offerings and flesh-diet, which he derived from

the kinship of


living creatures.




hand, he follows his master (p. 213) when he main tains that all men, and not merely those of one nation,
are interconnected and related.

Beside Theophrastus stands





the most important of the personal pupils of the Stagirite.




was active as a teacher of philosophy, no doubt in his own city. By his learned historical works (p. 8) he did good service for the history of the sciences. In
his views


he adheres even more


than Theo-

Simplicius, <Phys. 411. 15, phrastus to his master. In calls him his most faithful (yvrjo-icoraros } disciple. 4 he adopted the improvements of Theophrastus,

Logic but in his

Physics he kept closely to the Aristotelian, often repeating the very words (cf. Eudemi Fragmenta,
his ethics

The most important



(which have been adopted into the Aristotelian collection) and the ethics of Aristotle consists in the combination which he makes, after


and theology. Not only does derive the disposition to virtue from the Deity, but he he conceives speculation, in which Aristotle had sought
Plato, between ethics

the highest good, more distinctly as a knowledge of God, and wishes to measure the value of all things and


by their relation to this. The internal unity of he finds in the love of the good and

beautiful for

own sake



third Aristotelian


Aristoxenus of Tarentum,

6 attained renown by Harmonics, which we Passing possess, and other writings on music.

from the Pythagorean school into the Peripatetic, this philosopher combined a Pythagorean element with what was Aristotelian in his moral prescripts, and in
his theory of music.

Like some of the



goreans, he explained the soul to be a harmony of the In this body, and therefore opposed its immortality. he was joined by Dicsearchus of Messene, his fellow-






Dicsearchus also deviated

from Aristotle in

giving the advantage to the practical over the theoretic life ; but on the other hand, his Tripoliticus stands

ground of the Aristotelian Politics. Phanias and Clearchus we have few state Eegarding ments, and these mostly refer to history or with the

essentially on the

Callisthenes (cf. p. 171), Leo of and Clytus, are only known to us as his Byzantium,

to natural history



only as a physician.





same with the pupils of Theophrastus Demetrius of Phalerum, Duris, Chameleon, and Praxiphanes they are rather scholars and men of literature than


The more important


Strato of Lampsacus, the

who succeeded Theophrastus, and for physicist, eighteen years was head of the Peripatetic school at Athens. This acute inquirer not only found much to
correct in details in the theories of Aristotle, 1 but he was opposed entirely to his spiritual and dualistic view

of the world.


placed the deity on the same level

with the unconscious activity of nature, and instead of the Aristotelian teleology demanded a purely physical

Of these he considered explanation of phenomena. warmth and cold to be the most universal sources, and more especially warmth as the active prin


man he

set apart the spirit as


For instance, he attributed weight to all bodies, and explained the rising of air and fire from the pressure of heavier bodies on lighter he assumed

lying between inclosing and inclosed bodies. He wished time to be called the measure of movement and rest, not the number of



the sky, as



empty spaces within the world, and defined space as the vacuum

he regarded as consisting of fiery, not of ethereal matter.




and regarded

distinct in nature from the animal soul,
all activities

of the soul, thought as well as feeling, as motions of the same rational being which was seated in

the head, in the region between the eye-brows, and from thence (as it seems with the Pneuma for its substra tum) permeated the various parts of the body. Hence
-he controverted the

immortality of the soul.

Strato was followed by Lyco,

who was

leader of the

school for forty-four years, down to 226-224 B.C. ; after him came Aristo of Ceos ; and after Aristo, Critolaus

of Phaselis in Lycia, who in 156 B.C., when already advanced in years (he was more than eighty-two years

Rome as an ambassador from Athens with and Carneades. His successor was Diodorus Diogenes of Tyre, and Diodorus (about or before 120 B.C.) was
old) visited

succeeded by Erymneus. Contemporary with Lyco were Hieronymus of Ehodes, and Prytanis Phormio of Ephesus lived about the beginning of the second



about the same time and later came the

philosophers mentioned on p. 10, Hermippus, Satyrus, Sotion, and Antisthenes. But the philosophical services of these men appear to be almost entirely limited

Hence handing down the Peripatetic doctrines. to have chiefly occupied themselves with they appear
practical philosophy,

however celebrated the lectures

of Lyco, Aristo, Hieronymus, and Critolaus, might be in point of form. Only in Hieronymus do we hear of

any considerable deviation from the Aristotelian ethics. He declared freedom from pain, which he carefully distinguished from pleasure, to be the highest good.
It is less important that Diodorus placed the



in a virtuous




and painless

he, like

Aristotle, considered virtue to be its

most indispensable

element. Even those parts of the spurious writings in our collection of Aristotle, which we can refer to the third century, or at any rate to the time before the end of the second, deviate from Aristotle only in details which are of little from the whole importance
If they furnish a further proof that scientific did not die out in the activity Peripatetic school after Theophrastus and Strato, they also show that such





might supplement and

correct in

dividual details, did not attempt to point out any path for the solution of the greater problems.


Q 2

228 POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY. had long ceased to have the support of the old belief in the gods. THE POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY. in the search for enjoyment and gain. and it was now It directed it without the control of a vigorous political activity. new centres of national intercourse and civilisation arose. [ 65 THIED PEEIOD. 65. and the conquests by of Alexander could not fail to exercise the deepest in fluence on science. was natural that the pleasure and the power for free and purely scientific contemplation of the world should disappear . the Hellenic mother country. revolution caused in the life of the Grecian people the rise of the Macedonian power. selves into the foreground. Introduction. an abundance of new intuitions streamed in. Under such circumstances to great aims. sank in hopeless decay. On the other hand. that practical questions should force them and that the chief value of philosophy should be sought more and more in the fact . THE In the countries of the east and south an inexhaustible field of labour was opened. became an object of contention to strangers and the scene of their The prosperity and population of the country contests. and the struggle for daily subsistence. deprived of its political independence and importance. Moral life was in danger of being swamped in the petty interests of private life.

. SCEPTICISM. His death appears to have taken place about 270 B. Greek . EPICUREANISM.C. 28. The founder in Cyprus.C. in their metaphysics as well as had prepared the way for this retirement from the external world. STOICISM. The stages through which this their ethics. THE STOIC PHILOSOPHY. as he was seventy-two years old (Diog. Yet for this purpose a definite was still root. The Stoic School in Third and Second Centuries B. This view was the more prevalent. his birth. a of the Stoic school was Zeno of Citium city with a Phoenician element. 31. I. to satisfy the speculative tendencies of the Greek nation and the convictions life. as Plato and Aristotle. in point harmony with the relations of the Alexandrine and Eoman period. the. it 229 that of provided men with a refuge against the miseries scientific theory found indispensable. 66. mode of thought passed in the centuries after Aristotle were stated on p. which since the time of Socrates had taken such deep At the same time it is easy to understand that this mission of philosophy could only be satisfied when the individual things made himself independent of all external and withdrew into his inner life.65 ] THE STOIC SCHOOL. FIEST SECTION. Social union was now recommended by those who knew its value from a cosmopolitan rather than a political of view. vii.

personal pupils Persseus.C. (see supra.C. p. the Spartan king. born in 281-76 ous scholar. the tutor of Cleomenes. 176). but according to others. letter. or forward as a teacher perhaps somewhat earlier.. character. at the age of seventy-three. the poet of Soli in Cilicia. xxxiii. About 300 B.230 THE STOIC SCHOOL. though he also against which nothing Cynic availed himself of the instruction of the Megarian Dioand Polemo. but afterwards Stoics. 24. apparently when eighty years of age (Diog. and afterwards to Stilpo. 154) place the death. in 251 B. he came and philosophical writer his pupils were at first called dorus. a man of singular force of will. 143.. moderation. The successor of Aratus.C. their place of meeting. he came to Athens. which 622 1). 71). . in 263-4. By (Rli. Crates. but of less versatility of thought.e. with Jerome. Cleanthes was Chrysippus of Soli (he died in 01. He was followed by Cleanthes of Assus in the Troad. Zenonians.C.C. he was born in 331 B. and was therefore an acute dialectician and labori B. the birth in 336. 11).. the countryman and sharer of his house . xxxiv. he voluntarily Universally honoured for his put an end to his life. from the Stoa Poecile. and moral According strength. Besides Cleanthes the following are the most important among Zeno s of his master. to Ind. 1 208-4 B. his successful labours as a teacher E. i. and died by voluntary starvation. of Xenocrates. Aristo of Chius. can hardly be harmonised with Diog.. 29. and Bosporus. col. 28. Sphserus of (cf. ibid.C. Rohde Mus. when ninety-nine years old. Gompertz (ib. : and Herillus of Carthage 67.). Hercul. 1 [ 66 is proved by the interpolated In his twenty-second 342 B. . 9) about he attached himself to the where year.

will meet us also of Tarsus. 226). 95. Of the numerous writings of the Stoic philosophers for the first three centuries of the school only fragments remain. 196-2 B. Character and Divisions of the Stoic System. us to set forth the system in the form which it for 1 A detailed investigation on this subject. Two other pupils of Diogenes. 231 and his very numerous works which. then Diogenes of Seleucia (Diogenes the Babylonian) who in 156 B. so far as they go beyond what 1 is hitherto acknowledged. ii. Cynicism leads us to suppose that he also owed his Stoa to Aristo (Stob. Boethus and Pansetius. but brought its system of teaching Contemporaries of Chrysippus are Erato sthenes of Gyrene (276-2 B.C. whose scholar. it is true. in 80. and the moralist Teles.c) the famous a pupil of Aristo. Untersuchwngen :u Cicero s phil.C. took part in the embassy of the philosophers to Rome (p.66] THE STOIC SCHOOL. The later accounts usually treat the Stoic doctrine as a whole. only found in . but apparently did not long survive it. a. 67. Floril. especially Chrysippus. 1882. first Zeno of Tarsus. Chrysippus was succeeded by two pupils. 21). the results of which. Hirzel. connection with the Of the numerous pupils of Diogenes. Schriften. and what are due to his Hence it remains successors. while Archedemus. founded a school in Babylon. Antipater of Tarsus was his suc cessor in the chair at Athens. without expressly saying what doctrines belong to Zeno. spread of Stoicism. will be 11. I can partially accept. and negligent in style and exposition he not only rendered very great services for the outward to perfection. were too discursive.

But what essentially the Stoa from Cynicism. 5).232 . after Chrysippus. What led the founder of the Stoic school to philo sophy was in the first instance the necessity of finding He first sought to a firm support for his moral life. Sen. sed per ipsam 89.). is the importance which the Stoics ascribe to scientific inquiry. also regarded themselves as offshoots from the Cynic branch of the Socratic school. His followers satisfy this need with the Cynic Crates. THE STOIC SCHOOL. virtutis. are treated as synonymous terms. and make the value of theoretic inquiry dependent on its importance for moral Their conception of moral duties stands close to life. 71 f. so far as they are known to us and can be made out with probability. life. The final object of philosophy lies for the moral condition of men. and when they wished to name the men who had come nearest to their ideal of the sage they mentioned Diogenes and Antisthenes be Like these philosophers their object is side Socrates. and carried even distinguished its founder beyond the Cynics. them But in its influence on possible without true knowledge . If Herillus explained and final aim of knowledge as the highest good he returned in this from Zeno to . and is true morality is im virtuous and wise to coincide with the exercise of virtue. Ep. time defined as though philosophy it is at the same the knowledge of the divine and human. [ 67 assumed and at the same time to mark the distinctions of teaching within the school. . to make man independent and happy by virtue like them they define philosophy as the practice of virtue. that of the Cynics (cf. (acTK7]o-is apsTrjs. studium virtutem.

the idealism and spiritualism action of reason in the world and Aristotle. 167). 197) and thus seemed to endanger the absolute rule of reason. 118). he For this systematic grounding went back primarily to Heracleitus. and ethics (see p. and that only there is but one law which governs the course of nature and ought to govern the action of men. because the first was retain Stoicism in useless. 148. but also determined to be ignorant of dialectics and physics. whose physics were commended to him before all others by the decisive manner in which he carries out the thought that all individual things in the world are apparitions of one and the same being . On the other hand. apart from the difficulties in which it had involved its authors. On the other hand. pp. in his . attributed a value only to the discussions of principles . Moreover. human knowledge. on the other hand. in human life. Zeno himself saw in scientific knowledge the indispensable condition of moral action. was an attempt to Cynicism when Aristo not only despised learned culture. he explained as indifferent. it 233 Aristotle. Ethics.G7] CHARACTER OF THE STOIC SYSTEM. He was repelled by the dualism which placed the action of necessity by the side of the/ (cf. could not be united with the nominalism which Zeno had derived from of Plato Antisthenes fitted to (p. of his ethics. and the second transcended the powers of In the same feeling. physics. Aristo. the more special rules of life. while it also appeared too little secure a firm basis for action for Zeno to . just as he had borrowed from the Aca demicians the division of philosophy into logic. Zeno found a difficulty in the Platonic and Aristo telian metaphysics.

especially after Chrysippus. The highest place was sometimes assigned to physics. and the belief in Providence connected with it. into their view of the world. In many details also he supplemented the Hera- cleitean physics by the Aristotelian. and different opinions prevailed as to their relative value. 68. Under the term Logic. divided. and ended with ethics. were not always taught in the same order. [67 adopt it. it therefore. which the Stoics enumerated (though Cleanthes added rhetoric to logic. however. the Stoics since the time of Chrysippus comprehended all inquiries which were related to inward or outward speech (the \6yos spBidQeros and TTpofyopiicbs). but it has altered and supplemented it with the help of every thing which could be borrowed from earlier systems. as the know ledge of divine things. The Stoic Logic. Still greater is the influence of the Peripatetic logic on the Stoic. as the most important science for men. belong to those who began with passed from this to physics. They . into rhetoric and dialectic and to the latter the doctrine of the cri terion and determination of concepts was sometimes . But even in his ethics Zeno was at pains to soften the harshness and severity of Cynicism. Hence the Stoic philo sophy is by no means a continuation of the Cynic.234 THE STOIC SCHOOL. The more decidedly did lie and his school introduce the Socratic-Platonic teleology. The three parts of philosophy. and theology to physics). which perhaps Zeno was the first to use. Zeno and Chrysippus logic. politics to ethics. sometimes to ethics. with the most important results.

or. sion (TVTTCOCTIS) of things in the soul. everything must be given to it by the objects. Zeno draws the con clusion that all knowledge must proceed from the perception of the individual. 235 subordinated. notitice communes) which determine the con victions of men before any scientific investigation. 182). The doctrine of what was signified corresponds in all essentials to our formal That of the criterion contains the theory of logic. development of which in Alexandrian and Roman times and TO o-rjfjiaivofjLsvov). the Stoics are pronounced empirics. By conclusions and from from given in perception we arrive at general So far as these are derived y presentations (SVVOKIL). and . In dialectic they distinguished the doctrine of what was significant from that of the thing signified (TO o-fj/jLaivov Under the former they included the theory of music and grammar. If Antisthenes had recognised reality in individual things only. as Zeno and Cleanthes said. and sometimes added as on an equal rank. as Chrysippus which thought. a change of the soul caused by them. they form those common concepts (icoival svvoiat. marks) on our internal conditions and Out these of perception arise our recollections. According to the Stoics. knowledge which prevailed in the school. In opposition to Plato and Aristotle.68] LOGIC. Stoicism largely contributed. (cf. to the poetics. the soul is at its birth like a tabula rasa . what naturally and without artificial assistance from universal experiences. experience is p. an and sometimes also (as Chrysippus at least expressly re activities. The presentation impres (fyavracrla) is. instructs us sometimes on external circumstances.

but is distinguished from it by_the consciousness of its agree ment with the object. see supra).gt. (/earaA. first [ 68 are therefore called Tr/ooX^sts-. conception consists The concept. a term invented by Zeno). and have direct evidence (svdpysia).) . A presentation which carries this consciousness with it is called by Zeno a conceptual presentation (^avracria KaraX^TrrLK^y which in the first instance doubtless means a presentation which is suited to become a KardKri ^ris). Consequently he maintains that conceptual presentation is the criterion of truth. then (as distinguished from the svvoia. &amp. As all our presentations arise out of perceptions. these can also be regarded . Hence when we assent to these presentations we appre hend the subject itself. is term borrowed from used in this sense by Science rests on regulated demonstration and formation of concepts. It is in assenting to such a presentation that. a Epicurus and apparently Chrysippus. has the same contents as the simple presentation. that it The chief value of science forms a conviction which cannot be shaken by objections (Kard\7]^is dcr^a^rjs KOI d^sraTrrcoros VTTO \6&amp. In their view a part of our con ceptions is of such a nature that they compel us to give assent to them (o-vy/caTaTiOscrOai.236 THE STOIC SCHOOL. the value of the knowledge they afford must depend on the question whether there are perceptions of which it is certain that they agree with the objects perceived.?7 vJas . But this the Stoics maintain. according to Zeno. they are connected with the consciousness that they can only arise from something But as the common concepts arise out of perceptions as their results.yov\ or a system of such convictions.

150 ff. .. indeed. Math. These four were related to each other in such a manner that each succeeding one is a closer determination of that which precedes. also ovcria) . the second propositions. 54) refers to Zeno and Cleanthes. Xo^os ). 237 as natural standards of truth. sc. and as regards Zeno it cannot be harmonised with Sext. The Stoics had cepts only four categories in the place of the Aristotelian ten. 77. The is general concept under which the categories come On the other hand. This. quality 1 (Trws an d related quality (TT^OS. 1 possibility of last resort knowledge is proved by the Stoics in the by the assertion that otherwise no action with rational conviction is possible. The most important is of the determinations of the con the doctrine of categories. not only corresponded to their scientific requirements. the first form concepts. which corresponds to our formal logic has to do with what is signified or ex pressed (\SKTOV\ and this is either complete or incom plete . and therefore comprises it. They are substratum (VTTOKSI/JLSVOV. Cic. vii. so that Chrysippus could But the speak ofa/LO-Brjats and TrpoXrjijris as criteria.68] LOGIC. 11. of opebs the older Stoics made \6yos the criterion vii. ii. Yet they involved themselves in the contradiction that on the one hand they made perception the standard of truth. and on the other looked for perfectly certain knowledge from science only. property (TO TTOLOV or 6 Tropes. it is improbable that the statement that 1 some the (Diog. but to the practical de mands of a system which made the virtue and happiness of men depend on their subordination to The part of dialectic a universal law. 24. which again subdivides 1 into %oi/). Acad.TI TTWS e%oz^). i. KOLVCOS TTOIOV and l&lws all TTOLQV . 42.

advantage 69. In contrast to their idealism. the world was absolute essentially teleological Their point of view and theological. the Ultimate Basis. . In their they gave such prominence to the hypothetical and disjunctive that they only were to be regarded as conclusions in the proper sense. which Chrys inquiry. (agiwjjLara) The Stoics distinguished simple (categoric) and com and among the latter they treated especial care. and their Monism becomes a Pan theism (cf. the pedantic into logic. [ G8 others by some considered Being (probably Zeno) by This Something is again (Chrysippus) Something (rl). as their ethics de final basis of is manded. The view which the Stoics took of the world governed by a triple tendency. they regarded everything work of reason. p. could not be of ippus especially introduced to the general condition of the science. it aims at the unity of the final cause. and if in details it enters here and there into more precise external formalism. . it is realistic materialistic. The Stoic Physics . are pound judgments. judgments those which are either true or false. and the reason. But the scientific value of this Stoic logic is very slight. and even in the world as the Nevertheless. and the order of the world In opposition to the which proceeded from it : it is monistic. dualism of the Platonic and Aristotelian metaphysics. assertions or or statements propositions. with hypothetical judgments treatment of conclusions also. 233). and is the Universe.238 THE STOIC SCHOOL. Among complete divided into Being and Not-being.

. without human soul and the Deity. in the currents of air (Trvsvpara).gt.691 PHYSICS. wisdom. the Stoics distinguished between the material and the forces at work in it. and the properties of things the things to which they belong.ns Si. In order to be able to explain from this point of view the fact that the soul permeates the body through its whole extent. but this property is only found in bodies. Even the filling up of space was derived from two movements. the virtues. one causing condensation. it is true. though. are called bodies and living beings. place. by which they are spread abroad. The first taken by itself all derived they regarded as without properties. as condi tions of the soul. That empty space. . one proceeding But all the powers operainward. or passive. denied the impenetrability of bodies. time. which is active o\a&amp. the Stoics. and from which they receive the tension (rovos) which keeps them together. but properties of things were also regarded as existing in something corporeal.i/. and the notion in the mind (\EKTOV. p. the other rarefaction. affections. They maintained that one body could penetrate another in all its parts without becoming one material with it. were not to be regarded as bodies was only an inconsistency. c. As this naturally holds good of the soul-bodies also. walking. Yet. and properties of things from the rational power (\6yos) which penetrates them. in their doctrine of the 9 Kpa&amp. as bodies. 239 In the doctrine of the Stoics only bodies are a That was real. Hence they not only explained excluding the all all substances. an unavoidable one. they urged. the other outward. in spite of their materialism. cf. 237).

&c. this also and regarded more precisely as (Trvsvpa). the perfection of the world and the adapta warm vapour tion of means in to ends. it must stand to the universe in the same relation as our soul to our body. and to Clean the s in the sun). [69 ting in the world come from one original power. on the enlivens. the governing part is separate from the rest. most philanthropic nature word. corporeal. the combination and harmony must be of all its parts. and more especially the rational element nature. . destiny. begets. universal law. the spirit (\oyoi (vovs\ the reason (\oyos) of the world. nature. is assigned to or it. It penetrates all things as the Trvsv/jia. so also in the soul of The Deity uttermost circle in Zeus has his seat in the of the world (according to Arched emus the centre. the Deity. But the dis yet his distinction from the world is relative is directly and what is tinction between what indirectly . world is indebted to it for its properties. and containing their germs in o-TTSpfjiaTiKOi). for all Providence.240 THE STOIC SCHOOL. these conceptions denote the same object from various sides. or artistic fire (irvp TS^VLKOV\ enlivening them. other hand. the kindest. and moves all things. its movement and life. Like is all that is real. from whence he spreads himself through the world. for it is warmth which But. and a special seat the universe. or fire. itself It is the soul. though it is present in the whole body. It is this just because it consists of human As everything in the the most perfect material. But as in the soul of man. shows that this final cause of the world must at the same time be the most perfect in a reason. as is proved by the unity of the world.


In themselves both are the same


there is but one and the same being, of which a part takes the form of the world, while another part retains its original
shape, and in that shape confronts the first as the operative cause or the Deity. Even this distinction of


in time


transitory; it

has arisen in time, and

pass away. In order to form the world the Deity changed the fiery vapour, of which it consists, first into air, then
into water, in which

it will

was immanent as a formative

From the water, beneath (nrspfjiaTiKos). a part was precipitated as earth ; another operation, part remained water, a third became air, and out of

by still further rarefaction, was kindled the ele mentary fire. Thus was formed the body of the world in distinction to its soul, the Deity. But as this


opposition has arisen in time, so with time it passes away. the course of the present world has come to an end, a conflagration will change everything into a

monstrous mass of fiery vapour. Zeus receives the world back again into himself in order to emit it again at a preordained time (cf. p. 69 Hence the ff.). of the world and the Deity moves in an endless history


the world.

between the formation and the destruction of As these always follow the same law,

the innumerable successive worlds are
similar, that in every

so exactly

one the same persons, things, and events occur, down to the minutest details, as are found in all the rest. For an inexorable necessity,
a strong connecting chain of cause and effect governs all events. In such a strictly pantheistic

system R


thoroughly consistent, and
it is



also expressed

in the

Stoic definition of fate or destiny, of nature

and providence.
so far as it is his

Even the human


makes no

in this respect.



voluntarily, in

own impulse (op/^) which moves him

even that which fate ordains, he can do voluntarily, i.e. with his own assent; but do it he must under any

volentem fata ducunt, nolentem traall



this connection of

things (crvjjiTrddsLa


o\a)v) rests the unity,

and on the rationality of

the cause from which

it proceeds, rest the beauty arid of the world ; and the more eagerly the perfection Stoics strove to establish their belief in Providence by

proofs of every kind, the less could they renounce the duty of proving the universal perfection of the world,

and defending it against the objections to which the numerous evils existing in it gave rise. Chrysippus appears to have been the chief author of this physical theology and theodicy. But we also know of him that
he carried out the proposition that the world was made for gods and men with the pettiest and most super

Even if the leading idea of the Stoic ficial teleology. theodicy, that the imperfection of the individual subserves the perfection of the whole, has formed a of a similar kind, yet pattern for all later attempts the task of uniting moral evil with their theological
determinism was






owing to the blackness of the colours in which they were accustomed to define the extent and power of
this evil.




Nature and Man.

In their doctrine of nature the Stoics adhered less
as was inevitable closely to Heracleitus than to Aristotle, in the existing state of knowledge. Leaving out of sight some subordinate deviations they followed Aristotle in

their doctrine of the four elements, and if they found it necessary to establish the aether as a fifth body beside

them, they made no distinction between the ethereal

the earthly





in circles, the

second in straight lines (cf. p. 198). The Stoics again and again insisted that all elementary matters constantly
passed one into another, that all things were to be con ceived in perpetual change, and on this rested the con For this reason it was not their nection of the world.
object to

deny the

fixed condition of things as

to the

cleitus did, or with Aristotle to limit this


200). In their views on the structure of the universe they adhered to the prevailing notions. They regarded the
(cf. p.

world beneath the


stars as fixed in their spheres


their fire was nurtured

by exhalations from the earth and the waters ; their divinity and rationality were derived from the purity of
this fire.

The whole realm

of nature


divided into

four classes ; which are distinguished in such a manner that inorganic things are kept together by a simple
Ifts, plants by rational soul.

animals by a soul,

men by



creatures man only has a higher our philosophers, and in man the soul. The soul, like all that is real, has a corporeal nature;




R 2




comes into being with the body in the physical mode of generation but the material is the purest and descended into noblest, a part of the divine fire which

the bodies of

men when they


arose out of the

and passes from the parents to the children
of the soul


offshoot of their souls.


of the soul (the by the blood, and the governing part has its seat in the heart, the centre of the fi^s^oviKov)

course of the

blood (according to

Zeno, Cleanthes,

whom only a few authors deviate). Chrysippus, &c., from offshoots spread out, viz. the five From hence seven and of procreation, to their senses, the power of speech
seat of personality lies corresponding organs. But the in the governing part or reason, to which belong only both the lower and the higher activities of soul, and in



conclusions of will

the assent to conceptions, as well as to both only in the sense which the
(cf. p.

Stoic determinism allows

242 \

After death,


souls, according to Cleanthes, but according to Chrysippus

the necessary force, the souls only those who had obtained of the wise, continue till the end of the world, in order But the limited to return at that time into the Deity.
duration of this continued

did not deter the Stoics,

and Seneca especially, from describing the blessedness of the higher life after death in colours not unlike
those of Plato and the Christian theologians.

The Stoic Ethics


their general traits.

obeys the laws of the universe, man his reason to know them and qualified by only This is the leading thought follow them consciously.
If everything




of the Stoic doctrine of Ethics.

Their supreme prin

in general the life according to nature 0/^,0X0ciple Yoy&evas T# (frvasi, gv. That this principle was not thus formulated till the successors of Zeno, while he

required only ojioXoyovjisvais fjy, the with itself (Arius Did. in Stob. Eel.





more improbable as Diog. vii. 87 definitely states the contrary, and even Polemo, Zeno s teacher, had re
If Cleanthes quired a life according to nature (p. 169). named the nature to which our lives are to correspond

and Chrysippus called


universal and


nature, the correction is chiefly especially The most universal impulse of nature is in verbal.


every creature the impulse to self-preservation ; only what serves this end can have a value (a^ia) and con
tribute to its happiness ( evSaipovla, svpoia /3lov). Hence for a rational being that only has a value which is in

accordance with nature


for it virtue only is a


and in virtue alone consists
is is

happiness, which con not connected with any further condition

the only evil

avrdp/cti? Trpb? rrjv svSai/jLovlav). Conversely, All else is indifferent is vice (/ca/cla).

(abidfyopov); life, health, honour, possessions, &c., are not goods ; death, sickness, contempt, poverty, &c., are not evils. Least of all can pleasure be considered a good, or the highest good, and sought for its own sake.



a consequence of our activity,

if this is

of the

right kind (for doing right ensures the only true satis If all Stoics did faction), but it can never be its aim.

not go so far as Cleanthes, who would not have pleasure reckoned among things according to nature, yet all





denied that

had any value by



this reason

of the virtuous man they sought the special happiness in freedom from disturbance, mjreppse of spirit, and

inward independence. As virtue alone has a value for of men, the effort to attain it is the most universal law This conception of law and duty is more his nature. earlier moral prominent among the Stoics than among But as the rational impulses are accom philosophers. and unmeasured im panied in man with irrational Zeno reduced to four main pulses or passions (which and fear), the Stoic pleasure, desire, anxiety,

passions virtue is essentially a battle with the passions

they are an irrational and morbid element (appwa-r^ara, and if they become habitual, vocroi ^rv they must and Peri not only be regulated (as the Academicians


Our duty is to attain patetics wished) but eradicated. In opposition to or freedom from passions. apathy, virtue coDsists in the rational quality of the passions, the soul. The first condition is a right notion in
regard to

our conduct


virtue, therefore,



of knowledge. knowledge, and want of virtue want But with this knowledge, in the mind of the Stoics, strength of mind and will (TWOS svrovia, tV^us,

Kpdros), on which Cleanthes especially

laid weight, is

so directly connected that the essence of virtue can be Zeno considered insight well found in it.



be the



of all


Cleanthes, strength of soul time of Chrysippus it is usual to seek

Aristo, health.




as the science

of divine

and humanjbhmgs.

Uddos, defined as &\oyos






From wisdom

which were in their

four cardinal virtues were thought to in turn, variously divided


bravery, self-control (o-co^poavvrj^



Clean thes, however, put endurance (sy/cpdrsLa) in the

According to Aristo (and in reality place of insight. according to Cleanthes also), the different virtues are
distinguished only by the objects in which they express themselves ; but Chrysippus and later writers assume

and qualitative differences between them. Yet they adhered to the principle that as expressions of one and the same feeling they were indissolubly con where one virtue is, of necessity all must be nected and similarly where one vice is, all must be. Hence all

virtues are equal in merit, all vices in depravity. It is, in fact, merely a matter of feeling ; this alone makes the

fulfilment of duty (/caOrj/cov) a virtuous action (fcarform in which it is expressed is in opOwfjia) ; the

This feeling, according to the Stoic belief, must be altogether present or not present at all. Virtue


and vice are


which admit of no difference of

degree (ia0so-is not merely easts ] ; there is nothing intermediate between them ; no man can possess them
in part

he must either have them or be without


he must be virtuous or vicious, a sage or a fool, and therefore the change from folly to wisdom is

momentary while proficients (TTPOKOTTTOVTSS), men are The wise man is the ideal of all perfec still fools.


and as

this is the only condition of happiness,

the the


the ideal of
of all


while the




The first, as vice and misery. forth with declamatory pathos, is














he does what

and all knowledge right and he alone does

in all things



statesman, poet, prophet, pilot, &c. He is entirely free from needs and sorrows, and the His virtue is a possession only friend of the gods.
only real king,

which cannot be

lost (or at most, as

Chrysippus allows,

through disease of mind) ; his happiness is like that of Zeus, and cannot be increased by duration. The fool,
is thoroughly bad and miserable, a slave, a beggar, a blockhead; he cannot do what is right, or anything that is not wrong all fools are lunatics (TTCLS

on his part,


acfrpajv fjLaLverai).

But, in the belief of the Stoics,


men, with few exceptions, and those rapidly disappear Even to the most celebrated statesmen ing, are fools. and heroes at most the inconsistent concession is made
that they are afflicted with the common vices of man kind to a less degree than other people. In all this the Stoics are essentially followers of

the principles of Cynicism, with the alterations which arose from the more scientific establishment and expo sition of their principles. Yet Zeno could not hide

from himself that these doctrines required considerable These modifications limitations and modifications.
were not only the condition on which they could pass beyond the narrow limits of a sect, and become an

power; they arose out of the
of the



system which in practice recognised harmony with nature, and in


theory universal conviction, as the standard, could not place itself in such striking contradiction to either, as

but it cannot be denied that they fre quently made a use of it which it is impossible to har monise with the strictness of the Stoic principles. who contested this division. three classes are dis tinguished among morally indifferent things . . Only by this modifica tion of their doctrine of goods was it possible for the Stoics to gain a positive relation to the purposes of practical life. so also is the apathy of the wise man softened to the degree circumstances. deviated from Zeno in maintaining that a part of things morally indifferent. it is true. moreover. and finally those which have neither merit nor demerit. tion of rules which lose their force under certain As. Herillus. 1 and separate object could yet form a subordinate (v7rors\is). Aristo.ovTa\ which are distinguished from the In all these it is a ques perfect (KaropOcof^ara). therefore without value (aira^la) and to be avoided (aTTOTrporjyfjisva) . 219 Antisthenes and Diogenes had done without scruple. though it could not be referred to the final object of life (reXos ). and saw the man (reXoy) in entire indifference to goods. in the doctrine of goods. and . those which are according to nature and therefore have a value (dia) being desirable and preferable (Trporjy/jisva) in themselves those which are against nature. In connection with the relation to what is desirable or the reverse stood the conditioned or (yLteVa intermediate duties KaQi]K. the dSidtyopa in the narrower sense. Hence.71] ETHICS. thus returning from Zeno to Antisthenes drew by upon himself the reproach that he made all action on mission of principle impossible. a relative valuation of certain dSidtyopa is allowed and even required.

72. [71 it is allowed that the beginnings of the passions are found even in him. Continuation. They appear to have had a peculiar predilection for the casuistical questions to which the collision of cf.250 THE STOIC SCHOOL. the less that the Stoics ventured name any one in their midst a wise man. they are characterised by a double effort : on the one hand. and the treatment as we appears at times to have been very trivial. on the other. Important as discussions of this kind were for the practical influence of Stoic ethics. The Relation of Stoicism to Religion. 233) are more especially inclined to them. until at length they are hardly distinguishable from the wise 4 Proficients in the Stoic descriptions. the Stoics (with the exception of Aristo. they tend to make the individual in dependent of everything external in his moral selfarise out of his relation to the greater which certainty. the more unavoidable was it that the men who were should find a place in ever increasing importance between the fools and the wise. the more doubtfully that many among them expressed themselves in this respect with regard to Socrates and Diogenes. and for the spread of purer moral conceptions. p. and certain rational emotions (svirdOsiai) are found in that to him only. Finally. though they do not win his assent. Applied Morals. So far know them. If discussions on separate moral relations and duties occupy universally a large space in the postAristotelian period. duties gives rise. their scientific value was not very great. to be just to the duties whole of which .

72] ETHICS. and many other Stoics. ended their lives in this manner. as it misled their predecessors. the freedom from needs such as Diogenes enjoyed. but they saw in it the noblest preservation of distress. many strange and one-sided assertions. moral freedom. and in part appear to have been put forward as a deduction from views which they controverted. he nevertheless felt himself closely . elevation above external relations and bodily conditions. Eratosthenes. in the second. and which he is justified in taking whenever circumstances make it appear to be more in accordance with nature that he should leave his earthly life than remain in it. in order to secure for men their independence under any circum stances. Stoicism as a descendant of Cynicism . a step by which a man proved that he regarded life among things indifferent. If the not generally required. they permitted voluntary departure from life This was not only a refuge from extreme (igay&yij). Independently as the Stoic confronted everything which is not himself. and not on the external act. the self-suffi ciency of the wise. The principle that the moral character of actions cynical of life is mode depends only on the feelings. though the most repellent objections brought against them in this respect are in part purely hypothetical. into misled the Stoics. Antipater. Zeno. is also an ideal of the Stoics. 251 he is mark In the first sphere lie the traits which a part. Cleanthes. Perfect independence of everything which does not influence our moral nature. yet it is found worthy of the philosopher in case circumstances allow it. Finally. those by which it surpassed and supplemented Cynicism.

252 THE STOIC SCHOOL. the Stoics say. All the other connections of men are also recognised by them as having a moral im portance. looks on them and having equal rights. virtue of his rationality man feels himself a part of the universal whole. and of this the Stoics Cosmopolitanism took the place of were the most zealous Since it is and successful prophets. are friends by nature. yet in the philosophical schools of later antiquity it was the Stoics who occupied themselves most minutely with the duties of civic life. all men are They have a similar origin and the same . justice and humanity. it is true. By [ 72 connected with his kind. and he is thus pledged to work for this whole . In their view. the similarity of All reason in the individuals on which all community among men akin. politics. If they could not take any hearty part in politics. They recommend marriage. and who trained the largest number of indepen dent political characters. is naturally akin to all as . rests. and stand homogeneous ing under the same laws of nature and reason and he regards it as their natural aim to live for one another. and would have it carried out in a pure and moral spirit. the connection of a man with the whole of humanity was more important than the connection of the individual with his nation. the two must be co-extensive. which requires the two primary condi tions of society. he knows that he all rational beings. Not merely wise men. Thus the impulse to society is founded immediately on human all nature. they ascribe universally so high a value to friendship that they do not succeed in bringing their principles of the self-sufficiency of the wise entirely into harmony with this need of friendship.

i. wisdom and virtue. Even to our enemies we. 106). 31. 1). the laws of the universe. 119 . This last point often and earnestly insisted upon among the Stoics of the Koman we times. claim to our beneficence.72] ETHICS. 9). ii. in purity of heart and will (Cic. When this further connection of all rational beings is carried community and arrangements of this community unconditional It is in this obedience to subjection is demanded.v rovruv yeyov6rwv (Diog. (Muson . &amp. vii. attain to the conception of the world as a 1 To the laws consisting of gods and D. Piety is the knowledge of the worship of the gods (sTTLCTT^rj 6 Osa)i&amp. True religion from philosophy. All 253 citizens of mission. are All of one body. consists in correct notions about their will. 40. But dspaiTsias^ Diog. in a word. insisting. 47. Fr. Eel. Stob. Sen. 138. The impropriety of the an thropomorphic belief in ircav deities. owe clemency and ready support. ii. their perfection ( the unworthy character of : K Qeoov Kal avQpw- Chrysippus) e TTO AIS fy 6eu&amp. Ep. N. -i-ii after Posidonius and Kal eVe/ca rwv avdpunrvv re Kal ap. Eel. 95. Stob. have a one members men as men Even slaves can claim their rights at our hands. 28. and submission to destiny. in obedience to and imitation of Man. vii. Epict. upon which the Stoics are never weary of that the essential part of religion lies from their point of view. in its essence worship of the gods them. as is men. 71 . 123) . stand under one law. Floril. and show themselves worthy of our respect. state. With regard tinguished in is not dis to anything further which was contained in the national religion the Stoics had much to say.

partly and more especially because they were unwilling to withdraw from the mass of men a support of morality which for them was Philosophical theology was thought to indispensable.254 THE STOIC SCHOOL. Sphserus. school. form the proper contents of mythology. and Christian ground. it was made into a system. as it seems. which manifest themselves to us in the stars. in its general recognition. Yet the Stoics as a whole are not opponents. treated and especially by Chrysippus and his successors. are condemned from the time of Zeno by older and younger members of the and by no one more severely than Seneca of the authors known to us. directly of Zeus. the fruits of the earth. but defenders of the national religion. . the inanity of the traditional ceremonies. Jewish. In the gods the one god of the Stoics was to be of mythology under the worshipped directly or indirectly. that in this respect by their they could hardly be surpassed successors on heathen. is Stoics to prove this philosophic truth ($VO-LKOS Xo7os-) in the Hitherto this myths was allegorical mode of interpretation only found in isolated instances but by the Stoics. and indirectly under the form of the other form are nothing but representatives of gods so far as these divine powers. ascribed the greatest value. and so far as we . the elements. in great benefactors of mankind. because they find a proof of its truth partly. Cleanthes and Chrysippus applied it to such an extent and with such incredible caprice and tastelessness. 72] the mythical narratives about gods and heroes. Cleanthes. to which they in the same spirit by Zeno. men and by the The means adopted interpretation. while know by Zeno. was Prophecy.

and that of the poets and against the last. that of the statesmen. and united intimate social intercourse with philo- . No narrative of fulfilled predictions was so marvellous or poorly supported that it could not be justified in this manner. This is proved Cleanthes relation to Aristarchus of Samos.72] RELIGION. Introduced to the doctrine of Democritus by Nausiphanes. . they brought the most serious objections. and partly through scientific observation. perhaps : before Panaetius. Epicurus and his School. he came forward as a teacher in Colophon. Yet this did not deter them from repressing vigorously any on the popular religion. p.C. which is in truth nothing but the mythology of the national religion. Epicurus. the son of Neocles the Athenian. Mitylene. was the meeting-place of a circle which was filled garden with the deepest admiration for Epicurus and his teach ing. and the by severity of Marcus Aurelius towards the Christians. 242). was born in Samos in December 342 or January 341 B. in Athens. irrational 255 rationalised What was means was artificially . future events could be announced by certain natural signs which could be known and explained partly through natural gifts arising from the relation ship of God and man. 73. THE EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY. and instructed by Pamphilus the Platonist. distinguished a triple theology that of the philosophers. serious attack II. by of the interconnection of all things (o-v/jiTrdOsia. and Here his Lampsacus. and after 306 B.C. Hence the Stoics.

.. 84 ff. world. We possess (through Diog.. taught with His fellowto 78 B.C. great success in Athens down B. Zeno of Sidon. in 270 B. 122 ff. the successor of Her marchus. Seneca.C. Patro at Athens . Next to these we may mention among Epi curus historian.. to the style of When which he devoted little care. and other fragments in Plutarch. Numerous other names 1 of Epicureans are a known to x. and Idomeneus.C.256 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL.. . 35 ff. Hermarchus undertook to 1 be leader of the society Metrodorus.C. Women as well as men belonged to His doctrines were embodied in a number of treatises. of Cicero.). Polystratus was succeeded by Dionysius. successor of Apollodorus. [ 73 it. personal disciples Golotes. disciple and later successor Phsedrus was heard by Cicero at Kome lowed by Phsedrus was fol as early as 90 B. 139 ff. in which. Lucretius Carus (apparently 94-54 B. and Polyaenus .C. Siro (Sciro) the B. master. in Eome. of whose writings many were found in HercuTo the same period belongs the poet of laneum. the school. C. whose successor was Basilides. Demetrius the Laconian and Apollodorus (6 /cTjTTOTvpavvos) to the The school became widely spread in the Eoman third.) three didactic letters and a sketch of the ethics (the Kvpiai 5ocu).C. about the middle of the second cen tury Amafmius met with approval with his Latin The pupil and exposition of the Epicurean doctrine. the favourite dis had died before their ciple of Epicurus. the Poly stratus also. sophic studies. may have belonged to them. also Herculanean fragments especially from the Physics. Protarchus of Bargylium appears to have belonged to the second quarter of the second century. teacher of Virgil was busy about 50 and Philo- demus. he died. number and others.

Plutarch. who seems . so to of we owe ba3us. more exclusively than with Zeno system is simply a means for practical He cared little for learned investigation and the mathematical sciences. 320 A. the school. . and the information which keep entirely to the physics Epicurus the writings of Philodemus found in Herculaneum. Diog.D.. to Cicero. With Epicurus his philosophic 1 objects. x. small. : ledge of and published . became extinct in the fourth cen But its capacity for scientific development was and if Epicurus was at pains to keep his pupils the letter of his doctrines (Diog. This part of his he called the Canonic.. Sextus Empiricus. 74. far as they have been deciphered the fragments of . about tury. Colotes. his own education in both respects was very Even in dialectics he ascribed a value only - to the inquiries into the criterion. DC Iterum Naturd. The Epicurean System. spread A. and a knowledge of human nature shows us what we ought frees us 1 Our sources it. are Lucretius. and indeed insufficient. Inst. the 257 us .D. to which he objected that they were useless and did not correspond to reality . Physics in his opinion are system only needed because the knowledge of natural causes from the fear of the gods and death..73] EPICURUS AND HIS SCHOOL. iii. Diog. of which is 17. 9. he succeeded so well that none of them is known to have made any attempt worth mentioning towards their development.. 28 ff. strictly to 12 etc. far The Canonic.). about 230 proved by and by Lactantius. x. Metrodorus. x. Sto- and others. Seneca. c. for the know- besides the writings and fragments mentioned in the previous note.

The world presents as a mechanism within this he arranges his life as well as he can. which we believed that we saw has really touched our doubt it . for The picture in the perception. .his individual life O from disturbance. Hence [ 74 to desire or avoid. servino. this part of philosophy also has no independent importance. the individual in himself only. we cannot criterion of truth in theory. not prove nothing against it. he must not seek in the universe for the traces of a reason. the same con nection It is is still more strongly marked in Epicurus. Perception is the Obvious (svEpysia ) which is always true . For this ex to be suffi perience and natural intelligence appear cient without much logical apparatus. on which he had to support himself and to whose laws he must become Nor must he make any attempt subject. and sensuous perception as the If man finds his highest mission in presentations. theoretic basis for his conduct by a know to secure a itself to him ledge of these laws. in the spirit of an ethical system. that the which regards material Individual is looked upon as the originally entirely source of our pre Keal. in Agreeably with this point of view Epicurus as the his Canonic primarily regards perception and in practice (see 76) the feeling of pleasure and pain. but he need not know more of it than that . but in the judgment. If with the Stoics empiricism and materialism are connected with practical onesidedness.258 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. without rendering knowledge and action im Even the deceptions of the senses possible (p. 237).j upon which his own weal or woe depends. in them the fault lies.

74] THE CANONIC. Such an interference must deprive man of all inward security . we are not told. 75. As these concepts relate stamped upon which to earlier perceptions. from what we know. The Gods. induction (as Philodemus shows us. refers to . p. they are always true. an opinion (viro^tyis) on what we do not know. must be con refers to the secret causes firmed by experience if it phenomena. first Epicurus view of the world was in the in stance determined by the desire to exclude the inter ference of supernatural causes from the world. but we have not the right to assume that an object corresponds to it. by the operation of objective pictures present to the soul (cf. since is repeatedly perceived becomes the memory. (How we are to distinguish those pictures to which there is a corresponding object from those to which no object corresponds.) Out that of perceptions arise concepts (VpoX^-v^ets). in Diogenes. 32. only when we pass beyond perception as such. must not be contradicted by them. that the question arises whether It is this opinion is true or false. hence beside perceptions (ala-Otjo-sis) and concepts can be counted as criteria. And feelings (Tradrf) as even the presentations of the fancy arise ? according to Epicurus. of if it In order to be true. opinion. and form. an coming events. Trspl him or in his school. these also are included in criteria. 262). x. 259 soul. mentions four ways by which we pass from perceptions to suppositions (STTLbut we must not look for a scientific theory of voiai) . it Epicurus. CTTJ/JLSICOV) in The Physics of Epicurus.

which are separated by less space. Democritus. Epicurus explains the atoms and the void as the primary elements of all He takes the same view of the atoms as things. but as they all fall with equal rapidity (as Aristotle pointed out) and hence cannot dash upon one another. By the atoms descend in empty virtue of their weight space . portions of merely empty space (^eraKoo-^La^ inter- mundia). and with time they will again pass away. but they have all arisen in time. Epicurus assumed that they deviated to an infinitesimal degree from the perpendicular line. [ 75 and keep him in constant fear. Democritus. not an infinite variety of shapes. Hence they dash on one another and become com are partly forced upward. to him. the circular movements which create give rise to those innumerable worlds in the most different parts of end These worlds. and also because such an assumption seemed necessary for the freedom of at will will. rebound. known and was perhaps alone This was the atomism of Like Democritus. and thus plicated. When he looked for such among the older systems (for he was neither in clined nor qualified to form a theory of his own in natural science) none corresponded to his object more completely than that which seemed to afford the best points of connection with his ethical individualism which had accurately first attracted him. This result the philo sopher hopes to obtain most certainly by a purely mechanical explanation of nature. said to have As the origin of the world is been brought .260 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. only he ascribes to them a limited. present the greatest variety of conditions .

it matters little what the For the explanation of separate pheno mena of nature Epicurus leaves us the choice of all the possible hypotheses. Living beings were thought to come originally from the earth. but also of a peculiar matter. and is derived from the souls of the But in animals and air. moon really waxes and That the sun is no larger. men a rational part is added to the since they are no longer held together by the body. which (like the Stoic fospoviicov) has its seat in the breast.75] PHYSICS. and does not absolutely reject such its has natural causes are. so Epicurus ascribes the greatest value to the fact that every individual thing in the world is to be explained in a purely mechanical manner and to the exclusion of all teleological points But how we explain it is a matter of little importance. causes. senses might not be impaired. parents. In regard to the early condition and the gradual develop ment of man we find attractive and intelligent The soul of suppositions in Lucretius (v. while the other permeates the whole body. which is the cause of perception. . p. than it seems to be. 74). If we can only be certain that something of view. 261 about by purely mechanical causes. At death the atoms of the soul are scattered. yet more delicate and mobile. have men consists not only of elements of fire. irrational part of the soul. In the first instance there were among them many marvellous were capable of life forms.). and breath. 922 ff. was persistently maintained by his school. or but a little larger. but only those which been preserved (cf. no doubt in order that the of the credibility obvious absurdities as that the wanes.

The freedom of the will. 259). who Of also vigorously controverted the Stoic fatalism. In the latter. and pass from it to the body. however. activities of soul. [75 This to Epicurus is a great comfort. and the . movements when forcing themselves into it. was strongly maintained by Epicurus. The will consists in motions which are brought about in the soul by presentations. or which have first formed themselves in the air from the com mingling of different of atoms. From the combination of a picture of recollection with a perception arises opinion. (with not only are perceptions explained Democritus) by a contact of the soul with the ! which are given off from the surface pictures (sl SwXa) of bodies and reach the soul through the senses. but jthe same explanation is given of the presentations of the fancy ((pavTao-Ti/cal 7ri/3o\al rijs Siavolai). in the sense of pure inde- terminism. the soul is touched by pictures of which the objects are no longer in existence. create in earlier idola. The universality of this belief seems to him a proof that it is founded on real experience. and with it the possibility of error (p. for only the conviction that we do not exist after death can set us Of the free from the fear of the terrors of Hades. the fear of the gods as well as the fear of It is true that he will not attack the belief in the gods. any deeper psychological investigations into this point we find no trace in him. By these physics Epicurus hopes to have removed for ever death.262 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. and this is recollection. of the soul are awakened anew. or from new combinations Through the movements which the pictures the soul.

and he finds the Stoic doctrine of providence and . above all. Their happiness also requires that they should not be bur dened with the care of the world and men. which the belief in providence lays upon them. perceptions. and language. opposed to the relation in which they stand to the He assumes a plurality of gods in fact he regards as as and he also considers it self-evident that they should have the shape of man. he feels the necessity of seeing his ideal of happiness realised among the gods. even the Greek language. Still more indispensable is this assumption for the repose of man. and disturbed in their happiness by the prospect of this misfortune. require in his opinion that they should have fine bodies of light instead of our coarse bodies. not merely pictures of Moreover. But the happiness and immortality of the gds. 263 pictures. and live in the intermundia. who has no more dangerous enemy than the opinion that higher powers interfere in the wr orld. the need of food. attributes to them the distinction of sex. at least in part. for in any other case they would be affected by the decay of the worlds in which they dwelt. and from the appearance of which he can only (see above). from real are imagination. (!: two loading marks of his conception of deity. for he is distinctly world. Epicurus is therefore the most belief in any form. from timidity . arise. it explain beings. He pronounced opponent of this can only derive the national religion from uncertainty and. But he can only share the prevailing notions about the gods to a limited extent.75] THE GODS. He also as them innumerable . the most beautiful that can be conceived.

That he has freed men from this delusion. even more comfortless than the absurdities of mythology. Epicurus. 62 if. his Physics As Epicurus in explained the atoms as the source of all being. and hence in the removal of what is not pleasurable . which all avoid.). but the happiness of an entire life. 259). from the fear of the gods (religio\ which oppressed them.iJ64 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. is extolled as his immortal service by his admirers (as Lucretius. Further. i. he believes that the real importance of pleasure consists only in the satisfaction of a need. pleasure. while on the other hand. our final . they commend his piety and his participation in the traditional worship of the gods. regards pleasure as the final of our action. like Aristippus. good and evil is our feeling is The only absolute good . he_regards the individual in his Ethics as the aim of all action. 76. [75 destiny. Epicurus regards the pleasures and pains of the mind as far more im- . Our judgment must decide on separate enjoyments or pains by their relation to this. Yet by pleasure he does not object mean the individual sensations of pleasure as such. object is not positive pleasure. The Ethics of Epicurus. The measure for distinguishing p. As the most essential conditions of this repose lie in the state of our feelings. after evil which is all living things strive the only absolute Hence in general pain. but the repose of the spirit. but freedom from pain not the motion. which are contradicted by the actual nature of the world.

and plainly he declares expressions) that last resort all For however publicly (in spite of some different pleasure and pain arise in the from bodily conditions. only a condition of repose of mind. The severest pains are only of short duration and quickly put an end to our life . approaches If he does not ascribe to or their him closely either the Stoic apathy contempt of sensual enjoyment. His ideal of the wise man to the Stoic. yet he repre- . hope. These feelings. Self-control preserves us from sorrows by correct con duct in regard to pleasure and pain. Epicurus himself led a pattern life. bravery by the contempt of death and suffering . are in his view so much the more violent that he feels himself justified in extolling the absolute power of the spirit over bodily pains with the same exaggeration as the Cynics and Stoics. it teaches us the true art of life.76] ETHICS. from empty fancies and wishes . yet he observes that only present delights and pains act upon the body. which rest upon memory. and his sayings fre quently exhibit a purity of sentiment which goes far beyond their unsatisfactory scientific foundation. 265 portant than those of the body. however small the independent value which his is Virtue it is so i system allows us to attribute to it. indispensable a condition that. happiness is indissolubly connected with virtue. whereas the soul is moved by those of the past and the future. the less severe can be borne and overcome by superior intellectual enjoyments. even according to Epicurus. but. and fear. Insight frees us from the prejudices which disturb us. to justice we owe it that no fear of punishment disturbs our equanimity.

that he can say of him no less than the Stoics of their ideal. necessity Here his system opened but one path the considera tion of the advantages which accrue to men from their union with one another. his happiness as so complete. he urges others to contentment. that he walks as a god among men. he will not forbid a rich enjoyment of life. these things. The point but to need A man is not to bind himself absolutely even to life. a contented and independent existence by liberating him from prejudices and controlling his desires. though he that such miseries rarely happen. him [ 76 as so completely master of his desires that they never lead him astray. In harmony with this ideal Epicurus rules of life aim in the first instance at procuring for the individual. Epicurus allows him to withdraw himself from intolerable miseries by a voluntary death. Even these the philosopher. and even on bread and water he need not envy Zeus. Living himself an unusually moderate and contented life. Among the latter Epicurus especially places the desire for honour and glory. . and his wisdom as so inalienable. It was is of opinion more difficult for Epicurus to establish the and importance of the social life of man. Hence he does . as such. Even of actual desires only a part aims at what is necessary by far the greatest portion seeks what is unnatural and useless. He describes him as so independent of all external things. little.266 sents THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. not require the suppression of the sensual impulses . but all the more vehemently does he is insist that a man shall not make himself dependent on not to use little.

was the feeling for If it seems inadequate to establish this friendship. he went far beyond these limits. But it would not have been in harmony with the principles of Epicurus to limit his beneficence to the circle of his personal friends. both in him and his school. It is only the wise who. being harmfulness. His motto is \dds (Bitocras. in The Epicurean fact. He has doubts even about family life and marriage. friendships were famous. relation only on the value of the mutual support and the feeling of security which arise from it. refrain from injustice the mass of men must be deterred from its To enjoy this security without by punishment. from being which a statesman cannot withdraw himself. like the Pythagorean. seeks rather in protection against injuries than in any posi tive advancement of the individual by moral commu to nion with others. The more lively. 267 whom freedom from trouble is the highest good. With him this holds good especially The aim of all laws is the security of society against injustice. In him and in many men of his school a mild and philanthropic temper .761 ETHICS. disturbed in it by the trouble and danger. convinced of voluntarily it . because a man who breaks them can never be free from the fear of punishment but he considers it better to hold aloof from all public life unless special circumstances require the contrary. . of the State. appeared to the philosopher as the most desirable object. and the supposed Pythagorean community of goods was only rejected by Epicurus because such an arrange ment ought not to be required among friends. Hence he recommends obedience to the laws. yet.

xiv. 18) to be clear on three matters are related : What is the nature of things. the 77. but. the world III. by despair of any such conviction. that the nature of things is quite unknown to . that it is more pleasant to do a kindness than to receive one. though in poor circumstances. (p. 83) he accompanied Alexander to the At a later time he founded a school of his own in his native city.C. it approaches the Stoic.68 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. on the contrary. who subsequently lived in Athens and there died. of the Pyrrhonic School took place earlier than that of the Stoic or Epicurean. In order to live happily a man ought. How we to them. He lived to be nearly ninety years of age. but it not by definite scientific conviction. Pr. and What we can gain from this relation. known by the treatises of his pupil. SCEPTICISM. where he lived universally honoured. and seems to have died about 270-5 B. after 241 B. all [76 towards is In his own conduct present. this is expressed in the saying (among others). also about ninety years old. The school did not spread widely.C. I^yrrho of Elis had apparently become acquainted with the doctrines of the Elean-Megarian school when with Anaxarchus East. To the first two of these questions we can only answer. Ev. according to Timon (ap. The foundation somewhat In its practical aim seeks to attain it.2. Pyrrho and Pyrrkonians. trines were only Timon of Phlius. Euseb. He left no writings behind him even in antiquity his doc .

) the successor of Crates (p. me so . Some one of Timon s pupils. are certainly to be ascribed to ^Enesidemus pupils of Timon are mentioned. at once drapagia. The New Academy. PYRltHO. that we can never maintain anything (ov&sv oplgsiv). but these conceptions to be referred to law and custom. The philosopher who led the Academy in this new path was Arcesilaus of Pitane in ^Eolia (315-241-0 B. and custom. 78.77] SCEPTICISM. In different to all other things. Pyrrho does not seem to have gone further into detail in the scientific establishment of these doctrines . and thus find happi he ness in tranquillity. we observe the result. the ten Sceptic tropes. the only correct attitude towards things. again a pupil of this was the last offshoot of the Pyrrhonic Scepticism its place was taken after the middle of the third century by the Academic. and that a suspension of judgment aKara\r)^la) If is afyacria. 269 iis. but only this for perception only as they are. But . he will not believe that Timon s belief. nature. is He who has despaired this attitude. seems to (STTO^IJ. So far as he is compelled to act. anything of the nature of things cannot attribute a higher value to one thing than another . or anything is are rather in itself good or bad. he will strive after the correct mood of temper. We are imonly . 169). and 88). which later writers ascribe to ( him. or virtue. and our opinions are entirely subjective. and not shows us things as they appear.C. never ought to say this is so. will follow probability. in of knowing apathy.

lt. was his opinion that there were no presentations which contained in themselves a certain mark of their truth. more incredible that his scepticism was intended to strictly that serve only as a preparation for the Platonic dogmatism. 67. But he did not allow that the possibility of action must be given up with the possibility of knowledge. 18. This point of view he upheld so he would not allow even that principle For this reason it is the to be asserted as knowledge. which forms :the highest criterion for practical life. and as he wrote perfectly acquainted with. he controverted the possibility of knowing anything by &amp. He also seems to have controverted the Stoic physics and In consequence he maintained with Pyrrho theology. and in order to act rationally it is sufficient to follow reason. But neither of these nor of the rest of the Academicians who are mentioned from . but the main object of his attacks was Zeno s doctrine of His chief objection. the senses or the reason (sensibus aut animo) . According to Cicero. :The presentation sets the will in motion. Arcesilaus was succeeded in the chair by Lacydes of Gyrene. even though we do not consider it knowledge. hand. some more formal criticisms.) to the Phocseans Telecles and Evander. [78 his doctrines.C. even the ancients only knew them at third nothing. De Orat. Before his death the latter handed over the headship of the school (215-4 B. and this opinion he attempted to prove by various applications. beside presentation by concepts.270 THE NEW ACADEMY. iii. that there was nothing left but suspension of judg ment (e iro xri). who were followed by Hegesinus (Hegesilaus).

was born in Gyrene in 213-214 B.78] AE CESILA US CAENEADES. and sub comprehensive and penetrating criticism than his pre decessors. while at the same time he defined more precisely the degrees and conditions of probability. First he asked in general terms whether jected the views of the various philosophers to a more knowledge was possible. as the founder of the second or when he came with the embassy of philosophers to Eome (p. (as he proved more in detail) there is no kind of conviction which does not deceive us. Carneades also treats the Stoics. This acute and learned man. eminent dogmatists of the time. as his chief oppo But he investigated the question of the possibility of knowledge on wider grounds. and he remained leader with great success and honour till his death in 129 B. neades. He left no writings . because. who were the most nents. who on this account is called the founder of the third or new Academy. while Arcesilaus is re middle school. 271 this period. do we know more than the general fact that they remained true to the direction struck out by The greater is the importance of CarArcesilaus.C. This question he believed that he must answer in the negative. If Arcesilaus had chiefly directed his attacks against the Stoic doctrine of the criterion. the exposition of his doctrines was the work of his pupils. garded Philo and Antiochus ( 81) of the fourth and fifth. 226). no true presentation to which there is not .C. The teaching of Carneades marks the culmination of Academic scepticism.C. and became leader of the school long before 156 B.. especially of Clitomachus. who was also famous for the persuasive force of his eloquence.

Hence there is no cri * terion of truth in the sense of the Stoic presentation In like mariner he denied the possibility in concepts. and especially con If the troverted the Stoic theology on every side. and so on ad infinitum. and hence by a petitio principii. the pattern of the sophists. as well as the cor rectness of the presupposition on which it rests.ov can here only touch upon his criticism of polytheism and his attacks on the Stoic belief in prophecy. partly I because the premisses of the proofs require proof in He examined the turn. Carneades rejected logical arrangement the soundness of this conclusion.&amp. for the first on the ground of the numerous evils existing in the world. which are tributing But we at variance with its eternity and perfection. He to even attacked the conception of Grod by attempting so far as show with great partly because this could only be done by proof. that the (%&amp. delivered at Eome. of demonstration.272 THE NEW ACADEMY. philosophic systems more in detail. for and For this. with which is connected his polemic against the Stoic deter minism. and in we know Deity cannot be thought of as a living rational creature \O^IKOV) without at to it qualities and circumstances. and in truth the accounts of Carneades give us no exhaustive . of which a sample was given in his two lectures. formation on this point is very imperfect. following against justice. A still greater impression appears to have been produced by his criticism of moral notions. he made chief use of the But our in contrast of natural and positive right. [78 a false one precisely similar. Stoics inferred the existence of Grod from the teleo- of the world.

and the demand for an unconditional sus pension of judgment. .78] CARNEADES.. After Carneades the pupils. first the Academy was conducted by his younger Carneades. ETC. and consequently three kinds of probable presentations : He those that are probability is and those in probable in themselves. his sceptical discussions was naturally that which had been long pronounced: the absolute impossibility of knowledge. distinguished three degrees of probability. The 273 final result of picture of his scientific activity. after 175 B.C. If the earlier sceptics had at least recognised probability as the standard for our practical conduct. those whose confirmed by others connected with them. It is most probable that he adhered to the principle of the Old Academy the life according to nature and found virtue in striving after natural goods. How he treated o-Traorros teal Trspiw^BVfjbsvrj^ ethical questions from this point of view we cannot fix with certainty. 81. then Crates by both for but a few years. (fravTacria Kol aTTEpla-TracrTO?. and then by the most dis who cannot have been born after 110. Carneades pursued the thought yet further. and (pavTacria iriQav?] KOI and he appears to have in even in details the marks by which we vestigated are to decide upon probability. Clitomachus the Carthaginian. and died cf. On his successors tinguished of the body. which this holds good of the latter presentations also ^avraa-ia iriQavr).

operating contemporaneously. ECLECTICISM. nection into which Greece The more seriously the belief of the dogmatic schools in the impregnability of their doctrines had been shattered by the penetrating criticism of Carneades.Aristotelian period. to those convictions upon which men could be essentially in harmony. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. Its Origin and Character. even Carneades. and the relationship which. ECLECTICISM. [ 79 SECOND SECTION. Peripatetic. the more strongly that matter. the more inclined must they have become to return from these distinctive doctrines which were exposed to so many objections. and Stoic schools should make For this purpose two more distinctly felt. RENEWED SCEPTICISM.274 ECLECTICISM. existed from the first between the itself Academic. and which even their critic himself recognised as the standard in practical conduct. in the development of his doctrine of . it philosophic schools of natural that in the course of years these contrasts was should be softened. 79. I. were of the factors. and therefore sufficient in the most important On the other hand. the controversies VIGOROUS as were between the the post. utmost importance the success which the Academic and the con scepticism obtained through Carneades. in spite of all differences. entered with Eome.

that which was to Carneades only probable obtained in time the value of something certainly known. The Roman fluence on spirit which now began to have an in Greek science contributed to the same result. 226) was the stay of Panaetius ( 80) at Rome and the contemporaneous spread of After the (p. Roman world and that in their intercourse with the they should be touched by the spirit it. more and more. 275 probability.79] ORIGIN OF ECLECTICISM. of the last century B.C. After the conquest of Macedonia by the B. a part of the Eoman Empire. yet it was natural that the Greeks should adapt themselves more or less to the needs of their distinguished and influ ential hearers. and his friends. If the Greeks were in the first instance Epicureanism among the Romans the teachers and the Romans the pupils. there arose a scientific intercourse between Greece and Koine which carried Greek teachers to Rome and young Romans in everincreasing numbers to the philosophic schools of Athens and other Greek cities. come on this part of their doctrine. JSmilius Paulus. under fact it what the influence of Flamininus. 256). for to lay the chief weight Thus they departed more and more from scepticism. which had created It was in harmony with this T 2 spirit to estimate each view according to its value for . More important than the philosophic embassy (p. Greek philosophy beginning was regarded in Rome as an indispensable part of higher culture.) Greece was in Eomans (168 in form became. in pursuing the same direction. Scipio ^Emilianus. the more easily would his school. had expressed the necessity of securing such practical standards for himself.C. Ere long.

276 life ECLECTICISM. though Zeno of Sidon. That the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia (100-50 like Heracleides. we cannot find any important deviation from the doctrine of its founder. The Stoics. This eclecticism in the sequel it first appeared in the Stoic school . though school. and bring forward what was common to all. Pancetius. whom he attended as well as Apollodorus. especially in points of practical in order to be able to choose what is a_criterion must be provided for this men were finally brought to certain object. and which maintained their truth by general recognition. the Stoics by Chryswere not so . Hence these must also have contributed to nourish the inclination towards an amalgamation of the philosophic schools. when with Carneades. Though the Stoic system was brought ippus to a relative perfection. B. importance. by the consensus gentium. to be shattered by collision. acquired a more dialectic method than was usual in the school. on the other hand. not immediately reconcilable. oy/coi) which were thought in the place of the atoms.C. In the Epicurean school. as approached the Epicurean is it. any demonstraticn. he the less important. Asclepiades. But true or probable from different views.). and found an entrance even into the Peripatetic. became more prevalent in the Academic. Posidonius. and thus which it was thought were fixed in us before convictions.. to throw their distinctive doc trines into the background. put original bodies (avap^oi. did not belong to 80. rather relations [ 79 practical than its scientific soundness. Boethus.

and desire as criteria no less than perception.C. 1 Boethus differed not only in his theory of knowledge. and. In connection with this middle position between Zeno and Aristotle he controverted at length the conflagration maintained by the first. perhaps because he could not solve the difficulties raised by Boethus and Panaetius. the successor of Chrysippus. aether to be divided in the Deity with things. but he also regarded the Deity which with his school he considered the same as the substance from the world. nents. Preserving independence of judgment in . is said to have expressed himself doubtfully about the doctrine of the conflagration of the world. the teacher of Q. JElius the Stilo. and L.) had much He was the successor of Antipater Athens and at the same time the chief founder of the Roman Stoicism. he would not allow the world to be an Consequently animated being he merely assumed a co-operation of . and also Diogenes in his latest years. Zeno of Tarsus. But these two pupils of Diogenes deviated far more widely from the old Stoic teaching. the friend of the younger Scipio Africanus and of Laelius. at (approximately between 185 and 110 B. Mucius Scaavola. others to the wish to meet the attacks of their oppo above all. But the Stoic school of Pansetius of Ehodes greater influence. and other Roman his Stoics. Some of these were due to the influence of older systems. in order to put the eternity of the world in its place. the incisive criticism of Carneades. inasmuch as he described reason (z^oOs ). PAN^ETIUS. science.80] STOICS BOETHUS. Til strictly isolated in the doctrine of their school that they did not allow some deviations from it.

Pansetius was a pro nounced admirer of Plato and Aristotle. though he seems to have laid it deviated from greater stress on the points in which soul after death. forward.278 literary ECLECTICISM. as the B. who were apparently followed by Apollodorus. This is seen in his work on duties (jrspl rov Ka6r}Kovros\ which was the pattern of the Ciceronian De Officiis. Cynicism Aristotle. though he was not. perhaps. denied the continuance of the and distinguished in it.. his successors in Athens were Mnesarchus and Dardanus (contemporaries). 255). He defended the . also a Khodian . [ 80 and historical criticism. like Aristotle. and not merely in the severer form of the school. It was the more natural for him to allow their doctrines to have 1 . who died in Rhodes about 50-46 leader of a of age. After him came Hecato. details.C. and made a freer application On than had hitherto been usual among the Stoics of the division of a triple theology (p. We cannot assume that in his ethics he contradicted the old Stoic doctrine. With Boethus he controverted the destruction and apparently also the origin of the world. an influence on his own as he seems to have treated the Stoic philosophy from the practical side. the vegetable part (Quo-is) from the animal (^v^rj). at eighty-four years popular school. and came into contact with Plato and the other hand. It is only of Posidonius that we have any in This important and influential Stoic retained the tradition of his school more strictly many points than Panaetius. the first to bring the division Panaetius most famous pupil was the learned Posi- donius of Apamea. he repeated Carneades doubts about prophecy.

Such was Dionysius.80] STOICS POSIDONIUS. 154) in assigning the passions to were regarded not as courage and the desires. Yet the chief seat of this eclecticism was the Aca demic school. Many century about 50 known to us from the first lived in Athens B. of whom one. 81. geographer Strabo (58 B. or larger fragments of such treatises fragments of Arius Didymus (p. and in order to give a psycho foundation for the contests between reason the logical and the passions.C.C. he shared Panaetius On extent. Greminus. the existence of demons.. a pupil of Posidonius . and took under his protection the Stoic belief in prophecy to its full other hand. ETC. the two and 20 A. Even among the personal pupils of .D. Jason. admiration for Plato.C.C. 282). after death. he followed Plato (p. to But of none of these have we any philosophical than the treatises. This last-men tioned philosopher is a further example of the echo which the eclectic tendencies of the time found even in the Stoic school. was the instructor of Augustus . the son of Sandon. who the grandson Athenodori of Tarsus. B. on which the Stoics laid such weight. The Academicians of the Last Century B. which ^depending tion the soul. the astronomer. 279 the continuance of the soul conflagration of the world. perhaps as leader successor of Posidonius. Cato of Utica. but as separate powers of separate parts of on the nature of the body a devia from the older Stoicism which other Stoics are is not without importance for the subsequent period. the of the school .) and others.

of Larissa (who fled to Rome about 88 B. the pupil and successor of Clitomachus. and regarded an absolutely certain knowledge. although he joined Carneades in controverting the Stoic doctrine of the criterion. it the object of philosophy to to happiness to men. [81 Carneades there were some like Metrodorus of Strato- and no doubt Charmidas. as impossible. Hence. the Academy was definitely led from Scepticism to Eclecticism. There was an obviousness (svdpysia). ii.C. This was more definitely done by Philo nice. who also attended the Stoic Mnesarchus. Thus he could not con maintain a point of view which brings into ques tion the truth of all our conceptions. yet he would not deny all power of knowledge. Thus he sought for something intermediate between mere probability and knowledge. and appears to have died about 80 B. though it did not attain to the absolute certainty of the concept. That such an intermediate position is untenable was recognised by Philo s disciple and successor. ^Eschines. who finally quarrelled with Philo on this subject. a conception of things. by con He not merely made point out the ones (Stob. who aban doned the proposition that things were absolutely unknowable.280 ECLECTICISM.).). but he wished way to attain this object by a detailed ethical theory. where he was the teacher of Cicero. and maintained that even Arcesilaus and Carneades did not intend to deny it. By this Academician.. 40 fT.C.). sistently troverting false moral conceptions and imparting correct Eel. which created a perfectly sure conviction. Among .C. the friend of Lucullus. and also one of Cicero s teachers. Antiochus of Ascalon (died 68 B.

he sets forth an exposi tion of the Academic. Peripatetic.81] ACADEMICS. he. . he controverted it on scientific grounds. ANTIOCHUS. however. which all important philosophers are agreed and in order to prove that there was really such agreement in all more important questions. In these he sought a middle path between Zeno. and Plato as. But if we ask where is truth In that upon sought. was made a reproach against him that he called himself an Academician.! maintaining that without truth there was no proba-j bility . that it was impossible to speak of false presentations. this mode of thought continued to pre vail in the Academy. truth he is neither. p. &c. but was rather a Stoic. but for the highest degree . In this. 281 other objections to Scepticism. After the death of Antiochus. like the Stoics. &c. ETC. The head of the school down to Acad. of great weight that without indubitably thought sure conviction no rational conduct of life is possible. he was unable to succeed without much inaccuracy. and Stoic systems. but an Eclectic. which was intended to show that these three schools differed from one another in subsidiary points and expressions rather than in essentials. if the distinction between true and . that it was a contradiction to maintain that nothing could be maintained and prove that nothing could be proved. His own interest lay chiefly in ethics. ii. 14). Phot. 170. ! false to be was denied. when he said that virtue was in deed sufficient for happiness. for instance. it Nevertheless. It of happiness bodily and external goods were requisite. Aristotle. 4. as 6 In is shown by Cicero ( * 11) and ^Enesidemus (op. Antiochus answers: . Cod/ 212.

the brother of Antiochus. in spite of Diog. the in Thrasyllus (died 36 A. published an edition of the works of Ari school at stotle. with the aid of the grammarian Tyrannic. and Prooem. 21. how followed apparently by Theomnestus. This philo of What we have which was a superficial combination of the thoughts of others. B. but the existing portions of his work in which he gave a sketch of the more important philosophical systems. an Eclectic with the ethics of a Stoic. are composed so entirely after the manner of Antiochus that the Stoic and Academician are merely distinguished by name. [ 81 was Aristus. the preference for Pythagorean speculation (cf. These publications gave which the Peripatetic school was henceforth dedicated. school.C. to . The Alexandrian Potamo is also mentioned by Suidas (TLord/jicov) as a contemporary of Augustus. He also made researches into their genuineness. the impulse to that earnest study of Aristotle.C. Towards the end of the it. and somewhat later 92) was connected with Arius Didymus. rightly. who was Ere long. Andronicus of Rhodes. less prevalent This Eclecticism was among the con temporaneous Peripatetics. 82. and wrote commentaries on some. his teaching. we find this preference in Eudorus. 51 ever. who about 65-50 B. reminds us chiefly of Antiochus.232 ECLECTICISM.D.C. sopher called his school the Eclectic. was counted a member of the Stoic tutor of Augustus. was at the head of the Peripatetic Athens.). first century B. The Peripatetic School.

Yet neither AndroIt nicus nor his disciple Boethus of Sidon (who. B. is shown by two treatises in our Aristotelian collection the book De Mundo.C.). but. are not more particularly known to us philosophers.) 50 the Peripatetic was. represents a verting immortality and naturalistic view of the Peripatetic doctrine) surrendered own judgment in favour of Aristotle. as Who treatise defended which has come down to us in Philo with Judaising additions. whose meteorology he has freely used. and far too sublime to occupy himself with it in detail. 4 is stotelian. in any case.PERIPATETICS. The book De a Peripatetic who. Staseas of Naples third of the first century B. we do not know. who (about the eternity of the world in a s name That even in the Peripatetic school there were some who were prepared to adopt alien elements into the doctrines of Aristotle.C. Peripatetic. nearer the Platonic doctrine of virtue than the Ari but it nevertheless appears to be the work of a Mundo is from the hand of Peripatetic. by contro in other points. wrote after Posidonius. and others. Aristo.C. In the same manner Xenarchus (under Augustus) controverted the his Aristotelian doctrine of the aether. on the other .). and The latter the small tractate on Virtues and Vices. The work chiefly aims at a combination of the Aristotelian theism with the Stoic pantheism by the assumption that God is indeed in his essence outside the world. and Crat(first school of Antiochus to the ippus. who passed from the Nicolaus of Damascus (born about 64 B. was a necessary result of this occupation with the that views which were not his writings of their founder could not easily be ascribed to him.

But the chief lies less in the scientific grounds which he borrows from the Academicians. Tullius Cicero is the most name in history (106-43 B.284 ECLECTICISM. than in the conflict of philosophical authorities and to the degree . In 83. probability attains for him aJJiigher importance than for Carneades and on the points . Heracleitus. are essentially this Plato. If. the whole with his power and operation. motive of his doubt that this difficulty can be removed. which the Stoics are his. The Sextians. expressed in a peculiar manner among the Eoman philosophers of this period. fills [ 82 hand. Varro.C. him. moral principles and the theological and anthroDological questions con nected therewith. and gladly in a clear and intelligent manner j follows the school in the habit of discussing both sides of a question without any final decision. but simply to the skill with which he could set forth the doctrines of the distinguished Greeks superficial as his acquaintance with them was / for the contemporary and succeeding generation of Latin readers.) He does not owe his prominent position to the acuteness and independence of his own thought. he believes that he must despair oiinQwledge in the complete sense. Cicero. Cicero considers himself one of the New Academicians. accustomed to ascribe to him. therefore.C. he speaks with great decision. and Orpheus agree. is The eclecticism of the last century B. he is from the first inclined to abandon an attitude of doubt. He for which have most interest . of whom M. he and to this extent the predicates.

but. xix. (ap. he is serious in maintaining the existence and providence of God . in psychology. who. ( Post. yet he fails to find a sound footing between the Stoic Academic-Peripatetic doctrines . Aug. yet in the interest of the community he wishes to retain while removing all superstition as far as it. the immortality of the soul and the freedom of the will yet he does not venture to pronounce decisively on the nature of Grod and our spirit and if in . In theology. he cannot always withdraw himself from the He stands in no intimate relation to the national religion as such. he opposes Epicureanism in his ethics. and while he and the delights himself with the sublimity of the Stoic principles.). Terentius Varro (116-27 B. he often approaches the Stoics and even the Stoic materialism. A disciple of Antiochus. The views which he acquires on this foundation are neither However decisively original nor free from variation. influence of the Stoic materialism. . VARRO. general he places himself on the side of the Platonic spiritual ism. whom he has to represent in Cicero Acad. was far more of a scholar than a philosopher. Dei. 285 is convinced that correct conceptions on these points have been implanted in us by naturej_that they can be immediately derived from our own consciousness and confirmed by universal agreement. however. 1-3).83] CICERO. which he considers the most im portant part of philosophy. Closely connected with Cicero is his friend M. In his theology he adheres still more closely to the . one-sided views inseparable from them. he follows his lead in ethics Civ. ). possible.C. like him. he cannot accept the narrow.

was the teacher of Seneca. Deity and worshipping under the gods of polytheism the powers of this soul which On the other operate in various p^rts of the world. of thought which had prevailed in the among the majority of philosophers.D. in describing the as the soul of the universe. influenced to some degree by 84. An offshoot from the Stoa meets us in the school which was founded about 40 B. 255). after whom it soon became extinct. on the If the Sextians doctrine of the migration of souls. was retained B. they must Plato. He even publicly disapproved of important parts of the common religion. who about Cornelius So far as Celsus. but they owe the impression which they made rather to the weight of their own personality than to any sophers who eminent scientific qualifications. The Stoic School. have been explained the soul as incorporeal. 18-20 A. Crassitius. ber of this school was Sotion of Alexandria.286 ECLECTICISM.D. which his master had recommended on general grounds. by Q. He based the abstinence from animal food. . we know these men. and the sharp polemic against the mythology of the poets.C. he adopts the division of a triple theology (p. and L. Sextius.C. and subsequently conducted by A mem his son. we find them to be moral philo expressly represent the Stoic principles. a Eoman of good family. Fabianus Papirius. The mode last century with the exception of the Epicureans. In Sotion we find Pythagorean elements in combination with Stoic. hand. The First Centuries A. especially to Pansetius. [ 83 \ Stoics.

as it seems. the nephew of Seneca (39-65 A. the tutor of Nero. though differing in their scientific views. and who was apparently a contemporary of Augustus . Chseremon. Bat that the same importance was no longer attached to their contrasts as before. which finally ended in Neo-Platonism. under Hadrian or . Of the numerous Stoics of imperial times whose names are known : tioned here to us. Attains. and more sophy upon which men would most easily agree. Musonius Eufus. it study of Aristotelian was confirmed by the vigorous and Platonic writings. 118 A. and his dis ciple Epictetus (see infra) . 287 during the centuries immediately succeeding*. the following may be men Heracleitus. . Euphrates (celebrated by his disciple Pliny the younger). But more and more there was connected with it a pre ference for those theological speculations. the author of the Homeric still Allegories. and re recognition when Marcus Aurelius (176 A.). A. Annseus Cornutus of Leptis (from whom we have a treatise on the gods).D. for each). the author of an astronomical handbook. Seneca (see infra) and his con temporaries. is shown directly in the com bination which we frequently in the wide-spread in especially clination to return to the practical results of philo of various doctrines meet with. the teacher of Seneca .D. Cleomedes. which are in existence. Annreus Lucanus. Persius Flaccus. The separation of the schools not only continued ceived an official . and M. L.84] LATER STOICS. who took poison when he had reached a great age. an Egyptian priest.D.) established endowed chairs at Athens for the four leading schools (two.

Musonius. first He In the spirit breathes through it. Yet spirit with God. He his the sublimity the Physics. but has no in himself with of it an altered clination to occupy extols in detail. . Comutus. and Marcus exhibit re markable qualities.D. whose principles and rules of life he repeats. Annaeus Seneca (born at Corduba soon after the beginning of our era. In anthropo human logy also he gives attention to the kinship of the and the life after death. on which rests the belief in providence. the tutor of Nero.) did not oppose the doctrine of his school in any important Yet if we compare his philosophy with the old point.288 ECLECTICISM. Seneca is too deeply penetrated with the weakness and sinfulness of men. and in Naturales Qucestiones he adopts the meteorology of Posidonius. in his lively descriptions of which . so far as we know. with Burrhus. [ 84 and the Emperor Marcus Aurelius But among these. is acquainted with the Stoic logic. his moral teaching is not exactly coincident with the old Stoic. and for a long time his adviser. and Antoninus Pius Antoninus. Stoic. while Heracleitus. and pantheism. he confines himself essentially to morals. till he put himself to death at the emperor s command. only Seneca. place. Epictetus. but in this department it is only such theological or anthropological determinations as can be realised in practice which have a deeper interest Without contradicting the Stoic materialism for him. L. he takes an especial delight in bring ing forward the ethical traits of the Stoic idea of God. Cleomedes merely continued the tradition of their school. 65 A.

the softer traits. ^JS/JLOVIKOV). Earnestly as he demands that by moral ourselves independent of all his praises of this inde labour we should make externals. passages he expresses a yearning for freedom from the we find bonds of the body. If he lays decisive weight on the natural connection of men in the manner of his world. are more school. the reflex morals on his anthropology and his theo remarkable. he nevertheless frequently ascribes a greater value to external goods and evils than was permitted to the stricter Stoics. strongly accen In many tuating the opposition of body and soul. the more do Lastly. he level of is world or becoming wise inclined to lower his demands to the in man this men. The higher the value that he ascribes in the battle between reason and sensuality to the thought that this u . and zealous as are pendence.s 4] SENECA. yet each individual state. The more painfully that he feels marked than with them. seems to him less worthy of the notice of the wise man than was the case with the older Stoics. For the same reason he distinguishes with Posidonius (and Plato) a rational and two irrational parts in the soul itself (the principale. in spite of his materialism. to be able to meet moral requirements with the self-con fidence of the original Stoicism. In his cosmopolitanism. As he despairs of finding a wise himself. sympathy and compassion. as and the great state of compared with the humanity strongly effect of his logy is the power of sensuality and the passions. 289 he often strikingly resembles the apostle Paul. and praises death as the beginning of true life in a manner which is more Platonic than Stoic. him.

the disposi practice and education than of teaching . as a temples. principles to life is piire. everything else is something indifferent. in worthy representative of Eoman Stoicism. the chief matter is Hence the philosopher the application of this requires few scien propositions. and in we meet with a moral teaching which some points inclining . He ought to show us what is in our power and what is not. who also. virtue is the only object of philosophy men the philosopher is the physician are moral invalids who is to heal them. Flavii. then. to which we must surrender In the application of these to Stoic sim- ourselves unconditionally. as the operative power. not by not in sacrifices. of his which were preserved by According to : Musonius. is [ 84 reason the divine element in man. Numerous fragments remain Pollio. its law the will of the deity. from matter. But the application of our notions is in our power. the more distinctly the inert Deity also. only in the sanctuary of the breast. 254). attacks of my the most relentless manner the improprieties thology and the superstition of the existing worship (p. and nothing else. tific .290 ECLECTICISM. On this alone. rest our virtue and happiness . That the Deity receives his true worship only must he distinguish the through purity of life and knowledge of God. is expressly stated by Seneca. tion to it is born in us and can easily be developed into conviction conviction. Musonius Eufus of Volsinii occupied himself even more distinctly with morals a Stoic who enjoyed great at Kome under Nero respect as a teacher of philosophy and the lectures. Virtue is far more a matter of .

. EPICTETUS. which spirit. in the kin ship of the divine and of his human spirit. Seneca. who lived at Rome (partly under Nero). in healing moral vices. then as a freedman. 291 plicity. belief in the Deity and his care for men. they do not seem to But Musonius was have contained anything new in regard to science. powerful as the effect of the lectures of upon his audience. he.84] MUSONIUS. Like his teacher. like His moral teaching can dispense the more easily with a great systematic apparatus. though he does not maintain its personal continuance after death. but even in physics there are but few points which he re little system as the basis for Such are the quires to establish his moral rules. he says with Musonius. our will the use of our notions. in the rationality of the universe and its course . humane. as he believes with Musonius that the general principles of morality are implanted in us by nature. yet he not only ascribes value to dialectical investigations. our happiness. is in our power. in 94 A. The pupil of Musonius was Epictetus of Hierapolis. Here he was attended by Flavius Arrianus. and went to Nicopolis in Epirus when Domitian expelled all the philosophers from Rome. in spite materialism.D. opposes almost in a dualistic manner to the body. rests On this alone. first as a slave. and gentle even to offenders. If in general he presupposes the Stoic this. he sees the object of philosophy simply in education to virtue. who drew up a sketch of the contents of his lectures. according to Epictetus. everything else he treats as so u 2 . Only one thing.

The noble Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (born 121 A. is a servant and mes and though he takes up a free senger of the Deity position towards the national religion. in his religious view of things. is whose regard for men shown not only in the whole direction of the world. In his conviction of the divine origin and nature of the human spirit.292 ECLECTICISM. If in this respect he approaches Cynicism. particularly by reference to the and the equal relation in which all men stand Deity In general his philosophy has a religious to him. but also the most and he comprehensive and unlimited philanthropy . On the other hand. but also in extraordinary revelations. died 180). Insight into the change of all things. he is rather an The philosopher . in his disinclination to all theoretic inquiries. and the decay of the individual. between what is [ 84 indifferent that the distinction to be desired and rejected has scarcely any importance for him. Caesar 161. he finds the it .. and depicts the true philosopher as a Cynic. earnest preacher of morality full of pious enthusiasm than a systematic philosopher. establishes this more character. he agrees with it entirely in his views of marriage and civic life. associated in the government 138. belief in the divine providence. and The in absorption in his own self-consciousness. D. in his general view of Stoicism. inclines him to be content with all that the order of nature brings with and that the gods ordain. he inculcates not merely an unconditional surrender to the course of the world. whose admirer he was. agrees with Epicurus. teaches him to desire nothing external as a good and fear nothing as an evil.

inasmuch as his reason is in direct contact with their effluences. is more strongly marked in Aurelius.84] MARCUS AURELIUS. that he shall worship the spirit in his 293 demand own heart only and seek his happiness from him. Here we see Stoic materialism about to pass into Platonic dualism. but also from the soul. 85. or Pnemna. yet he is rather a Platonist than an Old-Stoic when he distinguishes the as the active spirit (vovs) or the rjyspoviKdv and divine principle. In the recognition of the sameness of human nature in all men he finds the impulse to the most boundless and unselfish What distinguishes Marcus philanthropy. The appearance more that the scientific elements of the Stoic philosophy were thrown into the background as compared with practical requirements. Aurelius from Epictetus is not only the difference in his view of political activity. 289). If he allows the soul to return to the Deity some time after death. The more melan choly the moral and political conditions which followed . as a We must regard more one-sided form of this Stoic moral philosophy the Cynicism which makes its soon after the beginning of our era. but more especially the fact that the reflex action of ethical dualism on anthropology and meta physics. which arose from his position. 279. The Later Cynics. which was noticeable in Posidonius and Seneca (pp. not merely from the body. the nearer did it approach to the Cynicism from which it arose. and says of (lod that he beholds the spirits free from their cor poreal veils.

were those who came after. Cynicism Even in the best of its repre was not free from many excesses. who died. places the date of their origin with great stnlogr.. the more necessary did it appear to meet the corruption and distress of the time in the strange but yet effectual manner order to of the ancient Cynics. an 1 Ecleetic-Socratic in his philosophy. Hardly any of these later Cynics struck out new thoughts. for often served as a pretext for a vagabond. in Among : . express the moral principles which through the Stoics had long become common property. . has only an indirect importance for the history of science. it. Demonax. Orit. able in the history of culture. Demetrius. dirty immoral conduct. . and a gratification of vanity by ostentatious display intended to excite attention. intended to support a real renewal of the Cynic school. who greatly extols Demetrius among of his time. as the expression of widespread views. who publicly burnt himself in 165 in Olympia. Athens about 1 60 A. that we can first definitely prove the Cynics But it is in Seneca. and it life. en- Marcks. and even Peregrinus in spite of his eccentricities. later called Proteus. nearly one hundred years old.294 ECLECTICISM. probability in the time of Augustus. sentatives. the most prominent De(Enomaus of Gadara. Varro in his Menip- pean Satires had already conjured up their shades in tell the truth to his contemporaries in the l The letters of Diogenes appear coarsest language. ad Epi- Grcec. and his But this school. though remark disciple Theagenes. 12 f.D. Peregrinus. [ 85 the last century of the Roman Eepublic. under Hadrian inonax. Sytiib.

the freedom of the But none of these men are known by any scientific service. a teacher of Nero . one of the most distinguished Peripatetics. school The Peripatetic was inclined towards a in the general amalgamation with the Neo. in the fragments of his treatise makes against the jugglers (yoTJrwv a severe attack on the oracles. Alexander of ^Egse. Aristocles of Messene and Sosigenes. under and humane character. We have only fragments of its history in this period. sixth. Aspasius and Adrastus. and in & affectionate. an excellent mathematician . Sotion. 295 joyed general respect owing to his gentle. about 200. apparently. 86. It is for the very reason that we have here to deal with a mode of life rather than little scientific views that this later Cynicism is so influenced by the change of philosophical sys tems. about 180. The most memorable among the adherents with whose names we are acquainted are the following about 50 : A. seems to have consisted The activity of these almost exclusively in men the . Herminus .j&amp. and about the same time. about 150-180. Alexander of Aphrodisias.85J LATER CYNICS. QEnomaus.Platonic direction which had been struck out by Andronicus.wpd\ con will nection therewith defends against the Stoics. The Peripatetic School in the Christian Period. Outliving all the schools except the Neoit continued into the fifth century and could count adherents even in the beginning of the Platonists. and perhaps Achaecus also.

and that it became an individual human it found an organism adapted to receive he treated the Deity. he deviates in important points from too naturalistic a view mentator. What is occasionally remarked of them rarely shows any considerable de from the views of Aristotle. yet as the soul of the world. is shown by the example of Aristocles. and explaining soul. according to his contemporary This approximation to ( Supplic. c. If this distinguished Peripatetic assumed that the divine spirit (yovs) inhabited the entire corporeal world. life it by the divine working upon the Thus (a men only bring a capacity for thought into . it. did not entirely exclude views which were originally strange to their viation school. and that general concepts exist as such in our minds only. in mankind he brings the higher things. of the soul nearer to the lower. But well stotle s doctrine not only follows Aristotle in regarding the individual being as something substan tial. by separating the part active vovs from the spirit human soul. their real object being individual Moreover. than the universal. and operated in it. but he also adds thereby differing from Aristotle of its determinations. [ 86 exposition of the Aristotelian writings and the defence of the Aristotelian doctrine. in itself (fyva-si). even in this later period. 5). the famous Com Athenagoras 6 as he was acquainted with Ari and successfully as he defended it. after the Stoic manner. Alexander of Aphrodisias. He that the individual was earlier. which was also the view taken spirit wherever by the Peripatetics. the Stoic pantheism w^as not shared by the disciple of Aristocles.296 ECLECTICISM. But that the Peripatetics.

the well-known philo sopher and biographer. Albinus. power which spreads from the upper and from this mode of activity he excludes any regard for the good of man. the pupil of Gaius. operation becomes In connection with this theory he absolutely denies^ like Aristotle. The chief support of Eclecticism continued to be the Platonic school. Smyrna about 152.D. The Platonists of the First Century A. is 297 life potential vovs\ and it that this. Gaius.D. who taught in Athens about 60-70 A. whose life appears to fall approximately between 48 and 125 A. an Egyptian. they were in part merely exponents of Aristotle and in part Eclectics. and even if in dividuals like Thernistius ( 101) preferred to be called Peripatetics rather than Platonists. Theo of After Alexander we do not know of any important teacher of the Peripatetic philosophy as such the chief seat of Aristotelian studies.f)v(7i$) or to the spheres to the lower. who. he refers providence entirely to nature acquired votis (&amp. under the * only in the progress of described. who was attended by . is the Neo. Cronius.D.Platonic school. like . . the immortality of the soul. and Apuleius of Madaura Numenius. 87. even before the end of the third : century. the well-known Atticus. . his pupil Plutarch of Chaeronea.86J PERIPATETICS IN THE CHRISTIAN ERA. Galen in Nigrinus. The most remarkable members in the first two centuries of our era are : Ammonius. Finally. and his contemporaries Maximus of Tyre. Calvisius Taurus (a pupil of Plutarch). who taught under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius .

imus. In the same path 1 Preserved for us in a revised excerpt under the name of AlciFreudenthal has shown nous. Stud. This aversion must have been supported by the circumstance that even the Academicians after Plutarch. Albinus is also evidence for the Eclecticism of the school. [ 87 and no doubt Severus opponent of Christianity. and Stoic theories. But this was accompanied more and more by those Neo-Pythaus in Plutarch. yet he approached the Stoics in his assertions about the sufficiency of virtue. Besides those mentioned. Peripatetic. H. Thus Taurus not only wrote against the but also on the difference of the Platonic and . and The majority his one-sided practical conception of philosophy. About to the reign of Marcus Aurelius. belongs the time of this emperor lived also Harpocration. followed the pattern of the Peripatetics in devot attention to the writings of their founder ing special (cf. whose sketch of the Platonic doctrine l presents a marvellous mixture of Albinus Platonic. Yet the first denied the origin and if the second contradicted Aristotle in this as in other respects. Celsus. Celsus. and others ( 92).298 ECLECTICISM. of the Academicians continued to follow the eclectic direction given by Antiochus. Stoics. would not hear of the displacing of the genuine Platonism by foreign elements. Apuleius. of the world in time. Here we meet followed his teacher Gaius. p. the Part of these Platonists at any rate pupil of Atticus. belongs to Albinus. Maxgorean speculations which meet Numenius. Hel3. also. 14). . Aristotelian doctrines and Atticus was a passionate opponent of Aristotle. and no doubt earlier also. that it lenist.

the Dio. and thus the mode of thought in the school cannot be doubted. What he calls philosophy is a collec tion of moral precepts. and Galen did not consider themselves of any special school. treatises to the subject. and making satisfied An opponent of Epicurus Aristotle his favourite. does not go beyond a popular morality which. and Galen. . &amp.). a rhetorician Dio his fruitful career as a writer coincides approximately with the second half of the second century is the opponent of all with his school philosophy. It adheres chiefly to Stoic doctrines and principles.87] PLATONISTS OF THE FIRST CENTURY. he combines with the Peripatetic doctrine much that is Stoic and something that is Platonic. but all three wished to pass for philosophers.D. is without scientific character. members Dio. occupied himself far more He devoted numerous seriously with Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 A. and attacks the Cynics especially satire. Besides the senses. also. to shall allow the term most surnamed Chrysostom. put on the cynic garb after his banishment but his philosophy We Galen. Lucian. of which the greater part are lost. 88. the trustworthiness of which Galen . like Lucian of Samosata. though not altogether with him. who was banished from Rome by Domitian and protected by Trajan. the famous physician. Dio. and of Scepticism. readily Bithynian rhetorician. Lucian. to which he is the more inclined to confine himself as he considers theoretic questions to be insoluble. 299 Severus so far as preponderance of this we know him. though in its contents meritorious.

As Eclecticism had arisen out of the fact that the attacks of the Sceptics had destroyed confidence in philosophical systems. speculations are not of action. his pupils were Sarpedon and Heracleides. The adaptation of means to ends in the world is strongly maintained. II. Such much importance for life and His Ethics. [ 88 undertakes to defend. The pupil of Heracleides was . by Ptolemseus of Cyrene . also so far as we know them. THE LATER SCEPTICS. the victory was not final. though his expressions are not always consistent. its chief abode. not of the Academi cians. as we are told. and it was inevitable that it should again take the form of a sceptical theory. 89.300 ECLECTICISM. When the Pyrrhonists became extinct in the third century. con tain only older theories borrowed from various schools. Yet this later scepticism was long in attaining the influence and exteot which has been enjoyed by the Scepticism of the Academy. the school was revived. but Galen ascribes little value to deeper speculative questions. itself This last school of Greek Sceptics (which called an aycorytf not a afipsa-is) wished to be considered a descendant of the Pyrrhonists. of Antiochus succeeded in Though the Eclecticism driving Scepticism from the Academy. ^Enesidemus and his School. a second source of knowledge is recognised iu the truths which are immediately certain to the intelligence. this mistrust of all dogmatic convictions continued to be its presupposition.

Ev. 18. If this school desired to limit itself to the empiric knowledge of the operation of cures. Besides the Academic and Pyrrhonian doctrine Academy we do not know.89] ^NESIDEMUS. who taught in Alexandria. on the other hand. &amp. 169. to physicians was also doubt which several of the leaders of the new Pyrrhonists belonged. If. the influence of the latter on JEriesidemus and his successors is undeniable. If the list of the sceptical diadochi in Diog. their the school of the empiric less a sharer in it. according to Photius. denies the existence carry of a Pyrrhonic school in his time a century back. and held the inquiry into the causes of sickness to be aimless. the L. we ought not to of things. to whom. this principle had to be only generalised to end in universal scepticism. 301 sidemus. What was the relation of Ptolemseus and Sarpedon to the or whether they set forth on the same general terms as ^Enesitheory demus. ix. a native of Cnossus. Cicero who. 31. ^Enesidemus can hardly have come forward before the beginning of the Christian era. we must him half ^nesidemus agrees in all that is essential with As we can know nothing of the real nature Pyrrho. Prsep. Eus. 110 however. is regarded as the youthful friend of is &amp. xiv. Aristocles (cf. But as these new Pyrrhonists laboured in vain to point out any serious difference between their doctrine and that of the New Academy. . Cod.22) calls ^Enesidemus the reviver of the Pyrrhonian Scepti cism. 212. his Pyrrhonic speeches are dedicated. and equally good grounds can be brought forward against every assumption. Tubero.

and the impossibility demonstration which does not move in a circle. Herodotus. we must partly follow custom and partly our own and needs. Sextus. Saturninus Sextus only is further known. \6yoi. Menodotus. On the other hand. or proceed from presuppositions which are not proved. His main grounds of proof are collected on the ten Pyrrhonean tropes. . These principles ^Enesidemus feelings sought to establish by a detailed criticism of prevailing in which. So far a? we are compelled to act. this is beyond doubt a mistake. mention that ^Enesidemus wished his scepticism merely to serve as a preparation for the Heracleitean physics. not even our own experience. By this means we acquire the true pleasure. which arose from the fact that the statements of ^Enesidemus about Heracleitus were confounded with his own point of view. [ 89 maintain anything. Zeuxis. we hear that Agrippa re duced the ten tropes of ^Enesidemus to five we do not know when and these five in turn are reducible to three chief points: the contradiction of opinions. opinions and views in his Tlvppwvsiot. perceptions.302 ECLECTICISM. which all unite in the aim of setting forth the rela of things. Antiochus. the of a relativity of perceptions . Theodas. he controverts at length the among conclusion of the causes of things. apparently on the same authority. Of the eight successors of ^Enesidemus in the leader ship of the school whose names have come down to us Zeuxippus. the repose of spirit (arapa^ia). tivity of all our presentations this but carry out thought almost exclusively in regard to sensuous If Sextus Empiricus and Tertullian. other matters.

Hence his discussions can be considered as a combination of all that was usually brought forward in his school to defend In his discussions on the criterion. their point of view. vii. Adv. demonstration. 303 Others went yet further in simplification. he controverts. as is proved by the contradiction of opinions. These treatises are the Pyrrhonic against vii.) is that of ^Enesidemus. for they must first get their : knowledge from themselves. of which the second and third are usually comprehended under the unsuitable title Adversus Mathematicos. He attacks the concept of the cause in . so that he falls in We possess thr^e treatises by Simplicius.-xi.). no doubt that Sextus borrowed by far the greatest part of the materials of his work partly from older members of his school. How much scepticism from this time forth was concerned with an exhaustive contradiction of dogmatism of Sextus. 301). truth. the Hypotyposes. and partly after their pattern from the Academicians. Math.) rhetoric. &c. There is mathematics (&amp. and the marks of proof. was Empiricus. the period about 180-210 A. for reasons of different value. The latest name mentioned in his main work ( Math.D. the tractate philosophers ( Adv. and were contented with two tropes men could not know any thing from i.89] SIMPLICIUS.. often with wearisome discursiveness and.-xi. the formal possibility of knowledge. who known as is shown by the writings an empiric physician (p. Math. nor from others. more especially from Carneades (Clitomachus). dogmatic and that against the ^aOr^ara^ grammar.-vi. and appears to have been a as younger contemporary of Galen.

which it is the aim to however. repeating that of the good and happiness in order to show that know from ledge is unattainable on this ground. also by experience. inconceivable in every respect. and we can life may be thought not fail to recognise how much it aided from the . applying it to meet the notions He also finds the material of the operative cause. he leaves out of sight. Experience instructs us in the in a position to ordinary course of things. whose But placed approximately in 80-150 A. as an indication of scientific feeling. law . The scepticism of ^Enesidemus spread but little in beyond the limits of his school. and custom.304 ECLECTICISM. acquire. we must forego all decision knowledge. but perceptions. is not to prevent us from This. [ 89 the question of every possible application . He repeats Carneades criticism of the Stoic theology. like his predecessors. but it is just the origin of this concept which. that owing to the balance of the pros and cons (the lo-ocrOsvsia rwv and renounce all \oycov). or bodies. quarter of his opinions that we can prove is the sharer in rhetorician and historian Favorinus of Arelate. this mode of has a more general importance.D. our natural impulses. criticises He cause. Finally. not only by allowing ourselves to be led in our actions. the ethical assumptions. these and other considerations he draws the conclusions which had long been acknowledged. and puts us T form certain regulations for life. the last successor which (Saturninus) must have belonged to the first The only other the third century. and by this means only can we attain to of all philosophy repose and happiness.

received through that contact with Oriental views.89] &NESIDEMUS AND HIS SCHOOL. the ethical monotheism of which to offered far more points of contact Hellenic philosophy than the mythology of the national religions. According to all appearance it was at Alexandria that the speculation first came forward. when found. its metaphysical presupposition was an opposition of God and the world. of spirit and matter. THE PRECURSORS OF XEO-PLATONISM. on the basis of practical necessity. 305 beginning in developing the eclecticism of the time into Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic speculation. and a direct convic tion of it. Introduction. III. and there was a general inclination to accept truth. finally ended in Neo-Platonism. of which Alexandria was the centre. even at the cost of scientific consistency in such a period only a slight impulse was needed in order to lead the spirit in its search for truth beyond the limits of natural knowledge to a supposed higher foun This impulse Greek thought appears to have tain. as intermediaries between which men took refuge in demons and divine x . The main part on the Oriental side was played by Judaism. which. after centuries of slow development. 90. In a period in which much greater weight was laid on the practical effect of philosophy than on scientific knowledge as such in which a deep mistrust of man s capacity of knowledge widely prevailed. The last motive in this speculation was the yearning after a higher revelation of the truth .

. and the preambles to the laws of Zaleucus and Charondas quoted by Cicero ( Legg. 6.) gives us the so-called Lucanus Ocellus on the the treatise of universe. (about 70 B. by . of which Alexander Polyhistor an account in Diog. development took place partly on Greek and partly on Judaic-Hellenistic soil. 14).. Pythagorean science. consequence was a combination of ethics with religion.C. but really Neo- Pythagorean treatises. Its practical [ 90 power. Pythagoreanism still continued as a form of religious life. which was known to Varro. Though the Pythagorean philosophy as such be came extinct in the course of the fourth century. of such supposed old In the later period a mass Pythagorean. of the middle comedy.C. viii. 24 f. I. The Nee-Pythagoreans. is mentioned (about ninety. that the attempt was It was about the beginning of and apparently at Alexandria. efforts The is demonstrable evidence for these to : Pythagorean treatises in the interpolated the semi-Stoic exposition of the be found Pythagorean doctrines. 32) that its Deity. the first century B. or amalgamated with the Platonic. 91. later made to give a new life to the now extended and enriched by earliest doctrines. THE PURELY GREEK SCHOOLS. and that the Pyth other evi agorean mysteries spread widely is proved by and more especially by the fragments of the poets dence.306 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. ii. which led partly to asceticism and partly to the demand for a direct intuition of the It has already been observed (p.

310). In the doctrines by which these uew Pythagoreans sought to establish the moral and religious principles of their sect. 307 more than fifty authors). Under Hadrian Nicomachus of Gerasa composed the work of which we possess parts. like that of the contemporary Academicians. and Apollonius find traversed the Roman world in the part. Pythagorean century A. the learned F. we find connected with the old Pythagorean still views and the Platonic intuitions. x 2 . first is regarded as the form. definite traces of their existence and their doctrines are found the time of Augustus in Arius up to and Eudorus Didymus for first and in King Juba II.). 286) also stood in new Pythagoreans . among which those of Archytas are pre-eminent in number and importance. Nigidius Figulus (died 45 B. who was joined by P. and Philostratus belonged to the first third of the third century (p. Vatinius. we Moderatus of Grades and Apollonius of Tyana. The connection with the school of the Sextii (p. Both were writers in their cause. which were more important in this school. Numenius (92) appears to have lived under the Antonines. The first adherent of the Neo -Pythagorean school whose name we know is the friend of Cicero. the second as the matter.D. The (Svas aopLcrros) many deviations in details.C.0lj THE NEO-PYTHAGOREANS. and within the find common tendency we Unity and quality are declared to be the final bases. of a wizard. an eclectic character. s predilection In the second half of the writings. something borrowed from the This philosophy thus bears Peripatetics and Stoics. and many fragments of them have come down to us. or at any rate with the reputation.

that it cannot enter into direct contact as with anything that is corporeal . They regarded the ideas or numbers as thoughts Hence they wished them to be regarded substance of things. and place it so far above all finite. One section regard the Deity as higher that than the reason. The same contrast of is God and the is repeated in the assertions about the relation world. [91 of the Pythagoreans explained unity the operative cause. or pneuma. not as the ideas as Plato had placed it. The latter is a form of doctrine which unites the Stoic monism with the Platonic-Aristotelian dualism. and the Deity was partly described to be as the But while a part moving cause which brought form and matter together. but only as the which they were fashioned. and follow the Stoics in describing this soul as warmth. Yet even here the newPythagoreans deviated from the old as well as from PJato. and the so-called Locrian soul. The Platonic descriptions of matter were taken literally the world-soul was placed between matter and the original forms. as in the Platonic Timaeus. others describe Grod the soul which permeates the whole body of the world. of the Deity. Timaeus adopted the Platonic construction of the .308 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLA TONISM . with which the ideas are now considered exactly identical. But the importance of the separate numbers was a matter of much fanciful speculation in the school in which the ordinary mathe matics were eagerly studied. or the Deity. The formal principle was thought to comprehend all numbers. and partly as the One. after . wilich then produced derived unity and duality. others dis tinguished the two. and thus prepares the way for Neo-Platonism.

With Plato and the old Pythagoreans magnitudes of space are derived from the numbers. 309 Besides metaphysics every other part of philosophy was treated in the Neo-Pythagorean writings. is repeated but so far as we know. but with many deviations. They extol the beauty and perfection of the world. and other mathematical symbols are used the Platonic doctrine of the parts of the soul. of Plato . the unchangeableness of the one. among other works. they regard the stars as visible deities. strangely thrown into the background among the Neoenough. we . A proof of the logical activity of the school can be found. school from the time of Ocellus of the heavenly and earthly worlds.91] THE NEO-PYTHAGOREANS. Pythagoreans. and the elements from the regular bodies but. the migration of the soul is. The soul is regarded with Xenocrates as a number in this matter the moving for it its : itself. primarily follow Plato In their physics the Neo-Pythagoreans and the Stoics. in the pseudo-Archytean treatise * On the Universe. The anthropology of the school is that Pythagorean Alexander (p. which are not in jured by the evil in it. pre-existence and immortality. a tenet which was universally maintained in the they also chiefly follow Aristotle in their assertions about the contrast . in Ocellus. which treats the doctrine of the Categories mainly after the Aristotelian pattern. and the changeability of the other. also meet. and above all. while the belief in demons plays an . alone places himself on the side of Stoic material 306) ism. on the other hand. From Aristotle they borrowed the doctrine of the eternity of the world and the human race. with the Aristotelian doctrine of the elements. .

. existing fragments of the numerous ethical and political writings of the school present only colourless repetitions of Platonic and The of Peripatetic determinations. and Mcomachus. to which belong the abstinences common in the Pythagorean mysteries. asceticism is an essential part of it. yet. of prophet and servant of God. and a purity of life required. [ 91 important part among them. the national doctrines. Nicomachus even brings the demons into connection with the angels of the Jews. the Deity and a virtuous life devoted to the good of mankind. and in the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus (written about 220 A. This element scriptions. mankind. the only means for liberating the eoul from the entanglements of the body is purity of life and true worship of the If this view is accompanied by noble ideas of gods. we find a more refined idea of Grod. with proportionately few additions from the Stoics. In its full extent this asceticism comprises abstinence from flesh and wine. on the other hand. is which in developed more strongly in their de set forth the ideal of Neo-Pythagorean philosophy Pythagoras and Apollonius of Tyana. On worship is presupposed.PLATONISM. the philosopher as a The highest mission and sensuality. and in reference to the highest god the demand for a purely spiritual worship on the other.).310 PRECURSORS OF NEO. Here philosophy appears as the true re ligion. and which we find in the notices of the biographies of Pytha goras written by Apollonius.D. The peculiarity of the Neo-Pythagorean still more school is more definitely marked in their religious the one hand. and from . a higher value is ascribed to prophecy. Moderatus.

NEO-PYTHAGOREANS.Pythagoreans who preceded him. Plutarch accepts Plato s teaching almost entirely in the sense of the Neo. biographies 92. everything which religious life. A Platonist. is He of importance for the moral opposed the Stoic materialism and and the Epicurean atheism the (aOetTrjs) no less than . and even doubts the possibility on the contrary. and to spite of all whom the Epicurean school only is absolutely abhorrent. . tant part to be influenced in Plutarch (p. obvious reward of this piety consists in the power of bor working miracles. by them they occur more definitely 297). 282) is seen of their doctrines. philosophy. sentative in the first century A. which was first announced new Pythagoreans. who was the most influential repre . such. He ascribes but little value to theoretic questions as of their solution. in the appearance of the The tendency of thought. and within the of societies of ascetics and philosophers. 311 marriage the linen dress of the priests the forbidding of all oaths. and in some details even of the Stoic. from whom the borrowed the most impor Pythagoreans had originally Eudorus (p. and in the prophetic knowledge on omniscience. is his interest in The more lively. The Pythag arising Platonists. in his polemics against their principles. proofs of which abound in the dering of Pythagoras and Apollonius.D. community other arrangements ascribed by the goods and all the The most ancient legend to the old Pythagoreans. and animal offerings. who is nevertheless open to the influence of the Peripatetic.91] TILE . afterwards found an echo among the Platonists.

freedom of the will is and immortality. and the fatalism of the Stoics. Certain Aristotelian theories were mingled with the Platonic anthropology . but in the evil world-soul. Contro verting Epicurus. But in order to explain the nature of the world of indispensable. assumes five elements. is a trait peculiar to him. he conceives the creation of the world an act in time. is phenomena he finds a second principle This he does not seek in matter. he attributes the highest value to this belief. What Plato stated in mythical language about a change of the condition of the world accepted by him in so dogmatic a manner that he here approaches the Stoic teaching which he elsewhere controverts. including the migration of souls. The divine operation in the world he regards less under the form of the Platonic doctrine as of ideas and the Pythagorean speculation on numbers than under the ordinary belief in providence. and with reason and order at the formation of the world.312 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLA TONISM. [92 national superstition with a pure view of the Deity corre sponding to Plato s. To these he transfers everything which he does not venture to ascribe directly to the Deity. first filled yet continues to exercise an influence as the final source of all evil. are . which without properties. being connected with matter from the beginning. was changed into the divine soul of the world. and he has much that is That he not only superstitious to say about them. but also a quintette of worlds. which. Deviating from the majority of the Neo- Pythagoreans. But the higher that he has elevated the Deity above all that is finite the more important are the demons as the intermediaries in its operation on the world.

s Pure as Plu tarch idea of Grod is. At the same time he takes into consideration the natural conditions and helps for these revelations. and thus his theory possible for him to justify the belief of his in prophecy in the manner which had people long makes it been usual among the Stoics and Neo-Pythagoreans. These we receive the more clearly in proportion as we are freed by enthu siasm from any activity on our own part. usages might be. as he says. influence of Stoic cosmopolitanism. yet his doctrine no other means sufficed. and a limitation of political interests. which Plutarch could enucleate from them with all the traditional caprice of allegorical exposition. owing to the nature of the times. The Platonic and 313 distinctly maintained. enabled him to . and moder In this it is natural that we should find an ate way. Peripatetic ethics were defended by Plutarch against the different theories of the Stoics and Epicureans. and the powers which serve The contents of the myths form philosophical truths. and applied to life in a pure. only to denote one and the same divine it. noble. The gods different names of the different nations are. he cannot abandon the belief that the Deity comes to our assistance by direct revelations.92] PLUTARCH. the various relations of The most is characteristic mark of the Plutarchian ethics their close connection with religion. Shocking and disgust ing as of many religious if demons. His general attitude to the national religion is the same. lively as are his descriptions of the warmth perverseness and corruptions of superstition. nature. yet in the of his religious feelings and the small confi dence which he reposes in man s power of knowledge.

The eternity of the world. Along with Plutarch we find among the later 297) two rhetoricians of kindred spirit. he makes the gulf between the two so great that he considers a direct operation of the highest deity on matter as impossible. the demons Maxibeside great part as intermediaries in the contrast. the opposition of God and matter. He of also appears to have used Philo of Alexandria and the Christian in whose eclectic Platonism. require the Pythagorean asceticism. the demons.314 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. and hence (like the . he appeals to Magians. and Brahmins. besides which.extending syncretism. nearer to the Nee-Pythagoreans. Smyrna shared in the Neo-Pythagorean doctrine of the original bases play a Theo of and of numbers.) is still Yet the foundation generally considered to be one. and even to Moses. Egyptians. demons the intermediaries of the divine operation on the world. God and matter. and is A. the evil world-soul of Plutarch like his predecessors.}s amfci^cov). which cannot be direct owing to the sublimity of God. to whose protection the world beneath the moon is confided. of unity Beginning with the distinction and indefinite duality (p. 307). Yet he did not Plato- nists (p. and the opposi tion in which he stands to matter. meet us in in Albinus . of his views is formed by Platonism. the assumption that the ideas are the thoughts of the Deity. [92 find superficial justification for them. sees in Atticus. with wide. He makes use of this assumption in order to defend polytheism and the Numenius of Apamea (about 160 national worship. mus and Apuleius. whom he holds in high repute (Plato is a M&&amp.

the majority of the writings arose which have corne down to us under the name of Hermes into the body. being at the On the different and inseparable from him. if it is in need of other bodies. De graded from ar incorporeal life.u&amp. Like Plu tarch he supposed that an evil soul was united with From this arose the mortal part of the human matter. arranged and animated by the Deity. the soul. he called a third deity. no solubly united with the Deity. of the Neo-Pythagorean and An Egyptian branch Platonic school is the source from which.92] NUMENIUS. as a second deity. Valentinus). HERMES TRISMEG1STUS. related to him as the light to the sun. Insight is a gift of the migration through This gift is only gods. as a personality. Harpocration. tended in the same Numenius. becomes indissoul. raised above both as the author of being and He is the good. he itself 315 Gnostic inserts between them the irrational soul. which is also thought of as a is The vovs willing and thinking being. by its guilt. when it again departs. so far as direction as we know. apparently towards the end of the third century. Cronius and to the exclusion of all other between vovs depends the soul (more doubtfully which and matter stands the air. When matter was same time &amp. allotted to him who applies himself to the primal good.7ts). deity is The highest reason./&amp. the world was . or The world which he named a second. and for men the highest good. creator of the world. Here also we find the expression of that which is the leading trait of the the effort to fill up the chasm between the world school and the Deity by intermediate creatures.

The Period before Philo. [ 92 Supported by the divine power. The unalterable course of the world. The only its means to higher home. its is it. filled with visible and invisible gods and demons. JEWISH GREEK PHILOSOPHY. the spirit of God. in the notions about the angels. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. and divine wisdom. 93. in the opposition of this specula tion. renunciation of the sensuous world yet the ascetic consequences of this point of view are seen in isolated . future return to instances only in the Hermetic writings. who were subject to Greek influences. and in It is obvious that this depends upon the uprightness. which do not altogether agree with secure for the soul piety. in the belief in revelation and prophecy. and man as the third. Even in Palestine. II. . in God and the world. when the country was first . The Jewish national religion pre sented many important points of contact to monotheism. which here coincides with philosophy. the vic tory of which is already regarded as almost unavoidable. and consists essentially in the knowledge of God. even more vigorously than on purely Greek soil. The dualistic speculation of the Nee-Pythagoreans and Platonists developed among the Jews. The more do we recognise as their leading motive the strongly tendency to defend the national and especially the Egyptian religious worship against Christianity. and destiny were taught in the Stoic fashion the Platonic anthropology is repeated with many additions.316 created. the world is regarded as the second god. providence.

further developed among the Essenes. with priests and officers of their own and absolute community truth. they did not tolerate With this they combined a purity of life which . . and Pliny. ix. They were subject to strict discipline and hierarchical con trol. 317 under Egyptian and then under Syrian rule. and subse quently. unbounded gentleness. in his attempt to Hellenise the Jews by force (167 B. They abstained from wine and flesh. especially among the higher classes. the Greek mode of life and thought became so widely spread that Antiochus Epiphanes. could count on a numerous party. that we can only assume that they arose under the influence of the Orphic Pythagorean asceticism. 28). their principles were strictness of morale. of goods. partly in houses belonging to their order in the towns.Pythagoreans. they adopted many of its doctrines. after the formation of a Neo-Pythagorean In philosophy. the Essenes appear as a society of about 4. and from the use of ointments they dis approved of the killing of animals and bloody offerings. We find them These were a society of Ascetics which arose. and slavery. partly in their own settlements. the first century of our era. in Philo.000 members. apparently in the de cades following the rebellion of the Maccabees. They exhibit so important a relationship to the Neo. was expressed in peculiar customs. 2. a sect who withdrew from public life. Even seem to before this date these views have found acceptance (according to Ecclesiast. vii.C.).93] JEWISH-GREEK PHILOSOPHY. from the bosom of the law-abiding but retiring Chasidseans. who lived together with complete community of goods. Josephus. They practised the most extreme simplicity.

and the Greek views which and Oriental sophy found a far is shown by the fact that after a few generations the a Greek translation of their Egyptian Jews required . &c. Levitic defilement most punctilious dread of any they wore only white garments a . prophecy and many of them claimed to possess it.318 PEE CURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. they forbade oaths they replaced the national worship. They had their own doctrines and which were kept strictly secret. meals. the great centre where Hellenic civilisation met and crossed. belief in angels (as They elements they worshipped sunlight and the manifestations of the Deity they considered the gift to be the highest reward of piety and of . They had .. by their daily baths and common rules. while they of their nation to their own adapted the Scriptures They point of view by allegorical interpretation. to the rules of the order they required celibacy from and even from those of a lower order members. refused all [98 They their food which was not prepared according . from which they were excluded. should indulge in marital they demanded that they with a view to the procreation of intercourse solely children. whole world. How early and how universally the numerous and opulent Jewish the Greek language. But in Alexandria. Greek philo more favourable soil. . believed in a pre-existence of the soul. . In the ascribed a special importance to the others did to the belief in demons). population in this city acquired of necessity went with it. and an in with which they appear to have combined the thought that the opposition of better of male and female. ran through the and death corporeal life after worse. asceticism.

What he own views. &c. though neither Clemens nor Eusebius detected them. . 17 f. 14 fif. but were defended by Valckenaer). he appeals to a series of verses supposed to be the work of Orpheus and Linus.C. 319 Scriptures. They were without reason suspected by Lobeck and Hody. 12.93] JEWISH-GREEK PHILOSOPHY. ix. Pr. shameless forgeries. viii. vii. in the pseudo-Solomonian Book of Wisdom. from the maxims and asserts of his narratives of the Old Testament. had used our Old Testament. Evang. We have received them through Eusebius. and in order to procure evidence for this assertion.). 19 Platonists and Pythagoreans. which are.C. so far as origin. 10. does not contain any which we find at a speculation this of philosophical reference to that form of it is later time in Philo. 14. Of we find definite traces for the first time in the first century B. which shock his advanced thought. its bility (viii. This Jewish Peripatetic assured King Ptolemy Philometor that the oldest Greek poets and philosophers. xiii. the divine wisdom (vii. 22 ff.) reminds us of the the soul. and especially Pythagoras and Plato. he at tempts by interpretation to remove the anthropo morphisms. and the assumption of a premundane matter (xi. and its imperisha f. along with some elements which agree with Essenism such as the assertions on the pre-existence of oppression by the body. which. On the other hand. because they no longer understood them in the original language. The first certain proof of the occupation of the Alexandrian Jews with Greek philo sophy is seen in the fragments of a treatise of Aristobulus (about 150 B.) By it its substantiation of prepared the way for . however. Homer and Hesiod.

D. a combination of Greek philosophy and Jewish theology. found in purity and perfection only in the Jewish This conviction he justifies by the revelations. He was for himself a true son of his nation and with the its Scriptures. Hence. highest veneration for Moses. whom he frequently belong those predecessors mentions when he appeals to the rules of allegorical Philo explanation which they had laid down. and puts forward this form. On the one hand. he applies the allegorical explanation of arid can thus discover any Scripture without limits.C. Philo of Alexandria. and quotes some Divine Logos of these explanations. not only in the original text. which. Parmenides. 94. although he desires to be merely an expositor of his views almost entirely in Scripture.320 PRECURSORS OF XEO-PLATONISM. on the other. in truth. and 50 filled A. and Cleanthes. meaning that he chooses in any passage whatever. however. he presupposes ordinary there is that the Hellenic sages used the Old Testament writings. his system is yet. Empedocles. s [ 9S To the same period doctrine of the Logos. These he is the pupil and admirer of the Greek philosophers. Plato and Pythagoras. of Philo. But we do not know whether and how this Logos was distinctly divided from the Deity before the time of Philo. and above all Scriptures he considered to be verbally inspired. Thus he is convinced that in both is but one and the same truth. Zeno. Philo s life falls between 30 B. in which the c occurs along with some Stoic determinations. but But at the same time also in the Greek translation. means. and the scien- .

. . parts 821 tific first. .94] PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA. fection in created self-evident that for It is things derived from him. the Platonists and the Jewish ends monotheists this activity can only be used for the best for of the two essential . the other hand. and inconceivable. properties of God. God must include in himself all being and all perfection for it is from him alone that per good. (rod seems to him more perfect than any perfection. come to a preponderant extent from the But the philosophy which he follows belongs almost entirely to that form of Platonism which was developed in the previous century. he must be thought of as the final cause of all a cease less operation must be ascribed to him. But this is just the point where arisen. contributed largely to it. better than the name and property. especially in Philo. sometimes the various tendencies. primarily at Alex andria. power T . that in his view no idea and no name can correspond to the Divine majesty. and all per finite predicate is to . and was named sometimes after Pythagoras. cross each other. we can only know that he is we can not know what he is only the name of the Existent On (the name of Jehovah) can be applied to him. fection can come to the finite. Above all. without As Philo says. from which his speculation has On the one hand. and though Stoicism. and approaching too nearly to his only to avoid perfection that no it is be given to him. The idea of the Deity forms the starting-point of the system of Philo. he has such a high conception of the elevation of God above all that is finite. after Plato.

the second God of the angels. world-soul and the ideas. monise these two modes of exposition. and on the other. powers. in the Logos. the highest the first-born son of God. but above all. pp. 312. angels. 283. as (Swaps!.?). as the performers To har of his will. and demons. was impossible The Logos is the comprehended in one. the power which comprises all comprises and ambassador of God. mediate beings. on the one hand. The . and pursuivants of (rod. [ 91 and goodness. Osos. as ideas or thoughts of God. (Ssvrspos Osos. in opposition to o Osos). Philo has recourse to an assumption which was not un known to others in that period (cf. the idea which world. and give a clear answer to the question of the personality of these All these powers are for him.322 THE PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. am bassadors. between God and the most universal intermediary of God. the wisdom and reason all ideas. the organ of powers. These intermediate beings he calls powers and describes them. but which no one before Plotinus worked out so system He assumed the existence of inter atically as Philo. the second expresses his nature even more directly than the first. In order to unite this absolute activity of (red in the world with his absolute superiority to the world. of the Stoic doctrine of the effluences of the Deity which permeate the world. as souls. as the servants. the viceroy the creation and government of the world. As a pattern in defining these more himself not only of the belief in precisely he availed the statements of Plato about the angels and demons. of the universal power and reason prevailing as parts in the world . properties of the Deity. 315).

323 the pattern of the world and the power which creates everything in it. In order to explain the evils and defects of finite existence. and this is inevitable. 240). and. and some times ovo-la with the Stoics. only in follows Plato in his more precise definitions of matter. when we think of this as divided from the Deity and set free from the traits which are the result of the sonality is Stoic materialism. Like the Stoics. Philo conthough . like Plato. is THE LOGOS. this and matter. at least superficially. with the body of the world as with a garment. for only so long as the conception of the Logos comes between that of a personal being distinct from God and that of an im personal divine power or property.rj the Logos God formed the world out of the chaotic mix ture of matter. the unsoluble problem. In a it has all the properties which belong to the Stoic Logos (p. Hence the world had a beginning it has no end. By the mediation of the fj. we must presuppose a second all. He also most authorities as a mass occupying sometimes names it space. above the evil which clings to the soul owing to its connection with the body. the soul which clothes itself Logos word. except that he regards it like principle.9i] PH1LO. and thus ov with Plato. for which can be it is required to make it conceivable that God present with his power and operation in the all its parts. But its per just as uncertain as that of the powers generally . Philo finds. world and while in his nature he beyond it and is defiled is utterly contact with matter. is it adapted to solve. by any The nature of the world can only be partly under stood from the divine power operating in it.

the dis tinction of the wise and the proficient. the source of all the evils under which it By the combination of the soul with the body sighs. an entire extirpa tion of all passions . Thus is to be freed first as possible . which is seen in its most glorious form in the stars. He alone can plant alone works all good in us. he adhered to the Platonic and Pythagorean tradition of the fall of souls. the migration of those who need purification.324 THE PRECURSORS OF PLATONISM. by frequent application of the numerical symbolism of the Pyth all is In his anthropology. the kinship of the human spirit with the divine. from which no one is ever free from his birth as far till his death. The body is the grave of the soul. acknowledges trust in himself a citizen of the But God takes the place of Stoic self-confidence. he regards virtue only the from sensuality the Philonian ethics he demands with the as a good. the But parts of the soul. Its perfec tion he defends in the sense of the Stoic theodicy. but he does not omit to give expression to the thought that arranged according to numbers. the incorporeal life of the purified souls after death. their description of the wise man. the part of physics agoreans. to which he ascribes most importance. [94 sidered the world as entirely supported by the opera tive power of God. their doctrine of virtue and Cynical simplicity. and the freedom of the will. rejects all sensual pleasure he professes . like them. God . requisite of Stoics an apathy. there is inborn in everyone the inclination to sin. and with them world. the most important part with him is the sharp contrast between reason and sensuality. adopts the passions. which are visible gods.

ETHICS. it. been uoknown in Greek Even philosophy. 305 own sake virtue. But even in this is only the man who less with action than with knowledge. or more correctly. . for not only does the active (political) life thwart it. does good for its on which rests all truly good. as science may attain the highest when we pass beyond all even the Logos and in a con dition of unconsciousness. to which we approximate lower than that which more and more tact with be. receive the higher illumination into ourselves. arises only out of faith. But even religious perfection has also various stages. In its origin the (ascetic) virtue which rests on practice is is founded on instruction. This attempt to go beyond conscious upon thought intermediate stages had as yet after Philo. wisdom. Thus we see the godhead in its pure unity and allow it to operate us. but even virtue Philo deals far science has only a value for him as a means to piety. inasmuch as it entangles us in external things and withdraws us from ourselves. virtue in us. therefore.PHILO. and both are lower than the virtue which arises directly out of a divinely-favoured nature. as we come more immediately into con we only Indispensable. with the inner life of the pious spirit. Virtue finds its last and highest aim in the Deity only. or even of ecstasy. two centuries elapsed before it was an accepted dogma.

but even the Stoic. In struction of this system not only the Platonic and were the Aristotelian philosophy. Origin. If the predecessors of Neo-Platonism had found the importance of philosophy in the fact that it brought us into connection with the Deity. ended in gradual elevation to this essence. But not most extreme point. only is this contrast stretched to the . Both internal and external reasons allow us to suppose that Philo directly or s doctrine also indirectly. had. the attempt was totality of finite now made to derive the things. [95 THIKD SECTION. elevated above all being and conception. was used to a great extent. motive of this speculation is the same which the Platonists them. including matter. the spirit and matter. NEO-PLA TONJSM. from an was entirely unknown and in original essence which In this way preparation was made for a definite. which finally aim and the final The practical substantial union. 95.326 NEO-PLATONISM. it proceeds from the opposition of the finite and infinite. and conducted us to that infinite essence. Character. and Pythagoreans had previously kept before Like them. an effect on its origin. and Development of Neo-Platonism. for THE views which centuries had and more exclusively prevalent in the schools become more Platonic and Pythagorean developed into a great the con system in the third century of our era.

was equally at variance with Plotinus conception of the Platonic doctrine.D. but it is also required that the contrast shall be methodically derived out of conceived as a single unity and the totality of things whole proceeding in regular succession from the Deity. separately. who attended Ammonius) did not distinguish the Deity from the vovs. above which it was placed by Plotinus. Among his pupils.3] ORIGIN OF NEO-PLATONISM. though the authors of this speculation desired to be nothing else but true Plato. and even controverted its distinction from the creator of the world (p. but afterwards became distinguished as a teacher of the He appears to have Platonic philosophy at Alexandria. apart from the (divine) . and the unity with God. original We Origen (who .. Cassius Longinus. 315).D. the well-known critic. attain. and returning into it. and Nemesius apparently following Hierocles) who ascribe to him the distinctive doctrines are entirely without any of the Plotinic system. and philosopher (whom Aurelian executed 273 A. A second disciple. died about 242 Yet it is no writings behind him. but he left century (Hierocles. accounts from the fifth only untrustworthy A. is not to be confounded with the Christian is also said to have theologian of the same name. disciples and expounders of Ammonius Saccas is called the founder of the Neo-Platonic school. The dualistic spiritualism of the Platonic school is here combined with the monism of the Stoics to produce a new result. and defended against him the proposition that the ideas exist This proves vovs.9. accounts of his doctrine. He was at first a day-labourer.). philologist. to which man ought to forced to the very utmost.

like that of Philo. P. This eminent thinker was born in 204-5 A. teaching and there founded a school. He was universally revered for his character and held in high respect by the Emperor Gallienus and his consort Salonina. Ammonius was it [95 that the doctrine of essentially distinct from that of Plotinus. He died in Campania in 270 His writings were published after his death by A. 1861 If. Porphyrius in six enneads. with the aid of the Aristo . Studien. proceeds the idea of Grod. . carried out with masterly logical skill. 1615). though nearly to it than that of the real founder might approach more earlier Platonists. By lamblichus it was by the Athenian telian entirely absorbed into the service of positive religion school. The Supersensuous The system from all of Plotinus. Bichtcr. . The System of Plotinus. 1855).D. A. Plot. For eleven years he enjoyed the of Ammonius. and comes to a conclusion in the for demand union with Grod. of ten reprinted. over which he presided till his death. 96. it was transformed into a formal scholasticism. World. On the system of Plotinus. The of the Neo-Platonie school was Ploti nus. .328 NEO-PLATOX1SM. jMeiiplat. (Oxford. ollcfte. Miiller (1878). philosophy. 1 After Plotinus. at Lycopolis in Egypt. Pkil d. Between these poles lies which was taught on the one hand about the origin Editions by Marsilius Ficifinalty 1 mis (1492. Kirchner. In 244-5 he went to Rome. at Basel. 1854. 1580. lamblichus and the school of Athens mark the most important point in the history of Neo-Platonism. Creuzer Kirchholf (1856) H. A.D.

. or will. Here. or be active. all volition the distinction . therefore. no corporeal entirely and even no intellectual property can be ascribed to it neither thought. 3L&amp. the one outside the many. comes forward as a decisive principle.9 of derived being out of the Deity. derived. and on the other. All thought contains the distinction of the thinker from thinking and from what of being activity is thought. time. and activity. form. No definite property can be ascribed to the Deity . nor activity. nor volition. for the for the Deity for is that which is above all being and all thought. THE DEITY. In his conception of the idea of Grod Plotinus carries to the extreme point the thought of the infinity of Grod. in order to think. Hence we cannot ascribe to first him any self-consciousness. the denial of the per sonality of God. all is directed to something beyond but the first element must be a self-included unity. and his elevation above the world. which implies plurality . he sees himself compelled to carry the final source of all that is real and knowable beyond all being and knowledge. The original essence (TO Trpwrov) is without limit.9G] PLOTINUS. there is need of something to which the activity is directed . but Grod has need of nothing beyond himself. for which Carneades had prepared the way (p. or defini tion. the unlimited or infinite (aTrsipov) .gt. The conceptions and goodness are best suited a positive description of it yet even they are of unity . 272). He does not even need himself and cannot be divided from himself. that which Presupposing that the original must be outside the is thought outside the thinker. about its return to the Deity. Moreover.

[ % inadequate for the first merely expresses the denial of plurality. of will. as a partial transference of it into the derivative creature nor can it be conceived as an act . its all being and all nature we know nothing. he says. He has recourse. . and is not connected with any change in it. by its source . &c. it must create everything. rise of what way needful for that being. as it were. it is filled only by virtue of. Hence the derivative is con nected with that from which it has arisen. The is derivative from the original being Yet it is in no said to be a necessity of nature. over. . emanation than a system of dynamic As the earlier in its essence remains . The First But Plotinus cannot succeed principle. is the original force. But as it is raised above everything in its nature and needs nothing external. only the basis to which we must reduce operation but of that it is entirely separate from . so that Plotinus system has less right to be called a system of and supported by. and exists But the creative creation from it. to metaphors. by virtue of its perfection flows. as with the Stoics. therefore. The divinity is. and external to what is created . nor make In so far as the Deity the creation of another its object. its element remains undivided. &c. pantheism. sends forth a is beam from itself. therefore. and strives towards it it has no being which is not created in it . in uniting these determinations in a clear and consistent conception.. except all that is finite and known to us. Creation cannot. and the second implies an operation on something external. be regarded as the communication of the divine nature.330 NEO-FLATONISM. it cannot communicate itself substantially to another.

and everything participates its immediate cause. light into darkness. ttl external to the later. Its object is formed partly by the First (of which. same time the highest The predecessors of Plotinus had already placed being. place. but without time. in the divine thought. complete at every moment. . after Porphyry. by itself. most complete thought can form no adequate and thoroughly uniform picture). gories of the intelligible.PLOT1NUS. the totality of the beings which arise from the original essence forms a series of decreasing perfections. CREATION OF THINGS. the highest being. and content themselves with . five categories of the intelligible These categories. drop (artier is). the ideas. as in the Aristotelian vovs. these cate later Xeo-Platonists. it is a more mere shadow or And as this relation is repeated with every new is what higher through in reproduction. the latter of necessity. the apply to it. these occupy the The thought of the vovs is not discursive. had ascribed reason and Plotinus arrived at . are: from the fixity being. and this decrease goes on till at length being passes into not-being. as being what is however. on his part. 4 the truly existent. is. On the other hand. is vovs. which Plotinus borrowed Sophist of Plato. even tlii^ thought and existent. and difference. But the identity. and intuitive. The first product of the original essence or thought. thought to the Existent. in passing beyond all being and thought nearest in the descent from the first. imperfect than the former: reflection of it. it does not o So far as vovs is apply itself to what is beneath it. movement. which is at the while Plato. the but First. and partly.

without. soul also belongs to the divine supersensuous is itself is life world it contains the ideas. idea . as operative powers or spirits (VOL. the primal beauty. It follows from the perfection of the vovs that it must produce something from itself. but in each other. And as they are not external to each other. which the vovs has in First. itself in contradistinction to it the basis of plurality. In itself indivisible and incorporeal. like the vovs. to Of these ideas one class. against which. in a form of exposition yet more common in Plotinus.332 XEO-PLATONISM. as well as the four categories of the Stoics. these ideas are conceived after Philo. must correspond not only separate being each but to each as the pattern of its individual peculiarity. it it divisible and corporeal. Plotinus had raised many objections. as the phenomenon of the vovs. in the imitation of which all other beauty consists. intermingling. vospal Svvd/ASis). and which he allowed to hold good for the world of phenomena is is only. which gories. it and. [96 the ten Aristotelian categories. called denned more precisely by the cate by Plotinus the unlimited or the In it lies intelligible material. the separates into the and by virtue of which supersensuous numbers or ideas. This as the realm of the ideas is also the realm of the beautiful. But it already stands on the border of that world. however. it leads an eternal life without time. over which yet inclines to the watches according . they are united again in the unity of the intelligible world (/cdajAos VOTJTOS) or Platonic avro^wov. The universal element. and number and and activity. This product is the soul. But at the same time. The .

Plotinus adheres in the first instance to Plato. and extend from which 9-7. But it is also and in this point . it is something without form and definition. and is THE SOUL. when the divine power descends lower. the shadow and mere possibility of being. parts of the world. The sensuous world in contrast to the supersensuous is the region of the divisible and changeable of being which is subject to natural necessity. deprivation. source of this world can only lie in matter . which we must presuppose as the general substratum of all be coming and change. As Plato and Aristotle had already stated. Plotinus* Doctrine of the Phenomenal World. to relations of The space and time. as our soul is united with our body. therefore. its In his view of the world of phenomena and bases. It is the soul beam. like a Hotinus calls nature. yet he finds perception. In itself. and reflection unworthy of it. This which is united with the body of the world.96] PLOTINUS. penia. the result is matter. is its most imperfect manifestation. The first soul sends forth a second from it. The first soul. remembrance. the not-being. But each of these souls produces and com prises a number of separate souls. 333 intermediary in the operations pro ceeding from vovs. If Plotinus : ascribes self-consciousness toil. which are united in it as in their origin. is it to its nature not only in its nature outside the corporeal world does not even work directly upon it. it is not so homogeneous as the vovs. and is without true reality. it to the various In these part-souls the lower limits of the supersensuous world are reached . or the worldsoul.

of the same conditions of the world. is is So far as the world material. for the world at any . [97 and even the in the corporeal Plotinus goes beyond Plato original evil . Plotinus teaches he assumes a periodical recurrence following the Stoics. Hence it is as beautiful and per The contempt which fect as a material world can be. Light must. expresses shadowy copy of the truly real or superYet as it is the soul which creates it and it everything in ideas. but an unconscious creation. At the same time. it matter. it corporeal as its locality. which can only receive it successively. and arranged by numbers the Christian Gnostics showed for nature is repudiated for nature .334 PLOTINUS. the nature of things. the spirit must become matter is . is reason the world is without beginning and end. as with Aristotle. by Plotinus with the true Hellenic feeling and if he does not acknowledge. become darkness . and from the body arises all the evil in the soul. and it is But necessary always a sinking of the soul in therefore regarded as a fall of the soul. it is regarded by Plotinus as a sensuous. from it arises all is evil world. beneath enters into rela By transferring the supersensuous into matter. p. which are concepts (the \6yoi. cf. upon the traits of its origin. a necessary consequence of its nature. by the creative it is cf. But and forms that which tion with it. the soul must create the as the soul illuminates it. p. 333) nevertheless not a will. Yet it is necessary. at the furthest distance from its origin. it creates time as the general form of its own life and the life of the This activity of the soul (or nature. in the end. as the activity is. and for this world. the that evil. 240). aTrspfiari/col.

which rests on the fact that. with the notion that the stars exert a capricious rests is influence on the course of the world distinctly con it troverted by Plotinus. 335 rate. yet the belief in providence as such is maintained by him in connection with the Platonic and Stoic theodicy. THE WORLD. which are also extolled gods. In the universe the heaven is that into which the soul first pours itself. stars. Next to the heaven are the by Plotinus as visible life. they determine the latter with that natural necessity which has its source in the connection and sympathy of the universe. resting will. Plotinus is also connected with the Stoics in his doctrine of the sympathy of all things But while they intended this to mean the (p. and astrological prediction is limited to the knowledge of future events from the . natural connection of cause and effect. or of a presentation of what is below them. on purpose and of the and directed to is details. owing to the universal vitality and animation by it of the world. 242). Exalted above change and temporal and consequently incapable of remembrance. or of capricious action. And it is maintained with the will greater success as his views on the freedom of the and future retribution put him in a position to justify on other grounds precisely those evils which caused the Stoics so much trouble. on the other hand.97] PLOT1NUS. and consequently by all the other parts. on which Astrology. Plotinus means an operation at a distance. everything that affects a part of it is felt by the whole. and the notion of provi dence expressed in him as the natural operation higher on the lower. In it therefore dwells the purest and noblest soul. a providence of the gods.

and yet as the guilt of the soul. without remembrance. inasmuch as it is attracted by an irresistible internal impulse into the body which corresponds to its He finds the peculiar essence of man in his nature. (and even in heaven He regards it descent into a body clothes itself with an ethereal its body) as a necessity of nature. though he interprets them in a psychological manner in his teaching of Eros.336 NEO-PLATONISM. self-consciousness. and this second soul. by its combination with the body. to which. was subject neither to change nor time. though depending on the Like Aristotle. higher nature. Plotinus shares the ideas of his school about these beings. the existent and primal essence. however. in which it. He defends partly in the_hody . reaches down ment. he into the body. merely a repetition of the Platonic. as processes which take place and partly in^rt-and the lower soul. and are merely perceived by the higher. He describes. He ditions of the soul. The space between the stars and the earth is the dwelling-place of the demons. and reflection. a second Ego and a lower soul were added. regards the relation of the soul to the body as the same with the relation of operative force to its instru other. at greater detail and in a more dogmatic tone than Plato. like the souls of the gods. and had a direct intuition in itself of the vovs. in essentials. Yet his anthropology is. Of earthly beings man only has an independent interest for our philosopher. [ 97 natural prognostics. the life which the soul leads in the supersensuous world. attempts to conceive the passionate con and the activities of it which are is related to what sensual.

He includes entrance into the supersensuous bodies of plants in his migration of souls . the retri souls cannot remember bution. unrestrained by any alien element. her highest mission can only be to live ex clusively in that world and liberate herself from all inclination to the sensual. to which it conducts. Plotinus Doctrine of Exaltation into the Supersensuous World. talionis extending to the is formed into a jus most minute details. Freedom is com bined with providence by the remark that virtue is free. according to happiness Plotinus. are again rendered questionable by the fact that the their earthly existence in the world. 98. which. however. Plotinus repeats the Platonic proofs for the immortality of the soul. Further. but her acts are entangled in the connection of the world. Happiness. and this consists in thought. in his view. That this liberation which from sensuality should be brought about by an ascetic z . (/cdOapcris) the immediate result of that the soul. The first condition of it is liberation from the body and from or purification is all . Of external circumstances is. and he repeats the assertion that evil is involuntary. As the soul in her nature belongs to a higher world. Katharsis includes all virtues.97] PLOTINUS. that is connected with it. THE SOUL. 337 the freedom of the will against the Stoic and all other kinds of fatalism in the most vigorous manner . so independent. addresses herself to her special task. but his defence does not go very deep. that no Stoic could express himself more decisively. consists in the perfect life.

governs his entire ethics. suddenly so immediately one with the primal being that all dis1 . stand far higher. but dim traces of truth. They have to do with the truly with ideas and the essence of things. real. satisfy our philosopher. ness. Mediated thought (SiavoLa. [98 of the not universally demanded by Plotinus in spite abstinences which he laid upon himself and to others. Bat this indirect knowledge presupposes a direct. or dialectic. Thus we become filled with the divine light. Even this does not us to the vovs. the self-intuition of the thinking spirit. The ethical and political virtues are only an imperfect compensation for the theoretic. and the vir political tuous man will not withdraw himself from it. recommended In his discussions on Eros he agrees with Plato that even sensuous beauty may But the view that the lead us to the supersensuous.. action is indeed indispensable. Xo7t(7yLt6s-) and its artistic practice. Even these last are Sensuous perception gives us of very unequal value. and makes us dependent on something not ourselves. in a state of unconscious the intuition to remain. and singleness (aTrXwcrts ). and it allows the distinction of the mind and do not reach the highest buried in ourselves and point till we are completely elevated even above thought.338 life is NEO-PLATONISM. combination with the body is the source of all the evil in the soul. and that every activity has a higher value as it brings us into less contact with the world Practical and of senses. which is at the same time an intuition of the divine vovs. but it- entangles us too deeply in the external world. It leads but not beyond it. ecstasy We (eWracrts ).

or a personal in fluence on the course of the world. his own attitude . On the other hand. Among Greek predecessors none had required this transcen dence of thought. he does not find it possible to combine a perception of that which happens on the earth. He pronounces a distinct reproof when anyone (like the Christians) refused to them their appropriate interprets the gods of mythology and their history. his In comparison with this spiritual exaltation to the Deity positive religion has. he makes use of his doctrine usual so caprice. From own ex perience Plotinus was no doubt acquainted with this con which however. prayer. of the sympathy of of all things for a supposed rational of foundation the worship images. it THE SUPERSENSUAL. It is true that he is far removed from taking up a critical attitude in op position to it. But though he laid the foundation on which his successors continued to build in their defence and systematisation of the national religion. prophecy. Besides the Deity in the absolute sense. so as to apply to these deities. with the honours. just as none had placed the Deity above thought. only a sub ordinate importance for Plotinus. his 339 tinction between and us disappears. and magic. He though he does not occupy himself with this subject as many of the Stoics eagerly had done. Further. and every operation of the external on the internal. on the whole. under which he includes every inclination and disinclination. In this Philo alone was his pattern.98] PLOTINUS. with the nature of the gods. his system recognises a number of higher beings which can be regarded partly as visible and partly as invisible gods. can only be transitory. dition.

and died after 301. Porphyry. of Plotinus.D. comparatively free. is [ 98 his ideal sense satisfied the philosopher. tated to speak of three as Amelius had done in . he said. he commented on a good many of Aristotle s works. and first attended Longinus. to must come me . then Plotinus.340 to it is NEO-PLATONISM. is shown in the little that we know clearness. He makes it his task to set forth and explain. This study of Aristotle and the influence of Longinus must have helped him in the effort after clearness in ideas and expression. In his sketch of it (a^op/^al irpos ra VOIJTO. is Malchus) He the learned Porphyry (properly was born 232-3 A. For his own requirements with the inward worship of The gods. 99. Besides some Platonic writings. but he would doubtless have hesi i/ot. thought. without in the rest deviating from the determinations In the vovs he distinguishes being. Among the pupils of Plotinus. and the lesser of his commentaries on this tract are still existing).) sharp distinction he lays the greatest weight on the of the intellectual and corporeal. apparently in Rome. to them. who has just been mentioned. the doctrine of Plotinus. and life . of him to have been a thinker without an intellectual kinsman and admirer of Nu- menius. Far clearer of Tyre. V.. ap. and devoted his attention especially to the Aristotelian logic (his introduction to the categories. it is not I him into who must go The School of Plotinus. Plot. 10. not to examine or systematically develop. Porphyr. Grentilianus Amelius. when Amelius wished to take a temple.

on the other hand. (\6&amp. on which greater stress is is.99] PORPHYRY. only in an improper sense. In like manner. and. to soul with the multiplicity of its activities combine the unity of the and powers. the libera tion of the soul from the body. he says. but beneath the indeed. cidedly than Plotinus. In his anthropology. such as abstinence from flesh. to which he devoted several writings. laid in his ethics than in Plotinus. there is a marked effort. has the forms of all things in itself. He requires the . absence from shows and similar amusements. Yet even he allows the purified soul to look forward to an entire liberation from the irrational liberated condition the is remembrance powers. Purifying virtue above the practical.yos) The soul. so far as we can see. more de as such).lt. without dividing itself among them. influence. 841 regard to a similar distinction. the uni versal soul makes up the essence of the individual souls. placed theoretic or paradeigmatic (which belongs to the vovs For this purification he demands.. But for Por phyry the chief object of philosophy lies in its practical The most salvation of the soul. certain ascetic practices. Porphyry ascribes reason to the animals. in the important feature in this is the purification. according as thought is directed to this or Hence that object it assumes a corresponding form. human souls are not allowed to exalt themselves to a superhuman nature. on which he composed a treatise (jTspl UTTO^JS sfji^rv^wv). but will not extend the migration of souls to the bodies of animals . but in this of the earthly state extinguished along with the desires. he allows the assumption of different parts in the soul. celibacy.

that a pious life and holy thoughts are the best ledges worship. urgy are justified as a means of operating on the lower powers of the soul and nature. the visible gods. On the one Christians hand. the soul. that we might believe that he felt it necessary to repudiate he them all. Even those things which he disapproves of in themselves. Yet this is not his meaning. dationsthe demons. which filled with all the superstitions of his for time and his school. support of positive religion in a greater degree than Plotinus to aid us in the struggle against sensuality. In the remarkable letter to Anebo he raises such considerable doubts about the prevailing ideas of the gods. prophecy. of animals are intermediary agents. It is true that there was much in the faith and worship He acknow of his time which he could not accept. As we must elevate ourselves by the natural gra says. like . no doubt. so that a purification of falsified it from is objectionable is only a restoration of On the other hand. and astrology. he can to its original nature. From this point of view his demonois logy. Magic and the as symbols. provides him with means undertaking the defence of the religion of his people which he supports in his fifteen books against the even against his own doubts. he believes that their religion has been by wicked demons. sacrifices.342 NEO-PLATONISM. the images of gods and sacred animals anything that it and prophecy as an interpretation of natural demons and the souls prognostics. about demons. and the vovs to the First. and the demons. the myths as allegorical explanations of philo justify sophical truth. and alone worthy of the supersensuous gods. in which.

But the the private religion of free from them. he distinguished which stood midway original essence. . multiplication must be a mediate element be and that to which it communicates tween every unity a second unity from the one itself.99] IAMBLICHUS. satisfied with a . He divided the vovs of . 343 in public worship as a blood-offerings.). Against the defects of earthly existence. His On the of the divine. to the Porphyry was chiefly a concession traditional form of faith. becomes in his pupil lam blichus (of Chalcis died about 330 A. But he is far more of a speculative theologian than a philosopher and uncritical as he is. philosopher must remain 100. the central of his scientific activity. He was a learned fluences of the East are deeply felt. he allows to lay means impure spirits. scholar. point was deified by his pupils and the later Neo-Platonists lamblichus did not only (Oslo? is his usual epithet). lamblichus and his School. and in his philosophy the in passed his life there. he prefers to draw his philosophy from the most muddy and recent the sources. of natural necessity. but he appears to have belong to Syria by origin. there principle that inexpressible between it and plurality. For this very reason he What in . he can only find aid oppression to his fantastic thought every among the gods moment in a conception is transferred into an inde need of belief can never be pendent substance. besides many fragments we have writer and a copious five books of his o-vvajcoyrj TMV HvOayopsiwv SoypdTWV.D. an exponent of Platonic and Aristotelian works.

and deities prophecy are defended on grounds in which. in the most contradictory manner. From the first soul lamblichus derived last . and heroes. theurgy. In like manner. he scientific ascribes mathematics. which he shares with his whole able point is most notice his account of nature or destiny . the terrestrial in three classes twelve heavenly gods. Next to these superterrestrial gods stand . he divided the vovs which belonged to them. the In his cosmology. after the pattern of the Neo- Pythagoreans. the intellectual was divided into three triads. and this also was done in a double form. the most irrational super stition is combined with the desire to represent the miraculous as something rational. two others. to which. which are again multiplied to thirty-six.344 NEO-PLATONISM. and forty-two . of natural gods (the numbers appear to be taken to some extent from astrological systems). This . The original forms belong to the intelligible the ideas to the intellectual. triad extended into three triads. much a higher value than to as he prizes the latter. The national can be interpreted into these metaphysical with the usual syncretistic caprice. in spite of its unity. [100 Plotinus into an intelligible (vorjros} and an intellec tual world and the first. which was to exclude all multiplicity. however. besides the eternity of the world. and these to 360 seventy-two orders of subcelestial. from which. demons. In a beings similar manner. of which the apparently became a hebdomad. the worship of images. into a triad. school. This theological speculation is united in lamblichus with speculation in numbers. These are followed by angels.

effort is more strongly marked even psychology the than in Porphyry to keep for the soul her middle posi also superhuman beings. with success and skill. The priests. and the more so because he tion between infrahuman and did not.. owing to his sensual nature. In the treatise On the is Mysteries. are defended. part is the purification of the soul. by which alone it as a fifth withdraws from connection with the sensuous world and dependence on nature and destiny. like Porphyry ascribe reason to the animals. With he contests the transition of human souls Porphyry into the bodies of animals. and which apparently the work of one of his immediate pupils. &c. prophecy. the proposition that we can only attain to the higher by the aid of the lower. and that man. the single (svialat) or man to the primal priestly virtues. liberated In his by the interference of the gods. against 342). at any rate. But at the same time stress is laid on the fact that only divine revelation can instruct us in the means by which we can enter into union with the Deity. theurgy. sacrifices. To Porphyry s four classes of virtues (p.100] IAMLLICHUS. with the aid of Porphyry (p. who are the deposi- . therefore. cannot dispense with these The defence is carried out material intermediaries. The mode of thought of which lamblichus is the most distinct representative dominates the NeoPlatonic school from his time. which is ascribed to him. which elevate a Yet with him also the most necessary essence as such. quite in his spirit. 341) he added. and highest class. so far as 345 he describes this as a power oppressing from the bonds of which he can only be mankind.

and the second obtained influence at ex I. and its is known to us of his more is precise determinations on these beings and degenerates into mere childishness. parts of the supersensuous world.346 taries of this NEO-PLATONISM. Eusebius took a scientific direction. distinguish a second unity. which we owe almost exclusively to Proclus he seems to have preceded the latter in the attempt to carry out a triple arrangement through the The primal being. Other members of this . Among the pupils of lamblichus who are known to us. Of two other pupils of lamblichus. from which he does not. What the world-soul. and a demiurgic. whose death was finally caused by his arrogance and his theurgic arts (about 370 A. appears to have been the most important. In the accounts of him. in which he depends entirely upon Porphyry and lamblichus. bat was afterwards Dexippus is known to us by his explanation of the categories.). p. into which he divided the vovs an intelligible.D.. . court under Constantine ecuted. revelation. which in turn three triads. who also attended Porphyry. is followed by three triads. very formal. an intellectual (being. included life. 340). Then come three souls. of is which the lowest body is nature. who was personally more attractive and over the Emperor Julian for philo estimable. like lamblichus. Among the pupils of JEdesius. : thought. Theodorus of Asine. gained sophy and the older deities. [ 100 stand far higher than the philosophers. but the greatest influence was exercised by Maximus.ZEdesius and Sopater. we only know that the first followed him in the management of the school. or destiny. He and his associate Chrysanthius.

Julian s writings. however. This had never become extinct in the school during the fourth century. an independent advance in the propositions borrowed from lamblichus. Eunapius (p. any more than his friend Sallustius book on the gods. though lost after the time of lamblichus it undeniably ground in influence and importance before theoNow. In Constantinople. was resumed with greater and more lasting eagerness. and brought it to a high state of prosperity. it sophical speculations and theurgy. undertook to restore the Hellenic religion. do not exhibit. finally fell a victim (415) to the If we may draw from the treatises of her pupil Synesius. after the failure of Julian at restoration. he was led to this step by the Neo-Platonist philosophy. . 3J7 circle the famous orator Libanius.). she appears to have taught the Neo-Platonic doctrine in the form in which lamblichus had stated it.100] PUPILS OF IAMBLICIIUS. 13). Sallustius. after his accession (361 A. fanaticism of the Christian rabble. since the school. and When Julian. this conclusion 101. But the attempt must have failed even the early death of its author (363) had not brought to a if it sudden end. are Priscus. found itself in the s attempt position of a sup pressed and persecuted sect. The final application of the Neo-Platonic science was caused by the study of Aristotle. with hopes almost entirely restricted to its scientific activity. so far as they are of a philosophical nature. The School of Athens. The intellectual Hypatia^ who was at the head of the Platonic school at Alexandria. Bishop of Ptolemais (365-415.D..

348 NEO-PLATONISTS. the son of Nestorius. At the same we are told that he had acquired from his father time. who died in 431-2 at a great age. It deals on chiefly with psychology. [ 101 during the second half of the fourth century. Hierocles is known to us by some writings and excerpts.ntire owing to his somewhat he coincides with them in agreement of Aristotle and This school also carried Plato. practically fruitful than to metaphysical speculation. as the leader of the school and an eminent teacher. which he treats carefully the foundation of Aristotle and Plato. stotle Plutarchus explained the writings of Plato and Ari with equal zeal both in writings and in lectures. which imprinted a peculiar stamp on the Neo-Platonism of the fifth and sixth centuries. out that combination of Aristotelism with the theosophy of lamblichus. In his writings we see a philosopher who in general stands on the footing of AT eo-Platonism. But the chief seat of Aristotelian studies was the Platonic school at Athens. and the Christian and the which sprang from it. and propagated all kinds of magical and theurgic arts. the Neo-Platonists If he cannot be counted among superficial eclecticism. Themistius devoted himself to the explanation of the Aristote lian and Platonic writings. but ascribes a far greater value to such doctrines as are city of Alexandria at the the Aristotelian. He taught philosophy in his native same time as Olympiodorus. yet his conviction of the p. The little that we know of his philosophical views does not go beyond the tradition of his school. Mohammedan philosophy About the beginning of the fifth century we meet with the Athenian Plutarchus. . Of his pupils.

) that it partly remained in itself. at the head of which stands the demiurge. partly returned to actual things. distinguished with lamblichus the intelligible and the intellectual. this speculation carried on by Syrianus. itself. and from Proclus. Aristotle.. Of other views. The favourite object of his speculation is But in theology. the collaborator and successor of Plutarch. who later writers. and partly came forth from itself. he remarked (according to however. besides Plato. and &amp. and the supposed Chaldsean divine utterances. which is without opposites.PLUTARCH. he primarily derives with the NeoPythagoreans the unit and the indefinite as 1 authorities. metaphysics. In Tim. ideas were thought to have originally existed as the primary forms or unified numbers in the intelligible. applying this him. distinction. single So far as we know it from specimen which is a part of his commentary on Arist. 207 to the totality of &amp. The more eagerly was 349 His pupil Theosebius followed in a similar direction. . are the whom he places far below scientific far duality the most universal causes of In the vovs he things. But his guiding Neo-Pythagorean and Orphic writings. The and afterwards in a derivative manner in the intelligence of the demiurge. if it really belongs to without. From the One. SYRIANUS. With regard to the soul. who was a fellow-citizen and pupil of Hierocles. is so highly praised by Proclus and was at the same time an accurate scholar and eager exponent of Aristotle. Schol. In Tint&um. This Platonist. we may mention that immaterial the he maintained in regard to 1 bodies that the left. in 837 ff. completeness his treatment of the subject is behind that of Proclus.

778 f. who taught at Alex andria. and that the souls continued after death in their ethereal bodies.D. cf.. iii. d. and his fruitful work as a teacher and a writer. last.350 NEO-PLATONISM. . is of little importance. 214 Freudenthal in Hermes. 1 Proclus is as distinguished among the Stoics. and with the lower for a time. He shared in the religious faith enthusiasm of his school. b. in their and their superstition. ascetic among the But he was Platonists as Chrysippus at the same time an and a believer in theurgy. Proclus. who thought that he received revelations. his learning.D. f. in their regard for Orphic poems. he does not appear to have differed from the traditions of his school. was the successor of the in Constantinople in and Syrianus. of which only a part has been Phil. This system. and the like. Besides twentieth year. preserved. in its formal completeness. may be compared 1 On the writings of Proclus. and in the absence of any really scientific foundation and treatment. his mastery in logic. [ 101 they could occupy the same space with others. his systematic spirit. and could never have enough of religious exercises. xvi. in the inward want of freedom of thought from which it arose. the rest. Gr. came to Athens in his and there died in 485 A. for ever united with the higher of the irrational For powers of life. him his fellow-pupil Hermias. work up into a single methodical system the whole mass of theological and philosophical tenets handed down by his predecessors. ChalHe now undertook to daean oracles. Of the pupils of Plutarchus the Lycian. By his iron industry. He was born 410 A.




as a Hellenic pattern with the systems of the Christian

and Mohammedan scholastics. The prevailing law, which this system is constructed, is that of upon
is, on the one hand, similar to that which produces it, for one can only produce the other by communicating itself to it. On the other hand, it differs from it as what is divided from unity, as the derivative from the


The thing produced


In the




remains in



and the cause, though only incompletely, in it in the But inasmuch as second, it proceeds out of the cause. it clings to it, and is related to it, it turns to it in
spite of the separation, seeks to imitate it on a lower


and unite with
in that



existence of
it, its



produced it, and its return to

which produces

emergence from

(JUOVTJ, Tr/oo oSos , sTriarpocj)!))

the three moments, by the continued repetition of which the totality of things is developed from their origin. The final source of this development can naturally be

nothing but the original essence, which Proclus de scribes after Plotinus as absolutely elevated above all being and knowledge, as higher than the unit, as a
cause without being the cause, as neither being nor But between this first and the intel not-being, &c.
ligible he inserts with lamblichus (p. 344) an inter the absolute unities mediary member (avrorsXsls which form the single, supernal number, but kvdSes)

which are at the same time denoted as the highest gods, and in that capacity receive predicates which are
far too personal for their abstract nature.



comes the province which Plotinus allotted to the vovs.




Proclus, partly following lamblichus and Theodorus (p. 344), divides this into three spheres the intelligible,

the intellectual-intelligible (VOTJTOV a^a KOI voepov), and the intellectual. The chief property of the first is
of the second, life ; of the third, thought. Of ; these spheres the two first are again divided into three


triads each,

somewhat on the same

principles of divi

divided into seven hebdomads, and members of each series are regarded the separate at the same time as gods and identified with one
of the
deities of the


national religion.



the conception is defined as in Plotinus, divine, de comprises three classes of part-souls and human. The divine are divided into three monic,
of which




the four triads of hegemonic gods, an equal of gods free from the world (aTroXfrot) and

the gods within the world, which are divided into stargods and elementary gods. In interpreting the national

gods in reference to this system, Proclus finds it necessary to assume a triple Zeus, a double Kore, and a The demons are connected with triple Athene.



are divided

more precisely into angel?

demons, and heroes, and described in the ordinary way with a large admixture of superstition. Nex to them come the souls which enter temporarily
into material bodies.

Plotinus had allowed matter to

be created by the soul ; Proclus derives it immediately from the unlimited, which with him, in combination with the limited and the mixed, forms the first of the As to its nature, it is not with him intelligible triads.

but neither good nor


His cosmological




ideas agree in all that is essential with those of Plotinus, except that he regards space as a body consisting

of the finest light, which body penetrates that of the

Like Plotinus, he undertakes (cf. Syrian, p. 349). the defence of Providence, on account of the evil in the

He joins him and Syrianus in his assumptions world. about the descent and the future fortunes of the soul.
In his psychology he combines Platonic and Aristotelian determinations, but increases the number of the soul s
capacities by dividing the principle of unity or divinity in men from thought or reason. This element is higher

than the others, and by it only can the divine be known. His ethics require an elevation to the supersensuous,
ascending by degrees through the five classes of virtues (which we found in lamblichus, p. 345). With him also
the final object of this elevation is the mystic union with the Deity. But the more firmly he is convinced

and that

higher knowledge rests on divine illumination, it is faith alone which unites us with the

Deity, the less

religious helps to

he inclined to abandon all those which the Neo-Platonic school since

lamblichus had ascribed so high a value, and the efficiency of which Proclus also defends on traditional

His explanations grounds. conceived in the same spirit.



are naturally

In the hands of Proclus the Neo-Platonic doctrine
received the final form in which
posterity. tatives after


with him in

it was handed down to had some eminent represen his time, but none who can be compared scientific power and influence. His pupil


Ammonius, the son



(p. 350),

who taught A A






Alexandria for a considerable time, as it seems, and enjoyed a great reputation, was an excellent exponent
of the Platonic, and even

more so of the Aristotelian, and a great proficient in the mathematical writings, sciences. But we do not find in him any independent
views of importance.




Asclepiodotus, whom Simplicius calls the best pupil of Proclus,

an eminent mathematician and physicist, appears to have been distinguished from the majority of his party

by a jejune mode of thought, inclined to theological extravagances and theurgic practices. Marinus, the


biographer of Proclus and his successor in the manage of the school, was of little importance ; his suc

cessor, the Isidorus


Damascius admired



ap. Phot. Cod. 181. 242), was a confused theosophist in the style of lamblichus. Of Hegias, another

pupil of Proclus who followed Isidorus, we know no more than of other pupils whose names are handed down
to us.

Damascius, the pupil of Marinus, Ammonius,

and Isidorus, who was head of the school at Athens about 520-530 A.D., an admirer and intellectual kinsman of lamblichus, endeavours in vain in his work on the ultimate sources (Trspl ap^wv ) to find the means of

of the inconceiv transition from the primal essence to of which he cannot speak strongly enough ability the intelligible by the insertion of a second and third

In the end he finds himself forced to the unity. confession that we cannot properly speak of an origin of the lower from the higher, but only of one uniform,




by Kopp.


edited in his other

writings, see 838. 7.









Simplicius belongs to the last heathen generation of Neo-Platonists. He was a pupil of Ammonius and Damascius, and his commentaries on They several of Aristotle s works are invaluable to us.

undistinguished being.

are evidence, not only of the learning, but of the clear ness of thought of their author, but they never go

To tradition. beyond the limits of the Neo-Platonic and the younger the same generation belong Asclepius of Ammonius, of whom we Olympiodorus, two pupils
have commentaries, and






Eoman Empire, philosophy could

not long



In the year of the Platonic school taught in Athens. The property was confiscated. Damascius, with six associates, among whom was emigrated to Persia, from whence

independently of the victorious Church. 529 A.D. Justinian forbade philosophy to be

he soon returned undeceived.

Shortly after the middle

of the sixth century the last of the Platonists who did not enter the Christian Church seem to have died out.

on the Olympiodorus composed his commentary A.D. teorology after 564



In the western half of the Eoman Empire, XeoPlatonism appears to have been propagated only in the it received from Plotinus simpler and purer form which

and Porphyry. Traces of its existence are perhaps to be found in the logical works and translations of
Marius Victorinus (about 350), of Vegetius (Vectius,
Vettius) Praetextatus (died, apparently, 387), Albinus, so far as we know anything of him, and in the ency

clopedic work of Marcianus Capella (350-400). More in Augustine (353-430), and distinctly do they appear
A A 2




the two Platonists Macrobius (about 400) and Chalcidius (in the fifth century). The last representative


philosophy here is the noble Anicius Severinus Boethius, who was born about 480, and executed at the command of Theodoric in 525. Although he belonged outwardly to the Christian


Church, his real religion was philosophy.
a follower of Plato

In this he



Aristotle, who, in his view,

completely agree. His Platonism has a Neo-Platonic hue. But in his philosophic Consolation the influ ence of the Stoic morality cannot fail to be recognised.

295 Adrastus, 295 JSdesius, 346 ^Elius Stilo, 277 ^rnilius Paulus, 275 ^nesidemus, 301 ff.





Anaximander, 39-41 Anaximenes, 41 ff.
Anchipylus, 117 Andronicus, 14, 172, 178 282 Anebo, 342 Anniceris the elder, 127 -the younger, 122, 126

^schines the Socratic, 114 JEschines the Academician, 280
Aetius, 8

Agrippa, 302 Academy, the old, 165 the new, 269 ff.







Antigonus of Carystus, 10 Antiochus Epiphanes, 317 of Ascalon, 280 the Sceptic, 302 Antipater the Cyrenaic, 122 the Stoic, 231, 251 Antisthenes the Socratic, 117121 the Rhodian, 10, 226 Antoninus, M. Aurelius, 292
255, 287

Acusilaus, 25

Albinus the older, 297 ff., 314 the younger, 355 Alcidamas, 92 Alcinous, 298 note Alcmoeon, 57 Alexander the Great, 171 of JEgae, 295 of Aphrodisias, 296 ff., 14 Polyhistor, 11, 306, 309 Alexinus, 115 Amatinius, 256 Amelius, 340 Ammonius, Plutarch s teacher,


Any t us, 112
Apellicon, 179 Apollodorus the chronologer, 11 the Stoic, 278 the Epicurean, 11, 256 Apollonius the Stoic, 11 of Tyana, 12, 307, 310 Apuleius, 297, 314 Aratus, 230 Arcesilaus, 169, 269 Archedemus, 231, 240 Archelaus, 88, 101 Archytas, 49, 128, 307 Arete, 122 Aristarchus, 255 Aristippus the elder, 122 ff.


Saccas, 327 son of Hermias, 353 Anacharsis, 27 Anaxagoras, 8<?-88, 36, 101 Anaxarchus, 83

Aristippus the younger, 122 the Academician, 11 Aristo, Plato s father, 126
of Ceos, 226 f of Chios, 230, 233, 247, 249 later Peripatetic, 283

Cato, 279 Cebes, 114 Celsus, Corn., 286 the Platonist, 298, 314


Aristobulus, 319
Aristocles, 12, 296 Aristophanes of Byzantium, 13,

Aristotle, 8, 21, 30 ff., 86, 103, 129, 163, 170 ff. 260, 307

Aristoxenus, 10, 224
Aristus, 282

Arius Didymus,
Arrianus, 291 Artemon, 178


279, 282, 307

Chseremon, 287 Chaignet, 46 note, 126 note Chalcidius, 356 Chamseleon, 225 Channidas, 280 Charondas, 306 Chilon, 27 Chrysanthius, 346 Chrysippus, 230, 235 ff. Cicero, 8, 284 f. Cleanthes, 11, 13, 230, 245 Clearchus, 10, 225 Cleinias, 49


Asclepiades, 276 Asclepiodotus, 354 Asclepius, 355 Aspasius, 295
Ast, 130 note, 132 Athenodori, the two, 279 Atomists, 76 ff. Attains, 287 Atticns, 298 Augustin, 8, 9

Clemens Alex.
Cleobulus, 27



Cleomedes, 287 Cleomenes, 230 Clitomachus, 8, Clytus, 225 Colotes, 256 Cornutus, 287
Cousin, 16 Crantor, 13, 169

11, 271,



256 Bernays, 61 note 2, 66 note, 177 note 1, 220 Bias, 27 Boeckh, 15, 45 note 2 Boe thms, 356 Boethus the Stoic, 277 the Peripatetic, 286 Bonitz, 174 note Brandis, 16 Bracker, 14 By water, 66 note


Crates the Cynic, 118, 121 the Academician, 169 the New Academician, 273

Cratippus, 283 Cratylus, 71, 126 Creuzer, 328 note
Critias, 92,


Critolaus, 226

Cronius, 297 Cynics, 117 ff. 293


Cyrenaics, 122

ff .

96 Callimachus, 10 Callippus, 199 Callisthenes, 171, 225 Carneades, 271-275





13, 355 Dardanus, 278 Demetrius of Phalerum, 225 the 258 - the Epicurean, Cynic, 294

the Magnesian, 11

71 Epicharmus. 15 297. 199 Euemerus. 11. 13 Hegias. 58 Elian School. 225 15 Favorinus. Gallienus. 91 Hegesias. 21. 117. 359 HER Euphrates. DEM Democritus. 19 Gorgias. 91. Jj 57. 304 Figulus. 126 note. 286 - Laertius. 170 . 9. 122. 95 Dio of Syracuse. 17 Heitz. 57 TTARPOCRATION. 275 Freudenthal. 278 Hegel. 299 Diodes. 36. 11. 226 Essenes. 256 Hermes Trismegistus. 11 Diodorus Cronus. 128 Chrysostom. 233 the Stoic. 270 Evenus. 311 Eudoxus. 104 Domitian. 31. 49 Eusebius. 5. 114 Euclid. 16. 279 T1CPHANTUS. Galenus. 17. 17 Eretrian school. 9. 66. 12 Dionysius the tyrant. 76 note. 122 Eunapius. 92 92. 88 Eurytus. 76 note. 13 Eudorus. 249 Hermann. 299 Geminus. 168 . 223 ff. 291 ff. 43 the Democritean. 231. 315 Henuias of Atarneus.the Peripatetic. 9. 116 . 177 note 9 Euthydemus. 83 the Cynic. 298 note Fulleborn. 36. 328 Gellius. Eleatic school. 91. 31. 230. 256 ff. 7 8. 120 ff. 25 Epiphanius. the Xeo-Platonist. 127 Eudemus. 298 GAIUS. 92. 300 Heracleitus of Ephesus. Epicureans. 287 Euripides. 346 Dicicarchus. 33.Lembus. 12. 279 the Epicurean. 354 Heinze. 255 Epimenides. 287 Herillus. Dexippus. 8. 125 Hegesinus (-silaus). 114. 115. 126 note. 128 the Stoic. 17. 169 ff. 346 of Cresarea. ~ Epictetus. 76 Demonax. 270 Erdmann. 317 ff. 251 II ff. 165. 36. 298. 10. 132 Hermarchus. 131 Empedocles. Hecato. 8. Eudocia. 232. 226 Diogenes of Apollonia. 7. 10 the Sceptic. 282. Epicurus. See Nigidius Flamininus. 9 Eratosthenes. Grote. 127 the younger. 294 Dercyllides.INDEX. Dionysodorus. PAPIEIUS. 224 Diels. 178 Heracleides Ponticus. 168. 91 ff. 291 Duris. FABIANUS Fabricius. Evander. 69. 10. 117 Erymneus. 255 ff. Gladisch. 14. 14 ff. 95 Dissen. 117 ff. Eubulides.

43 Maximus Marsilius Ficinus. 343 ff. HER Hermias the Neo-Platonist. JU Lgelius. 307. Krohn. 117 the Cynic. 36. 134 KARSTEN. 8. 280 Meyer. 172 note Hicetas. Lewes. 17 Hipparchia. 69 Leo. 299 Lucretius. 10 Hennotimus. 9 MOS T ACYDES. 225 Hippo. 12 Hippolytus. 319 Longinus. 10. 118 Meno. 84 Herodotus the historian. 279 Ichthyas. 355 of Eretria. 39 note Lyco. 225 Menodotus. opponent of Socrates. 350 the Christian. 231 note Hody. 12. 112 Melissus. 302 Hesiod. 56 Hippias.. 98 Lange. 328 note of Tyre. 118 the Academician. 346J - Idomeneus. 76 f. 319 Hypatia. 43 Hippobotus. 354 Capella. 347 Lobeck. 88 the Epicurean. 348 Hieronymus the Rhodian. 48 the Sceptic. 92 Lysis. 256 Lutze. 170 Megarians. 117 . 112 the Pythagorean. 226 Herinodorus. 66 note. 295 Hermippus. of Stratonice. 13. 17 Libanius. 71 Metrodorus of Chios.INDEX. 226 Hildenbrand. See Antoninus TAMBLICHUS. J. 256 1 58 note. 92. Jason. 287 Lucianus. 114 Idasus. 49 356 MACROBIUS. Marcianus Marinus. 347 Leucippus. 355 Marcus Aurelius. 172. 165. B. 297. jL 8. 8 Justinian. 25 Hestiseus. Menedemus Juba. 81 note.. 114-117 Meiners. 17. 35. 327 Lucanus. 61 note 328 note Kirclmer. 328 note 354 note Kopp. 1 4 Ionic Philosophers. 169 Hesychius. 83 the Anaxagorean. 310 Moschus. 10 the Peripatetic. 65 ff. 9 Hirzel. 9 Isidorus. 11. 57 Hierocles. 270 277 Herminus. 166 Menippus. 226 Lycophron. 203 note Mnesarchus. 37-45 Irenaeus. 314 the Neo-Platonist. 13. 15 Meletus. 302 Meton. 354 Isocrates. 278 Moderatus. 307 Julian. 17 Lassalle. 96. 347 Justin. 118 Hippasus. 256 Johannes Philoponus. Kirchhoff.

Plutarch of Chasronea.. 253 Myson. note. 45 note 2. 294 (Enomaus. 255 ll Neo-Platonists. Pansetius. Pyrrho. Priscus. 307 Nigrinus. 130 note. 255 83. 179 Neocles. Pythagoreans. Philodemus. 21. 95. 133 Musonius Rufus. 347 Proclus. 327 the Father. 12. . 179.. 307. 96 Polyamus. 230 Persius. 45 ff. 32.INDEX. 10. Potamo. 14. 175 Philolaus. 282 ff. 104. 320 ff. 171 of Opus. 309 OCELLUS. 326 ff. 222 ff. 297 Plato. 297. c61 PYT Phaedo. 83 Neuhiiuser. 282 Prantl. 131. 340 ff. 101 Phanias. Pythias. 115. 171. 11. Prodicus. 295 ff. 32. 256 Proxenus. 97. 8. 9. 8. 91. 255 11. 58 note. 92. 294 Periander. 348 the younger. - Nigidius Figulus. 96. 10. 8. of Athens. &c. 10 Neleus. 290 Polus. 283 Nicomachus the Stagirite. 199. 10. 97 Protagoras. 131 Origen the Platonist. 92. 306 ff. 45 ff. 86. 297. 310 the Jew. 253 note. 307. 17 114. 8. 300 f. 61 note. 27 note. 256 ff. 126-169. 116 of Larissa.. 17 Praxiphanes. 165. L T)AMPHILUS. 115 Patro. 27 Pericles. 8. 287 Protarchus the Rhetorician. 32. 96. 256 Phasnarete. Posidonius. 122. 226 Photius. 84 Perictione. 307 Phocylides. 170 Prytanis. Plotinus. Neanthes. 290 Pherecydes. 35. 8 Orphic theogony. 12. Nessus. 173 the Sceptic. 92 the Epicurean. Perseus. 348 Numenius. ff. King. 60 Pasicles. 169 Pollio. 126 Peripatetics. 14. 25 Philip. 168 Philo the Megarian. 225 Preller. 328 ff. Neo-Pythagoreans. 256 Porphyrius. 214 ff. 225 328 note Mullach. 256 Polystratus. MUL Miiller.. 350 ff. 30. 65 F. 170 . H. Munk. 279 Parmenides. 226 Ptolemaeus the Peripatetic. 39 note Nicolaus of Damascus. 8. Olympiodorus the elder. 98 Peregrinus Proteus. 117 Phaedrus. 49 Philostratus. 7 Pittacus. 314 306. 27 ff. 311 ff. 268 f Pythagoras. 18. 170 of Gerasa. 280 \TATJSIPHANES. 355 Oncken. 275. 27 Phormio. 25 Polemo. 278 f.

115.. 84 note 1 130 Susemihl. A. 297 Theo of Smyrna. 229 ff. 114 Simplicius. 294 Themistius. 8. 295 of Alexandria. 32.. 179. 126 -note. 25. 88 ff. 96.. 8. 29. 16. 288 if. L. 17 Simmias. 69. 15. 55. 244. 174 note Scipio jEmilianus. 10. 268 later. note Rose. 130 note Stilpo.later . - Suidas. INDEX. 10. kJ 347 Salonina. 7.362 BIB . 328 Sarpedon. 346 Theogonies. 303 Siebeck. 100. 72 note. TYR Stallbaum. 14 Siro. 27 Sopater. 107. 300 ff. the. J. 226 Peripatetic. 1 1 5 131 Richter. 41. 8 Thales. note 2 Telecles. Teichmtiller. Strabo. 230. 254. 37. 84 note 1 Schuster. 14. 314 Theodas (Theudas). Schaarschmidt. 268 Tubero. 282 Theophrastus. 286 Speusippus. older. 179. 46 note Rohde. 76. 301 Tyrannio. 295 Sotion the Peripatetic. 301 Saturninus. 8 Theodoras the Atheist. 276 ff. 165 Sphaerus. 19. 72 note Suckow.. 104. 126 note. 130 note. if. 130 note. 347 Syrianus. 130 note Steinhart. 279 Strato. 8. Severus. later. 287 ff. 130 note Synesius. 231 66 note. 122. 11. 25. Wisdom of. 277 Sceptics. 286 Sextus Empiricus. 15 Tertullian. 8 QALLUSTIUS. 10. 302 Theodoretus. 132. 270 Teles. 177 note Stobasus. 101 Sosicrates. 15 Timreus the Locrian. 282 Sosigenes. 328 note Ritter. 297. 277 Seneca. 101 E Solomon. 346 Sophists. 132 Socrates. 130 note Stoics. 275. 226 Scsevola. 319 Solon. 304 Satyrus. 17 Schorn. 283 Stein. 40 note 1 Roth. 11 297 TAURUS. 61 note 1. 132 Schmidt. 125 of Asine. 26 Theomnestus. 45 note Schaubach. 222 Theosebius. von. 308 Timon. 27. 92. 153 Tennemann.. 66 note Schwegier. 302. 282 Meo-arian Thrasymachus the 115 the Rhetorician. 131 Sturz. 349 Thrasyllus. 13 2. 254 . 122. 37 Theag-enes. 16. 98 Tiedemann. 66 note. 17. 225 Striimpell. 31. 130 note Staseas. 137 Sophroniscus. 299 Sextii. 349 Schleiermacher. 29. 256 Socher.

307 Vatke. 355 Victorinus. VV 18 Winckelmai Winckelmann. 10. 277 the Epicurean. Xenophon.. 61 note Vegetius. 113 ff. 104. 276 YTrAOHSMUTH. 93 A 319 YALCKENAER. 233 ff.INDEX. 130 note Usener. 285. 355 Xenocrates. 306 Zeno of Elea. 294 Vatinius. the Gnostic. 92. 303 Ziegler. 17 PRINTED BY SrOTTISWOODE AND CO. 166 Xenophanes. NEW-STREET SQUARE LONDON . 165. U 17. 256. 63 of Citium. 58 ff. 303 Zeuxis. 133 102 Xeriarchus. 283 Xeniades. 231. 117 note Zeuxippus. of Tarsus. Valentinus V 315 Varro. LI 7ALEUCUS. TTEB 363 ZIE TTEBERWEG. 10.


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Sduard Outlines of the history of Greek philosophy PLEASE SLIPS DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS POCKET N/ UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .NG DCPT JUN 22 1959 3 Z513 1336 Zeller.

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