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GKEEK PHILOSOPHY

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OUTLINES OF THE HISTOEY
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GBEEK PHILOSOPHY
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D R EDWARD ZELLER

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SARAH FRANCES ALLEYNE

ANM,

EVELYN ABBOTT

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IN MEMOEIAM SARAH VRANCES ALLEYNE .

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and save the time wasted in writing down facts. FOR some years it has been my intention to respond to a request arising from various quarters. which should put into their hands the more important literary references and But as in the last points I have not gone sources. and the course of their historical development. or in . without interfering with the lecturer s work or imposing any fetters upon it. which would facilitate preparation. My object has been primarily to provide students with a help for academical lectures. contain all the essential traits and also to beyond what is absolutely necessary.AUTHOB S PEEFACE. and add to my larger work on the Philosophy of the Greeks a short sketch of the same subject. Hence I have made it my task to give my readers a pic ture of the contents of the philosophical systems. so in the historical account I have as a rule indicated the parts very briefly with which historical considerations of a general kind or special explanations and inquiries are connected. But until the third edition of the History was brought to a conclusion I had not the will leisure for the work. Sketches of this kind proceed on different lines according to the aim which is held in view.

as if who the historical material or they are is given in too great abun titles dance. it is my opinion that intention if every scientific exposition must set out with an It is highly objectionable accurately defined aim.viii AUTHORS PREFACE. that an author should constantly strive after other ends than that which is the main purpose of his book. it which seemed proper to supplement my earlier work. 1883. but more in selection. I am well aware that manuals may very properly be constructed on a different plan from mine. At the same time. or a chrestomathy strict on the plan of Preller. but consult the sources and the more comprehensive works upon them. furnished with the necessary hints on the value and contents of the various A works. for instance. trustworthy bibliography. would be very be against valuable aids in instruction. Nor will it my the present work finds readers beyond its immediate object. THE AUTHOR. .) first found in sections 3 and My outlines are intended in the a rule place for form the majority of an beginners. But these are rather confused than assisted audience. Anyone who wishes to study the history of philosophy or any part of it more minutely. in some detail. will be 4. Nevertheless. must not content himself with a compendium. overwhelmed with the of books of which they will only see a very small portion. (An addition of the latter kind. BERLIN : September 27.

TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. It was also her intention. whose manuscripts were entrusted to me. The Pre-Socratic Philosophy/ and in 1883 by The Eclec tics. she died.lt. London.lt. had a deep interest for . I am responsible. Plato and History of Philosophy with the the Older Academy. The excellence of her work has received universal It recognition. was a labour of love. This was followed in 1881 by the two volumes of &amp. and for the revision of the whole. For the remainder. volume of the and in the full But in the prime of vigour of her powers. 90. and their efforts to conceive the world in which t iey lived. Goodwin. when the present work was ended. published in 1876 in conjunction with Prof. is the work of the Miss Alleyne. OF the following pages. to translate the History. of University College. 1884.lt. down to the late practical life on p. The theories of the Greek Philosophers. after a month s illness. August 16. series of translations of &amp. the words * first part. Miss Alleyne began her Zeller s &amp. last life.

themselves not caring to be known. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. her writings would not have been understood who cherish her memory as a great posses and feel that they have lost a friend never to be replaced. before she could be satisfied with Hence the excel But though her were of an uncommon order. in the dry light of Heracleitus. EVELYN ABBOTT. not merely words or opinions. An inward sympathy with them gave her an in meaning of speculations which by many idle vagaries . she perceived a begin ning or foreshadowing of modern thought. 1885. sight into the are deemed To her they were steps or stages in the progress of the human mind. and would turn a sentence three or four times it.x her. BALLIOL COLLEGE. She knew the value of accuracy. There are many by whom sion. and was at great She had also a keen sense of literary pains to secure it. She was one of those who live for others. For lence of her work as a translator. style. Plato was 4 one of the books she would have taken with her to a desert island. OXFOBD November 10. she united with rare intellectual gifts a truly noble and womanly character. : . In the being of Parmenides. to those literary powers who were personally acquainted with her they form only a small part of her claim to remembrance.

2. 5. 9. 10. THE PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. THE ANCIENT IONIANS. Native sources of Greek philosophy 21 The development of Greek thought before the sixth cen 24 . 7. Its B. PAGR 1 3. Origin of Greek philosophy. 1. Thales Anaximander . METHODOLOGIC AND LITERARY. THE THEEE EAELIEST SCHOOLS A.C Character and development of Greek philosophy 28 FIRST PERIOD. Modern aids . The history of philosophy Greek philosophy Original sources. 37 . SECT. The history ancients 5 of philosophy among the 7 4. 3i) . INTRODUCTION.14 HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 8. 11. A. . tury B.CONTENTS. Course of its development 35 I. supposed derivation from 18 the East 6.

method 103 107 . and personality of Socrates The philosophy of Socrates. The Pythagorean system 14. 31. 33. Heracleitus 23. PLATO. The Pythagorean physics Eeligious and ethical doctrines of the Pythagoreans Pythagoreanism in combination with other doctrines C. SOCRATES. Life 32. 34.C. Diogenes . 30. 17. 45 : Pythagoras and his school 15. The nature of the Socratic teaching The death of Socrates . . Introduction I. 28. number and the elements of number 16. 43 THE PYTHAGOREANS. 60 63 B. 99 SOCEATES. . Anaximenes 41 13. and character of Sophisticism Eminent Sophistical teachers The Sophistical scepticism and Eristic The Sophistic ethics and rhetoric . THE SOPHISTS. . 101 principle. 12. The sources. ARISTOTLE. Origin 27. 21. PACJK SECT. 55 56 . 24. THE ELEATICS. 50 52 . 58 19. Xenophanes Parmenides Zeno and Melissus II. 76 83 25. 18. 29. 26. Later adherents of the ancient Ionian school.xii CONTENTS.112 . B. 88 91 . THE PHYSICISTS OF THE FIFTH CENTUKY 22.92 95 SECOND PERIOD. 66 71 Empedocles The atomistic school Anaxagoras III. 20. .

172 . . .114 117 122 PLATO AND THE OLDER ACADEMY. 62.181 . Plato s writings 41. .. . Plato s ethics 48. 150 152 154 158 . . Plato s physics. . Man The The ethics of Aristotle 61. The character.. 37. matter. The The The The school of Socrates Xenophon Megarean and the Elean-Eretrian schools PAGE 113 Cynic school Cyrenaic school III. 179 . . . Aristotle s physics. 56. The philosophy of Aristotle. Aristotle s 57. The Laws 163 . . The universe and its parts 46. : SECT 35. . and divisions of system the Platonic 134 . 36. method. . . .. 136 140 145 45. . The life of Plato 40. . The old Academy .161 . . 126 128 39. and art The later form of the Platonic doctrine. .. .197 . Aristotle s writings 54. 52. Plato s politics 49. 53.. The Aristotelian logic Introductory . .213 . . . . Plato s views on religion 50. Attitude of Aristotle to religion . 58.. 38. Dialectic. . The Peripatetic school 219 222 . .CONTENTS.. . 55.. 60.165 IV. . Khetoric 64.. II. xiii THE SMALLER SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. Plato s anthropology 47. . Aristotle ARISTOTLE AND THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL... metaphysics Point of view and general principles its The universe and Living beings parts 59. .. or the doctrine of ideas 42. 187 194 201 204 209 . 63. politics of Aristotle and Art. The propaedeutic foundation 44. 170 . . 51. of the Platonic philosophy 43. and the world-soul . s life ..

. 250 THE EPICUKEAN PHILOSOPHY.231 Character and divisions of the Stoic system 234 The Stoic logic 238 The Stoic physics the ultimate bases and the universe 243 Nature and man 244 The Stoic ethics their general traits Continuation. 69. 74.. Boethus. Pyrrho and the Pyrrhonians The New Academy SECOND SECTION. Its origin 80. SCEPTICISM. 255 257 259 264 SCEPTICISM.. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. THIRD PERIOD.C The Peripatetic school . THE STOIC PHILOSOPHY. 67. .. Epicurus and his school The Epicurean system. Applied morals. 72. . 68. . . Introduction PAGE 228 FIKST SECTION. 73. ECLECTICISM.C. and character . 66.. 274 276 279 282 The Stoics. 71. . 81. 268 269 77. Posidonius The Academicians of the last century B. . RENEWED I. I. EPICUREANISM. . 76. STOICISM. The relation of Stoicism . The Canonic The physics of Epicurus. 75. 70. Panastius. .XIV CONTENTS. The gods The ethics of Epicurus III. . . . 79. . ECLECTICISM. . . 82. 78. SCEPTICISM. THE POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY. 65. to religion II. 229 The Stoic school in the third and second centuries B. .. . SECT.

. Varro. ^Cnesidemus and his school III. .gt.. . NEO. The Stoic school The later nics The Peripatetic school in the Christian period The Platonists of the first century A. . 98. lamblichus 101. Plotinus doctrine of elevation into the supersensuous world 337 99. 86. . and Galen C&amp. xv PAGE 284 . Lucian.Pythagoreans The Pythagorising Platonists II. and his school . 83. . Cicero. The period before Philo Alexandria 94. 92. THE JEWISH GREEK PHILOSOPHY. The supersensuous world .D Dio. . . 95. 300 THE PRECURSORS OP NEO-PLATONISM. Introduction THE PURELY GREEK SCHOOLS.. . . . . Plotinus doctrine of the phenomenal world Porphyrius .CONTENTS. SCEPTICS.. Philo of 316 320 THIRD SECTION. Origin. SECT. . The system of Plotinus. THE LATER . 97. 286 293 295 297 299 II. 89. 93. 87. The school The school of Plotinus. . 100. the Sextians . . The first centuries A.. 84. 326 328 333 . 340 343 347 of Athens INDEX 357 . 90. 305 I.D. The Neo. . 88. character. . . and development of Neo-Platonism 96.. 306 311 91. 85..PL A TONISM. .

for Zeigler read Ziegler. for read incidents. 136. for mystic read mythic. for Hildebrand read Hildenbrand. 8 1 from top. 83.Errata. 13 from top. from foot. line 5 6 from foot. from 50 read . 51. 62. for advantages top. Page 17.

and in how they undertook to solve them . METHODOLOGIC AND LITEKAEY. But they are so only to the them.OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. themselves with greater they wholes. thought subdued wider domains and found new statements of questions neces and how out of the sary. The history of philosophy must point out by what causes the human spirit was led to philosophic in quiry . The History of Philosophy. with interdependent series of development. A. and new answers to them . progress of time. in what form men first became conscious of its to extent that connect problems. of philosophy is to investigate scienti the ultimate bases of fically Knowledge and Being. 1. multifarious repetition of this process arose all the B 9 . INTRODUCTION. how. and THE problem comprehend all Eeality in its interconnection with The attempts at the solution of this problem form the subject-matter with which the history of philosophy is concerned.

2 INTRODUCTION. the history of philosophy. unless each phe nomenon is conditions. and efforts. But if this problem cannot be solved without regard to the historical connection in which the particular fact first receives its closer determination and full verification. the convictions. Now the theories and systems with which the history of philosophy is concerned are chiefly the work of individuals. But . it must describe the development of philosophic thought. and explained in reference to its causes and its influence on contemporary and suc ceeding phenomena is pointed out. but also in relation to cause and effect. in beginning. interests. like all history. the examination of their origin and credi bility. As we are here concerned with the knowledge of historical facts. under the influence of which they originated. In a word. [ 1 philosophic theories and systems with which we are at various periods more or less perfectly acquainted. and as facts which we have not our selves observed can only be known to us through collection of direct tradition. and as such must be explained partly through the expe riences which have given occasion to their formation. and the establishment of facts in accordance with such evidence. partly through the mode of thought and the character of their authors. its historical connection from as its earliest as completely the condition of our sources of knowledge allow. it is at the same time impossible to understand the progress of historical events unless we put together the particular facts not only in relation to their contemporaneous or successive occurrence. must begin with the and indirect testimonies.

but of j. and cor rection of their results. leaving unnoticed their more remote causes and the more com prehensive connection to which they belong. and and by means of formed. and through them are stimulated to the completion. the farther we follow it. upon the circle of presentations from which their spirit has derived its nourishment. dependent they may be. and under the influence of which it has been developed . and similarly their historical action is conditioned by to the the fact that they correspond to the necessities of the time. to the asking of new questions. and the problem arises not merely of explaining this whole by means moments conditioning it.1] THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. it would still would only inform us as to the historical immediate reasons of the phenomena. however peculiar and The self- philosophy. first authors. for it is the case. and find contemporary acknowledgment. B2 . though not in all instances same degree. thus appear as the members larger historical interconnection . these views do not remain confined to their maintain writings . On the other hand. however. if 3 even our authorities enabled us to carry out this biographical and psychological explanation far more be in completely than sufficient. the later tradition members learn from the earlier. they spread is themselves in a scientific schools. continuation. in respect to this alone can they be perfectly understood.he particular likewise of explaining these moments by one another. the more the individual becomes united to a whole of historical development. The views of individuals always depend. and the search systems of of a after new answers and methods.

we then make an attempt to understand it in rela If tion to these culture. progress. the consideration that philosophy is not an isolated domain. from already spoken. so far as the history of philosophy is concerned. for this purpose. (3) the indivi dual character of the several philosophers. If for the explanation of philosophic theories. we shall fall into that biographical and psychological pragmatism of which we have If we start. may be reduced to three classes: (1) the general conditions of culture in the particular nation at that time . but only a particular member in the collective life of nations and of humanity. we confine our selves to the last. By a purely historical on the basis of historical tradition. shall the general state of mental and the development of the other sciences. and character. the causes from which it pro ceeded. culture. we universal conditions of the history of lay the greatest stress on the continuity schools of scientific tradition. does This not mean that the historical facts are to be constructed in an a priori manner out of the con ception of the sphere of life whose history is being considered. ascertain the conditions under which the actual course of events took place.4 INTE OD UCTION. on the internal connection and historical interaction of the philosophic and . [ 1 and consequently the individual by the whole. These causes and conditions. that in its origin. and the concatenation of the Individual which was the result. it is conditioned by religious and political circumstances. or out of the idea of the purpose to be attained through this history. (2) the influence of the earlier systems upon the later . we must method.

proceeding from a definite starting-point. and consequently the whole. Greek Philosophy. to its own internal according a progression which we shall the more thoroughly understand the more completely we succeed in showing laws . a development of fulfilling with dialectic necessity. at the same time. self-included progression. the history of an isolated. But that which called it forth was originally not so much the desire for knowledge as the feeling of .1] THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. each later phenomenon to be the logical consequence its predecessor. the direction and form of philo sophic thought is. do not always stand in the same relation to each other in itself regard to their influence and significance the creative energy of prominent felt. These. and to draw a plan of the historical course and interconnection of the phenomena of which it consists. on the basis of this inquiry. 2. sometimes personalities is more sometimes the dependence of the later strongly the earlier. likewise determined by the other considerations. . any given case. The historian has to inquire how much importance in the bringing about of historical results in belongs to each of these elements. philosophy appears as 5 systems. sometimes the systems upon operation of the universal conditions of culture. as Hegel undertook to prove. however. But though this moment increases in importance the more independently philo sophy develops itself. The question and human of life as to the causes by which the world man are determined has occupied the spirit from the earliest times and in the most various places.

sought was not that of scientific inquiry but of mytho Among a few nations only this pro logical poetry. but also a very important practical and scientific interest the former. however. . but as long as these speculations continue are to start from mythological tradition. not as philosophic theories proper. [ 2 their favour dependence upon higher powers. The founders Greek philosophy are at the same time the ancestors of our own their knowledge therefore of . and satisfied with the amplification and remodelling of mythical intuitions.6 INTRODUCTION. tions of it dently in different places when the preliminary condi were present and we actually find among . begins when man Philosophy first experiences and acts upon the neces of explaining phenomena by means of natural sity This necessity may have appeared indepen causes. duced in course of time theological and cosmological speculations which try to gain a more comprehensive view of the origin and constitution of the world. the Indian and Chinese systems of doctrine some which are far enough removed from the theological specula tions of these nations to be truly described as their But the thought of a rational knowledge philosophy. and the wish to secure while the path on which an answer was . they can only be reckoned as precursors of philosophy. among and more strongly and with more the Hellenes than in either of from them alone that a con it is tinuous scientific tradition extends to our own times. as much as Greek philosophy . of things asserted itself abiding results these countries . exceeds all that the remaining science of the ancient world can offer. has for us not merely an historical.

transcends all the rest of ancient science. so far as we know. for us which have preserved such as those of Athenasus fragments of older writers. and Photius Library (he died in 891 and partly from the writings of authors who for the &amp. as immediate sources. lives. by its 7 itself. as Plato.D. all the works in be used as and doctrines of the philo mentioned. .Kr) (about 330 A. later on. occupy the first place.lt.D. was the first to do in a comprehensive manner. so far as any portions have been preserved.D.D.-] GKEEK PHILOSOPHY. Johannes Stobseus great work (probably composed between 450 A. The indirect sources comprise besides independent historical accounts of the personality. their origin Unauthentic writings. still more thoroughly. Philosophy among Among the sources from which our knowledge of ancient philosophy is derived. . and establishment of their after him Aristotle. The History of the Ancients. 3. and 550 A. divided between the Eclogues and the 6 Florilegium A. which is now. the existing writings of the philosophers and fragments of their lost works. in proportion as and date of composition can be determined. Original Sources. its scientific complete ness. its spiritual content.). rich and logical development. Eusebius TrpoTrapao-Ksvrj svayys\i.). and Gellius.). may evidence for the standpoint and views of the circles from which they emanated. own theories enter minutely into those of their predecessors. sophers. so far as they are genuine. formation is which these are occasionally the latter the most valuable in Among obtained partly from books of extracts.

lt. the c Eclogues of Stobseus (vide supra). work Aetius the date of its compilation would seem to fall in the first third.D. as Diels has shown ( Doxographi. TraOrj^arwv Theodoret calls the author of OspaTrevTiKT). and Astronomy. and Theodoret s EXA^/can. principles of his predecessors contained in the first book of his Metaphysics. and the Christian Fathers. which Theophrastus undertook in the eighteen books of his &amp. the commentators on Aristotle and Plato. Hippolytus. lamblichus. in separate works.C. 1879). while Eudemus treated of the history of Arithmetic. and was already used by Cicero and Varro (an epitome of it has been compilation of the 80-60 B. through the critical survey of the &c. Justin. which was made about by an unknown author. Clemens. to a great extent preserved in the Pseudo-Plutarchic Placita Philosophorum ). and which seem to have formed the chief treasury of the later sceptics. those reviews of the doctrines of the various philosophers which Clitomachus (about 120 A. Galen. History of Physics ). Proclus. Numenius. 5 ff. and also as facri/cr) icrrop la. and that of the this . came the first impulse towards the independent treatment of the history of philosophy. Tertullian. Theodoret. and in numerous monographs . perhaps also of theological views. From Aristotle. Philo of Alexandria. of the second cen- . Geometry. Sextus Empiricus. Augustin. On Theophrastus History of Physics were founded.) gave in connection with the criticisms of Carneades. Porphyry. the Placita. [ 3 authors like Cicero. Doctrines of the Physicists (quoted as (frvcri/cal 86at. Plutarch ic Placita in the middle. Plutarch.8 INTRODUCTION. iv. Origen. Seneca.

) Besides these dogmatic and historical surveys of the of the philosophers. The author A. chus of Ascalon. as also did two doxographs used by Hippolytus (alpecrswv e\syxps. the Academic. Stob. Further traces of this literature can be discovered in the Fathers of the Church.D. there is a second series of opinions writings. see similar direction. Ev.i\o- About 70 B.os Jfo&amp. Antio(f)i. Peripatetic.gt. TMV demic. Epiphanius (died in 403 A. of the Pseudo-Plutarchic .lt. arpw^arsLS (about 150 preserved in Euseb. founder. Doxogr. Xenophon s . and partly according to schools. B. (For fragments of Arius &amp. Eudorus the Academic and Arius Didymus the Eclectic Stoic followed him in a mus. would seem to have drawn directly from Theophrastus.D. which was therefore based on motives not altogether historic. The last offshoots of it that have been preserved are the treatise Trspl aofav la-ropias by the pseudo-Gralen. 9 tury after Christ. formerly designated as Philosophumena of Origen ) and Diogenes Laertius. . in Irenseus (about 190 A. and whatever is to be considered historical in the dialogues of Plato .).lt.gt.).). Clement (200A.). fragments of them are 8). i.lt.f&amp. and unite the exposition of their doctrines with accounts of school with their lives.D. tried to justify his Eclecticism by a syncretistic exposition of the Aca Stacrvpjj.D.\ocr6(f)a)v.C. its the common doctrines of a those of &amp. ii.3] SOURCES.). Towards the end of the same century. Didy 32 if. Pr. ANCIENT WRITINGS.D. and Stoic doctrines. Eusebius (died about 340 A. 4 Eel. and Hermias &amp. 445 ff. Diels. which treat of them in a biographical manner partly as individuals.D. To these belong Memorabilia of Socrates. Augustin (died in 430 A. i.

Philippus. a rich mine of biographical and literary notices for the later writers. This branch of the literature of the history of philosophy has its chief seat. entitled TTIVCLKSS rwv sv Trdar) TraiSsta About 240 B. also by the Aristotelians.gt.C.lt. in the Peripatetic school. and Hermodorus. also wrote /3loi. which was of much importance for the history of philosophy. Hermippus the Peripatetic o his ftioi Ka\\L^d^sios another filot. of (j)L\o&amp.C.). Neanthes of Cyzicus. and extracts from their books.10 INTRODUCTION. however. and Sotion a 8taSo%^ TWV ^iKoo-o^wv^ which continued to be a)i&amp. Siaha/jL-frdvTcov Kal crvvsypatyav. Clearchus. concerning Pythagoras. concerning the . Pythagoreans of Lyco the Pythagorean (about 320 B.). composed a work Trspl svbb^wv dvBpMv about 225 B. Aristoxenus TLvOayopLfcal aTrofyda-eLs). Monographs on particular philosophers.C. Satyrus.lt. Peripatetic. (ftioi dv&pwv. Xenocrates. concerning their of Heracleides of Pontus. wrote his SLaBo^al . are mentioned by Aristotle and Theophrastus. [ 3 the lost writings of the Platonists. extracts from the two works last men tioned were made by Heracleides Lembus (180-1 50 B. Speusippus. another Peripatetic.C. Alexandria and among the scholars of who were connected with it. and Phanias. the celebrated Callimachus of Gyrene About 250 B. To the Academic school belonged . the Aristarchean.C..pc0v About the same time Antisthenes the Rhodes.T6&amp.C. .). composed in Alexandria his great literary and historical work. teacher. y the authority for the division of particular philosophers among the schools .C. Dicsearchus. the similar work of his countryman Sosicrates seems to have appeared rather later (130 B. Antigonus of Carystus wrote about 200 B. .

C.) a avvra^ts . Hippo- botus catalogue of the philosophers.lt. ANCIENT BIOGRAPHIES. and an interpretation of the Pythagorean symbols.C. and Apollonius of Tyre. Apollodorus (about 140 B. but how far the three lastmentioned bore an historical character is doubtful.C. this &amp. an untrustworthy treatise on the Socratics by Idomeneus (about 270 B. the celebrated dates were whose chronological adopted for the history of philosophy . who seems to have followed him almost entirely in his Chronica . the Stoic TWV whose date is life of Zeno is quoted. Among the con temporaries of Philodemus are the two Magnesians. also the treatises of Cleanthes Nor does Epicurus appear to have given any historical accounts of the earlier philosophers. and Sphserus on indi vidual philosophers. probably Herculanean catalogues of the Academic and Stoic phi losophers seem to have been taken. from which the two last. 11 Aristippus (about 210 B. who wrote a treatise ITS pi (fiva-ioXo ywV) and the work of Clitomachus irspi aipscrscov. perhaps not distinct from that mentioned on p. and a work of Pansetius on the schools of philosophy. From his school came a few works which attempted to do this .).). who wrote a history of the philosophic schools ^CKouo^wv Sm&o^cu). and the latter on the lives of the philosophers . From the school of the Stoics scholar came Eratosthenes (274194). by Philodemus (about 50 B.piXocr6(f)Q)v a mere compilation. also a Stoic.). Somewhat earlier in Alexander Polyhistor. a avvaywyrj rwv Soy parwv.). and a life of Epicurus by Apollodorus (about 120 B.C. 8. and his treatise .3] SOURCES.C. Demetrius and Diocles. the former of whom wrote on authors of the same name.

down to Plato. to whom Diogenes. and also by his (piJXocrotyos the laTopia^ from which life has been preserved.). for example.D.D. the ten books of Diogenes Laertius on the lives and doctrines of celebrated philo sophers. it is these fragments and quotations we owe a considerable portion to a single work. or the authors transcribed by him. and Eusebius has preserved fragments of a critical survey of the philosophic systems by Aristocles the Peripatetic only in fragments. the learned Porphyry (about 232-304 A. since most ancient sources have been entirely lost. that the great majority of the wxxrks hitherto spoken of are known to us. and by Nicomachus.. 60-80 A. probably dating from the second quarter of the third century A. and through isolated quotations. The writings of Favorinus (80 to 150 A. about 130 A. and of (about 180 A. For however carelessly and uncritically this compilation.D. may have been made.) has done good service for the knowledge of the older philosophers.J contain many notices of the history of the philosophers.D. The copious biography of Pythagoras of Pytha- . But these expositions are altogether uncritical and without historical value. same From the century of our era. by his commentaries.D. the by Moderatus and Apollonius of Tyana.D.INTROD UCTION. the in formation of the it contains more of priceless worth.. history and doctrines of Pythagoras were continually expounded in the Neo-Pythagorean school . Indeed. may be indebted for it. is This information is as a rule given at second or third but very often with the names of the authorities hand. Among the Neo-Platonists. l [ 3 aip scrswv appear to belong first also to about the period.

) arranged the works of Plato in trilogies. Grantor. Subsequently to 550 A. which we possess under name of Hesychius is a late Byzantine compilation the taken. and that Aristophanes of Byzantium (about 200 B.).D. the Stoic Cleanthes (about 260 B. from Diogenes and Suidas. Lexicon (between 1000 A. the editor of Aristotle. For the history of the Neo-Platonic school.3] SOURCES. From him .D. Theophrastus established in the Peripatetic school the learned study of Aristotle s writings. Among the sources of our knowledge of the ancient philosophers.C. of si&amp.).) Eunapius ftioi tyikocrofywv KOI o-ocfrio-Twv (Rhetoricians) . the chief authority is (about 400 A.C. as is also the so-called Violarium of the Empress Eudocia (1060 to 1070 A..) are chiefly The treatise.D. the works devoted to the explanation of their writings occupy an important place.C. 13 goras by his pupil lamblichus served as an introduction to a dogmatic work by the same author.) on the treatise of Heracleitus.gt. commented on Plato s Timseus. Academic philosopher. At this time Andronicus the Rhodian. and 1150 A. At how early a period the necessity of such explanations was felt is the shown by the fact that about 280 B. and &amp.D. probably a forgery of the sixteenth century. ANCIENT COMMENTARIES.D.C. however. Hesychius of Miletus com TrcuSsla ^iakajju^avrcov^ from posed his work Trspl TWV which the articles on the ancient philosophers in Suidas 520 A. of the commentators But the most activity first flourishing period commences about the middle of the first century B.D.. treated of in Damascius the later period of the school was Icrropla fyiXocrofyos (about which only some fragments remain.lt.

though its Historia Ancient . Thrasyllus first Eudorus. Of modern writings on Greek philosophy. the renowned a long series of men who dis either cussed these writings in commentaries or in introductory and comprehensive works. i. next to these come the remaining commentaries of the same writers.) on Plato. 4.).) on the 6 Physics. and then Dercyllides and their treatises made themselves known by on Plato.) on the works of Aristotle. and after the time of Plutarch this philo sopher was as zealously expounded in the Platonic school as Aristotle in the Peripatetic. and those of Johannes Philoponus (about 530 A. a learned and critical work of conspicuous worth.D. Andronicus. to [ 3 down Alexander stretches expositor.D. only such as last two centuries .D. This example Soon after was followed by the Platonic school. we must first mention Brucker critica ff. until the sixth Of the commentaries that have come down century. to 485 A.14 INTRODUCTION. to us.D. s Philosophise . of Aphrodisias. (1742 Philosophy is treated of in vols. are of special importance in the history of our science. and the books De Cselo. and of Simplicius (about 530 A. The NeoPlatonists (and individual scholars even earlier) devoted themselves with equal energy to both. are of conspicuous value for the history of philosophy . only those will be quoted here which have appeared during the and of that number. those of Alexander on Aristotle s Metaphysics. 6 As a foundation. or of practical use in regard to its study at the present time. and of Proclus (410 A. and ii. Modern Aids.

1781 ff. &amp. philosophy whole extent in three comprehensive works Tiedemann s Geistder speculativen Philosophie (1791-1797). Fabricius Bibliotheca Graeca (1705 ff.. Soon &c. ii. the appropriate por tions of J. 1) . &amp. iiber das kosrnische suchungen System des Plato. 1791 ff. Z. works has its value .).lt. that of Tennemann retained its &amp.lt. Philosophie (1796-1804). Zur Phil.. iii. of the Kleine SchrifLife of Philolaus.). ( Platon s Werke. &c. Unterten. vols. vol. Schleiermacher s treatises on various (&amp. the history of was At the end of the eighteenth and beginning its &amp. which was followed after his death by his concise and suggestive History of Philosophy.). in spite of the one-sidedness with which Kant dominates its histo rical judgment. come the works of Meiners ( Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Griechenland und Kom. notes to his translation of Plato ii. 1852) sec. the influence of the post-Kantian however. W.lt. 15 its standpoint of historical criticism is not beyond that of time . side by side with this. Greek philosophers ( Sammtliche \Verke..lt. and but especially the introduction and iii. Phil..lt. well-merited reputation the longest.4] MODEltN AIDS. 1790 ff. and ancient science began to be treated in a new spirit. and Bockh s writings (the most important are those printed in vol. in regard to Ancient Philo sophy. on Plato. 1819 . and. Buhle s Lehrbuch der Geschichte der treated of in : considerably enlarged in the edition of Harless. 1804-1828).) and Fiilleborn Beitrage. W. with its original points of view (1839. . Next. and Tennemann s Geschichte der Philosophie Each of these (1798-1819). philosophy asserted itself. A. of the nineteenth century.

has written his Striimpell. vols.. 1835-1866) are allied with Schleiermacher To mediate between as to their general tendency. of his Works) emphasise the dialectical necessity of the evolution of the later philosophers from the earlier.-xv.. Phil. but they have power fully contributed to the scientific comprehension and The historical criticism of the philosophic systems. are Victor Cousin (1792-1867). and to gain a knowledge of the importance and inter dependence of the individual from tradition itself through critical sifting and historical connection. [ 4 gave the type for a treatment of history. in a more concise manner. in his 1 Introduction a histoire de la Philosophic. Griechisch-B6m. 1876).) Gesch. 1833. c Geschichte der theoretischen Philosophic der Grriechen.. not without some one-sidedness. der Gesch. Among the scholars of From 1854. and 6 other countries. . 1861. tion. 1869-1882 &amp.lt. and Brandis Handbuch ( (&amp. der Phil. der learned inquiry and the speculative view of history. the standpoint of the school of Herbart.16 INTRODUCTION. Fragments philosophiques. entering more deeply into the special character of the ancient philosophers and the inner laboratories of their thoughts. meritorious works of Ritter i. in six volumes. Hegel s Vorlesungen on the History of Philosophy (published after his death. 1844-1852.-iv. 1840. is the task proposed to itself by my own Philosophic third edi der Griechen (first edition. fourth edition of the first part. 3 Th.lt. and his his .. 1836 f. Greschichte der praktischen Philosophic der Griechen von Aristoteles. xiii. by whom the history of philosophy in modern times has been advanced. in vols. 1829 f.

the following Gesch.. der Psychologic.. . Grundriss der Gesch.. B. vol. 1880. 1873. Schwegler.. George Grote (1794-1871). 1848. : subject. vol. Schmidt. may pendiums which deal with this be mentioned Brandis.4] MODERN AIDS. .Logikim Abendland.lt. 1881 L. der Phil. Gesch. Among the works which are con cerned with the history of special philosophical subjects. 1882 Gesch. . Gesch. und System der Eechts. fourth Die Lehre vom Logos in der i. der second edition.. Theil. 1862. Phil. der Ethik. Ueberweg. Z^igler.lt. der 1879. Phil. i. der Phil. d. 1880.lt. Phil. J. 1872 . 1885 Griech. i. Gesch. &amp. Theil edition 1882. Gesch. E. 1860. eleventh edition. 1882. and the un finished ( Aristotle Of the numerous com(1872). especially vol. i. lungen sophise der Griech. 1 . Meyer. riss der Gesch. i. Diels ( Doxographi Gneci. Abth. Siebeck. &amp. sixth edition. vol. 8-32.. Leitfaden zur Gesch. Theil Die Psychologic vor Aristoteles.. Lange. Lewes. 1878. Grseco-Komanse sixth edition. in portions of his History of Greece. Grund i. the literature of the Florilegia is discussed by c .. pp. viii. his Plato (1865). der EntwickEitter and Historia Philo locis &amp. im Umriss. Phil. 17 Histoire Generale de la Philosophic . der Griech. Phil. Gesch. 1879) has edited the Greek doxographers and investigated their autho rities. Preller (subsequently Preller only). Heinze.und Staatsphilosophie. 1838. 1866. ex fontium contexta. Theil the most important are the following : Prantl. third edition. 1 edited by Kdstlin. 1882. 1862-1864. der edition. Materialismus. 1882. eighth History of Philosophy. Hildebrand. Die Ethik der alten Griechen. Erdmann. Gesch. 1867.

the most complete collection of fragments of the ancient philosophers as yet made is that of Mullach ( Fragmenta Philosophorum Grsec. The most important mono places. Plato. .. important of Democritus. 1867.18 &quot. three parts. that the whole Greek philosophy. These Jewish fables indeed but the theory of an are now generally abandoned . graphs on particular philosophers and their works will be mentioned in the proper B. came from the East. or at any rate many of its most influential doctrines and The Jews of the Alex systems. set up a similar claim for the prophets and sacred writings of their nation and the Christian scholars from Clement and Eusebius till after the close of the Middle Ages supported them in it. Its 5. An old tradition affirms that several of the most Greek philosophers Pythagoras. from the second century before Christ. the to the Greeks as the fathers of the Herodotus the Egyptians tried to represent themselves Greek religion. 1881).Wachsmuth INTRODUCTION. Florilegien. andrian school. and from the third century before Christ and onwards we meet with the opinion. Eastern origin of Greek philosophy as such continues . Origin of Greek Philosophy. and others owe their scientific Even in the time of doctrines to Eastern nations. 1882). derivation supposed from the East. but readily adopted and further developed by the Greeks. perhaps first introduced by Orientals. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. I860. ( [ 4 Studien zu der Griech.

and effects of such influence the later Hellenic nationality developed itself out of the Pelasgic. certain religious and ethical presentations akin to those itself of the other Indo-Germanic peoples . trines late But that they borrowed philosophic doc and methods from thence (irrespective of certain phenomena) cannot be proved. 35). p. especially the Phoenicians. so do the supposed instructors of their c 2 . 1846. ii. cf. vol. modern times vol. Often as this is of the Alexandrian and not one of them can show post-Alexandrian period.lt. or facts themselves. On the contrary we are confronted with the remarkable phenomenon that the authorities become more and assertion made by authors from one that goes back to the more silent the nearer we approach the period of the supposed events. may also give credit to the tradition which says that the Hellenes afterwards received the first elements of their mathematical We and astronomical knowledge from the East. in this new home they experienced for centuries the influence of through the their Eastern neighbours. that he has taken it from a trustworthy tradition.lt. der abendl. vol.5] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND THE are EAST. Zeller s &amp. 19 to find advocates. Phil. 1862. latter in a series of works since 1841 i. There is no doubt that the forefathers of the Hel lenes brought from their Asiatic abodes into their new home. . together with the groundwork of their language. 1858) and Gladisch (the (&amp. i. and are more and more copious the farther we recede from them .Pre- Socratic Philosophy. Its most strenuous defenders in Koth Gesch. and that in proportion as the Greeks become acquainted with more distant Oriental nations.

Even in its most ancient representatives it displays none of the phenomena which elsewhere universally appear when a nation derives its science from without . on the other hand. in the way of its transfer to the great hindrances Greek philosophy. had indeed mythologies and mythical cos mogonies. but none of them possessed a philosophy. Their coincidence then in regard to which we seen to be confined to points do not require the explanation that the Greek philosophers wholly or partially derived This theory is their doctrines from Oriental sources. thing of philosophy the difficulties arising from language would have put . [ 5 ancient philosophers increase in number. are not If on the other testimonies. but mere conjectures. none made an attempt at a natural explanation of have served the Greek thinkers as things. no conflict of indi- . an altogether national stamp. which could and if even some or pattern of their own the source had been found among them. and ascribe them both neither to the Greeks nor the interpretation Orientals what their later has introduced into is doctrines. bears Hellenes. but has weighty and posi The Eastern nations with tive reasons against it. This state of things decidedly indicates that the later statements are not derived from historical recollection. whom the Greeks down in contact. so far as came our knowledge respecting them to the time of Alexander extends. this appearance vanishes in their historical defmiteness. not merely indemonstrable. hand we seek to infer the dependence of Greek philo on Oriental speculations from their internal sophy as soon as we regard similarity.20 INTRODUCTION.

but the Greek people were more and more absolutely devoid of any special priestly class or hierarchy the farther we remount towards their earliest If we antiquity. 4 Strom. and Plato iv. moral. and entirely its therefore dependent on priestly institutions and tradi tions. ( Kep. though he carefully notices all traces of later doctrines In the time of Herodotus even the Egyptian priests do not as yet seem to have thought that philosophical knowledge might have come to the Greeks from them. 1. 23) allows that the Egyptians vrere the discoverers of the mathematical but sciences. in the earlier philosophers. in the Greek philosophy are to be found happy endowments of the Greek nation. science is And while among the Orientals a monopoly of the priesthood. Native Sources of Greek Philosophy. and real origins of The the course taken by its religious. he never mentions Egyptian or Oriental philosophemes. 21 genous with alien elements. Laws. and . lastly. 931 b. no use of uncomprehended formulae. v. commencement wholly take the older and more trustworthy evidence. political. i. no trace of slavish appropriation and imitation of the traditional. 6. 747 C) ascribes to the Egyptians and Phoenicians TO ^CKo^t^a-rov^ and to the Hellenes TO ^iXo^aOss as their characteristic quality. not only was Greek philosophy from free very and self-dependent.5] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND THE EAST. before himself. 304 A) allows no precedence to the Egyptian sages even in geometry. i. 435 E. Democritus (Clemens. in the incitements afforded by its situation and history. Aristotle ( Metaph.

Thus operation through extensive in the small commonwealths of the Hellenic cities.22 artistic INTRODUCTION. 19). so long as these retained their superiority in power and were considerably influenced (vide supra. was endowed from the very other nation of antiquity commencement with so many and various advantages as the Hellenic. With their Europe and Asia. the foundations of a culture unique in historical effects. must be added the favourable character temperament of the position of their country. and to open for p. but only bestowed its gifts on those who knew how to earn them settlements on the by their own exertions. itself. with such a remarkable genius for the orderly and combination of individuals. the healthiest the acutest perception of individuality much ideality. they but they also knew how to free themselves in time from this influence. the shaping of a agreeable To this natural beautiful and self-consistent whole. culture. [ G in which we development down to the period first No attempts at philosophic inquiry. field of colonisation. which afforded stimulus and resources of the most diverse kinds. in none do we find prac of discover the disposition tical address feeling thirst for for and active power united with so delicate a the beautiful and such a deep and keen realism with so knowledge. . in islands and on bridge connecting of moderate fertility. and in its were early developed. the Greeks richly developed coasts were marked out for the liveliest intercourse with each other and with their neighbours by some of the latter. to conquer or Hellenise the their own nationality a wide strangers. Those views of Nature from which the worship of the gods in the .

it contained living and powerful germs. it goras. generally speaking. it asserted itself to an extent that was of great importance for moral scientific labours. it opposed. the gods were raised to moral powers. 23 pre-Hellenic period arose were ethically deepened and artistically transformed . despite the attacks to which an Anaxagoras. and if religion as such (in the mysteries as little as in the public worship) did not transcend the limits of an anthropomorphic polytheism. that respect for custom and law. And because it was more concerned with worship than doctrine because it possessed no uni form and universally acknowledged dogmatic system. without lican constitutions of the Greek cities which the repub could not have . manifold variations. and in Athens and the Ionian colonies. above all.6] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. a Prota because. No less important. however. had no regularly organised priest hood endowed with external power for all these reasons. a Socrates were subjected (Aristotle is scarcely to be included here). which needed only to be developed in order to do so. in this respect was the second fundamental feature of Greek life. life and civil institutions of the Hellenic people. no obstacles to the free movement and progress of thought among the Greeks at all comparable to those which had to be combated in the Middle Ages and in the The same freedom reigns in the Oriental kingdoms. and kept by the active imagination of the people and the poets in a constant state of flux . precisely those portions which did the most for its science. that subordination of the individual to the whole. the ideals of human activities and conditions. but only a mythology handed down by tradition with .

as is natural. and didactic forms was so richly A the first developed in the four centuries preceding it embraced the beginnings of Greek philosophy. and ethical intuitions of the theological.C. the taste for order and law which had developed itself in civil life in all the relations of demanded also that in the theoretic view of the world the individual should be comprehended in a whole and made dependent upon the laws of that whole. INTRODUCTION. the then we survey the position to which Greek directions indicated. may similar service was rendered by poetry. moreover. 7. pre thought had attained in the If vious to the sixth century before Christ. The Development of Greek Thought before Sixth Century B. From the freedom with which [ 6 men moved derived the life. lyric. and sayings which were re Greek tribes in pictures of universally recognised truth garded as the expression and thus by the contemporary and succeeding period indicated to the rising philosophy the presuppositions it . upon the soil of the traditional moving . cosmological. had to consider. and either endorse or reject. easily be seen. scientific thought and boldness which we admire even in independence the most ancient Greek philosophers. which in its epic. the formal training of thought and must have been advanced by the animated move speech ment and numerous claims of civil life. and how greatly scientific activity must have thereby benefited.24 subsisted. we shall find at first theological presentations of a general kind. How essentially.

unmistakably belong to the post-Aristotelian reflections period. the ideas and which in these ancient cosmogonies combine to form a representation of the origin of the world are of a very simple description. and the earth . As to cosmological theories. acknowledged. Nevertheless. Nevertheless.7] GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND COSMOGONIES.) approaches it somewhat more closely. while other Orphic Theogonies better known to us. and of the most an cient Orphic Theogony used by Plato. He describes Zeus. the traces are perceptible of a gradual purification of the idea of God. and Chthon as the first and everlasting. Pherecydes of Syros (about 540 B. for Zeus as the uniform representative and protector of the moral order of the world begins to come forward more prominently from among the mul On the one hand (Solon.) the difference between divine and human justice v. only lead to a critical state of mind in regard to the But the need of worthier conceptions of the Deity first asserted itself more definitely and powerfully in the poets of the fifth century. Aristotle.se of Epimenides and Acusilaus). among the poets of the seventh and sixth centuries. with their theological syncretism and pantheism. but on the other (Theognis. tiplicity of gods. their groundwork is the Theogony of Hesiod. are not far removed . and Eudemus. is f. 373) doubts are expressed of the latter.C. Fr. when philo sophy had already commenced its attacks upon the popular polytheism. from which the meagre fragments of some other expositions (tho. 25 Homeric and Hesiodic mythology. which could traditional ideas. 13. Chronos. and the question of the natural causes of things is not as yet entertained. about 540. 4 17.

by Zeus in its . Thus his exposition seems to be based upon the thought that the formation of the world is a con the heavenly upon the sequence of the operation of and that in this process the unregulated terrestrial. and the shadowy existence in Hades. under the influence of Pythagoreanism that the belief . [ 7 many. future life. appears throughout Among the Greeks. together with the increasing spread of the mysteries and the Orphicthis to Dionysiac mysteries especially contributed the dogma of the transmigration of souls nevertheless seem that the predominant it it through would of mode the belief in a thought was not deeply affected by until towards the end of the sixth century. which the belief in immortality of the Homeric tive justice.coloured garment he also speaks of a conquest of Ophioneus by Chronos and the gods.26 as clothed INTRODUCTION. and that which ought to be explained by as the its natural causes still uncomprehended work of the gods. But the mythical form of representation conceals thoughts under enigmatical symbols. . and that it was itself primarily only a means for recom was through hope and fear it mending dedications. through though change had gradually been taking place since the eighth and seventh centuries. was filled with greater the doctrine of a future retribution. and their is founded on the belief in Divine retribu inviolability This belief gained considerably in power from the time that the ideas concerning a future state entered its service. beyond life and mean period never went. forces of nature were only gradually overcome. But ing. the universally recognised moral laws are referred to the will of the gods. as everywhere else.

and Solon. With this religious it treatment of ethical questions. it. Only four are to be found in all the their : Even enumerations. and turned to account in a purer moral tendency. in Solon. viz. most frequently mentioned are Cleobulus.7] PHILOSOPHY AND GNOMIC MORALITY. Of the rest those : Thales. and Hesiod s practical rules of . as then universally Protagoras. ! . The development of such a tendency in this period is also indicated by the fact that most of the called men reckoned among the so- Seven Wise Men Wise Men (which we first recognised. and letters. not merely as to the statements concerning the tripod. names are very variously given we are with twenty-two belonging to widely dif acquainted ferent periods. Chilon. Myson. so lively and capable a people as the Greeks that the development of intelligent moral reflection should go on side by side. The story of the meet with. their maxims. The traces of this was inevitable in may life. 343 A) is for the rest exhibit entirely unhistorical. and Theognis. 27 appears first to have been more universally spread. Phocylides. racter be followed from the Homeric portrayals of cha and moral sayings. in Plato. Pittacus. however. Periander. their meetings but also as to the theory that seven men were acknowledged by their contemporaries to be the wisest. Bias. through the fragments of the later poets they are most marked in the Gnomic poets of the sixth century. The connection of this practical wisdom with the beginnings of Greek science is shown by the signifi cant fact that the same man stands at the head of the seven who opens the series of Greek physicists. and Anacharsis.

e. and especially to a people like the Greeks. in respect to its pro and mission a theory cedure. The problem of the nature lay the of man was treated in an isolated and rather in a popular than a scientific form. becomes exhibits the . it seeks to obtain before it has given account to of the objective world : itself of ledge. thought the world. in its results . this philosophy was. Character [ 8 8. and in which he was already accustomed through his re immediate original revelation ligion to adore the most It does this with the simple of the divine powers. As a product of the Hellenic spirit. on such familiar terms with their gods. Greek philosophy same characteristic features it accompanies the development of that spirit with its own. of which the first turns to the consideration of Greek himself a part. and stood. the leading power in the life of the Greek people. Greek philosophy. Having grown strong in practical life. Further. manner.28 INTRODUCTION. self-confidence which is so natural to early difficulties inquiry before awaiting it or natural discouraged by disappointments. and even Finally. to its object a philosophy of nature for its essential inquiry into the origin and causes of the universe. therefore. in interest in its first period was in respect . who were so happy and so much at home in the world around them. and. and Development of Greek Philosophy. after the loss of political independence. the problem and conditions of scientific know it is realistic. at the awakening of felt scientific necessity. in it is acquainted with the the main. an increasingly important factor in that development. a dogmatism i.

classification. in terest had begun to be diverted from this wholly physical inquiry. &amp. and as man But though this was an advance not only beyond the . and Aristotle. physics are supplemented on the was brought to its scientific climax. however. so the creative activity of nature is directed to bringing the form. The one side by ethics. 20 materialistic not until the end of this period was the and corporeal brought to consciousness by Anaxagoras. as the end of its production. but Socrates was the first to lay a new foundation.lt. since the Persian War had taken place in the conditions difference between spiritual and needs of the Greeks. object of philosophic thought. and combination of con cepts constitutes the fixed nucleus of the scientific method the immaterial essence of things which is the &amp. Greek philosophy consideration of the problem and conditions of knowledge leads to the development of logic . Plato. By Socrates. the Sophists destroy by their Sceptic and Eristic doctrines belief in the cognisability of objects. the formation. but for philosophy in general.8] DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY. not only for this practical philo sophy. in connection with the change which.lt. the idea or the form of the idea opposes itself to its phenomenon as a higher reality. task to from its body. and require in its stead a knowledge that is practically useful and subservient to the ends of the subject. to its manifestation in matter. . and to govern the lower by means of it. the spirit is distinguished as thinking essence acknowledges it as his proper develop this higher part of himself. Already. and on the other by metaphysics (Plato s Dialectic. and Aristotle s First Philosophy ) . .

science and art coincide in their common direction towards the ideal. This idealism. the simple unity of spirit with nature which had formed the original presupposition for the classic beauty of Greek life was interrupted. by his preference for scientific activity goes beyond this. in these were seen the proper object of artistic exposition and of scientific knowledge . Far human Greek standpoint was transcended by the ethics of Socrates. similar to that achieved by the plastic art and poetry of the fifth century in the region of art . the latter nevertheless remained true to the aesthetic as well as as the ancient the political character of Greek morality Aristotle . over against the spirit which contemplates them. the forms of . the lofty contempt of material work for the purposes of . upholds the connection of ethics with politics. even in Plato. and still more of Plato. his doctrine of virtue is wholly Greek he. though the harmony of the inner and the outer.30 INTRODUCTION. but also beyond the general standpoint of the Hellenic view of the world. as prototypes of things. they products of thought either divine or stand in plastic objectivity. out of the multiplicity of pheno mena the common traits. and though . too. this change had nevertheless been preparing in the development of the Greek nation. [ 8 philosophy of the time. does not bear the modern things are not subjective character. In the concept-philosophy of Socrates and his successors a forward movement was made in the scientific sphere. and in it the features which distinguish ancient philosophy from modern are undeniable. the unchangeable forms of things were taken as the essential element in them .

after the end of the fourth under the influence of the century. and that opposition of Hellenes and barbarians. widely as those philosophers differ from each other in . who placed the centre of gravity of philosophy in Ethics. partly of an abstract cosmopolitanism . of and its The study the beauty and divinity of the visible world . appeared the Stoics and Epicureans. while in Physics they allied and developing from these. themselves to the pre-Socratic systems. as in the whole sphere of Greek thought. however. con ditions brought about The by Alexander s conquests. the strongest expression of which is his defence of slavery. imperfectly recognised by of nature is not only pursued with the liveliest interest by Aristotle. but even Plato is not hindered by his idealism from intense admiration of personality is rights are very them. taste for natural and purely theoretic investigation inquiry unmistakably retrograded the Academy and the . side by side with Peripatetic schools. The stricter conception wanting in Plato and Aristotle. An important change took place in philosophy. for the most part only those elements which bore upon the moral and religious view of the world. especially by Plato.8] DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY. and he his disciple are agreed in their conviction of the adaptation of means to end in nature. appropriating Ethics themselves among the Stoics and Epicureans have the character partly of individualism. 31 gain. in that aesthetic and view and worship of nature which clearly show the reaction of those intuitions whose most ancient product was the Greek natural religion. and before long decidedly preponderating over them.

likewise in harmony with them. the science of the Middle Ages and It is undeniable that this development led Greek . while the school of ^Enesidemus scepticism acquired a new and the centre. With sixth the dissolution of the Neo-Platonic School in the as a distinct century Greek philosophy disappears the theatre of history. but they sought to practical end by entire abandonment of knowledge. [ 8 many schools require elevation above the respects. that eclecticism which Academy: was strongest in the Academy. and among the Neo-Pythagoreans eclectic and Platonists connected with them the of the time unite to form a halfsceptical tendencies of revelation. a reaction set the New namely.32 INTRODUCTION. and in the middle of the third it was developed by Plotinus as Neo-Platonism into overcame all a which comprehensive system. the self-satisfaction On these points the contemporary sceptics are life. independence of all things of the wise man in his inner nal. through From the inter course of these schools with each other and with their the second half of the second predecessors after in against the scepticism of century B. developing itself Oriental philosophy partly on Greek lenism.C. but likewise found in entrance among the Stoics and Peripatetics.. and only phenomenon from foreign continues to exist in combination with in elements in the service of a new form of culture of modern times. both exter limits of nationality. attain the same another road. others or adopted them into itself. During the soil and partly on that of Judaic Hel first centuries after Christ this mode of thought increasingly spread.

Aristotelian dualism to the hylozoism of Heracleitus. sets himself in the most marked opposition to the popular belief as well as to the teleological explanation of nature needs oblige him to adopt a new . life according to nature continues in physics the Stoics went back to be their watchword : from the Platonic. The sceptical schools. by his mechanical physics. But show that we its original startingcertain important features still remain to are always on Greek soil.8] DEVELOPMENT OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. and in their theology they under took the defence of the same notions with which science had in truth long since broken. 33 thought further and further from points. But even the phenomenon which announces most clearly the transition from the Greek world to the Christian. the Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic its connection with the ancient speculation. while on the other hand they accept the impossibility of knowledge as a natural destiny with a placidity which is no longer so easy in the Christian period. approximates on that account more nearly to the original Hellenic view. Abrupt as is the opposition in which reason and sense are placed by the ethics of the Stoics. by their teleological view of the universe they approximate to the anthropomorphism of the popular religion. Though it places makes . but his aesthetic though inadequate gods and if in his ethics he dis cards the political element of ancient Greek morality doctrine of the . the harmony of the sensible and spiritual life. mode of thought plainly perceptible. also. which is his practical ideal. Epicurus. are not far from that view in their practical principles. more completely than the Stoics.

and with whose assistance man is to raise himself to the Deity. of the higher world. perfect of the world is defended against the The beauty s Christian Nature and its eternity against the theory of a creation and those orders of super human essences in whom the divine powers descend to contempt for . the world. the former is with divine powers. as a still regarded as filled in its kind. of which these philosophers were the last champions. [ 8 the visible world far below the invisible.34 INTRODUCTION. are the metaphysical counterpart of the popular polytheism. . manifestation.

These three most ancient schools. but they do not as yet definitely face the problem of explaining origin. and derive their existence and qualities D 2 . discovering Thus the ancient Ionian s inquire of what matter the world was _formed and in what way the world arose from it. decay. whose Through the origin dates from the sixth century before Christ. that in regard to the causes of things which science has to point out. attempt among the Greeks at a scientific of the world was made by Thales the Milesian. who was followed by his countrymen Anaximander and Anaximenes. these endeavours were transplanted to Lower Italy and carried on with such independent inquiry that from each of them there arose a new school. 9. and change as such. The Pythagoreans seek the essence of which things consist m number. according to their essential nature. they think primarily of their substantial causes i. lonians. and of the universal arose. and later by Diogenes of Apollonia and other representatives of the ancient first THE explanation Ionian school. Pythagoras and Xenophanes. Course of its Development. which they and cause of these phenomena. agree only herein. they consist . that from in which.e. THE PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY.35 FIEST PEBIOD.

. Leucippus. from the unity of the world. and in themselves and thereby deriving unchangeable material substances. ^In asserting that in the begins ceaseless change of matter and the combinations of matter there is nothing permanent except the law of this change. itself from one original Being. Anaxagoras to infinity. on and divisible which all combination and division of substances is the based. and guished divisible to infinity . These primitive substances are conceived by Empedocles as qualitatively distin from each other. by Leucippus as homogeneous in unlimited in number. Empedocles annexes moving forces to elements in a mythical form . number. imperishable. In order to explain motion.36 PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. conditionally excluding declares the multiplicity of things ception of Being. which differed Becoming indeed from the Being of Parmenides in respect of its but had otherwise the multiplicity and divisibility same essential qualities. unlimited in . and Anaxagoras attempted this by reducing all Be and separa coming and all change to the combination tion of underived. starting of phenomena. Empedocles. departure of natural philosophical inquiry with Heracleitus. and indivisible by quality. through Parmenides and by un its essence in Being as such recognises . of stating the reason of change and motion. all Non-being from the con and motion to be unthinkable. [ 9 from the fixed and numerically determined regularity The Eleatic philosophy. limited as to number. Leucippus and Democritus as different in quality. A new he proposed to his successors the problem of explaining this phenomenon itself.

or 624 i. in part directly.). was a citizen of Miletus. remove the atoms into empty space . and in part indirectly. 1. THE ANCIENT IONIANS. i70 and Diog. acquired. Thales. THE THREE EARLIEST SCHOOLS. 1. it was abandoned in This denies principle by the Sophistic doctrine. 548-5 B. whose ancestry was derived from the Boeotian Cadmeans.e. Thus it brings about the Socratic reform of philosophy. inasmuch as character of its it rendered that reform a necessity through the one-sided and doubtful own results. i. I. in 01. are evidence of the esteem in which assigned his practical wisdom and statesmanlike ability held.C. 37. a contemporary of Solon and Croesus. in Phoenicia and . restricts philosophy to the questions of practical life. (it B. p. His birth was placed by Apollodorus. 27) and what is said of him in Herod. 640 B. and his death in 01. 35. according to Eudemus. A. Anaxagoras takes refuge in the world-forming Spirit. The former of these dates appears to be founded on that of the solar eclipse in 585 B. (vide infra).C. and even deprives practical life of any universally valid rule. The position him as the head of the Seven Wise Men (vide sup. 10. i. however. 39.e. 58. possibility of knowledge. 25. Thales. was probably. in 01.COURSE OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. Here the standpoint hitherto occupied is by physics all in point of fact transcended . 37 lastly. His mathematical and astronomical were knowledge. i.C. i. according to Diog.C.

) It was no doubt in connection with these mathematical studies and the scientific taste awakened by them. 21 (Diels. are to be regarded as forgeries. according to the Julian calendar. that his physics first beginning. 3. 983 22. on the other hand. That he MetapJi. De An. is that he predicted the solar eclipse which famous in 585 B. and conceived this force in the . Doxogr. i. it is consistent ancient Greek elementary character of these. together mentioned by from them. 74 and elsewhere. that all is fall of gods. 5. all He declared water to be the matter l from which and that the earth things arose and of which they consist^ Aristotle floats upon the water.C. 23. the most did not extend beyond a mathematics. As quoted to the way in which things arise from water. and may have found something _in the latter about which nothing was recorded in reference to Thales. and that the magnet life since b.38 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. those which are Thales. with the doctrines later writers. and Hippo together. [ 10 Egypt and transplanted to Greece. 1 seen in the assertions (Arist. among the proofs given of this. on 28 (Herod. 19) has a soul i. with the and. Pliys. i. are likewise cele the most brated. that he May undertook to answer the question concerning the ultimate basis of things in an unmythological form . and doubtless none existed . 475) but here speaking of Thales . occurred.. Thales he does not seem to have explained himself further that the efficient force was directly probably thought combined with matter. i. more he is distinctly in Simpl.e. Theophrastus expresses himself . this theory. it attracts iron. 7. but only from speaks about the reasons of for he possessed no writing of his own conjecture. old natural religion as spirit of the forces. as is analogous to living 6 41 1 a.

24. with whose theories he must certainly have been acquainted.lt.. it was of great importance that a beginning should be made. (Simpl. i.on t. s (Leipzig. 1 1 As is maintained by several of the Greek commentators on Aristotle. and both together by Neuhauser.C. &amp.e. the force that forms the world as God or Spirit or World-soul. (1883). of whiph nil ireturn by other atonement and punishment against the order of time. 44-273. or air and water. and wrote down the results in an original treatise which was early lost. . in order things arise. Anaximander. Ueber das faeipov A. He_jbakes as the beginning of all things (dpx n) th e unlimited (aTrsipov). This primitive matter. the infinite mass of matter . his time for astronomical and geographical knowledge. We find thus con siderable progress already achieved by Anaximander. he conceived neither as composed of the later four elements. from matter. on the other hand. however. ever meagre this first But how commencement of a physical theory may seern to us. we have no reason to suppose. The second of the as- sumptions given above is defenLiitze. This important and influential thinker was a fellowcitizen of Thales. 39 expressly discriminated. 18). and jinto which they to render to each for their offence Phys. 1878). he prosecuted the cosmological inquiries raised by Thales with independent investigations. 11. s. He was born in 611-610 B. their destruction. the oldest Greek prose writer. Pre-eminent in 2). ii. and the first philosophical author. partly in contradiction to their own statements elsewhere. being thus.10] TIIALES.C. and died soon after 547-6 B. (Diog. nor as a substance intermediate between air and fire. side by side with Pherecydes. Anaxi- ded by mander Miles.

Pre-Socratic Philosophy i. from both arose the damp. Plut. Ccrlo. or. and from the utterances of Aristotle. the shape of which drical. with fire and having apertures. The 5. init. 17 2 ff.40 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. . doubtless wrongly. revolve around the earth. as distinct from particular never explained him particular nature. 204 234 ff. we may rather infer that Anaximander either dis tinguished self at all his unlimited is from likely. an Mechanical and Dynamic assumption which is still shared Arist. ff. 2 i. Eel. He primitive matter the unlimited perishable.). fire On this assumption. i. Pre-Socratic Philosophy the Ionic 256 3 . the air. 240. 5. by some. 1 tively statement of Theophrastus (ap. i. 4. this primitive matter must be unlimited. as more its by it concerning matter in general. and its is underived and im eternal. 208 a. 1 conceived as cylin direction. all definite material substances. Cf. Phys. 8. 154. note 4. 3. or it would 3 As otherwise be exhausted in the creation of things. 13 which Eitter bases of Cf. but meant that argued. * Placit. 303 b. iii. Simpl. (Stob. 4. 292) &c. from the damp were separated the earth. 14 ff. in an inclined horizontal b. iii. filled which surrounded the earth as a spherical When this burst asunder wheel^shaped husks. see Pre-Socratio Philohy. 18 8. 27. [ U nor lastly as a mixture of particular substances in which these were contained as definite and qualita From the express distinct kinds of matter. upon his division philosophers into De ff. i. iii. Phys. were formed : these being moved by currents of is air. 4. and the sphere of fire crust. i. 203 b. cold were parted off. motion is also From the latter doctrine follows the separation ($Ktcplvs(r6ai) 9 First the warm and the of particular kinds of matter. kinds of matter. c. Phys. 22.

be changed. is maintained by a trustworthy tradition traceable to Theophrastus. On the ground of the stateItefut.). ( i. can . Weik. beginning with men. gives the appearance of stars . develop in harmony with the presuppositions of his cosmology. 2 Of a of life) fell in B. a. 1 (548 3. who were first in the form of fishes in the water.e. and under this hypothesis ment (Hippol. and that denotes the a/c^. quitted when they had to held a periodical alternation of renewal and destruction of the world. that the data in Diog. and is which continually renewing itself by means of the exhalations of the earth. 195 A.C. fj 01. but attempt to explain the a conception which may seem is in truth the first known so far progressed as to be able themselves on land. which is at least so far true that he clearly betrays the influence of his predecessor.C. 2 Uebcr AnasKimandros. ii. and 524 TLC. moving through space regular movement of the bodies mechanically. that his = the 40th year 7). IKCT. in the manner of the heavenly later theory of the spheres.K/j. 41 from which the wheel-shaped rings allow to stream forth their apertures during their revolutions. The earth was at first in a fluid state from its gradual drying up. called by later writers the disciple of Anaximander. without beginning or end. l 12. to the years 1 His life may approximately be assigned between 588 E. That Anaximander. and wrongly discredited by Schleiermacher. also a Milesian. Anaximenes. 58. 3 Abth. ii. and in consequence a series of successive worlds. which they only . living creatures were produced. very strange to us.11] ANAXIMANDER. is Anaximenes.

a change which is properly of a two-fold kind : rarefaction (navwcris. Anaximenes differs from Anaximander in taking for his first. it is flat like a . In the air both are to be found. unlimitedness and unceasing motion.. but with Thales a qualitatively determined matter . The former is at the same time Through rarefac heating. but he again coincides with Anaximander in choosing infinite which the essential Anaximander s primitive essence. avscris) . then clouds. dpalcocris) or loosening (^aXapov. In the creation of the universe.42 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. In his physical theory.. [12 treatise of his in Ionic prose. 6. It not only spreads itself boundlessly in space. formed. earth. tion air becomes fire.more. and proves itself (according to the ancient notion which makes the soul identical with vital air) to be the ground of all life and all motion in living beings. only a small fragment has been preserved. the earth was first . (Anax. prinpip]A~~^nf matt ejr_ without . the motion. determination. the whole world. equally appeared to for this principle a substance to qualities of belong.) Through air suffers its without beginning or end. ap. through condensation it becomes wind. and condensation (TTVKVOXJ-LS) or contraction (avcrsX- \saOaiy sTTiracns}.. As the air as our soul holds us together. stones an idea which Anaximenes no doubt deduced in the first instance from the atmospheric processes and precipitates. Plac. -precise. water. so the blowing breath (Trvsv^a) and the air embraces i. Plut. but is also conceived in perpetual motion and change. 3. according to Anaximenes. and the latter cooling.

Hippo. . Even so late as 440-425 B. which is to be gathered from Simpl. and from the conquest of water by fire. are mostly allied with those of Anaximenes. are portions of this fire pressed together by the air . Plut. or more precisely the moist (y&amp. In regard . Diogenes of Apollonia According to the statement of Theophrastus. 1 to Thales this statement appears to rest on supposition only in Hippo it seems to have the supof his treatise.lt.ypov) was the primitive matter of the world. 220). and which Aristotle repeats without naming their author. Accord ing to credible testimony. p. those inter mediate theories also which are mentioned (sup. . . Anaximenes agreed with Anaximander in maintaining an alternate construction and destruction of the world. From water arose fire. Pkys. they revolve around it laterally floating upon the air (supposing this was not intended to apply merely to the planets). port . 1 (cf.C.12] ANAXIMENES. 43 and therefore borne upon the air the vapours the stars ascending from it are condensed into fire plate. who taught that the air was the primitive matter . 18 f. Anaximenes was followed in his doctrine by Idseus. note). i. In this he was led by the analogy of animal life as also he regarded the soul as a moisture originating 1 : from the seed. Plac. Diogenes. Diels. came the world. of a similar shape to the earth. who lived in the second third of this century. Doxogr. Later adherents of the ancient Ionian School. 39. held with Thales that water. The school which the Milesian philosophers had founded in the sixth century also appears in the fifth. 23. 13. 3.

and thus the two masses down. unlimited rational essence which governs and orders merely transformations of all things. All things are air (sTSpoiwxTsis). or. which is the same. in further process of development. one common . in The denser and heavier sank heating and cooling. all Diogenes.44 PRE-80 CRATIC PHILOSOPHY. plants. the underived. according to characteristics united in air. and human beings were produced: the soul of living creatures consists of a kind of air which though not nearly so warm as that of the sun. we find these very It is air which ferments and (as soul) produces life. the lighter ascended. this essence : them would be possible and. and partly and especially by the life and thought of men and animals. animals. . Air is therefore. on the other matter must be a thinking and rational proved partly by its distribution as is accord ing to design. [ 13 made an attempt of Anaximenes to defend the monistic materialism against Anaxagoras doctrine of the world-forming Spirit .matter must be assumed for reaction of all things. saying that Anaximenes found those qualities in the air itself. If. and things thought in animals. Their transformation (according to Anaximenes) consists in rarefaction and condensation. as otherwise no mixture . From the terrestrial slime (no doubt by the influence of the solar heat). is warmer than the atmospheric air. motion. on the one hand (in opposition to the innumerable primitive substances of Anaxagoras). the earth and the heavenly bodies arose through the revolution effected by the warm. which Anaxagoras believed could be ascribed only to spirit. were separated from which. and hand.

successive His doctrine especially after the rise of the Neo-Pythagorean school. part ries. B. and as to their doctrines only for such portions its is school and founder 1 learn from the genuine fragments of Philothe utterances of Aristotle. cf. He agreed with the ancient lonians and with Heracleitus in maintaining an infinite series of successive worlds. Schaarschmidt Repeated examination only . DIOGENES. a higher degree of can only be attained in regard to a few main certainty points. a (1819). THE PYTHAGOREANS. especially the circulation of the blood and the activity of the senses. The phe On nomena of corporeal and animate life. Schriftstcllerel d. has been so mixed up with later ele ments that it requires the most careful criticism to distinguish the unhistorical constituents in the accounts As far as the history of the Pythagorean preserved. 9. and the extensive forgeries of Pythagorean writings which prevailed there. 1864)j attempted to prove the same of all.13] LATER IONIANS. as it was handed down by also. that of the various kinds of living creatures depend. 45 the particular character of this air. All the fragments of Philolaus have been edited by Boeckh. as 2 1 we can On the Greek biographies of Pythagoras p. Leliren (Die angebl. concerned. and The became so more and more traditions. When I had of proved that forge- them were 12 f. 2 known to us. and those statements laus. Diogenes endeavoured not without ingenuity to explain by means of his theory. Pliilol. Philolaos der Pythagor. history of Pythagoras was very early overgrown with many unhistorical legends and conjectures. 14. Pythagoras and his School.

lt. .To$lf)v . iv. Mvn&amp. which we are [14 justified of the later doxographers 1 referring to Theophrastus.6 n}v refers we do not know) Cf T&amp. and that the rest of the fragments. Even Heracleitus calls him the most learned man of his 2 time. dbendliiuvol. which are often contradictory in particular details. Cf Pre-Socratic 392 &. so2)hy. besides wellknown and more comprehensive works. course reason of the untrustworthiness of the authorities. treatises iroXvij.lt. much weight to untrustworthy TIvQayopri.. exact statements in respect to the time when he lived. KaKOT^x^W. authorities. Chaignet s Pythayore et a la pyih. this son of Mnesarchus.\Krra KO. romancing disohen um. though giving too ou ao-0ej/e&amp.lt. the his ancestors.a.lt.C. came to Italy about 540530 B.pas (to what &amp. and the suspicious circum 19) under which they cannot be regarded as traditions based upon appeared. cro- careful book.gt. can only be used with the greatest care.lt. that he was born about 580-570 B. but how and where he gained his knowledge we do not know.\ e /cAeld/uei/os Tavras ras &amp. 6. (1858). Byw . 446 ff. by lateness of the accounts.y6pr}s la-ropl-^v iravrwv this tfa-K-nae avdpu-rrccv fj. 1 Among the later accounts of the Pythagorean philosophy we may mention.. 17.rvyypa&amp. From the in only can be accepted as probable.lt. Koth s uncritical and Gescli. ii. p.46 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. but only as conjectures to which stances (mentioned supra. Philogenuine. (2 vols.gt.a. UvQa. 2 Fr. which are in are part confirmed by Aristotle. eVo/Tjo-e eaim&amp. who were Tyrrhenian Samos. and died towards the end of the sixth or much soon after the beginning of the fifth century.rraTa&amp. 95. in Diogenes. was born in Pythagoras. The statements of later writers con in the cerning his travels and the culture acquired of them in the countries of the South and East. historical recollection. EAA^i/wz/ (piarrrj Herod. whither had migrated from Phlius.t) pliil. proves to me that the fragments from the treatise nepl fyvxys are not genuine. 1873) as . in Pelagians.rdpxov viii. 318 note 2.C. Philosophic..

53) seems sojourn of Pythagoras in cf.). cf. conjecture. and others) is more trustworthy. 81. Even as to the presence of Pythagoras in Egypt. Pherecydes was his instructor (attested from the middle of the fourth century ap. which he transplanted thence to Greece even Isocrates doubtless means not so much any scientific doctrines his whole In regard to reformatory procedure. nothing is known appearance in the older tradition. as 49.14 1 PYTHAGORAS. 118. to which no opposed. as it appears.lt. Plato and Aristotle it is (vide sup. The later legend describes his position in these regions as that of a prophet and worker of miracles. association there which found numerous chief sphere in Lower adherents among the Italian and Sicilian Greeks. p. Herodotus to be quite (ii. 12. it Vit. of 47 transmigration and some OrphicPythagorean usages especially gave rise. Having begun he found its his activity in his home Italy He settled in Crotona and established an (vide sup. 123. 41) that the astronomical theory of Anaximander influenced that of Pythagoras. p. Porph. i. ] 19. 11. The earliest evidence for it is an oration of Isocrates which does not even lay claim to historical improbability to all is the doctrine internal according credibility ( Busir. &amp. 11) seems to rest on a mere probable (vide sup. 33). his school as a society of ascetics living under a strict rule and having . Diog. Pyth. c. but also not certain and though the assertion that he was a disciple of Anaximander . unacquainted with any and by the philosophy Egypt. (ap. 28. 21) very im probable that they derived so influential a system as the Pythagorean from The statement that Egypt. is 2.

and participation in which. With this endeavour was combined not only the cultivation of many arts and crafts. to morality and self-control. point of view the Pythagorean society appears primarily as a form of the mysteries then in vogue . Kep. and these not x. dogma and to the cultus of Pythagoras. Diog. abstaining from flesh [ 14 their goods in diet.48 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. . and woollen clothing. ethical reform like that attempted by Pythagoras must of necessity become a political reform was inevitable . 36) of is its leading dogma. vi. apart from the mysteries of the school. which was prac to the mystic tised within the society after the example of its founder. in harmony with the Doric customs and view of life. according to the which enjoined best testimonies. The mathematical sciences until the beginning of the fourth century had their chief seat in the Pythagorean school with them was connected that : doctrine of nature which formed the essential content I That an of the Pythagorean system of philosophy. and medicine. only a few abstinences. on them however. 600 B). to bodily and mental soundness. beans. purity (jrvOayopsLos TpoTros rev {3lov. the orgies mentioned by Herodotus (ii. and sworn to inviolable From an historical secrecy with regard to their order. of gymnastic. but also scientific activity. 81) form its centre. music. the doctrine of the transmigration of souls mentioned by Xenophanes (ap. From the initiated life was demanded The Pythagorean society was from all kindred phenomena by the distinguished ethical and reformatory character which was here given of an oppressive nature. common. Plato. was probably seldom attained by any except the members. and the endeavour to educate its members.

while the Pythagorean mysteries. Meanwhile this political attitude of the Pythagorean society gave occasion to frequent attacks upon After it. . which had for their end the strict subordi nation of the individual to the whole. Eurytus was a disciple of the former. 45 note 2) and Lysis. gave the signal for a persecution that extended itself over the whole of Lower Italy. probably about 440-430 B. of that 49 period . were Philolaus (sup. where he died. Pytha even in Italy. on the great a community contrary. through whom Pythagoreanism once more attained the leadership of Pythagoreans. appears to have been gorean science. not only maintained themselves but even spread and increased. and the remainder were dispersed. move from Crotona which determined Pythagoras himself to re to Metapontum. in which many of the Pythagoreans lost their lives. extinguished or to have sunk into a state of insig nificance.14 1 PYTHAGORAS.. and mentioned by Aristoxenus as the last About the beginning of the fourth century we meet with Cleinias in Tarentum. were upholders of the Dorian aristocratic institutions.C. of many years irritation. p. these Among through whom middle Greece first became acquainted with Pythagoreanism. the burning of the Pythagorean meeting-place in Crotona. his scholars are fugitives. and soon afterwards with the famous Archytas. spirit of their doctrine. the teacher of Epaminondas. in their politics the in accordance with the whole Pythagoreans. soon after his time the . who both lived in Thebes. and they governed by their influence many of the cities of Magna Grascia among the Greeks in this spirit.

rules divine things (the cosmos). that all is number. The reason ticians remark. and the works of men. But number. 987 b. kept mainly in view that order and harmony through which the totality of things combined into a beautiful whole. /j-i^ffeiTa ovra fyaalv clvai . and consists of number and to cancel the obscurity which herein lies. number. 8).50 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. and the leading ideas of which no doubt originated with Pythagoras. Numbers are some of them odd and some even. as the Pythagoreans as mathema is that everything in the world is ordered according to numerical relations .e practical endeavours of Pythagoras their had for object the harmonious and orderly shaping of human life^ so the theory of the world which is connected with them. 15. and handicraft. and to ascribe to the Pythagoreans a definite distinction between numbers . and individual numbers are also composed of these 1 Arist. that number is the essence of things. and in the regular motion of the heavenly bodies. is . i. would be to mistake the peculiar character of their whole point of view. 6. and things ordered according to numerical relations. 1 All is so far formed according to to their unpractised realistic thought this proposition is immediately converted into another namely. is that which makes the hidden cognisable. according to Philolaus (up. and J allows M no falsehood. As_th. of this. EcL i. Stob. Metaph. music. [15 The Pythagorean System: Number. 11. and the Elements of Number. a cosmos and which is chiefly perceptible to us in harmony of tones.

(Fr. . runs through everything.) irtpaivov : in Tlato and Arist. this principle is account of this opposition in the primary con was necessary to unite harmony. light and darkness. sue) as Philolaus). of as unity of also be the manifold. the it discordant. may harmony but. . they connected therewith the assertion that the opposition of the limited and unlimited. . irfpas %x ov . the latter unlimited. or. the former are limited. straight and crooked 8. masculine and feminine many 6. long. things (the Trpdy^ara Jf &v o-vvscrra And as the limited was held by the Greeks to be more perfect than the unlimited and form less.15] THE PYTHAGOREAN SYSTEM. Uneven numbers 51 constituents. 10. On stituents of things. a principle the opposites . and Since therefore all said that all is c is agreement called number. one and 4. the even are those which do not . good and evil. which was as follows: 1. . odd and even 3. Philol. are those which set a limit to bi-partition . 9. are the fundamental constituents of numbers and of all 6 /coo-pets. . i. . limited and unlimited 2. From this the Pythagoreans even. we have E 2 . square and ob . right and left 5. as it is concluded that the odd and more generally expressed. owing to the obscurity of the school in co-ordinating the particular and the universal.). and a table of ten opposites was drawn up (no doubt first by later members. no attempt is made to discriminate not only 1 Called by Philol. . and the odd number more lucky than the even. the symbol and the conception designated by it. of the better and the worse. rest and motion 7. the limiting ! jind the unlimited.

and for the most various objects. which was also but musical harmony Harmony. In applying their doctrine of numbers to given of the Pythagoreans was phenomena. . they explained the same object was designated thus. tion one with another (e. the procedure for the most part very arbitrary aSd unmethodical.52 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. to it the as the all-embracing number. 16. the well-known (later. perfect the Tetractys with which potential ten. and their things were arranged according were explained by numbers. the Kaipos. and concord of tones are discovered. in the cosmic [ 15 harmony called . anything. But a more methodical development of the doctrine of numbers was attempted when the various qualities classes of to numbers. were placed in rela and these consequently. On numerical relations. from the octave. and the sun). next . not unfrequently still more commonly the by different numbers. and computed division of the heptachord according to the diatonic is thus given by Philolaus (ap. same number was used no doubt. determined by founded . octachord). their founder) first as the Pythagoreans (and. The Pythagorean Physics. When they found a number or a numerical relation in it as the essence of the thing . sense from musical harmony. form of it is said. oath was connected. the acuteness relation of these tones. Stob. The funda mental scheme of numbers is itself the decadal system and each of the first ten figures has its own power is pre-eminent Among these the decad significance. the the length of the vibrating strings.g.

&c. In it lies the central point and union of the it is world.lt.16] THE PYTHAGOREAN PHYSICS. Hestia. together with the other heavenly bodies. moves . Pythagoras only by later writers. four of the solid! world verse (perhaps to the aather). -JTEVTS} for the fifth (& : o^lav. 53 &amp. elementary nature of matter dependent on the form (of its smallest parts).Ecl. the plane.lt.XXaa. and here for the first time the thought appears of explaining the daily motion of the heaven by a motion of the earth. later Sib rsaadpwv) 3:4. the doctrine of the spheral harmony. world began from the i. later Sib irawv) 1:2. to have been held by Philolaus. the octahedron to air. This astronomical which can be proved system.. the citadel of Zeus. From numbers (in which Greek mathematics were accustomed to exhibit numerical two was called the number of the relations) were derived geometrical forms .lt. The formation of the otfe&amp. the icosahedron to water. seems to have first pro ceeded from the successors of Pythagoras . for of the five regular solids he assigned the tetrahedron to fire.lt. But in order to preserve the perfect number ten for these heavenly bodies. starting from the &amp. i. frqnuj^re^f^he &amp.e. an(TlEis. which. the dodecahedron to the uni number of the Philolaus made the three line. is attributed to The eternity of the in contradiction to Aristotle. for the fourth (&amp. later Sib 2:3.lt. fire Attracted to itself andliinited the nearest portions of the unlimited. the counterearth is inserted between the earth and the central fire. centre. popu- .n. for the tone 8 9. the cube to the earth. 462): for the octave (ap^ovla. Around this central fire the earth.

was foreign to them. i. soul and understanding and thereby confirms the statement (Iambi. [ 16 lar conception. 404 a. resemblance to the Platonic psychology. 2. is more ancient. six.54 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. are not to be considered authentic. . in connection with body (sup. his derivation of the 56) that Philolaus. 53). health. Theol. p. The further in the particulars handed down by the ancient tradition as belonging to but bearing a stronger Pythagoreans. and light and wisdom. and it may be true that Philolaus placed the seat and germ (dp^a) of reason head. treats the seven planets as the sounding strings of the heavenly heptachord. he also enumer human under the category of things reduced by the Pythagoreans to number. that of the soul in the heart. 5. i. subject also. Arith. perhaps likewise as the harmony of the body. 16) . Aristotle only states in regard to that they held the solar corpuscles. The soul is also described as harmony. or. animation to to seven. in Metaph. that of seed and generation in the sexual parts. 30. (vovs) ates . that which moves them. that of growth and germination in the navel. and practical knowledge to eight. love. assigned the physical qualities to the intelligence (z/oOs). number 6 five. 985 a. The theory of a world-soul was attributed to the Pythagoreans in spurious writings of a Neo-Pythagorean origin but it is clear from what Aristotle says . to be souls (* De An. Nor do they seem to have instituted any more particular inquiries in regard that | it to the this soul.

55 Religious and Ethical Doctrines of the Pythagoreans. utterances attributed to some~~thebTogical Philolaus of which the one 1 Xenophanes and his purer conception has no certain authority. has nothing in common with . a scientific foundation of ethics. p. with the dogma of transmigra tion of souls but this religious motive which is not exclusively Pythagorean. Finally 54). by means of the doctrine of future retribution. taken by Pythagoras from the Orphic mysteries (sup. Together with the scientific determinations of the Pythagorean system. and the rest bear no The ethical precepts of the philosophical stamp. and partly in other forms.17] PYTHAGOREAN RELIGION AND 17. a number of doctrines have been handed down to us as Pythagorean. all with those determinations. 48). the doctrine of the trans- \ migration of souls. ETHICS. and have been brought into very slight combination. which arose independently. by which are chiefly meant the souls waiting in Hades. Nor is such a founda tion to be found in the practical rules and prescripts which have been handed down to us partly in symbo lical maxims. of that recalls God Pythagoreans were combined. or floating about in the air (vide p. or none at To these belong first of all. Likewise the belief in demons. A collection of such prescripts (dating at earliest from the third .000 years) the previous course of the world down to the smallest details will be repeated. and the theory con nected with it (mentioned by Etidemus as Pythagorean) that after the expiration of the Great Year (probably reckoned at 10.

The only authenticated attempt to apply their theory of numbers to the sphere of ethics lies in is an equal number multi that it is one of plied by an equal (or more accurately the two first square numbers. Though the nothing particular about it. temperance. [ 17 century before Christ) contains the so-called Golden Poem (a second. 10). vide sup. because the proposition that justice it returns equal for equal. but these formulae as in the proverbial maxims of the people and the poets.56 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Hippasus of Metapontum described as a (about 450 B. which. A combination of the Pythagorean doctrine with other standpoints produced the physical theories of Hippasus and Ecphantus. It may also be true that they described virtue as harmony. love of country. ethical principles of the Pythagoreans here find . 18. self-examination. therefore. ethical tendency of the Pythagorean society was most valuable. and the laws. was not yet experienced. for the necessity of such a treatment. p. probably enlarged by his own addi tions. the government.).C. as distinguished from directly ethical and religious exhortation. from a practical point of view. Pythagoreaniam in Combination with other Doctrines. the asserts contribution of Pythagorean philosophy to the scien tific treatment of ethical questions was but meagre . they require reverence for the gods. The expression was composed by Aristoxenus. however. fidelity to friends. four and nine). and purity of demands are as little based on scientific life. who is generally .

human fragments also of the famous comic poet. and there is a reminiscence of their doctrine of immortality in his saying that the soul is immortal.). seems to have combined the Pythagorean central fire with the first principle of Heracleitus for . like Anaxagoras. that a Divine spirit had formed the world. philo who did not belong to the Pythagorean society were affected by certain of its doctrines. about the beginning of the fourth century) united the doctrine of the Pythagoreans with that of Democritus . he corporeal atoms. ETC. for it resembles the imperishable heavenly natures.C. which are the elements of number. the Crotoniate physician (first half of the fifth century). be the primitive matter of the world. but he assumed. Epicharmus (about 550-460 B. together with certain propositions of Xenophanes and Heracleitus. not only by the examples of Parmenides and Empedocles. is shown. we find. 57 Pythagorean. Previous to his time. . it would appear. as some of the ancient philo sophers do. life When he remarks that moves between opposites. the stars being like them involved in In the perpetual motion. on the other hand. we are reminded of the corresponding doctrine of the Pythagoreans . the Pythagorean doctrine of immortality .18] HIPPASUS. instead fire to he declared of the units. ECPHANTUS. Hicetas of Syracuse. Ecphantus (who lived. with substituted whom he round herein agrees. a Pythagorean. but we are not justified in calling him. That. but also by that of Alcmseon. had exchanged the of the earth around the central fire for a its movement movement sophers own axis.

Born about 576-2 B. ix. &amp. Pliilosopli. and finally years through the settled at Elea. ff.lt. 1835. 1 Collected and edited by Karsten. et Gorgia. is spoken of even by Heracleitus ( Fr.lt. of the Eleatic. . The founder Italy.C.).58 PEE-SO CEATIC PHILOSOPHY. ix. where he died. His irony not only by the human form &c. Eel. on the other hand the supposed Aristotelian treatise. Xenophanes. (01. [19 C. 50.lt.) which come Simpl. nor a trustworthy a work of Aristotle or Theophrastus. ap. Gr. The startingseems to have been the bold point of that doctrine criticism of the Greek popular belief. THE ELEATICS. 40. as a disciple of Anaximander. a poet and rhapsodist for by tradition). having passed his ninety- second year (therefore in 480 B. Mullach. Arist. Diog. 19. &amp. and others Diels. as of the Pythagorean was an Ionian who had immigrated into Lower school. PMl. we are indebted for our to the frag knowledge of his philosophical theories ments of a didactic poem (ire pi ^txrsws *). De Melisso.C. i. Fragm. 480 f. His polymathy 16. and the communications of Aristotle and Theophrastus (ap. i. from it . 101 . by which Xeno in the history phanes assumes such an important place of Eeligion.. instead of 01. Grieeh. Theophrastus (ap. and aversion are excited of the gods and the 1845. he travelled as many cities of Greece. Doxogr. De account of the doctrine of Xenophanes. Diog. &amp. Xenophane. is neither Melisso. 21) describes him His poems were on many and various subjects . 1). as Apollodoms which was maintained probably said.

changeable or Xeno the treatise 3. of the spherical shape of the heavens. 22. therefore. nor in thoughts. and. who without trouble. all things. in . this governs (rod coincides with the world. he can only have had its material substance however. De Mel. As little can we suppose that the gods had a beginning. With Xenophanes.19] XENOPHANES. i. It is more likely that he spoke in another connection of the infinity of the space of the air and of the depths of the earth. none of the gods can be governed by another. The Best. 986 b. . . all ear. he declared the One (or asTheophrastus. on the other hand. 3. Metaph.lt.(Arist. he says. or wander about from one place to another. . There all is therefore only one God. and without referring these expressions to the Divine nature. the state proved &amp. however. eye. according to the explicit testimony of Aristotle and Theophrastus. can only be One . unlimited^ phanes. did not discuss when.n__thinga HTR Ope ? is known from Plato ( Soph. 30. 5. 59 unworthy stories about them related by Homer and Hesiod he finds also that their plurality is incompatible with a purer conception of Deity. it is expressly to be neither limited nor unlimited. That he declared the world to be underived and imperishable is also credible in saying this. says TO %v TOVTO Kal to be the J)eity. . Phys. by his thought. 977 b. without inquiring how the two ideas were compatible. * neither comparable all to mortals in shape. thought. 242 D). This One Divine Being is eternal and un whether^lknited. ap. ment deserves no credence. Trav) 20) . When he : looked around upon the universe. Simpl. that he was the first to bring forward the doctrine that n.

Parmenides ascribed the same If qualities to all reality. Xenophanes maintained the unity and eternity of God and the universe. 23) is nearer the truth when s (doubtless following Apollodorus) he places his most nourishing (d/cjjir).&quot. that . usually assigned to a man fortieth year). cannot have been born earlier than 520-515 B. and every&quot. formed itself jjea.C. When the later sceptics reckoned to Xenophanes among themselves. c Diogenes period (ix. for in regard to the universe he did not assert it. but the dogmatic tenor of his other doc how far he was from scepticism on principle. probably belongs to the anachronisms of which Plato allows himself so many on artistic grounds . how ever. from the the earth. and antiquity.60 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. trines shows. according to his representation in the Parmenides. 41). and would again partially sink into it the sun and the stars he supposed to be burning masses With of vapour. according to his theory. . p. they were able appeal in support of this assertion to expressions of his which deplore the uncertainty and limitation of human knowledge . notwithstanding. and and variability and especially by Plato. Parmenides. 20. construction will be again created (from it. as the inevitable inference from of plurality conception were consequently explained as mere appear things This great thinker. This statement. at its new vide sup. [ 19 in view. had observed. the earth the human race will also be destroyed. who was so revered in ance. which are formed anew day. as he proved from the petrifactions he .

2 The fragments &amp. it neverjwas. and there is nothing by which it unmoved. spreading itself equally from the centre to distinct all could be divided. and (\6&amp. If~Ts~TTrdl Visible. in the S?/mb. Bonne ns. thought of the existent. .20] PARMENIDES. and he 1 his philosophical theories have led a Pythagorean life. 58 Th. origin. wfpl will be found Philol. is not and cannot be thought ( Fr. 59 (544-0 B. Farm. complete in itself. . Only that knowledge therefore has truth which shows us in all things this one invariable being. Berl. ff. p. Two Pythagoreans himself is his education.lt. for it is that which it is.y&amp. Doctrina. Vatke. I cannot agree with the view of Eernays . 1864 ff. Mullach. in the works mentioned. Rel.lt. 18fi4 . M) the fundamental principle from which he derives his determinations of being. 33 ff. Thought.C. and therefore his birth in influenced said to 01. Gr. the mass that fills space. everywhere self-identical.reo&amp. moreover. p. It is sides. 69. and never will frsjindividedly present (vijv ECTTLV OJAOV nraiTsv ^ws^ss).lt. Leipzig. are the sources of 1 all error. Being cannot is begin or cease to be. change. 61 in 01.gt. and may be compared with a well-rounded sphere. ! reason on the other hand. but by the existent he understands not the abstraction of pure being. is not. but the full. decay.gt. for it can neither come from non-being nor become non-being be. Stein. Karsten. which show us a multiplicity of things.yos\ The senses. jput . i. without being this all Only being is. and this is for it is from being. Philosoph.).s of his poem in 2 . 43 f./&amp. 703 2 On the other hand. everywhere equally. nonany more precise definition. but in he is allied to Xenophanes. starts is The conception from which he that of the existent in its opposition to the non-existent .

placing. the of presentation. how the world was to be the standpoint of the ordinary mode explained from In truth.62 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. but very few of these have come down to us. corresponds to being.j&amp. man places non-being beside it. of which one explains all things the other to non-being namely. each of ing to the elements recognised Qml which is akin to it. and the described the former as the active principle. Of. . they the warm element is in the ascendant. which Parmenides also dark.\oyos the cold. light. spheres grouped Of these spheres some are fast arch of heaven. According to Theophrastus. and others that Parmenides was in his crithinking of Heracleitus ticism of those who regard being and non-being as the same. He seems to have from terrestrial slime.Trie&quot. principle. the heavy and he also called earth. or the or fire aWepiov TrOp). we can explain to ourselves the origin presuppositions and constitution of the world . and some mixed. and thus opinion of out of two elements. latter as the beside all them things. 109. only being exists.lt. He describes the explanations and the various universe as composed of the earth and spanned by the stead around it. in the second part of his poem. two 011 which the character of the presentations depends have therefore greater truth when predominates. and night : light (&amp. Parmenides nevertheless undertook to [20 show. ^ supposed thatmenjonginjited accordTheir jthoughts and perceptions are regulated material constituents of the body.gt. the mydtic form of the goddess who guides He undertakes to show how upon these passive some dark. n. &quot. Pre-Socratle PMlosopliy. however.

space itself must be in a space. it small as well as infinitely must be infinitely great infinitely small. viii. G3 Zeno and Melissus. because the units of which it is com as follows: posed must be indivisible. 57. by refuting the ordinary mode of presentation with such skill that Aristotle (according to Diog. because each of its parts must have a part before it. (3) Since all things exist in a space. . from which it is separated.lt. Zeno of Elea. he defended the doctrine of Parmenides in an indirect manner. and partly against motion. because in order to be many. Parm. and so on for ever. it respect to number be limited as well as un limited because there would be no more . twenty-five years his junior. whose A heroic death in withstanding a tyrant is so celebrated. things than there are unlimited. must in : limited manner must be preceded by another part. and the space in which it is . between two things there must in every case be a third. and consequently without magnitude infinitely great. ix. and according to Plato (&amp.21] ZENO AND MELISSUS. were being many. and this third thing must have another between itself and each of the other two . as far as we are acquainted with them. 127 B). third generation of Eleatic philosophers is re presented by Zeno and Melissus. 25). The arguments of Zeno. (2) Again. 21. are directed partly against the theory of a plurality of things. this in like and so ad infinitum. multiplicity is The argument against : (1) If being were many. was the favourite disciple of Parmenides. calls him the inventor of Dialectic. In a prose treatise written in his earlier life.

so. therefore. &amp. and so on. the tortoise has arrived at c. and consequently also during the whole time of it.eaeh part of a But the four arguments against grain must do so. if it has at all got the start of him . Therefore to the the laws facts. another body twice as fast if the latter is moving towards it with equal speed as if that other were at rest. if maintained that motion are * still Phys. each grain and_. of motion are later here in these opposition At a period. The (Arist. in every moment of its flight. but from the manner in which he pursued this end he gave a powerful impulse . and in order to have arrived at the half. at each moment only in one and the same space it rests. * (3) The flying arrow is at for it is . when he reaches B. (4) Equal spaces must be traversed in equal time. a body must first have accomplished half of that distance. is must be and so on ad infinitum. more famous and important and his commentators). [ 21 (4) Finally it the shaking out of a bushel of corn produces a sound. it must first have reached the half of that half. Achilles cannot overtake the tortoise. That is. first is In order to have traversed a certain distance. 9. B . rest. for while he arrives at the standpoint A of the tortoise. the tortoise has arrived at a second. Zeno himself only designed them to support the propositions of Parmenides. and so forth. But a body in motion passes if the speed be equal. (2) Another application of the same argument (the so-called Achilles).lt. it must in a limited time have gone through spaces unlimited in number. this : vi.64 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. arguments were used in the interests of scepticism .

denied all He also applied the argument that the void is incon against motion in space. with Parmenides. Empedocles and Leucippus. 442 In 6 Melissus of Samos. charging them with the contradiction that things often show themselves changed 1 in the sequel. Parmenides doctrine of Being. for without the void neither motion nor rarefaction and condensation would be possible. with Parmenides. He proved the eternity and imperishableness of Being with the I same arguments as Parmenides . the unity and indivisibility of Being. the doctrine against the included. 2. conquered the Athenian fleet. which i. He sought. ft . With him also he change and motion. among whom were seem. For he steadily maintained. the same who as navarch in B. Fragm. and further applied this denial of the void to oppose the theory of a plurality of things. set forth in his l treatise irspl fyvo-sws this. De Melisso.&quot. F .9 would be impossible The fragments in Ionic prose in Mullach..&amp. but differed from him I \ in drawing from thence the inadmissible conclusion that Being must also be unlimited in space.gt. he re ceivable jected the evidence of the senses. however.21] ZENO AND MELISSUS. to establish this doctrine by denying the exist ence of empty space. and in consequence (in opposition to Empedocles) all division and mixture. and motion. and previously in his edition of Arist. Phil. time. as it would while defending Physicists. 05 not only to the development of Dialectic. but also to the discussion of the problems involved in the conceptions of space.C. he sought at the same time points of contact with it even in them. Lastly.

Die Philos. This mode of ex him the surname of the Obscure (first position gained found in Ps. 1877 (I quote from this . moving as it did more in intuitions than in conceptions. if he was really sixty years old when he died (Diog. his birth. 6 Fr. in 535 B. 1858. he went his own way in pursuing his inquiries (sSL^crdfjiTjp SJJLSWVTOV. 52). viii. full of contempt for the doings and opinions of men. ( WerJte. Heraklit. and not satisfied even with the most honoured sages of his 4 time and nation. [ 21 they were really so constituted as they at represented themselves to us. Of an earnest and thoughtful turn of mind. THE PHYSICISTS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY 22. Heracleitus. 1873 Mullach. The results he laid down in his treatise without particular demonstration. 80 sis s/nol /^vpioi.66 if PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. Phil. B.C. Herakleitos d.. a of Parmenides (concerning his relation contemporary to him. 1 1 His fragments are collected and treated of in monographs by Schleiermacher. his death may be Heracleitus placed about 475 B. . .. De Mundo. Hcrakleitos (1807) 1-146) . Lassalle. Schuster.C. 61 note 2). Fragm. c. 5). first II. pic turesque sentences. ii. in pregnant. 2 Bde. 113). z. Bywater.. was an Ephesian of noble family. Arist. Oxford. 310 ff. . i. and directed rather to the combination than the discrimination of the manifold. vide supra.C. Phil. To himself it to correspond with the dignity of the subjectmatter. . Dunlteln. and to us it gives a true representation of his seemed thought. which were often oracular and laconic to the point of obscurity. Fr. p. . Heracliti Reliquice.

\g. i. according to Heracleftpa.s&quot. elvai 5e iii. iraylws i.. 1876. D. b. and transposed into perpetually new shapes. Ncue Stud un zur Gesch. De . llkc-in. is so profoundly impressed with the ccnsclcss rliMiige of things. and_can only regard the cosmos as being involved in continual change. 81) continually passing over into some thing else. Id. 90 ft . F. 402 A. 4 war and peace. vii. and he too regards it as a uniform whole. Arist. which as such neither Like starts But while they fix their atten arose nor passes away. 41. . Trdvra 29. into the same stronm e everything is conditions. All things are in constant flux. Teichmiiller. satiety and hunger ( Fr. . and this proves that it is one nature which assumes the most opposite forms.ees in it the most Heracleitus. nothing has permanence :Y he cannot Hrsc-ond twice Fr. Hvraditea.22] HERACLEITUS. ix. TO. the of the human race has One for All. thai he&quot..frrp. 36). and is. universal law of the world. 401 H. 59). . But this essential nature.. N. that (Fr. 20). summer and winter. 67 Xenophanes and Parmenides. tion so exclusively on the continuance of substance in the universe that the plurality and change of pheno mena are altogether cancelled in a mere appearance. ovra Uvai re irdvra Kal TTOJ/TO ^v^iv ouSej/ x^P^ Crat. 25)8 1848. Heracleitus from the consideration of nature. Ctflo. on the contrary. xal Plato. yueVei. and pervades the most various ( . 241 if. the transitoriness of all the particular. ^eli/. and shall be. compare Bernays.. 4 This world. All is Grod comes from One. Further the reader may ovQev. neither one of the Gods nor made but it ever was. ouSeV. F 2 . The foundation of this theory ultimately lies in the fact that fire appears to the philosopher to be the substance edition). and One from All V day and night. dcr Begriffe. Mm. an eternally living fire ( Fr.

TozW. as wares for gold. Heracleitus spoke.os) is the things That which strives against another 62. \Vp7]S KOI TO^OV. it moves. wisdom the universal reason (\d&amp. All is and ( fire for all. 44). 56). 6 (W\/z&amp. But not less strongly did he maintain that the c hidden harmony (ryvw/ATj).yos\ Zeus. 45. everything is conceived as in perpetual transition from one state into its opposite. exchanged and gold for for wares Fr. and in the same way they return fire. which separates.lt. [22 which it fire in another permanent consistency or allows and he consequently understood by his not merely flame. therefore. contemporane rule all ously present of the world (A /A:??). . The harmony according to Plato. 242 D). to it again. 22). the primitive essence recomposes itself anew in all things according to fixed laws. rules all things. it never produces anything perma nent. Sophist. fate. That supports itself (avri^ovv crv^spov. and censured Homer for disparaging Discord. like that of the lyre and the bow TpOTTOS. or the Deity.gt. of Zeus- Polemos. and again retires from them. but warmth in general for which .&quot. c (&amp. &amp. . of the world rests upon opposite KO(7/jiOV tension. Strife (jir6\s^. and therefore has the tion never stands contradictions.lt. least of all has a . &amp. between which in itself.lt. Things arise from fire through its transmutation into other substances. reason it is also designated as vapour (dvaOvfjbiao-is) or breath (tyv)(rj). of nature ever reproduces concord from oppositions. 46). and that the divine law (8/^77).68 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. comes together with itself ( Fr.oT:ners read 7ra\lv- ap/jLOVLTj OKOXTTTSp Fr. But as this process of transforma still. the father and king of Fr. Fr.lt.

its again. its 69 In transmutation the primitive essence passes : through three fundamental forms out of fire comus water. and in the opposite direc tion from earth comes water.22] HERACLEITUS. and from water. their opinion contradicts not only the unani of the ancients since Aristotle. earth . by be again recon stituted from the same substance after a fixed time . the latter the &amp. but they appear to remain the same so long as the same number of sub (&amp. Hegel.lt.lt. in end the primitive fire. in order to means of less alternation.rpo&amp. but likewise the utterances of Heracleitus himself. between the state of divided being and that of the union of all in things fire the When Schleiermacher. from water. nor can mous testimony . so when the cosmical year has run course it will return to primitive fire conflagration. Heracleitus (in harmony with Anaximander and Anaximenes) applies the same As the world arose from point of view to the universe.rvvt}). fire. tha. (xopos).lt. 69). All things are con tinually subject to this change. and that both lie through the same stages is asserted in the sentence Fr. stances of a particular kind flows into them from the one side as they give off on the other. The former is the way downwards. way upwards. A prominent example of this change is afforded by Heracleitus s proverbial opinion that the sun is new every day.lt. and Lassalle deny that Heracleitus held this primitive doctrine. and thus the history of the world is to move. for the fire collected in the boat of the sun is extinguished in the evening and forms itself afresh during the night from the vapours of the sea.way upwards and the way downwards is one. (XW&amp.

physical hand it is quite consistent that the philosopher who. 4). convinced. The well-being the of the of (&amp. 4 order of the world arises that contentment (svapscrrTjwhich Heracleitus is said to have declared to a-isf) be the highest good .lt. and should set up for practical con duct the principle that all human laws sustain them selves by One. he is upon himself: r. the soul-fire is subject like all else to perpetual transmutation. 91). should only ascribe value to rational knowledge.gt. As. and that Heracleitus should ac cordingly maintain like the Orphic s that the souls for all this. his life to a higher On the other theory affords no justification. how ever. it must be supplied by the senses and the breath it from the light and the air without us. Fr. ^aijjiwv ( depends Fr. the Divine ( Fr. but should continue in an That individual existence. the happiness of man.gt. c [ 22 Soph. The soul of man purer this fire. be supported by the passage in Plato. fight for law as for walls Fr. therefore.lt. common : wealth depends people must upon dominion its law the . a part of this divine fire the . in passed from this the change of individual things. directed to the Fr. 242 the 6 Cf. man must follow. should not be extinguished at the departure of the soul from the body. . should declare eyes and ( common element ears to be bad witnesses (&amp. this. 74).mpxe__perfect is the soul is. 91). 121).6os av6pw7ru&amp. &amp. regards nothing but the universal law as permanent.70 it PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. 100) . but he must extinguish arrogance like From trust in the divine a conflagration ( Fr. 103). : the dry soul is the wisest and best ( Fr.

physician.22] HEItACLEITUS. which his remarkable personality. these later Heracleiteans. he. the teacher of Plato. others depreciatory. into circulation . but also found encouragement in Athens . attacking with sharp language not only the Dionysiac self to orgies. The itself till not only maintained the beginning of the fourth century in his of Heracleitus own country.C. 110) . By of his impassioned eloquence and practical energy. and Cratylus in particular. belonged to it. Concerning his death many romantic early stories. and died at the age of sixty. to follow the counsel of an individual ( Fr. that Plato and Aristotle both use very contemptuous language respecting tlTeTir. resembling that of Pythagoras. prophet.. and against the democracy which had banished his friend Hermodorus he launches the most violent censure. but he attached still to the functions of religious teacher. long maintained himself at the head more importance of the Agrigentine democracy . and worker of miracles. 71 but this also is law. 23. about 435-0 B. and had fallen into such extravagances. With the same rude independence he opposed him the religious opinions and usages of his people. says the aristocratic philosopher. had become so unmethodical and fanatical in their procedure. but also the worship of statues and bloody school sacrifices. the most probable account . came some deifying him. Empedocles* Empedocles Agrigentum was born about 495-0 B. enabled him to exercise.C. But Cratylus. like his father Melon.

Neither of water. he seeks a middle course between Parmenides (whose disciple he is called by Alcidamas. decay to a separation. air. however. is allied with the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines in his physics. and change to the partial separation and combination. their becoming and variability . all mixture of 1 Collected and explained by Sturz. 1 . : oppose the plurality of things. originates with Empedocles. or combine with another to form a third . Empedocles calls them the c roots of all. KarEel. the ^VCTLKCL an and the KaOapfioi. Mullach. but as elements. sten. In his mystic theology. He is the first philosopher who introduced this conception of elements . Also the fourfold number of the elements. Fragm. . These sub stances. 56) and the theory of the universe With Parmenides. Stein. ap. denies that origin and decay in the strict sense are thinkable but he cannot resolve on that account to . he adopts the expedient of reducing becom ing to a combination. i. he conceives as qualitatively distinct from each other. and quantitatively divisible . Phil. Diog. only the two didactic poems. . of underived imperishable and invariable substances. [ 23 that having finally lost the popular favour. Empedoclis Fraym. Empedocles . on the other hand. not as atoms. (1838) (1852) 13 if. he which Parmenides opposed. fire. . earth. these four substances can pass over into another. and so. Mnipedoclls Carm. viii. bear his name. the term indeed is of later origin . perhaps following the example of Leucippus.72 is PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. he died Of the writings which exile in the Peloponnesus. can with certainty be ascribed to him numerous fragments of both have been preserved. Empedocles (1805).

The opposite counterpart of Between in arise these extremes lie those conditions of the world which individual natures and decay. air or and thence was formed the . mixture.endless . now brought_tOr_ gether into unity^by love* and now separated_byiate. and the influence. and the latter Hate (velicos. the world is sphere. and these were gradually drawn into it .23] EMPEDOCLES. In the former of these conditions. correspond to one another. Empedocles calls the former Love (^XOTT/S aropy^\ or also Harmony. so_JEmpedpclej_say^_thai__^e elements _are in . fire and__ again returning to it. as a perfect mingling of all substances. they attract each other. that the substances may come together or separate.. In the formation of the present world love first produced a whirling motion in the midst of the substances separated by hate. moving forces must also be present. KOTOS). As Heracleitus represents the world as . hate is banished from this is the entire separation of the elements. as in the case of the magnet and iron. periodically comjn^forth from the . But these forces do not always operate in the same manner.primitive. from this aether first separated itself. which substantially separated bodies exert on each other.alternation. is brought about by small particles (aTroppoal) of one becoming detached and entering into the pores of the other where the pores and effluences of two bodies .. 73 substances consists in small particles of them being mechanically assembled together. however. In order. which forms the globe-shaped described as a blessed god because all it.. and of these there must be two a combining and a separating force. through the rotatory movement.

but as the union of substances From the by love only came about by degrees. animals and beings arose. explained the construction of organisms according to design by the theory. He nor is it asserted by Ari seems to have occupied himPhilol. one of fire. course of time. as the moon those of the sun. and . Abh. PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. so in the origina tion of living creatures he supposed that a gradual First separate progress led to more perfect results. according to Empedocles. is neither probable in stotle ( 1 human itself. if . ii. The swiftness of the to rotation occasions the earth and the whole universe remain in their place. the latter of the night. the former is the heaven of the day The sun. Empedocles. s. Akad.74 arch. 8). the other dark. der Berl. on the contrary. then these united together as it chanced and produced strange and monstrous forms similarly when the present . earth.e. from the evaporation of the water came once more i. 1878. 115 . like the Pythagoreans. Ueber die und Hist. plants and animals were produced . See my treatise. masses were thrown up from the earth. which occupied the . time. from the earth below the aether place immediately water was pressed out by the force of the rotation. air. held to be a mirror which collects and throws back the rays of the heavenly fire. that of the creations of chance only those capable of life maintained themselves. with masses of fire sprinkled in it . of the heavens [23 next fire. 1 Phys. The sky consists of two halves. griechuclien Vorgdnger Darwin s. the lower atmosphere. they were at first shapeless lumps which only received their organism in That Empedocles.

and that therefore the quality of thought l is and especially of the blood.23] EMPEDOCLES. he brought eye. He did not even try to explain away the contradiction turn of the purified between them. 75 self considerably Concerning with the subject of living creatures. forward the general principle that each element is recognised by the similar element in us (as also what is akin and aversion by what desire is evoked by is opposed). nor his prohibition of animal sacrifices and of animal food. he set up con which were of their kind very ingenious. which thought. Fragm. &c. animals. ed. . Mull. v. however. regulated according to the constitution of the body is the chief seat of This materialism. does not deter sensible him any more than Parmenides from placing decidedly below rational knowledge. though it is evident that these doctrines . of their transmigration into the bodies of plants. 378. he thought that emanations from the the skin) and similar : \ water of the eye meet the light coming towards the To explain the activity of thought. and men. the process of breathing which is effected partly through (^ phenomena. their generation and development. and of the subsequent souls re to the gods . With this system of natural philosophy Empedocles made no attempt to reconcile scientifically his mystic doctrine (allied to that of the Orphics and Pytha goreans) of the sinking down of souls into terrestrial existence. He jectures tried to explain the activities of the senses by his in regard to doctrine of the pores and effluences fire and sight. the elementary composition of the bones and flesh.

s. Philologenvers.a&amp. was. 741 ff. a citizen of Abdera.) refers . it is equally hard to say where this idea could have found a place in his physical system or even how it could have been compatible with it. der 35.). The Atomistic School. and that unity and harmony are supremely blessed. still young when Anaxagoras was already old (vsos /cara irpzo-ftvaccording to his TTJV Avat. Phys. and therefore born about 1 Hence we can explain why Epicurus denied the existence of Leucippus (Diog. a contemporary of Anaxagoras and Empedocles. Simpl. subsequently found This renowned philo sopher and student of nature. f. Philologenversammlung. like Xenophanes. Nor do we know whether and where room was left in the physics of Empedocles for the golden age to which a fragment (v. own assertion (Diog. The founder is of the atomistic school was Leucippus. and if the philosophic poet (v.lt. 13). 417 M. 389) has. the nearest approximation we can make Theophrastus (ap. 1882. [23 involve the conception that strife and opposition are the cause of all evil. but that he was exactly forty years younger than Anaxagoras. set up a purer idea of Grod in opposition to the anthropomorphic presentation of divinities. x. but does not know whether he came from Miletus or Elea. which to his date. 24. Jahrb.y6pav) . Phil. however. Rohde ( Ueber Leucipp wwd Z?m0cH.) attempts to prove that Epicurus was right.76 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. s. he is amply confuted by Diels (Verhandl. 96 if. 41). 4) calls him a disciple of Parmenides.Verhandlungender 34. ix. The writings from which Aristotle and Theophrastus took their accounts of his doctrines seem to have been 1 among those of Democritus. 1881. 28. When. .

Fragm.) we do not know. a hundred. parts of natural science appears to Leucippus (as composite things) Parmenides had shown. et Corr. cannot be conceived without Non-Being.. but it is difficult. he main . His passion and probably also to Babylonia. An. 26. the i. lodorus. being himself the first of the savants and natural five years (&amp. 642 a. whose disciple he was according to Aristotle and Theophrastus.lt. Phil. f to be regarded as the all work of Leucippus. Gen. i. . especially in regard to the moral sayings. his age is variously given as ninety years. itsi application to 8) was convinced. The year of his death is unknown . He was acquainted also with other older and contemporary philosophers besides Leucippus. in its essential constituents. writings fragments have been preserved. like Parmenides. and since this. &amp. to discriminate what is spurious. Aristotle xiii. Fragm. Metaph. but he would not deny the plurality of things.e. 4. 1. i. v. nor genesis and decay (i. he spent abroad Fr. Vemocr.lt. 1843 . while disciple. But Being (as in Parmenides) Mullach that which fills space.24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. 6 Mull.lt.C. as tained that Non-Being exists as well as is Being. an unfounded assumption of ApolPart. 1078 17) places for him as a philosopher before knowledge led him to Egypt but whether his inter course with Leucippus. B. 77 460 seems b. of the impossibility of an absolute genesis and decay . to be (&amp. philo sophers of his time. of have been chiefly that of his Aristotle says. Of his 1 numerous The Atomistic is theory. motion. is to be included in the Socrates. and even more.

78 PRE-SOCRAT1C PHILOSOPHY. but must themselves be indivi sible because they completely fill their space and have no vacuum in them . underived. . [24 Full Non-Being is the Void. we must refer the qualities and As all atoms consist of the same of things. These atoms are constituted precisely like the Being of Parmenides. different weight. Leucippus and Demo- Plenum and the Void to critus. they conceived the Plenum as divided into innu merable atoms. for this reason they are called atoms (aTopou) or also. is a mechanical oper and impact all influence from ation. if we imagine this as split up into innumer able parts and placed in an unlimited empty space . All derivation. imperishable. the reason can be that there are more empty spaces in the one only than in the other. or genesis. therefore. size . therefore. if two compound bodies of similar their. thick bodies (vaara). but. through pressure a distance (as between the magnet and iron. which on account of their minuteness are not perceptible separately these are separated from one . homogeneous throughout as to their substance. another by the Void. weight must exactly correspond with their consequently. To qualitative change them alone. and all decay in the separation of combined and similarly with all kinds of change. of the of separate composite consists in the coming together magnitude have a atoms . they are distinct from one another only their form and magnitude. and are capable of no by but only of change of place. light and each other operation of things on . in order to be able to explain phenomena in reference to them. changes matter. All . atoms . declared the be the primary constituents of all things .

and arrangement of their atoms . . Of these innumerable worlds our world is one. and having the most various forms. there must always have been innumerable multitudes of such worlds existing under the most various conditions. are formed. this. on the one hand the homogeneous atoms are . Phys. vojup TTlKpOV. the formation of the heavenly bodies in the air. VOp. VQfJLU) ^V^pOV^ VO fJLW XpOtl]. magnitude. floating on the air. The supposed by Leucippus and Democritus to be a round plate. their gradual drying up and ignition. all the atoms from eternity move downwards in infinite space but. STsfj Bs aro/jLa teal KSVOV. and from the collision of these two motions. The conjectures of Democritus con cerning its origin. and strike against them together. accord. things depend upon position. ing to the atomists. only is earth . the sun and moon. The heavenly bodies of which the two largest. All properties of the form.) On account of their weight. the larger and therefore heavier atoms fall more quickly than the smaller and lighter. thus the smaller are impelled upwards. complexes of atoms. &c. brought As motion has no beginning. Fr. (Dem.W Osp^GV. and on the other. through the entanglement of variously shaped atoms. are in harmony with his general presuppositions. a whirl In consequence of ing movement is produced.24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL.. and the mass of atoms and of empty space has no limits. 1. or worlds. from the concussion and rebound of the atoms. is 79 by effluences. the sensible qualities the eye) effected which we ascribe to them merely express the manner in which they affect our senses: vo^w J\VKV. segregated and externally sundered.

life. while in the other elements various kinds of atoms are intermingled. for example. . and in all other things there is as much : soul and reason as there of the air. De Respir. and to these Democritus seems to have devoted special attention. before the inclination of the earth s axis. Organic beings came forth from the terrestrial small slime. indeed. Nevertheless. Perception consists in the change which produced in the soul by the effluences going forth from things and entering through the organs of the senses . : thing corporeal it consists of fine he can only explain as some smooth and round atoms. The soul. In regard to the four elements. He was. and therefore of fire which is distributed through the whole body. Democritus thought that fire consists of smooth and round atoms. the cause of sight is that the images (tUSwXa. the soul is the noblest and divinest element in man. body he ascribes still greater value to the soul and spiritual man . Ssl/csXa) flying off from objects give for . and by the process of inhala tion is hindered from escaping and is also replenished from the outer air but the particular activities of the After death. the soul-atoms are scattered. chiefly occupied with and though the structure of the human is an object of the highest admiration to him. us through the breath (Arist. [24 entered our universe after the earth had begun to be formed. revolved laterally around the earth. however. example. is warm matter in them Democritus said that there must be much reason and soul (yovs and ^%^) in it. otherwise we could not receive 6 them is into 4). soul have their seat in particular organs.80 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY.

77 a/cori^ and 7^770-177) in respect of their relative value and only expecting information concerning the true constitution of things . the imperfection of the sensible knowledge which occasions the complaints of Democritus as to the uncertainty and limitations of our but he is not therefore to be considered a he expressly opposed the scepticism of Prot agoras.24] THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. eViflt^iV is the title of the treatise from which all or much of the ethical fragments of the philosopher seem to have 1 been taken. latter . much. and this comes in contact with the effluences from our eyes. does not prevent Democritus. for . That which is most desirable is to enjoy oneself knowledge sceptic. Thought also consists in a similar change of the body of the soul: it is true. from discriminating sharply between per ception and thought (71/06/1. This material through ism. Each particular kind of atom is perceived by the cor responding kind in us. SVSO-TCO. like other philosophers. 81 their shape to the intervening air. so likewise is the value of our life. As the value of our knowledge is conditioned by elevation above the sensible. rj J n. must begin with observa no doubt. and to vex oneself as little. when the soul has attained the proper temperature the movements it experiences. xiv. so far as they are genuine. but the soul is the dwelling of as . however. . 354-407. apfjLovi and aQa^irf) and these are most surely attained by fulness 1 the daemon. though at the same time he admits that our knowledge of things It is also. Happiness essentially consists in cheer and peace of mind (svOvptr). from the tion. as possible but svSaifjLovla and KafcoSai/jiovla of soul dwell not in gold nor in flocks and herds. See Herzel in Hermes.

26). i. whose influ ences were sometimes beneficent. while he did not discard explain it. another and more realistic expla nation harmonised better with his sensualism. 642 a. there with his is no proof that he undertook to establish by general 6 : this proposition reflections. and makes begin with Socrates ( Metaph. the theory that extraordinary natural phenomena have Though he found it occasioned their being attributed to the gods as their authors. An. This the spirit of the practical precepts Democritus. but in truth it is quite consistent with his explanation of nature. Aristotle consequently reckons Democritus. so Democritus supposed that in the atmosphere were them beings of a similar form to men. but far surpassing in size and duration of existence. as Socrates did maxim Virtue consists in Knowledge. As the popular religion peopled the atmosphere with daemons. of his ethics lies essentially in the proposition that the happiness of man entirely depends upon his state of with his physical theory mind. 1078 Part. or that certain universal conceptions are presented in the gods. 17 . He does not subtle observation. For this purpose. b. The theory it impossible to share that belief as nevertheless seemed to him necessary to such. and sometimes . and pure principles.82 PRE-SOCEATIC PHILOSOPHY. of Democritus concerning the gods of the popular belief sounds strange to us. moral sayings. in spite of his scientific ethics 4. the is desires and symmetry (o-vfifjiSTpiT)). of [24 of life moderation . 2. which show abundant experience. among the Physicists. xiii. to have tried to combine them scientifically appear of : and if the leading thought .

but he is likewise said to have attended Pyrrho the Sceptic. With Metrodorus. born in 01. by of his doctrine of images and effluences . 80) which emanate from them. or 500_E.24 J THE ATOMISTIC SCHOOL. ConG 2 . While he agreed with Democritus in the main features of his doctrine. he from his sensualism sceptical inferences. p. to the neglect of his property. possibility of Anaxarchus o ^LvSai/jbovucos. and was more in his death than in his life. Democritus also attempted to give a naturalistic explanation of pro phetic dreams. perhaps. by which. and the influence of the evil eye. ii. Diog. and appear to men either in sleeping or waking. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. is meritorious a disciple of Metrodorus or of his scholar Diogenes. and drew however. who probably follows Demetrius Phaler. disciple The most important Democritus is of the school of Metrodorus of Chios. 83 malign the images (vide sup. and distin guished himself greatly as a mathematician. 25. according to Apollodorus (ap.c. he likewise thought that natural indications of certain means advantages were to be deduced from the sacrificial entrails of animals. who accompanied Alexander. Nausiphanes is also to be connected. can hardly have intended to deny the knowledge.). 70-1. came to be regarded as gods. 7. who introduced Epicurus to the doctrine of Democritus . devoted himself y to science. . Anaxagoras. who was instructed either by Democritus himself or by his scholar Nessus. he diverged from him as to the details of his natural philosophy in many points.

into whose legends (accord c ing to Arist. where he died in 428 B. in the composition of which From his treatise irspl $vcrhe seems to have been already acquainted with the doctrines of Empedocles and Leucippus.C. 7. 1 airoXXvcrQai ol OVK 6p6&amp. et Diogenis FTagmenta. and all decay in the separation. . ap.lt. explained by Anax. he came into close relations with Pericles . 17 20). Diog. EAArjz/es. Anax. m. a far more ancient and mythical wonder-worker..iov&amp. whose knowledge and power extends over all things. 1827. of vovs was at an early time interpolated. But the motion through which the com bination and separation of substances is brought about he knows not how to explain by matter as such . still less the well-ordered motion which has produced such a beautiful whole.a 5 -yiverai airoXXvrai &amp. as the world. rb Pliys. about 464-2 B.gt. yivecrdai KO! Kal SiaKpLverai Kal OVTCDS av opOus KaXoltv r6 re yiveffQau (n^tufryeadai Kal rb a7r6\A.C.84 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. he was forced to leave Athens (434-3 B.). This can only be the work of an essential nature. of substances already 2 existing. that all genesis consists merely in the combination. important fragments have been preserved. Pragmenta. Schorn.v(rOai 8iaKpive&amp. whither he migrated (according to Diogenes.gt. 5e 163. (Apollodor. (Simpl.C. [25 cerning his teachers nothing is known .lt. 243 Schaubach. without any sufficient ground.lt. oi&amp. 18) Anaxagoras doctrine In Athens.rdai. Fragm. accused by enemies of that statesman of denying the gods of the State. i. some moderns.s vojj. In Mullach. ii.). - Frafj. He removed to Lampsacus. 984 b.8e ouSei/ yap xP^P.nv ff. attempt to make him a disciple of Hermotimus of Clazomense. and so full of design. so)$. Anaxagoras agrees with these philosophers that 1 genesis and decay in the strict sense are unthinkable. 7). ii.xAA a?r5 eovrcav -xp-^fj-drcav av^iffyfrai re 1829. Metaph.

lt. underived. and to this separation its also knowledge be reduced. mind or vovs. it must not be conceived as a as a mixture of such simple. and this power and rationality can only belong to vovs if it be mixed with nothing else. flesh. while the question of its is things in personality still altogether untouched by the philosopher. the rarest and purest of &amp. But as all things arise out of this mass mere may through separation of their constituents. rational. most is essential mark is characterising this is distinction that mind altogether simple.quality . homogeneous mass. later writers call them.?&amp. unchangeable. as a discrimination. for itself eavrov). invisibly small. alone all Mind &amp. presents a mass in which nothing is sundered from another. Matter. . particles of gold./&amp. but yet not . these expressions its in corporeality is not indeed adequately described. primitive substances as the elements of Empedocles. Anaxagoras describes these his indivisible primitive substances as a-rrsp^ara or ^pi^ara . but yet is unmistak ably intended.gt. before mind has worked upon it.lt. (^ovvos . nor corpuscles of specific .2f) ] ANAXAGORAS. imperish able.lt. 85 of the work of a thinking. mixed with nothing. The concep tion of mind as distinguished from matter thus forms the leading of and the and thought for Anaxagoras. on the contrary. or the atoms according to Anaxagoras it rather con sists of a medley of innumerable. in half-Aristotelian terminology. Its operation essentially consists in the separation of the mixed. is therefore restrained by no other. and almighty essence. &c. and matter altogether j compound. bones.

but never comes to an end . ar/p. the dry. and Anaxagoras. the light. these are the aether precisely. the other the cold. and the thin . by producing a whirling motion at one from thence drew in more and point. 985 a. the moist. 4. carried by the rotation towards the circumference. 18 hand. on the other for not having applied his newly discovered principle to a teleological explanation of nature. and the dense. the substances drawn into it are divided O into two masses. the ness were not in dense and the moist into the centre. of which one comprehends the warm.86 PEE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. the dark. substances are and the air. like the older lonians. [25 In harmony with these presuppositions Anaxagoras of the state in began his cosmogony with a description which Fr. division of substances proceeds with the continued movement. the earth is formed from the latter.lt. 988 b. or more The in all parts of all things. if snow were not black it as that is. and for confining himself like his predecessors to blindly working material causes.) and Aristotle Metaph. . if dark it could not well as brightness The rare and the warm were be changed into water. and only on this account is it becomes changed by the emergence possible that a thing of substances . That Anaxagoras supposed mind to inter fere at other stages of the formation of the universe is not stated. 7. which spreading more particles of the infinite mass. conceives it as a flat plate borne upon the air. and will continue separation to do so. all 1 : substances were entirely mingled together Mind effected their 6/jiov irdvra xpifaaTa %v).lt. 6). fog. vapour. Through the whirl ing motion. (&amp. both censure him (&amp. 97 B if. Plato ( Phjedo. . i.

gave the greater part of their light to the moon and all the other stars. true How scientific freedom. around. where they become ignited. The moon. and hurled into the first These at moved the sun. plants. mind. which at first was composed of slime and mud. and this is the same in all things. and at one part of their course. from the inclination of the earth s axis. and some further utterances of his which are related reveal a noble and earnest view of life. 87 The heavenly are torn from the earth bodies consist of masses of stone. but is apportioned to them is In man. which is many times larger than the Pelo ponnesus. which by the force of the rotation. tradition does not assert and not one religious philosophical maxim is known to have emanated from him. Anaxagoras thought. living That which animates them creatures were produced. horizontally. but it is effected by means of the bodily organs but (in which it is called forth not by the homogeneous by the opposite). Personally he maintains towards the popular religion an attitude of full . and sought to give a naturalistic . including in different measure. we know from some of his apophthegms. and subsequently. Through the solar heat. air. under the earth. From the terrestrial slime which fructified the germs contained in the air and in the aether. guarantees Anaxagoras himself lived for his inquiries. That he occupied himself with ethics in a scientific manner. the earth. was like the earth and inhabited . Keason entirely knowledge. in course of time dried up. and alone is therefore inadequate.25] ANAXAGORAS. even sensible perception is the work of mind.

circles and in the tendency of scientific Already the conflict of philosophic theories.88 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. We have a little more information about Archelaus of Athens. [ 25 explanation of reputed miracles. THE SOPH] IIIT Ti 26. and termed the The masses which were he called the warm and separation of materials rarefaction and condensation. Of the pupils of Anaxagoras. IT. the supposed teacher of Socrates. first separated in this manner cold. tended to excite mistrust against these attempts at a scientific explanation of the world. Origin and Character ojBophisticism. ii. it is probable much that he was not of mi*ch scientific/ aBiportance. Though agreeing with Anaxagoras in other points. such as the meteoric stone of ^Egospotamos. represented spirit as mingled in air. The statement that he derived the distinction of good and bad from custom only (Diog. this physicist approaches more nearly to Anaximenes and Diogenes in that he named the original mass of matter air. Metrodorus of Lampsacus is only known by his allegorical interpretation of the Homeric mythology. and the boldness with which they opposed the ordinary mode of presentation. . among whom may be reckoned Euripides. of the fifth century. As he is never mentioned by Arijlptle. 16) appears to be due to a mistake. there began the Greeks certain views the dis From the beginning to prevail among semination of which after some decades wrought an important change in the manner of thought of the cultured life.

the more valuable and indispensable must have appeared the instruction. an Empedocles and a Democritus had disputed the truth of sensible perception. did the general development of Greek tively. Still more impera however. which was now the centre of its intellectual and political life. men or Sophists ao(f)Lo-Tal\ and announced by themselves as they offered their instruction to all who desired to learn. wandering. national life scientific activity. and such . This necessity was met by the persons called by their contemporaries wise (ao(f)OL. by means of which a man could become an orator and over the popular leader. and above all in Athens. from city to city. and even Anaxagoras did not employ his doctrine of vovs for this purpose. the more com victorious democracy gradually set aside all pletely the limits which custom and law had hitherto placed to the will of the sovereign people. the more did the necessity of a special preparation for political activity assert itself in regard to those who desired to distinguish themselves . and the more brilliant the prospects thus opened to anyone who could win people to himself.26] CHARACTER OF SOPHISTICISM. since a Parmenides and a Heracleitus. more general doubt in the capacity of man for knowledge might the more easily be connected therewith. as a rule. demand a change in the direction of The greater and more rapid was the progress of universal culture since the Persian War in the whole of Hellas. 89 Further. because the materialism of these philosophers furnished them with no means of estab lishing scientifically the higher truth of rational know ledge . requiring in return a proportionately high remunera- .

moral. grew up in the feuds and factions of the period. This view could not be without a reflex action upon ethics and the natural result was that the rebellion against all rule. instruction was the and since the time of it has been usual to call those persons Sophists. but which hitherto had not been customary. taught quite mechanical arts. who came forward as virtue professional teachers of (using the term in the comprehensive meaning of the Greek apsrrf) . found Thus in Sophistic theories a superficial justification. or legal. even some of the most important among them. who Plato undertook to make their pupils adepts in action and speech (Seivovs Trpdrrsiv /cal \sysw). in and that our knowledge cannot pass beyond subjective phenomena. and they share this the advantages and all the weaknesses of The current condemnation of the position. and we find that men who were counted among the Sophists. all . and to qualify them for the management of a household or community.90 tion PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. came forward as the most the so-called Sophists eminent exponents and agents in the Greek illumi nation (Aufklarung) of the fifth century. civil. But the principal object of Sophistic preparation for practical life. This limitation to practical objects rests among them which was expressed by the all upon the conviction most eminent Sophists in the form of sceptical theories. . [26 a practice for which in itself they are not to be blamed. This instruction might include all possible arts and knowledge. which . in the narrower sense of the word. and by the majority was put eristic practice in their that objectively true science is impossible.

On his voyage to Sicily he was drowned. but after 427 frequented Athens and other Afterwards he settled at cities of Central Greece. F.C.C. asws Kal aperrfs &LSdcrKa\os\ was. or a little earlier. Grote. and others. and compelled to leave the city. Hermann. he wandered .lt. more than a hundred In his later life he desired to confine his years old. where he died.. On several Athens under the protection of Pericles. which superficial. The first came forward Eminent Sophistical Teachers. and dangerous element which w as united with anything that was r of and meritorious in them. in the seventieth year of his age. Born about 480 B. through Hellas for forty years. but we are acquainted with certain ethical definitions and sceptical arguments which he embodied in a separate treatise (apparently . 349 A). Of born 490-480 who first came forward as a teacher in Sicily. from the justifiable first unsound. who have brought to light their historical Grote has even failed to notice the importance. Protagoras of Abdera (Plato. but at length he was accused of atheism. devoting himself with brilliant success to his occasions he resided at work as a teacher. 91 dominated by Plato s view of them. man who called himself a Sophist and publicly as a teacher of virtue (TraiSsv&amp. and in the course came more and more to the surface. Sophists. K. instructions to rhetoric. writings only a few fragments remain. Protag. Contemporary with Protagoras was Gorgias of Leontini. his B. has been opposed by Hegel. according to Plato. time 27. 316 D f. Larissa in Thessaly.20] CHARACTER OF is SOPIIISTICISM.

and poet. The Sophistical Scepticism and Eristic. Polus. Math. Alcidamas. and Hippias of Elis. ii. Diog. a whose character has been unfavourably : portrayed by Plato. 160 C. Protarchus. 53. 130). was mentioned by Democritus. physical. i. who enjoyed considerable reputation in the neighbouring city of Athens. x/&quot. rwv OVK eo-ri.gt. according to Sextus. the rhetoricians of the school of Gorgias. c the brothers Euthydemus and Dionysodorus of Chios. &c. Mull. Evenus of Paros . moralist.e. in Plato. Xeniades of Corinth appears to have lived about the same time. vii. Tkeaet. Lycophron. Prodi cus of lulis in Ceos. sense. of what is.s A tt/T / )OJ/ avOpuiros. [27 in his youth). who poured out his mathematical. and technical information with vainglorious superficiality (according to his opponents). 152 A. TTCII/TCOI/ .92 PRE-SQCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. ix. Of the remaining c the best known rhetorician are Thrasymachus of Chalcedon. for every person true and real which appears so to him. Math. vii. Somewhat later than Protagoras and Gorgias are the two contemporaries of Socrates. Phil. 60. like Callicles in the Platonic was not a Sophist in the technical Gorgias. and for is not. of what is that i. 1 Fr. . but a pupil of the school. et scepe Sext. Man is the measure of all things . as early as Protagoras the altered position of to its object was expressed in the proposition thought . how it is not l . the comic heroes of the Platonic Euthydemus . historical. the rhetorician. 28. Critias the leader of the Thirty. a Sophist who. r&v fjCfv ovrwv OVK etrrt. (Fragm. 51. how it : Even is .?/ u TWI/ &amp.

Protagoras (according to Plato. principle ^5AAo/ elWi of^ Protagoras. 4. &amp. De Melisso.lt.). 5 f. Toiov ^ loiov TWV irpay/LLaTftiv fKaa- ^ know from 65-87. not only availed himself of the fact that the same thing makes an entirely different impression on different persons. in his the Non-being or Nature. i. Ps. TOV. 1 On Zeno and Melissus in order to prove. 152 A ff. as he did with a certain acuteness. because one thing cannot be many. and therefore it is im possible to maintain one thing rather than another of any treatise Gorgias. 2. and the all the apparently opposite principle applied to time. this reason there is only a subjective 93 an objective and universal truth. Isocr. Pyrrh. (1) that nothing could exist . c.SOPHISTICAL SCEPTICISM. no In order to establish Theaat. on the other hand. 216 ff. (2) that what did exist could not be known by us . and relative. 2 made Zeno s dialectic his pattern. with the assertion that no predicate can be given to a The pro subject. and also availed himself of pro object. . If the last-mentioned Sophist deduces from the 1 Plut. . Hel. In the constant change of objects and of the organs of sense each perception has a value for a definite only person and a definite moment. vii Cf . Col. this principle. of Protagoras also lies at the base of the position principle of Xeniades. 2 f. but also of Heracleitus s doctrine of the flux of all things. (3) and that which was known could not be impositions of In the school of Gorgias we meet parted to another. who maintained that opinions of men were false. Arist. Math. critus controverted the Euthydemus. that everything anything at any time and at the same of Demo- 2 The contents of which we Sextus. Sext. Adv.

an Eristic titles. and Hippias extended his tions instructions even to mathematics and natural science. and the kindred .94 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. in contradicting and confusing those who take merely To Plato. that found even in Protagoras himself. Mor. which seeks its object and but triumph not in gaining a scientific conviction. According to Aristotle ( Top. on the other hand. proposition. a man cannot contradict himself. Aristotle. the theory consisted in making pupils learn the most common . and in the dialogue. a part Isocrates. 145) countryman Democritus and st rap-plait ers of his day. Independent the physical part of philosophy are not inquiries in known to have been undertaken by any of the Sophists. is the art of disputation or eristic. 15). made use of certain assump although they occasionally of the Physicists. 33. and a ( Sophist are almost that synonymous be supported or confuted with any proposition could In his conversation and in his writings good reasons. is But the practical pro cedure of the majority of the Sophists shows even more theories how deeply rooted clearly than these sceptical of objective knowledge in the whole was the despair character of this mode of thought. and his fellowlaments ( Fr. ix. he introduced pupils to this art. The more common. 183 b. [28 Eleatic presuppositions the inference that a man can neither utter nor think what does not exist and is there fore false the same result appears in connection with Heracleitean and Protagorean doctrines . over the wranglers we find the theory and practice of this art in Even Protagoras maintained Subsequently an equally melancholy condition.

nevertheless. but we cannot fail to recog nise one as the direct descendant of the other. that must be of If there is which he approves. that is true for every man which appears to him to be true. from whom also the Megarian Eristics took catches * . If.). in which the examples are almost entirely borrowed from the Sophists of the Socratean period. 95 The practice is seen in the by heart. if even Aristotle thought it worth serious ex amination. as yet unacquainted with the conditions ficulties necessary to correctness of method. their patterns. It is true that the pitiful trivialities of a Dionysodorus and Euthydemus are not attributed to Protagoras and Gorgias . and what dif could be thrown in the way of their training the confusions which can hardly be avoided when by thought. and even to formal badinage and that this picture. The virtue what was universally meant by the word the^jinderstood by at the . ix. right older Sophists did not deduce these consequences from their presuppositions. degraded to empty repartee. is not a mere caricature is shown by Aristotle s treatment of fallacies ( Top. becomes for the first time aware of the full extent of its power.28] SOPHISTICAL SCEPTICISM. If they came forward as teachers of virtue. this is only a proof how little practised in thinking the men of that time were. Platonic Euthydemus. which does not conceal its satiric nature. this Eristic was able to bring most dis putants into difficulties and excite admiration among many . there cannot be any universally valid law . no universally valid truth. 29. The Sophistic Ethics and Rhetoric.

Pol. he there C ff. 13. 4.lt. they did had they been at variance with the moral views of the time. Protagoras very properly met with opposition when.). Meno. Polus. of the woman. no doubt. iv. 1260 a. 173 a. Grorgias described the virtue of the man. &c. is taken from him. and Callicles the view which Ari at a later time stotle also phistic circles ( shows to have been widely maintained in So Top. and all positive laws were merely capricious enactments. Plato puts into the mouth of Thrasymachus. . 14 ff. that natural right was the right of the stronger. Arist. Protagoras regards the sense of justice and duty (St/e?. which the authorities of the time had made in their own interest. Memor. of the child. fore recognises a natural justice.PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. of the slave. Yet &amp. he himself makes very doubtful applications. The fi [ 29 Heracles and other moral lectures of Pro- * which Hippias put into the mouth of would never have received the approval which Nestor..) in a contrast of which places law in opposition to nature. even in the Sophists of the first generation some of the of their scepticism come to the practical consequences surface.lt. In the myth in Plato ( Prot. Hippias (Xen. 320 dicus. by promising to make the weaker cause appear the he recom stronger (rov TJTTCO \dyov Kpsirrw 7roiziv\ mended his rhetoric precisely on the side where it was open to abuse. On . as they were popularly conceived (Plato. the counsels 4 which. and always) as a gift of the gods vouchsafed to all men . 7).lt. If justice was generally commended this merely arose from the fact that the mass of men found it to their advantage. ix. 27). became one of the leading thoughts of the Sophistic art of life. 12. i. 71 D f. &amp. and which &amp.

It was a neces- H . That the&quot. I have nothing to say either that they exist or that belief in . of this the variety of Of the gods. and make it their subject. 6. Among human Prodicus saw in the gods personi fications of the heavenly bodies. speech. was quite extraordinary at that time. from national prejudices is shown by it gave rise whether slavery was doubts which Aristotle mentions. religions is a proof. 3. ordinances were to be reckoned the and worship of gods . and was altogether over estimated by those who owed their whole influence to it. composed introductions to the art. felt 07 the other hand. and. the elements. anyone who that he had the power to rise above these laws had the right to do so. which they caused their pupils to learn by heart. wrote Protagoras. With the these means were included in the art of Hence of the great majority of the Sophists it is ex pressly handed down that they came forward as teachers of elocution.29] SOPHISTIC RHETORIC. they do not to men. the higher rose the value of the means by which men could win for themselves this sovereign will Sophists all the power of which. who The more completely the human will freed itself from the limitations which religion. generally. of all things useful exist. custom and law had hitherto drawn around it. it is true. distinction between law and nature was also used to set men free the doubts to which according to nature Pol. i. the fruits of the earth. pro nounced and wrote pattern speeches. is In the Sisyphus of Critias the belief in gods explained as the discovery of a politician employed it as a means to terrify men from evil.

the tenses of distinguished Hippias laid down verbs. true that to a riper taste. even in antiquity. Yet many of they seemed over. by^startling turns in the treatment. did real service in the cultivation oratory and its technicalities. copious ness of expression. as for instance Thrasyof the art of machus. peculiarities it is Gorgias the brilliant success of his speeches. select. though he doubt less ascribed an undue value to it. From them into also pro ceeded the language.elaborate these Sophistical rhetoricians. the logical tempted were exhibitions which at speeches of the Sophists an effect mainly by a clever choice to create of subject. and Prodicus by his dis tinction between synonymous words. and exuberant more especially owed to these language. . for the first time. rules on metre and euphony. though and insipid. and the kinds of sentences. the three genders of nouns. Protagoras. gave a great impulse to lexicographical inquiries and the formation of a scien tific terminology. first investigations the science of no doubt. delicate.98 PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. [29 character of the Sophis sary concomitant of the whole tical instruction that greater weight should be laid on the technicalities of language and exposition than on The or actual correctness of the discussion.

demanded obedience from all authority. As the existing basis of moral conviction laws the absolute supremacy of human and divine was also abandoned. IT was inevitable that the illumination of the Sophistic period should have a double effect upon scientific life. hitherto was as utterly hopeless as a scientific knowledge of the world and with the surrender of the belief in man s . Introduction. PLATO. and this inquiry received varied upon. On the one hand. 30. power of knowledge must be given up also the effort after the knowledge of truth. As a fact. ARISTOTLE. In the questions of the theory of knowledge and of ethics a new only incidentally touched was opened.so] 99 SECOND PEEIOD. in the consciousness of its power. exercise in the Sophistic dialectic. this alarm was not yet well grounded. On the other hand. SOCRATES. From the beginning of the fifth century the moral and religious intuitions of the nation had undergone such a refinement and amplification by the poets and writers of the time. the moral and civic life of the Greeks appeared to be in no less danger than the scientific life. thought. the questions which were of the first importance for human life had been so H 2 . the investigations of the Sophists had merely ended in the conclusion that a scientific foundation of ethics field of inquiry.

by introducing men to the formation of concepts by dialectic. which he supplemented by all the kindred elements of preconsequences. on the other in inquiries . and by applying the In process to ethical and kindred religious questions. In this manner he created a grand system of an idealistic nature. it . the central point of which lies on the one side in the intuition of ideas. He developed the Socratic philosophy of concepts. This new form passmgT&amp.gt. had never been able to emancipate them must recognise as the^true object of science the nature of things as comprehended by thought. [30 variously discussed. Socratic doctrines. to its metaphysical . i : and regarded everything from this point of view. ciples In opposition to the sensuous view. But this reflection could only be the work of a science which was free from the doubts by which the confidence in the science of the day had been destroyed. the smaller Socratic schools separate elements of his philosophy were retained in a one-sided manner. in order to acquire a new and firm foundation for moral action. from which the physicists selves. though not in a scientific form. and in an equally one-sided manner connected with older Plato carried on the work of his master doctrines. and immediate perception. that nothing was needed beyond a deeper reflection on the part of the Greek mind upon itself and the gains already won. it must proceed from firm prinabout the problem and conditions of knowledge. with a deeper and more comprehensive intelligence.eyond of the scientific life : Socrates founded by demanding knowledge through concepts. In opposition to the dog matism i of such science.100 SOCRATES.

Symp. tlie 101 about mented nature. At a later time he may have sought to increase his knowledge from books. 45. his mother. . 4-1 Diodor. and by extending them so widely that they seemed adapted to embrace the entire world of reality. mixed with the Sophists. xiv. The absolute silence of Plato tions. Crito.lt. Life and Personality Socrates was born in 470 B. limits common in his country. 7. was a sculp In youth tor. iv. Sophroniscus. ii. 2. and attended some of their lectures 1 . and Archelaus by Aristoxenus not by Ion of Chios. Mem. ii. Phsenarete. Crito. I. 97 6 &amp.). but he owed his philosophy rather to Memor. he brought the Socratic philosophy of concepts to the highest scientific completeness. Pkfed. 59 D) and about his age at the time (Plato. a midwife.30] SOCRATES. . this nature and duty of man. (it of Thargelion). 8.lt. B . as also are expressions and Xenophon are against both these assump which Plato puts into the Phasdo. 23. Laert.C. Aristotle supple by the most vigorous researches into! While controverting the dualistic harshness of the Platonic idealism. 52 E). is 31. his contemporary (Diog. . and Xenophon. 1. 19. Plato. B . he held closely to the leading principles. 37 Xen. This is clear from the statements about the time of his death and condemnation (Diog. at latest. &c. f. . 5. 17 D. 52 i. mouth of Socrates in &amp. or. Anaxagoras is men tioned as his teacher by later writers only. iv. of Socrates. his education does not seem to have gone beyond the following year. SOCRATES. Apol. in the 1 said on the sixth first months of the His father.

and piety. At the same time we can find in him traits which gave even to his con falteringly. 33 C).C. even under circumstances of the greatest and with Xanthippe at his side. he became an object of failing cheerfulness enthusiastic veneration to men of the most varied cha racter son of his nation. an indifference to outward appearance. he shows himself a Greek and an Athenian. to the end. A unshaken by any danger. an intellec tual pedantry. He devoted himself to his work in 424 B. he not only dis in the field un charged his civic duties in peace and and rank. and this voice was at a later time confirmed by the Delphic oracle. and temporaries the impression of something strange remarkable.. [ 31 own reflection. of others higher mission of influencing the development known to him by the inward voice which he was made himself regarded as divine (Plato. of moral purity. yet at the same time full of genuine human kindliness. justice. a life of few needs. as well as in his views. Aristophanes represents him as thus engaged and Plato even before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. On the one hand there was a prosiness. of neverpleasant companion. Apol. a and intellectual. His self- poverty. of an unparalleled singularity (aroTria). neither the care of his family nor participation in public A pattern of business withdrew him from his mission. and to the means of culture which Athens then provided to conversation with leading men and women than to direct scientific instruction. subtle and calm. .102 his SOCRATES. He asked for no reward . He appears to have learnt his father s art but his . renunciation was complete. but in his whole nature and conduct.

no writings behind him.LIFE OF SOCRATES. Principle. 32. can be taken into con us nothing that cannot be But these two authors has given us the views of Socrates in their true . out character is stamped on his philosophy. susceptibility was an absorption in his own thoughts which. Even in dreams he believed that he But the ultimate basis of received prophetic warnings. and a power gave the impression of emotion so potent that the dim feeling which even in his youth held him back when about to take this or that step appeared to him a daemonic sign and an inward oracle. The Philosophy of Socrates. at times of absence of mind. 103 which suited very well with the Silenus figure of the philosopher. in his the first object of which was apologetic Memorabilia . Among the As Socrates left writings later writers Aristotle alone sideration. we have to any deduction in the mouth of ask whether the unphilosophic Xenophon. different picture of the Socratic give us an essentially Plato places his own views without philosophy and if his master. all these traits lies in the devotion with which Socrates withdrew himself from the external world in order to interest to the problems which arise give his undivided The same of the intellectual nature of man. there of Attic taste. the only authentic sources of our knowledge of his teaching are of his pupils Xenophon and Plato. but stood in sharp contrast to the On the other hand. and he tells found in Plato or Xenophon. Method. The Sources.

s Kl. On the clear that the statements of Xenophon bear an historical stamp. dc Socr. it is l and Schleiermacher 2 have done. and if. tradita. meaning without any abbreviation. But while the Sophists denied objective truth and universal laws. agree with those of Plato which in all essential points . 1812. 2. in Xenophon s account he constantly oversteps the limits 1 De Pltilosopliia morali in als iii. doctrine gives we penetrate the meaning of the Socratic we can form from the accounts which Xenophon of his teaching and method a consistent picture which answers to the historical position and importance of the philosopher. Gott. independently of custom and tradition. Socrates ascribes no value to natural science.104 SOCRATES. 293 ff. comment. therefore. with the help of Plato and Aristotle. Werke. (D.) . he makes correct action depend on correct thinking . but govern it. But though this ob we have no reason to jection is not without ground. Like the Sophists. and fix its aims . the correctness of our actions. If. So crates is on the contrary convinced that the value of our notions. depends entirely upon their harmony with that which is true and just in itself. Like them also he demands that every one should form his convictions by his own reflection. Sclir. suspect the fidelity of Xenophon s account to the extent which Dissen contrary. his leading idea is the reform of moral life by true knowledge science must not be the servant of action. and would restrict philo welfare of sophy to the questions which are concerned with the men. 2 Ueber den Wertli des Socr. 57 ff. he restricts himself to practical questions. and the need of science is so strongly felt by him that even . Pliilosoplien (1818) : Xenopli.

scientific bility and the conviction of the necessity of knowledge are in Socrates far too vigorous to allow him to remain Rather satisfied with the consciousness of ignorance. it becomes inquiry in common by means of conversation. 105 which he has imposed upon himself. All knowledge. and the conditions of all right action. he has to inquire how the case stands with this supposed knowledge . the principal question is What are the This question he answers conditions of knowledge ? with the proposition that no man can say anything therefore. Hence this philosopher the first thing necessary is the testing of his own notions in order to ascertain whether they agree with this idea of knowledge. which he states to be his . indeed felt as a necessity. in the 6 proving of himself and the rest of the world (J f zrd&iv savrov KOI TOVS aXXous). self-examination can only end in a Yet the belief in the possiconfession of ignorance. must begin with fixing concepts. by dialectical in For Socrates. quiries which have no practical object. they give rise to a more energetic search which here assumes shape in the fact that the philo sopher turns to others in order with their assistance to gain the knowledge which is wanting in himself. the self-examination and self-knowledge which in his view were the beginning of true knowledge.32] METHOD OF HIS PHILOSOPHY. : upon any subject until he knows the concept of it is it what for in its general unalterable nature. his activity consists in the examination of men. Inasmuch as other men believe that they have a knowledge of some kind or another. But inasmuch as the new idea of knowledge wasi all but not yet formulated in a system. therefore. after knowledge.

and constantly brings forward new cases. and the request for instruction on the part of Socrates c On the other hand. But as the philosopher looks at every object every definition by contradictory instances. 1078 yap ea-nv a TLS av KaQ6Xov. 987 28. though his love is not for a beautiful body but for a beautiful soul. 27 Arist. . Socrates is according to the Greek view a lover. which arises in any man marked out by nature to teach and educate. b. and the method by which object is attempted is induction by dialectics. he compels thought to form such ideas as are adequate to all from sides. 1. i. but with well-known experi ences of daily life. Part. and the is midwifery (maieutike) of the Theaetetus inasmuch as the true idea of knowledge absent in those (149 ff).106 SOCRATES. t [32 mission in the Platonic Apology (28 E. 1 This induction does not begin with exact and exhaustive observation. Aft. the examination only leads to the proof of their ignorance . But found to be subjects to his tests. b. 38 A). tests the whole subject. vs \6yovs Kalrb rovs T where. 8uo : Metaph. else- 642 a. and com whom he mit themselves to his guidance in the way which he has discovered and this is especially the case with the younger men become with him the object of that inclination. 4. and airoSoir] Sco/fparei SiKaicas. so far appears as simply irony. as the partners in the conversation undertake to accompany him in the search for knowledge. and propositions universally acknow ledged. towards those who respond young to his influence. 1. and unite 1 all the essential characterIb. xiii. i. 6. The central point of the inquiries which Socrates carries on with his friends is this always the fixing of concepts.

28) confirms it. through concepts. i. are not only the want of nay. xiii. as Schleiermacher does.. of the Socratic ethics consists in reducing virtue to 1 Xcnoph. they are even mistakes. on adequate. In contrast to the Physicists. . 6. Mem. . and of natural philosophy. avrw . The Nature of self to ethical inquiries. 11 if. 6. irepl presupposition with which the decision has to begin) &v travra. Part. eVi Trjv t 5e TIS . 7. 6. 1. 1 . and the obvious harmony among difficulties them alone is The speculations his power of knowledge into which they had brought even such a man as Anaxagoras. Socrates confined him Only these have a value for to men. the other hand. always lead to the result. and that only. unfruitful but objectless . 987 b. 4. An. the object in a manner beyond any contradic With Socrates the measure of truth lies in con 1 ceptions. 13 rov avrtXtyoi viroQfViv (the general : Mem. i. to prove his However different the means of which he avails himself to contradict the opinions of others. rbv \6yov. . they that that. 1. since Aristotle ( Metaph. iv. 642 a.32] METHOD OF HIS PHILOSOPHY. 1078 b. But Socrates never established any theory of is the general principle logic or methodology. and it agrees with the general As we should expect from the attitude of Socrates. 107 istics of tion. the Socratic Teaching.) We have all the less reason to mistrust this state ment. ought to be asserted of any con thing which corresponds to its idea when rightly ceived. as is shown by the professors of them. iv. (Xen. or own views. apart from that knowledge 33. the leading thought general direction of his philosophy. 17 i.

and everyone desires his own good. Socrates finds it the more difficult to say. impos For as the good is nothing else than that which is most service able to the doer. 8. virtuous them what and all only necessary to make quite clear good . virtue arises through instruc virtues consist in knowledge. 4 . 9. therefore. &amp. out the basis of moral laws in the success of actions which are in harmony with them. and even the moral basis and problem is the same in all knows what men. 333 D. He is brave it is is . to make men to tion. as he says more than once (Xen. therefore. impossible to do right without knowledge . But what the good is of which the knowledge makes men virtuous. According to Socrates it is [33 not merely knowledge. who knows how to conduct himself in danger pious. iv.108 SOCRATES.lt.Prot. No one is voluntarily bad. as just . he is at pains to point . 6. Plato. On the one hand (Xen. and their useful ness to men. and this is the more the gods common and consistent view. For. who knows what is right towards the gods just. who . All virtues. Everything is good and beautiful in reference to that for which it . that is good which and beautiful are therefore relative ideas. are reduced to one knowledge or wisdom . iii. Good is useful for men. 4. so it is inconceivable in the opinion of Socrates that any one should not do that which he recognises as good. &e. Mem. iv. he explains that. if.). it is sible not to do right if what is right is known. In order. is right towards men. 8. as he has no substructure for his ethics in anthropology and metaphysics.which agrees with the laws of the State and the unwritten laws of but on the other. 6). &c. 353 C Mem.

It is true that the is scientific basi&quot. He requires that unconditional obedience to the laws which he himself observed even to the death. iv. and is at pains to form excellent citizens and officers for the State. Mem. that a man shall make himself independent by limitation of his needs. commends friendship. D f. 6) Socrates regards as unconditionally useful . He recognises in full measure a the importance of civic life . 47 109 is useful. but his unsystematic treatment of ethical questions does not allow him to carry out this Hence. 8. necessary before all things the care for souls and their perfection . In Plato and in Xenophon also (Plato.. 9. morality even where the unsatisfactory is in itself very noble Socratic trace of asceticism Socrates and pure. Apol. he would only allow the right of political action to those .. i.38] NATURE OF HIS TEACHING. 5. he considers it a duty for man to take part in it according to his powers. and that he should ascribe greater importance to the cultivation of his mind than He demands justice and active to all external goods. Xen. by moderation and endurance . and condemns psederastia in the lower sense. Crito. insists. though his conception of marriage does not rise above that usual among the Greeks. deeper definition of an aim is frequently crossed by a eudaemonistic foundation of moral duties. and 9. benevolence towards others. this external prosperity which follow from their fulfilment or neglect to be the sole motive of our conduct. 29 6. which considers a regard to the consequences upon our rate. D *2 f. 6. Without any with great emphasis. But as knowledge alone qualifies for right action. in Xenophon at any point of view strictly.

334 6. But even here the guiding thought is the same Man fashions his life aright when he as in his ethics. as he was limited to ethics. 108 &c. he had not the means of proving the necessity of the connection between acts and their consequences on which moral laws are founded. and is opposed to the A confession of trade and labour. the principle that a man ought to do no evil to his enemy phon. whose first principle must take account rest in mere belief. This point of support moral teaching cannot dispense with. iv. B ff. . But the examine every thinker.110 SOCRATES. 37. has shaken off the Greek prejudice. and in attempting to do this he becomes. in spite of his radical aversion to all theoretical speculation.). i. 35. thereby contradicting Xeno- Mem. among his Socrates considered our duties to the gods to be those which are essential. and regards the On the other hand. but wrongly of cosmopolitanism is placed Tusc. [33 these and these alone election of officers by who have the requisite knowledge The does he recognise as rulers. ii. refers all his actions to his own true benefit as a final its object . and Socrates looks on the whole world in . 4. he rule of the masses as ruinous. he thing. and Plato ascribes to him (Cicero. choice or lot he considers perverse. prevailing contempt in his mouth. and the less so because. 19). v. cannot of the grounds of this belief. the author of a view of nature and a theology which it is to has exercised a leading influence even to the present time. and almost against his will. ( Kep.). and thus these laws present them c the unwritten selves to him in the customary way as ordinances of the gods ( Mem.

i. 4.).lt. iv. but with him. 13) he distinguishes the Creator and Euler of the universe from the other gods. the plurality of the gods ends in a unity. which we can nowhere seek but among the gods. Xen.33] NATURE OF HIS TEACHING. 3. conceiving of him. after the analogy of the human soul. &amp. 7. he did not venture distinctly to main tain its immortality (Plato. He had no doubt of the relationship of the human soul to the divine on . viii. cf. compared with the special blessings him who offered and were not to be prayed for. he does not neglect to mark out the intellectual powers and prerogatives of men as the highest gifts which nature has vouchsafed to them. 9. Cyrop. In speaking of the gods Socrates thinks first of those of his own nation. providence takes care for the world. This arrangement of the world can only arise from the wisdom and beneficence of the creative reason. the smallest and the greatest. As to the an offering was of spirit of little rest the value of importance it. though he works out . For the worship he lays down the principle that everyone should adhere to the custom of his city. 4 Apol. He finds that everything in it. so divine if. as the mind (vovs) dwelling in the world (i. .). Socrates finds a remarkable proof of this care in the various of the gods modes of prophecy. . the other hand. 4 . 3) and. this principle for the most part with a very superficial and unscientific teleology. 40 C f. 17 As the soul takes care for the body. Ill relation to this aim. 19 if. and especially for men. and in the Memorabilia (iv. serves for the advantage of men ( Mem. since the gods knew best what is good for us. as with the great poets of the fifth century.

him had been carried by a few votes and the punish ment was being discussed. The Death of Socrates. existence of the gods duce new deities in Had he not despised the common method of youth. attempted to intro their place. a barrier upon which was regarded as chiefly responsible for the its leading disasters of the last decades. if it According to Plato. . by punishing on the part of the It was an attempt representative. He refused to escape out of prison as drank the cup of hemlock with contrary to law. Anytus.112 SOCRATES. him charge was brought against he denied the and Lyco that of the State. or. he came forward before the and the sentence of death court with unbroken 1 pride. 36 would not have been passed to only three. and That personal enmity played philosophic cheerfulness. [ 34 34. and corrupted the When the sentence against have been acquitted. a part in his accusation and condemnation is probable. When Socrates had laboured in Athens for a com plete generation the by Meletus. he would . Apol. to place determination of the ruling democratic party the innovating Sophistical education. the enmity of the Sophists as some though it was not Yet the deciding motive lay in the have supposed. defence before a court had he made a few concessions no doubt to the usual claims of the judges. thirty of five or six A. according hundred heliasts had voted otherwise. democratic reaction to restore by violence the good old the times. 1 This attempt was not only a grievous outrage another reading. which his accusers proposed was passed by a larger majority.

had he been less independent. out 430. On the contrary. Eegarded from a legal and moral point of historical fact it view. and as an was a gross anachronism. the culmination of his the philosopher. The death of Socrates later invention that the was the greatest triumph of his cause. Xenophon. THE SMALLER SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. the greater part had more feeling for his moral great ness and the ethical value of his speeches than for his ientific We see from Xenophon (born importance. manner in 113 for in in the which it was carried out no respect had the philosopher laid himself open to legal punishment but it rested upon a most dangerous The old times could not be restored. so the sentence itself had precisely the opposite effect from that which his opponents wished. and Socrates was by no means the cause of their disappearance. The School of Socrates : 35. life. of all in this manner. least deception. It is doubtless a Socrates Athenian people cancelled the sentence by punishing the accusers. he had pointed out the only successful way of improving the present condition of affairs. by insisting on moral reform. brilliant the apotheosis of philosophy and II. Among the numerous persons who were attracted and retained by the marvellous personality of Socrates. But just as might have escaped the sentence. in all probability. but history has all the more completely erased it. and died about ninety years old) how the I .34] HIS DEATH. his execution was a judicial murder.

Be we know founded schools.sense side in his Plato describes the two Thebans. and ing sophic meaning was limited. his intelligence of its philo However worthy of life. had also become acquainted Eleatic teaching. 36. Phasdo founded the kindred Elean. applied to human was for his practical wisdom. philosophic nature ( further of either of them. Protagoras. trines of four pupils of Socrates who Euclides.114 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. A the contemporary of the latter is Eubulides. under the and Aristippus the Cyrenaic. . perhaps before he met with the After the death of Socrates he came philosopher. how it respect he however great his merits in preserv nobility of feeling. a con- . the Socratic teaching. Simmias and Cebes. his piety. under the influence of with Socratic. faithful Euclides Megara. the follower of Socrates. was [35 and Socratic philosophy was set forth in this respect. is certainly so. even Pansetius de thing clared their works to be spurious. The Megarian and of the Elean-Eretrian Schools. a passionate opponent of Aristotle . In a similar manner JEschines seems to have set forth the doctrine of his master from its practical and common. and the picture of but we know no Cebes which has come down to us sides Plato. Antisthenes the influence of the Sophistic of Gorgias Cynic. He was succeeded by Ichthyas as leader of the school. 242 B). pupils of Philolaus. with the forward in his paternal city as a teacher. younger dialectician. as men of Phsedr. Socratic dialogues. by combining Eleatic doc founded the Megarian school.

which our senses exhibit to us. Metaph. the knowledge of this good. as seems probable by the Socratic teaching of concepts. Origin. change. and the various virtues are but different names for this one. and Stilpo of Megara (370-290 B.36] MEGARIAN AND ERETR1AN SCHOOLS. The world of bodies. If only know ledge by concepts has truth (so Euclides concludes with Plato). Parmenides ) to Being as a in the last resort (as in unity. Keason. ix.C. Soph.C. and therefore it was maintained apparently other hand. end of the fourth century belong Diodorus Cronus (died 307 B. In like one virtue. though known by different names. younger contemporaries of Stilpo are Alexinus the Eristic. the pupil of Diodorus. according to if Schleiermacher is right in Plato.). and as Being was placed on an equality with the good. which is the highest concept of the Socratic ethics and theology. and thus the thing plurality of manner there was only incorporeal forms which was at supposed was again given up. Divinity. reality can only belong to that to which this knowledge is related. Every beside the good was non-existent . 246 B ff. 3). as Insight. to the unchangeable essence of things. is on the not Being and motion are incon at all.) . referring that passage to this doctrine. while Pasicles To the last thirty years and the later. unchangeable and un alterable. and Philo. the ao~a)^ara iiSij. The startingpoint of the Megarian doctrine was formed. the Megarian s arrived at the conclusion that there was only one good. even by Euclides that only what was real was possible But all Being leads us back (Arist. 115 came somewhat temporary of Eubulides was Thrasymachus. &c. first pre In order to establish i 2 . ceivable. decay.

Bcrl. Socratio Schools. this dialectic with such eagerness that the whole school derived from them the name of the Dialectic or Eristic. We hear of four proofs of the impossibility of movement given by Diodorus. and a demonstration of the Megarian doctrine of the possible. and the assertion that from it. d. Akad. . Stoic. Cf. following the of indirect proof example of Zeno. my treatise in . genes the Cynic for his teacher as showed himself a pupil of the former by his ethical tendencies. which are imitated from Zeno. Megarian Megarian and the Cynic schools into the 1 no subject admits a predicate different But in other respects he was faithful to the His pupil Zeno combined the school. [36 these views. or can be is possible Stilpo. 151 ft . 1882.116 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. the horned man. on this Socrates and tlie and on the Kvpi- the Sitzvngs ber. word and deed. can move. the founders of the school. in particular. it was a singular been moved but nothing Still further did Philo deviate from the contradiction. which was admired for centuries under the title of the Kvpievwv. Most of the applications which they made use of the veiled man. the liar. When nevertheless he merely asserted [that what 1 is that a thing may have . the sorites are in the manner of the Sophists. who had Dio teaching of his school. and were for the quite most part treated in quite the same Eristic spirit as the Sophists treated them. s. well as Thrasymachus. by the apathy and self-sufficiency of the strict wise man which he inculcated in by his free attitude to the national religion. availed themselves by the refutation of opponents and their pupils pursued .

the founder of the Cynic had enjoyed the instruction of Grorgias. known to us of his teaching. Antlsth. Mullach . But the extent and continuance of this (Eretrian) school can only have been very limited. ii.lt. even earlier he had attended Stilpo. to whom he henceforth attached himself with the greatest devotion. meeting. writings. After the death of only a few fragments remain. Antisthenes of Athens. Collected by Winckelmann. in whose spirit he combined with the Megarian dialectics a view of life related to the Cynic. after his 1 Fr. his adherents were known as Cynics. Among his immediate pupils we only know Diogenes of Sinope.C. He appears to have been considerably older than Plato according to Plutarch Lycurg. was Plato has is whom Menedemus of Eretria (352-278) . the eccentric being of coarse humour and indomitable will. but at the same time going back to the Megarian doctrine of virtue. The Cynic School. school. with school was closely related to the Me was founded by Phsedo of Elis. the Eleans. 261 ff. and was himself active as a teacher before he had become acquainted with Socrates. the favourite Yet nothing further A pupil of made us acquainted. Moschus and Anchipylus. It U7 The Elean garian. of Socrates.oGJ THE ELEAN-ERETRIAN SCHOOLS. 1842. Phil. 30 end\ he survived the year 371 B. were distinguished for the excellence of their style. who. 1 Socrates he opened a school in the gymnasium of Cynosarges. 37. Fragm. Of his numerous which : (&amp. and partly from partly from their mode of this place of life.

to have been absorbed in the Stoic. value only so far as they bore directly upon he said (Diog. definition by he allow an enumeration of its was composite would . and for of a Socrates it was a matter of action. What Antisthenes admired and imitated in Socrates his was in the first instance the independence of character. of his pupils whose mendicant the school the life was shared in admiring affection by his wife Hipparchia. there : marks only for what fore. mathematics and natural science and if he followed definition by concepts. vi. requiring know the doctrine in a manner which made all actual In passionate contradiction to the ledge impossible. lived generally at Athens and died at Corinth at a great age in 323 B. he applied Socrates in . the Virtue. he allowed the individual being only that everything should and hence demanded exist. was sufficient for virtue nothing was requisite but happiness. His scientific researches he considered of action. and did not require many words or much knowledge. a cultivated man. The most important is Crates of Thebes. [37 from home. both of whom From of the third century.118 exile THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS.C. to Platonic ideas. strength . Hence he and his followers despised art and learning. characteristic He rejected. receive its own name (the olicslos \6yos) and no other. 11). from which it did not emerge again for 300 years. From this the pattern he deduced the conclusion (apparently after of Gorgias) that no subject can receive a predicate of a different nature. Among the last members of known to us are Menedemus and Menippus third belong to the second this date the school appears satirist.

vice only . intellectual possessions life : all else. poverty. and moral strength In itself this virtue is chiefly practice with instruction. slavery. as . themselves death are not goods . itself. becomes a man s governing principle. property. shame. The result of this want of a scientific basis was seen ! The leading thought in the simplicity of his ethics.37] THE CYNIC SCHOOL. health. are not in honour. With Protagoras he maintained that no man could contradict himself. maintained that virtue ! one and can be taught . could not be defined. is proper to him (ol/ceLov\ and this can only be his good. 119 constituent What was simple might be ex but it plained by comparison with something else. freedom. to his destruction. in eschewing what is . parts. to Virtue itself is referred. 2. leads and labour educates him to virtue. but in this case of will coincides with insight. Antisthenes used to say he would rather be mad than sure. of a negative character externals. least of all can pleasure be re in themselves evils garded as a good. . The pattern for himself and his pupils was the laborious life of Heracles. or labour and work as an evil . it consists in independence of freedom from needs. and it appears (according to Arist. wisdom or insight is and hence it is also with Socrates. sickness. in evil. for if he said what was different he was speaking of different things. NV ii. is expressed in the proposition that virtue only is a is an evil everything else being That only can be good for a man which indifferent. for plea . when it delighted (fMavsirjv pa\\ov rj r^aOei^v). Thus he gave a thoroughly Sophistic turn to the Socratic philosophy of concepts. Eth.

b. and happiness. possessed a dwelling. is free and a born ruler. for he was at Their ideal nature in which all men lived polity was a state of In their conduct they purposely a herd. After the time of Diogenes. and sorrow . man was a possession which could not be as their ideal In their own conduct they c exhibit an exaggeration of the Socratic freedom from needs. disas their indifference to life ter. The virtue of the wise lost. Even Antisthenes boasts (Xen. Their principle was to harden themselves against renunciation. they proved As a rule they renounced it. the wise man. by voluntarily abandoning family in the place of which Diogenes proposed the community of women . contrast of freedom and slavery. Civic life was not a requisite for home everywhere. 34 ff.120 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. . without any habitations of their own.) the wealth which he gained by restricting himself to what was absolutely indispensable but he however humble it might be. living on the simplest food. in . Cynics found this virtue among the more exclusively did they divide the world into two classes of the wise and the fools . the Cynics led a profes sional mendicant life. a citizen of the world. not only against custom and decency. 4. and content with the most meagre clothing (the tribori). 24) to [37 1104 as have been described even by the Cynics less that the apathy and repose of feeling. even though a slave. but not unfrequently against the feelings of natural shame. the more abso to the former all perfection lutely did they ascribe and to the latter all vice and misery. they ascribed no value to the life. The their contemporaries. together as rebelled. because the wise man. Symp.

v) Xenophanes. myths were recast by Antisthenes for a moral object. only one God. .v(n. of the . sacrifices.lt. and no doubt they had a beneficial influence as preachers of morality and physicians of the soul.j&amp. real worship in virtue only. if they opposed over-cultivation by the coarse wit of the tion of their times common people.37] THE CYSIC SCHOOL. If they were reckless in attack ing the folly of men. yet the harshness of their conduct has its sympathy with the misery of their fellowmen. and the corrup will. order to exhibit their indifference to the opinions of They opposed the religious faith and worship of their people. and in the freedom of spirit to which Crates and root in Diogenes knew how to elevate themselves with cheerful humour. which made the wise friends with regard to temples. The Cynics regarded it as their peculiar mission to attach themselves to moral outcasts . as enlightened persons . prayers.gt. But science could expect little from these mendicant philosophers. for in truth there was. who is unlike anything visible . in a pharisaic contempt of mankind. 121 men. as Antisthenes says with (/cara &amp. by an unbending hardened almost to the point of savagery. prophecies. it is custom (vofjios) which has created a In the same way the Cynics saw a variety of gods. and even among the most cele brated representatives the extravagances of the school are unmistakable. they expressed them Homeric and other selves with the greatest contempt. gods vows. dedications.

his habits of life Socrates. to the elder Aristippus. This is proved partly by the unity of the school. The Cyrenaic School. was older than ^Eschines. at Yet he did not unconditionally renounce After the death of and views. ii. 83. no doubt. 5). 31). Evang. in spite of the Cyrenaic doc of Eusebius ( Prsep. the well-known common-place rationalist. who. 18. and so. Their contemporary Euemerus. he appears for a long time to have resided as a Sophist in various parts of the Grecian world. which he was not present. is perhaps connected with the Cyrenaic school. appears to have become ac quainted with the doctrines of Protagoras while yet At a later time he sought resident in his native town. 53 C) and Speusippus. more especially at the court of whether under the elder or the younger In Gyrene he founded Dionysius or both is not clear. who. was Theodorus the atheist. His daughter Arete and Antipater were members of it. 42 D f. [38 38. according to Diogenes (iv. out Socrates in Athens and entered into close relations with him. . Aristippus of Gyrene. trine The systematic development must be ascribed. according to Diog. . and partly by the reference to the doctrine in Plato ( Phileb. some what older than Plato. xiv. Syracuse Arete educated her son Aristippus (o /jLr)TpoSi$aKTo$) The pupil of in the doctrines of his grandfather. a school which was known as the Cyrenaic or Hedonistic.122 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. and indirectly Aristippus Hegesias and Anniceris were pupils of Antipater (all three about 320-280).

the future gone.38] THE CYRENAIC SCHOOL. the result is pain . By pleasure Aristippus for Epicurus after him. &amp. or but a slight motion. belongs to us. like sure as possible. if tions pleasure alone good coin with the unplea cides with the pleasant. 123 composed an Aristippus. and of discus tigations to be without object sions concerning the theory of knowledge he only his ethics. instruct us only about our own feelings. for us as this would be the absence of any feeling but of positive state. if the feeling consists in motion motion is gentle the result is all if no rough or hasty. Like Antisthenes. be the object of our life. at least a part were genuine. he said. of his ethics is Thus the crowning all principle the conviction that our actions must be directed to the object of gaining much plea does not. Even happiness. not about the quality of things or the feelings of other men . But (Protagoras). think only of repose of spirit. jective feelings only.lt. in his for enjoyment. pleasure . we feel That of these three condi neither pleasure nor pain. is only the present uncertain. He did not inquire what despised mathematics. Our perceptions. motion takes place. Aristippus measured the value of knowledge by its practical usefulness. and therefore it was the justifiable to gather law of action from sub-. because they he considered physical inves is wholesome or harmful or value . cannot. following Protagoras. adopted what was of use in establishing . So far as any indications of the writings ascribed to Aristippus go. and the past is . and the bad to everyone sant. Aristippus believed to be declared is desirable. as a opinion. that the by the voice of nature.

though the feelings of and pleasure are the more original and bodily pain potent. did not arise immediately out of bodily conditions. thoroughgoing But under of the world. for every pleasure as such is a good. It is therefore happiness of first life. it liber ates us from fancies and passions which disturb the apply everything in the manner best suited for our welfare.is. which can adapt itself to every situation. Finally. all the art of living.124 THE SOCRATIC SCHOOLS. it qualifies us to the condition of all happiness. He is also the superior mind. It is this which shows us what use we are to make of the goods of life. in his rules of life and in his conduct so far as tradition allows us to judge of this in a manner all to enjoy life as much as possible. Nor did overlook the fact that many of them were pur they chased by far greater pain. they were aware that they were pleasures which suaded their followers. extract the .lt. circumstances he remained master of himself and his life. What kind [38 of things or actions bring us pleasure is Yet indifferent. we owe to prudence G-rtj/jiTj^ povrjo. Along with this they recognised the necessity of correctly estimating the relative value of various goods and enjoyments.gt. Agreeably with these principles Aristippus pro ceeded./&amp. and from these they disdistinction of degrees . or to find a witty and clever turn in order to defend his conduct. on which depends (&amp. He is not merely the capable man who is never at a loss when it is needful to provide the means of enjoyment (occasionally in an unworthy manner). STTL- TraiSsia) or philosophy. This decision. the Cyrenaics would not contend that there was not a among enjoyments.

In the Cyrenaic school this contradiction of the elements contained in it came to the surface in the changes which were made in the doctrine of Aristippus about the beginning of the third century. . 125 best from everything.THE CYRENAIC SCHOOL. we cannot fail to recognise the influence Yet his doctrine of pleasure. Mein. the warmest veneration for his great teacher . Tentantem majora. ii. Theodorus professed himself an adherent of the school. just as his sceptical despair of knowledge con tradicts the concept-philosophy of Socrates. and his search after enjoyment. in spite of the extent to which they rested on the foundation of the Socratic ethics. but in a gladsome frame of mind (xapd\ of which insight had the control. of the Socratic spirit. . kindly spirit and in his later years certainly sought to 1 withdraw himself from civic life (as in Xen. render the happiness of the wise man independent of external circumstances. He 1). the TreiaiOdvaros. and from their presuppositions he deduced the extreme conse But in order to quences with cynical recklessness. are opposed essentially to the teaching of his master. i. Ep. 23. and had in the value which he ascribed to insight (prudence). Hor. in the cheerfulness and inward freedom which he gained by it. fere priusentibus itquum. in order to lose nothing of his independence. not in particular enjoyments. secure his own cheerfulness and contentment by limiting his desires. Hegesias. he sought to place it. 17. had such a lively sense of the evil of life that he despaired of any satisfaction in positive 1 Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res. by prudence and He met his fellow-men in a gentle and self-control.

7 Uticher s. principle. though he would not give up the. PJ7 H. Phil.). La ri? /* (ami II. . of his family secured for him on and political position his great gifts of the one hand the careful cultivation of intellect .!/. 6ffsch.gt. of llermoAccording to the trustworthy statements Halo was born iii.) as his Both his parents.V. hart. % ii.gt. the poetical attempts of his youth. 1 The Life of /Y^/o. and passing beyond of the highest object of life in keeping himself clear inditVerenco to all external things. that friendship. n&amp.gt. Theodorus he found enjoyment.lt. Ptototi* Le&m. 1S( . . subiivt Me: K Gttek u Hv*t tier Plat. TMK Oi.lt.gt.l_v. dorns and Apollodorus (Piog. 1 r. &amp.gt. 1871.not. sums (J8(M). and ancient tradition tixed the in Ol.r. Porictione. IS:W. placed a essential when he ascribed so high value to love of family and country. his connect ion with Socrates began in Phi f&amp.) :u&amp.&amp.p.()-7 or l&amp. [pain and pleasure by Anniceris. Stein. AM&amp. Uroto. &quot. PLATO 39. and on the other inclined tirst his superior nature from the to the aristocracy. v.nKU ACAPKMV. to the ancient l&amp. d.VnV* .mp. ( l&amp. 1875. / /. gratitude. after his grandfather.gt. Aristo and nobility. At first he was belonged The social called Aristocles..gt. the wise man would not shrink from sacrifices on their account. 2. PLATO. B.\ 1 v seventh of Thargelion (May birthday. Finally doctrine of pleasure as u limitations upon it. :?rd odit.wi Ui ivnt monographs on tho Honnann. SS.w. Io8 ft ff. 1 only) vol. was first instructed in philosophy by Cratylus (see his 7 IV. 111.gt. SteinPlato*. in The art istic talent which excites our admiration expressed itself in the writings of Plato He 1 tfU/&amp.le . 1873.

which were close at hand. Besides philosophy he taught mathematics. accord ing to Kpistle vii. at any rate in a narrow Then he proceeded (about 388 circle. in li&amp.C.) Italy and Sicily. and to have formally is him over now said for the first time opened a school in the Gymnasium of the Academy. ho returned to Athens. Hut these years wore R!HO employed in making himself acquainted with the doc trines of the older philosophers. the members of the society were brought together every month at common . being now forty years of age. he was occupied. for the later period . according to the statement in the Phuulo (. to Lower return where for eight years H. Here he visited the court of Dionysius the elder. and he was sold as a slave in the market of yKgina.7 twentieth y e:i r. as is proved be yond a doubt.39] THE LIFE OF PLATO.01) 15) which is probably without foundation. Being ransomed by Anniceris the Cyrenaic.it. but also as a teacher. After the death of Socrates.gt. at which he was not pre * sent. Athens. riot in writing only. and eight years of friendly confi dence he penetrated more deeply than any other into the spirit of his master. Hero he remained for no long time and then set out upon travels which took him to Kgypt and Tyrone. He not only gave instructions in conversation but also delivered lectures. and afterwards in his own gardens. ill favour that the tyrant handed a Spartan. in which he was one of the greatest pro ficients of his time. On his he appears to have first remained . ho repaired with the other Socratics to Euclides at Mcgara in order to withdraw himself from some kind of persecution. with whom he fell into such to Pollis. 324 A.

from was only liberated by Archytas and his friends. developed into moral beauty and elevated in Olympian equipoise of all its powers. we than . 108. apparently ended. the death of Socrates. beyond and continued to the end of his life. [ 39 meals.). which took had completed 1 (347 B. he did not refuse the invitation. after the death of Dionysius the elder (368 B. because in the Athens for his action. is also expressed in those which the philosopher at a very early time myths by was brought into connection with the Delphian 40. when he place in 01. some it. Plato s Writings.C. with almost unanimous veneration. The picture of an ideal in in the harmonious tellect. Of his character antiquity speaks his eightieth year. and.log PLATO. he continued his scientific him till his death. of the tyrant brought which he the second occasion the suspicion Eeturning activity with unabated vigour into great danger. deity.C. and doubt immediately after.). he repeated On years afterwards. considered as spurious even in antiquity. badly as the attempt at Dion s wish. he was invited by Dion to visit his successor. which his writings present to us. Plato began apparently before. to Athens. time he found no sphere But when. and the verdict is confirmed by his writings. All the works which he intended for publication have come down to us but in our collection not a little that is spurious Besides seven small is mingled with what is genuine. of his He renounced politics. cheerfulness above the world of change and decay. activity as It fifty years. s an author extends over more dialogues .

the Sympo Ph. the Politicus. the Philebus.lt.v\vs/ the Phsedrus. the Grorgias/the Meno. we 1 With regard On which see Bonitz. 1247 b.lt. 15). the Protagoras and the Crito (44 A . and the Hippias Major. the Cratylus. the Sophist. if he had known it. The Republic. iii.Aristotelian ( Rhet.lt. certain. 14. p. We the Lysis. 14. the Minor ).40] PLATO S WRITINGS.-edo. maintained that Aristotle must But as it cannot be have mentioned all the works of Plato which he in the writings which have come down to us. possess thirty-five dialogues. any internal characteristics for must not distinguishing the genuine and spurious. the Apology are referred to by Ari stotle inlTmanner so unmistakable that we can neither &amp.Fr. apparently post. the Hippias sium. 1 &amp.lt. the L. in a particular place. &amp. &amp. to only in the Eudemian Ethics (vii. cf. 32). 129 a collection of definitions. knew we can with a work only conclude that he is unacquainted because he does not mention it. the * Charmides. . when we can prove that.lt. (&amp. same with have less certainty in regard to Arist. But to he must have mentioned it this in fact we never can prove.lt. &amp. are quoted by Aristotle as Plato s either by such a manner that their Platonic origin is name or in as assumed The Thea3tetus. which is 1415 b. the Laches. The Euthydemus is referred &amp. Of these writings internal evidence.lt. p. Index Aristotel. the Menexenus in a part of the Rhetoric. and thirteen (perhaps eighteen) letters. but by part are supported not only by the witness of Aristotle. 54 ff. 598. 30). the Timseus. Plato and the Older Academy.lt. &amp. doubt his acquaintance with these writings nor his The case is the recognition of their Platonic origin.

Stallin the introductions to his Steinhart in edition of Plato. H. Ueberwegr. &amp.lt. The c Sophist. and Timseus has been universally 6 1 universally acknowledged. Form der platonischen ScJiriften. wield. Sclir. and his : views no less than his style changes in the course of half a may appear to us strange merely because we have no and rela acquaintance with his special circumstances tions. Grote. Plato s Werke libers. 1816). Schaarschmidt. Genet. 1857. 1820. Phil. d. 1850 ff. 181 (sup. Bitter. 1865. Ideenlekre.Thl. F. &amp. plat. Zeitfolge plat. Suckow. 1855 Munk. 4 Thesetetus. &amp. 1862. v. So rich an intellect could not be restricted to one form of to content him exposition he may have had reasons in some of his dialogues with merely preparatory self discussions. Plato and the Older Academy. Natiirl. Plato s Leben und Scliriften. licit Grimdriss. EntwicJd. By recent &amp. ill. Platonismiis. .lt. and on the other even Plato cannot have produced works equally perfect. .lSG3f. leaving the last word unspoken . Prot agoras. K. Die Sammlung d. d. 1855 f. Socher. partly by the evidence of Aristotle and by references 1 Besides the numerous dison cussions separate works we may quote Schleiermacher. a.lt.ii. plat. 1804 (2. ii. 7 Biiclwr z. Stein. and . . Eibbing. Plato. Phaedo. Hermann Schriften. v. and in part by Suckow and Ueberweg and Philebus the Cratylus by Schaarschmidt 4 the Meno and Euthydemus by Ast and Schaar schmidt but partly by their internal character. ii. Schr. Ph^edrus. plat. much century. Miiller. Ordnuiiy d. p. Grorgias. 1866. plat. Untersiich. ii. or almost Eepublic. baum Brandis. may have undergone Lastly.130 PLATO. note)-. Gesch. 4. the fact that on the [40 one overlook hand a clever imitation in an interpolated treatise would give the a impression of genuineness. Plato s WerTte. scholars the genuineness of the &amp. Ent- Ast. Zeller. 151 ff. Politicus. 1861. Aufl. Susemihl. ff. . chap. Plato s Ueler 1816. d. Aeclitu.lt. Genet. 126. i.lt. and Parmenides have been rejected by Socher and Schaarschmidt. 1861.

. and the The the Alcibiades the Theages. may be defended as a work of youth. they are proved to be genuine. Epinomis. d. Bibbing. following my Platonic Studies. Meno. i. and Laches. * Lysis. and which was published. sider spurious. Prakt. The Hippias Minor. Ast. Crito. The spuriousness Definitions is beyond doubt the t Letters are : the work of various authors and dates. Arist. which Ast considered un-Platonic. and the balance the II.lt. ff. Phil. Hippias Major. (&amp.) Suckow. on the ground of the supposed genuineness of the Anterastse. not without alteration. 5G ff.. holds good of the Critias. 194 con must be regarded both on internal and external grounds as a work of Plato which he left un finished. 14 C. 331 1 The same in Plato. 37).. Hipparchus. of the writings of Plato can only be fixed approximately in the case of a few by their relation to 1 The date certain events ff.). the the Clitophon are only defended by Grote Minos. 80 Pluedo. 6 Apology.. On the other hand. and Oncken ( Staatsl. there is less difficulty still. Farm. iii. Laws. 457). and in regard to the &amp. E ff.lt. which Socher and Suckow rejected. I attacked in The &amp. 72 E f . by Philippus of Opus (according to Diog. 15 B. ( Euthyphro. Charmides. Gr. 129 B 130 are plainly referred to in Philebus. for which we have good evidence.40] PLATO S WRITINGS. the Alexandrian of the 6 lists (see Diog. in K . the Menexenus is justly given up by most authorities against the the Ion. the Euthyphro as an occasional treatise. D 2 ff. i is strongly I. Alcibiades &amp. Strumpell i.lt. and which d. the Apology and the Crito. which. but not one was written by Plato.. iii.lt. 6 .

to the Socratic .. while re cent scholars have considered limits. we can first of all assign a portion of the dialogues. or from the accidental relation of the various occasions and impulses which led to the composition of each work. and in the most secure grounds are afforded by the references. 193 A). c vn. or the trilogies into which Aristophanes (about 200 B. and the philosophic views set forth in each. With we this exception therefore of a few chronological data. Symp. from Plato s own development. Following these lines.D. A Thesetetus.C. other a decisive criterion for the arrangement of the whole works of Plato is an attempt which hitherto has can failed. can be explained either by a certain arranged plan. The order trustworthy statements ( Laws. and Hunk s assumption that the dialogues be arranged according to the age of Socrates in them breaks down entirely. or by see above). No assistance can be derived for the decision of the question and the settlement of of each the order in which the various treatises were composed from the traditional classifications of the dialogues.it.) arranged the whole. direct or indirect. in the dialogues to one another. PLATO. Next in importance is the character of the artistic To gather from one or the style and of the language. L40 &amp. or Meno. are limited entirely to internal evidence .) into arranged fifteen of the dialogues. the third by Socher and Ast . the second by Hermann.lt.lt. or the tetralogies which Thrasylus (20 the A.132 &amp. with Hermann. 90 . all three as correct within effect however different their verdict on the upon the result. The first principle only has been regarded by Schleiermacher.

the Meno (which cannot have been written before 395 cf. . and Sophist.C. If. for which indeed there Plato no sufficient historical evidence. in the still 4 Grorgias. i. the Charmides. there is much to show that ( Kh. along with them. ism are too distinct to allow us to follow Hermann in Meno. immortality and the migration of souls. the Minor.C. 6 Laches. series. of pre-existence.e. the Apology. the dialectical dialogues ( Theuetetus.).C. in these . with Schleiermacher. 131 Usener. advanced essentially beyond the position of his This period seems to have come to an end with &amp. and &amp. 90 B.C. To it we may ascribe the Hippias the Euthyphro.. and. was it composed about 396 B. assigning more precise acquaintance with the Pythagorean philosophy to his Sicilian journey. and. more definitely in the Politicus. and 4 Euthydemus. is s On the contrary. before the Grorgias. Plato. the Socratic period . Cratylus. and Gorgias in placing the Euthydemus. On the other hand. xxxv.) in the Megarian period. though the Phaedrus cannot. be regarded as the earliest treatise of placed. and the Theaetetus (not before 394). in 402-3 B. 133 period of Plato. Parmenides. or Mus.lt. the as the final and culminating point in the agoras his travels to Egypt.lt. as yet to the period in which he had not teacher. 387-6 B. A). the Crito. and in the dialectical dialogues Plato proceeds step by step in the investigations of which he had given a summary in the Phsedrus. to bring down the Phsedrus to the period subsequent to this.40] PLATO S WRITINGS. the doctrines of ideas. and the Prot Lysis. Meno. the proofs of an acquaintance with Pythagorean- Thesetetus. the therefore. &c. with if.

doubt a series of occupied the aged philosopher during his death. and Divisions of the Platonic System. his moral life is to be re formed by philosophy. . before. . cf. for there is no reason to break up this dialogue with Hermann and Krohn 1 into different and heterogeneous parts.platon. The Symposium 385 B. as we see from the direct reference in 505 B. The whole conduct of man is to be penetrated and guided by the thoughts which the philosopher furnishes . Fraye. With the last-mentioned is connected the Kepublic. at once the continuation The Platonic philosophy and the is of the &quot. but certainly not long after. On the Republic is follows the ation of which the s Timseus. 193 A). Laws. Like Socrates. The Character. 1 1878. a merely theoretic inquiry in view. L40 reason (not is that he has in view a methodical foundation and development of his doctrine. Method. Die platon. till after years. an unfinished work.134 PLATO. the continu Critias. and that~the only true knowledge is that which pro But he desires to ceeds from the science of concepts. he is convinced that this reform can only be founded upon knowledge. any more than his master. develop this knowledge he first reviews all his predecessors among Greek philo and avails himself of all the points of contact sophers. Phsedo.supplement philosophy of Socrates.lt. &amp. The . 1876. the most comprehensive work of Plato. Philebus appear to be later.lt.C. and was not published 41. Staat. With this aim into a system. and &amp. owing which less perhaps to Plato is Sicilian travels. D. t Plato has not.

inas much as they are only introduced where the subject cannot be treated with exact scientific precision. but the rules of this method are fixed more definitely. no less than in the But at the same brilliant mimicry of many dialogues. . which though inferior in importance to the other branches. The division of philosophy into Dialectic. time the myths point to the gaps in the system. 135 which they present then. . Socrates mode but only as an independent discovery. Physics. all This exposition is enlivened by the myths in which Plato s poetical nature is exhibited.icjil principles of ideas . But the per sonal dialogue becomes artistic. and above because philosophy as a living power can only be completely exhibited in the perfect philosopher. Out of the Socratic dialectic grows of his master a out of tKe~eEn&quot. in working out his system. partly from feelings of affec tionate regard. yet fills up the most remarkable deficiencies in the Socratic philosophy in harmony with his whole point of view. It is due to this need of forming a system that not only is the scientific method of Socrates extended in fact in the* direction of the formation of concepts and their development. and approaches more and more to continuous speech.41] THE PL ATOXIC SYSTEM. and both are supple mented by a philosophy of Nature. he passes far beyond theHmilsTof the Socratic philo his doctrine sophy. detailed ethics and politics. and partly from artistic reasons. and thus the way is prepared for the logic of Aristotle. Socrates forms the centre of the dialogue. Yet in the Platonic writings of developing ideas in dialogue is re because truth cannot be possessed as a tradition tained.

202.. These deficiencies can only be met by philosophic knowledge and life. even though correct in regard to what is pre sented. Ordinary consciousness in its theoretic it side is consciousness truth partly in per making presentations . This ception. [4l and Ethics (cf. nor in right presentations. The Propcedeutic Foundation of Platonic Philosophy. is found in fact though not in form in Plato but these systematic inquiries are in ferior to the propaedeutic. but presentation may be true or false.) Presentation. is not conscious of its principles . 51 E. Know ledge is always true. 187 ff. Plato points out deficiencies both in the ordinary consciousness and in the sophistical illumination which sought to usurp its place. space in the writings of his earliest years. which occupy the largest . 151 E ff &c. practical character is expressed in ordinary virtue and seeks in the common principles of morality. 42. Tim. 97 ff. 5Q). the In order to justify philosophy and define its pur poses.. Perception does not show us things as they are but as they appear to us. Theaet. and therefore under the most variable and opposite forms. Theaet. partly in presentation or opinion (Sofor). Even right presentation is only midway between knowledge and ignorance. it does not rest on instruction but on simple persuasion. on the other ( . hand.) The case is the same . and recur in the later works. Sym.136 PLATO. Plato shows on his part that knowledge does not consist in perception. and is always in danger of being transformed into error. ( Meno.

that pleasure is the highest object of and that everything eyes.Thea3t. not on knowledge. i.) of his life.. is permitted to a man which is right in his to confound the good with the pleasant. 170 f. its 89 D if. ciples prin Phsedo. like to insight.lt. But he does not say whether and how far it is possible to speak of a plurality of virtues. that it permits evil as well as good (evil to . Pkto with ordinary virtue. pleasure and profit (&amp. asserted.). it is entirely at the mercy of accidents (Osla Ifc i fjLOipa. . including the proof of the principle so (&amp. Hence in his s \ earlier writings. over truth.. But insight is not to be found among Like 68 Socrates. which a man should make the ff. the is essential and unchangeable with the phenomenal. 334 B ff. Plato. &c. . only knowledge which can furnish a secure guarantee for the correctness of action . 177 ff. ii. Socrates. 82. also. their teaching would destroy all the foundations of science as well as of morality.lt. true for him. B as that alone the Sophists who come forward as the moralists of their time. and no one is voluntarily evil. 137 according to Kesting on custom and right presentation. for action is It is always governed by the views of the person -acting. and therefore without real teachers.42] FOUNDATION OF PLATO S SYSTEM.). On the contrary. The principle that man is the measure of and that what seems true to a throws all man is all things.) To maintain life. and to which he should sacrifice every object thing else. 362 E ff. is so uncertain of own enemies and good to friends) so impure in its motives that it has no other foundations for moral claims than Rep. Meno. refers all virtr he explains insight ( Phsedo.

and rhetoric. (&amp. 223 E &amp. which gives them a practical application. but he puts these principles in more precise terms. 264 D ff Ph^do. 462 ff.lt. 243 E ff. ff. by its Gorg.138 PLATO. c thought has a double mission. which attains its proper aim by the progress from ff. &amp. Pheedr. in the intuition and exposition of the idea. the possibility or impossibility of uniting them . It is philosophy the sensual to the intellectual.lt.). and can only be regarded as a sort of second ary art. the effort of the mortal to win immor tality. Phileb. 254 A ff. from the individual to the general. It forms concepts by which we rise from the individual to the general. But ideas are Symp. 23 Rep.) and philosophy only which renders the service promised by sophistic. (&amp.lt. Eep. or scientific faculty. . 505 C. (&amp. . which puts appearance in the place of reality. and thus instructs us in the mutual relation of concepts. 348 vi. The root of philo sophy is Eros. 259 E ff... inferior. . . can only be sophistic.) which maintains these doctrines. 488 ix. 232 ff. . is as a rule conditioned ff. or co-ordinate.lt. This &amp. 466 ff. . concepts Plato follows the same principles as his master. and opposite. [ 42 which admits of no fixed limitation. pain. . 583 Hence regarded as the opposites of the true art of life and science ..lt. A . f. and it divides them. the conditioned to the unconditioned. This division brings us down by natural intermediaries from the general to the particular.. ff.lt.. vii. Such a principle mingles that which has an absolute value with what may be good or bad. their arrangement as In the formation of superior. Gorg. i. Soph. 533 C). 201 D ff known by means of thinking in concepts or dialectical thought (Sia\SKTLfC7) /jisOoSos.

). by the concept of the matter. and proceed progressively without omitting Phileb. which accustoms a man to do what is 1 The chief passages in support of this are: Phtfdr. 265 C ft. ii. Hence dichotomy But is preferred before any other kind of division.. entire It is the elevation of the . which he sets forth the nature of the things which be also to decide On the other hand. shows in the Cratylus.. vi. In regard to classification he demands that it should rest in the qualitative difference of things. Philosophy in his view of it not only includes all knowledge when this is pursued in the correct manner.ne senses the application of the intellect to the idea : all other cultivation and for it ( . 16 B ff. 376 E ff. which in the presuppositions by Parinenides assumes the form of a development of special concepts by antinomies. vii. 537 C. but it also secures the unfailing ful filment of moral duties.). is exactly the distinction between SiaXs/cTi/cws 1 rovs \6yovs). But as knowledge by concepts and moral action were most closely united by Socrates. Kep. 401 B vii. it is a mistake to from words conclusions which are only warranted gather has to describe. 533 C f. 262 ff P/tilcb. 135 C. Soph. . any intermediate step (this. 511 B. according to 17 A. . education 514 ff. the dialectician has as Plato and spio-TiKws iroielo-Oai on the correctness of expression in since on this entirely depends the extent to language. 251 ft . whether it be the cultivation of the character by music and gymnastics. so also in Plato. . Parm.: Polit. man out of the life of t&quot.42] FOUNDATION OF PLATO S SYSTEM.. ff. merely a preparation 521 C ff. means for this object is 139 found in the testing of their consequences. is iii. . lie.

4 concepts. Dialectic. that only Being. or the cultivation of thought by the mathematical sciences. Tim. vi. 135 B. dialec ideas are the essential object of this thought. the contemplation of becomes the necessary condition of the possibility The same result follows from 1 Being as such. This principle arose out of the Socratic. as such. and maintains that it is only by reflection in further. 1 and exhibits none of elf its qualities avr)]v pure and elj/a:.) 51 1 D fore. . ^ rpe ^ei ryv t5eW rwv OVTOIV . it is ever alternating between two opposite conditions. av jj/t] . tic). What is thought. . owing to the presupposition in which Plato agrees with Parmenides (see supra. ( Eep. there Theaet.n 8iaA. the truth of our con is conditioned by the reality of their and keeps step with it.) From this point of view the reality of ( ceptions therefore &amp. Socrates had explained that only the knowledge of Plato goes concepts guarantees a true knowledge. in the forms of things. E flf. 476. All that we perceive. or ideas. can be known .eye(r0cu ouSe OTTOL eaii/ e|et. as Heracleitus had shown. is subject to cease less change. which are mainly concerned in leading men from what is sensuous The peculiar organ of philo to what is not sensuous. f. p. sophy is the art of thinking by concepts (that is.lt. ye ris 877 fKaffrov r^jv ael Kal .. that true and original Being can be attained. must be as distinctly separated from what is presented as thinking from forming presentations. [42 right and love what is beautiful . v. 51 D.lt. eatrei et^Tj rcav &VT(av OVTW r^v TOV TravTdTra&amp. ideas of scientific thought. Farm. . object. and 43. 61). or the Doctrine of Ideas. 188 D.140 PLATO.

68 E Parm. A . has its object in a Being. 97 P . . Plato sees this essence of things in their form (sl&os. x.. vii. if. x. in the general. and in like manner all our activity should be directed to some rational aim. 990 b. 1 PJttrtlo. and We B . 74. things become that which is they are only by the common All that so. as Anaxagoras and Socrates taught. 596 A Tim.43] PLATO S DIALECTIC. 141 That only can be lasting. 78 D f. &c. Metaph. ISsa the two are identical in meaning). i. separate thing as 990 b. &amp. i. All number and parts but individual .lt. nature which is phenomenal it is good that it should be so (the world. on the other hand.. 132 C Arist. of which Ritter and others believed this to hold good) con_nj5ver 1078 b. a number &amp. . 1 in a series of individual things. 6..) . in that which is found in common makes up the concept common assume one idea when we denote things by one Theset.e. 30.lt. fP. 478 E ff. 9. 8 S. 507 B i. . Parrn. f. 523 C ff. 176 init. Theirt. Me- B-103 C Hep. are compelled on every 1 Hence. to them all. 54 . 6. it is unchangeable originals of things in the belief of Plato. xiii. iapli.lt. Arist. that is individual has and known by thought only. 9. of separate name (&amp. 1086 a 35 if. . As is clear from what we have said. sible to the senses. cf. v. cf. we in concepts. is the work of reason). ground to distinguish the non-sensuous essence of things as the only true Being from their appearance as objects of sense. Rep. . and free from admixture with everything else which is inacces entire.. vi.. i. a such (as perhaps the soul. 9.. 27 E. 596 A. consistent. . E. xiii. These objects can only lie in the realisation of that in which thought discovers the because apprehended in the concept. 185 4. 131 E Phileb.

b 2 of things. . the OVTWS ov. 507 B hence in Aristotle not only avrb rb aya66v. Symp. 507 B). 78 D. aurb rb a-ya66v. 15 A f. with Heracleitus find nothing but a becoming. this universal does not exist merely in our thought or in It exists purely for itself the thought of the Deity.lt. 51 B. and Rep. this independent existence that they are the only true and original elements of that becomes or changes reality. 51 .) the are as Aristotle . 12i b.. .lt. it is the eternal pattern of 1 that which participates in it. CLVT}. Farm. to the plurality of things. as opposed. Kep. vi. to which everything ^copio-rd and it is due to . the self-existence. vi.lt.lt. ideas are also termed Thus they are evdSes or povdSes ( Phileb. &amp.lt. gence 135 A ideas (&amp. and because there is the essence (an sich) one idea of each class of things ( Farm. . &amp. aurb TO Ka\6v. is accustomed to denote them.r&amp. Phcedo. A . 133 Phileb. 46 if. & : ficao-rov. avroaya. . only 493 E. or ova-la.Q&v. 132 B: Tim. Ind. 597 B cannot be quoted in its favour : An assumption which many adherents from has the Farm. I . eTTifTTTjUTj.. whose contention with Antisthenes turns on this point (see p. 211 Kep. But according to Plato.lt. 131 E. Arist. . in the same form. 507 B Phsedo. and in a word 2 aurb e/cao-Toi/.a7pa aurr? -rj 0e/a.142 PLATO. B B . &c.r7roT7]S & ecm . 62 fffriv D A . avToeKaarov. &c.as having unity 132 C &amp. If in the world of the senses unchangeable to change.&amp. subject Und in itself. avTodv6pa)iros. 28 A. Bonitz. x. 78 D aurbs 8e&amp.&amp. 100 Tim. c.lt.lt. cwrb /caAoV. but also avrb aya6bv. 52 if. but separate from it and only to be contemplated with the intelli (xcopls). 65 D. and is always to no change of any kind . They are named the scmv ov. C 43 be an idea. Plato expressly opposes it Farm. *v /ecu ov.). vi. Hep. 118). we can 1 had time of the Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic schools till now. 123 b. owes what reality it possesses. f. avroCf.

and in the Parmenides Plato indirectly contradicts both &amp. like the Being of the Eleatics . all 508 E. and in being distinct from everything else it possesses an infinite amount of not-being (i. the other concepts with which it can or cannot combine.lt. is. but vii. of ideas sible to conceive and many. cause of According 517 B. 50). where with a distinct reference to the doctrine (and Philolaus not Pythagorean only things but of one particularly) he arguesthat also the unified eternal esseaces more consist and unlimited. In his later period he followed the Pytha goreans in designating the ideas as numbers (cf. the assumption that there is only plurality without unity. otherHence in every concept we must ask what are being). in which alone Plato. though he approaches to it in the Philebus (14 C). found the Being But he does not regard this object of science. This form of exposition is not found in his writings. as admitting no distinctions.Kep. and in the &amp. . 143 Parmenides real ideas present to us Being.lt. Phredo as the &amp. includes in spite of its unity a plurality of ! qualities.lt.) Plato actually denotes the ideas causes by which all that is.lt. shows that everything that has Being. in the Sophist (244 B ff..e. and are at once limited In the same way the unchangeability must not be taken to mean that it is impos them as the causes of what becomes and changes. of all Being and knowledge. like whom he so highly honoured. to vi. and the assumption that there is only unity without plurality.) he &amp. the idea of good is the perfection.43] PLATO S DIALECTIC. It is only from them that what is change able receives the Being which it possesses. as a definite object. 251 ff. (99 D ff.

). the slave-in-himself the idea of filth.). itself. the cause from which &amp. regarded as operative life. not only of what is valuable. 28 C ff. to show that true Being is which therefore motion. is [43 the Pivine reason 22 C).period not-being. the name-in-itself. and denoted by a corresponding This conclusion was drawn by Plato. In his of all possible things. to one All these ideas stand in a definite relation another. but of what is find the great-in-itself. bad and contemptible. tice. Still more definitely does the Sophist force.. the becl-inthe double-in-itself. and with him this dynamic must be kept conception of ideas as operative powers in the rear of the ontological conception. 142). 23 C f. and in the Philebus coincident with the good ( Phil.lt. forth systematically . p. in which they are the unchangeable forms of things.lt. soul.in Yet not only is the thought of an a priori construction of this system of . &c. 138). How this and reason can be har monised with the unchangeability of ideas Plato has not attempted to show. 26 elsewhere taken by the ideas all (&amp. there must be ideas of everything which can be referred to a general concept. not of writings we find ideas substances only. As the ideas are nothing else than general ideas raised to a separate existence as metaphysical realities. injus It was not till his later . and to set their relation the mission of science (see p. relations and activi creations ties . not of natural things only. must be assigned (248 A ff. E f.. comes place order and reason in the world occupies the Phil. We . but of qualities. that Plato limited ideas to natural objects (cf. but of the of art . word.144 PLATO.

though the ideas are eternal vative. in the world as it because it is 517 B). elevated above both. supreme apex. Plato this thought assumes the that the good is shape the final ground of all and is the Being knowledge . 58). Phileb. and is explained to be identical (&amp. which is described precisely as Being. But the question whether the good. Eel. indeed cf. Kep. can be at once the Deity. of is and unchangeable. though the what it is. gives to the existent its reality and to him who knows his capacity for reason and his the knowledge. Stob. he never inquired about the personality of God. 504 is. and it is only really conceived when it is referred to the good as its final object 97 B).lt. that tempt &amp. vii. 44. with it (&amp. 37 A). the things which come . and the World-soul. Plato s Physics. which as such is called the idea of good. i. things are regarded as deri perishable. For! ( Phgedo.PLATO S DIALECTIC.lt. Matter. therefore. he speaks All that is at length (&amp.lt.~it idea of good which. idea so. just as presentation. but things waver between Being and not-being. pure and complete. &amp. but he hardly makes any at to set it forth It is only of the logically. are never . Plato never raised . 22 C. is vi. Though each under it idea is are infinite in number one. Tim. good as the absolute ground of all Being is coincident with the Deity. E ff. things Ideas possess complete Being. best so .. which like all ideas is a universal.lt. concepts 145 unknown to Plato.lt. and as the highest idea must be the most universal and the highest class. 28 C. and thus become a person. For Plato. and in constant change.

as describes it as the unlimited ( Phil. 52 E. we are accustomed matter.gt. 36. and all the Being is derived from the 1 PJnjs. 49 A to 52 D). It harmonises with this. cf .Xoyio-fios vo6os&amp. 192 a. . iii. 9. 20. 201 b. while part another and different origin is derived from principle. but lies at the base of all the changing forms of phenomena. Simpl. but about which only laborious conclusions can be drawn (by a &quot. finitions which Plato ascribes to that basis of sensuous existence which. following Aristotle. Pliys. 13). as (according to Aristotle). i.). the nature of the second principle can only be sought in that which from the idea. and unknowable. Eude- nms in Simpl. 2. For Leucippus and Democritus is said. This incompleteness of sensuous exist from the fact ence. Phys. and includes . 57 E. that Plato ! according to Aristotle and Hermo6 dorus (ap. he asserted later and small . as the great that which is in itself formless.148 PLATO. As all that it from the pleteness springs possesses of reality and com idea. Tim. to call the Platonic He or. 431. had already placed empty space on an equality with not-being. as something which cannot be known by them thought or perception. or presentation. 191 b. as space (^copa) which allows room to all that becomes . Plato believes. L44 which they are the object. ever-changing. 248. These are the de non-existent. to have spoken of it simply as not-being. wavers between knowledge and ignorance. and also Tim. 6 . can only be explained that it of its only springs in part from the idea. 8. and if Being and not-being are mingled in sensuous things. distinguishes the phenomena of sense It can only be thought of as unlimited. 24 A ff.

If true being (according to Eep.14] PLATOS PHYSICS. out of which but only that in which things According to him (cf. be known in either way must be not-being. difficult and in another place Tim. If we must make some distinction between this form of exposition and 5 Plato s own opinion. only not-being is left for the second constituent element. object of presentation and perception. Hence by Plato s matter we have to understand not a mass filling space but space itself. 69 B) he represents the matter as if the when engaged in the formation of the elements. but is otherwise without chaotic mass moving without cannot in form and definition (/Tim. for it would not suit any with a mass which fills space. things from ideas. Deity. or matter. and that which hovers between Being and not-being is the which cannot. there is nothing to prevent us from supposing that the condensation of space into matter is one of those mythical traits in which the Timseus is so rich. bodies are formed when certain portions of space are thrown into the shapes of the four elements. 147 idea.). 477 A) is the object of knowledge by thought. &amp.. had found all that is visible already in existence as a 30 A. i He never mentions it as that arise. To carry this theory ( was f. the real in both is Things L 2 . But this description case be taken strictly. 52 D i rule. 45). 49 E ff. Though it is said to be not-being which distinguishes the same.lt. that v. . That it is not a corporeal mass out of which they arise in this manner is clear from the assertion when they change into one another they are broken into their smallest plane dimensions in order to be up that compounded anew out out strictly of these.

on the other hand. for ideas are separate from things and things But its peculiar nature can only be when it is known why Plato did not aban recognised don one or the other of these views. them (/xeflffts. Tim.. 28 C. 98 realising them ( Tim. and limits reason in Phaedo. which is related. 56 C . 46 C f. or attempt to unite both into an harmonious whole.). From 176 E. KOivwvia). of the numerous ideas are not parts a supreme idea is nevertheless It is a manent in ideas. or carry neither from ideas. but to sity. &c. we must recog nise in them a second kind of causality besides that of the ideas and the causality of a blind.). these are this point of view the Platonic system. not-being is which the corporeal the source of all the qualities by is distinguished from the incorporeal. If the corporeal is separated from the idea by such a wide interval as Plato assumes. from another the : first Ideas and things appear separate are the patterns (TrapaSsly^ara. 48 A. all [44 owe the being they have to the presence (jrapova-ia) of ideas and to their participation in But as. there is in them a second element to which we must also attribute a being. for the copies. pure idealism. B the being of ideas. only of a different kind from ff. and this member can only be the soul. irrational neces not to the natural aims.148 PLATO. though 1 not pantheistic or emanations monistic. The soul alone. for things are im From the other point of view it is dualistic. an intermediating member is needed to combine the two. as the element . out without regard to the other.. TheaBt. the conditions of their realisation. Besides that which things bring into life from ideas.

itself all It includes in it the relations of number and the world. In the Philebus (25 A ff. much that is fantastic. . and moving measure . it by virtue of its own original motion. veiled amid &amp. 149 the corporeal world. &amp. is the connecting link between idea and phenomenon. in which. itself. by mathematics. &amp.) the same position which is here taken by the world-soul is assumed by the Limit all (irspas) which is also said to be the basis of order and measure and in the Aristotelian account of the Platonic doctrines (see infra. x.lt. Laws. Only by its intervention can reason be planted in the world. the study of which even in Plato himself forms the transition to the study of ideas. Phileb.. the form. 245 C.lt. 30 A f.. The question of its rationality is and obviously personality not so much as raised by Plato. 891 E ff. Tim.lt. But though Plato has not put them both on the same level. in the soul the moving and enlivening power. the power of thought /cwrforscos) for which moves and life(a/)^r/ can be the source of movement and presentation in individual natural beings.lt. 30 A). however. like ideas. be brought about Phaed. the true meaning seems to be that the soul stands midway between ideas and the corporeal It is incorporeal and ever the world. and unites both. (&amp. 50). their close rela tionship cannot be mistaken.41] PLATO S PHYSICS. Here. but spread abroad through the world. and the order of the universe. The Timasus gives a description of the formation of the wqric^spul. creates all the regularity and harmony of All reason and knowledge in the universe its and in the individual are caused by knowledge. same.

144). he has not he is chiefly occupied for his object. of the dependence other is in striking contradiction to yet this notion to the eternity of definitions in his doctrine. p. We this notion with that idea. but form that it is difficult to state accurately how much of it expresses Plato s own scientific conviction. world. and peoples it with organic of this exposition mythical to a only are the details the whole is cast in such a mythical great extent. in ideas. and the deity. but reason. especially must therefore assume that in the human spirit. The more important in his eyes is the Uni As the work of reason the world is con- . quired. [ 45 45. tomary form of a cosmogony. versal.lt. more the distinction of the creator from the ideas (or of the ideas) is part of the exactly from the highest not appear exoteric traits (cf. its In order to explain the world from its ultimate avails himself of the cus sources.150 PLATO. but is necessary whether the origin of the world in time in or in itself conceivable. Though he does the notion of a beginning of the consciously to use the thought world in time as a mere form for clothing of all things upon ideal sources. in That he recognises the true cause of the world is beyond doubt. Plato in his Timseus &amp. The Universe and Parts. and out of these finally constructs But not creatures. represents the creator the soul of of the world (Srjfuovpyos) as compounding to the world from its constituent elements in reference He Then the pattern of the living being (the avro^wov). of the world in the shape of the he takes the matter the four elements.

the earth ls~a~ solid orb resting in the middle . for only be truly material causes are merely they are impossible. and teleological than on the physical Timseus he expresses this by the external in the &amp. For From the teleological these Plato gives two sources.lt. When all the stars return to their . . by the revolution of which they are carried round. 53) he denotes four of the five regular bodies as the base-forms of fire. . point of view he requires fire and earth as a condition of the visibility and tangibility of bodies . and the precedence given to the first. Plato therefore places a much higher value on the view of nature. Each element has a natural locality towards which it strives and all the space in the world is entirely filled the whole sum of them. the four elements. The first step towards the construction of a world was the formation of the material.[45 THE UNIVERSE AND ITS PARTS. then. 147). the stars are fixed in spheres or rings (as seems to be the case with the planets). Phenomena can 151 structed with an object. which must consist of two proportionals. and formed anew out of them (p. and earth. he constructs these bodies from the most minute right-angled tri angles. explained by the conditions without which final causes. out of which their limiting planes are composed. air. When the elements pass into one another (as is possible into only among the three higher) they are decomposed the triangles. water. separation of the two. because we have here to do with bodies and with Philolaus (p. by The world is regarded by Plato as a complete orb . passing beyond Philolaus. and he also de mands a link between the two.

It is part of the perfection of the world that its it. 245 Phado. they return after death. if their lives have been 1 C f Meno. The stars are rational blessed creatures.).152 PLATO. inseparably connected with the idea of life it has neither end nor As the souls beginning. Otherwise in the from the proof Timceus. by its power of self-movement the origin of motion in the body. Tim. 41 D f. the copy of the super-sensuous. the ( visible gods. In the Timaeus he enters into special detail about the human body yet few of these living beings. for Plato &amp.lt. but cf p.. like pattern. With this cycle Plato possibly connects those devastations of the earth by fire and water which he assumes in the Timseus (22 C ff. But of these . 46. and in like manner the Cosmos is the one perceivable god. nature homogeneous with the soul of the universe. physio stand in any close connection with logical assumptions the Platonic philosophy. According to Phcedr. 86 A. 677 A ff. 69 C f. Plato s Anthropology. including in himself all other natures. the great world-year (of 10.lt. [45 has run original position. .). the most perfect and glorious of created things. it is 1 have descended from a higher world into the earthly body.. the avro^Mov. of immortality in . Laws (iii. includes in itself all kinds of pendent interest . 149. Being of a simple and incorporeal nature &amp.000 years) its course.lt. from which it springs ( Phil. 30 A. 102 ff. and what follows .) and the &amp. The soul of man is in its man only has an inde on plants and animals he merely bestows a few occasional remarks of no great importance.

is which is eternal. Yet they express his con and it is only in regard to the migration of question arises souls that the whether he seriously souls into the bodies of assumed the entrance of human animals. in regard to which he indicates himself that he ascribes no scientific value to the details. . through the oppo sition between the intellectual. and in part migrate through the bodies of men and animals. 153 pure and devoted to higher objects. which vary greatly. In its earlier it is existence our soul has seen the ideas of which reminded by the sight of their sensuous 1 copies. Gorg. with his entire meta above The proofs for what is said are found besides the Pita-do. - . where five proofs are 1 80 D ff. 523 . while those who need correction in part undergo punishments in another world. ff. 1876. to this higher world. through the assumption of future retri bution with his ethics and theology. ff .. G08 C ff . which physics. der Begriffe (1875) s. St it (lien ztir Gesch. for Plato On the other hand. 107 If. the attempt to disclaiir the assumption of personal immortality and 2 pre-existence compels us not only to alter the explana and proofs of the philosopher in the most unjusti fiable manner. D Rep. perishable. 41 given for immortality 215 C ff. viction. Die ylatoniscke Fraye. Teichm Ciller. x. The further discussion of these principles Plato has given in mythical expositions.46] PLATO S ANTHROPOLOGY. or explain as merely metaphorical and conventional what he declares to be his most distinct tions scientific conviction . Meno. it also overlooks the fact that the belief in through immortality in Plato is closely connected the doctrine of reminiscence with his theory of knowledge. . Tim. and the corporeal. inPhfrdr.

that no one &amp. ( Kep. 860 D ff. &amp. ff. Plato s Ethics. Laws.lt. [46 In accordance with these views Plato can only look for the peculiar essence of the its 6 soul in its intellectual reason (\OJLO-T IKOV. how bodily conditions and procreation can have the deep influence on the characters of men which Plato on these questions Plato gives us no ascribes to them help. Laws.lt. Phileb. Tim. relation the unity of personal life stands to this triple division of the soul. Nor do we find in him any inquiries into the will. no indication how we are to unite with &amp.154 PLATO. 345 D. 734 B. iv. nature of self-consciousness and the assumes clearly the freedom of the will and x. 22 C . equally distinctly expressed. 72 D ff.lt. yet we have this the Socratic is principle. ix. 4 E ff.lt. Meno. to which part self-consciousness and volition belong. D ff. x. which again falls into two sections. &amp. . 358 B). vovs). 617 E. 731 C . 77 B &amp. .lt. voluntarily evil Tim. 904 B). . But in what 69 C f. 86 (&amp. . Plato s Ethics received their scientific form and ideal his character from the connection into which the ethical with principles of his teacher were brought own . not till it has entered the body is it connected with the mortal part. courage in the heart.lt.. courage and the desires (TO sTridv/jbrjTiKov als Eeason has her seat in the head. . 435 B Phsedr.Prot. if he 619 B. 47. 246). v. It nature. how there can be an inclination to the world of sense in a soul which is free from corporeal ele ments..Tim. desire in the lower body ( Kep. alone is the divine and immortal part of it .

right presentation.). and art. 155 in its true metaphysics and anthropology. an approach to the divine nature. and to introduce obtaining the ideas into objects of sense. This is the point of view from which Plato proceeds in his principles about Eros (p. on the other hand. on the elevation into that higher world.). it is a for duty to use the sensuous phenomenon as a means an intuition of the idea. As in this he 603 recognises the importance of externals for men. and is the source desires and all disturbances of intellectual activity. he desires to part of the good in reason and insight. but mastery of and moderation in feeling. and in that only can find a true and lasting existence. therefore. which has received its irrational elements of all through combination with it.lt. 176 A. so . the which forms the possession of the good or happiness of human effort can only be obtained by final goal The body. for even though he seeks the most valuable &amp. . The as true mission of from this man. just as. philosopher (64 A-67 B. E f. but a lsp_pleasure so far as this is compatible with health of mind . and in the inquiry in the Philebus into the summum bonum (the result is given in Phil. that philosophic death to which the Phsedo reduces the life of the But.47] PLATO S ETHICS. his conception not only knowledge gained by adopt into experience.) so far as the visible is a copy of the invisible. he does not require insensibility. 138). 61 ff. x. lies in that escape which the Thesetetus. As the soul nature belongs to the world above the senses. and sensual life. is the grave~and prison of the soul. on the other hand. when treating of pain ( Kep. regards world. other hand.

anoTo for a 5e&quot. 504 A if. i. .. Theset. Charmides.) he allows that besides knowledge right pre Republic iii. D ff. 353 A ff. But now he not only allows that the capacities for . exclusively his intellectual and moral nature. sentation can incite us to virtue.. it brings its reward with it as vice brings its punishment.. in Plato. this 410 B ff. to Socrates. and the justice unjust received the reward of the just. 609 B ff. &c. but.~ better than to go unpunished. 177 B ff. p. punished For as being the beauty and health of the soul. right presentation. 401 B f. which makes us and . and as such the only thing and assures us lasting peace and repose of mind ( Gorg.. his virtue. but the just man would be absolutely happier than the unjust if he were treated by gods and men like the unjust. but they can be taught. c and (96 Protagoras (cf. the indispensable preparation for the higher virtue which is founded on scientific knowledge. To do in is worse than to suffer injustice. 376 E. he reduces all virtues to insight. [47 the essential condition of his happiness is. iv. and maintains that not only are they one. It is the rule of the divine in men over the animal. ix. This view is found in the Laches. Plato at first adhered closely Ordinary virtue he does not recognise as virtue at all. and in the (ii. 1 37 ).156 PLATO. In his theory of virtue.) he recognises in which rests merely on habit and incomplete virtue. This is so not only owing to the reward whicrTTs as sured to virtue in this world and the next. on the contrary. But even in the Meno . x. 443 C ff. because it is not founded on insight.. 583 B if. Eep. virtue is misdeed is at once happiness .) free rich.

principal virtues he enumerates four. which he is the sible for first to establish and explain. and power of thought ( Bep. his contempt of manual labour. and if he sometimes goes beyond it. 157 morality. .). Rep. 487 A) are unequally apportioned in individuals and whole nations. yet in other respects. Plato has not attempted to : in develop this scheme into a complete system of ethics his occasional expressions on moral activities and duties he puts the ethics of his people before us in its noblest form . Polit. just as the number also appears to have been first fixed by him. the quiet and eager temperament ( and dvSpsla.47] PLATO S ETHICS. When the spirit maintains the decision of the reason on that which or is is not to be feared. he is unable to break through its fetters. self-control (aco^pocrvvTj) means the harmony which justice is is of all the parts of the soul on the question to command and which is to obey.). and against pleasure and pain. as in forbidding us to do evil to an enemy. inasmuch as he assigns to each of the unity Of these principal virtues a special place in the soul. vi. iii. 441 C ff. we have courage . iv. force of will. and part of the soul fulfils its mission it ( the whole extent of this relation. Wisdojn consists in the right quality of the reason. sensuality. when every and does not overstep iv. 435 E. 415. as in his conception of marriage. 306 f. but his psychology makes it also pos him to combine a plurality of virtues with the of virtue. and his recognition of slavery.

The civic life is as a rule mainly i necessary because it is the only means to maintain virtue in the world and raise it to the sovereign place Rep. 519 C ff. or.. on the con pass almost entirely He is carries back political duties to moral. its chief mission (&amp.lt. Though in the first instance it arises out of physical needs ( 6 Rep. . 500 D.lt. . 369 B ff. they while the old Greek conception allows moral duties to into political.). [48 48.). 500 B). which comes to the All true virtue rests in scientific same thing. 6 Rep. 473 This rule must be absolute and Polit.) a society which was limited to the satisfaction of those needs (like the natural state of a State ( of the Cynics) does not deserve the name Rep. . Polit. munity ( ideal State which he 347 I offers to he regards such participation as a sacrifice the community ( Rep.158 PLATO. and the happiness of the is citizens .). A f. the dominion of philosophy. the education of the people in virtue Gorg. C c &amp. the rule of the philosopher ( Rep. 272 B).. 293 C). Polit. trary.lt. It is a truly Hellenic trait in Plato s Ethics that But are closely connected with his Politics. Thus the essential object of this ( life is virtue. 521 D ff. 490 E ff. Plato. stances he finds no room for the philosopher to take a 488 A ff. 372 D &amp. 216 A). . &c. Plato s Politics. 464 B f. convinced with Socrates that man should labour first for himself. and even in the part in politics ( Rep. knowledge and philo Thus the first condition of every sound polity is sophy. and only in the second place for the com Under existing circum Symp.. 309 C.

428 E. and to protect the State ex ternally. order the necessary power.). the acquisition of money ( Rep. restrained by no law ( Eep. philosophy is not a matter for the multitude (&amp. Pol it. order excluded from all political activity and confined to be added to it as a second 1 . The State takes care that the citizens shall be begotten by the best parents under .Polit.. the abso lute rule of the competent persons.). but its special motive lies in the con viction that only a minority are capable of cultivation for the higher political functions is . 428 D). 293 A.) that the capacity for as a rule hereditary. Plato himself compares them to the three parts of the and apportions the virtues of the community to them. or philosophers. 433 ff.48] PLATO S POLITICS. and artisans. and inasmuch as he also presupposes (Rep. 297 A ff. the division of the three orders approaches to a distinction of castes. to the three parts of the soul (427 D ff. 294 A ff. But in order that the two higher classes may discharge their mission satisfactorily (the aristocratic philosopher cares for the third order and its banausic arrange little ments) their education and the arrangements of their life must be entirely conducted by the State. as he had apportioned the virtues of the individual soul. 373 D ff.f)v\aKEs. The constitution of is therefore an aristocracy. 415 these functions f. the order of warriors (&amp. sTTircovpoi) must while the mass of the poputhe agriculturists. .). In order to give the ruling. the Platonic State Eep. 159 for can only be entrusted to the few who are capable of it. This separation of orders Plato founds on the principle of the division of labour. form a third lation. and directed to its aims.lt.lt.

160 PLATO. and four in Eep. 162) even the women participate. the members of which conduct the of the State in succession. he regards as perversions (he enumerates six in Pol.. with these proposals. [48 the most favourable circumstances music it gives them by and gymnastic an education. when they have been approved on every highest they may in their fiftieth year be adopted into the order. . 5 . or by opposition to the excesses of the Attic democracy . for by the removal of private property. viii. and the family. mathematical sciences and dialectic for governors by their duties. the pattern of Spartan or Pythagorean arrangements. the ultimate basis lies in the fact that the whole character of his system prevents the philosopher from seeing in the sensual and individual side of human anything more than a hindrance to true morality. and regards them not only as wholesome but as capable of being carried out. Eep. 449 A. just as they subsequently It trains the future share in civic and martial duties.lt. except his own. All other kinds of constitution. management For the rest of their lives they are compelled to belong wholly to this order. many years of practical side. . p. in order that after activity. the State cuts asunder the roots of those private interests which are the hereditary foes of the That Plato is quite in earnest unity of the State. in which (cf. cf. This State cannot be explained merely by &amp. and from regarding it as the means of realis existence ing the idea.). &c. is be yond a doubt. 300 ff. ix.

Nevertheless. 40 D). Plato s attitude towards the religion and art of his nation determined by moral and political points In an age when poets were theologians. &c. the theatre bore an important part in religious worship art and religion stood in the closest interconnection. had never raised the question of the personality of God. in which the Deity coincides with the idea of good. the Cosmos and the stars as visible gods. which are quite unworthy of divine beings ( Rep. above all. belief in world is are conceived His more popular utterances about (rod or the gods in the same sense. while divine worship is one with virtue and knowledge.49] PLATO S RELIGION AND ART. because he never critically compared the form of that belief in concep more tion and in presentation. while the philosopher does not conceal the fact that he regards the gods of mythology as creatures of imagination ( Tim. In regard to his belief in providence especially and in his theory of divine justice. and. Plato s Vieivs 161 on Religion and Art. they pass the more easily beyond the strict consistency of his system. 49. and their works took the place of revealed documents when is also of view.). he wishes to retain the Hellenic religion as that of his State. 377 E. the. Besides the deity in the absolute sense we find the ideas denoted as eternal gods. and Hellenic myths as the first foundation of instruction. though M . Plato s own religion is that philosophic monotheism. providence with the conviction that the the work of reason and the copy of the idea. and expresses himself very severely on the numerous immoralities of mythology.

lowest inclinations. attain to a higher position. ness of vice. art must enter into the service of philosophy. [49 these are to be purified from any harmful admixture. he cannot properly esti mate pure art. In the same manner. and by its varied play endangers In order to simplicity and directness of character. and the whole body of imitative poetry. including Homer. for instance. supervision ject art. to which Plato will sub minutest this especially poetry and music. an imitation (niprja-ii). but also all extravagant and effeminate music. Plato . down to details. In the Socratic manner the conception of the beautiful is referred to the conception of the good without any more art as subtle analysis of its peculiar nature. Precisely because he is himself a philosophic artist. What he requires is not the expulsion but the reform of the national religion. but of their appearance it ^ that.162 PLATO. as. it flatters the productions. art is examined by Plato primarily with regard to its ethical effect. Like religion. in his two great political works . though it arises from a dim objection to enthusiasm for (/juavia). which subserves no other object. claims our sympathies equally bad or good in many of its . is By this canon the public guidance and the to be directed. not of the He regards essence of to the senses . and be treated as a means of it must seek its highest mission in moral culture emphasising the goodness of virtue and the worthless. it what is false or true. and he himself applies when he banishes from his State not only all immoral and unworthy narratives about gods and heroes. in comedy. and his things.

he did not now content himself with finding the ultimate basis of From phenomena in ideas.lt. and plurality or undefined duality. but distinguished these ideal numbers from the mathematical by the fact that the former do not consist of homogeneous unities. of the Platonic Doctrine. 50.49] PLATO S RELIGION AND ART. The later Form The &amp. and therefore cannot be reckoned. 9 The system which is set before us in the Platonic writings down to the Timoeus and Critias underwent &amp. The ideas he denoted as numbers (p. Plato. 1C3 requires that rhetoric. 149). perhaps after his return from his last Sicilian journey. considerable changes in the later part of Plato s life. from the mathematical the mathe matical magnitudes. Moreover.lt. but inquired into the constituent elements of the ideas (CTTOL^SLO). &amp. and made a help to philosophy (cf. mathematics occupying a place intermediate between the ideas and things in the world of sense (p. 138). These he found in the^One. which he placed on the same level as the good. shall be reformed p. tion the unlimited element stood to that which is 2 the M .lt. when he heard him. which he called the great and small (/jLEja teal fjiiKpov\ because it is not limited upwards or as much downwards. 143). in as numbers arise from it. the ordinary practice of which is most emphatically condemned. confined the circle of ideas to the various kinds of natural objects. According to Aristotle. the ideal numbers proceed the ideal magnitudes. But in what rela &amp. Laws.lt. and the Unlimited.

is in harmony with does not in any respect go beyond that improved and purified natural religion which in the Republic is merely assigned to the masses s Plato principles. the ( Republic is the only means of assisting humanity. 131 ) to show how an essential improvement of political conditions could be brought about even under existing circumstances and without the hypotheses of the philosophical State. 217 ff. religion. fifth body from the In the years to which this form of his doctrine be c longs. Plat. he approaches in these doctrines. older 509 532 fT.164 PLATO. it is true.lt. which he now thought it impossible The dominion of philosophy. and thus arose the appearance of its complete Like the Pytha uniformity which Aristotle assumes. tlie in regard to the The chief passages i. p. Stvdien. Nor can the conduct of the individual soul be handed over to wisdom in the higher sense. Phil. stotle are Metajjh. magisterial scientific and in the place of dialectic or knowledge of laws we have mathematics and duties . Plato and Academy. to whom he distinguished the ^Ether as a four elements.. d. while bravery comparison with both. 1 remarkably depreciated in Finally. we have a board of the Wisest without definite is . Entwickl. Plato made the attempt in his Laws (cf. This religion. and Susemihl. 517 fL Platon. ff.lt. on which compare Alexander s commentary. now abandoned in the place of the philosophical rulers. . Arixiii.ris) 9 Its place is is which taken by practical insight hardly distinguished from Sois phrosyne. Genet. 6.f&amp. but it as a compensation for dialectic. 6. Further. [50 basis of the corporeal world he does not seem to have 1 inquired. in 9.p6vr}&amp. goreans. (&amp.gt.. which in to carry out.

Hestiseus of . but from their own con for by an explanatory preamble. The Old Academy. tion of the State. but carefully supervises marriages and domestic The principle of one public education for boys and alike is still girls maintained. Trade. and democratic elements while the organic regulations of the constitution. Philippus of Opus. he does not \ now destroy the family. Plato in his later work does not abolish private property. men 51. His first who was crates successor was Speusippus. the son of his sister. after his death. and it gave to succeeding ages the pattern for the organisation of scientific instruction. by his fellow-pupil Xeno- of Chalcedon. no less than the civic and penal laws.C. life. and agriculture are the exclusive care of the metceci and slaves. society The scientific which Plato founded and conducted was carried on. and retaining a fixed number of plots of land (5040). or is more properly oligarchical. so that of the three orders of the As to the constitu republic only the second remains. in his Academy under special leaders. and intercourse with foreign is carefully controlled and limited. Among the other immediate pupils of Plato. viction. are Heraclides of Pontus. the best known. Every law is preceded are not required to act out of blind obedience. an equal combination of monarchical. countries business. made the extends to the smallest details. but contents himself with limiting it by law. followed in 339 B.50] THE LAWS: 165 arrangements of the State. are carried out wisely and well with a solicitude which basis. excluding Aristotle.

With combined the mathematical sciences closely together. Xenocrates did not go quite so far in his approxi- . merely going beyond in directly maintaining that pleasure was an evil. and appears to have combined with the Pythagorean central fire. and. but he entirely gave up in its Platonic form the doctrine in which Plato had come poviicr) forward in the most diametrical opposition to the ordinary modes of presentation. he denoted the unit and plurality as the Pythagoras. adhering to Pythagoreanism. the first instance he derived only the numbers from . So far as we the Pyrrhsean. followed the direction which Plato s Speusippus philosophy had taken in his latest period. by putting mathe These numbers matical numbers in the place of ideas. a greater value to appears not only to have ascribed than Plato (STTLO-TT]knowledge gained by experience aivQ^ais). unit from the creative reason. are acquainted with their views. the Pythagoreans (and Plato) he added ^Ether to the four elements. and from the Good. 2) that he .166 THE OLD ACADEMY. most general sources of things but he distinguished the . In his Ethics he it followed the Platonic model. Menedemus [51 Perinthus. he allowed the lower parts of the soul to continue beyond death. iv. which he conceived as the world-soul. . all these men. perhaps for the sake of the migration of souls. unity and plurality while for superficial magnitudes and for the soul he assumed analogous principles but it is at the same time recorded (Diog. which was In a result arising from the arrangement of the world. he regards as separate from things and a fragment of Like his on the Decas has quite a Pythagorean ring.

. to Nous or Zeus. in which he was apparently influenced by Aristotle.51] XENOCRATES. he allows the irrational parts of the human soul. the father and the physics. He dis couraged a meat diet because by that means the brute nature of animals might obtain an influence over us. and ethics mother of the gods. the chief repre sentative of the Academic school. the exist ence of good and evil spirits. the elements. to survive death. In order to derive magnitudes from numbers. he seems to have world. as he also expressed it. a copious author. By the addition of Same and the Other to number arises the (world) which Xenocrates (on the ground of the Timseus ) defined as a number moving itself but this origin of soul. inasmuch as he assimilated the unit Their first offspring were the ideas. and the indefinite duality. he assumed to have arisen out of the smallest corpuscles. which must be also mathematical numbers.. which he conducted till 313-4 B. . &c. or. The elements. In Pythagorean fashion he denoted as original sources the unit. or the odd. He the expressly distinguished the three chief parts of philosophic system dialectic. and was apparently the first to do so. but of melancholy humour. Like Speusippus. by the side of them he assumed. and. He was a man of pure and noble character. operating in the different parts of the in the sky. or even. the soul he did not conceive as taking place in time. he assumes the the most minute and indivisible lines. without doubt.C. 167 mation to Pythagoreanism. with The forces the national religion and the Pythagoreans. to which he also added ^Ether. denoted as gods . and perhaps the souls of animals also.

like Archytas. deviated far more than Philippus from the doctrine of Plato. and what we know of them shows that he remained 4 true to the Platonic ethics. and. in addition to virtue.). above the misery of earthly existence and assured of a future return to heaven. three classes. but he Heracleides declared pleasure to be the highest good. he has but a poor human life and earthly things and appa . set forth in [ 51 His ethical views were numerous treatises. &amp. gives the name of wisdom insight. scientific between If and practical Aristotle. had attended.lt. 4 we may judge from the Pseudo-Platonic Epi- nomis. whom He not only allowed he. Philippus was rather a mathematician than a philosopher. that we are raised and astronomy. combined with correct presentations depends.) It is by mathematics the bad world-soul (988 D f. about the heavenly deities. In his view mathematics and astronomy secure us the : wisdom consists in acquaintance highest knowledge with them. school of his own in his native of Pontus. He . like to the first only. who was the ideas to be mingled as matter in things. Cnidus. also The famous Eudoxus . He placed happiness in the possession of virtue and of the means which sub He distinguished more precisely than Plato serve it. and on them.168 THE OLD ACADEMY. all piety follows Plato in rejecting the gods of this account spirits are of the mythology and on more importance in his eyes as the intermediaries in all He divides them into intercourse with the gods. rently he first interpolated into the Laws (x. which was most probably his work. who opened a . opinion of On the other hand. 896 E if.of a mathematician.

himself Of Hestiseus we know that he busied with those metaphysical and mathematical speculations..C. like Xenocrates. its doctrines. were comprehended in the single requirement of a life according to nature. about 339 B.C. of which Aristotle preserves a few. as composed of sethereal matter. daily revolution of the earth. and also the author of famous ethical writings entirely in harmony with the doctrines of the Old Academy. and died before was the first commentator on the Timreus. ICO borrowed from the Pythagorean Ecphantus not only the assumption of small original corpuscles (avapfioi oy/coi. with Xenocrates. Crates of Athens became the leader of the Academic school. After Polemo. the successor of Crates. POLEMO. regard as conceived in time.) was held in repute as a moral philo His ethical principles. His most distinguished pupil was Grantor of Soli in Cilicia. without any mention of names. in which he coincided sopher. and Arcesilaus ( gave an essentially altered character to 78). the psychogony in which he did not. The successor of Xenocrates.51] EUDOXUS. in to addition those quoted. He belonged to Xenocrates. but also the doctrine of the The soul he regarded We are also reminded of the Pythagoreans in the credulity with which this learned but uncritical writer accepted a belief in miracles and soothsaying. Polemo the Athenian (died 270 B. who also Polemo. ETC.) out of which the divine city intellect built the world. .

the prince of that state. or sister. 90. after the fall of Hermias. His father Nicomachus was physician to Amyntas. whose niece. 52.C. where he This fact. In he came to Athens and entered the continued till circle of s Plato the pupils of Plato. Aristotle s Life. long time before Plato s death. not only studied the pre-Platonic philosophy.C. he subse quently married. in to Isocrates. is B. Aristotle was born at Stagira. If in a series of writings he adhered to Plato in form and contents. he nevertheless ex his objections to the doctrines of ideas pressed in them and his conviction of the eternity of the world. during his twenty years of study at Athens. we may assume that Aristotle. King of Macedonia. to his fellow-pupil Hermias. [ 52 IV. but after the death of his parents Proxenus of Atarneus attended to his education.170 ARISTOTLE. his eighteenth year. Thence he appears to have returned to Athens. In 342 he opposition obeyed a summons to the Macedonian court to under take the education of Alexander. After Plato s death he repaired with Xenocrates to Atarneus in Mysia. Pythias. Three years later. he went on to Mitylene. the assertion that Aristotle disregard for his teacher and for a his ingratitude caused a difference between them On the contrary.. combined with a sufficient contradiction of s other ascertained data. 3667 death. where he opened a school of rhetoric. who at that time was . but also laid the foundation for other his torical knowledge. 01. 1 (384 B.). ARISTOTLE AND THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL.

52]

ARISTOTLE S LIFE.

171

he remained
paign.

on the threshold of his youth (born in 356 B.C.). Here till Alexander set out on his Asiatic cam The beneficial influence of the philosopher on
his brilliant pupil,

and the respect of the pupil for his celebrated by Plutarch, Alexander, c. 8. master, are Aristotle had to thank the favour of Philip or Alex
ander for the restoration of his paternal city, which In the year 334 or 335 at the Philip had destroyed.

Athens and opened a which received the name of the Lyceum but from Aristotle s Peripatetic, not from the place, while giving instruction. His teach habit of walking besides ing extended to rhetoric as well as philosophy continuous lectures, dialogue was doubtless introduced, and the scientific society, like that of Plato, was at the
earliest,

Aristotle returned to

school in the

;

same time
assistance

a circle of friends with fixed
of his own,

common

meals.

With ample means

if he required it a position to obtain all exaggerations), Aristotle was in the assistance in his researches which his age could

and secure of royal (apart from any later

offer.

Above

all,

he was the

first

to

make

a large

His writings are evidence of the extent to which he availed himself of these means. After the violent death of his nephew Callisthenes Aristotle s relations to Alexander were less harmonious ;
collection of books.

him a part in the of Alexander, which is indeed a supposed poisoning The unexpected death of the king party falsehood.
but
it is

sheer calumny to ascribe to

brought him into the most immediate danger, for on the outbreak of the Lamian war he was attacked on a false charge of sacrilege, owing to political hatred, and fled

372

ARISTOTLE.

to Chalcis in Euboea, where he fell sick and died in the summer of 322 B.C., a few months before Demosthenes.

His character, which from a very early period was grievously traduced by his political and scientific op ponents, appears in his writings as thoroughly noble, and there are no certain facts which give us any
reason to doubt this impression. His scientific emi nence is beyond a doubt ; and in the combination of

an extraordinarily wide knowledge with independent judgment, acute penetration, comprehensive specula tion, and methodical inquiry, he stands alone, or if
not alone, Leibnitz only can be compared with him in
thi? respect.

53. Aristotle s Writings.

has come

Under the name of Aristotle down to us, which

a collection of writings in all essentials un

doubtedly goes back to the edition of the Aristotelian writings published by Andronicus about 50-60 B.C.

There is no doubt that the largest and (Cf. 82.) most important part of these writings is genuine, though some of them are apparently not free from later additions and alterations. But besides the works which
have survived we are acquainted with a large number of lost writings of which, it is true, the greater part seem to be spurious partly from the quotations of
later writers,

and partly from two

lists
1

which are

still

in existence.

The
v.

older of these

lists,

which seems

to

have been derived from the Alexandrian Hermippus
1

In Diog.

21

ff.

and with

several omissions and additions in the so-called Anonymus Me-

nagii, a biography of Aristotle, apparently the work of Hesy-

chius (about 500 A.D.)

53]

ARISTOTLE S WRITINGS.

173

(about 200 B.C.), puts the total of the Aristotelian writings at nearly 400 books ; but as important works in our collection are not found in the list, it seems

only to contain the works of Aristotle which were in the Alexandrian Library at the time of its compilation.

The

which has come down to us in an in complete state from Arabian writers, was compiled by
later list,

Ptolemaeus, apparently a Peripatetic of the first or second century A.D. It mentions nearly all the works in our collection, and (with Andronicus) reckons the books of the entire writings at 1,000.
collection contains the following works : (1) Logical Treatises (first collected together in

Our

By

zantine times under the title

The Cate Organon ) gories, apparently mutilated from c. 9, 11 b. 7, and enlarged by the addition of the so-called Post-predica ments, c. 10-15, from a later hand; IT. sp^vsias (or on propositions), probably the work of a of
:

Peripatetic

the third century

Analytics (avakvrnca Trporspa and vcrrspa), of which the first deals with con 6 clusions, the second with proof; the Topica, which treats of dialectic, i.e. thejirt of the proof of probability; the last (ninth) book is generally quoted as a sepa
;

B.C.

the two

<

rate treatise,

TT.

aofyiGTucwv s^syycov.

History: Physics aKpoacri$\ in eight books, of which, however, the seventh book, though derived from an Aristotelian
(<t>vcn,Krj

(2)

Treatises

on

Natural

sketch, appears to be a later interpolation ; De Ctelo, four books; About Origin and Decay, two books; Meteorology, four books; the spurious book Trspl There are also the (see 82). investigations

174

ARISTOTLE.

[

53

into the nature of living creatures, the three books on the soul, and the smaller treatises connected with them, from which we must separate the work ire pi TTVSVparas

comprehensive zoological description of animals (TT. rd in ten books, or nine, if we deduct the spurious la-Topidi) On the tenth book ; and the three systematic works
as

post-Aristotelian;
;

the

treatises

the

&a

<

:

On the Progression of Parts of Animals, four books ; On the Origin of Animals (five books, of ; which, however, the fifth book seems to be a separate
Animals
6

the spurious treatise irspl ^axov work), together with Whether Aristotle carried out a work which KiVTjcrscDs.

he contemplated on plants
case the treatise
TT.
<J>VTCOV,

is

not quite certain
is
TT.

;

in

any

which we have,
^pwjjidrwv^

spurious.

So also are the works
TT.

TT.

drcovcrrwv,

Oav^acTLwv dKovo-pdrwv, the ^vdio^vw^LKd^ the the treatise on indivisible lines (pro prjxavitcd, and
Aristotle also wrote bably the work of Theophrastus). but in our thirty-seven books of problems Problems,

the remains of the Aristotelian are buried beneath a

mass of
(3)

later additions.

The metaphysical writings of the philosopher which we possess are limited to the Metaphysics (TO. psrd rd ^vaucd), which, so far as we can see, is a col
1

lection

formed immediately
54);
iv.

after Aristotle

s

death of
6

all

that was found in his remains referring to the

first

philosophy
it
i.

(cf.

its

present
ix.

name
is

is

due to

its

position in the collection of Andronicus.
(b.
iii.

The bulk

of

[B.],

vi.

x.)

formed by AriBonitz
(1848)

1 Best editions Schwcgler (1847 f .)

and commentaries

by

and

53]

ARISTOTLE S WRITINGS.
s

175

First Philosophy, incomplete work on the the originally independent treatise which forms book v. has been incorporated. Book xi. 1 8,
stotle

in which

1065

a.

26, seems to be an older sketch which was

Books xiii. changed afterwards into books iii. iv. vi. xiv. are discussions which were at first intended for one
work, but subsequently rejected and in part embodied in books i. 6, 9. Book xii. is a treatise
lectures.

separate written before the main work, perhaps as a basis for

Books

ii.

(a) and

xi.

(from
is

c. 8,

confessedly spurious. on the Eleatic philosophy mentioned on p. 58. (4) Ethics are treated by Aristotle in the ten books of the so-called ; Nicomachean Ethics, in books
treatises

The same

1065 a. 26) are the case with the

which additions greater or smaller seem to from the Eudemian and Politics in the proceed eight books of the Politics. In the last-mentioned work not only do books vii. and viii. find their proper place between books iii. and iv., but much that is needed to
v.-vii. of
;

complete the plan is wanting. Like the Metaphysics, it seems to have been left a fragment owing to the death
<

of the author.

The Eudemian Ethics

are a revision
this

of the

Aristotelian Ethics

by Eudemus, but of
;

only books i.-iii. and vi. are preserved the Magna Moralia are a sketch compiled from both, but more The small treatise especially from the Eudemian.

on

<

Virtues and Vices

belongs to the period of later

eclecticism.

The

first

book of the

(Economics, which

5

Philodemus
phrastus,
is

(<

col. 7, 27) ascribes to Theonot Aristotelian, and the second certainly

De

Vitiis,

book

is

much

later.

176

ARISTOTLE.

[53

the three books of the (5) On Rhetoric we have Rhetoric, of which, however, the third does not seem to be the work of Aristotle ; on Poetry we have the Poetics,
<

which as it now stands is only a part of an Aristotelian work in two books. The Rhetoric to Alexander is an
*

interpolation. All these treatises, so far as they are genuine, and unless intended by their author for his own private use,
as

was perhaps the case with Metaphysics xii., appear been didactic works which Aristotle wrote down for his pupils and imparted to them only. He
to have

and perhaps
conclusion

seems to have had no thought of wider publication, This is the at first did not permit it.

we draw from the quotation of published works (see infra), and more especially from the address to his pupils at the end of the Topica, and from the numerous facts which show that the last hand of the author was wanting. Moreover, in some treatises which are demonstrably earlier in date, we
find reference to later writings, which appear to have been added long after they were composed, but before they were published. Of the lost works the Avaro/jial, so often quoted by Aristotle himself, and the aarpo-

\oyifca
1.
<De

OstopwaTa
Cselo,
ii.

(

Meteor.

i.

3, 8.

339

b. 7.

345

b.

29), besides the work on plants, belonged to these didactic treatises ; of the numerous other writings of the class, which are still
10,

291

a.

mentioned, perhaps no single one was genuine. From the didactic writings of the Aiistotelian
school
calls

we must separate those which
published

Aristotle himself
15,

works

(*

Poetics,

1454

b.

17,

53]

ARISTOTLE S WRITINGS.

177

\6joi sv

Koiva) yiyvo/jisvoi

\ and which apparently he means by the De An. i. 4, init.^, and (
1

possibly by the sy/cvtcXia (j)i\o(ro(f)?j/jLaTa ( De Ca?lo, ii. Eth. i. 3, 109G a. 2). Of these, however, 9, 27 9 a. 30;

none is expressly quoted in the books in existence, which are proved to be a connected whole by the numerous cross-references in them. All the writings
of this class
Aristotle
s

appear to have been composed before

last residence in

Athens
is

;

a part of

them

were in the form of dialogue, and
reference to

it

can only be in

them that

Aristotle

commended by

Cicero and others for the copiousness and charm of his Even exposition, the golden stream of his speech.

among

these there was at an early time much that was 2 spurious. Among the dialogues was the Eudemus,
<

which in form and contents was an imitation of Plato s Phsedo, and was apparently composed in 352 B.C. the three books on Philosophy, in which the criticism of
;

the doctrine of ideas begins

;

the four books on justice

;

the three books

trspi Troirjrwv.

The remaining writings
Protrepticus,

of the earlier period contained the
treatises

the

on the Ideas and the Good, and accounts of

the contents of the Platonic lectures, the History of Rhetoric (TS-^VMV o-vvaywyrj)., the i Rhetoric, dedicated
to Theodectes, which, like the treatise jrspl /3ao-i\ia$,
1

It

is,

however,

doubtful

whether the old commentators are right in referring, after Andronicus,

view. Diels attacks it Sitznngsber d. Berl. Akad. 1883; Nr. 19.
:

2

The remains have been

col-

the

f^carfpiKol

often mentioned by Kudemus, to a particular class of Aristotelian writings. Bernays,

\dyoi, so Aristotle and

lected by Rose in his Aristotcles Pseudejpiffra/phus, and the Berlin edition of Aristotle, p. 1474 ff., by Heitz, vol. iv. b. of Didot s editioii.

with most scholars, defends this

178

ARISTOTLE.

[

53

dedicated to Alexander, must have been composed in Macedonia; and the SiSaff/caktai, besides which many

works relating to poets and arts are mentioned whether with good reason is very doubtful. On the
other hand, the excerpts from some Platonic works, and the writings on the Pythagoreans and other philosophers, so far as they are genuine, are only sketches for private
is probably the case (as Heitz with the ( Polities, a collection of accounts of assumes) 158 Hellenic and barbarian cities from which numerous

use,

and the same

statements are preserved, the vo^i^a ftappapuca and
SiKaL(t)/jiaTa

TWV nroXswv.
of the Letters,

How many

which had been collected

in eight books by Artemon even before Andronicus, are genuine, cannot be ascertained ; in what we know

there is much that is obviously besides a good deal that may be genuine. interpolated, have no reason to doubt the genuineness of some
of the
collection,

We

small poems and fragments. As all or nearly all the didactic writings of Aristotle appear to have been composed in the last twelve years
before his death, and present his system in the ripest form without any important variation in contents or

terminology, the question of the order of composition

becomes of little practical importance. Yet it is probable that the Categories, the Topica, and the Analytics are the oldest parts of our collection these were followed by the Physics and the works which are connected with
6

;

them.

Next

in order are the treatises
;

on the soul and

living creatures

then the

*

Ethics.

The

Politics

and

<

Metaphysics

(with the exception of the older

the Peripatetics after the time of Theophrastus were acquainted with but few and those for the most part exoteric works of their founder. and disclusively It N 2 . 54) and tive given in Strabo (xiii. 26). 1. more especially in the central point of the doctrine of ideas. and there hidden in a cellar.53] ARISTOTLE S WRITINGS. though begun later. yet his whole philosophy is far more deeply and completely defined by its connection with Plato than by its opposition to him. 54. But if it is presupposed in consequence that facts. notwithstanding the fragmentary character of the literary tradition of this period. may be correct in the time. Aristotle. and sharply as he contested the doctrine of its founder in many points. 4 of Theophrastus. Aristotle considered himself a member of the school of Plato. but contradicted by the fact that the use of all the works of Aristotle with unimpor tant exceptions can be proved for the period between Theophrastus and Andronicus. The Philosophy of Introductory. the assumption is not only improbable in itself. is true that he limits philosophy more ex than Plato to the region of science. while the Poetics and Rhe The narra toric. Plutarch to which the writings of Ari Sulla. and republished by Tyrannio and Andronicus. according stotle and Theophrastus were carried to Neleus at portions incorporated in . were finished. 179 them) were then commenced. but never completed. rediscovered by Apellicon in Sulla s Scepsis after the death brought by Sulla to Rome.

the true and original real. Hence his philosophy. as it is behind Plato in artistic finish. he finds with Plato in things. the general and necessary. in the works which have come down to us. he knew how to gain for his exposition those advantages by which it is as far in advance of the exposition of Plato. He is not only a scholar. he com bines with the philosophy of concepts such a decided demand for the most comprehensive empiric knowledge. like Plato. and his extraordinary brevity skill in creating a philosophical terminology. is a science of concepts . both in the direction of dialectical induction and in that of logical demon the poetical and mythical adornment. and explained by deriva tion from concepts. Aristotle has brought this process to the highest state of perfection. he carried stration. he did not despise in the writings of his youth. which. the forms cepts. (siSrj). while on the other hand he assigns a greater importance for philosophy to empiric knowledge. but only as the inner essence of individual things. like that of Socrates which make up the content of our con and Plato. places the peculiar mission of philosophy in the know ledge of unchangeable Being and the ultimate bases of This essence of things. at any rate. as can only be found at most in Democritus his predecessors. among but an . Excluding all it out with scientific severity. the individual is to be referred to general concepts. But as the philosopher did not think of the forms as essences existing independently and separate from things.180 ARISTOTLE. Yet he. By the incisiveness and of his mode of expression. following the pattern of Plato. [ 54 tinguishes it more distinctly from moral activity.

which is also called Theology. first are included Physics. the introduction to the art of investiga scientific tion. He calls it Analytic. p. tinguishes three sciences and theoretic. The indications which Aristotle gives for the division of the philosophic system can only be with difficulty to the contents of his own applied He dis writings. But it and treats as the development of knowledge in time takes the reverse path. cf. equally eminent for his mul knowledge. though it is obvious that we must not expect from him what could only be obtained by the scientific aids and methods of our own century.lt. Mathematics. Under the &amp. practical. Physics. the chief basis of our exposition of the Aristotelian system. and the First Philosophy ( Metaphysics. main divisions. 174). The Aristotelian Logic. Metaphysics. scientific knowledge in the narrower sense (STTLO-TI^TJ) consists in the derivation of the special from the general. productive.e. Accord ing to his view. and Ethics. For our purpose it is best to make the division into Logic. and to add something by way of supplement to these oo. practical philosophy is divided into Ethics and Politics. i. extending more especially to the earlier philosophers. methodology. Aristotle has created Logic as a special science on the foundation laid by Socrates and Plato. but the whole is also called Politics. the conditioned from its causes. for his comprehensive knowledge of nature.ARISTOTLE S PHILOSOPHY. arid his penetrating researches. observer of the tifarious first 181 rank. Though the soul in its thinking nature possesses .

and to that extent dynamically possessed of all knowledge. ( Anal. which is the form common to both. i. 19 2. in which from certain pre Anal. . Post. 33 Phys. and from experience to know Metaph. called TrporaaLs by Aristotle). proposition consists in an affirmation or negative assertion. 71 b. as part of his metaphysical in quiries. and it is ledge ( Anal. &amp. and is therefore composed of two concepts (opoi). It is only in connection with the syllogism that Aristotelian Logic (in the Second deals with induction as well as proof . a subject and a pre dicate. A Nevertheless Aristotle only treats concepts more at length in connection with the doctrine of the definition of the concept. I importance of experience for knowledge that Aristotle expressly undertakes the defence of the owing to this truth of sensuous perception. all [55 is the possibility of knowledge. is not so for us . ii. 1. Hence the Analytics ) both are preceded (in the First Analytics ) by the doc trine of the syllogism. 184 a. 1. Prior.lt.). A These presuppositions are expressed in the premisses. suppositions there arises something new (&amp. 18). &c. i. He is . certain in itself . 1. known and more Post. i. and rise by steps from perception by means of memory to experience. 24 b. syllogism is a speech.182 ARISTOTLE. and therefore in propositions (both are i. In the proposition or judgment .lt. 1 6) we must abstract the general concepts from the individual ob servations. it attains to What is the better actual knowledge by degrees only. but Aristotle deals with concepts and judgments. the senses as such never deceive us all of opinion that error springs c out of the false reference and combination of their evidence.

He shows what judgments can be converted simply. and a complete demonstra tion (a complete science) is only realised which has to be proved is derived through when that all the in termediary members from its highest presuppositions. he distinguishes the two kinds of opposition. and according to their modality into assertions about Being. The presup positions of a proof must therefore consist of necessary and universal propositions. in which (see supra) knowledge as such consists. of which the second and third receive their validity thetical by being referred to the first. Finally he remarks that from the combination of concepts in a judgment arises the con trast of and false. according to their quantity into general. sp^vsias^ into general. The object of all demonstration (aTroSsigi?) is the deriva tion of the conditioned from its sources. and indefinite (TT.55] THE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. the radical form in which all advance of syllogism true thought moves. and he also gave the name to it. The syllogistic of his First Analytics gives an exhaustive account of the categorical syllogisms in their three figures. Proofs are compounded out of syllogisms. which he divides according to their quality (now so called) into affirmative or negative. and possible Being. Into hypo and disjunctive syllogisms he does not enter. particular. necessary Being. But the doctrine of the forms the chief contents of this part of syllogism Aristotle was the first to discover in the his Logic. contradictory (avrifyacns) and contrary (ivavTtorijs). and what require change in their quantity. . Further. 183 he thinks only of the categorical judgments. and singular). particular.

or whether concepts with a definite content (as possibly the concept of the Deity) can be known in this manner. and if the facts are known to us by perception in a direct manner. [ 55 Such a derivation would not be possible if the suppo from which it starts. presupposes the power of direct. immediate. must be known to us without proof. Whether these principles are merely formal. He regards the rule of contradiction. owing to the number . Aristotle recognises in reason (vovs) All mediate knowledge. Aristotle looks round for a simplification of the inductive process. But as a complete observa^tion of all individual cases is never possible. and the actual fact to which the principles are applied. That even these convictions may not be without a scientific foundation. and therefore unerring knowledge of the most general principles. sitions. Aristotle did not inquire. or if there were an endless series of intermediate members between the presuppositions and that which has to be derived from them. and so ad infinitum. Following the pattern of Socrates. therefore. intuitive.184 ARISTOTLE. an which in more precise terms is twofold. for which he establishes different formulae in its logical and its metaphysical form though they agree in fact. he introduces into them induction (s7raya)yrj) in the place of proof. as the highest and most certain principle of human thought. Induc tion emphasises a general definition. inasmuch as it shows that it actually holds good of all the individual cases brought under it. he establishes induc tion on those assumptions which. Both the most general principles from which the de monstration proceeds. were in turn derivative.

in which it is the object of definition. which we are now accustomed to require. he endeavours to obtain correct definitions. 185 or the authority of their supporters. (SicKpopa slBoTToios) is When the specific difference the species (elSos). and in his use of the statements of others. denotes the essence of things. By the dialectic comparison and examination of these as sumptions.55] THE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. it is a generic concept (ysvos). If all our concepts denote something general. the result is \Vhen this has been more closely ovffta. yet even in respect he has done everything which can be reasonably expected from one in his position and this with the afforded. and this process has been continued as long as possible. rb with a dative i\v elVcu. aids to scientific research which his time The fixing of concepts or definition (opiapos} rests in part on direct knowledge. defined by further distinctive marks. irrespective of their matter. rb added (as rb avepfary e?j/eu). t?j/cu rb ri eVri. the elements which make them what 1 they are. common to If such a concept expresses that which is many things different in kind. their form. and though it is true that in his observation we miss the accuracy and completeness. which must be emphasised by induction. the criticism. may be supposed to have arisen out of actual experience (svBoj-a). has applied this process with singular ability and wisdom in the aTropiai with which it is his habit to He open every inquiry . rb ri oirep uv. the concept in the narrower sense. we obtain the 1 added to the genus. eTSos. which of necessity and always is attached to the things of a particular class. .

gt. He is convinced of the completeness of this scheme. place. 4 Top. and these make up the concepts of every object ( Anal. but passed over in all later enumera- . non-A). a^/jiara TwvKariTyopiwv). All our concepts fall ( Categ. activity. things : relation. but in a correct order. Trda^siv). when.186 ARISTOTLE. while there is no concept which comprehends them as a class. Topics. possession. and to those of having derivation. which denote the various points of view from which may be contemplated. or Categories (/ear^yo/nat). X SLV iroielv. Hence the definition of the concept must contain the marks which bring about the derivation of its object from its generic concept. proceeding logically. KsicrOai. aid for the definition of concepts is an exhaustive defi nition. which cannot now be divided into species but only into individuals. &amp. i. 13). but no definite principle is to be found for its origin . corresponding to the graduated The essential process from the general to the special. TTOTS. where. quality. but two concepts Two are in contradictory opposition when one is the simple But Aristotle also negative of the other (A. Post. irpos rt. 9) under one or more of the main classes of assertions (7^77 or c ..lt. things which are furthest removed from one another in the same genus are opposed as contraries (svavrlov). [55 lowest specific concepts. ii. quantity. applies these species of the contradictory to the con and ceptions of relation. TTOIOV. not only with completeness. TTOI). pas sivity {ovaia or rl sari^ TrocroV. the categories c of possession and place are named in the Categories and the &amp. Of these categories Aristotle enumerates ten substance.

1. 24. 22. the most decisive objections are that the Universal is subjects the doctrine of ideas I nothing substantial. 1. which is the cause of all movement and form most in the world. a. 187 Of the remainder all have not the same value the most important are the four first. It is therefore all the comprehensive Speaking more precisely. v. and among these the category of substance.55] I 1 HE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC. v. 410. Met. and he consequently described the ideas as self-existent essences. 15. with the eternal incorporeal and immovable. ( Metaph. that the essence cannot be ex1 Anal. Post.). . categories which form the essential object of the first philosophy or metaphysics. and valuable of it is sciences. Aristotle is in harmony with him. which are independent of indi He vidual things. The Individual and the Universal. to which all the rebt are related It is these as what is derivative to what is primary.the three questions of the relation of the individual and the Universal. 1017 . This science is concerned with the inquiry into the ultimate basis. and the assumptions connected with it. Plato will allow only the ideas. most penetrating and annihilating criticism (in spite In this criticism of some injustice and inaccuracy). the universal. with Being as such. concepts. tions). to the &c. if i. 83 a. the moving and the moved. 56. 1 end. 21 b. concerned with. xiii. i. Aristotle s Metaphysics. form and matter. to be the original This forms the content of our and bare reality. Phys. 9.

can be the object of knowledge (pp. 5e eVrij/ . On his part he could only regard the individual as the real in the full sense.tat. However vigorously Aristotle contests the inde pendent and separate existence of the Platonic ideas. is For if this name 1 only given to that which can neither be predicated of another. Ka. infra). nor adheres as an accident to another. that ideas do not possess the moving force without which they cannot be the cause of phenomena. on the other hand. the form. is allowed to have the higher degree of reality (cf. 182). . or and better known. he is not inclined to surrender the leading thoughts of the doctrine. express merely certain and even generic concepts only express the common essence of certain substances.6 ovffia. which is always something universal in comparison with that which is compounded if 7ro\\wv. we have here a contradiction of which the results run through the is that which in itself earlier entire system of Aristotle. 2. . His own definitions of form and matter were rather an attempt to carry the subject out in a theory more tenable than that of Plato.). 20 . 1 a. but a sv Kara of form and material. The object 1 Categ. only the individual nature is substance. They But are not a sv -rrapa TroAXa. 5. ^T tv % ^Tjre WTro/ce^eVou nv bs uTro/m^eVy It . All general con cepts. 2. peculiarities of substances. and only the general. rivi Cf. as a substance (ovaia). but they must not be regarded as anything existing outside things. C. 180. [ 56 ternal to the things of which it is the essence . They can therefore be called substances in an improper and derivative manner (Bsvrspai ova. Ae^erai ZVTLV.188 ARISTOTLE.

note). 6 If we think is of material without form. On the other hand. the it common substratum is of all Yet as what is merely possible. but must have the capacity to become so. which. the forms are . an expression coined for the purpose . and the qualities in the communication of which to the sub stratum called the change consists. which becomes some thing and upon which the change takes place. and form generally reality (svtyysia.op(f)rf. As the object of its becoming is attained when the material has assumed is form. for Aristotle is the more important assumption that every change presupposes something unchange able. also called the (qualitatively) unlimited. if we examine it closer. Swa/jusi ov). we get the first matter (TT^COTT. never existed and never could exist. svrsXs^sca) or the real (svepysia 6V). the slSos a word used for the Platonic ideas (also jj. all Becoming something not in process of becom ing . is of a twofold nature a substratum. The substratum is by Aristotle the v\rj. it can be and not be an svSs^o/jLSvov KOI elvai /cal fjurj slvai) only that which is beyond sense and thought in our con (is . the qualities are called the form. as such is not yet that which on the other hand. matter is also the possibility or the possible (Siivafjus.56] ARISTOTLE S METAPHYSICS. the form of a thing is the reality of it. he says with Plato. can only be the necessary and unchangeable . 189 of knowledge. the material it becomes in the result. 185. it definition. and this something. As. cepts Still is as unchangeable as the concepts themselves. Other terms are used. see p. #^77). being without limited matter. all that is perceived by the senses is accidental and changeable .

eternal and . [ 56 . It is due to the resistance of matter to form that nature can only rise by degrees from lower forms to higher and it is only from matter . the motive. the male and the female. like the idea. . just as the ideas of Plato. but also its aim and the power which realises that aim. not. never was. This runs through everything. the definite. and often in fact in particular of cause cases (as in the relation of the soul to the body and of the Deity to the world). only and is not merely the concept and the essence of each thing. On the quality of matter rests all imper fection of nature. in the eternity of the world. The only original difference is that between the form and the matter. the formal. fact matter acquires in Aristotle a meaning which goes far beyond the concept of simple possibility. The form it is unchangeable as that particular form. and operating element. Though these different relations are as a rule apportioned to different subjects. the first is denoted as the form or But as a actual. and Aristotle in consequence frequently enumerates four different kinds the material. on the contrary. universal form not merely modifications or creations of our most each is. outside things.190 ARISTOTLE. Wherever one thing is related to another as the more complete. and cause yet the three last mentioned coin the final cide in their essence. and also differences so vital as the difference between the heavenly and the earthly. the second as the matter or potential. From it arise natural necessity (avdy/cTj) and accident (avro/jLdTov and Tv%r)\ which limit and encroach upon the power which nature and man have of realising their aims.

192 b. i.56] ARISTOTLE S METAPHYSICS. rov bwdfjusi ovros Jz iii. and however great the advantages which the philosopher derived from his doctrine of form and matter for the explanation of phenomena. 191 that Aristotle can explain that the lowest special con It is cepts diverge into a number of individuals. xii. . When . realisation can only be given by something which is already that which the thing moved will become (77 the possible as such TOIOVTOV. 1. as soul and body in men. 3. 6/0/477) after the form of the good and divine ( Phys. opsyeo-0ai. is what reXe^em. both these two elements must be separate in it. The impulse owing Hence every movement presup an element moving and an element poses two things moved. ii. 9. Phys. in fact. From its exists a desire nature (so far as in every structure there for its realisation in use or activity) matter has a desire (tyisaOat. nothing else than the realisation of or. From the relation of form and matter comes the motion. 188). and even if Being moves itself. 192 a. &c.). the same thing. endowed with a power of its own. 3). to the movement. we nevertheless find great difficulty in the obscurity which arises from the fact that ovcria is sometimes placed on a par with the individual and sometimes with the form (p. 16. the change to which everything in the world which contains matter is subject. The moving element can only be the actual or the form the moved element is the potential or ma terial. 7. 18 Metaph. 1072 b. Motion is. obvious that matter thus becomes a second principle beside form. fj to this 1. . The first operates upon the second by rousing it to move towards reality or definiteness of form.

the first. the first can indeed only be the moving cause can only be one it final object. hut also the relation of the two on which motion rests. are without 57. as also time and the world. . the moving element.192 ARISTOTLE. For wherever there is matter there is the possibility of change. But the mere . and referred to a single end. pre supposes a separate moving element. 58). and the motion of the orb of the world is uniform and con tinuous. The ultimate basis movement can only lie in something For if all movement arises through the that which is is moved. it must be immaterial form without matter. As the form is complete Being. moving cause must also be the absolutely perfect. must be eternal (for about by which cannot be thought without motion. [56 form and matter touch. it is only the incorporeal which is unchangeable and un moved. and matter incomplete. which is itself not moved. or that in which the series of Being comes to an end. and this goes on till we reach a moving cause. as it also moving the first cause. well arranged. motion must of necessity always arise. there were no unmoved moving cause. there could not be such a thing as a first operation of that which moves upon moved. If. of this eternal unmoved. and still less movement without a beginning. motion can never beginning and end (cf. and movement . Moreover. origin and decay can only be brought motion). as the world is a uniform whole. or pure actuality. therefore. But if mov ing cause is unmoved. And as not only form and matter. the process from the potential to the actual. both of its have begun and can never cease. and consequently no movement whatever.

17 Fragm. is As the highest good the simply also the final object of all perfect being things. perfect spirit. 9 f . the uniform order. or an interference of the deity in the course of the world. on it depends world. but only the divine spirit himself is the most valuable of and complete the this &amp.lt. 12-16. for potentiality. but by his mere existence. 6 i. or a creative activity of the deity. 10. ff. and the life of the Aristotle has not assumed a divine will di rected to the world. . lies in being is nothing but thought or spirit Therefore the ultimate basis of all movement in power. xii.sufficient being. f. infinite The activity of this spirit can only consist every other activity (every Trparrsiv andj has its object beyond itself.56] THE METAPHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE. This thought can never be in the condition of mere in. . 279 a. 5. it is a ceaseless activity of contemplation It can only be its own (Osagia?)* object. self.. 1 1 The most important passages for the theology of Aristotle are Phys. the cohesion. Metapli. Hence the thought and God is his happiness consists in unchangeable contemplation of self. viii. which is inconceiv Troislv) able in the activity of the perfect. the deity as the pure. object. 9. that to which everything strives and moves . thought of thought. for the value of thought is in proportion to the value of its contents . 193 incorporeal (vovs). . The spirit does not operate on the world by passing from himself and directing his thought and volition towards it. thought. 6. De Cfrlo.

If the First Philosophy is concerned with the im movable and incorporeal.). [ 5. 9 Point of View and General Principles.f)va-is) is the source of movement and 4 rest in that in which these are originally found ( Phys. (&amp. local change of place). of change by examines more minutely than any of his predecessors the conceptions which were related in the first instance to this kind of movement. the object of physics is the movable and corporeal. in . . . iv.) He shows that the unlimited can only be potential. includes all four (/zsra/JoTu.opd. 192 b. is in the habit of treating nature as a real power opera ting in the world. while the conception of change (&amp. substantial. remains doubtful. or origin as addition and decay quanti and subtraction qualitative or . Aristotle s Physics. his system gives him but to assume as a substance such a power. But only the last three are considered motion in the narrower sense (/clwrja-is). 1. little right By movement general possible. the transition of one material into another) . alteration (aXXotoxTts-.gt. 20) but how we are to conceive this source more pre cisely. ii. Much as the philosopher the deity. and more precisely that which Nature has the source of its movement in itself.f&amp. Aristotle ( are conditioned iii. 57.194 ARISTOTLE. every and in this sense he enumerates four kinds of : realisation supra) understands in of what is movement tative.lt. and what is the relation in which it stands to . Aristotle (see every change. local movement and Phys.lt. All other kinds .

in its the opposite theories. and not only contests Plato s mathematical construction of the elements. movement in a circle. He defines space (TOTTOS. passivity only possible to each other which are is This relation of activity and when two bodies are opposed partly similar and partly o 2 . By this change the qualities of one are changed under the influence of another. and time as the number of motion in regard to what is earlier and later (apiOfjbbs /civtfo-sws /cara TO irpQTSpov KOI varspov). which can be without time. but also the theory of Atoms. locality. and the mechanical corresponds to it. however. beginning and end. is not sufficient Aristotle s opinion to explain phenomena. among such movements. is the only uniform and constant motion. a qualitative change of matter. limit of is more rarely %w/oa) which. 195 the infinite multiplication of numbers. presupposes a numbering soul. in Yet movement view of nature which in space. he does not sharply distinguish from as the which the surrounding body towards that surrounded. into each other.&quot. and that like every number. He proves (to mention a few things out of many) that movement in space. and more especially of the elements.] THE PHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE. it can never be given in reality. and in the existing state of He also assumes. and the divisi bility of magnitudes . for reasons against which this theory could not be defended Democritean form. From this he deduces the fact that beyond the world there is neither time nor space that empty space (as is stated more at length in opposition to the Atomists) is inconceivable. and. He maintains against it the qualitative difference of matter. while attacking physical knowledge.

this only proves that she. however great wife. is a preponderance of the teleological explanation of nature over the physical. 6 Nature. or incomplete . which allows us to perceive a most marvellous design in the arrangement of the world. for him is the principle that the operation of important nature must be universally regarded not merely as phy sical. and in all natural objects. result of the Aristotelian doctrine of form and matter. when they are opposed within the [ 57 same genus. as by a good house some useful object. and even failures are applied by her. a Still more notion opposed to the mechanical theories. even the smallest. in all her works. she is always striving after the best is . Nothing in nature is superfluous. she always makes the most beautiful that possible. That this is the case is shown by the observation of nature.196 dissimilar. i. as of the Platonic doctrine of ideas. or in vain. but in the formation of a new matter out of that which has been mixed. the creation of form in matter. In the same spirit Aristotle defends the notion according to which the intermixture of matter con sists not merely in combination. there is something divine. creates what suitable to her aim with the unerring certainty which is excludes choice. like perfect art. to or small. The all becoming is the development of potentiality Thus the to actuality. end of but essentially as a striving towards an end. does nothing without an ( aim. ARISTOTLE. Hence the real source of natural . Aristotle explains.e. We are compelled to refer this design to an all- pervading movement towards an end by the considera tion that whatever occurs regularly cannot be the result If we cannot ascribe reflection to nature of accident.

the cosmogonic part of physics is Owing to this doctrine of the world first to establish. hand. are regarded by Aristotle. though. and indispensable aids (Jf viroOsa-zws avayicalov. will last for ever. follows the eternity of the universe. crvvainov. of earth it is Even in the world being and without beginning. p. on the other hand. From the eternity of form and matter. as Plato also assumed. are men have always been in existence. . overlooks the fact that origin and decay mutually condition each other. so that in the earthly world (for in the heavenly material is of a different species) this activity is forced into a how its effects are in graduated progress from imperfection to perfection. 190). p. together all with the absence of beginning and end in motion (see supra. 192). genera. But what resistance these intermediate causes make to the teleological activity of nature. 197 material causes. consequence limited. TO ov OVK avsv TO sv). The assumption that the world. though it has come into being. as by Plato as conditions 151).THE PHYSICS OF ARISTOTLE. has already been observed (p. the race has been from time to time partly destroyed and partly re duced to savagery over wide districts natural by great catastrophes. 58. but not as the positive causes of objects. objects lies in final causes . and hence only individual things which come into decay. he was the trates which and which deeply pene into his system. on the other (cf. and that that alone can be imperishable the nature of which excludes both the one and the other. The Universe and its Parts.

not by the but also its spherical form. The imperish able nature of the stars and the unchangeable regularity of their motions prove. what Aristotle also attempts to demonstrate on general grounds. and moist. In the centre of the world rests the earth. sition Owing to this oppo they are constantly passing into each other. those that are at a greater distance by the mediation of those that are between them. which. as a proportionately smaller part of it. from their peculiar direct motion to their natural localities. Aristotle proves on many other physical also secured only the unity of the world. He has not to explain the origin of the world but only its nature. From this is follows. which and metaphysical grounds. The foundation of his explanation is the division into the two unequal parts. which is capable of change in space only and no other. air warm and moist. out of which the universe is composed. the body without opposite. which opposition . the heavenly and the earthly world. and dry and moist original qualities water cold (fire is warm and dry. and the qualitative opposition. earth cold and dry). [ 58 of little importance for Aristotle. SKSL and ra svravOa). the world above and the world below the moon. But things consist of the four elements which stand to one another in a double opposition of weight and lightness. . They consist of aether.198 ARISTOTLE. and has no movement besides circular movement. unity of theprimum mobile. the which arises results from the various possible combinations of their warm and cold. that they are dis tinct in their material from perishable things which are subject to constant change. however. the Beyond and the Here (TO.

The movement of its every sphere consists in a perfectly even revolution upon This Aristotle assumes with Plato and all axis. but proves it in detail of the Hence. first contemporary astronomy. . which cause the motion of the planets. which proceeded from Plato. lie water. surrounds it (cf.substance. Thus the independent movement of each planet must be disturbed by the motion of the whole number of circumambient spheres. just as the outermost does. in concentric spherical layers. round the earth. for flame is v7rsp/3o\rj Trvpos). of which the material is thought to be purer in proportion to their distance from the earth. 195). which. The outermost of these spheres is is the heaven of the fixed stars (TTpwros ovpavos). the including seven spheres in which the planets are fastened. the moving to the moved. but as according to his external Aristotle theory the spheres stand to the internal as form to matter. p. following a view of the problem sphere. which carries them round in its daily revolution. and Callippus at thirty-three. we must assume the number which the of spheres and ascribe to them those motions it is actual necessary to presuppose in order to explain movements of the seven planets from merely uniform circular motions. at twenty-six. every sphere must impart its movement to all the spheres which it in all cludes. follows them. air.58] THE UNIVERSE AND ITS PARTS. then come the heavenly spheres. 199 which in form is also a sphere . though occupying no space. and fire (or more precisely the warm. {/Tnr /c/cau/m. the daily revolution of which brought about by the deity. On this hypothesis Eudoxus had already fixed the number of the spheres.

as to the first heaven. xii. the motion of the heavenly spheres gives rise to light and warmth in the air. and by adding them to the spheres of Callippus he obtains fifty-six as the entire number of heavenly spheres.200 ARISTOTLE. and the transposition of elements into each other.lt. including that of the fixed stars. rational. &amp. [ 58 unless special precautions are taken to prevent it. out of wilich arise all the atmospheric and terrestrial is phenomena with which Aristotle s meteorology occupied. The number of these spheres he puts at twenty-two. as are required to neutralise the influence of the one upon the other. c which In consequence of friction. To each of these. this copy of the eternal in the perishable. its motion must be imparted by an eternal and unlimited.). For this reason Aristotle also extols the stars as animated. Hence follows the circle of origin and decay. Simpl. especially in the places lie beneath the sun. De Cselo. and to therefore incorporeal substance. 498 ff. standing far above But he will not assign anything more than probability to his assertions about the number of the mankind. avsKiTTovaai) revolving in the opposite direction. . and thus there must be as many sphere-spirits as spheres. 8. in Arist. Hence Aristotle assumes that between the spheres of each planet and those of the planet immediately beneath there are as many backward-moving spheres (crfyalpcn. Schol. spheres and the sphere-spirits ( Metaph. divine beings. the flow and ebb of matter. But owing to the inclination of the course of the sun this result occurs in a different degree for every place in the different seasons of the year. by a spirit belonging it .

of Democritus. Life consists in the capacity of movement. it stands in the same connection with the body. 190). 1. the form is the soul of the living being. But movement presupposes two things a form which every : moves. from went so far beyond theirs that we need have no scruple in calling him not only the most eminent representative. If. was first made by Aristotle). and systematic zoology among the Greeks. self- same time it is unmoved. but his own contributions. this means that . yet from his activity as a teacher he deserves to be called the first if founder of scientific botany. and its body is only the instrument of the nature is determined by this office. and not a moving element. For this purpose he could doubtless avail himself of many as. 4).59] LIVING BEINGS. Aristotle has devoted a great part of his scientific labours to the study of organic nature (see p. As the form of the body. Hence the and at the soul is not without body. ii. and a material which is moved. The material is the body. but also the chief founder of comparative all indications. Trpoorrj O-GO/JLCLTOS (fivcri/cov De An. as form does everywhere with matter. This is the conception of the organic (a conception which. as Plato thought . 201 59. 173). the soul. the soul is defined rj as the Entelechy of an it organic body ^svrs\s^sLa opyavifcov. it is also its object (see p. And even he did not write his work on Plants. 412 b. there fore. for inquiries of physicists and physicians instance. like the word. nor is it corporeal. Living Beings.

series is governed by the same Limited to the Plants form the lowest stage. the life of the soul is The life of plants in itself very unequal in quality. Hence harmony with Plato (p. and the rational. to thought. in man we go Aristotle. The gradation from the most imperfect to the highest. while the numerous analogies. quite natural that the comes teleological activity of nature in living things. of local movement. It proceeds constantly. 154). they are functions of nourishment without any uniform centre (fjiscrorris) for their life. fixes its structure. in animals we have the and. therefore. the [ power which moves the soul and It is. can only overcome the resistance of matter by degrees (see p. or animal soul. or human of living beings corresponds to the progressive development of the life of the soul. which when combined into one individual soul become three parts of the further and attain partly in soul. the soul. show that the whole laws. which we find between the various parts. because in the surface very beginning all is most plainly to them from the calculated with regard to the soul and the that activity But if operations proceeding from the soul. In the treatises which have come down to us. on the other . Aristotle only allows them a passing notice. With animals. by the aid of gradual transitions. in additional factor of sensible perception. and are therefore incapable of feeling. or plant soul . and reproduction. 192). the great majority. There is sensible.202 is ARISTOTLE. consists in nourishment and reproduction . assumes three. the nourishing. kinds of souls.

The chief seat of living warmth is the central organ. a body connected with the aether. and their position in the whole. Flesh the seat of is thus of ! The direct repository of the soul special importance. . 1855. various forms which the philosopher has carefully in Besides sexual generation. owing to its colder nature. and makes it his object throughout to unite the knowledge of their importance for the whole. The mode in which the organism is shaped consists in general in the development from 1 1 J.59] LIVING BEINGS. he occupies himself in great detail. In the heart the blood is prepared from the nourishment conveyed to it by the The blood serves partly for the nourishment of veins. 13. the body. generation. which in san guineous animals is the heart. The soul of the child comes ex The first. The male sex stands to the female original as form to matter. and matter. with the most exact acquaintance with particular facts. 1 203 hand. Arlstotcles Thierktmde. The body of animals is composed of matter consisting of like parts (o^otoyLtsp}). is the breath as the source of living warmth. which is in turn is a mixture of feeling (the elementary nerves were a later discovery). clusively from the cannot sufficiently prepare the blood needed for the generative material. Meyer. and partly also (see below) gives rise to The genesis of animals assumes certain presentations. he assumes an vestigated. reason of this different relation lies in physiological the fact that the female sex. the body from the second. Yet the first kind of genesis is in his eyes the more perfect. even among certain fishes and insects. with which it passes in the seed from the father to the child.

Among the nine classes of animals which he usually enumerates fishes. Of the sensuous activities of the soul. But in regard to their genesis. An. In his bodily loftier calling and the symmetry of blood and the most of proclaimed by his upright position his figure . the most important contrast is that between the bloodless and sanguineous animals. he has the purest it . iii.204 ARISTOTLE. or establish upon it a natural classification of the animal kingdom. and insects). oviparous quadrupeds. whales. [ 59 the vermicular shape. to an organic form. and the organs of speech and all organs. scaly (viviparous quadrupeds. and progression. animals. 60. which gradual progress he assumes. as in regard to their bodily structure. perception . all is Man is distinguished from in by spirit animal soul. their mode of life. (yovs) which him other living beings combined with the Even his bodily structure activities of his soul answer to the they have received by this structure this is and the lower which combination. Man. of which he himself remarks ( Hist. there are the most remarkable differ Aristotle is at pains to prove the from the lower to the higher. the hand he possesses the most valuable of in the the largest brain. in all these respects. 22) 4 that it coincides with the distinction between inverte brate and vertebrate animals. their habitats. but we cannot be astonished if he has failed to carry this point of view ences among animals. highest temperature. those with soft scales. through the egg. birds. molluscs. 7. 516 b. through without some deviation.

is perceived is person perceiving only. If motion in the organ of sense continues beyond the duration of the perception. the result is an imagination (^avraa-ia^ which term imagination as a power). as such TWV IS lav) is number. inform us on those qualities of things. about which we obtain information through all the senses.60] MAN. what they tell us of this always true. rest impressions of the senses meet. on the other hand. and more precisely it consists in the fact that the form of what it. Hence memory has sense. Sense (ala-QrjTijpiov KOIVOV) in which all the and figure. and become conscious that our per is ception is our own. is 205 is a change which brought about in the soul by that which is perceived. we do but only through a special sense. through the medium of the body . refer the pictures which they present to objects. and there calls up a new presentation of the sensuous picture. to which they stand in a special relation . can be not only true but false. like all utterances of common an imagination If sense. is recognised as a copy of an earlier perception (in regard to which deception is not un common) we call it a remembrance ^vi]^ri\ the conscious evoking of a remembrance is recollection (dva/jLvrio-is). The general qualities of things. communicates itself to the central organ. The organ of this common sense the heart. unity and (the aio-Oricris But the separate imparted to the senses. It is by this common sense that we compare and distinguish the perceptions of the various senses. the is also given to This. its seat equally in the common A change in the central organ . not size know by any Common and motion. time.

it is influenced by In the individual the the change of circumstances. he has not more closely denned the conception of Under the term he understands anger. it gives rise De. courage. under certain circumstances. result in dreams . 7. suffering or change nor is it affected by the death of the body. organ. the central point of feeling (the aia-0r)TiKrj No further distinction loc. Before procreation it it (dvpaOsp) . [ 60 caused by digestion produces sleep and the extinction Internal move of living warmth in it or even such as are ments in the organs of sense.206 ARISTOTLE. iii. to all which in these functions belong as such to the animal man there is added for the first time the spirit or thinking power (vovs}. opposes sTnOv^ia and Ovpos as the purely sensual and the nobler form of irrational desire. . therefore. produces death. like Plato. and if Aristotle. always contain a as is indicated which. . But soul. But as the spirit of a human in dividual. An. 11). they reach the dreams. is made between emotion and desire. under the Grood or the object of perception is ranged to pleasure or aversion (feelings Evil. of value) and from these comes a desire to These conditions also proceed from /JLSCTOTTJS. the spirit is without beginning or end. enters into the soul-germ from without has no bodily organ and is not subject to (aTraOrjs). 431 a. Qvftos. can be indications of an When an incident unnoticed in our waking life. and feeling. if central evoked by external impressions. cit. judgment attain or avoid. While the animal soul is born and perishes with the body of which it is the form. in connection with a soul.

3 TraO-r)TLK6s. and that which becomes everything . d. 3 More exact definitions on the nature of passive reason. b. as individuals. rb The phrase iron]TiK6s is first found in later 4&amp. 4. 2. ing to DC An. Phil. are found only in beings compounded of vovs and soul. b. 24 Gen. the connection between the vovs and the animal soul but he does not show us how the various qualities which he ascribes to it can be united without contra diction 1 . 18 ff. Cf. writers. i. Akad. will be sought in vain in Aristotle .. 2 be ascribed to the bodiless spirit either before or after its present life. 4. ((^avrdorfjiara). the active and the passive. 8. we have no remem by brance of the earlier existence of our spirit nor can .i\e?j/. /*i- (re?i/. nor latter has he he even raised the question. while the active vovs is eternal in its nature (the one is (frOapros. Gr. . 1882. 8. on which a definite subject is first written by thought itself (this does not mean by sensuous perception.. 7. ii. 2 432 413 a. the other atBios). i. accordare not uddr) J\ r. but by the intuition of vorjrd). 5. we do indeed see that he attempted to find a bond in them which is to establish . . any of those activities which. b. . 4. d. 431 a. c. calls vovs of the vqvs but of the KOIV&V. fjLVf]aovvfiv. An. and its relation to the active. 602 ff. iii. is only pos the co-operation of both. which. 2.. But inasmuch sible as our thought. The Siavofta-eai. 408 b. and thought is always accompanied by sensuous images kinds of vovs Hence Aristotle distinguishes two that which does everything. ii. 4t&amp. An.gt.gt. 3. Sitziniysber. c. DC. the former he terms vovs For the above. according to Aristotle. . Herl. 207 power of thought precedes actual thought his spirit is like a tabula rasa.CO] MAN. ii. cf. 14. 566 ff. 1 The latter is considered as being born and decaying with the body. The TTOIOVV.

Aristotle. 1144 a. reflection must fix on the best means for these ends. how the memory bodily vovs can lead a personal &c. . vi. and that the On 13.Eth.208 ARISTOTLE. logical explanation accompanied by reason proves are it becomes volition (j3ov\r)&amp. If desire is of one or the other. unity of personal life. and how the of both can be their subject. we universally Hence. TO \oyL(7TiKov. it is \6&amp. distinguishes mediate knowledge as Sidvoia or sTnarr^iifj. the other hand. self-consciousness and it is the expression. voluntary. by which man above the animals. is [ 60 what the seat of the human personality life .si).fos So far as reason renders this service called the reflective or practical reason (vovs or Bidvoia TrpaKTiKtj. of which the combination of the vovs with the animal arise by soul.lt. which is related to what is not But Aristotle gives no further psycho necessary. such. following Plato. he also maintains that our volition decides on the final aims of our action (the most universal moral is Aristotle unconditionally presupposes it by the fact that virtue and freedom of will. . From this. highest truths. on the other hand.lt. depends on virtue (&amp. and from purely as this again opinion. correctness of our aims judgments). consists in the improvement of this reason.). is The activity of the vovs.. 6 &c. of the eternal without nature compounded On the combination of reason with the lower powers of the soul rest those spiritual activities is raised with the perishable. in TrpaicTiKoS) distinction to STTLO-TTJ^OVLKOV^ and prudence (insight.lt. that immediate grasping of the which has been already mentioned.rt. how. and held accountable for our acts.

and virtue is the activity of reason in harmony with its mission. For every living creature the good consists in the perfection of its and . 8. consists in virtue. individual from this perfection is only a consequence existence as such Eudaimonia consists in the beauty not the ground upon which its value rests. c. But Aristotle does not derive the measure. _ pure activity of thought is the more 1 valuable. and not and perfection of the enjoyment which arises in each . The Ethics of Aristotle. according to Aristotle. But there xii. scientific or 1072 b. the sake of something else. all The aim Happiness. 61. the perfection of the specially human is consists in activity. of it. 7. in general. of human is activity is. 209 precise inquiries about the internal processes by will are realised. and on its extent depends. two kinds of activity and two series of virtues are to be distinguished the theoretic and the practical . 1178 . This activity of reason. from the subjective feeling. are not found in More which acts of Aristotle. On this fact no Greek moralist had any desired for its Happiness alone for own sake. b. by which the conditions of happiness are determined. doubt. as such. the possibility and the limits of the freedom of the will. which activity it therefore for men. Hence the the Or if happiness of men. 1 ff. practical activity or ethical virtue is the second essential constituent of happiness.CO] MAN. 7. x. but from the objective character of the activities of life. 24 : TJ Oewpia rb ^iffrov /cal &PUTTOV JSth.

yet its value depends entirely on that of the activity from which it has arisen. For though it is result of inseparable from it. sickness. and does not deserve the reproaches which every perfect activity. is as yet incapable of any complete Poverty. element goods are related merely as negative conditions (like material causes to final causes in nature). noble birth are in themselves valuable. [61 of life are a part of happiness Maturity and perfection a child cannot be : happy because he activity (apsrri). i. power. intercourse with friends. He only the performance of what c is is virtuous who is satisfied by and beautiful without good any addition. further considerations. delight in children. only inward excellence is the positive constituent To this. and who joyfully sacrifices everything else to this activity ( Eth. 12-15). But beauty.210 are ARISTOTLE. which placed . health. of the highest good in the sense that independent part it can be made an object of action. The conception notes : of ethical virtue is defined by three is it is a certain quality of will. the dianoetic and ethical virtues. vii. and misfortune disturb happiness. even the extremity of misfortune cannot make a good man miserable (ad\ios\ though it may stand in the way of Just as little does pleasure form an his eudaimonia. and withdraw from virtuous activity the aids which wealth. 5-11. cf. the advantages of thought and volition. as the natural Plato and Speusippus have heaped upon it. Of the qualities on which happiness rests. 1-9. the latter only are the object of ethics. and influence secure to it . external and corporeal of happiness. x.

Aristotle devotes a special examination to the tions Hence concep which denote the various forms of the determina Eth.). But the determination voluntary. mean (s%is 211 in the and in the manner fix it suitable to our nature.a-/jLEvr) ii. the second (1) All virtues rest on certain natural capacities (dpsral (pvcrifcai) . a firmly established quality sentiment. 6. i. first in a general manner in Eth. but with their application. for what is correct for one person may be too much or fore too little for another. When Socrates referred it to knowledge. init. but they only become virtues in the proper sense (/cvpta apery) when they are accompanied by insight. such as can only be found in mature men. 1-8 the third in Book vi. as fixed by reason in which the prudent man would yu-so-or^Tt oixra rfj TTpoaipSTi/cy ev Trpos rj/jid?. The nature of this mean depends upon the peculiar nature of the actor. 15 . (2) will is to Regarded as to its contents that quality of be called moral which preserves the right mean between excess and defect. specially. the first in iii. not with the knowledge of moral rules. .61] THE ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE. 9 . On the other hand. &c. 9 v. a mean between two defects. virtue as ethical has its seat specially in the will. iii. 13-ii. the conception of what is ( what is intended. 4 Mp(. he overlooked the fact that in virtue the free decision of the will is concerned. with the government of the passions by the reason. Every virtue is there of which somep 2 .). \6ya) Eth. opiasisv These definitions are carried out fypovifjios /cal cos- av 6 further. of will only becomes virtue when it is a lasting tion of the will (eft?). and then more in iii.

such as Plato follows treats justice.. the cardinal virtue of civic life.212 ARISTOTLE. political justice. the end). for the second the principle of arithmetical proportion. and punishment in involuntary legal pro For the first. and equity first. &c. like vovs and (cf. which differs from the other dianoetic virtues. Justice in the strictest sense is for equals. is [ 61 times the one and sometimes the other distant. consists in a correction of the second by the Who mean is to decide in any given case where the is proper lies ? Aristotle tells us that this 60.ia\ law he distinguishes justice in dividing (^iavs^riKrf) from justice in correcting (SiopOcoriKij ).e. without. self-control. the principle of geometrical proportion holds good. fully. that which holds good This is partly natural* and partly legal (3) . work of insight . however. deriving them according to any fixed in his cardinal virtues. most the whole fifth book of his Ethics.. The first has to apportion the honours and advantages which accrue to the individual from the community according to the worth of the recipient. and that of offence cesses. bravery. i. the second must see that the balance of gain and loss is kept on either side in voluntary contracts (o-vva\\djfiaTa SKOVO-LO). because these are partly directed to what is necessary only. He regards as its object the correct apportionment of rewards and punishments (/cspSos and and according as he deals with public or private rjfj. the more Aristotle proves this more at length in the case of the individual virtues. devoting to it He a treatise which remained through the middle ages the basis of natural law. as Aristotle perversely maintains. principle.

5). i.e.). though concerned with what is changeable. secure. (cf. i. as from the strength or weakness of the will in regard moderation and endurance (sy/cpdrsia and Kaprspia) on the one hand . 13. p. and crofyia which arises from the two . from correct and perverse qualities of distinguishes (vii. init. a common life with his fellows man (civ Op (OTTOS fyvcrsi 7ro\iTi1253 a. so full of the most delicate observations and the most pertinent remarks (Books viii. and that a common justice unites all men ( Rhet. 2. Aristotle arise 1) those conditions which not so much from an habitual direction of will. 62. 1155 a.61] THE ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE. needed not only to sustain. and partly. they make production and not action their aim (cf. in his beautiful sec tion on love and friendship (for faXia means both). From virtues and vices in the proper sense will 1-1. The Politics of Aristotle. 1161 b. ix. . 16 ff. and even that every man is related and friendly to every other (viii. but above all because it is only by this means that a good education and an arrangement of life by law and justice is possible Eth. 208). x. and this common life The impulse towards lies in the very nature of Pol. 13. 213 p. Finally. 181). he turns his attention to a moral relation in which it is already announced that man in his nature is a social being.~). 1. 10). and complete his physical existence. (&amp. c. like r^wr). This trait is the foundation of the family and the State. . and on the other to the passions excess and effeminacy. 2).lt. i. KOV is Zfiov.

recog nises the chief object of the State to be the education of the people in virtue. A State is not merely something uniform . in its nature prior to the individual and the family. 33). it is a whole consisting . the State Pol.214 ARISTOTLE. the combination of several villages makes a State-com . but proceeded from a false notion of this unity. the happiness comprehensive. therefore. its mission is something far higher and more . ^a)rjs rs^sias X^P LV Ka L ^ 1288 b. of the State. 1) that Plato s desire to sacrifice the family and private property to the unity of the State was not only impossible to realise in every respect. ii. And as virtue is the most essential part of happiness. The village-community is merely a stage in the transition to the State. being nothing less than life (77 TOV sv gfjv of the citizens in a perfect common icoivwvia or 9. as in truth the parts of a whole are invariably conditioned by the whole as their aim to which they are sub servient ( Pol. in which it ends. On the other hand. in point of time. Aristotle. is iii. 2). For this reason avrdp/covs. repulsing foreign enemies. Nature in the first But instance brings man and wife together to found a household families extend into villages (/cco/iai) . which Aristotle does not distinguish from the State. like Plato. munity (TTO}UP). and he distinctly disapproves of any arrangement by which a State is devoted to war arid conquest instead of the peaceful care of moral and scientific education. at any rate. Aristotle shows in the most strik ing manner ( Pol. families and communities precede the State. is [ 62 The aim life not limited to secu and sustaining ring legality. i.

and considers free ( banausic work to be unworthy of a man. Pol.Eth. contrary he sees that the arrangements of the constitu tion must be adapted to the character and requirements of the people for whom they are intended. 13. when he makes the moral intelligence viii. i. For the the correctness of constitutions depends on fixing aim of the State.). good of his discussions on trade and industry (i. and the rest as perversions. 4 He will allow only those kinds of acquisition to be natural which directly satisfy our needs.). On untenable attempt to justify slavery by the presuppo are men who are only capable of labour and must therefore be ruled by others . ( the other hand he also pays his tribute to the national prejudice of the Greeks.62] THE POLITICS OF ARISTOTLE. ( Pol. and what if is itself imperfect may possibly be the best that can be obtained under the circumstances. &amp. rest of the relations of family life i. This . In his theory of political constitutions Aristotle does not follow Plato in regarding a single form as the On the only correct one.). the form of the constitution is common depends on the apportionment of political power. bodily and this he considers to be in general the relation of sition that there barbarians to Hellenes The same holds ff. 8 ff. 215 of many Aristotle treats of marriage and the with sound 2.lt. not the advantage of the the final object of the State. various parts. while all ruling party. &c. All trade concerned with money he regards with contempt and mistrust. Under different circumstances different things are correct. and those are correct constitutions in which the good. others are perversions. 14.

stitution is not likely to live. unless it has and unequal rights i. when lence the ruler of the State. their Aristotle adopts the tradi everything upon which the welfare of the State depends. their property. the participation of one or other element is determined in the mixed forms of constitution (iii. Eth. Democracy comes of the poor and free have the guidance of the State in their hands . are nearly equal in capability (by which in this case with a minority martial vigour into being is chiefly meant). stronger supporters than opponents. 6-13. and Tyranny as perverse forms (rj/jbaprrnjisyai.) 6 Polit. cf. Polity (called also Timocracy. enumerates f six leading forms. among the citizens to their personal capability in or ignoble origin. c. differences they are unequal.e. Monarchy naturally arises when one person is so far superior to all the rest that he is their born ruler . as correct forms . only derivative. aristocracy when the same is the case and polity when all the citizens . 17. Democracy. yet he does not omit to observe that this numerical division is cracy. viii. Traps/cftac-sis). so far as But the most important relate to their virtue. ff. On similar principles. . their noble freedom. oligarchy when the mass a minority of the rich and noble men are the rulers tyranny when a single person becomes by vio . Aristo &amp. and it is only just when it assigns equal rights to the citizens so far as they are equal. and thus (like Plato. 12).lt. [ 62 must be determined by the various classes in the nation for the State actual importance of the for a con . Hence though tional division of constitutions according to the number 308 of the ruling class. Monarchy.216 ARISTOTLE. Oligarchy.

for it is only among the Hellenes that he finds the qualities A which make the combination of It must also be a re because it is only in the heroic age that he finds public. on the other. however far removed from approaches it in many of the details. 217 iv. 2. in our in work.).. Aristotle demands that all bodily labour.. nor has he carried them out with perfect consistency. This educa tion closely resembles that of Plato. and in his own day he believes (v. f. more particularly iv. .62] THE POLITICS OF ARISTOTLE. neither the section on education nor complete the description of the best State is brought to a close. age. agriculture. . like Plato. the conditions necessary for a monarchy in his sense civic order possible.). (iii. freedom and 3) that no single person can rise so far above the rest that a free people would voluntarily endure his sole dominion. 11 f vi. Yet we cannot deny that Aristotle has not succeeded in bringing these different points of view into complete harmony. 4 . 14 if. 1313 a. who life they placed among those of riper in the best State those only are to be citizens are qualified to lead the State by their position in when are But and their education. 1288 8 . 13. on the one hand. and. a. . Hence. p. At the basis of the description of his best State (vii. Greek places the arrangements of a Greek republic. he prescribes an education which is to be entirely carried out by the State. an aristocracy which in its plan the Platonic. cf. and they are to be summoned to the exercise of this duty. init. All the citizens are to have the right to participate in the of the is His model State management State. Yet. and industry must be undertaken by slaves or metics. State it must be. 175) Aristotle. iv. f.

and preservation of the correct mean. Hence he secures for the sperous progress of his State that regularity. He distinguishes the various kinds of democracy. and decay of each form of State. But left the Aristotelian &amp. He finds the answer in a combination of oligarchic and democratic arrangements by which the centre of gravity of civic life is thrown upon the pro middle class. Aristotle has also dis cussed the incomplete forms with minute care. but it which nowhere explained in detail. Ethics is also . oligarchy. and at the same time best correspond to the ethical principles of the philosopher. maintenance. and the arrangements and principles of government which belong to them. and tyranny. this comes 7). without explaining its relation to the constitution which bears the same is name among the correct forms. Finally he inquires what form of constitution for the majority of States is best and under ordinary circum stances. which arose partly out of the different natures of the ruling body and partly out of the fact that the characteristics of each form are carried out with more or less thoroughness. which are the best security for the continuance of a constitution. Next to the form usually termed aristocracy (iv. [ 62 Besides his pattern State. He examines the conditions on which depend the origin.lt.218 ARISTOTLE. Aristotle calls this form of State a c polity. part of unfinished.

and epideictic speech are related. Attitude of Aristotle to Religion. 162). Rhetoric occupies a kind of middle place between On the one sciences. for rhetoric. Aristotle ascribes a very subordinate and conditional value to the power of exciting anger or sympathy. The most important point &amp.lt. see p. plete doctrine of art. he considers art is not Like . 176). down to his time had been accustomed to look for her strength. to and skill in action. 173). in which rhetoric of grace language. and as his fine arts but poetry have come down to us in a very mutilated form. Compared with this. and of politics and ethics an application of hand.. Aristotle does not appear to have treated any of the in independent works. in the various orator is provinces to which senatorial. is as indefinite in Aristotle as in Plato (p. is the doctrine of oratorical proof. therefore. artistic introduction to such conviction. or any com The conception of the beautiful. we cannot gather from the writings of the Poetics philosopher any perfect aasthetic theory. to which the first and second books of the Ehetoric are devoted (on book iii. and poetic the practical treated as an art (re^v^i) on tne other. which is the leading idea of modern esthetics. forensic.G3] ARISTOTLE S RHETORIC AXD ART. as a subsidiary branch of dialectic (in the sense mentioned on p. and accurately distinguished from that of the good. Plato. it is 5 the first to the aims of the latter. The object of the Ehetoric is the conviction by probability. Rhetoric 219 and Art. as imitation (/il/t^ow) but . 63.

220

ARISTOTLE.

[

63

what

art presents in imitation is not in Aristotle the sensuous phenomenon, but the inner nature of things, not what has happened, but what ought to happen accord

ing to the nature of things (the avay/caiov rj eltcos) ; its forms are types (TrapdSsiy/jia) of universal laws ; hence poetry is nobler and nearer to philosophy than history
(

Poet.

9. 15).

And

effect.

If Aristotle

(<

this is the cause of its peculiar Pol. viii. 5, 7) a

distinguishes

quadruple use of music (1) for amusement (ira^La\ (2) for moral culture, (3) for recreation
:

(Siaycoytf

connected with $p6vr)cris\ and (4) for purification if all art (icdOapvis) may be applied in one of these
directions, yet
object.

mere amusement can never be
all

its final

the other three operations from the fact that a work of art brings into

But

proceed

sight and

application the general laws in the particular object. The Katharsis, i.e. the liberation from disturbing emo

be regarded, with Bernays, as merely an opportunity to the emotions to relieve them giving selves by occupation. As belonging to art it can only be brought about by an excitement of the feelings in which they are subjected to a fixed measure and
law,

tions, is not to

and carried away from our own experiences and circum stances to that which is common to all men. In this sense we have to understand the famous definition of
1

tragedy.

In regard to religion we have nothing from Aristotle
1

Poet.

6,

1449

b. 24.

IO-TW

Aoy.
rols

i.e.
/j.opiois

oi,v

TpaycpSla irpd^ecos (nrovScuccy Kal reAeias ^eytQos e xouo-Tjy,
fj.lfj.r)<ns

Aeis, and yueAos) eV (dialogue and. chorus),
81

Spuvruv Kal ov

a7ra77eAias, SL

TWV

V)Sya-fj.4v(f

\6ycf)

x^P^

fKaffry
r)Sv<r^.

etSuv

(the kinds of

eAeou Kal (f>6&ov Trepaivovaa rrjv rwv roiovrwv va0ijfidTuv Ka0apffiv.

63]

THE RELIGION OF ARISTOTLE.

221

but scattered expressions. His own theology is an abstract monotheism, which excludes any interference on the part of the Deity in the course of the world
(cf. p. 193). Though he sees something divine in nature and her adaptation of means to ends, and more immediately in the human spirit, the thought of re

ferring an effect to

any but natural causes

is

so far

from

him

that he does not accept the Socratic belief in Provi dence, even in the form which Plato adopted it (p. 161 ).
is

equally without any belief in a future retribu In the Deity he finds the final source of the coherence, order, and movement of the world, but every individual thing is to be explained in a purely natural way. He reverences the Deity with admiring affection, but demands no affection in return and no
tion.

He

special

providence. Hence the religion of his country is for him true in so far only as it contains a belief in a deity and in the divine nature of the heavens and the
to it as to every all besides is general and primeval conviction myth/ which the philosopher derives partly from the incli nation of men to anthropomorphic and
<

stars

a truth which he concedes
:

presentations,
6

partly from political considerations

(

Metaph.
b.

xii.

8.

1074
a.

a.

38

ff.

;

De

Casio,

i.

3.

270
;

16

;

ii. 1.

284

Meteor. i. 3. 339 b. 19 Pol. i. 2. 1252 b. In the State he desires to retain the 24). existing religion ; a reform, such as Plato held to be necessary, is not required.
;

2

222

THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL.
The Peripatetic School.
of its

[

G4

64.

After the death
school was led

founder, the

Peripatetic

by

his faithful friend, the learned

and

of Lesbos (who died 288-286 eloquent Theophrastus of eighty-five, according to Diog. v. B.C., at the age 40. 58. By his long and successful labours as a
68).

which cover the teacher, and his numerous writings, 1 field of philosophy, whole Theophrastus contributed

much

to extend

bequeathed to

and strengthen the school. He also On the whole he adheres it an estate.

as a philosopher to the soil of the Aristotelian system, but in particular points he endeavours to supplement

and

correct it

by independent investigations.
various

The
and

Aristotelian

logic received

extensions

alterations from him and Eudemus.

The most impor

tant of these consist in the separate treatment of the doctrine of propositions, the limitations of their dis
tinctions

modality to the degree of subjective of the discussion of the certainty, the enriching doctrine of hypothetical conclusions, syllogism by the which are also reckoned the disjunctive.
of
<

among

Moreover, as
metaphysics

is

shown by the fragment of his
Fr.
12), Theophrastus found

treatise on
difficulties

(

in essential definitions of the Aristotelian metaphysics, more especially in the adaptation of means to ends in to nature, and in the relation of the primum mobile

the world.
1

We

do not know how he solved these
been

diffi-

Those

which have

of preserved, and the fragments those what are lost have been

edited by Schneider (1818 and Wiomier (1854, 1862)
p. 8.

ff.)

;

cf.

64]

THEOPIIRASTUSEUDEMUS.

223

but he refused to abandon the determinations He modified Aristotle s doctrine on move ment, and raised considerable doubts against his defi nition of space. But in the large majority of cases he
culties,

themselves.

follows the Aristotelian physics, and especially defends his doctrine of the eternity of the world against the Stoic Zeno (in Ps. Philo, /Etern. Mundi, c. 23
<

if.).

By
us,

his

two works on plants, which have come down to and which in their leading thoughts closely adhere

became the great authority on botany He deviated past the end of the middle ages. from Aristotle in denoting human thought as a move
to Aristotle, he
till

and with minute care removed the diffi which stand in the way of the distinction between the active and the passive reason, without,
of the soul
culties

ment

His ethics, which he embodied in several writings and carried out into detail with great knowledge of mankind, was charged
however, removing this distinction.

by (Stoic) opponents with attributing too much value to external goods yet there is at most a slight differ ence of degree between him and his teacher in this He is further removed from him by his _disrespect. inclination to marriage, in which he feared a disturb ance of scientific labour; and in his disapproval of blood-offerings and flesh-diet, which he derived from
;

the kinship of

all

living creatures.

On

the

other

hand, he follows his master (p. 213) when he main tains that all men, and not merely those of one nation,
are interconnected and related.

Beside Theophrastus stands

Eudemus

of

Ehodus

as

the most important of the personal pupils of the Stagirite.

224

THE PERIPATETIC SCHOOL.
also

[64

was active as a teacher of philosophy, no doubt in his own city. By his learned historical works (p. 8) he did good service for the history of the sciences. In
his views

He

he adheres even more

closely

than Theo-

Simplicius, <Phys. 411. 15, phrastus to his master. In calls him his most faithful (yvrjo-icoraros } disciple. 4 he adopted the improvements of Theophrastus,

Logic but in his
ed.

Physics he kept closely to the Aristotelian, often repeating the very words (cf. Eudemi Fragmenta,
Spengel).
his ethics

The most important

distinction

be

(which have been adopted into the Aristotelian collection) and the ethics of Aristotle consists in the combination which he makes, after

tween

and theology. Not only does derive the disposition to virtue from the Deity, but he he conceives speculation, in which Aristotle had sought
Plato, between ethics

the highest good, more distinctly as a knowledge of God, and wishes to measure the value of all things and
actions
all

virtues

by their relation to this. The internal unity of he finds in the love of the good and
its

beautiful for

own sake

(fca\oKd<ya0ta\

A
who
still

third Aristotelian

is

Aristoxenus of Tarentum,
his

6 attained renown by Harmonics, which we Passing possess, and other writings on music.

from the Pythagorean school into the Peripatetic, this philosopher combined a Pythagorean element with what was Aristotelian in his moral prescripts, and in
his theory of music.

Like some of the

later

Pytha

goreans, he explained the soul to be a harmony of the In this body, and therefore opposed its immortality. he was joined by Dicsearchus of Messene, his fellow-

64]

VIC

&Alt CH USSTRA TO.

225

pupil.

Dicsearchus also deviated

from Aristotle in

giving the advantage to the practical over the theoretic life ; but on the other hand, his Tripoliticus stands

ground of the Aristotelian Politics. Phanias and Clearchus we have few state Eegarding ments, and these mostly refer to history or with the
first

essentially on the

Callisthenes (cf. p. 171), Leo of and Clytus, are only known to us as his Byzantium,
;

to natural history

torians,

Meno

only as a physician.

The
:

case

is

the

same with the pupils of Theophrastus Demetrius of Phalerum, Duris, Chameleon, and Praxiphanes they are rather scholars and men of literature than
;

philosophers.

The more important

is

Strato of Lampsacus, the

who succeeded Theophrastus, and for physicist, eighteen years was head of the Peripatetic school at Athens. This acute inquirer not only found much to
correct in details in the theories of Aristotle, 1 but he was opposed entirely to his spiritual and dualistic view

of the world.

He

placed the deity on the same level

with the unconscious activity of nature, and instead of the Aristotelian teleology demanded a purely physical

Of these he considered explanation of phenomena. warmth and cold to be the most universal sources, and more especially warmth as the active prin
ciple.
1

In

man he

set apart the spirit as

something

For instance, he attributed weight to all bodies, and explained the rising of air and fire from the pressure of heavier bodies on lighter he assumed
;

lying between inclosing and inclosed bodies. He wished time to be called the measure of movement and rest, not the number of

movement
told,

;

the sky, as

we

are

empty spaces within the world, and defined space as the vacuum

he regarded as consisting of fiery, not of ethereal matter.

Q

226

THE PERIPATETICS.

[64
and regarded

distinct in nature from the animal soul,
all activities

of the soul, thought as well as feeling, as motions of the same rational being which was seated in
1

the head, in the region between the eye-brows, and from thence (as it seems with the Pneuma for its substra tum) permeated the various parts of the body. Hence
-he controverted the

immortality of the soul.

Strato was followed by Lyco,

who was

leader of the

school for forty-four years, down to 226-224 B.C. ; after him came Aristo of Ceos ; and after Aristo, Critolaus

of Phaselis in Lycia, who in 156 B.C., when already advanced in years (he was more than eighty-two years

Rome as an ambassador from Athens with and Carneades. His successor was Diodorus Diogenes of Tyre, and Diodorus (about or before 120 B.C.) was
old) visited

succeeded by Erymneus. Contemporary with Lyco were Hieronymus of Ehodes, and Prytanis Phormio of Ephesus lived about the beginning of the second
;

century

;

about the same time and later came the

philosophers mentioned on p. 10, Hermippus, Satyrus, Sotion, and Antisthenes. But the philosophical services of these men appear to be almost entirely limited

Hence handing down the Peripatetic doctrines. to have chiefly occupied themselves with they appear
to
practical philosophy,

however celebrated the lectures

of Lyco, Aristo, Hieronymus, and Critolaus, might be in point of form. Only in Hieronymus do we hear of

any considerable deviation from the Aristotelian ethics. He declared freedom from pain, which he carefully distinguished from pleasure, to be the highest good.
It is less important that Diodorus placed the

summum

64]

LYCOHIERONYMUS,
in a virtuous

ETC.
life,

227
for

bonum

and painless

he, like

Aristotle, considered virtue to be its

most indispensable

element. Even those parts of the spurious writings in our collection of Aristotle, which we can refer to the third century, or at any rate to the time before the end of the second, deviate from Aristotle only in details which are of little from the whole importance
If they furnish a further proof that scientific did not die out in the activity Peripatetic school after Theophrastus and Strato, they also show that such

system.

activity,

though

it

might supplement and

correct in

dividual details, did not attempt to point out any path for the solution of the greater problems.

new

Q 2

Moral life was in danger of being swamped in the petty interests of private life. 65. became an object of contention to strangers and the scene of their The prosperity and population of the country contests. and it was now It directed it without the control of a vigorous political activity. the Hellenic mother country. Introduction. THE POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY. [ 65 THIED PEEIOD. revolution caused in the life of the Grecian people the rise of the Macedonian power. new centres of national intercourse and civilisation arose. sank in hopeless decay. and the conquests by of Alexander could not fail to exercise the deepest in fluence on science. in the search for enjoyment and gain. On the other hand. was natural that the pleasure and the power for free and purely scientific contemplation of the world should disappear . THE In the countries of the east and south an inexhaustible field of labour was opened. an abundance of new intuitions streamed in. deprived of its political independence and importance. had long ceased to have the support of the old belief in the gods. and the struggle for daily subsistence. that practical questions should force them and that the chief value of philosophy should be sought more and more in the fact . Under such circumstances to great aims. selves into the foreground.228 POST-ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY.

to satisfy the speculative tendencies of the Greek nation and the convictions life. a of the Stoic school was Zeno of Citium city with a Phoenician element. as he was seventy-two years old (Diog. in point harmony with the relations of the Alexandrine and Eoman period. FIEST SECTION. it 229 that of provided men with a refuge against the miseries scientific theory found indispensable. mode of thought passed in the centuries after Aristotle were stated on p. This view was the more prevalent.C. 28.C. The founder in Cyprus. Greek . . STOICISM. Social union was now recommended by those who knew its value from a cosmopolitan rather than a political of view. The stages through which this their ethics. THE STOIC PHILOSOPHY. EPICUREANISM. SCEPTICISM. his birth. vii. which since the time of Socrates had taken such deep At the same time it is easy to understand that this mission of philosophy could only be satisfied when the individual things made himself independent of all external and withdrew into his inner life. the. in their metaphysics as well as had prepared the way for this retirement from the external world.65 ] THE STOIC SCHOOL. 31. as Plato and Aristotle. Yet for this purpose a definite was still root. The Stoic School in Third and Second Centuries B. His death appears to have taken place about 270 B. 66. I.

i. . . or forward as a teacher perhaps somewhat earlier. and Bosporus. but afterwards Stoics. (see supra. apparently when eighty years of age (Diog. moderation. the poet of Soli in Cilicia. 28. his successful labours as a teacher E.C. xxxiii. ibid. Hercul. 143. Gompertz (ib. though he also against which nothing Cynic availed himself of the instruction of the Megarian Dioand Polemo. Cleanthes was Chrysippus of Soli (he died in 01. but according to others. from the Stoa Poecile.. their place of meeting.. with Jerome. Zenonians. 9) about he attached himself to the where year. when ninety-nine years old. The successor of Aratus. the Spartan king. About 300 B. in 263-4. which 622 1). 71). Rohde Mus. and died by voluntary starvation.C. the countryman and sharer of his house . 24. and afterwards to Stilpo. but of less versatility of thought. he was born in 331 B. He was followed by Cleanthes of Assus in the Troad.. Crates. xxxiv. he came and philosophical writer his pupils were at first called dorus.e. 1 208-4 B. in 251 B. a man of singular force of will.230 THE STOIC SCHOOL.C. of Xenocrates. to Ind. and moral According strength. the birth in 336. col. Aristo of Chius. 176). p. born in 281-76 ous scholar. can hardly be harmonised with Diog. he voluntarily Universally honoured for his put an end to his life. the tutor of Cleomenes. he came to Athens.). at the age of seventy-three. Besides Cleanthes the following are the most important among Zeno s of his master. Sphserus of (cf. personal pupils Persseus. : and Herillus of Carthage 67. 29.C.. By (Rli. 11). letter. character. and was therefore an acute dialectician and labori B.C.C. 154) place the death. 1 [ 66 is proved by the interpolated In his twenty-second 342 B.

Boethus and Pansetius. Floril. and the moralist Teles. took part in the embassy of the philosophers to Rome (p. while Archedemus. founded a school in Babylon. first Zeno of Tarsus.c) the famous a pupil of Aristo. connection with the Of the numerous pupils of Diogenes. spread of Stoicism. 226).C. especially Chrysippus. the results of which. Chrysippus was succeeded by two pupils. 196-2 B. it is true. 95. but apparently did not long survive it. only found in . Of the numerous writings of the Stoic philosophers for the first three centuries of the school only fragments remain. Schriften. Cynicism leads us to suppose that he also owed his Stoa to Aristo (Stob. and what are due to his Hence it remains successors. whose scholar. 21). and negligent in style and exposition he not only rendered very great services for the outward to perfection. in 80.C. Character and Divisions of the Stoic System. will be 11. Antipater of Tarsus was his suc cessor in the chair at Athens. I can partially accept. 1882. without expressly saying what doctrines belong to Zeno. Hirzel. 231 and his very numerous works which. so far as they go beyond what 1 is hitherto acknowledged. Untersuchwngen :u Cicero s phil. then Diogenes of Seleucia (Diogenes the Babylonian) who in 156 B. 67. were too discursive. The later accounts usually treat the Stoic doctrine as a whole. Two other pupils of Diogenes. us to set forth the system in the form which it for 1 A detailed investigation on this subject. will meet us also of Tarsus. but brought its system of teaching Contemporaries of Chrysippus are Erato sthenes of Gyrene (276-2 B. ii.66] THE STOIC SCHOOL. a.

[ 67 assumed and at the same time to mark the distinctions of teaching within the school. (acTK7]o-is apsTrjs. after Chrysippus. is the importance which the Stoics ascribe to scientific inquiry. studium virtutem. The final object of philosophy lies for the moral condition of men. virtutis. Sen. Ep.). What led the founder of the Stoic school to philo sophy was in the first instance the necessity of finding He first sought to a firm support for his moral life. . and is true morality is im virtuous and wise to coincide with the exercise of virtue. THE STOIC SCHOOL. also regarded themselves as offshoots from the Cynic branch of the Socratic school. and carried even distinguished its founder beyond the Cynics. and make the value of theoretic inquiry dependent on its importance for moral Their conception of moral duties stands close to life. so far as they are known to us and can be made out with probability. If Herillus explained and final aim of knowledge as the highest good he returned in this from Zeno to . But what essentially the Stoa from Cynicism. sed per ipsam 89. His followers satisfy this need with the Cynic Crates. are treated as synonymous terms. them But in its influence on possible without true knowledge .232 . life. 5). and when they wished to name the men who had come nearest to their ideal of the sage they mentioned Diogenes and Antisthenes be Like these philosophers their object is side Socrates. time defined as though philosophy it is at the same the knowledge of the divine and human. 71 f. that of the Cynics (cf. to make man independent and happy by virtue like them they define philosophy as the practice of virtue.

Moreover. Ethics. 118). just as he had borrowed from the Aca demicians the division of philosophy into logic. because the first was retain Stoicism in useless. human knowledge. 197) and thus seemed to endanger the absolute rule of reason. the idealism and spiritualism action of reason in the world and Aristotle. he For this systematic grounding went back primarily to Heracleitus. Zeno himself saw in scientific knowledge the indispensable condition of moral action. apart from the difficulties in which it had involved its authors. He was repelled by the dualism which placed the action of necessity by the side of the/ (cf. while it also appeared too little secure a firm basis for action for Zeno to . attributed a value only to the discussions of principles . it 233 Aristotle. but also determined to be ignorant of dialectics and physics. was an attempt to Cynicism when Aristo not only despised learned culture. Aristo. of his ethics. physics. in his . the more special rules of life. could not be united with the nominalism which Zeno had derived from of Plato Antisthenes fitted to (p. and ethics (see p. whose physics were commended to him before all others by the decisive manner in which he carries out the thought that all individual things in the world are apparitions of one and the same being . Zeno found a difficulty in the Platonic and Aristo telian metaphysics. On the other hand. he explained as indifferent. in human life. on the other hand.G7] CHARACTER OF THE STOIC SYSTEM. and that only there is but one law which governs the course of nature and ought to govern the action of men. 148. 167). and the second transcended the powers of In the same feeling. On the other hand. pp.

were not always taught in the same order. politics to ethics. which perhaps Zeno was the first to use. sometimes to ethics. The highest place was sometimes assigned to physics. But even in his ethics Zeno was at pains to soften the harshness and severity of Cynicism. In many details also he supplemented the Hera- cleitean physics by the Aristotelian.234 THE STOIC SCHOOL. Zeno and Chrysippus logic. Hence the Stoic philo sophy is by no means a continuation of the Cynic. divided. and theology to physics). which the Stoics enumerated (though Cleanthes added rhetoric to logic. and different opinions prevailed as to their relative value. into rhetoric and dialectic and to the latter the doctrine of the cri terion and determination of concepts was sometimes . and the belief in Providence connected with it. as the most important science for men. with the most important results. They . The Stoic Logic. [67 adopt it. especially after Chrysippus. Under the term Logic. belong to those who began with passed from this to physics. the Stoics since the time of Chrysippus comprehended all inquiries which were related to inward or outward speech (the \6yos spBidQeros and TTpofyopiicbs). but it has altered and supplemented it with the help of every thing which could be borrowed from earlier systems. Still greater is the influence of the Peripatetic logic on the Stoic. The more decidedly did lie and his school introduce the Socratic-Platonic teleology. and ended with ethics. as the know ledge of divine things. however. it therefore. into their view of the world. The three parts of philosophy. 68.

as Zeno and Cleanthes said. and . According to the Stoics. marks) on our internal conditions and Out these of perception arise our recollections. Stoicism largely contributed. In opposition to Plato and Aristotle. 182). instructs us sometimes on external circumstances. what naturally and without artificial assistance from universal experiences. experience is p. By conclusions and from from given in perception we arrive at general So far as these are derived y presentations (SVVOKIL). notitice communes) which determine the con victions of men before any scientific investigation. or. and sometimes added as on an equal rank. an and sometimes also (as Chrysippus at least expressly re activities. (cf. Zeno draws the con clusion that all knowledge must proceed from the perception of the individual. The presentation impres (fyavracrla) is. If Antisthenes had recognised reality in individual things only. as Chrysippus which thought. knowledge which prevailed in the school. In dialectic they distinguished the doctrine of what was significant from that of the thing signified (TO o-fj/jLaivov Under the former they included the theory of music and grammar. to the poetics. the Stoics are pronounced empirics. the soul is at its birth like a tabula rasa . they form those common concepts (icoival svvoiat. development of which in Alexandrian and Roman times and TO o-rjfjiaivofjLsvov). everything must be given to it by the objects. The doctrine of what was signified corresponds in all essentials to our formal That of the criterion contains the theory of logic. a change of the soul caused by them.68] LOGIC. sion (TVTTCOCTIS) of things in the soul. 235 subordinated.

But as the common concepts arise out of perceptions as their results.gt. see supra).236 THE STOIC SCHOOL. and have direct evidence (svdpysia). they are connected with the consciousness that they can only arise from something real. is term borrowed from used in this sense by Science rests on regulated demonstration and formation of concepts. these can also be regarded . But this the Stoics maintain.?7 vJas . As all our presentations arise out of perceptions. conception consists The concept. that it The chief value of science forms a conviction which cannot be shaken by objections (Kard\7]^is dcr^a^rjs KOI d^sraTrrcoros VTTO \6&amp. Consequently he maintains that conceptual presentation is the criterion of truth. first [ 68 are therefore called Tr/ooX^sts-. the value of the knowledge they afford must depend on the question whether there are perceptions of which it is certain that they agree with the objects perceived.lt. Hence when we assent to these presentations we appre hend the subject itself.yov\ or a system of such convictions. has the same contents as the simple presentation. In their view a part of our con ceptions is of such a nature that they compel us to give assent to them (o-vy/caTaTiOscrOai.) . It is in assenting to such a presentation that. a term invented by Zeno). a Epicurus and apparently Chrysippus. A presentation which carries this consciousness with it is called by Zeno a conceptual presentation (^avracria KaraX^TrrLK^y which in the first instance doubtless means a presentation which is suited to become a KardKri ^ris). then (as distinguished from the svvoia. but is distinguished from it by_the consciousness of its agree ment with the object. according to Zeno. (/earaA. &amp.

vii. and therefore comprises it. This. Math. 42. 237 as natural standards of truth. so that Chrysippus could But the speak ofa/LO-Brjats and TrpoXrjijris as criteria. These four were related to each other in such a manner that each succeeding one is a closer determination of that which precedes. Xo^os ). 24. not only corresponded to their scientific requirements. also ovcria) . but to the practical de mands of a system which made the virtue and happiness of men depend on their subordination to The part of dialectic a universal law. 54) refers to Zeno and Cleanthes. it is improbable that the statement that 1 some the (Diog. Yet they involved themselves in the contradiction that on the one hand they made perception the standard of truth. 11. quality 1 (Trws an d related quality (TT^OS. property (TO TTOLOV or 6 Tropes. which corresponds to our formal logic has to do with what is signified or ex pressed (\SKTOV\ and this is either complete or incom plete . and on the other looked for perfectly certain knowledge from science only. They are substratum (VTTOKSI/JLSVOV. The most important is of the determinations of the con the doctrine of categories. indeed. of opebs the older Stoics made \6yos the criterion vii. which again subdivides 1 into %oi/). 1 possibility of last resort knowledge is proved by the Stoics in the by the assertion that otherwise no action with rational conviction is possible. and as regards Zeno it cannot be harmonised with Sext. . i. KOLVCOS TTOIOV and l&lws all TTOLQV . The Stoics had cepts only four categories in the place of the Aristotelian ten. sc. ii.TI TTWS e%oz^). 77. 150 ff. Cic.68] LOGIC. the first form concepts.. Acad. The is general concept under which the categories come On the other hand. the second propositions.

. and even in the world as the Nevertheless. judgments those which are either true or false. But the scientific value of this Stoic logic is very slight. and is the Universe. and the reason. and if in details it enters here and there into more precise external formalism. it aims at the unity of the final cause. it is realistic materialistic. assertions or or statements propositions. and the order of the world In opposition to the which proceeded from it : it is monistic. as their ethics de final basis of is manded. could not be of ippus especially introduced to the general condition of the science. In their they gave such prominence to the hypothetical and disjunctive that they only were to be regarded as conclusions in the proper sense. which Chrys inquiry.238 THE STOIC SCHOOL. dualism of the Platonic and Aristotelian metaphysics. Among complete divided into Being and Not-being. The Stoic Physics . [ G8 others by some considered Being (probably Zeno) by This Something is again (Chrysippus) Something (rl). In contrast to their idealism. . they regarded everything work of reason. and their Monism becomes a Pan theism (cf. the Ultimate Basis. the world was absolute essentially teleological Their point of view and theological. the pedantic into logic. p. advantage 69. The view which the Stoics took of the world governed by a triple tendency. 233). are pound judgments. with hypothetical judgments treatment of conclusions also. (agiwjjLara) The Stoics distinguished simple (categoric) and com and among the latter they treated especial care.

in spite of their materialism. Even the filling up of space was derived from two movements. Hence they not only explained excluding the all all substances. it is true.gt. they urged. the Stoics. which is active reality. but this property is only found in bodies.i/. 237). the other rarefaction. and the properties of things the things to which they belong. an unavoidable one.lt. one proceeding But all the powers operainward. or passive. in their doctrine of the 9 Kpa&amp. place. without human soul and the Deity. the Stoics distinguished between the material and the forces at work in it. and the notion in the mind (\EKTOV. were not to be regarded as bodies was only an inconsistency. affections. and from which they receive the tension (rovos) which keeps them together. They maintained that one body could penetrate another in all its parts without becoming one material with it.. time. the other outward. wisdom. c. denied the impenetrability of bodies. The first taken by itself all derived they regarded as without properties. o\a&amp. but properties of things were also regarded as existing in something corporeal. in the currents of air (Trvsvpara). by which they are spread abroad. cf.ns Si. That empty space. as bodies. p. the virtues. are called bodies and living beings. 239 In the doctrine of the Stoics only bodies are a That was real. As this naturally holds good of the soul-bodies also.691 PHYSICS. one causing condensation. In order to be able to explain from this point of view the fact that the soul permeates the body through its whole extent. and properties of things from the rational power (\6yos) which penetrates them. Yet. . though. walking. as condi tions of the soul.

and more especially the rational element nature. or artistic fire (irvp TS^VLKOV\ enlivening them. Like is all that is real. the governing part is separate from the rest. the perfection of the world and the adapta warm vapour tion of means in to ends. and to Clean the s in the sun). It penetrates all things as the Trvsv/jia. so also in the soul of The Deity uttermost circle in Zeus has his seat in the of the world (according to Arched emus the centre. nature. its movement and life. it must stand to the universe in the same relation as our soul to our body. and containing their germs in o-TTSpfjiaTiKOi). [69 ting in the world come from one original power.240 THE STOIC SCHOOL. itself It is the soul. the combination and harmony must be of all its parts. most philanthropic nature word. But as in the soul of man. . or fire. other hand. But the dis yet his distinction from the world is relative is directly and what is tinction between what indirectly . from whence he spreads himself through the world. on the enlivens. shows that this final cause of the world must at the same time be the most perfect in a reason. world is indebted to it for its properties. corporeal. destiny. this also and regarded more precisely as (Trvsvpa). the Deity. the kindest. and a special seat the universe. the spirit (\oyoi (vovs\ the reason (\oyos) of the world. begets. though it is present in the whole body. for all Providence. &c. as is proved by the unity of the world. these conceptions denote the same object from various sides. is assigned to or it. universal law. and moves all things. It is this just because it consists of human As everything in the the most perfect material. for it is warmth which But.

69]

PHYSICS.
In themselves both are the same
;

241

there is but one and the same being, of which a part takes the form of the world, while another part retains its original
shape, and in that shape confronts the first as the operative cause or the Deity. Even this distinction of

divine.

appearance
in time

is

transitory; it

has arisen in time, and

pass away. In order to form the world the Deity changed the fiery vapour, of which it consists, first into air, then
into water, in which
it

it will

was immanent as a formative

From the water, beneath (nrspfjiaTiKos). a part was precipitated as earth ; another operation, part remained water, a third became air, and out of
power
its
(\6<yos

by still further rarefaction, was kindled the ele mentary fire. Thus was formed the body of the world in distinction to its soul, the Deity. But as this
air,

When

opposition has arisen in time, so with time it passes away. the course of the present world has come to an end, a conflagration will change everything into a

monstrous mass of fiery vapour. Zeus receives the world back again into himself in order to emit it again at a preordained time (cf. p. 69 Hence the ff.). of the world and the Deity moves in an endless history
circle

.

the world.

between the formation and the destruction of As these always follow the same law,
all

the innumerable successive worlds are
similar, that in every

so exactly

one the same persons, things, and events occur, down to the minutest details, as are found in all the rest. For an inexorable necessity,
a strong connecting chain of cause and effect governs all events. In such a strictly pantheistic

system R

242
this
is

THE STOIC SCHOOL.
thoroughly consistent, and
it is

[

69

also expressed

in the

Stoic definition of fate or destiny, of nature

and providence.
exception
so far as it is his

Even the human

will

makes no

in this respect.

Man

acts

voluntarily, in
;

own impulse (op/^) which moves him

even that which fate ordains, he can do voluntarily, i.e. with his own assent; but do it he must under any
circumstances:

volentem fata ducunt, nolentem traall

hunt.

On

this connection of

things (crvjjiTrddsLa

rwv

o\a)v) rests the unity,

and on the rationality of

the cause from which

it proceeds, rest the beauty arid of the world ; and the more eagerly the perfection Stoics strove to establish their belief in Providence by

proofs of every kind, the less could they renounce the duty of proving the universal perfection of the world,

and defending it against the objections to which the numerous evils existing in it gave rise. Chrysippus appears to have been the chief author of this physical theology and theodicy. But we also know of him that
he carried out the proposition that the world was made for gods and men with the pettiest and most super

Even if the leading idea of the Stoic ficial teleology. theodicy, that the imperfection of the individual subserves the perfection of the whole, has formed a of a similar kind, yet pattern for all later attempts the task of uniting moral evil with their theological
determinism was
for

the

Stoics

the

more

difficult,

owing to the blackness of the colours in which they were accustomed to define the extent and power of
this evil.

70]

NATURE AND MAN.
70.

243

Nature and Man.

In their doctrine of nature the Stoics adhered less
as was inevitable closely to Heracleitus than to Aristotle, in the existing state of knowledge. Leaving out of sight some subordinate deviations they followed Aristotle in

their doctrine of the four elements, and if they found it necessary to establish the aether as a fifth body beside

them, they made no distinction between the ethereal
arid

the earthly

fire.

The

first

moved

in circles, the

second in straight lines (cf. p. 198). The Stoics again and again insisted that all elementary matters constantly
passed one into another, that all things were to be con ceived in perpetual change, and on this rested the con For this reason it was not their nection of the world.
object to

deny the

fixed condition of things as

Hera
to the

cleitus did, or with Aristotle to limit this

change

200). In their views on the structure of the universe they adhered to the prevailing notions. They regarded the
(cf. p.

world beneath the

moon

stars as fixed in their spheres

;

their fire was nurtured

by exhalations from the earth and the waters ; their divinity and rationality were derived from the purity of
this fire.

The whole realm

of nature

is

divided into

four classes ; which are distinguished in such a manner that inorganic things are kept together by a simple
Ifts, plants by rational soul.
<$>V<TIS>

animals by a soul,

men by

a

interest

creatures man only has a higher our philosophers, and in man the soul. The soul, like all that is real, has a corporeal nature;

Among

these

for

R 2

244
it

THE STOIC SCHOOL.

[70

comes into being with the body in the physical mode of generation but the material is the purest and descended into noblest, a part of the divine fire which
;

the bodies of
aether,

men when they
This
fire

first

arose out of the
as

and passes from the parents to the children
of the soul
is

an

offshoot of their souls.

nourished

of the soul (the by the blood, and the governing part has its seat in the heart, the centre of the fi^s^oviKov)

course of the

blood (according to

Zeno, Cleanthes,

whom only a few authors deviate). Chrysippus, &c., from offshoots spread out, viz. the five From hence seven and of procreation, to their senses, the power of speech
seat of personality lies corresponding organs. But the in the governing part or reason, to which belong only both the lower and the higher activities of soul, and in
its

power

lies

conclusions of will

the assent to conceptions, as well as to both only in the sense which the
(cf. p.

Stoic determinism allows

242 \

After death,

all

souls, according to Cleanthes, but according to Chrysippus

the necessary force, the souls only those who had obtained of the wise, continue till the end of the world, in order But the limited to return at that time into the Deity.
duration of this continued
life

did not deter the Stoics,

and Seneca especially, from describing the blessedness of the higher life after death in colours not unlike
those of Plato and the Christian theologians.
71.

The Stoic Ethics

:

their general traits.

obeys the laws of the universe, man his reason to know them and qualified by only This is the leading thought follow them consciously.
If everything
is

71]

ETHICS.

245

of the Stoic doctrine of Ethics.
is

Their supreme prin

in general the life according to nature 0/^,0X0ciple Yoy&evas T# (frvasi, gv. That this principle was not thus formulated till the successors of Zeno, while he

required only ojioXoyovjisvais fjy, the with itself (Arius Did. in Stob. Eel.
<

life
ii.

consistent
is

132),

the

more improbable as Diog. vii. 87 definitely states the contrary, and even Polemo, Zeno s teacher, had re
If Cleanthes quired a life according to nature (p. 169). named the nature to which our lives are to correspond
KoivT)
(f)vcn?,

and Chrysippus called

it

universal and

more

nature, the correction is chiefly especially The most universal impulse of nature is in verbal.

human

every creature the impulse to self-preservation ; only what serves this end can have a value (a^ia) and con
tribute to its happiness ( evSaipovla, svpoia /3lov). Hence for a rational being that only has a value which is in

accordance with nature

;

for it virtue only is a
its

good,

and in virtue alone consists
sequently
(virtue
is is

happiness, which con not connected with any further condition

the only evil

avrdp/cti? Trpb? rrjv svSai/jLovlav). Conversely, All else is indifferent is vice (/ca/cla).

(abidfyopov); life, health, honour, possessions, &c., are not goods ; death, sickness, contempt, poverty, &c., are not evils. Least of all can pleasure be considered a good, or the highest good, and sought for its own sake.

Pleasure

is

a consequence of our activity,

if this is

of the

right kind (for doing right ensures the only true satis If all Stoics did faction), but it can never be its aim.

not go so far as Cleanthes, who would not have pleasure reckoned among things according to nature, yet all

246

THE STOIC SCHOOL.
it

[

71

denied that

had any value by

itself.

For

this reason

of the virtuous man they sought the special happiness in freedom from disturbance, mjreppse of spirit, and

inward independence. As virtue alone has a value for of men, the effort to attain it is the most universal law This conception of law and duty is more his nature. earlier moral prominent among the Stoics than among But as the rational impulses are accom philosophers. and unmeasured im panied in man with irrational Zeno reduced to four main pulses or passions (which and fear), the Stoic pleasure, desire, anxiety,
l

passions virtue is essentially a battle with the passions

they are an irrational and morbid element (appwa-r^ara, and if they become habitual, vocroi ^rv they must and Peri not only be regulated (as the Academicians
;
%>

;

Our duty is to attain patetics wished) but eradicated. In opposition to or freedom from passions. apathy, virtue coDsists in the rational quality of the passions, the soul. The first condition is a right notion in
regard to

our conduct

;

virtue, therefore,

is

called

of knowledge. knowledge, and want of virtue want But with this knowledge, in the mind of the Stoics, strength of mind and will (TWOS svrovia, tV^us,
,

Kpdros), on which Cleanthes especially

laid weight, is

so directly connected that the essence of virtue can be Zeno considered insight well found in it.

equally

to
(<f>p6vrj(ri$)

be the

common
;

root

of all

virtues;

Cleanthes, strength of soul time of Chrysippus it is usual to seek
(a-ofyla)
1

Aristo, health.
it

From
in

the

wisdom

as the science

of divine

and humanjbhmgs.
or
bpp.}}

Uddos, defined as &\oyos

^xn^

Klvqcris,

71]

ETHICS.

247

From wisdom
arise,

which were in their

four cardinal virtues were thought to in turn, variously divided
:

sight,

bravery, self-control (o-co^poavvrj^

and

justice.

Clean thes, however, put endurance (sy/cpdrsLa) in the

According to Aristo (and in reality place of insight. according to Cleanthes also), the different virtues are
distinguished only by the objects in which they express themselves ; but Chrysippus and later writers assume

and qualitative differences between them. Yet they adhered to the principle that as expressions of one and the same feeling they were indissolubly con where one virtue is, of necessity all must be nected and similarly where one vice is, all must be. Hence all
internal
;
;

virtues are equal in merit, all vices in depravity. It is, in fact, merely a matter of feeling ; this alone makes the

fulfilment of duty (/caOrj/cov) a virtuous action (fcarform in which it is expressed is in opOwfjia) ; the

This feeling, according to the Stoic belief, must be altogether present or not present at all. Virtue
different.

j

and vice are

qualities

which admit of no difference of

degree (ia0so-is not merely easts ] ; there is nothing intermediate between them ; no man can possess them
in part
;

he must either have them or be without

them

he must be virtuous or vicious, a sage or a fool, and therefore the change from folly to wisdom is
;

momentary while proficients (TTPOKOTTTOVTSS), men are The wise man is the ideal of all perfec still fools.
;

tion,

and as

this is the only condition of happiness,
all

he
the the

is

the ideal of
of all
set

happiness,

while the

fool

is

pattern
Stoics

The first, as vice and misery. forth with declamatory pathos, is

248

THE STOIC SCHOOL.
free,
all

L

71

alone

alone

beautiful,

rich,

happy,
;

&c.

He
is

possesses

virtues
is

he does what

and all knowledge right and he alone does

in all things
it
;

he

the

statesman, poet, prophet, pilot, &c. He is entirely free from needs and sorrows, and the His virtue is a possession only friend of the gods.
only real king,

which cannot be

lost (or at most, as

Chrysippus allows,

through disease of mind) ; his happiness is like that of Zeus, and cannot be increased by duration. The fool,
is thoroughly bad and miserable, a slave, a beggar, a blockhead; he cannot do what is right, or anything that is not wrong all fools are lunatics (TTCLS

on his part,

;

acfrpajv fjLaLverai).

But, in the belief of the Stoics,

all

men, with few exceptions, and those rapidly disappear Even to the most celebrated statesmen ing, are fools. and heroes at most the inconsistent concession is made
that they are afflicted with the common vices of man kind to a less degree than other people. In all this the Stoics are essentially followers of

the principles of Cynicism, with the alterations which arose from the more scientific establishment and expo sition of their principles. Yet Zeno could not hide

from himself that these doctrines required considerable These modifications limitations and modifications.
were not only the condition on which they could pass beyond the narrow limits of a sect, and become an
historical

power; they arose out of the
of the

common

pre

system which in practice recognised harmony with nature, and in
suppositions
Stoic
ethics.

A

theory universal conviction, as the standard, could not place itself in such striking contradiction to either, as

and . those which are according to nature and therefore have a value (dia) being desirable and preferable (Trporjy/jisva) in themselves those which are against nature. it is true. . three classes are dis tinguished among morally indifferent things . moreover. thus returning from Zeno to Antisthenes drew by upon himself the reproach that he made all action on mission of principle impossible. and finally those which have neither merit nor demerit. who contested this division. tion of rules which lose their force under certain As. Hence.ovTa\ which are distinguished from the In all these it is a ques perfect (KaropOcof^ara). In connection with the relation to what is desirable or the reverse stood the conditioned or (yLteVa intermediate duties KaQi]K. and saw the man (reXoy) in entire indifference to goods. the dSidtyopa in the narrower sense. 219 Antisthenes and Diogenes had done without scruple. therefore without value (aira^la) and to be avoided (aTTOTrporjyfjisva) . a relative valuation of certain dSidtyopa is allowed and even required. in the doctrine of goods. deviated from Zeno in maintaining that a part of things morally indifferent. 1 and separate object could yet form a subordinate (v7rors\is).71] ETHICS. Herillus. Aristo. but it cannot be denied that they fre quently made a use of it which it is impossible to har monise with the strictness of the Stoic principles. so also is the apathy of the wise man softened to the degree circumstances. Only by this modifica tion of their doctrine of goods was it possible for the Stoics to gain a positive relation to the purposes of practical life. though it could not be referred to the final object of life (reXos ).

though they do not win his assent. So far know them. p. they are characterised by a double effort : on the one hand. If discussions on separate moral relations and duties occupy universally a large space in the postAristotelian period. and certain rational emotions (svirdOsiai) are found in that to him only. the less that the Stoics ventured name any one in their midst a wise man. 72. Finally. the more doubtfully that many among them expressed themselves in this respect with regard to Socrates and Diogenes. until at length they are hardly distinguishable from the wise 4 Proficients in the Stoic descriptions. Applied Morals. [71 it is allowed that the beginnings of the passions are found even in him. the Stoics (with the exception of Aristo. they tend to make the individual in dependent of everything external in his moral selfarise out of his relation to the greater which certainty. and the treatment as we appears at times to have been very trivial. 233) are more especially inclined to them. on the other.250 THE STOIC SCHOOL. Important as discussions of this kind were for the practical influence of Stoic ethics. Continuation. They appear to have had a peculiar predilection for the casuistical questions to which the collision of cf. and for the spread of purer moral conceptions. their scientific value was not very great. to be just to the duties whole of which . the more unavoidable was it that the men who were should find a place in ever increasing importance between the fools and the wise. duties gives rise. The Relation of Stoicism to Religion.

251 he is mark In the first sphere lie the traits which a part. and not on the external act. many strange and one-sided assertions. Stoicism as a descendant of Cynicism . yet it is found worthy of the philosopher in case circumstances allow it. Perfect independence of everything which does not influence our moral nature. If the not generally required. the freedom from needs such as Diogenes enjoyed. Independently as the Stoic confronted everything which is not himself. moral freedom. and in part appear to have been put forward as a deduction from views which they controverted. and many other Stoics. Zeno. into misled the Stoics. but they saw in it the noblest preservation of distress. Finally. they permitted voluntary departure from life This was not only a refuge from extreme (igay&yij). in order to secure for men their independence under any circum stances. though the most repellent objections brought against them in this respect are in part purely hypothetical. ended their lives in this manner. Antipater. is also an ideal of the Stoics. he nevertheless felt himself closely .72] ETHICS. the self-suffi ciency of the wise. and which he is justified in taking whenever circumstances make it appear to be more in accordance with nature that he should leave his earthly life than remain in it. as it misled their predecessors. elevation above external relations and bodily conditions. Eratosthenes. The principle that the moral character of actions cynical of life is mode depends only on the feelings. those by which it surpassed and supplemented Cynicism. a step by which a man proved that he regarded life among things indifferent. in the second. Cleanthes.

and stand homogeneous ing under the same laws of nature and reason and he regards it as their natural aim to live for one another. it is true. By [ 72 connected with his kind. They recommend marriage. and of this the Stoics Cosmopolitanism took the place of were the most zealous Since it is and successful prophets. the two must be co-extensive. which requires the two primary condi tions of society. the Stoics say. politics. Thus the impulse to society is founded immediately on human all nature. is naturally akin to all as . the similarity of All reason in the individuals on which all community among men akin. All the other connections of men are also recognised by them as having a moral im portance. and who trained the largest number of indepen dent political characters. Not merely wise men. and would have it carried out in a pure and moral spirit. are friends by nature. all men are They have a similar origin and the same . the connection of a man with the whole of humanity was more important than the connection of the individual with his nation. virtue of his rationality man feels himself a part of the universal whole. they ascribe universally so high a value to friendship that they do not succeed in bringing their principles of the self-sufficiency of the wise entirely into harmony with this need of friendship. rests. he knows that he all rational beings. In their view. and he is thus pledged to work for this whole . justice and humanity. If they could not take any hearty part in politics. looks on them and having equal rights.252 THE STOIC SCHOOL. yet in the philosophical schools of later antiquity it was the Stoics who occupied themselves most minutely with the duties of civic life.

Sen. D. 95. 31. Ep. 9). upon which the Stoics are never weary of that the essential part of religion lies from their point of view. Floril. Stob. 28. All 253 citizens of mission. Fr. Stob. Eel. as is men. 138. state. the laws of the universe. in obedience to and imitation of Man.lt.gt. N. 106). 40. (Muson . wisdom and virtue.v rovruv yeyov6rwv (Diog. i.gt. When this further connection of all rational beings is carried community and arrangements of this community unconditional It is in this obedience to subjection is demanded. owe clemency and ready support. their perfection (Sen. ii. Eel. The impropriety of the an thropomorphic belief in ircav deities. True religion from philosophy. consists in correct notions about their will. Stob. are All of one body. 1). in purity of heart and will (Cic. This last point often and earnestly insisted upon among the Stoics of the Koman we times. the unworthy character of : K Qeoov Kal avQpw- Chrysippus) e TTO AIS fy 6eu&amp. stand under one law. Epict. ii. But dspaiTsias^ Diog. 71 . Piety is the knowledge of the worship of the gods (sTTLCTT^rj 6 Osa)i&amp. 119 . &amp. 123) . 47. -i-ii after Posidonius and Kal eVe/ca rwv avdpunrvv re Kal ap. and submission to destiny. in a word. and show themselves worthy of our respect. With regard tinguished in is not dis to anything further which was contained in the national religion the Stoics had much to say. Even to our enemies we. claim to our beneficence. attain to the conception of the world as a 1 To the laws consisting of gods and men. insisting. in its essence worship of the gods them. vii. have a one members men as men Even slaves can claim their rights at our hands. vii.72] ETHICS.

form the proper contents of mythology.254 THE STOIC SCHOOL. Yet the Stoics as a whole are not opponents. In the gods the one god of the Stoics was to be of mythology under the worshipped directly or indirectly. ascribed the greatest value. Cleanthes and Chrysippus applied it to such an extent and with such incredible caprice and tastelessness. Sphserus. as it seems. the inanity of the traditional ceremonies. and indirectly under the form of the other form are nothing but representatives of gods so far as these divine powers. men and by the The means adopted interpretation. was Prophecy. treated and especially by Chrysippus and his successors. directly of Zeus. and Christian ground. while know by Zeno. school. the fruits of the earth. to which they in the same spirit by Zeno. that in this respect by their they could hardly be surpassed successors on heathen. Jewish. partly and more especially because they were unwilling to withdraw from the mass of men a support of morality which for them was Philosophical theology was thought to indispensable. the elements. Cleanthes. because they find a proof of its truth partly. . 72] the mythical narratives about gods and heroes. in great benefactors of mankind. are condemned from the time of Zeno by older and younger members of the and by no one more severely than Seneca of the authors known to us. it was made into a system. but defenders of the national religion. which manifest themselves to us in the stars. in its general recognition. and so far as we . is Stoics to prove this philosophic truth ($VO-LKOS Xo7os-) in the Hitherto this myths was allegorical mode of interpretation only found in isolated instances but by the Stoics.

242).C. and Here his Lampsacus. and the by severity of Marcus Aurelius towards the Christians.72] RELIGION. was the meeting-place of a circle which was filled garden with the deepest admiration for Epicurus and his teach ing. irrational 255 rationalised What was means was artificially . which is in truth nothing but the mythology of the national religion. Epicurus and his School. and partly through scientific observation. that of the statesmen. This is proved Cleanthes relation to Aristarchus of Samos. serious attack II. the son of Neocles the Athenian. Introduced to the doctrine of Democritus by Nausiphanes. p. and united intimate social intercourse with philo- . he came forward as a teacher in Colophon. THE EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY. No narrative of fulfilled predictions was so marvellous or poorly supported that it could not be justified in this manner. they brought the most serious objections. by of the interconnection of all things (o-v/jiTrdOsia.C. perhaps : before Panaetius. 73. and after 306 B. . Mitylene. distinguished a triple theology that of the philosophers. future events could be announced by certain natural signs which could be known and explained partly through natural gifts arising from the relation ship of God and man. was born in Samos in December 342 or January 341 B. in Athens. and instructed by Pamphilus the Platonist. and that of the poets and against the last. Epicurus. Yet this did not deter them from repressing vigorously any on the popular religion. Hence the Stoics.

personal disciples Golotes. Siro (Sciro) the B. may have belonged to them. in Eome. also Herculanean fragments especially from the Physics.C. Women as well as men belonged to His doctrines were embodied in a number of treatises. taught with His fellowto 78 B. and Idomeneus... whose successor was Basilides. . C. and other fragments in Plutarch. Zeno of Sidon. of Cicero. great success in Athens down B. Polystratus was succeeded by Dionysius. successor of Apollodorus. 139 ff. Hermarchus undertook to 1 be leader of the society Metrodorus.256 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. 84 ff. in 270 B.. We possess (through Diog. 35 ff.) three didactic letters and a sketch of the ethics (the Kvpiai 5ocu). Next to these we may mention among Epi curus historian. Patro at Athens .C. the school. 122 ff. the successor of Her marchus. teacher of Virgil was busy about 50 and Philo- demus.C. of whose writings many were found in HercuTo the same period belongs the poet of laneum. Demetrius the Laconian and Apollodorus (6 /cTjTTOTvpavvos) to the The school became widely spread in the Eoman third. the favourite dis had died before their ciple of Epicurus. sophic studies.C.. to the style of When which he devoted little care. master. Seneca. number and others.). in which. he died. Numerous other names 1 of Epicureans are a known to x.C..C. and Polyaenus . disciple and later successor Phsedrus was heard by Cicero at Kome lowed by Phsedrus was fol as early as 90 B. the Poly stratus also. Lucretius Carus (apparently 94-54 B. Protarchus of Bargylium appears to have belonged to the second quarter of the second century. about the middle of the second cen tury Amafmius met with approval with his Latin The pupil and exposition of the Epicurean doctrine. world. [ 73 it.

).. x. 9.. 320 A. 74. Physics in his opinion are system only needed because the knowledge of natural causes from the fear of the gods and death. Sto- and others. : ledge of and published . and the information which keep entirely to the physics Epicurus the writings of Philodemus found in Herculaneum. small. about 230 proved by and by Lactantius. became extinct in the fourth cen But its capacity for scientific development was and if Epicurus was at pains to keep his pupils the letter of his doctrines (Diog. for the know- besides the writings and fragments mentioned in the previous note. spread A. and a knowledge of human nature shows us what we ought frees us 1 Our sources it. x. With Epicurus his philosophic 1 objects. the school. Diog. Sextus Empiricus.73] EPICURUS AND HIS SCHOOL. are Lucretius. to Cicero. The Epicurean System. Inst. far The Canonic. Metrodorus. This part of his he called the Canonic. who seems .. x. Plutarch. strictly to 12 etc. the 257 us . he succeeded so well that none of them is known to have made any attempt worth mentioning towards their development. DC Iterum Naturd. far as they have been deciphered the fragments of .D. more exclusively than with Zeno system is simply a means for practical He cared little for learned investigation and the mathematical sciences. to which he objected that they were useless and did not correspond to reality . . Colotes. so to of we owe ba3us. Seneca. c.D. iii.. about tury. and indeed insufficient. his own education in both respects was very Even in dialectics he ascribed a value only - to the inquiries into the criterion. Diog. of which is 17. 28 ff.

Perception is the Obvious (svEpysia ) which is always true .j upon which his own weal or woe depends.his individual life O from disturbance. he must not seek in the universe for the traces of a reason. but he need not know more of it than that . not prove nothing against it.258 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. that the which regards material Individual is looked upon as the originally entirely source of our pre Keal. but in the judgment. . servino. Hence [ 74 to desire or avoid. For this ex to be suffi perience and natural intelligence appear cient without much logical apparatus. The world presents as a mechanism within this he arranges his life as well as he can. without rendering knowledge and action im Even the deceptions of the senses possible (p. we cannot criterion of truth in theory. in the spirit of an ethical system. If with the Stoics empiricism and materialism are connected with practical onesidedness. the same con nection It is is still more strongly marked in Epicurus. for The picture in the perception. in them the fault lies. in Agreeably with this point of view Epicurus as the his Canonic primarily regards perception and in practice (see 76) the feeling of pleasure and pain. 237). on which he had to support himself and to whose laws he must become Nor must he make any attempt subject. and sensuous perception as the If man finds his highest mission in presentations. theoretic basis for his conduct by a know to secure a itself to him ledge of these laws. which we believed that we saw has really touched our doubt it . this part of philosophy also has no independent importance. the individual in himself only.

Such an interference must deprive man of all inward security . we are not told. mentions four ways by which we pass from perceptions to suppositions (STTLbut we must not look for a scientific theory of voiai) . and form. p. from what we know. they are always true. that the question arises whether It is this opinion is true or false. of if it In order to be true. an coming events. (How we are to distinguish those pictures to which there is a corresponding object from those to which no object corresponds.) Out that of perceptions arise concepts (VpoX^-v^ets). refers to . but we have not the right to assume that an object corresponds to it. these also are included in criteria. And feelings (Tradrf) as even the presentations of the fancy arise ? according to Epicurus. 32. by the operation of objective pictures present to the soul (cf. As these concepts relate stamped upon which to earlier perceptions. hence beside perceptions (ala-Otjo-sis) and concepts can be counted as criteria. first Epicurus view of the world was in the in stance determined by the desire to exclude the inter ference of supernatural causes from the world. 259 soul. it Epicurus. must be con refers to the secret causes firmed by experience if it phenomena. The Gods. since is repeatedly perceived becomes the memory. Trspl him or in his school. must not be contradicted by them. in Diogenes. 75. CTTJ/JLSICOV) in The Physics of Epicurus. induction (as Philodemus shows us. opinion.74] THE CANONIC. x. 262). only when we pass beyond perception as such. an opinion (viro^tyis) on what we do not know.

which are separated by less space. and with time they will again pass away. Epicurus assumed that they deviated to an infinitesimal degree from the perpendicular line. not an infinite variety of shapes. but they have all arisen in time. present the greatest variety of conditions . By the atoms descend in empty virtue of their weight space . This result the philo sopher hopes to obtain most certainly by a purely mechanical explanation of nature. [ 75 and keep him in constant fear. and thus plicated. to him. Epicurus explains the atoms and the void as the primary elements of all He takes the same view of the atoms as things. known and was perhaps alone This was the atomism of Like Democritus. Hence they dash on one another and become com are partly forced upward. Democritus. the circular movements which create give rise to those innumerable worlds in the most different parts of end These worlds. but as they all fall with equal rapidity (as Aristotle pointed out) and hence cannot dash upon one another. rebound. and also because such an assumption seemed necessary for the freedom of at will will. Democritus. portions of merely empty space (^eraKoo-^La^ inter- mundia). said to have As the origin of the world is been brought . When he looked for such among the older systems (for he was neither in clined nor qualified to form a theory of his own in natural science) none corresponded to his object more completely than that which seemed to afford the best points of connection with his ethical individualism which had accurately first attracted him. only he ascribes to them a limited.260 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL.

In regard to the early condition and the gradual develop ment of man we find attractive and intelligent The soul of suppositions in Lucretius (v. so Epicurus ascribes the greatest value to the fact that every individual thing in the world is to be explained in a purely mechanical manner and to the exclusion of all teleological points But how we explain it is a matter of little importance. while the other permeates the whole body. and does not absolutely reject such its has natural causes are. At death the atoms of the soul are scattered. . parents. 261 about by purely mechanical causes.75] PHYSICS. moon really waxes and That the sun is no larger. which is the cause of perception. irrational part of the soul. was persistently maintained by his school. In the first instance there were among them many marvellous were capable of life forms. men a rational part is added to the since they are no longer held together by the body. which (like the Stoic fospoviicov) has its seat in the breast. yet more delicate and mobile. 74). 922 ff. and breath. it matters little what the For the explanation of separate pheno mena of nature Epicurus leaves us the choice of all the possible hypotheses. and is derived from the souls of the But in animals and air. causes. or but a little larger. Living beings were thought to come originally from the earth. p. If we can only be certain that something of view.). have men consists not only of elements of fire. senses might not be impaired. but also of a peculiar matter. but only those which been preserved (cf. than it seems to be. no doubt in order that the of the credibility obvious absurdities as that the wanes.

The universality of this belief seems to him a proof that it is founded on real experience. or which have first formed themselves in the air from the com mingling of different of atoms. By these physics Epicurus hopes to have removed for ever death. 259). From the combination of a picture of recollection with a perception arises opinion. who Of also vigorously controverted the Stoic fatalism. movements when forcing themselves into it. and the . (with not only are perceptions explained Democritus) by a contact of the soul with the ! which are given off from the surface pictures (sl SwXa) of bodies and reach the soul through the senses. the fear of the gods as well as the fear of It is true that he will not attack the belief in the gods. or from new combinations Through the movements which the pictures the soul. any deeper psychological investigations into this point we find no trace in him. and with it the possibility of error (p. was strongly maintained by Epicurus. and this is recollection.262 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. in the sense of pure inde- terminism. for only the conviction that we do not exist after death can set us Of the free from the fear of the terrors of Hades. create in earlier idola. and pass from it to the body. but jthe same explanation is given of the presentations of the fancy ((pavTao-Ti/cal 7ri/3o\al rijs Siavolai). In the latter. The freedom of the will. activities of soul. [75 This to Epicurus is a great comfort. The will consists in motions which are brought about in the soul by presentations. the soul is touched by pictures of which the objects are no longer in existence. however. of the soul are awakened anew.

which the belief in providence lays upon them. require in his opinion that they should have fine bodies of light instead of our coarse bodies. He pronounced opponent of this can only derive the national religion from uncertainty and. he feels the necessity of seeing his ideal of happiness realised among the gods. But the happiness and immortality of the gds. opposed to the relation in which they stand to the He assumes a plurality of gods in fact he regards as as and he also considers it self-evident that they should have the shape of man. at least in part. who has no more dangerous enemy than the opinion that higher powers interfere in the wr orld. for he is distinctly world. even the Greek language. and disturbed in their happiness by the prospect of this misfortune. for in any other case they would be affected by the decay of the worlds in which they dwelt. and language. it explain beings. the need of food.75] THE GODS. 263 pictures. He also as them innumerable . Epicurus is therefore the most belief in any form. from timidity . the most beautiful that can be conceived. perceptions. and from the appearance of which he can only (see above). and he finds the Stoic doctrine of providence and . Their happiness also requires that they should not be bur dened with the care of the world and men. from real are imagination. (!: two loading marks of his conception of deity. But he can only share the prevailing notions about the gods to a limited extent. and live in the intermundia. not merely pictures of Moreover. attributes to them the distinction of sex. Still more indispensable is this assumption for the repose of man. arise. above all.

like Aristippus. from the fear of the gods (religio\ which oppressed them. i. but the repose of the spirit. The Ethics of Epicurus.iJ64 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. his Physics As Epicurus in explained the atoms as the source of all being. As the most essential conditions of this repose lie in the state of our feelings. object is not positive pleasure. is extolled as his immortal service by his admirers (as Lucretius. That he has freed men from this delusion. 259). which all avoid. Epicurus. he believes that the real importance of pleasure consists only in the satisfaction of a need. Yet by pleasure he does not object mean the individual sensations of pleasure as such. but the happiness of an entire life. pleasure.). 76. good and evil is our feeling is The only absolute good . even more comfortless than the absurdities of mythology. he_regards the individual in his Ethics as the aim of all action. Epicurus regards the pleasures and pains of the mind as far more im- . they commend his piety and his participation in the traditional worship of the gods. regards pleasure as the final of our action. 62 if. while on the other hand. and hence in the removal of what is not pleasurable . Further. Our judgment must decide on separate enjoyments or pains by their relation to this. The measure for distinguishing p. but freedom from pain not the motion. after evil which is all living things strive the only absolute Hence in general pain. which are contradicted by the actual nature of the world. our final . [75 destiny.

and his sayings fre quently exhibit a purity of sentiment which goes far beyond their unsatisfactory scientific foundation. the less severe can be borne and overcome by superior intellectual enjoyments. yet he observes that only present delights and pains act upon the body. approaches If he does not ascribe to or their him closely either the Stoic apathy contempt of sensual enjoyment. and plainly he declares expressions) that last resort all For however publicly (in spite of some different pleasure and pain arise in the from bodily conditions. happiness is indissolubly connected with virtue. Epicurus himself led a pattern life. and fear. only a condition of repose of mind. to justice we owe it that no fear of punishment disturbs our equanimity. 265 portant than those of the body. His ideal of the wise man to the Stoic. but. yet he repre- . it teaches us the true art of life. Insight frees us from the prejudices which disturb us. hope. bravery by the contempt of death and suffering . indispensable a condition that. even according to Epicurus.76] ETHICS. The severest pains are only of short duration and quickly put an end to our life . are in his view so much the more violent that he feels himself justified in extolling the absolute power of the spirit over bodily pains with the same exaggeration as the Cynics and Stoics. Self-control preserves us from sorrows by correct con duct in regard to pleasure and pain. from empty fancies and wishes . which rest upon memory. whereas the soul is moved by those of the past and the future. however small the independent value which his is Virtue it is so i system allows us to attribute to it. These feelings.

and his wisdom as so inalienable. these things.266 sents THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. Among the latter Epicurus especially places the desire for honour and glory. as such. his happiness as so complete. him [ 76 as so completely master of his desires that they never lead him astray. In harmony with this ideal Epicurus rules of life aim in the first instance at procuring for the individual. Hence he does . Even of actual desires only a part aims at what is necessary by far the greatest portion seeks what is unnatural and useless. . though he that such miseries rarely happen. It was is of opinion more difficult for Epicurus to establish the and importance of the social life of man. Even these the philosopher. and even on bread and water he need not envy Zeus. a contented and independent existence by liberating him from prejudices and controlling his desires. Epicurus allows him to withdraw himself from intolerable miseries by a voluntary death. necessity Here his system opened but one path the considera tion of the advantages which accrue to men from their union with one another. Living himself an unusually moderate and contented life. that he walks as a god among men. but all the more vehemently does he is insist that a man shall not make himself dependent on not to use little. he will not forbid a rich enjoyment of life. The point but to need A man is not to bind himself absolutely even to life. little. he urges others to contentment. not require the suppression of the sensual impulses . He describes him as so independent of all external things. that he can say of him no less than the Stoics of their ideal.

In him and in many men of his school a mild and philanthropic temper . refrain from injustice the mass of men must be deterred from its To enjoy this security without by punishment. seeks rather in protection against injuries than in any posi tive advancement of the individual by moral commu to nion with others. was the feeling for If it seems inadequate to establish this friendship. yet. appeared to the philosopher as the most desirable object. because a man who breaks them can never be free from the fear of punishment but he considers it better to hold aloof from all public life unless special circumstances require the contrary. relation only on the value of the mutual support and the feeling of security which arise from it. and the supposed Pythagorean community of goods was only rejected by Epicurus because such an arrange ment ought not to be required among friends. It is only the wise who. convinced of voluntarily it . Hence he recommends obedience to the laws. The more lively. he went far beyond these limits. . from being which a statesman cannot withdraw himself. disturbed in it by the trouble and danger. He has doubts even about family life and marriage. With him this holds good especially The aim of all laws is the security of society against injustice. like the Pythagorean. both in him and his school. friendships were famous. in The Epicurean fact. But it would not have been in harmony with the principles of Epicurus to limit his beneficence to the circle of his personal friends. 267 whom freedom from trouble is the highest good.761 ETHICS. of the State. His motto is \dds (Bitocras. being harmfulness.

this is expressed in the saying (among others). Euseb. The school did not spread widely. He left no writings behind him even in antiquity his doc . xiv.C. SCEPTICISM. though in poor circumstances. trines were only Timon of Phlius. To the first two of these questions we can only answer. where he lived universally honoured. known by the treatises of his pupil.C. also about ninety years old.68 THE EPICUREAN SCHOOL. 18) to be clear on three matters are related : What is the nature of things. 83) he accompanied Alexander to the At a later time he founded a school of his own in his native city. Pyrrho and Pyrrkonians. that it is more pleasant to do a kindness than to receive one. In order to live happily a man ought. (p. by despair of any such conviction. Ev. Pr. of the Pyrrhonic School took place earlier than that of the Stoic or Epicurean. on the contrary. according to Timon (ap. who subsequently lived in Athens and there died. I^yrrho of Elis had apparently become acquainted with the doctrines of the Elean-Megarian school when with Anaxarchus East. it approaches the Stoic. and seems to have died about 270-5 B. all [76 towards is In his own conduct present. the 77. He lived to be nearly ninety years of age. but it not by definite scientific conviction. How we to them. but. the world III. and What we can gain from this relation.2. that the nature of things is quite unknown to . The foundation somewhat In its practical aim seeks to attain it. after 241 B.

C. 269 iis. The New Academy. nature. the only correct attitude towards things. But . Some one of Timon s pupils. or anything is are rather in itself good or bad. will follow probability. in of knowing apathy. is He who has despaired this attitude. and 88). The philosopher who led the Academy in this new path was Arcesilaus of Pitane in ^Eolia (315-241-0 B. seems to (STTO^IJ. that we can never maintain anything (ov&sv oplgsiv). and our opinions are entirely subjective. and custom. are certainly to be ascribed to ^Enesidemus pupils of Timon are mentioned. Pyrrho does not seem to have gone further into detail in the scientific establishment of these doctrines .) the successor of Crates (p. he will not believe that Timon s belief. So far as he is compelled to act. anything of the nature of things cannot attribute a higher value to one thing than another . and thus find happi he ness in tranquillity. me so . the ten Sceptic tropes. PYRltHO. We are imonly . 78. we observe the result. but these conceptions to be referred to law and custom. never ought to say this is so. again a pupil of this was the last offshoot of the Pyrrhonic Scepticism its place was taken after the middle of the third century by the Academic. and that a suspension of judgment aKara\r)^la) If is afyacria. or virtue. In different to all other things.77] SCEPTICISM. but only this for perception only as they are. and not shows us things as they appear. 169). which later writers ascribe to ( him. he will strive after the correct mood of temper. at once drapagia.

but the main object of his attacks was Zeno s doctrine of His chief objection. He also seems to have controverted the Stoic physics and In consequence he maintained with Pyrrho theology. Before his death the latter handed over the headship of the school (215-4 B.C. and this opinion he attempted to prove by various applications. was his opinion that there were no presentations which contained in themselves a certain mark of their truth. more incredible that his scepticism was intended to strictly that serve only as a preparation for the Platonic dogmatism. [78 his doctrines. 18. he controverted the possibility of knowing anything by &amp. But he did not allow that the possibility of action must be given up with the possibility of knowledge. and as he wrote perfectly acquainted with. This point of view he upheld so he would not allow even that principle For this reason it is the to be asserted as knowledge. which forms :the highest criterion for practical life. :The presentation sets the will in motion. who were followed by Hegesinus (Hegesilaus). But neither of these nor of the rest of the Academicians who are mentioned from . beside presentation by concepts. Arcesilaus was succeeded in the chair by Lacydes of Gyrene. even though we do not consider it knowledge. and in order to act rationally it is sufficient to follow reason. hand. iii. According to Cicero.lt. even the ancients only knew them at third nothing. De Orat. 67. the senses or the reason (sensibus aut animo) .) to the Phocseans Telecles and Evander.270 THE NEW ACADEMY. that there was nothing left but suspension of judg ment (e iro xri). some more formal criticisms.

271 this period. First he asked in general terms whether jected the views of the various philosophers to a more knowledge was possible. was born in Gyrene in 213-214 B. who on this account is called the founder of the third or new Academy. This question he believed that he must answer in the negative. and he remained leader with great success and honour till his death in 129 B. the exposition of his doctrines was the work of his pupils. because. especially of Clitomachus. (as he proved more in detail) there is no kind of conviction which does not deceive us.78] AE CESILA US CAENEADES.. 226). while Arcesilaus is re middle school. no true presentation to which there is not .C. This acute and learned man. eminent dogmatists of the time. If Arcesilaus had chiefly directed his attacks against the Stoic doctrine of the criterion. as the founder of the second or when he came with the embassy of philosophers to Eome (p. and became leader of the school long before 156 B. neades. and sub comprehensive and penetrating criticism than his pre decessors. garded Philo and Antiochus ( 81) of the fourth and fifth.C. The teaching of Carneades marks the culmination of Academic scepticism. while at the same time he defined more precisely the degrees and conditions of probability.C. Carneades also treats the Stoics. as his chief oppo But he investigated the question of the possibility of knowledge on wider grounds. He left no writings . who was also famous for the persuasive force of his eloquence. do we know more than the general fact that they remained true to the direction struck out by The greater is the importance of CarArcesilaus. who were the most nents.

as well as the cor rectness of the presupposition on which it rests. He to even attacked the conception of Grod by attempting so far as show with great acuteness. delivered at Eome. Carneades rejected logical arrangement the soundness of this conclusion. formation on this point is very imperfect. which are tributing But we at variance with its eternity and perfection. that the (%&amp. and hence by a petitio principii. partly I because the premisses of the proofs require proof in He examined the turn. the pattern of the sophists. partly because this could only be done by proof.272 THE NEW ACADEMY. of which a sample was given in his two lectures. for the first time. Hence there is no cri * terion of truth in the sense of the Stoic presentation In like mariner he denied the possibility in concepts. with which is connected his polemic against the Stoic deter minism. [78 a false one precisely similar. Stoics inferred the existence of Grod from the teleo- of the world. A still greater impression appears to have been produced by his criticism of moral notions. of demonstration. and so on ad infinitum. and in truth the accounts of Carneades give us no exhaustive . and especially con If the troverted the Stoic theology on every side.&amp. for and For this. on the ground of the numerous evils existing in the world. he made chief use of the But our in contrast of natural and positive right. and in we know Deity cannot be thought of as a living rational creature \O^IKOV) without at to it qualities and circumstances.lt.ov can here only touch upon his criticism of polytheism and his attacks on the Stoic belief in prophecy.gt. philosophic systems more in detail. following against justice.

and died cf. and then by the most dis who cannot have been born after 110. distinguished three degrees of probability. The 273 final result of picture of his scientific activity. ETC. and the demand for an unconditional sus pension of judgment. first the Academy was conducted by his younger Carneades. It is most probable that he adhered to the principle of the Old Academy the life according to nature and found virtue in striving after natural goods. his sceptical discussions was naturally that which had been long pronounced: the absolute impossibility of knowledge. and consequently three kinds of probable presentations : He those that are probability is and those in probable in themselves. On his successors tinguished of the body. If the earlier sceptics had at least recognised probability as the standard for our practical conduct. 81. those whose confirmed by others connected with them. How he treated o-Traorros teal Trspiw^BVfjbsvrj^ ethical questions from this point of view we cannot fix with certainty. Clitomachus the Carthaginian. then Crates by both for but a few years. (fravTacria Kol aTTEpla-TracrTO?.78] CARNEADES. . Carneades pursued the thought yet further. after 175 B. After Carneades the pupils.C. and (pavTacria iriQav?] KOI and he appears to have in even in details the marks by which we vestigated are to decide upon probability.. which this holds good of the latter presentations also ^avraa-ia iriQavr).

it philosophic schools of natural that in the course of years these contrasts was should be softened. and the relationship which. to those convictions upon which men could be essentially in harmony. entered with Eome. the controversies VIGOROUS as were between the the post. existed from the first between the itself Academic. ECLECTICISM.Aristotelian period. in spite of all differences. and Stoic schools should make For this purpose two more distinctly felt. ECLECTICISM. RENEWED SCEPTICISM. the more strongly that matter. and therefore sufficient in the most important On the other hand. even Carneades. Peripatetic. nection into which Greece The more seriously the belief of the dogmatic schools in the impregnability of their doctrines had been shattered by the penetrating criticism of Carneades.274 ECLECTICISM. in the development of his doctrine of . were of the factors. 79. I. operating contemporaneously. Its Origin and Character. utmost importance the success which the Academic and the con scepticism obtained through Carneades. and which even their critic himself recognised as the standard in practical conduct. [ 79 SECOND SECTION. the more inclined must they have become to return from these distinctive doctrines which were exposed to so many objections. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM.

which had created It was in harmony with this T 2 spirit to estimate each view according to its value for .C. there arose a scientific intercourse between Greece and Koine which carried Greek teachers to Rome and young Romans in everincreasing numbers to the philosophic schools of Athens and other Greek cities. under fact it what the influence of Flamininus. come on this part of their doctrine. 275 probability. JSmilius Paulus. Greek philosophy beginning was regarded in Rome as an indispensable part of higher culture. a part of the Eoman Empire. After the conquest of Macedonia by the B. the more easily would his school. The Roman fluence on spirit which now began to have an in Greek science contributed to the same result. had expressed the necessity of securing such practical standards for himself. 256). of the last century B. Roman world and that in their intercourse with the they should be touched by the spirit it. If the Greeks were in the first instance Epicureanism among the Romans the teachers and the Romans the pupils. Scipio ^Emilianus. Ere long. in pursuing the same direction. yet it was natural that the Greeks should adapt themselves more or less to the needs of their distinguished and influ ential hearers. for to lay the chief weight Thus they departed more and more from scepticism.79] ORIGIN OF ECLECTICISM. more and more.) Greece was in Eomans (168 in form became. that which was to Carneades only probable obtained in time the value of something certainly known. More important than the philosophic embassy (p.C. 226) was the stay of Panaetius ( 80) at Rome and the contemporaneous spread of After the (p. and his friends.

). Pancetius. though Zeno of Sidon. rather relations [ 79 practical than its scientific soundness. he the less important. any demonstraticn. Though the Stoic system was brought ippus to a relative perfection. oy/coi) which were thought in the place of the atoms. But true or probable from different views. and found an entrance even into the Peripatetic. Posidonius. to throw their distinctive doc trines into the background.276 life ECLECTICISM. and bring forward what was common to all. not immediately reconcilable. on the other hand. as approached the Epicurean is it. acquired a more dialectic method than was usual in the school. That the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia (100-50 like Heracleides. especially in points of practical in order to be able to choose what is a_criterion must be provided for this men were finally brought to certain object. did not belong to 80.C. whom he attended as well as Apollodorus. The Stoics. and which maintained their truth by general recognition. Boethus. became more prevalent in the Academic.. put original bodies (avap^oi. Asclepiades. though school. In the Epicurean school. when with Carneades. importance. Hence these must also have contributed to nourish the inclination towards an amalgamation of the philosophic schools. the Stoics by Chryswere not so . and thus which it was thought were fixed in us before convictions. by the consensus gentium. B. This eclecticism in the sequel it first appeared in the Stoic school . we cannot find any important deviation from the doctrine of its founder. to be shattered by collision.

PAN^ETIUS. and also Diogenes in his latest years. and L. he would not allow the world to be an Consequently animated being he merely assumed a co-operation of . science. the friend of the younger Scipio Africanus and of Laelius. Zeno of Tarsus. the teacher of Q. inasmuch as he described reason (z^oOs ). and desire as criteria no less than perception.C.80] STOICS BOETHUS. In connection with this middle position between Zeno and Aristotle he controverted at length the conflagration maintained by the first. Til strictly isolated in the doctrine of their school that they did not allow some deviations from it. Preserving independence of judgment in . others to the wish to meet the attacks of their oppo above all. and other Roman his Stoics. aether to be divided in the Deity with things. But the Stoic school of Pansetius of Ehodes greater influence. but he also regarded the Deity which with his school he considered the same as the substance from the world. the successor of Chrysippus. in order to put the eternity of the world in its place. and. nents. Some of these were due to the influence of older systems. But these two pupils of Diogenes deviated far more widely from the old Stoic teaching. is said to have expressed himself doubtfully about the doctrine of the conflagration of the world. the incisive criticism of Carneades.) had much He was the successor of Antipater Athens and at the same time the chief founder of the Roman Stoicism. JElius the Stilo. at (approximately between 185 and 110 B. perhaps because he could not solve the difficulties raised by Boethus and Panaetius. 1 Boethus differed not only in his theory of knowledge. Mucius Scaavola.

the first to bring the division Panaetius most famous pupil was the learned Posi- donius of Apamea. details. and came into contact with Plato and the other hand. With Boethus he controverted the destruction and apparently also the origin of the world. who were apparently followed by Apollodorus. perhaps. Cynicism Aristotle. He defended the . he repeated Carneades doubts about prophecy. at eighty-four years popular school. also a Khodian . [ 80 and historical criticism. After him came Hecato. and not merely in the severer form of the school. It is only of Posidonius that we have any in This important and influential Stoic retained the tradition of his school more strictly many points than Panaetius. We cannot assume that in his ethics he contradicted the old Stoic doctrine.C. like Aristotle.. the vegetable part (Quo-is) from the animal (^v^rj). an influence on his own as he seems to have treated the Stoic philosophy from the practical side. though he seems to have laid it deviated from greater stress on the points in which soul after death.278 literary ECLECTICISM. forward. denied the continuance of the and distinguished in it. 255). This is seen in his work on duties (jrspl rov Ka6r}Kovros\ which was the pattern of the Ciceronian De Officiis. It was the more natural for him to allow their doctrines to have 1 . Pansetius was a pro nounced admirer of Plato and Aristotle. and made a freer application On than had hitherto been usual among the Stoics of the division of a triple theology (p. who died in Rhodes about 50-46 leader of a of age. his successors in Athens were Mnesarchus and Dardanus (contemporaries). as the B. though he was not.

154) in assigning the passions to were regarded not as courage and the desires. he followed Plato (p.) and others.80] STOICS POSIDONIUS. perhaps as leader successor of Posidonius. was the instructor of Augustus . The Academicians of the Last Century B. of whom one. or larger fragments of such treatises fragments of Arius Didymus (p. Yet the chief seat of this eclecticism was the Aca demic school. he shared Panaetius On extent. 81. who the grandson Athenodori of Tarsus. the of the school . to But of none of these have we any philosophical than the treatises.C. geographer Strabo (58 B.C. but as separate powers of separate parts of on the nature of the body a devia from the older Stoicism which other Stoics are is not without importance for the subsequent period. after death. ETC. the existence of demons. Cato of Utica. the astronomer. admiration for Plato. Such was Dionysius.. the two and 20 A. 279 the continuance of the soul conflagration of the world. and in order to give a psycho foundation for the contests between reason the logical and the passions. This last-men tioned philosopher is a further example of the echo which the eclectic tendencies of the time found even in the Stoic school. Jason. a pupil of Posidonius . Greminus. the son of Sandon.C. B. 282).C. Many century about 50 known to us from the first lived in Athens B. and took under his protection the Stoic belief in prophecy to its full other hand. Even among the personal pupils of . which ^depending tion the soul. on which the Stoics laid such weight.D.

). but he wished way to attain this object by a detailed ethical theory. Thus he could not con maintain a point of view which brings into ques tion the truth of all our conceptions. as impossible. By this Academician. the pupil and successor of Clitomachus. Among . who finally quarrelled with Philo on this subject. of Larissa (who fled to Rome about 88 B. and appears to have died about 80 B. Thus he sought for something intermediate between mere probability and knowledge. who aban doned the proposition that things were absolutely unknowable. yet he would not deny all power of knowledge. though it did not attain to the absolute certainty of the concept. [81 Carneades there were some like Metrodorus of Strato- and no doubt Charmidas. This was more definitely done by Philo nice. where he was the teacher of Cicero. by con He not merely made point out the ones (Stob. a conception of things. although he joined Carneades in controverting the Stoic doctrine of the criterion. which created a perfectly sure conviction.280 ECLECTICISM.). the friend of Lucullus.C.C. the Academy was definitely led from Scepticism to Eclecticism. and maintained that even Arcesilaus and Carneades did not intend to deny it. ^Eschines. Hence. sistently troverting false moral conceptions and imparting correct Eel.).. and also one of Cicero s teachers.C. and regarded an absolutely certain knowledge. Antiochus of Ascalon (died 68 B. That such an intermediate position is untenable was recognised by Philo s disciple and successor. who also attended the Stoic Mnesarchus. 40 fT. ii. There was an obviousness (svdpysia). it the object of philosophy to to happiness to men.

14). ANTIOCHUS. he controverted it on scientific grounds. but was rather a Stoic. but for the highest degree . 4. In these he sought a middle path between Zeno. . Cod/ 212. and Stoic systems. as 6 In is shown by Cicero ( * 11) and ^Enesidemus (op. was made a reproach against him that he called himself an Academician. After the death of Antiochus. which all important philosophers are agreed and in order to prove that there was really such agreement in all more important questions. Antiochus answers: . like the Stoics. His own interest lay chiefly in ethics. Aristotle. of great weight that without indubitably thought sure conviction no rational conduct of life is possible. 170. Peripatetic. however. It of happiness bodily and external goods were requisite. 281 other objections to Scepticism.81] ACADEMICS. for instance. if the distinction between true and . when he said that virtue was in deed sufficient for happiness. but an Eclectic. that it was a contradiction to maintain that nothing could be maintained and prove that nothing could be proved. that it was impossible to speak of false presentations. truth he is neither. and Plato as. But if we ask where is truth In that upon sought. Phot. which was intended to show that these three schools differed from one another in subsidiary points and expressions rather than in essentials. In this. he. he sets forth an exposi tion of the Academic. p. &c. ! false to be was denied. ii. it Nevertheless. &c. ETC. he was unable to succeed without much inaccuracy. this mode of thought continued to pre vail in the Academy.! maintaining that without truth there was no proba-j bility . The head of the school down to Acad.

the in Thrasyllus (died 36 A. who about 65-50 B. we find this preference in Eudorus.C. 82. first century B. to . He also made researches into their genuineness. and somewhat later 92) was connected with Arius Didymus. The Alexandrian Potamo is also mentioned by Suidas (TLord/jicov) as a contemporary of Augustus. are composed so entirely after the manner of Antiochus that the Stoic and Academician are merely distinguished by name. This philo of What we have which was a superficial combination of the thoughts of others.).232 ECLECTICISM. how followed apparently by Theomnestus. B. the brother of Antiochus. These publications gave which the Peripatetic school was henceforth dedicated. was counted a member of the Stoic tutor of Augustus. published an edition of the works of Ari school at stotle. Andronicus of Rhodes.C. with the aid of the grammarian Tyrannic. was at the head of the Peripatetic Athens. rightly.C. 51 ever. but the existing portions of his work in which he gave a sketch of the more important philosophical systems. Towards the end of the it. who was Ere long. 21. the preference for Pythagorean speculation (cf. and Prooem. his teaching. [ 81 was Aristus. school. less prevalent This Eclecticism was among the con temporaneous Peripatetics. sopher called his school the Eclectic. the impulse to that earnest study of Aristotle. reminds us chiefly of Antiochus. in spite of Diog.D. and wrote commentaries on some. an Eclectic with the ethics of a Stoic. The Peripatetic School.

on the other . nearer the Platonic doctrine of virtue than the Ari but it nevertheless appears to be the work of a Mundo is from the hand of Peripatetic. In the same manner Xenarchus (under Augustus) controverted the his Aristotelian doctrine of the aether.PERIPATETICS. and Crat(first school of Antiochus to the ippus.). whose meteorology he has freely used. Peripatetic. represents a verting immortality and naturalistic view of the Peripatetic doctrine) surrendered own judgment in favour of Aristotle. but. and The latter the small tractate on Virtues and Vices. who passed from the Nicolaus of Damascus (born about 64 B.C.C. in any case.C. The book De a Peripatetic who. Yet neither AndroIt nicus nor his disciple Boethus of Sidon (who. The work chiefly aims at a combination of the Aristotelian theism with the Stoic pantheism by the assumption that God is indeed in his essence outside the world.). who (about the eternity of the world in a s name That even in the Peripatetic school there were some who were prepared to adopt alien elements into the doctrines of Aristotle. is shown by two treatises in our Aristotelian collection the book De Mundo. 4 is stotelian. Staseas of Naples third of the first century B. was a necessary result of this occupation with the that views which were not his writings of their founder could not easily be ascribed to him. and others. are not more particularly known to us philosophers. B. Aristo. wrote after Posidonius. and far too sublime to occupy himself with it in detail.) 50 the Peripatetic was. by contro in other points. we do not know. as Who treatise defended which has come down to us in Philo with Judaising additions.

accustomed to ascribe to him. and gladly in a clear and intelligent manner j follows the school in the habit of discussing both sides of a question without any final decision. But the chief lies less in the scientific grounds which he borrows from the Academicians. but simply to the skill with which he could set forth the doctrines of the distinguished Greeks superficial as his acquaintance with them was / for the contemporary and succeeding generation of Latin readers. expressed in a peculiar manner among the Eoman philosophers of this period. of whom M. fills [ 82 hand. The Sextians. Cicero considers himself one of the New Academicians.) He does not owe his prominent position to the acuteness and independence of his own thought. Varro. therefore. he speaks with great decision. moral principles and the theological and anthroDological questions con nected therewith. motive of his doubt that this difficulty can be removed. He for which have most interest . Cicero. are essentially this Plato. than in the conflict of philosophical authorities and to the degree . and Orpheus agree.C. Tullius Cicero is the most name in history (106-43 B.284 ECLECTICISM. he is from the first inclined to abandon an attitude of doubt. Heracleitus. him. probability attains for him aJJiigher importance than for Carneades and on the points . which the Stoics are his. the whole with his power and operation. In 83. If. he believes that he must despair oiinQwledge in the complete sense.C. he and to this extent the predicates. is The eclecticism of the last century B.

who. one-sided views inseparable from them. yet he fails to find a sound footing between the Stoic Academic-Peripatetic doctrines . The views which he acquires on this foundation are neither However decisively original nor free from variation. possible. he often approaches the Stoics and even the Stoic materialism. he opposes Epicureanism in his ethics. In his theology he adheres still more closely to the .83] CICERO. 285 is convinced that correct conceptions on these points have been implanted in us by naturej_that they can be immediately derived from our own consciousness and confirmed by universal agreement. Aug. he follows his lead in ethics Civ. he is serious in maintaining the existence and providence of God . (ap. yet in the interest of the community he wishes to retain while removing all superstition as far as it. but. ).). VARRO. the immortality of the soul and the freedom of the will yet he does not venture to pronounce decisively on the nature of Grod and our spirit and if in . he cannot always withdraw himself from the He stands in no intimate relation to the national religion as such. like him. ( Post. Closely connected with Cicero is his friend M. . xix.C. general he places himself on the side of the Platonic spiritual ism. was far more of a scholar than a philosopher. 1-3). Dei. influence of the Stoic materialism. whom he has to represent in Cicero Acad. A disciple of Antiochus. which he considers the most im portant part of philosophy. Terentius Varro (116-27 B. he cannot accept the narrow. In theology. however. and while he and the delights himself with the sublimity of the Stoic principles. in psychology.

255). who about Cornelius So far as Celsus. The Stoic School. especially to Pansetius. was retained B. hand. Crassitius. we find them to be moral philo expressly represent the Stoic principles. but they owe the impression which they made rather to the weight of their own personality than to any sophers who eminent scientific qualifications.286 ECLECTICISM. The mode last century with the exception of the Epicureans. He based the abstinence from animal food. Deity and worshipping under the gods of polytheism the powers of this soul which On the other operate in various p^rts of the world. He even publicly disapproved of important parts of the common religion. which his master had recommended on general grounds. on the If the Sextians doctrine of the migration of souls.C. influenced to some degree by 84. he adopts the division of a triple theology (p. have been explained the soul as incorporeal.D. after whom it soon became extinct. and the sharp polemic against the mythology of the poets.D. ber of this school was Sotion of Alexandria.C. they must Plato. An offshoot from the Stoa meets us in the school which was founded about 40 B. 18-20 A. was the teacher of Seneca. a Eoman of good family. Sextius. [ 83 \ Stoics. and subsequently conducted by A mem his son. by Q. we know these men. and L. The First Centuries A. Fabianus Papirius. in describing the as the soul of the universe. In Sotion we find Pythagorean elements in combination with Stoic. of thought which had prevailed in the among the majority of philosophers. .

Musonius Eufus. But more and more there was connected with it a pre ference for those theological speculations. Annseus Cornutus of Leptis (from whom we have a treatise on the gods). Bat that the same importance was no longer attached to their contrasts as before. and M. Euphrates (celebrated by his disciple Pliny the younger).84] LATER STOICS. the author of an astronomical handbook. L. Cleomedes. for each).).D. 118 A. and more sophy upon which men would most easily agree. as it seems. the tutor of Nero. is shown directly in the com bination which we frequently in the wide-spread in especially clination to return to the practical results of philo of various doctrines meet with. the following may be men Heracleitus. Chseremon. the nephew of Seneca (39-65 A. Attains. and his dis ciple Epictetus (see infra) . which are in existence. an Egyptian priest.D. and who was apparently a contemporary of Augustus . The separation of the schools not only continued ceived an official . the author of the Homeric still Allegories. Annreus Lucanus. though differing in their scientific views. the teacher of Seneca . 287 during the centuries immediately succeeding*. A. Seneca (see infra) and his con temporaries. . under Hadrian or .) established endowed chairs at Athens for the four leading schools (two. it study of Aristotelian was confirmed by the vigorous and Platonic writings. which finally ended in Neo-Platonism. Of the numerous Stoics of imperial times whose names are known : tioned here to us. and re recognition when Marcus Aurelius (176 A. Persius Flaccus. who took poison when he had reached a great age.D.

and for a long time his adviser. till he put himself to death at the emperor s command. he takes an especial delight in bring ing forward the ethical traits of the Stoic idea of God.D. whose principles and rules of life he repeats. Epictetus. Stoic. is acquainted with the Stoic logic. Comutus.288 ECLECTICISM. while Heracleitus. so far as we know. with Burrhus. 65 A. Cleomedes merely continued the tradition of their school. Seneca is too deeply penetrated with the weakness and sinfulness of men. Annaeus Seneca (born at Corduba soon after the beginning of our era. and Marcus exhibit re markable qualities. and pantheism. He his the sublimity the Physics. place. In anthropo human logy also he gives attention to the kinship of the and the life after death. only Seneca. Yet spirit with God. Musonius.) did not oppose the doctrine of his school in any important Yet if we compare his philosophy with the old point. first He In the spirit breathes through it. . the tutor of Nero. L. his moral teaching is not exactly coincident with the old Stoic. but in this department it is only such theological or anthropological determinations as can be realised in practice which have a deeper interest Without contradicting the Stoic materialism for him. in his lively descriptions of which . and in Naturales Qucestiones he adopts the meteorology of Posidonius. [ 84 and the Emperor Marcus Aurelius But among these. and Antoninus Pius Antoninus. on which rests the belief in providence. but has no in himself with of it an altered clination to occupy extols in detail. he confines himself essentially to morals.

in spite of his materialism. In his cosmopolitanism. are more school. him. yet each individual state. the softer traits. and praises death as the beginning of true life in a manner which is more Platonic than Stoic. ^JS/JLOVIKOV). sympathy and compassion. as and the great state of compared with the humanity strongly effect of his logy is the power of sensuality and the passions. The higher the value that he ascribes in the battle between reason and sensuality to the thought that this u . he level of is world or becoming wise inclined to lower his demands to the in man this men. he nevertheless frequently ascribes a greater value to external goods and evils than was permitted to the stricter Stoics. 289 he often strikingly resembles the apostle Paul. For the same reason he distinguishes with Posidonius (and Plato) a rational and two irrational parts in the soul itself (the principale. As he despairs of finding a wise himself. seems to him less worthy of the notice of the wise man than was the case with the older Stoics. to be able to meet moral requirements with the self-con fidence of the original Stoicism. The more painfully that he feels marked than with them. the reflex morals on his anthropology and his theo remarkable. the more do Lastly. strongly accen In many tuating the opposition of body and soul. Earnestly as he demands that by moral ourselves independent of all his praises of this inde labour we should make externals. If he lays decisive weight on the natural connection of men in the manner of his world.s 4] SENECA. passages he expresses a yearning for freedom from the we find bonds of the body. and zealous as are pendence.

is [ 84 reason the divine element in man. then. only in the sanctuary of the breast. 254). tific . who also. attacks of my the most relentless manner the improprieties thology and the superstition of the existing worship (p. Numerous fragments remain Pollio. of his which were preserved by According to : Musonius. as the operative power. virtue is the only object of philosophy men the philosopher is the physician are moral invalids who is to heal them. Musonius Eufus of Volsinii occupied himself even more distinctly with morals a Stoic who enjoyed great at Kome under Nero respect as a teacher of philosophy and the lectures. and nothing else. to which we must surrender In the application of these to Stoic sim- ourselves unconditionally. He ought to show us what is in our power and what is not. the disposi practice and education than of teaching . in worthy representative of Eoman Stoicism. from matter. its law the will of the deity. as a temples. On this alone. is expressly stated by Seneca.290 ECLECTICISM. tion to it is born in us and can easily be developed into conviction conviction. principles to life is piire. Virtue is far more a matter of . the more distinctly the inert Deity also. rest our virtue and happiness . But the application of our notions is in our power. not by not in sacrifices. and in we meet with a moral teaching which some points inclining . everything else is something indifferent. Flavii. the chief matter is Hence the philosopher the application of this requires few scien propositions. That the Deity receives his true worship only must he distinguish the through purity of life and knowledge of God.

he says with Musonius. in 94 A. they do not seem to But Musonius was have contained anything new in regard to science. opposes almost in a dualistic manner to the body. Here he was attended by Flavius Arrianus. like His moral teaching can dispense the more easily with a great systematic apparatus. he. in the rationality of the universe and its course . first as a slave. in the kin ship of the divine and of his human spirit. according to Epictetus. though he does not maintain its personal continuance after death. our happiness. powerful as the effect of the lectures of upon his audience. is in our power. but even in physics there are but few points which he re little system as the basis for Such are the quires to establish his moral rules. rests On this alone. as he believes with Musonius that the general principles of morality are implanted in us by nature. yet he not only ascribes value to dialectical investigations. If in general he presupposes the Stoic this. 291 plicity. Seneca.D. he sees the object of philosophy simply in education to virtue.84] MUSONIUS. in spite materialism. in healing moral vices.. Only one thing. Like his teacher. belief in the Deity and his care for men. then as a freedman. EPICTETUS. who lived at Rome (partly under Nero). and gentle even to offenders. The pupil of Musonius was Epictetus of Hierapolis. and went to Nicopolis in Epirus when Domitian expelled all the philosophers from Rome. humane. who drew up a sketch of the contents of his lectures. everything else he treats as so u 2 . which spirit. our will the use of our notions.

. The noble Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (born 121 A. but also the most and he comprehensive and unlimited philanthropy . belief in the divine providence. D. If in this respect he approaches Cynicism. associated in the government 138. and The in absorption in his own self-consciousness. and the decay of the individual. earnest preacher of morality full of pious enthusiasm than a systematic philosopher. he is rather an The philosopher . On the other hand. establishes this more character. is a servant and mes and though he takes up a free senger of the Deity position towards the national religion. teaches him to desire nothing external as a good and fear nothing as an evil.292 ECLECTICISM. died 180). in his disinclination to all theoretic inquiries. particularly by reference to the and the equal relation in which all men stand Deity In general his philosophy has a religious to him. Insight into the change of all things. he finds the it . in his religious view of things. agrees with Epicurus. whose admirer he was. in his general view of Stoicism. Caesar 161. between what is [ 84 indifferent that the distinction to be desired and rejected has scarcely any importance for him. but also in extraordinary revelations. inclines him to be content with all that the order of nature brings with and that the gods ordain. is whose regard for men shown not only in the whole direction of the world. In his conviction of the divine origin and nature of the human spirit. he agrees with it entirely in his views of marriage and civic life. he inculcates not merely an unconditional surrender to the course of the world. and depicts the true philosopher as a Cynic.

is more strongly marked in Aurelius. and says of (lod that he beholds the spirits free from their cor poreal veils. which arose from his position.84] MARCUS AURELIUS. If he allows the soul to return to the Deity some time after death. 289). which was noticeable in Posidonius and Seneca (pp. or Pnemna. Here we see Stoic materialism about to pass into Platonic dualism. The appearance more that the scientific elements of the Stoic philosophy were thrown into the background as compared with practical requirements. In the recognition of the sameness of human nature in all men he finds the impulse to the most boundless and unselfish What distinguishes Marcus philanthropy. but more especially the fact that the reflex action of ethical dualism on anthropology and meta physics. Aurelius from Epictetus is not only the difference in his view of political activity. not merely from the body. The Later Cynics. yet he is rather a Platonist than an Old-Stoic when he distinguishes the as the active spirit (vovs) or the rjyspoviKdv and divine principle. The more melan choly the moral and political conditions which followed . 279. the nearer did it approach to the Cynicism from which it arose. but also from the soul. inasmuch as his reason is in direct contact with their effluences. that he shall worship the spirit in his 293 demand own heart only and seek his happiness from him. as a We must regard more one-sided form of this Stoic moral philosophy the Cynicism which makes its soon after the beginning of our era. 85.

were those who came after. who publicly burnt himself in 165 in Olympia. Sytiib.. Athens about 1 60 A. and it life. in Among : . places the date of their origin with great stnlogr. though remark disciple Theagenes. ad Epi- Grcec. . 12 f. and his But this school. Hardly any of these later Cynics struck out new thoughts. the more necessary did it appear to meet the corruption and distress of the time in the strange but yet effectual manner order to of the ancient Cynics. has only an indirect importance for the history of science. as the expression of widespread views. en- Marcks. nearly one hundred years old. . who died. for often served as a pretext for a vagabond. probability in the time of Augustus. Varro in his Menip- pean Satires had already conjured up their shades in tell the truth to his contemporaries in the l The letters of Diogenes appear coarsest language. intended to support a real renewal of the Cynic school. and even Peregrinus in spite of his eccentricities. express the moral principles which through the Stoics had long become common property. dirty immoral conduct. and a gratification of vanity by ostentatious display intended to excite attention. Demetrius. able in the history of culture. Cynicism Even in the best of its repre was not free from many excesses. later called Proteus.D. Demonax. Orit.294 ECLECTICISM. [ 85 the last century of the Roman Eepublic. under Hadrian inonax. Peregrinus. who greatly extols Demetrius among of his time. it. that we can first definitely prove the Cynics But it is in Seneca. an 1 Ecleetic-Socratic in his philosophy. sentatives. the most prominent De(Enomaus of Gadara.

one of the most distinguished Peripatetics. We have only fragments of its history in this period. and in &amp. It is for the very reason that we have here to deal with a mode of life rather than little scientific views that this later Cynicism is so influenced by the change of philosophical sys tems. The most memorable among the adherents with whose names we are acquainted are the following about 50 : A. under Hadrian. sixth. an excellent mathematician .lt. about 200. about 180. about 150-180. Alexander of ^Egse. QEnomaus. affectionate. in the fragments of his treatise makes against the jugglers (yoTJrwv a severe attack on the oracles.85J LATER CYNICS. a teacher of Nero .j&amp. Sotion. Alexander of Aphrodisias. The Peripatetic School in the Christian Period. 86. Herminus . and about the same time. 295 joyed general respect owing to his gentle.Platonic direction which had been struck out by Andronicus. school The Peripatetic was inclined towards a in the general amalgamation with the Neo.gt.wpd\ con will nection therewith defends against the Stoics. Aristocles of Messene and Sosigenes. and perhaps Achaecus also. the freedom of the But none of these men are known by any scientific service. Aspasius and Adrastus. apparently. Outliving all the schools except the Neoit continued into the fifth century and could count adherents even in the beginning of the Platonists. and humane character. seems to have consisted The activity of these almost exclusively in men the .D.

and that general concepts exist as such in our minds only. did not entirely exclude views which were originally strange to their viation school. and explaining soul. But well stotle s doctrine not only follows Aristotle in regarding the individual being as something substan tial. What is occasionally remarked of them rarely shows any considerable de from the views of Aristotle. yet as the soul of the world. in itself (fyva-si). But that the Peripatetics. even in this later period. after the Stoic manner. and that it became an individual human it found an organism adapted to receive he treated the Deity. than the universal. He that the individual was earlier. by separating the part active vovs from the spirit human soul. which was also the view taken spirit wherever by the Peripatetics. is shown by the example of Aristocles. [ 86 exposition of the Aristotelian writings and the defence of the Aristotelian doctrine. c. in mankind he brings the higher things. and operated in it. the famous Com Athenagoras 6 as he was acquainted with Ari and successfully as he defended it. according to his contemporary This approximation to ( Supplic. the Stoic pantheism w^as not shared by the disciple of Aristocles. but he also adds thereby differing from Aristotle of its determinations. If this distinguished Peripatetic assumed that the divine spirit (yovs) inhabited the entire corporeal world. it. their real object being individual Moreover. 5).296 ECLECTICISM. Alexander of Aphrodisias. life it by the divine working upon the Thus (a men only bring a capacity for thought into . he deviates in important points from too naturalistic a view mentator. of the soul nearer to the lower.

86J PERIPATETICS IN THE CHRISTIAN ERA.D. . under the * only in the progress of described. Finally. they were in part merely exponents of Aristotle and in part Eclectics.D. . After Alexander we do not know of any important teacher of the Peripatetic philosophy as such the chief seat of Aristotelian studies.Platonic school. the well-known philo sopher and biographer. who. operation becomes In connection with this theory he absolutely denies^ like Aristotle. is the Neo. The Platonists of the First Century A. Gaius. like .D. he refers providence entirely to nature acquired votis (&amp. Galen in Nigrinus. the well-known Atticus. even before the end of the third : century. Theo of Smyrna. and his contemporaries Maximus of Tyre. power which spreads from the upper and from this mode of activity he excludes any regard for the good of man. The most remarkable members in the first two centuries of our era are : Ammonius. Cronius. who taught under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius . is 297 life potential vovs\ and it that this. who taught in Athens about 60-70 A. an Egyptian. the immortality of the soul. Smyrna about 152. who was attended by . Albinus.f)v(7i$) or to the spheres to the lower. and Apuleius of Madaura Numenius. Calvisius Taurus (a pupil of Plutarch). his pupil Plutarch of Chaeronea. The chief support of Eclecticism continued to be the Platonic school. the pupil of Gaius.lt. 87. and even if in dividuals like Thernistius ( 101) preferred to be called Peripatetics rather than Platonists. whose life appears to fall approximately between 48 and 125 A.

followed the pattern of the Peripatetics in devot attention to the writings of their founder ing special (cf. Celsus. Stud. belongs to Albinus. imus. the Part of these Platonists at any rate pupil of Atticus. [ 87 and no doubt Severus opponent of Christianity. also. Stoics. Albinus is also evidence for the Eclecticism of the school. Thus Taurus not only wrote against the but also on the difference of the Platonic and . Aristotelian doctrines and Atticus was a passionate opponent of Aristotle. Maxgorean speculations which meet Numenius. This aversion must have been supported by the circumstance that even the Academicians after Plutarch. Celsus. About to the reign of Marcus Aurelius. and The majority his one-sided practical conception of philosophy. and Stoic theories. of the Academicians continued to follow the eclectic direction given by Antiochus. would not hear of the displacing of the genuine Platonism by foreign elements. whose sketch of the Platonic doctrine l presents a marvellous mixture of Albinus Platonic. of the world in time. . Peripatetic. yet he approached the Stoics in his assertions about the sufficiency of virtue. Here we meet followed his teacher Gaius. 14). Besides those mentioned. p. that it lenist. and others ( 92). Apuleius. H. Yet the first denied the origin and if the second contradicted Aristotle in this as in other respects.298 ECLECTICISM. belongs the time of this emperor lived also Harpocration. and no doubt earlier also. In the same path 1 Preserved for us in a revised excerpt under the name of AlciFreudenthal has shown nous. But this was accompanied more and more by those Neo-Pythaus in Plutarch. Hel3.

Lucian.87] PLATONISTS OF THE FIRST CENTURY. It adheres chiefly to Stoic doctrines and principles. does not go beyond a popular morality which. the trustworthiness of which Galen .).D. though not altogether with him. to shall allow the term most surnamed Chrysostom. and of Scepticism. Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 A. put on the cynic garb after his banishment but his philosophy We Galen. and attacks the Cynics especially satire. Dio. to which he is the more inclined to confine himself as he considers theoretic questions to be insoluble. What he calls philosophy is a collec tion of moral precepts. of which the greater part are lost.lt. Lucian. who was banished from Rome by Domitian and protected by Trajan. a rhetorician Dio his fruitful career as a writer coincides approximately with the second half of the second century is the opponent of all with his school philosophy. treatises to the subject. &amp. and making satisfied An opponent of Epicurus Aristotle his favourite. and thus the mode of thought in the school cannot be doubted. the Dio. like Lucian of Samosata. 299 Severus so far as preponderance of this we know him. and Galen. members Dio. but all three wished to pass for philosophers. readily Bithynian rhetorician. also. occupied himself far more He devoted numerous seriously with philosophy. and Galen did not consider themselves of any special school. he combines with the Peripatetic doctrine much that is Stoic and something that is Platonic. . 88. Besides the senses. is without scientific character. the famous physician. though in its contents meritorious.

and it was inevitable that it should again take the form of a sceptical theory. Such much importance for life and His Ethics. the victory was not final. 89. though his expressions are not always consistent. The pupil of Heracleides was . not of the Academi cians. this mistrust of all dogmatic convictions continued to be its presupposition. When the Pyrrhonists became extinct in the third century. The adaptation of means to ends in the world is strongly maintained. a second source of knowledge is recognised iu the truths which are immediately certain to the intelligence. Yet this later scepticism was long in attaining the influence and exteot which has been enjoyed by the Scepticism of the Academy. As Eclecticism had arisen out of the fact that the attacks of the Sceptics had destroyed confidence in philosophical systems. itself This last school of Greek Sceptics (which called an aycorytf not a afipsa-is) wished to be considered a descendant of the Pyrrhonists. of Antiochus succeeded in Though the Eclecticism driving Scepticism from the Academy. speculations are not of action. its chief abode. ^Enesidemus and his School. con tain only older theories borrowed from various schools. by Ptolemseus of Cyrene . as we are told. his pupils were Sarpedon and Heracleides.300 ECLECTICISM. THE LATER SCEPTICS. II. the school was revived. also so far as we know them. but Galen ascribes little value to deeper speculative questions. [ 88 undertakes to defend.

this principle had to be only generalised to end in universal scepticism. and equally good grounds can be brought forward against every assumption. Prsep. to whom. who taught in Alexandria. their the school of the empiric less a sharer in it.89] ^NESIDEMUS. however.lt. the L. 18. we ought not to of things. 212. is regarded as the youthful friend of is &amp. 110 complete. Cicero who. to physicians was also doubt which several of the leaders of the new Pyrrhonists belonged. But as these new Pyrrhonists laboured in vain to point out any serious difference between their doctrine and that of the New Academy. What was the relation of Ptolemseus and Sarpedon to the or whether they set forth on the same general terms as ^Enesitheory demus. 31. we must him half ^nesidemus agrees in all that is essential with As we can know nothing of the real nature Pyrrho. and held the inquiry into the causes of sickness to be aimless. &amp. Eus.lt. Ev. . the influence of the latter on JEriesidemus and his successors is undeniable. 301 sidemus. Aristocles (cf. xiv. If the list of the sceptical diadochi in Diog. denies the existence carry of a Pyrrhonic school in his time a century back. Cod. If.22) calls ^Enesidemus the reviver of the Pyrrhonian Scepti cism. ^Enesidemus can hardly have come forward before the beginning of the Christian era. ix. 169. a native of Cnossus. p. according to Photius. Besides the Academic and Pyrrhonian doctrine Academy we do not know. If this school desired to limit itself to the empiric knowledge of the operation of cures. Tubero. on the other hand. his Pyrrhonic speeches are dedicated.

this is beyond doubt a mistake. His main grounds of proof are collected on the ten Pyrrhonean tropes. opinions and views in his Tlvppwvsiot. perceptions. Saturninus Sextus only is further known. Sextus. [ 89 maintain anything. we must partly follow custom and partly our own and needs. So far a? we are compelled to act. \6yoi. or proceed from presuppositions which are not proved. Antiochus. the repose of spirit (arapa^ia). and the impossibility demonstration which does not move in a circle. which all unite in the aim of setting forth the rela of things. which arose from the fact that the statements of ^Enesidemus about Heracleitus were confounded with his own point of view. Theodas. Of the eight successors of ^Enesidemus in the leader ship of the school whose names have come down to us Zeuxippus. tivity of all our presentations this but carry out thought almost exclusively in regard to sensuous If Sextus Empiricus and Tertullian. other matters.302 ECLECTICISM. On the other hand. the of a relativity of perceptions . not even our own experience. apparently on the same authority. we hear that Agrippa re duced the ten tropes of ^Enesidemus to five we do not know when and these five in turn are reducible to three chief points: the contradiction of opinions. Herodotus. Menodotus. These principles ^Enesidemus feelings sought to establish by a detailed criticism of prevailing in which. By this means we acquire the true pleasure. mention that ^Enesidemus wished his scepticism merely to serve as a preparation for the Heracleitean physics. Zeuxis. . he controverts at length the among conclusion of the causes of things.

89] SIMPLICIUS. the Hypotyposes. so that he falls in We possess thr^e treatises by Simplicius. These treatises are the Pyrrhonic against vii. for they must first get their : knowledge from themselves. the formal possibility of knowledge. i. &c. 303 Others went yet further in simplification.D. more especially from Carneades (Clitomachus). Hence his discussions can be considered as a combination of all that was usually brought forward in his school to defend In his discussions on the criterion. vii. the period about 180-210 A. 301). How much scepticism from this time forth was concerned with an exhaustive contradiction of dogmatism of Sextus. no doubt that Sextus borrowed by far the greatest part of the materials of his work partly from older members of his school.). dogmatic and that against the ^aOr^ara^ grammar.-vi. and partly after their pattern from the Academicians. was Empiricus. and appears to have been a as younger contemporary of Galen. he controverts.-xi.lt. their point of view. There is mathematics (&amp. who known as is shown by the writings an empiric physician (p. as is proved by the contradiction of opinions. truth. of which the second and third are usually comprehended under the unsuitable title Adversus Mathematicos. Math. The latest name mentioned in his main work ( Math. demonstration.-xi. Adv. Math. the tractate philosophers ( Adv..) rhetoric. and the marks of proof. for reasons of different value. nor from others.) is that of ^Enesidemus. He attacks the concept of the cause in . and were contented with two tropes men could not know any thing from themselves. often with wearisome discursiveness and.

The scepticism of ^Enesidemus spread but little in beyond the limits of his school. that owing to the balance of the pros and cons (the lo-ocrOsvsia rwv and renounce all \oycov). repeating that of the good and happiness in order to show that know from ledge is unattainable on this ground. the ethical assumptions. He repeats Carneades criticism of the Stoic theology. Finally. acquire. our natural impulses. but it is just the origin of this concept which. this mode of has a more general importance. not only by allowing ourselves to be led in our actions. whose But placed approximately in 80-150 A. but perceptions. law . also by experience. like his predecessors. and custom.D.304 ECLECTICISM. is not to prevent us from This. which it is the aim to however. and by this means only can we attain to of all philosophy repose and happiness. and puts us T form certain regulations for life. Experience instructs us in the in a position to ordinary course of things. these and other considerations he draws the conclusions which had long been acknowledged. the last successor which (Saturninus) must have belonged to the first The only other the third century. criticises He cause. applying it to meet the notions He also finds the material of the operative cause. we must forego all decision knowledge. [ 89 the question of every possible application . inconceivable in every respect. he leaves out of sight. or bodies. as an indication of scientific feeling. and we can life may be thought not fail to recognise how much it aided from the . quarter of his opinions that we can prove is the sharer in rhetorician and historian Favorinus of Arelate.

received through that contact with Oriental views. of which Alexandria was the centre. In a period in which much greater weight was laid on the practical effect of philosophy than on scientific knowledge as such in which a deep mistrust of man s capacity of knowledge widely prevailed. the ethical monotheism of which to offered far more points of contact Hellenic philosophy than the mythology of the national religions. According to all appearance it was at Alexandria that the speculation first came forward. and a direct convic tion of it. which. The last motive in this speculation was the yearning after a higher revelation of the truth . as intermediaries between which men took refuge in demons and divine x . its metaphysical presupposition was an opposition of God and the world. after centuries of slow development. III. The main part on the Oriental side was played by Judaism. of spirit and matter. THE PRECURSORS OF XEO-PLATONISM.89] &NESIDEMUS AND HIS SCHOOL. 90. when found. Introduction. on the basis of practical necessity. finally ended in Neo-Platonism. 305 beginning in developing the eclecticism of the time into Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic speculation. even at the cost of scientific consistency in such a period only a slight impulse was needed in order to lead the spirit in its search for truth beyond the limits of natural knowledge to a supposed higher foun This impulse Greek thought appears to have tain. and there was a general inclination to accept truth.

(about 70 B. of such supposed old In the later period a mass Pythagorean. the first century B. 6. but really Neo- Pythagorean treatises. development took place partly on Greek and partly on Judaic-Hellenistic soil. by . or amalgamated with the Platonic. is mentioned (about ninety. I. and that the Pyth other evi agorean mysteries spread widely is proved by and more especially by the fragments of the poets dence. THE PURELY GREEK SCHOOLS. 32) that its Deity. 91. efforts The is demonstrable evidence for these to : Pythagorean treatises in the interpolated the semi-Stoic exposition of the be found Pythagorean doctrines. which led partly to asceticism and partly to the demand for a direct intuition of the It has already been observed (p. Pythagoreanism still continued as a form of religious life. consequence was a combination of ethics with religion. 14).306 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. ii. which was known to Varro. later made to give a new life to the now extended and enriched by earliest doctrines. of which Alexander Polyhistor an account in Diog.. and the preambles to the laws of Zaleucus and Charondas quoted by Cicero ( Legg.) gives us the so-called Lucanus Ocellus on the the treatise of universe. of the middle comedy. 24 f.. Its practical [ 90 power. The Nee-Pythagoreans.C. that the attempt was It was about the beginning of and apparently at Alexandria. viii. Pythagorean science. Though the Pythagorean philosophy as such be came extinct in the course of the fourth century.C.

and many fragments of them have come down to us.). something borrowed from the This philosophy thus bears Peripatetics and Stoics. the learned F. Under Hadrian Nicomachus of Gerasa composed the work of which we possess parts. first is regarded as the form. which were more important in this school. Both were writers in their cause. Vatinius. 310).D. who was joined by P. s predilection In the second half of the writings.C. Pythagorean century A.0lj THE NEO-PYTHAGOREANS. or at any rate with the reputation. and within the find common tendency we Unity and quality are declared to be the final bases. among which those of Archytas are pre-eminent in number and importance. The first adherent of the Neo -Pythagorean school whose name we know is the friend of Cicero. we find connected with the old Pythagorean still views and the Platonic intuitions. of a wizard. the second as the matter. definite traces of their existence and their doctrines are found the time of Augustus in Arius up to and Eudorus Didymus for first and in King Juba II. The connection with the school of the Sextii (p. and Philostratus belonged to the first third of the third century (p. we Moderatus of Grades and Apollonius of Tyana. and Apollonius find traversed the Roman world in the part. Nigidius Figulus (died 45 B. 286) also stood in new Pythagoreans . The (Svas aopLcrros) many deviations in details. like that of the contemporary Academicians. 307 more than fifty authors). an eclectic character. In the doctrines by which these uew Pythagoreans sought to establish the moral and religious principles of their sect. Numenius (92) appears to have lived under the Antonines. x 2 .

and place it so far above all finite. after . with which the ideas are now considered exactly identical. But the importance of the separate numbers was a matter of much fanciful speculation in the school in which the ordinary mathe matics were eagerly studied. or the Deity. The latter is a form of doctrine which unites the Stoic monism with the Platonic-Aristotelian dualism. and follow the Stoics in describing this soul as warmth.308 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLA TONISM . and the Deity was partly described to be as the But while a part moving cause which brought form and matter together. and thus prepares the way for Neo-Platonism. of the Deity. One section regard the Deity as higher that than the reason. not as the ideas as Plato had placed it. others dis tinguished the two. and partly as the One. or pneuma. wilich then produced derived unity and duality. others describe Grod the soul which permeates the whole body of the world. The same contrast of is God and the is repeated in the assertions about the relation world. but only as the which they were fashioned. [91 of the Pythagoreans explained unity the operative cause. Timaeus adopted the Platonic construction of the . that it cannot enter into direct contact as with anything that is corporeal . and the so-called Locrian soul. as in the Platonic Timaeus. The Platonic descriptions of matter were taken literally the world-soul was placed between matter and the original forms. They regarded the ideas or numbers as thoughts Hence they wished them to be regarded substance of things. The formal principle was thought to comprehend all numbers. Yet even here the newPythagoreans deviated from the old as well as from PJato.

The anthropology of the school is that Pythagorean Alexander (p. we . With Plato and the old Pythagoreans magnitudes of space are derived from the numbers. and above all. a tenet which was universally maintained in the they also chiefly follow Aristotle in their assertions about the contrast . also meet. . alone places himself on the side of Stoic material 306) ism. From Aristotle they borrowed the doctrine of the eternity of the world and the human race. and the changeability of the other. on the other hand. which are not in jured by the evil in it. in the pseudo-Archytean treatise * On the Universe. Pythagoreans. they regard the stars as visible deities. and the elements from the regular bodies but. with the Aristotelian doctrine of the elements. A proof of the logical activity of the school can be found.91] THE NEO-PYTHAGOREANS. 309 Besides metaphysics every other part of philosophy was treated in the Neo-Pythagorean writings. They extol the beauty and perfection of the world. among other works. is repeated but so far as we know. in Ocellus. and other mathematical symbols are used the Platonic doctrine of the parts of the soul. school from the time of Ocellus of the heavenly and earthly worlds. strangely thrown into the background among the Neoenough. the migration of the soul is. primarily follow Plato In their physics the Neo-Pythagoreans and the Stoics. while the belief in demons plays an . The soul is regarded with Xenocrates as a number in this matter the moving for it its : itself. of Plato . the unchangeableness of the one. pre-existence and immortality. which treats the doctrine of the Categories mainly after the Aristotelian pattern. but with many deviations.

to which belong the abstinences common in the Pythagorean mysteries. In its full extent this asceticism comprises abstinence from flesh and wine. and a purity of life required. and which we find in the notices of the biographies of Pytha goras written by Apollonius. and Mcomachus. . with proportionately few additions from the Stoics. we find a more refined idea of Grod. Here philosophy appears as the true re ligion. a higher value is ascribed to prophecy. is which in developed more strongly in their de set forth the ideal of Neo-Pythagorean philosophy Pythagoras and Apollonius of Tyana. The peculiarity of the Neo-Pythagorean still more school is more definitely marked in their religious the one hand. and from . mankind. Nicomachus even brings the demons into connection with the angels of the Jews.PLATONISM.). and in the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus (written about 220 A. the philosopher as a The highest mission and sensuality. of prophet and servant of God.310 PRECURSORS OF NEO. This element scriptions. on the other hand. the national doctrines. Moderatus. On worship is presupposed. and in reference to the highest god the demand for a purely spiritual worship on the other. existing fragments of the numerous ethical and political writings of the school present only colourless repetitions of Platonic and The of Peripatetic determinations. the Deity and a virtuous life devoted to the good of mankind. [ 91 important part among them. asceticism is an essential part of it. the only means for liberating the eoul from the entanglements of the body is purity of life and true worship of the If this view is accompanied by noble ideas of gods. yet.D.

from whom the borrowed the most impor Pythagoreans had originally Eudorus (p. The Pythag arising Platonists. by them they occur more definitely 297).91] TILE . Plutarch accepts Plato s teaching almost entirely in the sense of the Neo. in his polemics against their principles. community other arrangements ascribed by the goods and all the The most ancient legend to the old Pythagoreans. and animal offerings. 311 marriage the linen dress of the priests the forbidding of all oaths. who was the most influential repre . which was first announced new Pythagoreans. and even doubts the possibility on the contrary. and to spite of all whom the Epicurean school only is absolutely abhorrent. 282) is seen of their doctrines.D. and in some details even of the Stoic. philosophy. everything which religious life. in the appearance of the The tendency of thought. A Platonist. proofs of which abound in the dering of Pythagoras and Apollonius.Pythagoreans who preceded him. is He of importance for the moral opposed the Stoic materialism and and the Epicurean atheism the (aOetTrjs) no less than . who is nevertheless open to the influence of the Peripatetic. and within the of societies of ascetics and philosophers. sentative in the first century A. He ascribes but little value to theoretic questions as of their solution. obvious reward of this piety consists in the power of bor working miracles. . is his interest in The more lively. and in the prophetic knowledge on omniscience. afterwards found an echo among the Platonists. tant part to be influenced in Plutarch (p. biographies 92. such. NEO-PYTHAGOREANS.

which. he attributes the highest value to this belief. are . Deviating from the majority of the Neo- Pythagoreans. To these he transfers everything which he does not venture to ascribe directly to the Deity. The divine operation in the world he regards less under the form of the Platonic doctrine as of ideas and the Pythagorean speculation on numbers than under the ordinary belief in providence. Contro verting Epicurus. first filled yet continues to exercise an influence as the final source of all evil. and with reason and order at the formation of the world. freedom of the will is and immortality. but in the evil world-soul. he conceives the creation of the world an act in time. But in order to explain the nature of the world of indispensable. was changed into the divine soul of the world. which without properties. assumes five elements. and he has much that is That he not only superstitious to say about them. but also a quintette of worlds. Certain Aristotelian theories were mingled with the Platonic anthropology . being connected with matter from the beginning. is phenomena he finds a second principle This he does not seek in matter. [92 national superstition with a pure view of the Deity corre sponding to Plato s. is a trait peculiar to him. But the higher that he has elevated the Deity above all that is finite the more important are the demons as the intermediaries in its operation on the world. including the migration of souls. and the fatalism of the Stoics.312 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLA TONISM. What Plato stated in mythical language about a change of the condition of the world accepted by him in so dogmatic a manner that he here approaches the Stoic teaching which he elsewhere controverts.

yet his doctrine no other means sufficed. the various relations of The most is characteristic mark of the Plutarchian ethics their close connection with religion. enabled him to . His general attitude to the national religion is the same. owing to the nature of the times. The gods different names of the different nations are. and thus his theory possible for him to justify the belief of his in prophecy in the manner which had people long makes it been usual among the Stoics and Neo-Pythagoreans. lively as are his descriptions of the warmth perverseness and corruptions of superstition. influence of Stoic cosmopolitanism. as he says. and applied to life in a pure. s Pure as Plu tarch idea of Grod is. usages might be. which Plutarch could enucleate from them with all the traditional caprice of allegorical exposition. Shocking and disgust ing as of many religious if demons. and a limitation of political interests. and the powers which serve The contents of the myths form philosophical truths. Peripatetic ethics were defended by Plutarch against the different theories of the Stoics and Epicureans. At the same time he takes into consideration the natural conditions and helps for these revelations. These we receive the more clearly in proportion as we are freed by enthu siasm from any activity on our own part. he cannot abandon the belief that the Deity comes to our assistance by direct revelations. and moder In this it is natural that we should find an ate way.92] PLUTARCH. The Platonic and 313 distinctly maintained. yet in the of his religious feelings and the small confi dence which he reposes in man s power of knowledge. noble. only to denote one and the same divine it. nature.

sees in Atticus. he appeals to Magians. The eternity of the world. and hence (like the . mus and Apuleius. and the opposi tion in which he stands to matter. [92 find superficial justification for them. the demons. Celsus. God and matter. he makes the gulf between the two so great that he considers a direct operation of the highest deity on matter as impossible.gt. He makes use of this assumption in order to defend polytheism and the Numenius of Apamea (about 160 national worship. the evil world-soul of Plutarch like his predecessors. in whose eclectic Platonism.D. Along with Plutarch we find among the later 297) two rhetoricians of kindred spirit. whom he holds in high repute (Plato is a M&&amp. to whose protection the world beneath the moon is confided. and Brahmins. meet us in in Albinus . Yet he did not Plato- nists (p. the opposition of God and matter. and even to Moses.extending syncretism.) is still Yet the foundation generally considered to be one. the demons Maxibeside great part as intermediaries in the contrast.314 PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. of his views is formed by Platonism. require the Pythagorean asceticism.er?}s amfci^cov). demons the intermediaries of the divine operation on the world. nearer to the Nee-Pythagoreans. of unity Beginning with the distinction and indefinite duality (p. Smyrna shared in the Neo-Pythagorean doctrine of the original bases play a Theo of and of numbers. He of also appears to have used Philo of Alexandria and the Christian Gnostics. 307). Egyptians. which cannot be direct owing to the sublimity of God. and is A. the assumption that the ideas are the thoughts of the Deity. besides which. with wide.

92] NUMENIUS. raised above both as the author of being and He is the good. Like Plu tarch he supposed that an evil soul was united with From this arose the mortal part of the human matter. Cronius and to the exclusion of all other thoughts. Valentinus).lt. Harpocration. arranged and animated by the Deity. of the Neo-Pythagorean and An Egyptian branch Platonic school is the source from which. allotted to him who applies himself to the primal good. deity is The highest reason. by its guilt. so far as direction as we know. into the body. he itself 315 Gnostic inserts between them the Demiurge. the soul. tended in the same Numenius.u&amp. between vovs depends the soul (more doubtfully which and matter stands the air. related to him as the light to the sun. when it again departs. being at the On the different and inseparable from him.gt. he called a third deity. the world was . if it is in need of other bodies. or The world which he named a second.lt. which is also thought of as a is The vovs willing and thinking being.7ts). becomes indissoul. Here also we find the expression of that which is the leading trait of the the effort to fill up the chasm between the world school and the Deity by intermediate creatures. the majority of the writings arose which have corne down to us under the name of Hermes Trismegistus. as a second deity. no solubly united with the Deity. as a personality. irrational soul. When matter was same time &amp./&amp. and for men the highest good. Insight is a gift of the migration through This gift is only gods. creator of the world. HERMES TRISMEG1STUS. De graded from ar incorporeal life. apparently towards the end of the third century.

The only its means to higher home. 93. the spirit of God. its is it. when the country was first . The more do we recognise as their leading motive the strongly tendency to defend the national and especially the Egyptian religious worship against Christianity. PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. renunciation of the sensuous world yet the ascetic consequences of this point of view are seen in isolated . Even in Palestine. and divine wisdom. in God and the world. The Period before Philo.316 created. in the belief in revelation and prophecy. in the notions about the angels. which here coincides with philosophy. The unalterable course of the world. The Jewish national religion pre sented many important points of contact to monotheism. who were subject to Greek influences. JEWISH GREEK PHILOSOPHY. providence. . the world is regarded as the second god. future return to instances only in the Hermetic writings. which do not altogether agree with secure for the soul piety. and destiny were taught in the Stoic fashion the Platonic anthropology is repeated with many additions. and in It is obvious that this depends upon the uprightness. filled with visible and invisible gods and demons. the vic tory of which is already regarded as almost unavoidable. and consists essentially in the knowledge of God. The dualistic speculation of the Nee-Pythagoreans and Platonists developed among the Jews. and man as the third. in the opposition of this specula tion. II. [ 92 Supported by the divine power. even more vigorously than on purely Greek soil.

93] JEWISH-GREEK PHILOSOPHY. 317 under Egyptian and then under Syrian rule. vii. further developed among the Essenes. that we can only assume that they arose under the influence of the Orphic Pythagorean asceticism. especially among the higher classes. in Philo. after the formation of a Neo-Pythagorean In philosophy. apparently in the de cades following the rebellion of the Maccabees. partly in houses belonging to their order in the towns. the Greek mode of life and thought became so widely spread that Antiochus Epiphanes. They abstained from wine and flesh. They exhibit so important a relationship to the Neo. ix. 2. We find them These were a society of Ascetics which arose. Josephus. their principles were strictness of morale. in his attempt to Hellenise the Jews by force (167 B. .000 members.Pythagoreans. unbounded gentleness. from the bosom of the law-abiding but retiring Chasidseans. the Essenes appear as a society of about 4. with priests and officers of their own and absolute community truth. Even seem to before this date these views have found acceptance (according to Ecclesiast. and subse quently. partly in their own settlements. they adopted many of its doctrines. of goods. 28). and slavery. and Pliny. was expressed in peculiar customs. the first century of our era.). and from the use of ointments they dis approved of the killing of animals and bloody offerings. they did not tolerate With this they combined a purity of life which .C. They practised the most extreme simplicity. could count on a numerous party. a sect who withdrew from public life. who lived together with complete community of goods. They were subject to strict discipline and hierarchical con trol.

prophecy and many of them claimed to possess it. They had their own doctrines and which were kept strictly secret. In the ascribed a special importance to the others did to the belief in demons). believed in a pre-existence of the soul. Greek philo more favourable soil.. ran through the and death corporeal life after worse. refused all [98 They their food which was not prepared according . should indulge in marital they demanded that they with a view to the procreation of intercourse solely children. They had . But in Alexandria. belief in angels (as They elements they worshipped sunlight and the manifestations of the Deity they considered the gift to be the highest reward of piety and of . the great centre where Hellenic civilisation met and crossed. by their daily baths and common rules. . meals. and an in with which they appear to have combined the thought that the opposition of better of male and female. Levitic defilement most punctilious dread of any they wore only white garments a . whole world. while they of their nation to their own adapted the Scriptures They point of view by allegorical interpretation. . &c. to the rules of the order they required celibacy from and even from those of a lower order members.318 PEE CURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. from which they were excluded. they forbade oaths they replaced the national worship. asceticism. How early and how universally the numerous and opulent Jewish the Greek language. population in this city acquired of necessity went with it. and the Greek views which and Oriental sophy found a far is shown by the fact that after a few generations the a Greek translation of their Egyptian Jews required .

On the other hand. but were defended by Valckenaer). does not contain any which we find at a speculation this of philosophical reference to that form of it is later time in Philo. ix. 12. 319 Scriptures. Homer and Hesiod. so far as origin. 14 fif. xiii. . and its imperisha f. 10. 17 f. from the maxims and asserts of his narratives of the Old Testament. which. The first certain proof of the occupation of the Alexandrian Jews with Greek philo sophy is seen in the fragments of a treatise of Aristobulus (about 150 B. because they no longer understood them in the original language. viii. he appeals to a series of verses supposed to be the work of Orpheus and Linus.C. 14. vii. They were without reason suspected by Lobeck and Hody. Of we find definite traces for the first time in the first century B. Evang. the divine wisdom (vii. which shock his advanced thought. and especially Pythagoras and Plato. had used our Old Testament. What he own views. in the pseudo-Solomonian Book of Wisdom. he at tempts by interpretation to remove the anthropo morphisms.) reminds us of the the soul. 22 ff. and in order to procure evidence for this assertion. along with some elements which agree with Essenism such as the assertions on the pre-existence of oppression by the body. This Jewish Peripatetic assured King Ptolemy Philometor that the oldest Greek poets and philosophers. shameless forgeries. however. &c. 19 Platonists and Pythagoreans. which are. We have received them through Eusebius. its bility (viii.) By it its substantiation of prepared the way for .).C. though neither Clemens nor Eusebius detected them. and the assumption of a premundane matter (xi. Pr.93] JEWISH-GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

whom he frequently belong those predecessors mentions when he appeals to the rules of allegorical Philo explanation which they had laid down. a combination of Greek philosophy and Jewish theology. he applies the allegorical explanation of arid can thus discover any Scripture without limits. s [ 9S To the same period doctrine of the Logos. Hence. not only in the original text. Zeno. he presupposes ordinary there is that the Hellenic sages used the Old Testament writings.C. and the scien- . and above all Scriptures he considered to be verbally inspired. and 50 filled A. in truth. Philo s life falls between 30 B. means. Philo of Alexandria.D. highest veneration for Moses.320 PRECURSORS OF XEO-PLATONISM. in which the c occurs along with some Stoic determinations. his system is yet. meaning that he chooses in any passage whatever. He was for himself a true son of his nation and with the its Scriptures. on the other. Parmenides. On the one hand. which. although he desires to be merely an expositor of his views almost entirely in Scripture. and Cleanthes. but But at the same time also in the Greek translation. found in purity and perfection only in the Jewish This conviction he justifies by the revelations. Plato and Pythagoras. Thus he is convinced that in both is but one and the same truth. and puts forward this form. however. 94. But we do not know whether and how this Logos was distinctly divided from the Deity before the time of Philo. Empedocles. of Philo. These he is the pupil and admirer of the Greek philosophers. and quotes some Divine Logos of these explanations.

(rod seems to him more perfect than any perfection. we can only know that he is we can not know what he is only the name of the Existent On (the name of Jehovah) can be applied to him. that in his view no idea and no name can correspond to the Divine majesty.94] PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA. the other hand. he must be thought of as the final cause of all a cease less operation must be ascribed to him. fection can come to the finite. without As Philo says. and approaching too nearly to his only to avoid perfection that no it is be given to him. and inconceivable. fection in created self-evident that for It is things derived from him. parts 821 tific first. power T . . properties of God. after Plato. and was named sometimes after Pythagoras. But this is just the point where arisen. . he has such a high conception of the elevation of God above all that is finite. God must include in himself all being and all perfection for it is from him alone that per good. primarily at Alex andria. and though Stoicism. and all per finite predicate is to . from which his speculation has On the one hand. better than the name and property. . Above all. cross each other. The idea of the Deity forms the starting-point of the system of Philo. sometimes the various tendencies. contributed largely to it. come to a preponderant extent from the But the philosophy which he follows belongs almost entirely to that form of Platonism which was developed in the previous century. especially in Philo. the Platonists and the Jewish ends monotheists this activity can only be used for the best for of the two essential .

and give a clear answer to the question of the personality of these All these powers are for him. the second God of the angels. as the servants. powers. of the Stoic doctrine of the effluences of the Deity which permeate the world. in the Logos. and pursuivants of (rod. [ 91 and goodness. of the universal power and reason prevailing as parts in the world . the organ of powers. properties of the Deity. Philo has recourse to an assumption which was not un known to others in that period (cf. the idea which world. was impossible The Logos is the comprehended in one. as ideas or thoughts of God. These intermediate beings he calls powers and describes them.322 THE PRECURSORS OF NEO-PLATONISM. 315). as souls. mediate beings.?). am bassadors. monise these two modes of exposition. (Ssvrspos Osos. the second expresses his nature even more directly than the first. as the performers To har of his will. the wisdom and reason all ideas. In order to unite this absolute activity of (red in the world with his absolute superiority to the world. between God and the most universal intermediary of God. world-soul and the ideas. in opposition to o Osos). on the one hand. 283. and on the other. but which no one before Plotinus worked out so system He assumed the existence of inter atically as Philo. pp. and demons. angels. The . the viceroy the creation and government of the world. as (Swaps!. As a pattern in defining these more himself not only of the belief in precisely he availed the statements of Plato about the angels and demons. the highest the first-born son of God. but above all. the power which comprises all comprises and ambassador of God. 312. Osos.

By the mediation of the fj. like Plato. and. In order to explain the evils and defects of finite existence. In a it has all the properties which belong to the Stoic Logos (p. this and matter. by any The nature of the world can only be partly under stood from the divine power operating in it.9i] PH1LO. But its per just as uncertain as that of the powers generally . the unsoluble problem. 240).rj the Logos God formed the world out of the chaotic mix ture of matter. when we think of this as divided from the Deity and set free from the traits which are the result of the sonality is Stoic materialism. He also most authorities as a mass occupying sometimes names it space. above the evil which clings to the soul owing to its connection with the body. the soul which clothes itself Logos word. for which can be it is required to make it conceivable that God present with his power and operation in the all its parts. for only so long as the conception of the Logos comes between that of a personal being distinct from God and that of an im personal divine power or property. Philo conthough . only in follows Plato in his more precise definitions of matter. is it adapted to solve. at least superficially. and thus ov with Plato. with the body of the world as with a garment. except that he regards it like principle. Like the Stoics. world and while in his nature he beyond it and is defiled is utterly contact with matter. is THE LOGOS. and some times ovo-la with the Stoics. and this is inevitable. Philo finds. Hence the world had a beginning it has no end. 323 the pattern of the world and the power which creates everything in it. we must presuppose a second all.

the part of physics agoreans. their description of the wise man. their doctrine of virtue and Cynical simplicity. which is seen in its most glorious form in the stars. which are visible gods. from which no one is ever free from his birth as far till his death. the incorporeal life of the purified souls after death. acknowledges trust in himself a citizen of the But God takes the place of Stoic self-confidence. the most important part with him is the sharp contrast between reason and sensuality. God .324 THE PRECURSORS OF PLATONISM. Its perfec tion he defends in the sense of the Stoic theodicy. the source of all the evils under which it By the combination of the soul with the body sighs. He alone can plant alone works all good in us. the migration of those who need purification. the dis tinction of the wise and the proficient. [94 sidered the world as entirely supported by the opera tive power of God. by frequent application of the numerical symbolism of the Pyth all is In his anthropology. the kinship of the human spirit with the divine. like them. requisite of Stoics an apathy. and the freedom of the will. but he does not omit to give expression to the thought that arranged according to numbers. and with them world. Thus is to be freed first as possible . The body is the grave of the soul. he regards virtue only the from sensuality the Philonian ethics he demands with the as a good. the But parts of the soul. to which he ascribes most importance. there is inborn in everyone the inclination to sin. rejects all sensual pleasure he professes . he adhered to the Platonic and Pythagorean tradition of the fall of souls. adopts the passions. an entire extirpa tion of all passions .

This attempt to go beyond conscious upon thought intermediate stages had as yet after Philo. inasmuch as it entangles us in external things and withdraws us from ourselves. . But even in this is only the man who less with action than with knowledge. ETHICS. or more correctly. does good for its on which rests all truly good. as science may attain the highest when we pass beyond all even the Logos and in a con dition of unconsciousness. wisdom. it.PHILO. receive the higher illumination into ourselves. with the inner life of the pious spirit. but even virtue Philo deals far science has only a value for him as a means to piety. to which we approximate lower than that which more and more tact with be. and both are lower than the virtue which arises directly out of a divinely-favoured nature. Thus we see the godhead in its pure unity and allow it to operate us. But even religious perfection has also various stages. Virtue finds its last and highest aim in the Deity only. 305 own sake virtue. virtue in us. or even of ecstasy. In its origin the (ascetic) virtue which rests on practice is is founded on instruction. for not only does the active (political) life thwart it. arises only out of faith. as we come more immediately into con we only Indispensable. been uoknown in Greek Even philosophy. therefore. two centuries elapsed before it was an accepted dogma.

was used to a great extent. the spirit and matter. an effect on its origin. which finally aim and the final The practical substantial union. from an was entirely unknown and in original essence which In this way preparation was made for a definite. but even the Stoic. ended in gradual elevation to this essence. including matter. Both internal and external reasons allow us to suppose that Philo directly or s doctrine also indirectly. elevated above all being and conception. NEO-PLA TONJSM. it proceeds from the opposition of the finite and infinite. motive of this speculation is the same which the Platonists them. If the predecessors of Neo-Platonism had found the importance of philosophy in the fact that it brought us into connection with the Deity. had.326 NEO-PLATONISM. In struction of this system not only the Platonic and were the Aristotelian philosophy. 95. and Pythagoreans had previously kept before Like them. only is this contrast stretched to the . the attempt was totality of finite now made to derive the things. [95 THIKD SECTION. But not most extreme point. Origin. and conducted us to that infinite essence. and Development of Neo-Platonism. for THE views which centuries had and more exclusively prevalent in the schools become more Platonic and Pythagorean developed into a great the con system in the third century of our era. Character.

D. Among his pupils. philologist.9.. who attended Ammonius) did not distinguish the Deity from the vovs. above which it was placed by Plotinus. He was at first a day-labourer. attain. apart from the (divine) . and Nemesius apparently following Hierocles) who ascribe to him the distinctive doctrines are entirely without any of the Plotinic system. though the authors of this speculation desired to be nothing else but true Plato. disciples and expounders of Ammonius Saccas is called the founder of the Neo-Platonic school. accounts of his doctrine. accounts from the fifth only untrustworthy A. 315). to which man ought to forced to the very utmost. The dualistic spiritualism of the Platonic school is here combined with the monism of the Stoics to produce a new result. the well-known critic. was equally at variance with Plotinus conception of the Platonic doctrine. but he left century (Hierocles.). Cassius Longinus. died about 242 Yet it is no writings behind him. and even controverted its distinction from the creator of the world (p. and returning into it. original We Origen (who . and defended against him the proposition that the ideas exist This proves vovs. is not to be confounded with the Christian is also said to have theologian of the same name.D. A second disciple. but it is also required that the contrast shall be methodically derived out of conceived as a single unity and the totality of things whole proceeding in regular succession from the Deity. and the unity with God. separately. but afterwards became distinguished as a teacher of the He appears to have Platonic philosophy at Alexandria. and philosopher (whom Aurelian executed 273 A.3] ORIGIN OF NEO-PLATONISM.

Creuzer Kirchholf (1856) H. He died in Campania in 270 His writings were published after his death by A. For eleven years he enjoyed the of Ammonius. He was universally revered for his character and held in high respect by the Emperor Gallienus and his consort Salonina. jMeiiplat. proceeds the idea of Grod.328 NEO-PLATOX1SM. like that of Philo. This eminent thinker was born in 204-5 A. teaching and there founded a school. carried out with masterly logical skill. P. it was transformed into a formal scholasticism. 1615). Miiller (1878). A.D. 1855). Plot. The Supersensuous The system from all of Plotinus. Ammonius was it [95 that the doctrine of essentially distinct from that of Plotinus. Porphyrius in six enneads. lamblichus and the school of Athens mark the most important point in the history of Neo-Platonism. 1854. over which he presided till his death. 96. Pkil d. Bichtcr. 1580. at Lycopolis in Egypt. The System of Plotinus.D. . Studien. 1861 If. though nearly to it than that of the real founder might approach more earlier Platonists. philosophy. 1 After Plotinus. ollcfte. Between these poles lies which was taught on the one hand about the origin Editions by Marsilius Ficifinalty 1 mis (1492. In 244-5 he went to Rome. with the aid of the Aristo . . On the system of Plotinus. A. (Oxford. By lamblichus it was by the Athenian telian entirely absorbed into the service of positive religion school. World. and comes to a conclusion in the for demand union with Grod. Kirchner. of ten reprinted. The of the Neo-Platonie school was Ploti nus. . at Basel.

nor activity. the one outside the many.gt. and his elevation above the world. Here. therefore. for the for the Deity for is that which is above all being and all thought. derived. all volition the distinction .9G] PLOTINUS. the denial of the per sonality of God. The conceptions and goodness are best suited a positive description of it yet even they are of unity . Hence we cannot ascribe to first him any self-consciousness. no corporeal entirely and even no intellectual property can be ascribed to it neither thought. about its return to the Deity. or be active. 3L&amp. form. the unlimited or infinite (aTrsipov) . He does not even need himself and cannot be divided from himself. in order to think. all is directed to something beyond but the first element must be a self-included unity. comes forward as a decisive principle. and on the other. The original essence (TO Trpwrov) is without limit. Moreover. but Grod has need of nothing beyond himself. there is need of something to which the activity is directed .9 of derived being out of the Deity. THE DEITY. time. which implies plurality . No definite property can be ascribed to the Deity . he sees himself compelled to carry the final source of all that is real and knowable beyond all being and knowledge. for which Carneades had prepared the way (p. All thought contains the distinction of the thinker from thinking and from what of being activity is thought. In his conception of the idea of Grod Plotinus carries to the extreme point the thought of the infinity of Grod. and activity. 272). or defini tion. that which Presupposing that the original must be outside the is thought outside the thinker. nor volition. or will. .

The is derivative from the original being Yet it is in no said to be a necessity of nature. The divinity is. The First But Plotinus cannot succeed principle. therefore. as with the Stoics. He has recourse. it is filled only by virtue of. so that Plotinus system has less right to be called a system of and supported by. &c. . Creation cannot. and is not connected with any change in it. it must create everything. pantheism. of will. therefore. it cannot communicate itself substantially to another. &c. except all that is finite and known to us. and exists But the creative creation from it. But as it is raised above everything in its nature and needs nothing external. to metaphors.330 NEO-FLATONISM. by virtue of its perfection flows. be regarded as the communication of the divine nature.. by its source . [ % inadequate for the first merely expresses the denial of plurality. is the original force. nor make In so far as the Deity the creation of another its object. he says. Hence the derivative is con nected with that from which it has arisen. its element remains undivided. in uniting these determinations in a clear and consistent conception. over. emanation than a system of dynamic As the earlier in its essence remains . as a partial transference of it into the derivative creature nor can it be conceived as an act . as it were. sends forth a is beam from itself. its all being and all nature we know nothing. and external to what is created . and the second implies an operation on something external. . rise of what way needful for that being. only the basis to which we must reduce operation but of that it is entirely separate from . and strives towards it it has no being which is not created in it .

ttl external to the later. the totality of the beings which arise from the original essence forms a series of decreasing perfections. But the identity. . on his part. it does not o So far as vovs is apply itself to what is beneath it. and content themselves with . these cate later Xeo-Platonists. same time the highest The predecessors of Plotinus had already placed being. On the other hand. had ascribed reason and Plotinus arrived at .PLOT1NUS. and intuitive. light into darkness. even tlii^ thought and existent. is. is vovs. and difference. but without time. the but First. drop (artier is). and this decrease goes on till at length being passes into not-being. place. thought to the Existent. movement. and everything participates its immediate cause. gories of the intelligible. The first product of the original essence or thought. the highest being. Its object is formed partly by the First (of which. and partly. 4 the truly existent. by itself. five categories of the intelligible These categories. complete at every moment. the apply to it. CREATION OF THINGS. as in the Aristotelian vovs. most complete thought can form no adequate and thoroughly uniform picture). imperfect than the former: reflection of it. it is a more mere shadow or And as this relation is repeated with every new is what higher through in reproduction. in passing beyond all being and thought nearest in the descent from the first. which is at the while Plato. which Plotinus borrowed Sophist of Plato. as being what is however. the latter of necessity. these occupy the The thought of the vovs is not discursive. are: from the fixity being. after Porphyry. in the divine thought. the ideas.

the separates into the and by virtue of which supersensuous numbers or ideas. But at the same time. to Of these ideas one class. The universal element. which gories. called denned more precisely by the cate by Plotinus the unlimited or the In it lies intelligible material. in the imitation of which all other beauty consists. idea . these ideas are conceived after Philo. in a form of exposition yet more common in Plotinus. as operative powers or spirits (VOL.332 XEO-PLATONISM. and which he allowed to hold good for the world of phenomena is is only. [96 the ten Aristotelian categories. itself in contradistinction to it the basis of plurality. This as the realm of the ideas is also the realm of the beautiful. it leads an eternal life without time. The . however. But it already stands on the border of that world. without. This product is the soul. it and. as the phenomenon of the vovs. it it divisible and corporeal. intermingling. and number and and activity. the primal beauty. but in each other. must correspond not only separate being each but to each as the pattern of its individual peculiarity. Plotinus had raised many objections. over which yet inclines to the watches according . like the vovs. In itself indivisible and incorporeal. And as they are not external to each other. against which. It follows from the perfection of the vovs that it must produce something from itself. soul also belongs to the divine supersensuous is itself is life world it contains the ideas. they are united again in the unity of the intelligible world (/cdajAos VOTJTOS) or Platonic avro^wov. as well as the four categories of the Stoics. vospal Svvd/ASis). which the vovs has in First.

to relations of The space and time. the result is matter. which are united in it as in their origin. deprivation. it to the various In these part-souls the lower limits of the supersensuous world are reached . is its most imperfect manifestation. 333 intermediary in the operations pro ceeding from vovs. As Plato and Aristotle had already stated. Plotinus* Doctrine of the Phenomenal World. and reflection unworthy of it. This which is united with the body of the world. But each of these souls produces and com prises a number of separate souls.96] PLOTINUS. as our soul is united with our body. remembrance. and is THE SOUL. which we must presuppose as the general substratum of all be coming and change. In itself. it is not so homogeneous as the vovs. source of this world can only lie in matter . it is something without form and definition. its In his view of the world of phenomena and bases. parts of the world. The sensuous world in contrast to the supersensuous is the region of the divisible and changeable of being which is subject to natural necessity. or the worldsoul. like a Hotinus calls nature. Plotinus adheres in the first instance to Plato. the not-being. The first soul. and is without true reality. But it is also and in this point . therefore. If Plotinus : ascribes self-consciousness toil. and extend from which 9-7. yet he finds perception. is it to its nature not only in its nature outside the corporeal world does not even work directly upon it. penia. The first soul sends forth a second from it. the shadow and mere possibility of being. when the divine power descends lower. It is the soul beam.

as with Aristotle. which can only receive it successively. and for this world. and arranged by numbers the Christian Gnostics showed for nature is repudiated for nature . cf. [97 and even the in the corporeal Plotinus goes beyond Plato original evil . the soul must create the as the soul illuminates it. the that evil. of the same conditions of the world. the spirit must become matter is . by Plotinus with the true Hellenic feeling and if he does not acknowledge. and it is But necessary always a sinking of the soul in therefore regarded as a fall of the soul. a necessary consequence of its nature. p. as the activity is. is reason the world is without beginning and end. from it arises all is evil world. which are concepts (the \6yoi. is is So far as the world material. beneath enters into rela By transferring the supersensuous into matter. by the creative it is cf. Hence it is as beautiful and per The contempt which fect as a material world can be. the nature of things. become darkness .334 PLOTINUS. p. Yet it is necessary. it is regarded by Plotinus as a sensuous. aTrspfiari/col. for the world at any . in the end. expresses shadowy copy of the truly real or superYet as it is the soul which creates it and it everything in ideas. 240). upon the traits of its origin. but an unconscious creation. Plotinus teaches he assumes a periodical recurrence following the Stoics. it corporeal as its locality. it matter. But and forms that which tion with it. at the furthest distance from its origin. it creates time as the general form of its own life and the life of the This activity of the soul (or nature. Light must. At the same time. and from the body arises all the evil in the soul. 333) nevertheless not a will.

on the other hand. Plotinus means an operation at a distance.97] PLOT1NUS. and consequently by all the other parts. natural connection of cause and effect. they determine the latter with that natural necessity which has its source in the connection and sympathy of the universe. stars. 242). which rests on the fact that. on which Astrology. yet the belief in providence as such is maintained by him in connection with the Platonic and Stoic theodicy. which are also extolled gods. or of capricious action. Exalted above change and temporal and consequently incapable of remembrance. THE WORLD. or of a presentation of what is below them. In it therefore dwells the purest and noblest soul. Next to the heaven are the by Plotinus as visible life. 335 rate. everything that affects a part of it is felt by the whole. In the universe the heaven is that into which the soul first pours itself. and the notion of provi dence expressed in him as the natural operation higher on the lower. with the notion that the stars exert a capricious rests is influence on the course of the world distinctly con it troverted by Plotinus. owing to the universal vitality and animation by it of the world. and astrological prediction is limited to the knowledge of future events from the . on purpose and of the and directed to is details. resting will. And it is maintained with the will greater success as his views on the freedom of the and future retribution put him in a position to justify on other grounds precisely those evils which caused the Stoics so much trouble. a providence of the gods. Plotinus is also connected with the Stoics in his doctrine of the sympathy of all things But while they intended this to mean the (p.

the existent and primal essence.336 NEO-PLATONISM. Of earthly beings man only has an independent interest for our philosopher. though depending on the Like Aristotle. regards the relation of the soul to the body as the same with the relation of operative force to its instru other. a second Ego and a lower soul were added. The space between the stars and the earth is the dwelling-place of the demons. like the souls of the gods. without remembrance. though he interprets them in a psychological manner in his teaching of Eros. Yet his anthropology is. attempts to conceive the passionate con and the activities of it which are is related to what sensual. as processes which take place and partly in^rt-and the lower soul. by its combination with the body. He defends partly in the_hody . higher nature. merely a repetition of the Platonic. and yet as the guilt of the soul. inasmuch as it is attracted by an irresistible internal impulse into the body which corresponds to its He finds the peculiar essence of man in his nature. at greater detail and in a more dogmatic tone than Plato. and had a direct intuition in itself of the vovs. to which. He describes. was subject neither to change nor time. He ditions of the soul. and are merely perceived by the higher. he into the body. in essentials. Plotinus shares the ideas of his school about these beings. the life which the soul leads in the supersensuous world. self-consciousness. in which it. and reflection. (and even in heaven He regards it descent into a body clothes itself with an ethereal its body) as a necessity of nature. reaches down ment. and this second soul. however. [ 97 natural prognostics.

337 the freedom of the will against the Stoic and all other kinds of fatalism in the most vigorous manner . Katharsis includes all virtues. her highest mission can only be to live ex clusively in that world and liberate herself from all inclination to the sensual. so independent. The first condition of it is liberation from the body and from or purification is all . talionis extending to the is formed into a jus most minute details. the retri souls cannot remember bution. Freedom is com bined with providence by the remark that virtue is free. however.97] PLOTINUS. are again rendered questionable by the fact that the their earthly existence in the world. As the soul in her nature belongs to a higher world. unrestrained by any alien element. but his defence does not go very deep. addresses herself to her special task. He includes entrance into the supersensuous bodies of plants in his migration of souls . and he repeats the assertion that evil is involuntary. (/cdOapcris) the immediate result of that the soul. That this liberation which from sensuality should be brought about by an ascetic z . to which it conducts. 98. Plotinus Doctrine of Exaltation into the Supersensuous World. but her acts are entangled in the connection of the world. which. Of external circumstances is. in his view. Happiness. that is connected with it. Plotinus repeats the Platonic proofs for the immortality of the soul. THE SOUL. Further. according to happiness Plotinus. that no Stoic could express himself more decisively. and this consists in thought. consists in the perfect life.

[98 of the not universally demanded by Plotinus in spite abstinences which he laid upon himself and to others.. stand far higher. Xo7t(7yLt6s-) and its artistic practice. and singleness (aTrXwcrts ). recommended In his discussions on Eros he agrees with Plato that even sensuous beauty may But the view that the lead us to the supersensuous. but dim traces of truth. in a state of unconscious the intuition to remain. the self-intuition of the thinking spirit. Even these last are Sensuous perception gives us of very unequal value. Mediated thought (SiavoLa. and the vir political tuous man will not withdraw himself from it. The ethical and political virtues are only an imperfect compensation for the theoretic. Even this does not us to the vovs.338 life is NEO-PLATONISM. which is at the same time an intuition of the divine vovs. real. and that every activity has a higher value as it brings us into less contact with the world Practical and of senses. satisfy our philosopher. Thus we become filled with the divine light. They have to do with the truly with ideas and the essence of things. combination with the body is the source of all the evil in the soul. suddenly so immediately one with the primal being that all dis1 . action is indeed indispensable. It leads but not beyond it. ecstasy We (eWracrts ). and it allows the distinction of the mind and do not reach the highest buried in ourselves and point till we are completely elevated even above thought. and makes us dependent on something not ourselves. but it- entangles us too deeply in the external world. Bat this indirect knowledge presupposes a direct. governs his entire ethics. or dialectic. ness.

of the sympathy of of all things for a supposed rational of foundation the worship images. and magic. Besides the Deity in the absolute sense. and every operation of the external on the internal. dition. he does not find it possible to combine a perception of that which happens on the earth. with the honours. From own ex perience Plotinus was no doubt acquainted with this con which however. just as none had placed the Deity above thought. Further. Among Greek predecessors none had required this transcen dence of thought. his In comparison with this spiritual exaltation to the Deity positive religion has. so as to apply to these deities. prophecy. can only be transitory. or a personal in fluence on the course of the world. he makes use of his doctrine usual so caprice. prayer. his system recognises a number of higher beings which can be regarded partly as visible and partly as invisible gods. In this Philo alone was his pattern. He pronounces a distinct reproof when anyone (like the Christians) refused to them their appropriate interprets the gods of mythology and their history. It is true that he is far removed from taking up a critical attitude in op position to it. with the nature of the gods. it THE SUPERSENSUAL. But though he laid the foundation on which his successors continued to build in their defence and systematisation of the national religion. only a sub ordinate importance for Plotinus. on the whole.98] PLOTINUS. under which he includes every inclination and disinclination. his 339 tinction between and us disappears. On the other hand. his own attitude . He though he does not occupy himself with this subject as many of the Stoics eagerly had done.

who has just been mentioned. is shown in the little that we know clearness. 10. Far clearer of Tyre. then Plotinus. and devoted his attention especially to the Aristotelian logic (his introduction to the categories. ap. tated to speak of three as Amelius had done in . and the lesser of his commentaries on this tract are still existing). Grentilianus Amelius. is [ 98 his ideal sense satisfied the philosopher. to must come me . without in the rest deviating from the determinations In the vovs he distinguishes being. and first attended Longinus. when Amelius wished to take a temple.D. not to examine or systematically develop. is Malchus) He the learned Porphyry (properly was born 232-3 A. apparently in Rome. and died after 301. to them. This study of Aristotle and the influence of Longinus must have helped him in the effort after clearness in ideas and expression. 99.340 to it is NEO-PLATONISM. it is not I him into who must go The School of Plotinus. Among the pupils of Plotinus. and life . of Plotinus. V.) sharp distinction he lays the greatest weight on the of the intellectual and corporeal.. of him to have been a thinker without an intellectual kinsman and admirer of Nu- menius. but he would doubtless have hesi i/ot. He makes it his task to set forth and explain. he said. thought. In his sketch of it (a^op/^al irpos ra VOIJTO. Besides some Platonic writings. comparatively free. the doctrine of Plotinus. Porphyr. Porphyry. For his own requirements with the inward worship of The gods. he commented on a good many of Aristotle s works. Plot.

99] PORPHYRY. certain ascetic practices. placed theoretic or paradeigmatic (which belongs to the vovs For this purification he demands. 841 regard to a similar distinction. the uni versal soul makes up the essence of the individual souls. there is a marked effort. without dividing itself among them. but will not extend the migration of souls to the bodies of animals . human souls are not allowed to exalt themselves to a superhuman nature. on the other hand. the libera tion of the soul from the body. He requires the . In like manner. to soul with the multiplicity of its activities combine the unity of the and powers. Purifying virtue above the practical. Porphyry ascribes reason to the animals. he allows the assumption of different parts in the soul. but in this of the earthly state extinguished along with the desires. In his anthropology. influence. celibacy. such as abstinence from flesh. in the important feature in this is the purification. according as thought is directed to this or Hence that object it assumes a corresponding form. but beneath the indeed.lt. on which greater stress is is.. only in an improper sense. he says. Yet even he allows the purified soul to look forward to an entire liberation from the irrational liberated condition the is remembrance powers. But for Por phyry the chief object of philosophy lies in its practical The most salvation of the soul. laid in his ethics than in Plotinus. has the forms of all things in itself. (\6&amp.yos) The soul. cidedly than Plotinus. more de as such). so far as we can see. on which he composed a treatise (jTspl UTTO^JS sfji^rv^wv). and. absence from shows and similar amusements. to which he devoted several writings.

On the one Christians hand. no doubt. Magic and the as symbols. he can to its original nature. and alone worthy of the supersensuous gods. sacrifices. like . about demons. of animals are intermediary agents. and the vovs to the First. As we must elevate ourselves by the natural gra says. so that a purification of falsified it from is objectionable is only a restoration of On the other hand. the myths as allegorical explanations of philo justify sophical truth. in which. support of positive religion in a greater degree than Plotinus to aid us in the struggle against sensuality. the visible gods. and astrology.342 NEO-PLATONISM. that a pious life and holy thoughts are the best ledges worship. that we might believe that he felt it necessary to repudiate he them all. and the demons. urgy are justified as a means of operating on the lower powers of the soul and nature. the soul. prophecy. dationsthe demons. It is true that there was much in the faith and worship He acknow of his time which he could not accept. provides him with means undertaking the defence of the religion of his people which he supports in his fifteen books against the even against his own doubts. From this point of view his demonois logy. In the remarkable letter to Anebo he raises such considerable doubts about the prevailing ideas of the gods. which filled with all the superstitions of his for time and his school. Even those things which he disapproves of in themselves. Yet this is not his meaning. he believes that their religion has been by wicked demons. the images of gods and sacred animals anything that it and prophecy as an interpretation of natural demons and the souls prognostics.

). he prefers to draw his philosophy from the most muddy and recent the sources.D. lamblichus and his School. scholar. of natural necessity. He divided the vovs of . 343 in public worship as a blood-offerings. point was deified by his pupils and the later Neo-Platonists lamblichus did not only (Oslo? is his usual epithet). there principle that inexpressible between it and plurality. besides many fragments we have writer and a copious five books of his o-vvajcoyrj TMV HvOayopsiwv SoypdTWV. philosopher must remain 100. His On the of the divine. Against the defects of earthly existence. satisfied with a . He was a learned fluences of the East are deeply felt. he can only find aid oppression to his fantastic thought every among the gods moment in a conception is transferred into an inde need of belief can never be pendent substance. But he is far more of a speculative theologian than a philosopher and uncritical as he is.99] IAMBLICHUS. multiplication must be a mediate element be and that to which it communicates tween every unity a second unity from the one itself. and in his philosophy the in passed his life there. but he appears to have belong to Syria by origin. But the the private religion of free from them. becomes in his pupil lam blichus (of Chalcis died about 330 A. he allows to lay means impure spirits. For this very reason he What in . an exponent of Platonic and Aristotelian works. he distinguished which stood midway original essence. . to the Porphyry was chiefly a concession traditional form of faith. the central of his scientific activity.

These are followed by angels. which was to exclude all multiplicity. he divided the vovs which belonged to them. In a beings similar manner. which he shares with his whole able point is most notice his account of nature or destiny . in the most contradictory manner. the intellectual was divided into three triads. the most irrational super stition is combined with the desire to represent the miraculous as something rational. into a triad. the worship of images. the In his cosmology. demons. This theological speculation is united in lamblichus with speculation in numbers. In like manner.344 NEO-PLATONISM. of natural gods (the numbers appear to be taken to some extent from astrological systems). This . theurgy. after the pattern of the Neo- Pythagoreans. Next to these superterrestrial gods stand . of which the apparently became a hebdomad. The national can be interpreted into these metaphysical with the usual syncretistic caprice. and deities prophecy are defended on grounds in which. triad extended into three triads. The original forms belong to the intelligible the ideas to the intellectual. from which. much a higher value than to as he prizes the latter. however. he scientific ascribes mathematics. in spite of its unity. which are again multiplied to thirty-six. besides the eternity of the world. From the first soul lamblichus derived last . two others. and this also was done in a double form. and heroes. and these to 360 seventy-two orders of subcelestial. to which. [100 Plotinus into an intelligible (vorjros} and an intellec tual world and the first. school. and forty-two . the terrestrial in three classes twelve heavenly gods.

are defended. In the treatise On the is Mysteries. 341) he added. with success and skill. which elevate a Yet with him also the most necessary essence as such. &c. so far as 345 he describes this as a power oppressing from the bonds of which he can only be mankind. cannot dispense with these The defence is carried out material intermediaries. sacrifices. effort is more strongly marked even psychology the than in Porphyry to keep for the soul her middle posi also superhuman beings. theurgy. and the more so because he tion between infrahuman and did not. owing to his sensual nature. But at the same time stress is laid on the fact that only divine revelation can instruct us in the means by which we can enter into union with the Deity. the proposition that we can only attain to the higher by the aid of the lower. which is ascribed to him. against 342). at any rate. and which apparently the work of one of his immediate pupils. The priests. like Porphyry ascribe reason to the animals. To Porphyry s four classes of virtues (p. part is the purification of the soul. who are the deposi- . and highest class. by which alone it as a fifth withdraws from connection with the sensuous world and dependence on nature and destiny.100] IAMLLICHUS. The mode of thought of which lamblichus is the most distinct representative dominates the NeoPlatonic school from his time. and that man. quite in his spirit. with the aid of Porphyry (p. the single (svialat) or man to the primal priestly virtues. With he contests the transition of human souls Porphyry into the bodies of animals. therefore. liberated In his by the interference of the gods.. prophecy.

like lamblichus. revelation. and a demiurgic. into which he divided the vovs an intelligible. which in turn three triads. an intellectual (being. : thought. we only know that the first followed him in the management of the school.D. Theodorus of Asine. who was personally more attractive and over the Emperor Julian for philo estimable. Among the pupils of lamblichus who are known to us. [ 100 stand far higher than the philosophers. of is which the lowest body is nature. who also attended Porphyry. distinguish a second unity. which we owe almost exclusively to Proclus he seems to have preceded the latter in the attempt to carry out a triple arrangement through the The primal being. He and his associate Chrysanthius. from which he does not. gained sophy and the older deities. p. very formal.346 taries of this NEO-PLATONISM. included life. What the world-soul. Among the pupils of JEdesius. whose death was finally caused by his arrogance and his theurgic arts (about 370 A. Other members of this . Eusebius took a scientific direction.). parts of the supersensuous world. In the accounts of him. and the second obtained influence at ex I. 340). in which he depends entirely upon Porphyry and lamblichus.ZEdesius and Sopater. court under Constantine ecuted. or destiny. is followed by three triads. bat was afterwards Dexippus is known to us by his explanation of the categories. and its is known to us of his more is precise determinations on these beings and degenerates into mere childishness. appears to have been the most important. Then come three souls. . Of two other pupils of lamblichus. but the greatest influence was exercised by Maximus..

and brought it to a high state of prosperity.100] PUPILS OF IAMBLICIIUS. so far as they are of a philosophical nature. do not exhibit. This had never become extinct in the school during the fourth century. was resumed with greater and more lasting eagerness. In Constantinople. The intellectual Hypatia^ who was at the head of the Platonic school at Alexandria. after the failure of Julian at restoration. however. found itself in the s attempt position of a sup pressed and persecuted sect. 3J7 circle the famous orator Libanius. an independent advance in the propositions borrowed from lamblichus. he was led to this step by the Neo-Platonist philosophy. Eunapius (p. But the attempt must have failed even the early death of its author (363) had not brought to a if it sudden end. and When Julian. it sophical speculations and theurgy. fanaticism of the Christian rabble. Bishop of Ptolemais (365-415. she appears to have taught the Neo-Platonic doctrine in the form in which lamblichus had stated it. with hopes almost entirely restricted to its scientific activity. 13). Julian s writings. Sallustius. since the school. are Priscus. after his accession (361 A. . this conclusion 101. undertook to restore the Hellenic religion. any more than his friend Sallustius book on the gods. though lost after the time of lamblichus it undeniably ground in influence and importance before theoNow. The final application of the Neo-Platonic science was caused by the study of Aristotle..). finally fell a victim (415) to the If we may draw from the treatises of her pupil Synesius.D. The School of Athens.

Hierocles is known to us by some writings and excerpts. the Neo-Platonists If he cannot be counted among superficial eclecticism. [ 101 during the second half of the fourth century.348 NEO-PLATONISTS. who died in 431-2 at a great age.ntire owing to his somewhat he coincides with them in agreement of Aristotle and This school also carried Plato. and propagated all kinds of magical and theurgic arts. practically fruitful than to metaphysical speculation. but ascribes a far greater value to such doctrines as are city of Alexandria at the the Aristotelian. which he treats carefully the foundation of Aristotle and Plato. yet his conviction of the p. the son of Nestorius. Mohammedan philosophy About the beginning of the fifth century we meet with the Athenian Plutarchus. stotle Plutarchus explained the writings of Plato and Ari with equal zeal both in writings and in lectures. out that combination of Aristotelism with the theosophy of lamblichus. The little that we know of his philosophical views does not go beyond the tradition of his school. In his writings we see a philosopher who in general stands on the footing of AT eo-Platonism. and the Christian and the which sprang from it. Themistius devoted himself to the explanation of the Aristote lian and Platonic writings. At the same we are told that he had acquired from his father time. which imprinted a peculiar stamp on the Neo-Platonism of the fifth and sixth centuries. But the chief seat of Aristotelian studies was the Platonic school at Athens. He taught philosophy in his native same time as Olympiodorus. It deals on chiefly with psychology. Of his pupils. . as the leader of the school and an eminent teacher.

applying this him. to the totality of &amp.lt. partly returned to actual things. and the supposed Chaldsean divine utterances. and partly came forth from itself.PLUTARCH. distinguished with lamblichus the intelligible and the intellectual. and &amp. But his guiding Neo-Pythagorean and Orphic writings. The favourite object of his speculation is But in theology. From the One. who later writers. Of other views. In Tim. who was a fellow-citizen and pupil of Hierocles. 207 B.lt.. distinction. which is without opposites. he remarked (according to Proclus. the collaborator and successor of Plutarch. itself. however. at the head of which stands the demiurge. SYRIANUS. ideas were thought to have originally existed as the primary forms or unified numbers in the intelligible. In Tint&um. Aristotle. if it really belongs to without. . and from Proclus.) that it partly remained in itself. single So far as we know it from specimen which is a part of his commentary on Arist. in 837 ff. Schol. completeness his treatment of the subject is behind that of Proclus. This Platonist. besides Plato. are the whom he places far below scientific far duality the most universal causes of In the vovs he things. is so highly praised by Proclus and was at the same time an accurate scholar and eager exponent of Aristotle. The more eagerly was 349 His pupil Theosebius followed in a similar direction. we may mention that immaterial the he maintained in regard to 1 bodies that the left. he primarily derives with the NeoPythagoreans the unit and the indefinite as 1 authorities. The and afterwards in a derivative manner in the intelligence of the demiurge. With regard to the soul. metaphysics. this speculation carried on by Syrianus.

for ever united with the higher of the irrational For powers of life. 1 Proclus is as distinguished among the Stoics.D. was the successor of the in Constantinople in and Syrianus. 214 Freudenthal in Hermes. in its formal completeness. he does not appear to have differed from the traditions of his school. and in the absence of any really scientific foundation and treatment. and with the lower for a time. He was born 410 A. By his iron industry. ChalHe now undertook to daean oracles.D. and that the souls continued after death in their ethereal bodies. 778 f. him his fellow-pupil Hermias. his mastery in logic. This system. d. Of the pupils of Plutarchus the Lycian. of which only a part has been Phil.. and his fruitful work as a teacher and a writer. his systematic spirit.350 NEO-PLATONISM. in their regard for Orphic poems. came to Athens in his and there died in 485 A. last. who taught at Alex andria. his learning. the rest. in the inward want of freedom of thought from which it arose. preserved. . Besides twentieth year. who thought that he received revelations. is of little importance. xvi. [ 101 they could occupy the same space with others. Proclus. and the like. in their and their superstition. iii. ascetic among the But he was Platonists as Chrysippus at the same time an and a believer in theurgy. work up into a single methodical system the whole mass of theological and philosophical tenets handed down by his predecessors. and could never have enough of religious exercises. b. Gr. f. may be compared 1 On the writings of Proclus. cf. He shared in the religious faith enthusiasm of his school.

101]

PROCLUS.

351

as a Hellenic pattern with the systems of the Christian

and Mohammedan scholastics. The prevailing law, which this system is constructed, is that of upon
triadic
is, on the one hand, similar to that which produces it, for one can only produce the other by communicating itself to it. On the other hand, it differs from it as what is divided from unity, as the derivative from the

development.

The thing produced

original.

In the

first

respect,

it

remains in

its
;

cause,

and the cause, though only incompletely, in it in the But inasmuch as second, it proceeds out of the cause. it clings to it, and is related to it, it turns to it in
spite of the separation, seeks to imitate it on a lower

stage,

and unite with
in that

it.

The

existence of
it, its
1

what

is

produced it, and its return to

which produces
it

emergence from
are

(JUOVTJ, Tr/oo oSos , sTriarpocj)!))

the three moments, by the continued repetition of which the totality of things is developed from their origin. The final source of this development can naturally be

nothing but the original essence, which Proclus de scribes after Plotinus as absolutely elevated above all being and knowledge, as higher than the unit, as a
cause without being the cause, as neither being nor But between this first and the intel not-being, &c.
ligible he inserts with lamblichus (p. 344) an inter the absolute unities mediary member (avrorsXsls which form the single, supernal number, but kvdSes)
:

which are at the same time denoted as the highest gods, and in that capacity receive predicates which are
far too personal for their abstract nature.

After

them

comes the province which Plotinus allotted to the vovs.

352

SEO-PLATONISM.

[101

Proclus, partly following lamblichus and Theodorus (p. 344), divides this into three spheres the intelligible,
:

the intellectual-intelligible (VOTJTOV a^a KOI voepov), and the intellectual. The chief property of the first is
of the second, life ; of the third, thought. Of ; these spheres the two first are again divided into three

being

triads each,
sion.

somewhat on the same
triad
is

principles of divi

divided into seven hebdomads, and members of each series are regarded the separate at the same time as gods and identified with one
of the
deities of the

The

national religion.

The

soul,

the conception is defined as in Plotinus, divine, de comprises three classes of part-souls and human. The divine are divided into three monic,
of which
:

orders

:

number

the four triads of hegemonic gods, an equal of gods free from the world (aTroXfrot) and

the gods within the world, which are divided into stargods and elementary gods. In interpreting the national

gods in reference to this system, Proclus finds it necessary to assume a triple Zeus, a double Kore, and a The demons are connected with triple Athene.
th<

gods.

They

are divided

more precisely into angel?

demons, and heroes, and described in the ordinary way with a large admixture of superstition. Nex to them come the souls which enter temporarily
into material bodies.

Plotinus had allowed matter to

be created by the soul ; Proclus derives it immediately from the unlimited, which with him, in combination with the limited and the mixed, forms the first of the As to its nature, it is not with him intelligible triads.
the
evil,

but neither good nor

evil.

His cosmological

101]

PROCLUS.

353

ideas agree in all that is essential with those of Plotinus, except that he regards space as a body consisting

of the finest light, which body penetrates that of the

Like Plotinus, he undertakes (cf. Syrian, p. 349). the defence of Providence, on account of the evil in the
world

He joins him and Syrianus in his assumptions world. about the descent and the future fortunes of the soul.
In his psychology he combines Platonic and Aristotelian determinations, but increases the number of the soul s
capacities by dividing the principle of unity or divinity in men from thought or reason. This element is higher

than the others, and by it only can the divine be known. His ethics require an elevation to the supersensuous,
ascending by degrees through the five classes of virtues (which we found in lamblichus, p. 345). With him also
the final object of this elevation is the mystic union with the Deity. But the more firmly he is convinced
that
all

and that

higher knowledge rests on divine illumination, it is faith alone which unites us with the
is

Deity, the less

religious helps to

he inclined to abandon all those which the Neo-Platonic school since

lamblichus had ascribed so high a value, and the efficiency of which Proclus also defends on traditional

His explanations grounds. conceived in the same spirit.

of

myths

are naturally

In the hands of Proclus the Neo-Platonic doctrine
received the final form in which
posterity. tatives after

The

with him in

it was handed down to had some eminent represen his time, but none who can be compared scientific power and influence. His pupil

school

Ammonius, the son

of

Hermias

(p. 350),

who taught A A

in

354

NEO-PLATON1SM.

[

101

Alexandria for a considerable time, as it seems, and enjoyed a great reputation, was an excellent exponent
of the Platonic, and even

more so of the Aristotelian, and a great proficient in the mathematical writings, sciences. But we do not find in him any independent
views of importance.
(

Phys.

795,

13)

Asclepiodotus, whom Simplicius calls the best pupil of Proclus,

an eminent mathematician and physicist, appears to have been distinguished from the majority of his party

by a jejune mode of thought, inclined to theological extravagances and theurgic practices. Marinus, the

ment
Isid.

biographer of Proclus and his successor in the manage of the school, was of little importance ; his suc

cessor, the Isidorus
<

whom

Damascius admired

(

Vita

ap. Phot. Cod. 181. 242), was a confused theosophist in the style of lamblichus. Of Hegias, another

pupil of Proclus who followed Isidorus, we know no more than of other pupils whose names are handed down
to us.

Damascius, the pupil of Marinus, Ammonius,

and Isidorus, who was head of the school at Athens about 520-530 A.D., an admirer and intellectual kinsman of lamblichus, endeavours in vain in his work on the ultimate sources (Trspl ap^wv ) to find the means of
1

of the inconceiv transition from the primal essence to of which he cannot speak strongly enough ability the intelligible by the insertion of a second and third

In the end he finds himself forced to the unity. confession that we cannot properly speak of an origin of the lower from the higher, but only of one uniform,
1

First,

partially,

1826,

by Kopp.

On

edited in his other

writings, see 838. 7.

PMl.

d.

Gi\

iii.

b.

101]

SUCCESSORS OF PROCLUS.

355

Simplicius belongs to the last heathen generation of Neo-Platonists. He was a pupil of Ammonius and Damascius, and his commentaries on They several of Aristotle s works are invaluable to us.

undistinguished being.

are evidence, not only of the learning, but of the clear ness of thought of their author, but they never go

To tradition. beyond the limits of the Neo-Platonic and the younger the same generation belong Asclepius of Ammonius, of whom we Olympiodorus, two pupils
have commentaries, and
Christianised

others

also.

But

in

the

Eoman Empire, philosophy could

not long

maintain

itself

In the year of the Platonic school taught in Athens. The property was confiscated. Damascius, with six associates, among whom was emigrated to Persia, from whence
Simplicius,

independently of the victorious Church. 529 A.D. Justinian forbade philosophy to be

he soon returned undeceived.

Shortly after the middle

of the sixth century the last of the Platonists who did not enter the Christian Church seem to have died out.

on the Olympiodorus composed his commentary A.D. teorology after 564

<

Me

In the western half of the Eoman Empire, XeoPlatonism appears to have been propagated only in the it received from Plotinus simpler and purer form which

and Porphyry. Traces of its existence are perhaps to be found in the logical works and translations of
Marius Victorinus (about 350), of Vegetius (Vectius,
Vettius) Praetextatus (died, apparently, 387), Albinus, so far as we know anything of him, and in the ency

clopedic work of Marcianus Capella (350-400). More in Augustine (353-430), and distinctly do they appear
A A 2

356

NEO-PLATONISM.

[101

the two Platonists Macrobius (about 400) and Chalcidius (in the fifth century). The last representative
of

Manlius

philosophy here is the noble Anicius Severinus Boethius, who was born about 480, and executed at the command of Theodoric in 525. Although he belonged outwardly to the Christian

ancient

Church, his real religion was philosophy.
a follower of Plato

In this he

is

and

Aristotle, who, in his view,

completely agree. His Platonism has a Neo-Platonic hue. But in his philosophic Consolation the influ ence of the Stoic morality cannot fail to be recognised.

INDEX.
ACH
295 Adrastus, 295 JSdesius, 346 ^Elius Stilo, 277 ^rnilius Paulus, 275 ^nesidemus, 301 ff.

ARI

A

A

CHAECUS,

Anaximander, 39-41 Anaximenes, 41 ff.
Anchipylus, 117 Andronicus, 14, 172, 178 282 Anebo, 342 Anniceris the elder, 127 -the younger, 122, 126

^schines the Socratic, 114 JEschines the Academician, 280
Aetius, 8

Agrippa, 302 Academy, the old, 165 the new, 269 ff.
after

ff.

Clitomachus,

283

ff.,

297

ff.

Antigonus of Carystus, 10 Antiochus Epiphanes, 317 of Ascalon, 280 the Sceptic, 302 Antipater the Cyrenaic, 122 the Stoic, 231, 251 Antisthenes the Socratic, 117121 the Rhodian, 10, 226 Antoninus, M. Aurelius, 292
255, 287

Acusilaus, 25

Albinus the older, 297 ff., 314 the younger, 355 Alcidamas, 92 Alcinous, 298 note Alcmoeon, 57 Alexander the Great, 171 of JEgae, 295 of Aphrodisias, 296 ff., 14 Polyhistor, 11, 306, 309 Alexinus, 115 Amatinius, 256 Amelius, 340 Ammonius, Plutarch s teacher,

ff.

Any t us, 112
Apellicon, 179 Apollodorus the chronologer, 11 the Stoic, 278 the Epicurean, 11, 256 Apollonius the Stoic, 11 of Tyana, 12, 307, 310 Apuleius, 297, 314 Aratus, 230 Arcesilaus, 169, 269 Archedemus, 231, 240 Archelaus, 88, 101 Archytas, 49, 128, 307 Arete, 122 Aristarchus, 255 Aristippus the elder, 122 ff.

-

297
Saccas, 327 son of Hermias, 353 Anacharsis, 27 Anaxagoras, 8<?-88, 36, 101 Anaxarchus, 83

INDEX.
AKI
Aristippus the younger, 122 the Academician, 11 Aristo, Plato s father, 126
of Ceos, 226 f of Chios, 230, 233, 247, 249 later Peripatetic, 283
.

DEM
Cato, 279 Cebes, 114 Celsus, Corn., 286 the Platonist, 298, 314

-

Aristobulus, 319
Aristocles, 12, 296 Aristophanes of Byzantium, 13,

132
Aristotle, 8, 21, 30 ff., 86, 103, 129, 163, 170 ff. 260, 307

Aristoxenus, 10, 224
Aristus, 282

Arius Didymus,
Arrianus, 291 Artemon, 178

9,

279, 282, 307

Chseremon, 287 Chaignet, 46 note, 126 note Chalcidius, 356 Chamseleon, 225 Channidas, 280 Charondas, 306 Chilon, 27 Chrysanthius, 346 Chrysippus, 230, 235 ff. Cicero, 8, 284 f. Cleanthes, 11, 13, 230, 245 Clearchus, 10, 225 Cleinias, 49

ff,

Asclepiades, 276 Asclepiodotus, 354 Asclepius, 355 Aspasius, 295
Ast, 130 note, 132 Athenodori, the two, 279 Atomists, 76 ff. Attains, 287 Atticns, 298 Augustin, 8, 9

Clemens Alex.
Cleobulus, 27

8,

9

Cleomedes, 287 Cleomenes, 230 Clitomachus, 8, Clytus, 225 Colotes, 256 Cornutus, 287
Cousin, 16 Crantor, 13, 169
Crassitius,

11, 271,

273

286

256 Bernays, 61 note 2, 66 note, 177 note 1, 220 Bias, 27 Boeckh, 15, 45 note 2 Boe thms, 356 Boethus the Stoic, 277 the Peripatetic, 286 Bonitz, 174 note Brandis, 16 Bracker, 14 By water, 66 note

DASILIDES, D

Crates the Cynic, 118, 121 the Academician, 169 the New Academician, 273
.

Cratippus, 283 Cratylus, 71, 126 Creuzer, 328 note
Critias, 92,

97
f.

Critolaus, 226

Cronius, 297 Cynics, 117 ff. 293

ff.

Cyrenaics, 122

ff .

96 Callimachus, 10 Callippus, 199 Callisthenes, 171, 225 Carneades, 271-275

pALLICLES,

U

92,

TVAMASCIUS, U

13, 355 Dardanus, 278 Demetrius of Phalerum, 225 the 258 - the Epicurean, Cynic, 294

the Magnesian, 11

5. FABIANUS Fabricius. 92. 69. 199 Euemerus. the Xeo-Platonist. 132 Hermarchus. 315 Henuias of Atarneus. 15 297. 354 Heinze. Dexippus. 298 note Fulleborn. 317 ff. 168. 226 Essenes. ~ Epictetus. 230. 13 Eudorus. 127 Eudemus. Epicureans. 25 Epiphanius. 126 note. 300 Heracleitus of Ephesus. 226 Diogenes of Apollonia. 165. 76 note. 91 ff. 91. 279 the Epicurean. 282. 9. 178 Heracleides Ponticus. 311 Eudoxus. Galenus. 231. 117 Erymneus. DEM Democritus. 76 note. 33. 31. 291 ff. 7 8. 17 Heitz. 298 GAIUS. 21. 9 Eratosthenes. 249 Hermann. 256 ff. 11. 36. 169 ff. Gladisch. 120 ff. 128 Chrysostom. Epicurus. 9. Jj 57.Lembus. 83 the Cynic. 225 15 Favorinus. 223 ff. 36. 14 ff. 128 the Stoic. 346 of Cresarea. Hecato. 8. 346 Dicicarchus. Evander. 10. 12. 49 Eusebius. 256 Hermes Trismegistus. 11 Diodorus Cronus.INDEX. 36. 127 the younger. 58 Elian School.the Peripatetic. Grote. 17. 17. 168 . 131 Empedocles. 13 Hegias. 91. 294 Dercyllides. 291 Duris. Eleatic school. Eubulides. Dionysodorus. 275 Freudenthal. 116 . 224 Diels. 122. PAPIEIUS. 232. 95 Dio of Syracuse. 286 - Laertius. 177 note 9 Euthydemus. 117. See Nigidius Flamininus. 114. 10. 7. 270 Erdmann. 270 Evenus. 19 Gorgias. 287 Euripides. 92 92. 104 Domitian. 71 Epicharmus. 122 Eunapius. 11. 8. 126 note. 114 Euclid. 233 the Stoic. 31. 12 Dionysius the tyrant. 251 II ff. 95 Dissen. 17 Eretrian school. 115. Gallienus. 91 Hegesias. 9. 117 ff. Eudocia. 287 Herillus. 14. 66. 328 Gellius. 76 Demonax. 170 . 304 Figulus. 57 TTARPOCRATION. 278 Hegel. 88 Eurytus. 255 ff. 125 Hegesinus (-silaus). 298. 299 Geminus. 255 Epimenides. 10 the Sceptic. 299 Diodes. 359 HER Euphrates. 43 the Democritean. 16. 279 T1CPHANTUS.

8. 112 the Pythagorean. 172. 61 note 328 note Kirclmer. See Antoninus TAMBLICHUS. 56 Hippias. 226 Hildenbrand. opponent of Socrates. 12. J. 310 Moschus. 348 Hieronymus the Rhodian. 297. 347 Lobeck. 307 Julian. Jason. 88 the Epicurean. 36.. 117 the Cynic. 13. 65 ff. 347 Leucippus. 43 Hippobotus. 25 Hestiseus. 270 277 Herminus. 96. 355 Marcus Aurelius. 314 the Neo-Platonist. 166 Menippus. 92. 278 Moderatus. 37-45 Irenaeus. 9 MOS T ACYDES. HER Hermias the Neo-Platonist. Lewes. JU Lgelius. 1 4 Ionic Philosophers. 71 Metrodorus of Chios. 172 note Hicetas. 66 note. 118 the Academician. 307. 76 f. 117 .INDEX. 35. 225 Menodotus. 17 Libanius. 343 ff. 328 note 354 note Kopp. 347 Justin. 350 the Christian. 10 Hennotimus. 346J - Idomeneus. 10. Marcianus Marinus. 9 Hirzel. 11. 98 Lange. 114 Idasus. 295 Hermippus. 9 Isidorus. 355 of Eretria. 12 Hippolytus. 10 the Peripatetic. 226 Herinodorus. 256 Lutze. 256 1 58 note. 84 Herodotus the historian. 17. 13. 328 note of Tyre. 302 Hesiod. 57 Hierocles. B. 319 Hypatia. 225 Hippo. 280 Meyer. 319 Longinus. 231 note Hody. 299 Lucretius. 256 Johannes Philoponus. 81 note. 165. 112 Melissus. 49 356 MACROBIUS. 8 Justinian. 203 note Mnesarchus. 170 Megarians. 279 Ichthyas. 43 Maximus Marsilius Ficinus. 169 Hesychius. 114-117 Meiners. 48 the Sceptic. jL 8. 83 the Anaxagorean. 354 Isocrates. 287 Lucianus. Menedemus Juba. 69 Leo. 134 KARSTEN. 15 Meletus. 17 Lassalle. 302 Meton.. 118 Meno. Krohn. 17 Hipparchia. 226 Lycophron. 39 note Lyco. of Stratonice. 327 Lucanus. Kirchhoff. 354 Capella. 92 Lysis. 118 Hippasus.

226 Photius. 122. 126-169. 130 note. 278 f. 327 the Father. Munk. 10. 104. 268 f Pythagoras. 8. 307. of Athens. 171.. 131 Origen the Platonist. note. 32. MUL Miiller. 49 Philostratus. 14. Neo-Pythagoreans. Pythagoreans. 8. 96 Polyamus. 326 ff. 115 Patro. 61 note. 226 Ptolemaeus the Peripatetic. 92. 279 Parmenides. 8. 27 ff. 27 note. 256 Phasnarete. 256 Porphyrius. 27 Pericles. 12. 282 ff. 8 Orphic theogony. 8. 347 Proclus. 307. Potamo. 9. 91. 58 note. 280 \TATJSIPHANES. 340 ff. L T)AMPHILUS. 10 Neleus. 314 306. 307 Nigrinus. 170 . 98 Peregrinus Proteus. 165. 290 Polus. 222 ff. Prodicus. 294 Periander. 17 114. 199. 25 Polemo. 295 ff. 92. 92 the Epicurean. 256 Proxenus.. 300 f. Plotinus. 30. 115. 96. 101 Phanias. 83 Neuhiiuser.. - Nigidius Figulus. &c.INDEX. 133 Musonius Rufus. 126 Peripatetics. 307 Phocylides. Olympiodorus the elder. 169 Pollio. 282 Prantl. Pyrrho. 287 Protarchus the Rhetorician. King. 170 Prytanis. 225 Preller. Nessus. 230 Persius. Posidonius. 45 note 2. Pansetius. H. 170 of Gerasa. 255 ll Neo-Platonists. 328 ff. 320 ff. 10. Neanthes. 12. 256 Polystratus. 131. 45 ff. 311 ff. 97. 39 note Nicolaus of Damascus. 179. 297. 32. Pythias.. 84 Perictione. 355 Oncken. 8. 348 Numenius. Philodemus. 32. . 309 OCELLUS. 17 Praxiphanes. 306 ff. 97 Protagoras. 45 ff. 310 the Jew. 297. 18. Perseus. 283 Nicomachus the Stagirite. 11. 171 of Opus. 10. 173 the Sceptic. c61 PYT Phaedo. 168 Philo the Megarian. 8. 25 Philip. 21. 214 ff. 253 note. 255 83. 65 F. 175 Philolaus. Priscus. 60 Pasicles. 256 ff. 27 Phormio. 275. 7 Pittacus. 86. 253 Myson. Plutarch of Chasronea. 116 of Larissa. 117 Phaedrus. 95. 179 Neocles. 290 Pherecydes. 255 11. 348 the younger. 14. 297 Plato. 294 (Enomaus. ff. 350 ff. 96. 35. 225 328 note Mullach.

17 Simmias. 231 66 note. 37 Theag-enes.. 302 Theodoretus. 17. 26 Theomnestus. 179. 130 note Staseas. 27. 72 note. 297 Theo of Smyrna. 115. 41. 46 note Rohde. 346 Theogonies. 130 note Stoics. 8 QALLUSTIUS. 304 Satyrus. Severus. 130 note. 101 Sosicrates. 69. 303 Siebeck. 268 later. 349 Thrasyllus. 16. A. Wisdom of. 98 Tiedemann. 222 Theosebius. 11 297 TAURUS. 72 note Suckow. 347 Syrianus. 100. 17 Schorn. note 2 Telecles. 8 Thales. 84 note 1 Schuster. 15 Timreus the Locrian. 153 Tennemann. 25. 96. 61 note 1. 8. 230. 66 note Schwegier. 130 note Steinhart. 19. 101 E Solomon. note Rose. 287 ff. 7. TYR Stallbaum. 286 Speusippus. 104. 301 Saturninus. 294 Themistius. 29. 277 Seneca. L. 299 Sextii. - Suidas. 286 Sextus Empiricus. 92. J. 346 Sophists. 349 Schleiermacher.. 254. 66 note. 122. 114 Simplicius. if. 29. 88 ff. 268 Tubero. later. von. 319 Solon. 8. 27 Sopater. 226 Peripatetic. 277 Sceptics. Schaarschmidt. 126 note. 283 Stein. 179. 282 Sosigenes. 14. 15. 130 note Synesius. 328 note Ritter. Strabo. 314 Theodas (Theudas). Teichmtiller. 132. 10. 107. 45 note Schaubach. INDEX. 177 note Stobasus. 37. 244. 126 -note. 10. 295 of Alexandria. 229 ff. 301 Tyrannio. 13 2. 131 Sturz. 55. 276 ff. 297. kJ 347 Salonina. 8. 308 Timon. 132 Schmidt. the. 16. 25. 225 Striimpell.. 132 Socrates. 14 Siro. 302... 256 Socher. 328 Sarpedon.362 BIB . 125 of Asine. 84 note 1 130 Susemihl. 282 Theophrastus. 130 note. 11. 31. 15 Tertullian. 40 note 1 Roth. 8 Theodoras the Atheist. 165 Sphaerus.later . older. 275. 174 note Scipio jEmilianus. 122. 226 Scsevola. 137 Sophroniscus. 295 Sotion the Peripatetic. 10. 288 if. 254 . 1 1 5 131 Richter. 130 note Stilpo. 279 Strato. 282 Meo-arian Thrasymachus the 115 the Rhetorician. 270 Teles. 300 ff. 32. 76.

285. 93 A 319 YALCKENAER. 355 Victorinus. the Gnostic. 294 Vatinius. 231. 104. 133 102 Xeriarchus. 277 the Epicurean. 61 note Vegetius. 307 Vatke. Xenophon. 63 of Citium. 233 ff. 10. Valentinus V 315 Varro. of Tarsus. 58 ff. 165. 276 YTrAOHSMUTH. 117 note Zeuxippus.. 303 Zeuxis. TTEB 363 ZIE TTEBERWEG. 166 Xenophanes. 10. 303 Ziegler. 113 ff. 355 Xenocrates. LI 7ALEUCUS. 92. U 17. VV 18 Winckelmai Winckelmann. 17 PRINTED BY SrOTTISWOODE AND CO. 130 note Usener. 256. NEW-STREET SQUARE LONDON . 306 Zeno of Elea.INDEX. 283 Xeniades.

.

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