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Caitlin Jade Esparza Due: 8/16/11 Moore 1) The West Before 1300 Questions The Paleolithic era was

hunter-gatherers and stone tools. However, the Neolithic Era brought the development of more advanced tools which in turn helped develop and improve the farming. Farming was the major change in this era, from hunting and gathering to farming allowed for the development of more permanent settlements. Rivers were a main resource for food, water, and transportation, and so many civilizations such as Mesopotamia, sprung up around them. Around 3500 BC, Mesopotamia began to establish kingdoms and emperors. Many early civilizations were polytheistic, which means believing in multiple gods. Hebrew monotheism set the stage for future monotheistic societies. A polis is a city-state, individually ruled but loosely tied to other city-states to form a country. Athens was democratic, whereas Sparta was military ruled. Sparta had to be strictly ruled in order to control those that they conquered and in order to continue conquering. Athens had an overall basis in learning and the arts whereas Sparta priotized their military and all parts of their society revolved around creating their armies, raising boys from a very young age to fight. Rome conquered most of central and southern Italy; this was relatively easy because they all held a similar culture. However, outside of the Italian peninsula, conquered lands were much less unified. They had fewer rights than those who lived immediately around Rome, or in it. However, they were still relatively autonomous, mostly just paying taxes to Rome. Over population, barbaric tribes continuous attacks, and the tax system causing economic turmoil led to the fall of Rome. The economic problems mostly came from continuous raising of taxes to pay for the expensive city of Rome and the armies. Augustuss solution involved was a sharing of power, with a council doing the electing, but in reality, he held all the power, it was simply a monarchy in disguise. Rome ran so smoothly however, because of the Republic basis and participation of citizens in the government. Also, local governance appeased more people than wide national control could. Jesus of Nazarith was poor and spreads Christianity, after he dies, it continues to grow. When the treaty allows the bishops more power they were to even further spread the word of Christianity. Rome and Christianity did at first not get along, Rome being polytheistic and Christianity monotheistic. Ironically however, Christianity late became the main religion of Rome. There was competition between the church and nobles for power, so Charlemagne formed an alliance with the church and created the Holy Roman Empire. The church held a leadership role for a very long time after that, only beginning to lose power during the Renaissance. Feudal society formed because people were looking for protection. So they would give part of their crop to a lord for protection. The feudal society had some sort of lord or nobility (only the king being above them) then knights, then merchants and tradesmen, and at the bottom the peasant farmers.

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Caitlin Jade Esparza Due: 8/16/11 Moore 7) National monarchies developed differently in England and France and these differed even more from the set-up of the Holy Roman Empire. Although nobility still held a lot of power, in England and France, the monarchies asserted considerably more control over their nobles during this time. Central political authority became established in matters of law, military affairs, and taxation. In England the Magna Carta allowed the monarchy to remain intact and its legitimate rights were duly recognized and preserved. In France, the Norman conquest of England stirred France to unity. Victories by Phillip II Augustus unified France around the monarchy and laid the foundation for French military and political ascendency later on. The French people began to associate their king with justice, and national feeling was the glue of the nation. The Holy Roman Empire on the other hand, was decentralized, the only center really being the churchs control. Local lords did much of the ruling.