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# Why do race cars have spoilers on the back Sports cars are most commonly seen with front

and rear spoilers. Even though these vehicles typically have a more rigid chassis and a stiffer suspension to aid in high speed maneuverability, a spoiler can still be beneficial. This is because many vehicles have a fairly steep downward angle going from the rear edge of the roof down to the trunk or tail of the car. At high speeds, air flowing across the roof tumbles over this edge, causing air flow separation. The flow of air becomes turbulent and a low-pressure zone is created, increasing drag and instability (see Bernoulli effect). Adding a rear spoiler makes the air "see" a longer, gentler slope from the roof to the spoiler, which helps to delay flow separation. This decreases drag, increases fuel economy, and helps keep the rear window clean. JC 10.72 A garden hose has an interior diameter of 0.95 cm and a nozzle with a 0.40-cm-diameter opening. (a) If 30 liters per minute flow through the hose, what is the speed of the water emerging from the nozzle? (b) If the nozzle is held horizontally 1. 1 in above level ground, how far will the stream go before it hits the ground? [40m/s, 19m] JC 10.78 A block of oak wood floats at the interface between gasoline and water (Fig. 10.40). One-third of the volume of the block is in the water and two-thirds of the block is in the gasoline. What is the density of the block? [0.56x10^3kg/m^3] Density altitude affects the landing performance of an airplane as greatly as it affects take-off performance. High temperature and high elevation will cause an increase in the landing roll because the true airspeed is higher than the indicated airspeed. Therefore, even though using the same indicated airspeed for approach and landing that is appropriate for sea level operations, the true airspeed is faster, resulting in a faster groundspeed (with a given wind condition). The increase in groundspeed naturally makes the landing distance longer and should be carefully considered when landing at a high elevation field, particularly if the field is short. Aerodynamic Design Improves Gas Mileage

A car's overall body shape and design has an impact on its gas mileage rating. Big, bulky, upright cars experience greater wind resistance against their body frames during normal operation, especially at highway or freeway speeds. On the other hand, aerodynamic cars that have rounded fenders, sloped windshields and side glass, and rounded roof lines, experience much less wind resistance and are able to cut through the air much easier, which increases gas mileage by eliminating the braking, stopping effects of wind resistance. Due to their sloped, rounded designs, aerodynamic cars are designed to resist and deflect wind and air resistance. Instead of pushing directly against the car's front end, windshield, or roof line, an aerodynamic car has no square, upright body parts for wind to act against, almost like a braking mechanism. Instead, air and wind sail over the rounded, sloping body parts.

Read more: How Does a Car's Design Affect Its Gas Mileage? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4924207_design-affect-its-gasmileage.html#ixzz1Q0n0fzQF

For an ideal fluid flow the energy density is the same at all locations along the pipe. This is the same as saying that the energy of a unit mass of the fluid does not change as it flow through the pipe system.

* A compressed fluid or gas has the ability to do work if it is allowed to expand, i.e. it has stored energy. The magnitude of the pressure P is equal to the Potential Energy per unit volume due to the Hydrostatic Pressure in the fluid. Note that the unit of pressure even can be expressed at a unit of energy density, Pa = N/m2=(N. m)/(m2 . m) = J/m3. * The kinetic energy density can be though of a pressure exerted by the fluid due to its motion. * We have already seen that gravitational potential energy density, gh, is just the pressure of a fluid due to its weight.

What is going on? Normally the ball would fall down under gravity but because you are blowing upwards the air hitting the ball is pushing it upwards. However the ball doesn't fall off the stream of air and if you feel the stream it feels very narrow and rounded, it ought to fall off, but for some reason doesn't. This is an example of what is called the Coanda effect. When fluids, including air (which is a form of fluid), flow over a curved surface they follow the surface and "stick" to it. You can also see the Coanda effect at work by dribbling water down the back of a spoon it will stick to the spoon and get deflected, as shown in the image on the left. In our experiment, if the ball is in the centre of the stream of air, the air will flow around it symmetrically and leave the ball moving in the in the same direction as it met it. However if the ball moves out of the centre of the air stream, say to the left, there is going to be much more air sticking to the right hand side than the left. this means that it will keep on sticking to the surface of the ball and get deflected to the left.

When the ball is in the centre the forces from the As the ping pong ball moves to the left it drags the air stream in the same direction. The air going around both sides cancel out. air stream exerts an equal and opposite force on it so it is pulled back towards the centre.

There's a very important physical law called Newton's 3rd law of motion, which says that every action has an equal and opposite reaction, which means that if you push something it pushes back. So because the ball is pulling the air to the left, the air will pull the ball to the right. Moving it back into the centre of the air stream. In fact you can even tilt the straw or the hair dryer to one side and the ball will stay floating in the angled air stream, due to the Coanda effect.