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Fluid Statics Objectives:

Briefly describe the states of matter and define the concepts

of condensed matter, fluids and fluid statics. Discuss the density and specific gravity of a substance, understood the concept of pressure at a point in a fluid, know the variation of pressure with depth and distinguish between absolute and gauge pressure. Explain Pascals law and Archimedes principle and know the origin of buoyant force. Understand surface tension and the concept of capillarity. c. Hydrostatic Pressure, Ph consider:

Fluid Statics - is the study of the properties of fluid at rest. 1.3 Pressure and Variation of Pressure with Depth a. Pressure - is defined as force per unit area A fluid at rest exerts a force, F, perpendicular to any surface area A in contact with it, such as body immersed in a fluid or the container wall itself. The pressure at a point within a fluid is defined as the ratio of the force, F, acting perpendicular to a small element of such area, A, at a point:

Where: Ph h g = = = = = Hydrostatic Pressure, kN/m2, lb/in2, kg/cm2 Density, kgm/m3, N/m3, lbm/ft3 Height of fluid, m, in, cm, ft Acceleration due to gravity,m/s2 9.8066 m/s2, 32.174 ft/s2
Above Atmospheric Pressure Gage Pressure

Where: P F A = Pressure, kN/m2, lb/in2, kg/cm2 = Force, N, lb,kg = Area, m2, in2, cm2

Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum Pressure Below Atmospheric Pressure Absolute Pressure Absolute Zero Pressure or total Vacuum Absolute Pressure

b. Absolute Pressure, Pabs is understood to be the total or true pressure of a fluid.

The equation will become: The standard reference atmospheric pressure is: 1at m = 0Kpag = 29.92 in Hg = 14.7 psi = 101.325 Kpa = 760 mm Hg = 760 Torr = 10.3323 m H2O = 1.01325 bar = 1.033 kg/cm2 = 100 Kpa Consider hydrostatic pressure:

If the absolute pressure is required, Pn will be replaced by Patm then,

b. Differential Manometer

1ba r

Manometers: a. open manometer or

Patm Pm

Pm h3

Pn . 1 H2O .3 .2 Hg

single U-tube




H2O .2 .1



Pressure at the bottom left = pressure at the bottom right hence:


Apply: Pressure at the bottom left = pressure at the bottom right hence: Consider hydrostatic pressure:

Since the right side is open to the atmosphere, therefore the gage pressure at n is zero it follows that Pn = 0

1.4 Pascals Principle If the pressure is increased by a certain amount, the pressure at any depth increases by exactly the same amount. The first man to notice this fact was the French scientist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) and a physical law, known as Pascals law, was named after him. It states that: The pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the confining vessel Maintaining that the pressure remains unchanged throughout a confined fluid makes possible the amplification of a relatively small force to a much bigger one if the surface area is significantly increased. This is the basis for the operation of hydraulic machineries, the brake system of cars, or even a barbers chair. Pascals law also enable the transmission of forces over a long distance to relatively inaccessible location as in the wing flaps of an airplane. Consider hydraulic lift: f F

Where: p = Pressure in the small chamber/cylinder caused by applied force P = Resulting Pressure in the large chamber/cylinder f = Force applied in the small chamber/cylinder F = Resulting force in the large chamber/cylinder caused by applied force a = area of small chamber/cylinder A = area large chamber/cylinder 1.5 Archimedes Principle The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest gives rice to force acting perpendicular to the surface of a submerged at that point. Since the pressure at all point on the same level in the fluid are equal, all the forces acting along the sides of the submerged body cancel out. For every sideward force on one side, we find an equivalent force on the other side at the same level as the first, which is acting in the same direction. However, the forces along the top and the bottom surfaces of the submerged body do not cancel out because of the variation of pressure with depth. Along the upper surface of the submerged body, the pressure is less because the depth is smaller. Along the lower surface of the submerged body, the pressure is larger because the depth is greater. The upward force due to the fluid pressure at the bottom must also be bigger. The pressure difference between the top and the bottom surface of a submerged body therefore gives rise to a net upward force called the buoyant force. According to Archimedes Principle: A body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body

a A


Wo = W ei gh t of 1.6 Buoyancy - the tendency of an object to float

jec t in air Case 1: Weight of Object in Air o = De nsi ty Vo of ob jec Where: tVo = Vo lu m Case 2: if the object is floating e WO of ob jec Vo t V


WO d

Water surface

Water surface

1.7 Surface Tension Surface Tension is the cohesive quality of surface of liquid -the property of liquids that gives their surfaces a slightly elastic quality and enables them to form into separate drops. It is caused by the interaction of molecules at or near the surface that tend to cohere and contract the surface into the smallest possible area. a. Surface tension can be easily demonstrated by carefully placing a needle on the surface of a body of water, notice that it will float even if it is not partially submerged, so it not buoyed up because of Archimedes principle. The needle slightly depresses the surface molecules but it completely remains on water surface. b. Surface tension also causes freely suspended droplets of liquid to become spherical in shape because a sphere has the smallest surface-to-volume ratio of any geometric shape.

From the figure we can say that: BF=Wo Hence:

Water surface Case 3: if the object is submerged


Vo=Vd Wo Vo=Vd

Where: Vd

W = Vo, because all volume of object is totally displaced.


= Weight of object in air = Density of object = Volume of object



c. Substances like detergents which reduce the surface tension

when mixed with a liquid are called surfactants.

1. When the adhesive forces are large compared to the

cohesive forces, as in the case of water and in a glass, the surface of the liquid is concave upward as shown in (A) in the diagram that follows, the liquid is said to wet the surface of the other substance. When the adhesive forces are small compared to the cohesive forces, as in the case of mercury and glass, the liquid does not wet the surface of the other substance and the surface of the liquid is convex as shown (B) above. The curved liquid surface is called meniscus. The contact angle c between the wall and the tangent to the surface measures the relative magnitudes of the cohesive force and adhesive force. For a liquid that wets the surface, the contact angle is less than 90O. for a liquid that does not wet the surface the contact angle is greater than 90O. When the surface of a liquid is concave upward, the surface tension at the wall of the tube has a component upward. The liquid will rise in the tube until a net upward force on it due to the surface tension balanced by the weight of the liquid. This rise is called capillary action or just capillarity. Capillarity causes the rise of the liquid in blotting paper and of lamp oil in the wick. It is also responsible for holding water in the soil in the small spaces between soil particles. If it were not for capillarity, all the rain water would trickle downward, leaving the upper soil dry.

Surface Tension of Water in Contact with Air

h water

3. 4.

where: = Surface tension = Wetting angle = Specific wt. of liquid r = Radius of tube h = Capillary rise 1.8 Cohesion, Adhesion and Capillarity The attraction between similar molecules in a liquid is called cohesion, whereas the attraction between the molecules of a liquid and another substance, such as the wall of thin glass tube and water is called adhesion.



Problem Solving:

A. Density, Specific Volume, Specific Weight & Specific Gravity 1. 32 grams of a gas occupy a volume of 22 ltrs. What is the density of the gas in kg/m3? 2. An iron weighs 5N and has a volume of 200 cm3. What is the density of the block in kg/m3? 3. A batch of concrete consisted of 200lbs fine aggregate, 350 lbs coarse aggregate, 94lb cement and 5 gallons of water. The specific gravity of the sand and gravel may

be taken as 2.65 and that of the cement as 3.10. What is the weight of concrete in place in cubic foot? 4. A cylindrical tank 2m in diameter, 3m high is full of oil. If the specific gravity of oil is 0.90. What is the mass of oil in the tank? 5. 100 g of water are mixed with 150g of alcohol ( =790kg/m3). What is the specific volume and specific gravity of the resulting mixtures, assuming the fluid mixed completely? B. Pressure and Variation of Pressure with Depth 1. What is the pressure 8,000ft (2000m) below the surface of the ocean? Neglect the compressibility factor, in SI units. SG of salt water equal to 1.03. 2. The pressure reading of 35psi in Kpa is? 3. The barometer reads 29.0 inch of mercury. What is the absolute pressure if the vacuum gage reads 9.5 psi in SI? 4. A column of water 200cm high will give a pressure equivalent to? 5. What is the atmospheric pressure on a planet if the pressure is 100Kpa and the gage pressure is 10 Kpa C. Pascals Principle 1. The large piston in hydraulic lift has a radius of 20cm. What force must be applied to the small piston of radius 2cm to raise a car of 1500kg? D. Archimedes Principle 1. A 24 inch long rod floats vertically in water. It has a 1in2 cross section and has a specific gravity of 0.6. What length L is submerge? 2. What is the density of stone that weighs 19.9 lb (88N) in air and 12.4lb (55N) in water?