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# Logos

Steven Kowalski 2011

i Disclaimer: You may know how to rewrite something I’ve written. Please don’t give me answers. I want to ﬁgure it out on my own. My posting of these copies is a gift to you. If you wish to use my ideas, make sure to reference me. Furthermore, I am CLAIMING this thesis. If you have any questions as to what I mean by that, read my Copyright Notice at http://logos-logic.wikispaces.com/Index

Contents

0 Principle Foundations 0.0 Assumptions . . . . . 0.1 Tools and Resources 0.1.1 Tools . . . . . 0.1.2 Resources . . 0.2 Format . . . . . . . . 0.3 Introduction . . . . . 1 2 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 20

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1 Mathematical Foundations 1.0 History and Philosophy of Mathematics 1.1 Sets and Relations . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Operations and Groups . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Building Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Logic 2.0 History and Use of Logic . 2.1 Foundation of Logic . . . . 2.2 Ways to Prove Something 2.2.1 Direct Proof . . . . 2.2.2 Indirect Proof . . . 2.2.3 Counter-Example . 2.3 Theories . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 The Theory of Everything (TOE) 21 3.0 Story of TOE’s Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1 Construction of the Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ii

CONTENTS 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Physical Space . . . . . . . . . . . . Quasi-Abstract and Abstract Spaces Classiﬁcation of Information . . . . . The Supernatural Realm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 31 31 32 33 34

4 God and Persons 4.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Theories About God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 God does not Exist . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 God Exists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Proofs of God’s Existence . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 The Story of God, the Point . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Perspectives of God and God’s Relation to the

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Chapter 0 Principle Foundations

1

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS

2

Disclaimer: You may know how to rewrite something I’ve written. Please don’t give me answers. I want to ﬁgure it out on my own. My posting of these copies is a gift to you. If you wish to use my ideas, make sure to reference me. Furthermore, I am CLAIMING this thesis. If you have any questions as to what I mean by that, read my Copyright Notice at http://logos-logic.wikispaces.com/Index

0.0

Assumptions

Deﬁnition 0.0.1: A deﬁnition is an explicitly stated meaning of a word, symbol, or variable. Deﬁnition 0.0.2: An assumption of X is an ability to perform X. Assumption 1: Assumptions Listed

1. Let us assume that assumptions exist and that those listed in Section 0.0: Assumptions are true throughout the book. 2. Assume the assumptions in each section.

Deﬁnition 0.0.3: A chiﬀre is a base unit of writing (e.g., c, ∈, ⊂, 3, etc.). Deﬁnition 0.0.4: A letter is a chiﬀre used to spell words (all units in the alphabet, if it exists). Deﬁnition 0.0.5: A word is an un-spaced string of letters that has a meaning. Deﬁnition 0.0.6: A symbol is a chiﬀre or inseparable combination of chiﬀres (other than a word) that stands for an idea.

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS Deﬁnition 0.0.7: A number is a symbol that stands for a value. Assumption 2: Use of Words and Symbols

3

1. Assume the ability to use all words as deﬁned in Webster’s Dictionary and in this book. (a) If a word is deﬁned in a diﬀerent manner in Logos, assume the Logos deﬁnition. 2. Assume (1)standard sentence structure in American English and (2)structure of words and symbols deﬁned in Logos. 3. Assume the symbols deﬁned in the book. Assumption 3: Principle of Non-contradition

1. Given conditions X and Y , if X is true, then ¬X (not X) is false; and if ¬Y is true, then Y is false.

Deﬁnition 0.0.8: An axiom is an assumption of the existence of X. Deﬁnition 0.0.9: Given X and Y are conditions, X implies Y means if X is satisﬁed, then so is Y , or X’s existence constitutes the existence of Y . This can be stated Y is an implication of X. Assumption 4: Logical Implications of Assumptions and Axioms 1. If an Axiom of a Theory asserts the existence of X and Y , we may assume that X and Y exist.

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS Deﬁnition 0.0.10: A conjecture is a statement that can be proven true or false. Deﬁnition 0.0.11: A theorem is a conjecture logically implied by assumptions and axioms. Deﬁnition 0.0.12: A lemma is a theorem used to prove a part of the main theorem. Deﬁnition 0.0.13: A corollary is a theorem logically implied by the main theorem. Assumption 5: Logical Implications of Theorems

4

1. Given conditions {X, Y ,...} and given a conjecture, Z, if proven that {X,Y ,...} imply Z then when supplied with {X, Y ,...} we may automatically assume Z. (a) This general theorem would read: “Given X, Y ,... , Z”, “Let {X, Y ,...} then Z”, “If {X, Y ,...}, then Z”, or “{X, Y ,...} ⇒ Z”. 2. Given a theorem, W : {X, Y, ...} ⇒ Z and a theorem A : Z ⇒ B,there is a new theorem, C : {X, Y ,...} ⇒ B Lemma 0.0.1: Given conjectures, X and Y , if X ⇒ Y is true X false. Y is

Proof. Let X and Y be conjectures and let Theorem A: X ⇒ Y be true. Then X implies Y . Thus to state X does not imply Y would be false. Therefore ¬A: X Y is false. Lemma 0.0.2: Suppose an axiom asserts the existence of X and a conjecture, A, states that X implies Y . If Y is false, then A is false.

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS

5

Disclaimer: You may know how to rewrite something I’ve written. Please don’t give me answers. I want to ﬁgure it out on my own. My posting of these copies is a gift to you. If you wish to use my ideas, make sure to reference me. Furthermore, I am CLAIMING this thesis. If you have any questions as to what I mean by that, read my Copyright Notice at http://logos-logic.wikispaces.com/Index

0.1

Tools and Resources

Deﬁnition 0.1.1: A tool, X, is something used to create a product, Y .

0.1.1

Tools

Suppose Y is Logos. There are three general tools I shall use: X1 : my mind, X2 : my body, and X3 : my computer. My mind To create or recreate ideas, I must use the components of my mind. Generally stated, these include my sense of imagination and sense of reason which base themselves on my memory. These components are related to my brain and hence my body. Thus,... My body I use verbal communication (mouth and voice), body movement, sense of hearing (ears), and sense of vision (eyes) to create a resource based on memory, which forms itself by expressing and witnessing ideas and actions with/of others and myself (REWRITE!!!). I use my vision to read words and add to the aforementioned resource. And, in typing, I use my manual digits (movement) to record information as well as my sense of vision to read what I type. My computer To create the words, equations, and diagrams in this book, I shall use the hardware of the computer (i.e. keyboard, mouse, monitor, A etc.). In addition, I shall use L TEX, a program used to create documents, which uses packages that provide the capability to type information, create equations, and include diagrams. The diagrams will be created using Microsoft Oﬃce® or Adobe Illustrator® .

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS

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Deﬁnition 0.1.2: A resource,X, of a product, Y , is a “raw” supply used to create Y .

0.1.2

Resources

The resources I shall use in creating this work are: words, symbols, depictions, and mind content. Words To express ideas, I choose to use words in the English language and in other languages. For the foreign and focal words I use, I shall supply a deﬁnition. Symbols For recurring concepts (such as an “imply”), broad concepts (such as “plus” (see Section 1.3)), and relative concepts (such as variables), I may wish to use a symbol. I will deﬁne the symbols used. Depictions Sometimes depictions, such as diagrams, express a concept better than words and symbols. In addition, diagrams aid in a person’s comprehension of an idea expressed using these words and symbols. Thus, as a visual aid, I will supply diagrams to help in this area. Mind Content It’s possible to put together a random conﬁguration of words and symbols and to include an irrelevant drawing. However, my goal is to use these three resources to express my knowledge database of information. This database is a product of my experience in learning concepts and ideas of others. In addition to this personal experience, I have developed concepts and theories of my own making using my senses of reason and imagination. All of these concepts, theories, and ideas are either recorded in my memory or to be developed through writing this dissertation. Therefore, in [THE PART ON RECOGNITION], I will recognize key minds and products of minds used to develop this work.

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS

7

0.2

Format

CHAPTER 0. PRINCIPLE FOUNDATIONS

8

0.3

Introduction

Chapter 1 Mathematical Foundations

9

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS

10

1.0

History and Philosophy of Mathematics

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS

11

1.1

Sets and Relations

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS

12

1.2

Functions

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS

13

1.3

Operations and Groups

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS

14

1.4

Building Arithmetic

Chapter 2 Logic

15

CHAPTER 2. LOGIC

16

2.0

History and Use of Logic

CHAPTER 2. LOGIC

17

2.1

Foundation of Logic

CHAPTER 2. LOGIC

18

2.2

2.2.1

Ways to Prove Something

Direct Proof

Deduction Induction

2.2.2

Indirect Proof

Proof by Contradiction Proof by Contraposition

2.2.3

Counter-Example

CHAPTER 2. LOGIC

19

2.3

Theories

CHAPTER 2. LOGIC

20

2.4

Systems

Chapter 3 The Theory of Everything (TOE)

21

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

22

3.0

Story of TOE’s Creation

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

23

3.1

Construction of the Theory

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

24

3.2

Physical Space

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

25

3.3

Quasi-Abstract and Abstract Spaces

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

26

3.4

Classiﬁcation of Information

CHAPTER 3. THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

27

3.5

The Supernatural Realm

Chapter 4 God and Persons

28

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

29

4.0

Introduction

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

30

4.1

Persons

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

31

4.2

4.2.1

Theories About God

God does not Exist

Our existence is a process of haphazard occurrences. These occurrences stem from a source that spontaneously and haphazardly brought them about. But wait... That can’t happen! For this source must have also been caused by a source. And this pre-existing source from which all sources stem would have to have spontaneously created them... meaning this source has either been programmed to function this way by itself or by some intentional system with the ability to program the source, which would imply a creative and intelligent mind’s existence before the time everything was set into motion. Sounds too much like God. OK... Everything was just mysteriously here ever since the beginning of time; and time started... by some haphazard occurrence... Alright, third time’s a charm. There was no beginning. There is no end. Everything that exists has always just existed from time extended from negative inﬁnity to the present. There is no reason for our existence. Objects in motion have always been in motion. It is only by the principle of serendipitous chance that life exists, that I am capable of reason, and that Math, the product of pure logic, is parallel to the Laws of Physics. My sense of reason is probably askew, but there’s no way of knowing this because I am conﬁned to my mind, an alternative reality serendipitously created by neurons ﬁring, and these neurons ﬁre from some serendipitous neuron ﬁring mechanism which stems from... neurons ﬁring (among other things). Oh how grateful I am, dear Serendipity!

4.2.2

God Exists

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

32

4.3

Proofs of God’s Existence

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

33

4.4

The Story of God, the Point

CHAPTER 4. GOD AND PERSONS

34

4.5

Perspectives of God and God’s Relation to the World