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MANUFACTURE OF UREA FORMALDEHYDE


RESIN
(250 TONNES PER DAY)

PRO1ECT REPORT
(05CH88)
Subm|tted by
AkLMC CVUNG (06Cn08)
AGNANAkAkASAM (06Cn21)
NIkA1C SWU (06Cn30)

under Lhe guldance of

DrM1nIkUMAkIMUkUGAN
Se|ect|on grade |ecturer

ln parLlal fulfllmenL of Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe award of Lhe degree of

8ACnLLCk CI 1LCnNCLCG
IN
CnLMICAL LNGINLLkING









DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
COIMBATORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(A Govt. Aided Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University Coimbatore)
COIMBATORE-641014
APRIL-2010

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COIMBATORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(A Govt. Aided Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University Coimbatore)
COIMBATORE - 641014
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

8CNAIIDL CLk1IIICA1L

@hls ls Lo cerLlfy LhaL Lhe dlsserLaLlon of Lhe ro[ecL Work (03CP88) enLlLled
MANUFACTURE OF UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN


submlLLed by ls a
record of bonaflde work carrled ouL by hlm as a parLlal fulfllmenL of Lhe
requlremenLs for Lhe award of Lhe degree of 8achelor of @echnology ln Chemlcal
Lnglneerlng of Anna unlverslLy Chennal




ro[ect Gu|de nead of the Department


|ace Co|mbatore
Date

CerLlfled LhaL Lhe candldaLe was
examlned by us ln Lhe 8C!LC@ WC8k and vlvA vCCL LxamlnaLlon held
on




Interna| Lxam|ner Lxterna| Lxam|ner


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We take this opportunity to thank and show our gratitude to our respected and beloved
guide Dr.M.Thirumarimurugan, Selection Grade Lecturer, Department oI Chemical
Engineering, Coimbatore Institute oI Technology who has been with us in each and every point
oI time throughout the course oI the project work directing us in the right path. We express our
sincere gratitude Ior his constant advice without which this project would not have materialized.
We also greatly indebted to Prof.S.Gopalakrishnan, Head oI the department,
Department oI Chemical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute oI Technology Ior his valuable
support, suggestions and constant encouragement.
We express our sincere and heartIelt thanks to our beloved Principal, Dr.V.Selladurai
Coimbatore Institute oI Technology Ior having given us the opportunity and Iacilities to carry out
our project.
We would also like to express our heartIelt gratitude to the Management Ior their patient
and kind supervision. It has been a privilege to work under their guidance and we owe the
completion oI our project to their encouragement and support.
We would also like to thank the Faculty of Chemical Engineering Department, Ior
their constant availability to clear any doubts that arose during any part oI the project.
We also extend our thanks to the Non-Teaching Faculty Members oI the Department
Ior their vital help and support.
We would like to thank our Librarian and other staff of the library Ior providing us
with the material we needed Ior materializing this project and Ior their cooperation and
coordination during the course oI the project.




4

CONTENTS
S.NO TITLE PAGE.NO

ABSTRACT i

LIST OF SYMBOLS ii

1 INTRODUCTION 2

2 LITERATURE SURVEY 13

3 PROPERTIES 18

3.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 18

3.2 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 20

3.3 THERMAL PROPERTIES 20

3.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 21

3.5 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 21


3



4 USES AND APPLICATIONS 24

4.1 UREA 24

4.2 FORMALDEHYDE 26

4.3 UREA FORMADEHYDE RESIN 28

5 VARIOUS METHODS 30

5.1 FORMALDEHYDE 30

5.2 UREA 30

5.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN 31

6 SELECTION OF THE PROCESS 33

6.1 FORMALDEHYDE 33


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6.2 UREA 33

6.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN 33

7 PROCESS FLOW SHEET 35

8 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 37

8.1 FORMALDEHYDE 37

8.2 UREA 38

8.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN 38

9 MATERIAL BALANCE 40

9.1 OVER ALL REACTANT BALANCE 40

9.2 UREA 41

9.3 FORMALDEHYDE 46

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9.4 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN 51
10 ENERGY BALANCE 58

10.1 UREA 58

10.2 FORMALDEHYDE 73

10.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN 81

11 DESIGN OF EQUIPMENTS 91

10.1 DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER 91

10.2. DESIGN OF EVAPORATOR 104

10.3. DESIGN OF ABSORBER 120

12 PLANT LOCATION 158

13 COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMICS 161

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14 SAFETY SHEET 169

15 PID DIAGRAM 180

16 PLANT LAYOUT 182

17 CONCLUSION 185

18 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187











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ABSTRACT

Urea Iormaldehyde resin condenser polymer. It is widely used as moulding
powder, pigments, and controlled release Iertilizer. But mostly urea Iormaldehyde
moulding powder is produced in most oI industry, because oI its commercial usage
in wood polishing industry

Urea Iormaldehyde is produced by condensation reaction between urea and
Iormaldehyde resin. And this urea Iormaldehyde resin is mixed with cellulose Iiller
in order to give moulding powder, then it will cured with curing agent like dye .

This project deals with the manuIacturing oI urea Iormaldehyde resin at a
capacity oI 250 tonnes per day. This project involves studying and gathering all the
preliminary inIormation required Ior urea Iormaldehyde resin manuIacture,
generating material and energy balances Ior the plant, designing the equipments
involved in the process oI manuIacturing, estimation oI the economics oI the plant,
layout oI the plant and analyzing the saIety and environmental aspects.

This project also deals with the manuIacturing deals about production oI
urea and Iormaldehyde. Urea production is discussed by once through process
because oI its simple in process and we Iormaldehyde production is discussed
based on the metal catalyst process








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11



IA1RODUC1IOA

12

CHAP1ER 1
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 DEFINITION
Any oI class oI strong,odorless,thermosetting resin Iormed by condensing
urea and Iormaldehyde ; used in making buttons,tableware,molding powder.
1.2 HISTORY
The Iirst patent on the condensation product oI urea Iormaldehyde was by
Hans john in about 1920 but he used no catalyst. Pollack and his co-workers in
Vienna used a verity oI catalyst and took out a number oI patents between 1920
and 1924.one oI which was Ior a glassy transparent resin which was given the
name Pollopas. Their eIIort were directed towards the so called organic glasses`.
But this was not achieved until much later by thermoplastic materials, especially
acrylics.
Goldschmidt and Neuss in Germany also worked on urea Iormaldehyde but
the Iirst commercially successIul thermosetting molding material was produced by
the British cyanides co.-based on a mixture oI thiourea and urea Iormaldehyde in
1928.
IG Farben developed urea Iormaldehyde especially as adhesives and stoving
lacquers with patents in 1925 and 1928. In 1933 the various Iirms making urea
Iormaldehyde materials agreed to exchange patent rights in order to avoid possible
disputes and rapid development Iollowed.

1.3 OTHER NAMES
UF resin, Urea methanal resin ,UF powder resin




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1.4 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

1.5 FORMATION OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE
The reaction is a condensation polymerization in which water is eliminated
as the hydrogen atoms Irom the ends oI one amino-group Irom each oI two urea
molecules combine with the oxygen atom Irom a methanal molecule. The
remaining CH
2
group Irom the methanal molecule then Iorms a bridge between
two neighboring urea molecules, as shown below. This process, repeated many
thousands oI times, Iorms long chains oI urea and methanal molecules linked in
this way.
Sometimes the second hydrogen atom on an amino-group will also react
with a methanal molecule, producing a branch in the chain, and chains may even
become cross-linked to each other. Eventually a random three-dimensional
network oI cross-linked chains is Iormed, giving a rigid structure and thus a hard
material.







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The product has many cross links:

1.6 GENERAL PROPERTIES

Consistency: Powder

Color : White
Odour Faint

Density : 0.5-0.55 g/cm 3

Volatile content : 2

Viscosity oI 50 solution : 0.5-0.55 g/cm 3

Density : 70-200 cp

pH (50 solution) : 7.5-8.5

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1.7 APPLICATIONS
1. UF powder resin is chieIly used as binder in wood panel products like plywood,
etc
2. UF resin commonly used when producing applications casing eg.desk lamps
3. Urea Iormaldehyde also used in agriculture as a controlled release source oI
nitrogen.
4. UF resin used to produce UF resin pigments
5. UF resin used to in manuIacture oI Ioams
6. UF resin can improve the paper strength even when it wet.
7. UF resin also used in manuIacture oI UF adhesive.

1.8 COMPANIES PRODUCING UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
1. Arora chemical works, Ghaziabad.
2. Composun polymer (P).LTD, Gujarat.
3. Eximcorp India PVT.LTD
4. Golden dyechem, Mumbai.
4. Harsiddhi resin industry, sojitra.
5. Impex international, Kolkata.
6. Piyanshu chemicals PVT.Ltd, Kolkata
7. Poly Iormalin Ltd, kerela.
9. Subh resin &Iuels PVT Ltd, Hyderabad.
10. Teral organics, siliguri.

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1.9 MANUFACTURING METHOD
Urea and Iormaldehyde undergo condensation reaction with cellulose Iilter
to Iorm urea-Iormaldehyde resin (molding compound).

1.10 UREA
1.10.1 HISTORY
Urea was Iirst discovered in urine in 1773 by the French chemist Hillarie
Rouelle.
In 1828, the German chemist Friedrich Wohler obtained urea by treating
silver isocyanate with ammonium chloride in a Iailed attempt to prepare
ammonium cyanate:
AgNCO NH
4
Cl (NH
2
)
2
CO AgCl
This was the Iirst time an organic compound was artiIicially synthesized
Irom inorganic starting materials, without the involvement oI living organisms.
The results oI this experiment implicitly discredited vitalism: the theory that the
chemicals oI living organisms are Iundamentally diIIerent Irom inanimate matter.
This insight was important Ior the development oI organic chemistry. His
discovery prompted Wohler to write triumphantly to Ber:elius: "I must tell you
that I can make urea without the use oI kidneys, either man or dog. Ammonium
cyanate is urea." For this discovery, Wohler is considered by many the Iather oI
organic chemistry.

1.10.2 IUPAC NAME
Diaminomethanal



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1.10.3 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE



1.10.4 OTHER NAMES
Carbamide,Carbonyl diamide,Carbonyldiamine

1.10.5 GENRAL PROPERTIES
Molecular Iormula (NH
2
)
2
CO
Molar mass 60.07 g/mol
Appearance white odorless solid
Density 1.32 g/cm
3

Melting point 132.7135 C
Solubility in water 108g/100ml(20C)
167g/100ml(40C)
251g/100ml(60C)
400g/100ml(80C)
733 g/100 ml (100 C)
Acidity (pK
a
) 0.18
Basicity (pK
b
) 13.82




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1.10.6 APPLICATIONS
1. Urea is used in the production oI resins and glues. Industrial resins are used in
the manuIacture oI such Iorestry products as plywood and oriented strand board.
2. Urea is used in the production oI Iiberglass insulation, Iorestry Iertilization and
on airport runways as a de-icer.
3. Urea is used in the control oI NOX emissions.
4. Urea Ammonium Nitrate liquid is used in eIIluent treatment
5.Urea is used as a nitrogen release Iertilizer as it hydrolyses back to 2NH
2
and
CO
2
but its most common impurity (biuret, NH
2
-CO-NH-CO-NH
2
) must be
present at less than 2 as it impairs plant growth. It is also used in many multi-
component solid Iertilizer Iormulations.
6. Its action oI nitrogen release is due to the conditions Iavoring the reagent side oI
the equilibriums which produce urea.
1.10.7 COMPANIES PRODUCING UREA
1. Fertilizer Corp. oI India, Gorakhpur.
2. Hindustan FERTILIZER Corp., Barauni.
3. Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers, Thal Vaishet.
4. National Fertilizers Ltd., Panipat.
5. Indian Farmers Fertilizer Corp. Ltd., Kalol.
6. Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore Ltd., Ambalamedu.
7. Coromandel Fertilizers Ltd., Baroda.
8. Gujarat State Fertilizers Co.Ltd. Baroda.
9. ICL-India Ltd., Kanpur.
10. Neyveli Lignite Corp., Neyveli.


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1.10.8 METHOD OF PRODUCTION PROCESS
1. Stamicarbon CO& Stripping Process:
2. Snamprogetti Thermal Stripping Process:
3. ammonium carbamate process
3.1total recycle process
3.2 partial recycle process
3.3.once through process

1.11 FORMALDEHYDE:
1.11.1 HISTORY:
Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde with the chemical Iormula HCHO.
Since its accidental production by Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov in 1859 and
subsequent discovery by A. W. HoImann in 1868, Iormaldehyde has become a
major industrial product. HoImann passed a mixture oI methanol and air over a
heated platinum spiral and then identiIied Iormaldehyde as the product. This
method lead to the major way in which Iormaldehyde is manuIactured today, the
oxidation oI methanol with air using a metal catalyst.
1.11.2 IUPAC NAME
Methanol
1.11.3 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE



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1.11.4 OTHER NAMES
Formol, methyl aldehyde.

1.11.5 GENERAL PROPERTIES
Molecular formula CH
2
O
Molar mass 30.03gmol
1

Appearance colorless gas
Density 1kgm
3
, gas
Melting point -117C (156)
oiling point -19.3C (253.9K)
Solubility in water ~ 100g/100 ml (20C

1.11.6 APPLICATION
Formaldehyde is a common building block Ior the synthesis oI more
complex compounds and materials. In approximate order oI decreasing
consumption, products generated Irom Iormaldehyde include urea formaldehyde
resin, melamine resin, phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxymethylene plastics, 1,4-
butanediol, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
Formaldehyde is a precursor to polyIunctional alcohols such as
pentaerythritol, which is used to make paints and explosives. Other Iormaldehyde
derivatives include methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, an important component in
polyurethane paints and Ioams, and hexamine, which is used in phenol-
Iormaldehyde resins as well as the explosive RDX.
The textile industry uses Iormaldehyde-based resins as Iinishers to make
Iabrics crease-resistant.
It is also used as an ingredient by some shampoo manuIacturers

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Formaldehyde is still used in low concentrations Ior process C-41 (color negative
Iilm) stabilizer in the Iinal wash step, as well as in the process E-6 pre-bleach step,
to obviate the need Ior it in the Iinal wash
Formaldehyde solutions are used as a fixative Ior microscopy and histology

1.11.7 COMPANIES PRODUCING FORMALDEHYDE
1. Aegis Chemical Industries Ltd., Gujarat.
2. Assam Petrochemicals Ltd., Assam.
3. Bakelite Hylam Ltd., Hyderabad.
4. Chemicals & Resins (P) Ltd.,
5. Citabul Ltd., Gujarat.
6. Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd., Maharashtra.
7. Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Ltd., Gujarat.
8. Konkan Chemicals (P) Ltd., Maharashtra.
9. Nuchem Ltd., Haryana.
10. Pentasia Chemicals Ltd., Kudaikadu.

1.11.8 METHOD OF PRODUCTION
1. Silver Catalyst Process:
2. Metal Oxide Catalyst Process:



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LI1ERA1URE SURJEY

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CHAP1ER 2
2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 FORMALDEHYDE
J.N.Davidson, Waldo E Cohn, Serge Davidson, C.H.Hirs has given the
details on EIIects oI Formaldehdye on genetics apparatus oI the cell in process in
nucleic acid research and molecular biology, vol-46, published in 1993, page no38.
Lewis R.GoldIrank in his book GoldIrank`s Toxoligic emergencies which was
published in 1839 discussed about Formaldehyde disinIectants. National Research
Council (US) committee oI aldehydes gave an industrial production and uses oI
aldehydes (Iormaldehydes) in the book Formaldehydes and other aldehydes
published in 1981, page no 24-26.
Gopala Rao.M, Marshal Sitting gave the properties and production oI
Iormaldehyde in Dryden`s outline oI chemical technology, 3
rd
edition, page no
412-424. Kirk and Othmer gave the production and property oI Iormaldehyde in
Encyclopedia in Chemical Technology, 4
th
edition, page no 490-499, vol-11.Austin
G.T has given the production oI Iormaldehyde in Shreve`s Chemical Process
Industries, 5
th
edition ,page no 642. Martin E.Rogers, Timothy E.Long, has given
the details on Iormaldehyde and Iormaldehyde sources in the book Synthetic
Method in step growth polymer, page no 377-388. Lloyd Tataryn has discussed
about Iormaldehyde and the politics oI cancer in the book Formaldehyde on trial:
The Politics oI health in a chemical society, published in 1983, page no 108.
American Chemical Society has given the topic on Iormaldehyde in milk in
the Journal oI American Chemical Society, vol-23, published in 1901. William
Hillock Park, Anna Wessels Williams gave the detail on Pratical employment oI
Iormaldehyde in the book, Pathogenic micro organisms in 11
th
edition, published
in 1933, paged no 979-983. Carleton Ellis in his book, The Chemistry oI Synthetic
Resins, page no 511-659 has discussed about the preparation and production oI
Iormaldehyde. Manas Chanda, Sakil K.Roy has given the detail oI Iormaldehyde
resins in the book Plastic Technology handbook, page no 634-660. Maria
Guadalupe has given the topic on catalytic reaction synthesis Ior the partial

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oxidation oI methane in the book Process Design Ior production oI Iormaldehyde,
page no 133. The chemical society oI Great Britain gave the production or gaseous
Iormaldehyde Ior disinIecting in the Journal oI Chemical Society, page no 637.
Faith, Keyes and Clark`s has given the details oI Iormaldehyde in Industrial
Chemicals, 4
th
edition,page no 422-429.

2.2 UREA
James A.Kent has discussed about the production oI urea in Riegel`s
Handbook oI Industrial Chemistry,10
th
edition,page no;386-395. Jerry L.Atwood
and Jonathan W.Steed has given description about Urea Inclusion Chemistry in the
book Encyclopedia oI Supramolecule Chemistry,vol.2,page no1538-1540. Jon
Williams gave the preparation oI urea in the American Journal oI Pharmacy, page
no220. Ronald W.Atlas gave the preparation oI urea solution in Handbook oI
media in chemical microbiology,page no 472. DonaldL.Thompson an Saman Alavi
has discussed about urea and urea nitrate decomposition pathways in the Journal oI
Physical Chemistry,page no.2759-2770. Faith, Keyes and Clark has discussed
about urea in the book Industrial Chemicals,4
th
edition,page no854-857. Austin
G.T gave the production oI urea in Shreve`s Chemical Process Industries,5
th

edition,page no.511-513.
Gopala Rao.M and Marshal Sittting has given the Property and production oI
urea in Dryden`s outline oI Chemical Technology,3
rd
edition,paged no.131-139.
Kirk and Othmer has given the production and property oI urea in Encyclopedia in
Chemical Technology,4
th
edition,page no.297-311 in vol 11. Robert Heynard
Hutchins gave the details urea production and artiIicial production oI urea in the
book Gateway to great books,8
th
vol,published in 1963. The American Chemical
Society has given the details on determination oI urea in urine in Journal oI
American Chemical Society,vol.31, published in 1909,page no 721. Michael
Liebermab,Colleen M.Smith,Dawn B.Marks discussed the urea cycle in Mark`s
basic medical Biochemistry,3
rd
edition,page no 715.



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2.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
Austin.G.T discussed about the production and property oI Urea
Iormaldehyde moulding powder in Shreve`s Chemical Process Industries, 5
th

edition, page no652. Kirk and Othmer also discussed about the production and
property oI urea Iormaldehyde moulding powder in Encyclopedia in chemical
technology, 4
th
edition, page no 321-333, vol-2. Dr. B.K.Bhaskarao discussed
aout urea Iormaldehyde resin in the book Petrochemicals, 3
rd
edition.page no
269-270. Theodore Besterman described urea Iormaldehyde resins as a vehicle
Ior semi-permanent insecticidal and Iungicidal coatings in the Journal oI
Documentation, 9
th
vol, page no 157. Beat Meyer discussed about urea
Iormaldehyde resins in the book Urea Formaldehyde resins, page no 100,
published in 1979.
Zeno W.Wicks, Frank N.Jones discussed about Urea Formaldehyde resin in
the book Organic Coationg, 3
rd
edition, page no 288. Johannees Karl Fink
discussed about urea Iormaldehyde resin in the book Reactive Polymer
Iundamental and applications, page no 283-292.Joseph C.Salamone discussed
about the chemistry oI urea Iormaldehyde resins Iormation in Consire polymer
materials encyclopedia, page no 1597-600.Bassm Z.Shakashiri discussed urea
Iormaldehyde polymer in chemical demonstration,vol1, page no 227-228. Rasell
W.Burger discussed about urea Iormaldehyde in real estate home inspection, 5
th

edition, page no 442-443. Antonio Pizza and K.Mittal described about urea
Iormaldehyde adhesive in the handbook oI adhesive technology, 2
nd
edition, page
no 209-210.
Guenaehe A.L.Veleyes, Noel P.Roeger, discussed about the properties oI
urea Iormaldehyde in the book easy identiIication oI plastics and rubber, page no
1222-1226. Dorel Feldman discussed about urea Iormaldehyde preparation in the
book Polymeric building materials,page no 331-339. Sami Matar, Lewis F.Hatch
discussed properties and uses oI urea Iormaldehyde resin in Chemistry oI
Petrochemicals, 2
nd
edition, page no 349-350.William Aaron Cunningham
discussed about urea Iormaldehyde in Encyclopedia oI chemical processing and

26

design, vol-4,page no 436. Robert Salley discussed about urea Iormaldehyde
resins in the book Synthetic Resins and allied plastics, 2
nd
edition,page no 176.
John Brydron also discussed about urea Iormaldehyde resins in the journal oI
applied science, vol-77,page no 64-67. NPCS board oI consultants and engg.
Discussed on the uses and properties oI urea Iormaldehyde in the complete book
on adhesives, glues and resins technology, page no 770. NIIR board discussed on
the Iormation oI urea Iormaldehyde resins in the book Modern technology oI
Synthetic resins and their applications, page no 660.













27












PROPER1IES

28

CHAP1ER 3
3 PROPERTIES
3.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
3.1.1 FORMALDEHYDE
At ordinary temperature, pure Iormaldehyde is a colourless gas with a
pungent, suIIocating odour.
1. Density at 193 K : 915.1 kg/m
3

at 253 K : 815.3 kg/m
3
2. Boiling point at 101.3 kpa : 254 k
3. Melting point : 155 k
4. Vapour pressure, Antome constants
A: 9.21876
B: 959.43
C: 243.342
5. Heat oI vapourisation at 19
o
C : 923.3kj/mol
6. Heat oI Iormation at 25
o
C : 115.4 kj/mol
7. Standard Iree energy change at 25
o
C : 109.4 kj/mol
8. Heat capacity : 35.4 j/mol.K
9. Entropy : 212.8 j/mol.K
10. Heat oI combustion : 563.5 kj/mol
11. Heat oI solution at 23
o
C in water : 62 kj/mol
12. Critical constants.
Temperature : 137.2-141.2
o
C

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Pressure : 6.6784-6.637 mpa
13. Ignition temperature : 703 K

3.1.2 UREA
Colour : light brown, light yellow
Streak : yellow white
Density : 1323 kg/m
3
Melting point : 408K
Index reIraction : 1.484,1.602
Crystalline Iorm and habit : tetragonal, needles or prism
Bulk density : 740 kg/m
3

3.1.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

1. speciIic gravity: 1.47-1.52
2. water absorption, 24hr 3.2mm thick: 0.48
3. appearance: white
4. consistency: powder
5. density: 0.5-0.55
6. odor: Iaint





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3.2 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
3.2.1 UREA
Chemical Iormula : CO(NH
2
)
2
Molecular weight : 60.06 *10
-3
kg


Hydrogen: 6.71
Carbon : 20
Nitrogen : 46.65
Oxygen : 26.64
3.3 THERMAL PROPERTIES
3.3.1 UREA
Free energy oI Iormation at 25
o
C : -197.15J/mol
Heat oI Iusion : 25* 10
3
J/kg
Heat oI solution in water : 243* 10
3
J/kgK
SpeciIic heat at 0
o
C

: 1.434JkgK
50
o
C : 1.661 JkgK
100
o
C : 1.887 JkgK
150
o
C : 2.129 JkgK
Heat oI crystallization, 70
Aqueous urea solution : 460*10
3
J/kg






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3.3.2 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
1. thermal conductivity: 0.0001
2. coeIIicient oI thermal expansion,
0.00001 m/m c: 2.2-3.6
3. deIlection temperature at1.8 mpa: 103 c or 403k
4. continuous no load service temperature: 350 k


3.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
3.4.1 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
1. tensile strength: 38-48 mpa
2. elongation(): 0.5-0.1
3. tensile modulus: 110-120 m
4. Iluxural modulus: 9.7-10.3gpa
5. Iluxural strength: 70-124 mpa
6. impact strength: 14-18 j/m

3.5 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
3.5.1UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
1. dielectric strength,v/0.00254 cm
short time, 3.2 mm thick: 330-370
2. dielectric constant, 22.8 c at 60hz
103hz 7.7-7.9

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3. Dissipitation Iactor,22.8 c at 60hz
103hz 0.034-0.043
4. volume resistivity,22.8 c 50 rh ohm,cm: 0.5-500000000000
5. arc resistance, ohm 80-100
















33












USES AAD APPLICA1IOA

34

CHAP1ER 4
4 USES AND APPLICATIONS
4.1 UREA
4.1.1 AGRICULTURE
1. More than 90 oI world production is destined Ior use as a nitrogen-release
Iertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content oI all solid nitrogenous
Iertilizers in common use (46.7). ThereIore, it has the lowest
transportation costs per unit oI nitrogen nutrient
2. In the soil, it hydrolyses back to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The ammonia
is oxidized by bacteria in the soil to nitrate which can be absorbed by the
plants. Urea is also used in many multi-component solid Iertilizer
Iormulations. Urea is highly soluble in water and is, thereIore, also very
suitable Ior use in Iertilizer solutions (in combination with ammonium
nitrate: UAN), e.g., in 'Ioliar Ieed' Iertilizers.
4.1.2. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
1 Urea is a raw material Ior the manuIactuer oI many important chemicals,
such as
i. Various plastics, especially the urea-Iormaldehyde resins.
ii. Various adhesives, such as urea-Iormaldehyde or the urea-melamine-
Iormaldehyde used in marine plywood.
iii. Potassium cyanate, another industrial Ieedstock.
iv. Urea nitrate, an explosive.
2 Urea has the ability to trap many organic compounds in the Iorm oI
clathrates. The organic compounds are held in channels Iormed by
interpenetrating helices comprising oI hydrogen-bonded urea molecules.
This behaviour can be used to separate mixtures, and has been used in the
production oI aviation Iuel and lubricating oils, and in the separation oI
paraIIins.
3 As the helices are interconnected, all helices in a crystal must have the same
molecular handedness. This is determined when the crystal is nucleated and
can thus be Iorced by seeding. The resulting crystals have been used to
separate racemic mixtures.

33


4.1.3. AUTOMOBILE SYSTEMS
1. Urea is used in SNCR and SCR reactions to reduce the NO
x
pollutants in
exhaust gases Irom combustion, Ior example, Irom power plants and diesel
engines. The BlueTec system, Ior example, injects water-based urea solution
into the exhaust system. The ammonia produced by decomposition oI the
urea reacts with the nitrogen oxide emissions and is converted into nitrogen
and water within the catalytic converter.
4.1.4. OTHER COMMERCIAL USES
1. A stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives.
2. A component oI animal Ieed, providing a relatively cheap source oI nitrogen
to promote growth.
3. A non-corroding alternative to rock salt Ior road de-icing, and the
resurIacing oI snowboarding halIpipes and terrain parks.
4. A Ilavor-enhancing additive Ior cigarettes.
5. A browning agent in Iactory-produced pretzels.
4.1.5. LABORATORY USES
1. Urea in concentrations up to 10 M is a powerIul protein denaturant as it
disrupts the noncovalent bonds in the proteins. This property can be
exploited to increase the solubility oI some proteins.
2. A mixture oI urea and choline chloride is used as a deep eutectic solvent, a
type oI ionic liquid.
4.1.6. MEDICAL USE
1. Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration oI
the skin. II covered by an occlusive dressing, 40 urea preparations may
also be used Ior nonsurgical debridement oI nails. This drug is also used as
an earwax removal aid.
2. Like saline, urea injection is used to perIorm abortions. It is also the main
component oI an alternative medicinal treatment reIerred to as urine therapy.
3. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a measure oI the amount oI nitrogen
in the blood that comes Irom urea. It is used as a marker oI renal Iunction.

36

4. Urea labeled with carbon-14 or carbon-13 is used in the urea breath test,
which is used to detect the presence oI the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H.
pylori) in the stomach and duodenum oI humans, associated with ulcers. The
test detects the characteristic enzyme urease, produced by H. pylori, by a
reaction that produces ammonia Irom urea. This increases the pH (reduces
acidity) oI the stomach environment around the bacteria. Similar bacteria
species to H. pylori can be identiIied by the same test in animals such as
apes, dogs, and cats (including big cats).

4.2. FORMALDEHYDE
4.2.1INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
1. Formaldehyde is a common building block Ior the synthesis oI more
complex compounds and materials. In approximate order oI decreasing
consumption, products generated Irom Iormaldehyde include urea
Iormaldehyde resin, melamine resin, phenol Iormaldehyde resin,
polyoxymethylene plastics, 1,4-butanediol, and methylene diphenyl
diisocyanate.
2. When reacted with phenol, urea, or melamine Iormaldehyde produces,
respectively, hard thermoset phenol Iormaldehyde resin, urea Iormaldehyde
resin, and melamine resin, which are commonly used in permanent
adhesives such as those used in plywood or carpeting. It is used as the wet-
strength resin added to sanitary paper products such as (listed in increasing
concentrations injected into the paper machine headstock chest) Iacial tissue,
table napkins, and roll towels. They are also Ioamed to make insulation, or
cast into moulded products. Production oI Iormaldehyde resins accounts Ior
more than halI oI Iormaldehyde consumption.
3. Formaldehyde is also a precursor to polyIunctional alcohols such as
pentaerythritol, which is used to make paints and explosives. Other
Iormaldehyde derivatives include methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, an
important component in polyurethane paints and Ioams, and hexamine,
which is used in phenol-Iormaldehyde resins as well as the explosive RDX.
4. The textile industry uses Iormaldehyde-based resins as Iinishers to make
Iabrics crease-resistant.
5. It is also used as an ingredient by some shampoo manuIacturers.


37


4.2.2 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
1. Formaldehyde is a common component oI many niche uses. Formaldehyde,
along with 18 M (concentrated) sulIuric acid (the entire solution oIten called
the Marquis reagent), is used as an MDMA "testing kit" by such groups as
DancesaIe as well as MDMA consumers. The solution alone cannot veriIy
the presence oI MDMA but reacts with many other chemicals that the
MDMA tablet itselI may be adulterated with. The reaction itselI produces
colors that correlate with these components
4.2.3 AS A DISINFECTANT AND BIOCIDE
1. An aqueous solution oI Iormaldehyde can be useIul as a disinIectant as it
kills most bacteria and Iungi (including their spores).
2. It is also used as a preservative in vaccines.
3. Formaldehyde solutions are applied topically in medicine to dry the skin,
such as in the treatment oI warts.
4. Many aquarists use Iormaldehyde as a treatment Ior the parasites
ichthyophthirius and Cryptocaryon irritans.
5. Formaldehyde preserves or Iixes tissue or cells by irreversibly cross-linking
primary amino groups in proteins with other nearby nitrogen atoms in
protein or DNA through a -CH
2
- linkage. This is exploited in ChIP-on-chip
transcriptomics experiments.
6. Formaldehyde is also used as a denaturing agent in RNA gel electrophoresis,
preventing RNA Irom Iorming secondary structures.
4.2.4. IN PHOTOGRAPHY
1. Formaldehyde is still used in low concentrations Ior process C-41 (color
negative Iilm) stabilizer in the Iinal wash step, as well as in the process E-6
pre-bleach step, to obviate the need Ior it in the Iinal wash.





38



4.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
4.3.1 ADHESIVE RESIN
UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN adhesive resin are used in the
manuIacture oI plywood,in the IortiIication oI starch.
4.3.2 MOLDING POWDER
1. urea molding compound has Iound wide use acceptance in the electrical surIace
wiring device industry .typical application are circuit breaks, switches,wall plates
and duplex outlets.
2. It also used in colourless stove hardware,buttons and small housing.
4.3.3 COATING
1. Cured amino resins are Iar too brittle to be used alone as surIace coating Ior
metal (or) wood substrates but in combination with other Iilm Iormers
(alkyds,poly esters ,epoxies ) a wide range oI acceptable perIormance
property can be achieved.
4.3.4 TEXTILE FINISHES
1. Most amino resins commercially Ior Iinishing textile Iabrics are
methylolated derivatives oI urea although these products are usually
monomeric , they may contain some polymer by product . amino resins
react with cellulosic Iibers and change their physical property.






39













JARIOUS ME1HODS


40

CHAP1ER 5
5.JARIOUS ME1HODS

5.1FORMALDEHYDE
S11 SILVLk CA1ALS1 kCCLSS
ln Lhe early formaldehyde planLs meLhanol was caLalysL over a copper
caLalysL buL Lhls has been almosL compleLely replaced wlLh sllver @he sllver
caLalysed reacLlon occurs aL essenLlally aLmospherlc pressure and 600 630C
8eLween 3060 of formaldehyde ls formed by Lhe exoLhermlc reacLlon and Lhe
resL by endoLhermlc reacLlon Carbon monoxlde and dloxlde meLhyl formaLe and
formlc acld are Lhe byproducLs
S12 ML1AL CkIDL CA1ALS1 kCCLSS
CxldaLlon of meLhanol Lo formaldehyde wlLh vanadlum penLoxlde caLalysL
was flrsL paLenLed ln 1921 followed ln 1933 by a paLenL for an lronoxlde
molybdenum oxlde caLalysL CaLalysL are lmproved by modlflcaLlon of small
amounL of oLher meLal oxldes supporL on lnerL carrlers and meLhod of
preparaLlon and acLlvaLlon lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL 70 of Lhe new formaldehyde
lnsLalled capaclLy ls Lhe meLal oxlde process

S2 UkLA
5.2.1 STAMICARBON CO& STRIPPING PROCESS
ln Lhls sLrlpplng process Lhe maln lmprovemenL was Lhe reducLlon of sLeam
requlred per Lon or urea Lo 0 8093 from Lhe 18 Lon requlred ln Lhe
convenLlonal LoLal recycle process SLeam usage and elecLrlc power requlred can
be varled dependlng on Lhe flnal deslgn


41

S22 SNAMkCGL11I 1nLkMAL S1kIING kCCLSS
Pere nP& ls used as Lhe sLrlpplng agenL Cwlng Lo Lhe hlgh solublllLy of nP&
ln Lhe synLhesls llquld an overload of nP& occurred ln Lhe downsLream
reclrculaLlon secLlon of Lhe planL AL Lhls Llme only heaL ls supplled Lo Lhe sLrlpper
Lo remove unreacLed nP& and CC& 8ecause of Lhe hlgh nP& raLlo lL ls necessary
Lo have Lwo reclrculaLlon secLlons
S23 AMMCNIUM CAk8AMA1L kCCLSS
3231 @oLal recycle process
3232 arLlal recycle process
3233Cnce Lhrough process
ln Lhls process ammonla and co
2
are compressed separaLely and add Lo Lhe
hlgh pressure auLoclave @hls ls operaLed as conLlnuous process A mlxLure
ammonlum carbamaLe waLer and unreacLed ammonla and co
2
resulLed@hese
unreacLed reacLanL mlghL be recycled or used for anoLher purpose

5.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE
5.3.1 UREA FORMALDEHYDE MOLDING POWDER
Urea and Iormaldehyde is reacted in presence oI Iiller to give urea
Iormaldehyde molding powder.







42















SELEC1IOA OF
1HE PROCESS

43

CHAP1ER
6. SELECTION OF THE PROCESS
6.1 FORMLDEHYDE
Since liIe time oI metal oxide process is high compare with liIe time oI
silver process we have chosen to do project on metal oxide process

6.2 UREA
Since installation cost is low compare with other process and also simple in
process and low maintaining cost we have chosen to produce urea is once through
process
6.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
Since most commonly used product oI urea Iormaldehyde resin is urea
Iormaldehyde molding resin, and also only method available Ior production oI
urea Iormaldehyde molding resin, we have chosen to produce urea Iormaldehyde
resin.
As per current production oI urea Iormaldehyde molding resin in industry
we have chosen to produce 250tons/day oI urea Iormaldehyde molding resin.










44






































PROCESS FLOW SHEE1

43

CHAP1ER 7

7 PROCESS FLOW SHEE1















46











PROCESS DESCRIP1IOA

47

CHAP1ER 8
8 PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Production oI urea Iormaldehyde resin involves three steps .that has been
described in the Iollowing paragraphs.
8.1 FORMALDEHYDE
Vaporized methanol is mixed with air and optionally recycled tail gas and
passed through catalyst Iilled tubes in a heat exchanger reactor. Heat released by
the exothermic reaction is removed by vaporization oI a high boiling heat-transIer
Iluid on the outside oI the tubes. Steam is normally produced by condensing the
heat transIer Iluid. A typical reactor has short tubes oI 1.0 to 1.5 m and a large
shell diameter oI 2.5 m or more. Product leaving the bottom oI the reactor is cooled
and passed to the base oI an absorber. Formaldehyde concentration in the product
is adjusted by controlling the amount oI water added to the top oI the absorber.
Formaldehyde concentration in the product is adjusted by controlling the amount
oI water added to the top oI the absorber. A product up to 55 Iormaldehyde and
less than the 1 methanol can be made. Formic acid is removed by ion exchange.
The absence oI a methanol recovery tower is an obvious advantage over the
conventional silver process. However, the equipment has to be large to
accommodate the greater Ilow oI gas. The air-methanol lean side oI a Ilammable
mixture. II the oxygen in the total reactor Ieed is reduced to about 10 mol by
partially replacing air with recycled tail gas, then the methanol in the Ieed can be
increased somewhat without the danger oI Iorming an explosive mixture (103), and
Ior a given quantity oI production, gas Ilow (air plus cycle) can be reduced by 17
to 37(104).





48


8.2 UREA
Ammonia and CO are compressed separately and added to the high pressure
autoclave which must be water- cooled due to the highly exothermic nature oI the
reaction. The average residence time in the autoclave, which is operated on a
continuous basis, is 1.5-2hours.A mixture oI urea, ammonium carbamate, water
and unreacted NHCO results.
This liquid eIIluent is let down to 27 atms and Ied to a special Ilash-evaporator
containing a gas-liquid separator and condenser. Unreacted NH, CO and HO as
a solution are thus removed and recycled (partial recycle). An aqueous solution oI
carbamate-urea is passed to the atmospheric Ilash drum where Iurther
decomposition oI carbamate takes place. The oII-gases Irom this step can either be
recycled (partial recycle) or sent to NH processes Ior making chemical Iertilizer.
The 80 aqueous urea solution can be used as is, or sent to a vacuum evaporator to
obtain molten urea containing less than 1water. The molten mass is then sprayed
into a prilling or granular solidiIication tower. To avoid Iormation oI biuret in
percentages~1, the temperature must be kept just above the melting point Ior
processing times oI 1-2 secs in this phase oI the operation.

7.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE MOLDING POWDER RESIN
The Iormaldehyde and other reactants are charged to a kettle ,the PH
adjusted and charge heated. OIten the PH oI the Iormaldehyde is adjusted beIore
adding other reactants .aqueous Iormaldehyde is most convenient to handle.
In general, condition Ior the Iirst part oI reaction are selected to Iavor the
Iormation oI methylol compounds .aIter addition oI the reactants the condition
may be adjusted to control the polymerization. The reaction is stopped to give
stable syrup. it will blended with Iiller to make a molding compound.



49




















MA1ERIAL ALAACE

30


CHAPTER 9
9 MATERIAL BALANCE

9.1 OVERALL REACTANT BALANCE
To produce 250tons/day urea Iormaldehyde molding powder
Ammount oI rectant required
Urea105ton/day 4375kg/hr
Formaldehyde 105ton/day4375kg/hr
Cellulose Iiller 100ton/day4166.667kg/hr
Dye 3ton/day125kg/hr













31


9.2 UREA
9.2.1 REACTOR
Basis:4375kg/hr urea production




Conversion 53
2NHCO NHCOONH
4

Conversion 50
NHCOONH
4
NHCOONH
4
HO
Urea 4375Kg/hr 72.917kmol/hr
Water Iormed 184375/601312.5kg/hr
Ammonium carbamate Iormed 72.917/0.5145.833kg/hr
Ammonium carbamate unreacted 72.917 kmol/hr
Component Stream 1
kg/hr
Stream 2
kg/hr
Stream3
kg/hr
Urea 4375
Ammonia
carbamate
5687.5
Ammonia 9355.344 4397.016
CO 12106.92 5690.251
H0 1312.5
Total 9355.344 12106.92 21462.267

32

CO
2
required 145.833/.53275.157kmole/hr
275.1574412106.92kg/hr
NH
3
reguired 2275.157550.32kmol/hr
550.32179355.344kg/hr
Unreacted CO
2
275.157-145.833129.324kmol/hr
Unreacted NH
3
550.32-2145.833258.648 kmol/hr

9.2.2 FLASH EVAPORATOR





NH
3
removed Irom top 4397.016kg/hr
CO
2
removed Irom top 5690.251kg/hr
Urea leaving alone contains 20 water
Water in product 204375/801093.75kg/hr
component Stream 3
kg/hr
Stream 4
kg/hr
Stream5
kg/hr
Urea 4375 4375
Ammonium
carbamate
5687.5 5687.5
Ammonia 4397.016 4397.016
CO 5690.251 5690.251
H0 1312.5 218.75 1093.75
Total 21462.267 10306.017 11156.25

33

Water removed Irom top 1312.5-1093.75218.75kg/hr
9.2.3. DECOMPOSER
BASIS;5687.5kg/hr Ammonium carbamate decomposed



2NHCO NHCOONH
4
CO
2
Iormed 4478/5687.53208.333kg/hr
NH
3
Iormed 2175687.5/782479.167kg/hr






Component Stream 5
kg/hr
Stream 6
kg/hr
Stream7
kg/hr
Urea 4375 4375
Ammonia
carbamate
5687.5
Ammonia 2479.167
CO 3208.333
H0 1093.75 1093.75
Total 11156.25 5687.5 5468.75

34


9.2.4 VACUUM EVAPORATOR
Basis 99 oI molten urea is Iinal product




Amount oI water in product14375/9944.19kg/hr
Amount oI water removed Irom top1093.75-44.191049.56kg/hr








Component Stream
7 kg/hr
Stream
8 kg/hr
Stream
9 kg/hr
Urea 4375 4375
Ammonia
carbamate

Ammonia
CO
H0 1093.75 1049.56 44.19
Total 5468.75 1049.56 4419.19

33


9.2.5 MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR UREA






















36


9.3 FORMALDEHYDE
9.3.1 REACTOR
Basis;4375kg/hr Iormaldehyde product

Reaction;
CH
3
OH O
2
HCHOH
2
O
CH
3
OH 3/2 O
2
2H
2
0CO
2
Amount oI Iormaldehyde 4375kg/hr4375/30145.833kmol/hr
Yield 90
Yield
Amount oI CH
3
OH consumed 145.833/.9162.037kmol/hr5185.184kg/hr
Conversion 99
component Stream 10
kg/hr
Stream 11
kg/hr
HCHO 4375
N
2
10240.823 10240.823
O
2
3111.138
CO 712.976
H0 3208.338
CH
3
OH 5237.568 52.384
TOTAL 18589.529 18589.521

37

Demand oI methanol 162.037/.99163.674kmol/hr5237.568 kg/hr
Methonal unconsumed 163.674-162.037
1.637kmol/hr52.384kg/hr
Amount methanol in side reaction 162.037-145.833
16.204kmol/hr518.528kg/hr
WATER BALANCE
CH
3
OH O
2
HCHOH
2
O
H
2
O Iormed in main reaction 145.833kmol/hr2624.994kg/hr
CH
3
OH 3/2 O
2
2H
2
0CO
2
H
2
O Iormed in side reaction 216.20432.408kmol/hr583.344 kg/hr
Total water Iormed 2624.994583.3443208.338kg/hr
CO
2
BALANCE
CO
2
Iormed 16.204kmol/hr712.976 kg/hr
AIR BALANCE
O
2
demand in main rection 1/2145.833
72.917kmol/hr2333.328kg/hr
O
2
demand in side rection 16.2043/224.306kmol/hr
777.792kg/hr
Total O
2
demand 72.91724.30697.223kmol/hr
3111.138kg/hr
Air to be supplied 97.223100/21462.967kmol/hr
13351.959kg/hr
N
2
supplied with air 462.96779/100365.744kmol/hr

38

N
2
leaving reactor 10240.824kg/hr
9.3.2. ABSORPTION TOWER
Basis;37.5 oI Iormaldehyde solution












Component Stream 11
kg/hr
Stream
12 kg/hr
Stream 13
kg/hr
Stream 14
kg/hr
HCHO 4375 4375
N
2
10240.823 10240.823
O
2

CO 712.976 712.976
H0 3208.338 4083.329 7291.667
CH
3
OH 52.384 52.384
TOTAL 18589.521 4083.329 10953.799 11719.051

39


Amount oI water required to get 37.5 oI Iormaldehyde solution
62.54375/37.57291.667kg/hr
Water present in entring stream 3208.338kg/hr
Water to be supplied 7291.667-3208.3384083.329 kg/hr
Methanol at bottom 52.384 kg/hr


















60


9.3.3 MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR FORMALDEHYDE






















61


9.4 UREA FORMALDEHUDE MOLDING POWDER RESIN
9.4.1 REACTOR
BASIS; 4375kg/hr urea Ieed




conversion 100
Urea Iormaldehyde produced 437584/606125kg/hr
Water producced 437536/602625kg/hr
Water content in urea 44.19kg/hr
Water content in HCHO 7291.667kg/hr
Total water in produt 262544.197291.6679960.857 kg/hr



Component Stream
9 kg/hr
Stream 14
kg/hr
Stream15
kg/hr
HCHO 4375
UREA

4375
UREA
FORMALDEHYDE

6125
H0 44.19 7291.667 9960.857
CH
3
OH 52.384 52.384
TOTAL 4419.19 11719.051 16138.241

62



9.4.2 MIXER
BASIS;4166.667kg/hr cellulose Iiller added








Total product leaving product 61259960.8574166.66752.384
20304.908kg/hr




Component Stream 15
kg/hr
Stream16
kg/hr
Stream17
kg/hr
HCHO
UREA


UREA
FORMALDEHYDE

6125 6125
CELLULOSE FILLER
4166.667 4166.667
H0 9960.857 9960.857
CH
3
OH 52.384 52.384
TOTAL 16138.241 4166.667 20304.908

63



9.4.3 DRIER


Humidity oI inlet air H
1
.01805kg moisture/kg drier at 303k wb 298k
Humidity oI outlet air H
2
.0832kg moisture/kg drier at 393k wb 298k
Rise in humidity H
2
-H
1
.0832-.01805.06515 kg/kg dry air
Water removed in drier 9856.901kg
Fresh air to be supplied 9856.901/.06515151295.4873kg/kg dry air
Water with entering air 151295.4873.018052730.884kg/hr
Water with leaving air 2730.8849856.90112587.785kg/hr





64













Component Stream 18
kg/hr
Stream19
kg/hr
Stream20
kg/hr
Stream21
kg/hr
HCHO
UREA


UREA
FORMALDEHYDE

6125 6125
DRY AIR
151295.487 151295.487
CELLULOSE FILLER
4166.667 4397.016 4166.667
H0 9960.857 2730.884 12587.785 103.956
CH
3
OH 52.384 52.384 52.384
TOTAL 20304.908 154026.371 10395.623

63


9.4.4.BALL MILL
BASIS;125kg/hr dye is
added



Totalproduct leaviing the mill61254166.667103.90110479.167kg/hr










Component Stream21
kg/hr
Stream22
kg/hr
Stream23
kg/hr
HCHO
UREA


UREA
FORMALDEHYDE

6125 - 6125
dye
125 125
CELLULOSE FILLER
4166.667 4166.667
H0 103.956 103.956
TOTAL 10395.623 125 10520.623

66


8.3.5 MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR UREA FORMALDEHYDE

















67











EAERCY ALAACE

68


CHAPTER 10
10 ENERGY BALANCE
10.1 UREA
10.1.1VAPOURISER

Enthalpy oI NH entering mcpdT
9355.3445.80(307-273)
1844873.837KJ/hr
50
0
C , 1053.35kj/kg
Enthalpy oI NH
3
leaving mc
p
(323-273) mmc
p
(383-323)
(9355.3445.850)(9355.3441053.35)(9355.3442.360)
13858538.83kj/hr
Enthalpy oI steam entering mc
p
dT m

69

Enthalpy oI steam condenstate mc
p
dT

Entering leaving
1844873.837 mc
p
dT m mc
p
dT 13858538.83
m 12013664.99
m12013664.99/2113.2
m5685.058204kg/hr
enthalpy oI steam entering at 150
0
C and 4.760 bar
mc
p
dT m
(5685.0582044.312*150)(5686.0582113.2)
15690760.64kj/hr
Enthalpy oI condenser leaving mc
p
dT
5685.0584.312150 3677095.646kj/hr











70


10.1.2 REACTOR


Conversion 53
2NHCO NHCOONH
4 ,
AH -84 KJ/mol
Conversion 50
NHCOONH
4
NHCOONH
4
HO , AH 23 KJ/mol
Enthalpy oI NH
3
entering 1385538.83 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI C0
2
entering mC
p
AT


12106.920.843(303-273)
306184.0068 KJ/hr

71


Enthalpy oI water entering mC
p
AT
Enthalpy oI steam entering mC
p
AT m1970.7
Heat oI reaction 1 275.1578410
3
0.53
12249989.64 KJ/hr
Heat oI reaction 2 145.83310
3
(-23)0.50

-1677079.5 KJ/hr
Enthalpy oI product:
C
p mix
0.2039 1.9 0.26502.3 0.2049 2.409 0.26510.98
0.06124.39
2.0373 KJ/Kg.k
Enthalpy oI product

mC
p mix
dT
21462.2672.0373(458-273)

8089139.163 KJ/hr
Heat balance:
13858538.83 306184.0112249989.64- 1677079.5 8089139.163 m
m 16648493.82
m 16648493.82/1970.7
m 8448.010Kg/hr


Enthalpy oI water leaving mC
p
dT
8448.010 4.439 (464.6-273)


72


7185137.48 KJ/hr
Enthalpy oI steam entering mC
p
dT m1970.7
23833630.79KJ/hr.



10.1.3 HEAT EXCHANGER


Enthalpy of stream entering (8) 8089139.163kj/hr
Enthalpy of stream leaving(10) m C
p mix
dT
C
p mix
0.2039 1.56 0.26502.3 0.2049 2.18 0.26510.910 0.06124.21
1.873 KJ/Kg.k
Enthalpy of stream leaving(10) m C
p mix
dT21462.2671.873(413-273)
5627835.65kj/hr

73

Heat removed Q (8089139.163-5627835.65)2461283.51kj/hr
Energy of entering water mC
p
dTm4.18(30)
Energy oI water leaving mC
p
dTm4.18(70)
Energy balance
Water Ilow rateM
Q
CpdT

2461283.51
4.1840
14720.595kg/hr
Energy oI entering water mC
p
dT14720.7154.18(30)
1845977.661kj/hr
Energy oI water leaving mC
p
dT14720.7154.18(70)
4307281.209kj/hr


10.1.4 FLASH EVAPORATOR

74

Flash
evaporator
3627833 63k[/hr
413k
2948270 74k[/hr
423k
1361347 891k[/hr
373k
210614 33k[/hr
373k


Enthalpy oI entering stream 5627835.653kj/hr
Stream entering mc
p
dT m
m*4.13*100(m2258.4)

Water leaving m*4.13100
210614.3599kj/hr
Enthalpy oI NH mC
p(NH)
dT
4329.016*2.35*(423-273)
1525978.14kJ/hr
Enthalpy oI CO
2
0.959*5690.251(423-273)
818542.6064kJ/hr

73

Enthalpy oI H
2
O mCpdT m
218.75*4.312*1423.2731(218.75*2113.2)
` 603750kJ/hr
Total 6037501525978.14818542.6064
2948270.746kJ/hr
C
p(urea)
1.762,C
p(acetic acid)
2.3
C
mix
(0.39221.679)(0.50982.3)(0.0984.312)
2.2884kj/hr
Enthalpy oI bottom stream 2.288411156.25(423-273)
3830498.438kj/hr
Energy balance.
Entering leaving
5627835.653(m4.13100) m 3830498.438(m4.13100)2948270.1746
m2256.9 1150933.531
m509.9621kg/hr
Substituting m` value we get, mc
p
AT m
m*4.13*100(m2258.4)
1361547.891kj/hr
Entering leaving-0.
9.1.5.Decomposer:

76


NH
2
COONH
4
heat NH
3
CO
2,
dH-84kj/mol
Enthalpy oI stream entering 3830498.438
Heat oI reaction (-84/78)56787.510
3

-6125000kj/hr
Enthalpy oI product stream leaving t bottom,
C
pmix
5468.752.1696(402-273)
1530585kj/hr
Enthalpy oI stream top stream.
Enthalpy oI NH mc
p
AT m
Here 317.00586 at 129
0
c
2479.1611.07129(2479.16317.0058)

77

4326223.114kg/hr
Enthalpy oI CO
2
mc
p
AT
3208.30.942129
389866.1998kj/hr
Total NH
3
CO
2
4326223.114 389866.1998
4716089.314kj/hr
Enthalpy oI steam leaving entering mc
p
AT m
1436.07204.31151.8(1436.0722109)
11190835.68kj/hr
Enthalpy oI condensate leaving m4.31151.8
4049.874.31151.2
2649659.846kg/hr
Energy balance,
Entering leaving
3830498.438(m2109)(m4.31151.8)-6125000-8541175.876-2109
1530585(m4.31654.248)4716089.314
m(2109) 3028675.876
m 4049.87 kg/hr
substituting value oI m` we get,
entering leaving 0




78

10.1.6 PREHEATER

Enthalpy oI product stream entering 1530585Kj/hr
Enthalpy oI product stream leaving,
C
pmix
0.8C
purea
0.2C
PH2O

0.81.681(0.24.277)
2.2O
Enthalpy 2.25468.75135
1683618.75kj/hr
Enthalpy oI Steam entering mc
p
dT m
Enthalpy oI condensate leaving mc
p
dT

Energy balance:
Entering leaving
1530593(m4.312150)(m2256.4) (m4.312150)1683618.75
m2113.2 153033.75
m 72.42kg/hr

79

enthalpy oI steam entering at 150
0
C and 4.760 bar
mc
p
dT m
(72.424.312*150)(72.422113.2)
199879.2kj/hr
Enthalpy oI condenser leaving mc
p
dT
72.424.312150 46841.256kj/hr


















80


10.1.7 VACUUM EVAPORATOR

Enthalpy oI stream entering 1683618.75kj/hr
Enthalpy oI stream bottom,
C
pmix
0.991.681(0.014.277)
1.70696
Enthalpy oI stream bottom1.706964419.19135
1018356.373kj/hr
Enthalpy oI top stream mc
p
AT m
(1049.564.277135)(1049.562158.9)
2871905.78kj/hr
Steam entering at 4.76bar mc
p
AT m

81

m4.31150(m2113.2)
Water leaving mc
p
AT
Energy balance:
Entering leaving
1683618.75 (m4.31150)(m2113.2)
2871905.781018356.373()m4.31150)
m 2206643.403
m 1049.218911kg/hr
ThereIore,
Steam entering at 4.76bar m4.31150(m2113.2)
2881730.929kg/hr
Water leaving mc
p
AT
675087.526kg/hr
substituting value oI m` we get,
entering leaving 0









82



10.1.8 ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM FOR UREA





















83



10.2 FORMALDEHYDE
10.2.1 VAPORIZER


Enthalpy oI air entering mC
p
AT
13351.91.005 (303-273)
402559.785KJ/hr
Enthalpy oI methanol entering 5237.572.566(303-273)
403188.1386kj/hr
Enthalpy oI mixture leaving

84

Enthalpy oI methanol leaving mC
p
(337.7-273) m. mC
p
(393-
337.7)

5237.572.7164.75237.571101.8755237.571.60155.3
7153197.083 KJ/hr
Enthalpy oI air leaving 1.003213351.9(393-273)
1607355.13kj/hr
Total mixture leaving 7153197.0831607355.13
8760552.216kj/hr
Heat balance:
Entering leaving
402559.785 403188.1386 mC
p
AT m mC
p
AT 8760552.216
m 7954804.292
m 7954804.292/2113.2
m 3764.341Kg/hr

Enthalpy oI steam entering at 150C and 4.76bar mC
p
AT m
3764.341 4.312 150
3764.341 2113.2
7971037.237KJ/hr
Enthalpy oI condensate leaving mC
p
AT
5685.058204 4.312 150
16231.84 KJ/hr


83





10.2.2 REACTOR


CH
3
OH O
2
7HCHOH
2
O, AH -37Kcal/mol
CH
3
OH 3/2 O
2
72H
2
0CO
2,
AH -162Kcal/mol
Heat oI reaction 1 37 4.18 145.833 1000
22554531.78 kj/hr

86

Heat oI reaction 2 162 4.18 16.204 1000
10972700.64 kj/hr
Total heat oI reaction 33527232.42kj/hr
Enthalpy oI mixture inlet 8760552.216 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering m 4.216(373-273)
Enthalpy oI steam leaving m 4.216100 m 2270
Enthalpy oI product leaving :
C
pmix
0.2354 1.353 0.5509 1.0396 0.9698 0.0384 0.0028 2.116
0.1726 2.207
1.3155kj/hr
Enthalpy 18589.521 1.315 340
8311374.839 kj/hr
Energy balance;
8760552.216 33527232.42 412.6 m 2691.16 m 8311374.83
m 14967.58141 kg/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering m 4.216(373-273)
6310332.323 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI steam leaving m 4.216100 m 2270
40286742.12 kj/hr





87



10.2.3 HEAT EXCHANGER

Enthalpy oI entering gas 8311374.839 kj/hr
Cp
mix
0.23541.0250.550981.03520.03840.95450.00281.557
0.17362.177
1.227 kj/kg
Enthalpy oI product gas leaving 18589.5211.227110
2509027.649kj/hr
Heat removed Q 5802347.19
Enthalpy oI water entering at30C mC
p
dTm4.1830
Enthalpy oI water leaving at 80C mC
p
dTm4.1880
Energy balance
Water required Q/4.1850
5802347.19/4.1850
27762.43kg/hr

88

AIter substituting 'm
o
value we get

Enthalpy oI water entering at30C
mC
p
dT27762.434.18303481408.314kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water leaving at 80C
mC
p
dT27762.434.18809283755.504kj/hr

10.2.4 ABSORBER

Enthalpy oI steam entering 2509027.649kj/hr
Heat evolved by absorption 4375 62.75/30 9151.042 KJ/hr

89


C
Pmix
0.9304 1.03184 0.0605 0.84325
1.019kj/kgk
Enthalpy oI exit gas 10953.739 1.019 50
558093.021kj/hr
Enthalpy oI bottom:
C
pmix
.3732 3.107 .6222 4.177 0.00446 2.633
3.77kj/kgk

Enthalpy oI bottom 11719.051 3.77 (323-273)
2209041.114kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering 4083.329 4.178 (303-273)
511804.4564kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering in coolerm 4.178 (303-273)
125.34m
Enthalpy oI water leaving in cooler m 4.178 (311-273)
Energy balance:
Entering leaving
2509027.649 9151.042 511804.4569125.34m 558093.0021 2209041.114
158.726m
m 7873.031567kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering in cooler m 4.178 (303-273)
986805.7766kj/hr

90

Enthalpy oI water leaving in cooler m4.178(311-273)
1249654.809kj/hr
10.2.5 ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM FOR FORMALDEHYDE





















91



10.3 UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
10.3.1 REACTOR

Enthalpy oI Iormaldehyde entering 2209041.144kj/hr
Enthalpy oI urea Ieed entering 108356.373kj/hr
Heat oI reaction 64 4375/60
466.667kj/hr
Total heat input 2209041.144 108356.373 466.667
3232064.154kj/hr
Product leaving :
C
pmix
0.37953 1.67 3.25 10
-3
2.85 0.61722 4.2

92

3.24kj/kgk
Enthalpy oI product 16138.24 3.24 (363-273)
4705911.076kj/hr

ENERGY BALANCE
m 1473846.864
m 1473846.864/2256.9
m 653.0404192kj/hr
enthalpy oI Steam entering mC
p
AT m
1749103.459kj/hr
Enthalpy oI condensate leaving mC
p
AT
275256.5367kj/hr


10.3.2 HEAT EXCHANGER


93


Enthalpy oI inlet stream 4705911.076 kj/hr
Cp
mix
0.37953*1.670.00325*2.560.61722*4.18
3.22 kj/kg
Enthalpy oI outlet stream 3.22*16138*35
1818779.761 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water entering m
o
*4.18*(303-273)
125.4m
o
kj/hr
AIter substituting 'm
o
value we get
Enthalpy oI water entering3936997.247 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI water leavingm
o
*4.18*52
217.36m
o
kj/hr
AIter substituting 'm
o
value we get
Enthalpy oI water leaving6824128.562 kj/hr
Energy balance:
entering-leaving0
4705911.076125.4m
o
1818779.761217.36m
o

m
o
31395.51234kg/hr






94



10.3.3 MIXER:

Enthalpy oI inlet product stream 1818779.761 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI stream cellos Iiller m
o
cpA
4166.667*1.4*(303-273)
175000.014 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI stream outlet 20304*cp
mix
*A
cp
mix
0.30165*1.670.49056*4.181.4*0.205210.00258*2.8
2.85 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI stream outlet stream 2.85*20304.908*(T-273)
energy balance;

93

1818779.761175000.01457868.99(T-273)
T34.45I
Enthalpy oI outlet stream 1993780.669 kj/hr

9.3.4 DRIER:

Enthalpy oI product entering 1993780.66kj/hr
C
pmix
1.67 .5892 1.4 0.4 4.18 10
-3
1.59kj/kgk
Enthalpy oI product leaving 1.59 10395.623 68
1123974.75kj/hr

96

Humidity oI inlet air,H1 0.01805kg moisture/dry air
At 303k wet bulb temperature 298k
Humidity oI outlet air,H2 0.0832kg moisture/dry air
At 393k wet bulb temperature 322.8k
Enthalpy oI air entering 1.006 (303-273)0.01805 2556.16
76.323kj/kgdry air
Fresh air 151295.4873Kg/kg oI dry air
Total 7.323 151295.4873
11547779.36kj/hr
Enthalpy oI exhaust air 1.006 322.8-273 2591.5 0.0832 1.006 1.84 0.0832
(393-322.8)
340.125kj/kg dry air
Total340.125 151295.4873 52.384 2.74 64.7 52.384 1.601(2393-337.1)
51473301.98kj/hr
Heat supplied by heater Q
Energy balance
1993780.66911547779.36Q51473301.981123974.75
Q39055710.76kj/hr
1
10.3.5 COOLING ROOM
Enthalpy oI entering stream1123974.759 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI product
cp
mix
1.59 kj/hr

97

1.59*10395.623*(303-273)
495871.2171 kj/hr
Enthalpy oI cool air enteringm
o
*1.0051*(293-273)
=
Enthalpy oI cool air balancem
o
*1.005*(323-273)
Energy balance:
1123968.812m
o
*1.005*(293-273)495868.5936m
o
*1.005*(323-273)
30.15m
o
628103.5419
m
o
20832.62162 kg/hr
Enthalpy oI cool air entering418735.6946 kg/hr
Enthalpy oI cool air leaving1046839.233 kg/hr



98



10.3.6 BALL MILL
(p/m
o
) 0.3162W
I
(1/V
b
)-(1/V
a
)
P 0.3162 m
0
W
i
(1/V
b
)-(1/V
a
)
0.316210291.6712.73(1/V)-(1/V)
P 17347.69066 W17.3477 kw
















99



10.3.7 ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM FOR UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

















100














DESICA OF EQUIPMEA1S

101

CHAP1ER 11
11 DESIGN OF EQUIPMENTS

11.1 DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
11.1.1PROCESS DESIGN
FLOW TYPE - Counter current heat exchanger
SHELL SIDE FLUID
COMPONENT WEIGHT(KG/HR) PERCENTAGE
Urea 4375 20.39
Ammonium carbamate 5687.5 26.50
NH
3
4397.016 20.49
CO
2
5690.251 26.51
Water 1312.5 6.12

TUBE SIDE - water
TEMPERATURE CONDITION
Inlet temperature oI urea mixture T
H1
185 c
Outlet temperature oI urea mixture T
H2
140 c
Temperature 0I water inlet 30 c
Temperature 0I water outlet 70 c

T
Havg

185+140
2
162.5 c T
Cavg

70+30
2
50 c
ENERGY BALANCE
Enthalpy oI inlet urea solution mC
Pmix
(T
H1
-273)
21462.2672.0373(185)8089139.163kj/hr
Enthalpy oI outlet urea solution mC
Pmix
(T
H2
-273)
21462.2672.0373(140)5627835.653kj/hr

102

Heat removed Irom urea solution(8089139.163-5627835.653)kj/hr
2461303.51kj/hr
Water Ilow rate M
Q
CpdT

2461303.51
4.1840
14720.714kg/hr
Volumetric Ilow rate
14720.714
988.03
14.899m
3
/hr
LMTD
(185-70)-(140-30)
In
18S-0
140-30
112.481c
ASSUME U
D
500W/M
2
K(BINAY K DUTT ,PAGE NO:297,TABLE NO;8.2)
A
2461303.51
UdTIm

2461303.51
500112.481
43.764m
2
Select / inch 16BWG tubes id15.7mm,od19mm L3.5m
1-2 pass
Outer surIace area oI tubes nd
o
Ln.0193.5.2089
No.oI tubes required
43.764
.2089
210
From table

No.oI oI tubes 220
Shell diameter 20
1
4
inch51.435

TUBE SIDE CALCULATION

1)Flow per pass

4
.0157
2
110.0213
2)Velocity
14.899
3600.o213
.1943m/s
3)NRe
dVp


.0157.1943988.03
610
-4

5023.33510
3

103

4)J
h
i
d
i
hIdI
k
(
cp
k
)
-1/3
18
(Irom binay k dutt page no;294,Iig8.11(a))

cp
k

4.18610
-4
.624
10004.019

5) h
i

18.6244.019
.333
.0157

1137.44w/m
2
k979.61kcal/hrm
2
k
SHELL SIDE CALCULATION
P25.4mm ,C(25.4-19)mm6.410
-3
m, B.1m
D
s
51.435cm20/inch
1)Flow area a
s

CBDs
p

6.410
-3
0.151.43510
-2
.0254
.01296
2)G
s

w
as
=
21462.267
.01296
16.56039kg/m
2
h
d
0
19mm
3)D

4(P
2
-d0
2
4)
0

4(.0254
2
-.019
2
4)
.019
.0385m
4)NRe
DHGs

=
.03851656039.12
36001.9310
-S
917638.2573
5)J
h
i
d
i
hIdI
k
(
cp
k
)
-1/3
780
(Irom binay k dutt page no;295,Iig8.12(b))

cp
k

1.9551.9310
-S
.1572
1000.24
h
i

780.1572.24
.333
.0385
1979.2021w/m
2
k
1704.58kcal/hrm
2
k



104

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT CALCULATION

1
0

1
h
R
do

1
R
di


1h


R
do
1.0210
-4
hr.m
2
/kcal(Irom binay k dutt page no;294
R
di
3.0710
-4
hr.m
2
/kcal
1
0

1
1704.58
1.0210
-4
1.213.0710
-4

1.21
979.61
2.29510
-3

U435.67Kcal/hrm
2
k505.86w/m
2
k

R
11-12
t2-t1

185-140
70-30
1.125
S
t2-t1
11-t1

70-30
185-30
.258
F
t
.98
(A)
lm
112.481.98110.231k
Area required

0tLM1


2461283.51
110.231505.86
44.1395
Area available n.0192203.545.96
Percentage excess area
45.96-44.14
44.14
1004.12%






103

PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION
TUBESIDE TUBE SIDE CALCULATION

G
t

14720.714
3600.0213
=191.97kg/m
2
sec
L3.5m , n2, p
t
988.03, d
i
.0157m, =1, g9.8m
2
/sec, NRe5023.33, I610
-3
Tube side pressure drop A
]ut
2
Ln
2gptdI

610
-3
191.97
2
3.52
2988.089.8.0157

5.09kg/m
2
7.3510
-3
psi
Return loss Ar4n
v
2
pt
2g

42.19432988.03
29.8

15.22kg/m
2
.022psi
Total pressure drop AAr7.3510
-3
.022.029psi

SHELL SIDE PRESSURE DROP
As
]sus
2
s(Nb+1)
2gpsq

NRe917638.258, I
s
2.310
-2

D
s
.51435m, p
s
619.40, B.10m, N
p

3.5
.10
-134
As
2.310
-2
460.010
2
.5143535
29.8619.40.03851
187.453.271psi







106


10.1.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN
1) SHELL THICKNESS
t
s

P
2]]+P
c
J85%,
Operating pressure P1.792N/mm
2
Design pressure P1.7921.11.9712N/mm
2

D514.35, I95N/mm
2
, C3mm
t
s

1.9712514.35
295.85+1.9712
39.20=
outer diameter oI shell D
s
2t
s
514.35210534.35mm

2) NOZZLE THICKNESS
Nozzle diameter75mm, J1
C3mm
t
s

P
2]]-P
c
1.971275
2951-1.9712
33.79=4mm

3) HEAD THICKNESS
t
s

PRcw
2]]
w/(3In )
R
c
514.35mm, R
nk
51.435mm
w/(3.. )1.54
t
s

P
2]]-P
t
s

1.9712514.351.54
2.8595
9.66mm=10mm



107

4) TRANSVERSE BAFFLES
Spacing between baIIle.10mm
BaIIle cut 25
BaIIle thickness 6mm (standard)


5) TIE ROD AND SPACES
No. oI tie rods6
Diameter oI tie rod10mm

6) FLANGE 1OINT
Minimum gasket width N24mm
7) FLANGE THICKNESS
Seating stress 5.34kg/cm
2

Gasket outer diameter 514.35210534.35mm
Gasket inner diameter514.35mm
Gasket mean diameter
514.35+534.35
2
524.35mm
b
0
N/224/212, m3.75
b2.5Vbo =2.5V8.64mm
W
m1
nbGY
a
n8.64524.3553.40760.00KN
W
m2
n2bG
m
Pn/4G
2
P
n28.64524.353.751.9712 n/4524.35
2
1.9712
210415.0702425660.2703
636075.3405N
K
1
.3+
1.SWm1hG
HG


108

H
G

-u
2
37.5mm, H n/4G
2
P n/4524.35
2
1.9712425660.2703N
Bbolt circle diameter
K
1
.3+
1.S600003.S
42S660.2S24.3S
= .
t
I
G_
P
K]
C 524.35_
1.972
2.0395
356mm

8) CHANNEL AND CHANNEL COVER
t
I
G_
kP
K]
k.3(Ior ring type Gasket ) P.1143N/m
2

t
I
524.35_
.3.1143
95
9.86=10mm
9) FLANGE 1OINT (BETWEEN TUBE SHEET CHANNEL)
G524.35mm
Ring gasket width(w)22mm
Seating stress Y
a
126.60kg/mm
2

Gasket outer diameter 514.35210534.35mm
Gasket inner diameter514.35mm
Gasket mean diameter
514.35+534.35
2
524.35mm
b
0
W/822/82.75mm
2
, m3.75
b= b
0

W
m1
nbGY
a
n2.75524.35126.60573505.4437N
W
m2
n2bG
m
Pn/4G
2
P
n22.75524.353.75.11143 n/4524.35
2
.11143
5552.6224062.15729614.777N

109

A
m1

m1
]u

573505.4437
140.6
4078.986mm
2

A
m2

m2
]u

29614.777N
140.6
210.637m
2
d
o
_

4
18.02mm
No oI bolt
un ut
2b0

524.35
212
22bolts
Using M48 BOLT
Pitch diameter44.681mm
Minor diameter41.795mm(I33139)
Actual bolt area n(
44.682+41.7985
2100
)294cm
2

Minimum pitch diameterGN2db524.3522248642.35mm
Hence bolt diameter is chosen as650mm
10)FLANGE THICHNESS
K
1
.3+
1.SWm1hG
HG

H
G

-u
2
37.5mm, H n/4G
2
P n/4524.35
2
.11143B24062.157
Bbolt circle diameter
K
1
.3+
1.SS3S0S.4433.S
24062.1SS24.3S
=.35
t
I
G_
P
K]
C 524.35_
.11143
.3595
333.35=

11) NOZZLE INLET AND OUTLET DIAMETR
Inlet diameter oI nozzle 75mm
t
n

P
2]]-P
c t
n

.1114375
2951-.11143
33.044

110

Minimum thickness5mm
Outer diameter oI nozzle752585mm
10.1.3 SUPPORT FOR SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Length oI the heat exchanger, L
s
4.25m
Inner diameter oI Shell, D
i
514.35mm
Outer diameter oI Shell, D
o
534.35mm
Thickness oI Shell, t
s
10 mm
Outer diameter oI tube, d
o
19 mm
Inside diameter oI tube,di 15.7mm
Number oI tubes, N
t
220

Density oI Steel,p
s
7850 Kg /m
3

Density oI urea in shell, p
l
619.40Kg /m
3

Density oI water in tube, p
t
988.03Kg /m
3



Volume oI Shell body, V (H/ 4) ( D
o
2
D
i
2
) x L
0.0577 m
3


Weight oI Shell body, W
s
V x p
s
.05777850
452 Kg

Volume oI Tubes, V
t
(H/ 4 ) ( d
o
2
d
i
2
) x L x N
t

0.0693 m
3


Total Weight oI Tubes, W
t
V
t
x p
s

543.62 Kg

Volume oI Head, V
h
0.087 D
i
3

0.0118m
3


Weight oI Head, W
h
V
h
x p
s

92.93Kg

Weight oI Liquid, W
l
(H/ 4) (d
i
2
) x L x N x p
s

147.28 Kg


111

Total Weight, W W
s
W
t
W
h
W
l

1235.83Kg
1235.83 x 9.81
12.12KN

Depth oI head, H 250 mm
Q (W/2)
6.06 KN
Now, we calculate,
Distance oI saddle center line Irom shell end ,
A 0.4 x R
i

0.4 x (514.35/2)
102.87 mm


1. LONGITUDINAL BENDING MOMENTS

Radius, R 0.2572 m
Depth oI head, H 0.250 m

The bending moment at the supports is
M
1
QA | 1 (A/L) (R
2
- H
2
) / 2 AL}/1 4H/3L}|
603.77 N-m

The bending moment at the center oI the span is given by
M
2
(Q L / 4)|1 2 ( R
2
- H
2
) / L
2
}/1 4H / 3L} - ( 4A / L) |
1478.85 N-m

2. STRESS IN SHELL AT THE SADDLE

For 0 120
0

k
1
0.107
k
2
0.192
Thickness oI shell, t 10mm
I
1
M1/( k
1
H R
2
t)
272x 10
5
N/m
2

I
2
M1/( k
2
H R
2
t)
151 x 10
4
N/m
2




112

3. STRESS IN THE SHELL AT MID- SPAN

The stress at the mid span is I
3
, which is either tensile or compressive depending on
the position oI the Iiber. The resultant tensile stresses ( including the axial stress
due to internal pressure ) should not exceed the permissible stress, and the resultant
compressive stress should not exceed the permissible compressive stress

I
3
M
2
/(H R
2
t )
7.11 x 10
5
N/m
2


Axial Stress in Shell due to internal pressure
I
p
(P x D
i
)/ (4 t)
2.5x 10
7
N/m
2


All combined stresses ( I
p
I
1
) , ( I
p
I
2
) , and ( I
p
I
3
) are well within allowable
limits. Hence, the given parameters can be considered Ior design.
Thus a shell and tube Heat Exchanger with the above speciIications is designed















113

10.1.4 DATA SHEET
Address Coimbatore institute oI technology,Coimbatore-14
Service oI Unit urea heat exchanger
Sell side pass 1 Tupe side pass 2
PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
FLUID ALLOCATION SHELL SIDE TUPE SIDE
FLUID NAME UREA MIIXTURE WATER
FLUID QUANTITY
TEMPERATURE IN/ OUT 185C 140C 30C 70C
DENSITY KG/M
3
619.40 619.40 988.03 988.03
VISCOSITY, CP 1.9310
-5
1.9310
-5
610
-4
610
-4

SPECIFIC HEAT,KJ/KGK 2.0373 2.0373 4.18 4.18
TERMAL CONDUTIVITY, W/MK .15727 .15727 .624 .624
PRESSURE,ATM.IN/OUT 17 17 1 1
VELOCITY,M/SEC - .1943
PRESSURE DROP,PSI .029 .271
FOULING RESISTANCE,
hr.m
2
k/kcal
1.0210
-4
3.0710
-4
HEAT EXCHANGED, kj/hr 2461303.51 LMTD 110.231
Over all heat transIer coeIIicient, W/m
2
k 505.86

MECHANICAL DESIGN
Length oI the oI tupes, L 3.5m
SHELL DIAMETER 514.35mm
SHELL THICKNESS 10mm
NOZZLE THICKNESS 4mm
HEAD THICKNES 10mm
SPACING BETWEEN BAFFLES .10m
NO.OF. TIE RODS 6
DIAMETER OF TIE ROD 10mm
MINIMUM GASKET WIDTH 24mm
FLANGE THICKNESS 5mm
RING GASKET THICJNESS 22Mm
BOLT DIAMETER 525mm
TUBE DIAMETER, IN/OUT 15.7mm 19mm
CORROSION ALLOOWENCE 3mm
NO.OF.BOLTS 22
TOTAL WEIGHT OF HEATEXCHANGER 12.12KN






114

11.2DESIGN OF EVAPORATOR
11.2.1 PROCESS DESIGN
Enthalpy entering stream16836.75kj/hr
Enthalpy oI bottom product
Cp
mix
0.991.6810.014.227
1.70696kj/hr
Enthalpy oI bottom product 1.70694419.19135
1018356.373kj/hr
Enthalpy oI top productm%c
pA
tm%
1049.56 4.227 1351049.56 2158.9
2871905.78kj/hr
Steam entering at 4.76 barm%c
pA
tm%
m%4.31150m%2113.2
m%(4.311502133.2).(1)
Water leaving m%c
pA
t
m%4.31150....(2)
ENERGY BALANCE
Enteringleaving

1683618.75m%1504.31m%2113.22871905.781018356.373m%4.3
1150
m%1049.218911kg/hr
Substituting m% in equ (1) and (2) we get

113

Steam entering1049.218911(4.311502113.2)
2881730.929 kg/hr
Water leaving1049.2189114.31150
675087.526 kg/hr
Now, entering leaving
1683618.752881730.9292871905.781018356.373675087.526
0
HEAT TRANSFER AREA
AS
s
/UAT
1049.2189112158.9 1000
1000150 3600
41.94m
2

Tube OD76.2mm
Thickness2.86mm
3mm
NO OF TUBES
AnnD
o
L
nA/nD
o
L
41.94/(n76.210
-3
1.82)
n97 tubes
PITCH
P
t
1.5D
o
1.576.210
-3
114.3mm

116


ANNULAR AREA
A
N
NP
t
2

97114.3
2

1.267m
2


DOWNTAKE AREA
A
D
0.5n/4D
I
2
n
0.5n/470.210
-3
97
0.1877m
2

EVAPORATOR DIAMETER
(A
D
A
N
)1.05
(0.18871.267)1.05
(n/4)D
2
1.527
D
2
. (n)


D1.39m
Height oI steam chest1.5m
Height oI vapour space1.5m
HEIGHT OF CONICAL BOTTOM
Volumetric Ilowrate4375 Ior 60 mins
For 5 mins(4375510
-3
)/60
0.3645m
3
/hr

117

(n/3)rh0.3645
h(0.36453)/(n0.695
2
)
h0.7207m
HEIGHT OF DISHED HEAD
H
i
R
i
- (R
i
-0.5D
i
)(R
i
0.5D
i
-2r
i
)
0.5

R
i
1.39m
r
I
0.139m
D
i
1.37m ,h
i
0.272m
Total height oI the evaporator1.51.50.72070.272
3.9927m

10.2.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN
1) THICKNESS OF THE SHELL
tPDi/2IJ-P (3.04x10
5
x1.01x1.39)/(2x550x10
6
x0.85-3.04x1.01x10
5
)0.456mm
Corrosion allowance 0.45622.456mm
Available standard thickness 5mm
To determine the maximum internal pressure
P2IJt/D
0
-t (2x550x10
6
x0.85x3x10
-3
)/(1.39-3x10
-3
)2.02x10
6
N/m
2

Maximum internal pressure is obtained by dividing P by 1.05
P
i
max 2.02x10
6
/1.05 1.92x10
6
N/m
2

It can easily withstand a pressure oI 2.02x10
6
N/m
2

t/D
i
t/D
0
-2t 3/(1390-2x3)) 0.00216
the ratio is much less than 0.25 and hence the equations are correctly applied.

118

2) HEAD DESIGN
TYPE- dished head
CALCULATION OF THICKNESS
tPD
0
C/2IJ solution oI this equation will require iteration as C is also a Iunction
oI t. As the Iirst approximation,
R
i
R
0
D
0
1.39 ; r
0
0.06x1.39
h
0
R
0
-b(R
0
-D
0
/2)(R
0
D
0
/2-2r
0
)
h
0
0.4274m
D
0
2
/4R
0
1.39
2
/4x1.39 0.3475m
b(D
0
r
0
/2) b(1.39x0.06x1.39/2)0.2407
Out oI the 3 quantities calculated above b(D
0
r
0
/2) is the best. ThereIore the
eIIective external height oI thehead is equal to b(D
0
r
0
/2) i.e., h
E
0.2407m. Irom
this
H
E
/D
0
0.2407/1.39 0.1732
As the diameter oI vessel(1.39m) is not very large, head can be Iabricated Irom a
single plate and hence J1.
Cstress concentration Iactor
t/D
0
PC/2IJ (3.04x10
5
x1.01xC)/(2x550x10
6
x1) 2.791x10
-4
C
Irom table 4.1(A) oI Bhattacharya, various values oI t/D
0
C are tried Ior h
E
/D
0
0.17
to match the above relationship. It is Iound that Ior t/D
0
0.002 and C3.425 gives
t/D
0
C 5.83x10
-4
which is a good approximation. From the above Iinding the
corroded head thickness is obtained as,
t/D
0
0.002 or t0.002x1.390.00278m
Blank diameter oI the plate Ior Iorming the head:
Blank diameter: D
0
D
0
/42(2/3) r
i
2S
I


119

13901390/42(2/3)x(0.06x1390)2x40
(S
I
40mm---Bhattacharya)
1.558mm
DESIGN OF NOZZLE (OPENINGS)
Outside diameter oI the shell1.39m
Maximum working pressure2.02x10
6
N/m
2

Wall thickness oI shell 3mm
Corrosion allowance2mm
Weld joint eIIiciency Iactor (Class I) 1
Allowable stress 0.25m
Outside diameter oI nozzle (seamless)0.25m
Nozzle wall thickness0.016m
Inside protrusion oI nozzle-not desired
Length oI the nozzle above surIace0.1m
Area to be compensated:
A(d2C)t
r

d(0.25-2x0.016)m0.218m
C2x10
-3
m
t
r
pD
0
/2IJp
where pdesign pressure2.02x10
6
N/m
2

D
0
1.39m ,I550x10
6
N/m
2
Nozzle diameter0.25m

120

J1(opening is assumed away Irom welded joint)
ThereIore t
r
2.54mm
A(0.2182x0.002)x0.002545.67x10
-4
m
2

Area available Irom shell Ior reinIorcement
A
S
(d2C)(t
S
-t
r
-C)(0.218(2x0.002))(0.03-0.00254-0.002) 5.65x10
-3

Area available Irom nozzle Ior reinIorcement
A
n
A
0
(no inside protrusion)2H
1
(t
n
-t
r
l
-C)
t
n
0.016m
t
r
l
pD
0
/2IJp (2.02x10
6
x0.25)/(2x550x1)2.02*10
6
0.2498mm
H
1
b(d2C)(t
n
-C)b(0.218(2x0.002))(0.016-0.002)0.0557m
Actual length oI nozzle above shell surIace is larger than 0.054m.
Hence A
n
2x0.0557(0.016-0.0002-0.002)1.53x10
-3
m
2

ReinIorcement area available Irom shell and nozzle is
(A
s
A
n
)( 5.65x10
-3
1.53x10
-3
)4.14x10
-3
m
2

Area remained to be compensated NIL
DESIGN OF FLANGE FOR EVAPORATOR
(I)DESIGN OF GASKET AND BOLT SIZE
The Ilange is made oI carbon steel with a stainless steel lining (raised Iace) in the
Iorm oI a ring. A Ilat asbestos gasket oI 1400 mm internal diameter and 1440 mm
external diameter and 3 mm thickness is used to cover the raised Iace.
From Table 7.1 (Bhattacharya),
Gasket Iactor m 2

121

Minimum design seating stress11.2 MN/m
2

Basic gasket seating width b
o
0.5(1440-1400)/210 mm
EIIective gasket seating width b2.5(b
o
)
0.5
2.5(10)
0.5
7.9 mm
W
m1
a 7.9 (14401400)/2 11.2394714.7275 N
W
m2
a 2 7.9 (14401400)/2 2 2.02 a/4 ((14401400)/2)
2

2.023483785.732 N
A
m1
W
m1
/I
a
394714.72/587067.24 cm
2

A
m2
3483785.73/5450639.226 cm
2

Number oI BoltsG/b
o
2.51420/10 2.5 57 bolts
Diameter oI bolt(639.226 4/57a)
0.5
3.77 cm
We use M18 bolts.
Pitch Diameter16.376 mm
Minor Diameter14.480 mm
ACTUAL BOLT AREA
a/4(16.376
2
14.48
2
/2 100) 57106.95 cm
2

A
b
2aY
a
GN/I
a
2a 1390 11.2 10/58.7166.63 cm
2
(NWidth oI gasket)
Hence the bolt area suggested is satisIactory.
Pitch oI bolts4.75 1885.6 mm
PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER (B)
85.6 57/a1553.09 mm
Outside diameter oI IlangePitch circle diameter2 diameter oI the bolt
1553.09 2 181.589 m


122

FLANGE THICKNESS
K1/(0.31.5W
m
h
G
/HG)1/(0.3(1.5 3483785.732 (1553.09-1420)/a/4 2
1400
2
2.02 1390))
2.623
t
I
G(p/K
I
)
0.5
c1420(2.02/2.623 95)
0.5
128.96 mm

DESIGN OF NOZZLE (OPENINGS)
Outside diameter oI the shell1.39m
Maximum working pressure5.72x10
6
N/m
2

Wall thickness oI shell 3mm
Corrosion allowance2mm
Weld joint eIIiciency Iactor (Class I) 1
Allowable stress 55010
6
N/m
2

Outside diameter oI nozzle (seamless) 0.25m
Nozzle wall thickness0.016m
Inside protrusion oI nozzle-not desired
Length oI the nozzle above surIace0.1m
Area to be compensated:
A (d2C) t
r

d (0.25-2x0.016) m0.218m
C2x10
-3
m
t
r
pD
0
/2IJp
where pdesign pressure2.02x10
6
N/m
2


123

D
0
0.47m
I550x10
6
N/m
2

J1(opening is assumed away Irom welded joint)
ThereIore t
r
2.547mm
A(0.2182x0.002)x0.0024315.65x10
-4
m
2

AREA AVAILABLE FROM SHELL FOR REINFORCEMENT
A
S
(d2C)(t
S
-t
r
-C)(0.218(2x0.002))(0.03-0.002431-0.002) 5.65x10
-3

Area available from nozzle for reinforcement
A
n
A
0
(no inside protrusion)2H
1
(t
n
-t
r
l
-C)
t
n
0.016m
t
r
l
pD
0
/2IJp (5.72x10
6
x0.25)/(2x550x10) 0.458mm
H
1
b(d2C)(t
n
-C)b(0.218(2x0.002))(0.016-0.002)0.0557m
Actual length oI nozzle above shell surIace is larger than 0.054m.
Hence A
n
2x0.0557(0.016-0.001293-0.002)1.508x10
-3
m
2

ReinIorcement area available Irom shell and nozzle is
(A
s
A
n
)( 5.67x10
-3
1.398x10
-3
)7.15x10
-3
m
2

Area remained to be compensated NIL






124

10.2.3 SUPPORT DESIGN FOR EVAPORATOR
TYPE: Skirt support.
1) MATERIAL: IS-2062-1962 Gr St 42-W. I96MN/M
2
. E210
5
MN/M
2

The minimum weight oI the vessel with two heads and shell will be-
W
min
n(D
i
t
a
)t
a
(H-4)V
s
2(7500)
D
i
1.39m
t
a
0.014m
H3.72m
V
s
speciIic weight oI shell material
778509.81n/m
3

77000n/m
3

77kn/m
3

W
min
n(1.390.014)0.014(3.72-4)772(7.5)
13.66KN
W
max
W
s
W
i
W
l
W
a

W
s
weight oI shell
W
max
4W
min

413.66KN 54.67KN
Period oI vibration at minimum dead weight is
T
min
(6.3510
-5
)(H/D)
1.5
(W
min
/t
a
)
0.5

6.3510
-5
(3.72/1.39)
1.5
(13.66/0.014)
0.5

3.6810
-3
sec 0.5sec
Hence K
1
CoeII to determine wind load 1

123

Period oI vibration at maximum daed weight
T
max
(6.3510
-5
)(H/D)
1.5
(W
max/
t
a
)
0.5

6.3510
-5
(54.67/0.014)
0.5

T
max
0.017 sec 0.5 sec
Hence K
2
1
2) WIND LOAD:
P
w
K
1
K
2
p
w
H
d

For min weight condition, D1.4m.
For max weight condition, D1.5m.
Hence P
w
(min)110003.721.4
5208N
P
w
(max)110003.721.5
5580N
3) MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM WIND MOMENTS
M
w
(min)P
w
(min)H/2
5.2083.72/2
9.68 KJ
M
w
(max)P
w
(max) H/2
5.583.72/2
10.37KJ
II the thickness oI the skirt is expected to be small, Assume D
i
D
o
1.4m

2
Wm(min)4M
w
(min)/nD
2
t
49.68/n1.4
2
t

126

6.2810
-
3/t NM/M
2

2
W
m
(max)410.37/n1.4t
6.7310
-3
/t NM/M
2

4) MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM DEAD LOAD STRESSES

2
W(min)W(min)/nDt
13.6610
-3
/n1.4t
0.0031/t MN/M
2

2
W(max)54.6710
-3
/n1.4t
0.0124/t MN/M
2

2
(tensile)
2
Wm(min)-
2
W(min)
0.00318/t MN/M
2

2
(tensile) IJ
960.7
67.2MN/M
2

J0.7 Ior double welded joint but joint Ior class 3 const.
67.20.00318/t
t1mm

2
(compression)
2
W(max)
2
W
m
(max)
(0.006730.0124)/t
0.01919/t

2
(compression)0.125Et/D
o

0.125210
5
t/1.5

127

1.610
4
t
1.610
4
t0.01913/t
t2mm
As per IS:2825-1969,minimum corroded skirt thickness is 7mm.providing 1mm
corrosion allowance a standard 8mm thick plate can be used Ior skirt.
5) DESIGN OF SKIRT BEARING PLATE
F
c
W(max)/A M
w
(max)/Z
W(max)54.67 KN
An(D
o
-l)l , ZnR
m
2
l
F
c
0.05467/n(1.4-l)l 0.010374/(1.4-l)l
The allowable compressive strength oI concrete Ioundation varies Irom 5.5 to 9.5
MN/M
2,
Assuming F
c
5.5 MN/M
2
,l7.5mm
As the required width oI the bearing plate is very small, a 100mm width is
selected i.e. l0.1mm.
6) THICKNESS OF BEARING PLATE
t
bp
l(3 F
c
/I)
0.5
l100mm , F
c
1.85
t
bp
100(31.85/96)
t
bp
25mm.
Casing plate thickness oI 25mm is required. As the plate thickness required is
larger than 20mm,gussets may be used to reinIorce the plate.
From table no 10.1 (battacharya) Ior 1/b1,M
max
M
y
-0.119 F
c
l
2

-0.1191.850.1
2

128


-2.210
3
MJ
t
bp
(6M
max
/I)
0.5

(62.210
-3
/96)
0.5

1.1810
-2
M
II gussets are used at 100mm spacing, bearing plate thickness oI 12mm will be
suIIicient. thereIore rolled angle bearing plate oI size
100mm100mm12mmwith 62 gussets may be used. II no oI gussets are reduced
thicker plate will be required.
F
min
W(min)/A - M
w
(min)/Z
0.01366/0.1n(1.4-0.1)
2
- 0.00968/0.1n(1.4-0.1)
2

F
min
0.0152MN/M
2

J W(min)R/M
w

0.0152(1.4-0.1)0.1/0.00968
J0.183
As this value is less than 1.5 the vessel will not be steady by its own weight ,
thereIore anchor are to be used-
P
bolt
n (min )A
0.0152n(1.4-0.1)0.1 MN
6.210
-3
MN
II hot rolled carbon steel is selected Ior bolts, table 5.7 gives I53.5 MN/M
2

( a
r
n) I P
bolt
6.210
-3
MN

a
r
n6.210
-3
/53.5
11.6mm
2

Where , a
r
root area oI bolt

129

nno oI bolts
For M
121.5
bolts a
r
63mm2, this indicates that 1 such anchor bolt is more than
suIIicient Ior this purpose. But as the wind may blow Irom any side eight such
bolts are to be used equally distributed.

10.2.4 DATA SHEET
Address Coimbatore institute oI
technology,coimbatore-14
Design unit EVAPORATOR
Design DETAILS
Inlet Ieed rate 5468.75kg/hr
Bottom product 4419.19 kg/hr
Top product 1049.56kg/hr
Inlet temperature 135c
Outlet temperature 135c
Height oI the column 3.9927m
Diameter oI column 1.39mm
Water Ilow rate 1049.218911kg/hr
Pressure oI column 60cm.Hg
Pressure oI water 4.76 bar
Tube OD 76.2mm
Thickness oI tube 3mm
No.oI tubes 97
Pitch 114.3mm
Annular area 1.267m
2

Downtake area 0.1877m
2

Height oI steam chest 1.5m
Thickness oI shell 5mm
Number oI Bolts 57 bolts
Diameter oI bolt 3.77 cm
Thickness oI Ilange 128.96 mm






130

10.3. ABSORBER DESIGN
10.3.1 PROCESS DESIGN.
Temperature inside the scrubber 50%c
STREAM COMPONENT ACROSS ABSORBER
Component Reactor exit gas Absorber outlet gas Bottom product
Kg/hr Mass Kg/hr Mass Kg/hr Mass
CHOH 52.384 0.28 - - 53.384 0.446
O - 0 - - - -
N 10240.823 55.04 10240.283 93.05 - -
HO 3208.338 17.26 - - 7291.667 62.222
HCHO 4.375 23.54 - - 4375 37.332
CO 712.976 3.84 712.976 6.508 - -
CO - 0 - - - -
H - 0 - - - -
CH - 0 - - - -
(CH)CO - 0 - - - -
18589.521 10953.799 11719.051


Total entering 18589.521 Kg/hr.
Total moles oI Iormaldehyde absorbed4375/30 145.833 Kmol/hr.
Heat oI solution 62.75Kg/mol.
Total heat evolved by absorption145.833*62.75*1000
9151041.667 KJ 2541.9546 kW


Total heat to be removed by coolers

131

Total enthalpy in Heat generated due to absorption - Total enthalpy out.
2509027.649 9151041.667 5119804.4564 - 558093.0021 - 2209041.114
2612.4276 KW.

Flow rate oI Iresh water Ied at the top oI tower 7291.667 3208.33
4083.337 Kg/hr
Average temperature oI absorption in entire tower 30%C.
The temperature oI Iormaldehyde solution leaving the topmost section50%C.
Enthalpy oI solution leaving the topmost section Enthalpy oI Iresh water
Heat oI solution *Iormaldehyde absorbed in top section.
(4083.337/3600) C
L
(50 0) (4083.3374.1868(30 0))
(1 - w&/100) 3600

62.710 4083.337 4083.337
303600 1 - w&/100

W& Mass oI Iormaldehyde in solution leaving the 1
st
section.
SpeciIic heat oI Iormaldehyde solution is given by
C
L
4.1868(1 0.0534W (0.004 0.00001W )t)
t 50 0 25%C & W W&
2
4.1868(1 0.0534W& 0.1 0.00025W&)
4.1868 (1.1 0.04975W&).

132

4.60548 0.2082W&
1.1342 (4.0548 0.2082 W&) 50 142.46
1 0.01 W&
0.581*4083.337(1/(1-0.01 W&) 1)
W& 3.5(by trial and error)
Heat duty oI Iirst intercooler:
u
1
m %C
L
(50 30)

m% 4083.337
1 (0.01 *3.5)
4231.437Kg/hr.
1.1753Kg/sec.
C
L
4.604598 (0.2082 * 3.5)
C
L
3.87678KJ/Kg%C
u
1
1.1753 * 3.87678 * (50 30)
u
1
91.12 Kw.

Steam leaves the Iirst intercooler and enters at the top oI second section which is
3.5(by mass) Iormaldehyde solution at 30%C.
This stream is mixed with recirculated stream.
Let recirculation ratio R.
Mass Ilow rate oI recirculated stream R * 1.1753.


133

Total mass Ilow rate oI HCHO solution Ieed to the top oI second section
(R 1)*1.1753.
by mass oI HCHO in liquid solution leaving second section 37.332.
Mass Ilow rate oI Iormaldehyde solution leaving the second section
R * 1.1753 (4083.337/3600) (R * 1.1753 1.8098) Kg/sec.
1 - (37.33/100)
This stream leaves at 50%C.
Enthalpy balance around second section:
(1.1753 * R 1.8098) C
L
(50 0) 1.1753R C
L
`
* (30 0) -1.1735 C
L
*(40
0)
(62.75 * 1000) / 30 * (1.8098 1.1753)
Where,
C
L
4.1868( 1-0.00534 * 37.33 ( 0.004 (0.00001 * 37.33))25)
4..5636 KJ/Kg%C.

C
L
` 4.1868( 1-0.00534 * 37.33 ( 0.004 ( 0.00001 * 37.33))15)
4.9812KJ/Kg%C.
C
L
4.1868( 1-0.00534 * 3.5 ( 0.004 ( 0.00001 * 3.5))15)
4.01164KJ/Kg%C.
(1.17531.8098)*4.5636 * 50 - 1.1753 * 4.9812R * 30( 1.1753 * 4.01164) * 40
1327.1625.
228.18(1.1753R 1.8098) 175.632R 188.595 1327.1625
268.1799R 412.960 175.632R 188.595 1327.1625

134

92.5479R 725.6075
R 7.8403
Amount oI recirculated stream back to the top oI second section
7.8403*1.1753
9.2147kg/sec.
Second cooler cools this stream Irom 50%C to 30%C.
u
2
m%C
L
(50-30)
C
L
4.186|1- 0.00534*37.33( 0.0040.00001*37.33) ((5030)/2)|
3.556kJ/kg%C
u
2
655.459kw
Let cooling water enters at 30%C and leaves at 37%C.
Mass Ilow rate oI cooling water required.
m%w 655.459
4.1868*(37-30)
22.364kg/sec.
80513.349kg/hr
80.674m
3
/hr.
Let the temperature oI cooling water Irom top section intercooler 39%C
u
1
91.12kw.
m%
1
* 4.1868*(39-37)
m%
1
10.88kg/sec
remaining m%
2
22.364 10.88
11.482kg/sec will be used by gas cooler.

133


CALCULATION FOR HEAT DUTY OF GAS COOLER
Reactor and exit gas is at 110%C. This cooled Irom 110%C to 30 %C in cooler.
(a). Dew point temperature calculation:
Mass oI water in reactor exit gas 17.26.
Molar Ilow rate oI reactor exit gas (52.384/32) (10240.823/28)
(3208.338/18) (4375/30)
(712.976/44).
707.659Kmol/hr.
Moisture content oI gas mixture (3208.338/18)
707.659 (3208.338/18)

0.3366Kmol water/Kmol dry gas.
At dew point,
P
V
/(P
t
P
V
) 0.3366.
P
V
/(135 P
V
) 0.3366.
45.441 0.3366P
V
P
V

P
V
33.9974 Kpa
At 72%C temperature vapour pressure oI water is 33.9974Kpa. Hence dewpoint oI
gas mixture is 72%C.




136


Heat duty oI cooler,

u
3

273.15+100
273.15+30
%P
1
dt
_ (8. -.) + _ (8.
2
- .`)
b u

2

_ (8.
3
- .
c
) _ (8.

4
- 303.15
4
)
3 4
_ ,
aI
_ ,
bI
_ ,
cI
_ aie taken
dI
Irom reIerence.
u
3
47588.5(80) 2267.1 * 10
-3
(54904) 15211.7 * 10
-6
2 3
(28388461.4) 5816.3 * 10
-9
(1.3105 * 10
10
)
4


3807080 62236.4292 1439 5.586 19055.65)
3869733.507Kj/hr
1074.925Kw
Total heat to be removed by two intercoolers and one gas cooler
u
1
u
2
u
3
91.12 655.459 1074.925
1821.504 Kw
u
3
11.482 * 4.1868 *(t
0
-37)
1074.925

137

t
0
59.36%C - outlet temperature oI cooling water Irom gas cooler.
Calculation oI number oI trays required:
Flow rate oI Iresh water at top L
2w
4083.337Kg/hr.
L
2
L
s
4083.337/18 226.852Kmol/hr.
x
2
0, X
2
x
2
/(1-x
2
) 0
Mass Ilow rate oIexit gas at top 10953.799Kg/hr.
G
2
w 10953.799Kg/hr

Molar Iolw rate oI gas mixture at outlet oI absorber,
G
2
(10240.823/28) (712.976/44)
381.9476kmol/hr
Let concentration oI Iormaldehyde in outgoing gas mixture is 120ppm.
y
2
120 * 10
-6
0.00012
Y
2
y
2
/(1-y
2
) 0.00012
n
I
moles oI HCHO in liquid solution entering to 2
nd
section
n
I
(9.2174 *0.3733) (1.1753*0.035)
30
0.1160kmol/sec
Moles oI water in same solution;
N
w
9.2174* (1- 0.373) 1.1753 *(1-0.035)
18
0.3839kmol/sec
x
2
`
0.1160


138

0.116 0.3839
0.2320
Y
2
`
x
2
`
/(1- x
2
`
)
0.3021
Formaldehyde absorbed in the top section
G
s
(Y
2
`
- y
2
) ((4083.337)/(1-0.035)) 4083.337


30
4.936 Kmol/hr

G
3
G
2
(1 y
2
)
381.9476(1 0.00012)
381.9017 Kmol/h
381.9017(y
2
`
0.00012) 4.936
y
2
`
0.013044
y
2
`
y
2
`
/(1Y
2
`
)
0.0128
At the base oI the tower,
G
1
52.384 7291.667 4375
32 18 30
G
1
552.562 Kmol/hr.
Mole Iraction oI HCHO in gas mix.
y
1
(4375/30)
552.562

139

0.2639
Y
1
Y
1
/(1-Y
1
) 0.3585
Flow rate oI liquid solution leaving the tower
L
1w
R * 101753 * 3600 11719.051
L
1w
44881.987Kg/hr (R 7.8403)
Average molar mass oI product solution
M
av
100
(37.332/30) (62.22/18) (0.446/32)
21.208Kg/mol
L
1
44881.987/21.208
2116.276Kmol/hr.
Mole Iraction oI HCHO in this solution
x
1
44881.9987 *( 0.3733/30 )
2116.276
x
1
0.2638
X
1
x
1
/(1-x
1
) 0.3585
Mass oI HCHO at top oI second section
x
2
` *30 * 100
( x
2
` * 30)( 1 x
2
`)*18
0.2320*30*100
(30*0.2320)(0.768 * 18)
33.487.
Average mass percentage oI HCHO in second section

140

(33.48 37.33)/2
35.4086 .
Average temperature oI absorption 50C.
Partial pressure oI HCHO in atmosphere air over HCHO solution is given by
Lacy`s empirical equation.
Log pv 9.942 0.953 *(0.488)
w/10
2905/T
T 50273 323K.
W 35.4086
pv 1.9torr

At atmospheric pressure,
Equation constant m (1.91/760)
(35.4/30)/((35.4/30)(100-35.4)/18)
m 0.0101
Value oI m Ior second section is 0.0101.
Y YX 0.0101X 0.0101XY
Y 0.9899XY 0.0101X 0
(Y 0.002),
0.022 0.001979X 0.0101X 0
Y X
0 0
0.002 0.2462
0.004 0.6514

141

0.006 1.442
0.008 3.668
0.01
0.0101 -
Average mass oI HCHO Ior top section,w 3.5/2 1.75
Average temperature oI absorption (5030)/2 40C
Logpv 9.942-0.953(0.488)
1.75/10
(2905/313)
Pv 0.67 torr


m (0.67/760)
(1.75/30)/((1.75/30)(100-1.75)/18)
m 0.0833
equation data Ior 1
st
equation,
Y/(1Y) 0.0833(X/1X)
Y XY 0.0833X 0.0833XY
Y 0.9167XY- 0.0833X 0
X Y
0 0
0.0121 0.011
0.0245 0.002
0.0372 0.003
0.0502 0.004

142

0.0771 0.006
0.1053 0.008
0.1448 0.01
For the 1
st
section operating line starts Irom (0,0.00012) to (x,0.013044)
X x/(1-x) &
x (3.5/30) 0.0212
(3.5/30) (100-3.5)/18
X 0.02165
x 2.2
For 2
nd
section operating lines starts Irom (0.3032,0.013) & terminates at
(0.3585,0.35)
n
2
1 but assumed as 1
Total number oI trays required Ior the desired separation, n
T
3.2
Tower diameter calculations:
At the base oI second section
G
1w
18589.21 kg/hr
L
1w
44881.987 kg/hr
Average molecular mass oI gas mixture that enters the tower
M
av
(18589.21/552.562) 33.638 kg/mol
Liquid vapour Ilow rate F
LV
Ior sieve tray tower,
F
LV
L
w
/G
w
(p
V
/p
L
)
L
1w
L
w
44801.987 kg/hr
G
w


G
1w
1858

9.21 kg/hr

143

p
V
pm
AV
/RT 135 * 33.638/8.314*(27350)
1.6909 kg/m
3

p
L
1

_
i
/p
Li

1

(0.000446/780) (0.622/988) (0.3733/815)



919.243Kg/m
3

F
LV


(44881.987/18589021) * (1.6909/919.243)
1/2

0.1035
For tray spacing S 0.45m.

C
I
0.03

Flooding velocity, V
F
C
F
(p
L
/0.02)
0.2
*( p
L
-p
v

/p
V
)
0.5

p
L
surIace tension oI liquid N/m

_o
i
x
i

0.26o

F
0
0.74o
water

o
0
1/4
|P
i
|(o
L
` o
G
`
)
| P
i
| Ior HCHO 15.5 66 81.5
p
G
`
p
M
/RT 135 * 130 /8.314 *(27350) 1.5Kg/m
3
o
0
1/4
81.5 * (815 -1.5) * 10
-3
/30 2.21
o
0
23.85dyns/cm 23.85 * 10
-3
N/m
p
L
0.26 *23.85 *10
-3
(0.74 *70 *10
-3
)
58 * 10
-3
N/m

144

V
I
(0.03 *0.058)/0.02 ((919.243 1.6909)/1.6909)
0.5

2.026m/sec
Let actual velocity oI gas vapour mixture through tower
V
1
0.66V
I

0.66 *2.026
1.33m/sec
Volumetric Ilow rate at bottom(oI gas mixture)
q
v1
G
1w
/p
v

(18589.21/3600)/1.6909
3.05m
3
/sec.
Net area oI tray required at bottom
A
n
q
v1
/V
3.053/1.33 2.296m
2

Let down corner area A
d
0.12A
c

Where, A
c
inside cross sectional area oI tower
A
n
A
c
-A
d

A
c
-0.12A
c
0.88 A
c

0.88A
c
2.296m
2
A
c
2.609
(n/4) D
i
2
2.609
D
i
1.822 m

TOWER DIAMETER REQUIRED AT THE BASE OF TOP SECTION

143

At the base oI top section, L
w
1.1753Kg/sec
Gas Ilow rate at the base oI Iirst section,
G
w
Gas Ilow rate at the top oI Iirst section L
w
solvent Ilow rate at top
10953.799 (1.1753 *3600)- 4083.33
13181.262kg/hr
3.66Kg/sec.
Molar Ilow rate oI gas mixture at the entrance oI Iirst section,
G G
s
(10.013)
386.905Kmol/hr
M
av
13181.262/386.905
34.068Kg/Kmol
p
v
pM
av
/RT
(135 *34.068)/8.314 *(50273)
1.712Kg/m
3

p
L
1
_(w
i
/p
w
)
1
(0.035/815) ((1 0.035)/983.2)
976.148 Kg/m
3

F
Lv
L
w
/G
w
(p
v
/p
l
)
1/2

1.1753/3.66(1.712/976.148)
1/2

0.01344
For tray spacing S 0.45m

146

C
I
0.05
SurIace tension oI 3.5 HCHO solution
o
L
_o
i
x
i
oF
0
x(1-x)o
at

X (3.5/30)/((3.5/30)(96.5/18))
0.0212
o
L
0.0212 * 23.84 *10
-3
(1-0.0212) *70 *10
-3

0.069N/m.

Flooding velocity:
V
I
c
I
(o
l
/0.02)
0.2
|(o
L
o
V
)/ o
V
|
0.5

0.05 *(0.069/0.02)
0.2
|(976.148-1.712)/1.712|
0.5

1.528m/sec.
For 66 Ilooding,
V 0.66 * 1.528 1.008m/sec|

Volumetric Ilow rate oI gas mixture at the base oI Iirst section
q
v
3.66/1.712
2.1707 m
3
/sec
Net area oI tray required
A
n
q
v
/V 2.137/1.008 2.12m
2

n/4(D
i
)
2
2.12
D
i
1.642 m
Checking of weeping for bottom section:

147

The minimum design vapour velocity through holes to avoid weeping is given by,
U
h
k 0.9(25.4 d
n
)
p
G
U
h
minimum gas velocity through holes, m/sec
K constant.
d
n
Hole diameter, minimum.
Let d
n
5mm
p
G
1.6909 Kg/m
3

Height oI weir h
w
50mm
Height oI liquid crest over the weir,
H
ow
750|L
w
/p
L
p
w
|
2/3
L
w
44881.987Kg/hr 12.46 kg/sec
p
L
919.243
L
w
length oI weir.
For, A
d
/A
c
0.12
L
w
/D
i
0.76
L
w
0.76 * 1.822
1.3847 m.
h
ow
750|12.46/(919.243 * 1.3847)|
2/3

34.32 mm
h h
ow
50 34.32 84.32
k 30.8(table 8.19)

148

U
n
30.8 0.9(25.4-5)
V.99
9.566 m/sec
Maximum hole area required
A
hm
3.053/9.566
0.3191 m
2

A
hm
/A
c
0.3191/2.609 0.1223
Let A
h
0.08A
c

0.08 * 2.609 0.2087 m
2
V
w
3.053/ 0.2087
14.62 m/sec
Actual velocity oI gas through holes V
w
~9.566m/sec
Hence weeping will not take place.
Checking of weeping for top section:
For the trays oI top section. Let hole diameter d
n
5mm.
Height oI weir h
w
50mm.
Height oI liquid crest over the wire
h
ow
750|L
w
/p
L
L
w
|

2/3
L
w
1.1753 Kg/sec
976.148 Kg/m
3
.
For A
d/
A
c
0.12
L
w
/D
i
0.76
Length oI weir:

149

L
w
0.76 *1.642
1.2479m
h
ow
750 (1.1753/976.148*1.2479)
2/3

7.323mm
For h
w
h
ow
50 7.323
57.323mm, k 30.2
Minimum vapour velocity required through holes to avoid weeping,
U
h


k-0.9(25.4-d
h
)
p
G

30.2 0.9(25.4-5)

V.

9.048m/sec under weeping conditions

Maximum hole area which can be provided,
A
hm
2.137/9.048
0.2361m
2


A
hm
/A
c
0.2361
(n)(1.642)
2

0.1115
Let A
h
/A
c
0.1
A
h
0.1A
c
0.2117m
2


130

Actual velocity oI gas through holes
V
h
2.137/0.2117
10.0917m/s ~9.048m/sec

Hence weeping will not take place.
Checking oI downcomer Ilooding Ior bottom section
Where, h
t
total tray pressure drop,mm L
c

H
tc
head loss in downcomer,mmL
c

h
d
51(V
n
/C
o
)
2
(p

G
p
L
)
where, C
o
oriIice coeIIicient can be determined by Iig 8.20.
Let plate thickness 5mm
Plate thickness/hole diameter 5/51
A
h
/A
p
=A
h
/A
a
A
h
A
c
-2A
d

A
h

A
c
-2*0.12A
c

A
h
/0.76A
c

0.1/0.76 0.1315
C
o
0.875
h
d
51*(10.0917/0.875)
2
*(1.1712/919.243)
12.63mmL
c

Residual pressure drop:
h
r
(12.5 *10
3
)/p
L
(12.5*10
3
)/919.243

131

13.58mmL
c
h
t
12.63(84.32)13.58 110.53mm
h
b
5034.31110.53h
dc

Head loss in diameter,
h
dc
166|L
wd
/p
L
A
m
|
2

166|12.46/(919.243A
m
|
2
A
m
A
d
(0.47m
2
)
Or,
A
ap
(0.04*1.2479) 0.0499m
2

A
ap
h
ap
Lw
h
ap
h
w
-(5 to 10mm)
h
dc
166|12.46/(919.243*0.0499)|
2

12.248mm
h
b
50110.5312.248
207.098mm
Sh
w
45050
500mm
h
b
~ 0.5(Sh
w
)
hence downcomer Ilooding will take place. To avoid Ilooding, let tray spacing in
bottom section S600mm
Ior,
F
LV
0.1456
C
F
0.09

132

Flooding velocity,
V
F
0.09(0.069/0.02)
0.2
|(976.148-1.712)/1.712|
0.5

2 .7506m/sec
V
1
0.66V
I

1.815m/sec
q
v
3.66/1.712
2.137m
3
/sec
A
n
.137/1.815
1.1774m
2
n/4D
i
2
1.1774
D
1
1.502 (nearly same as top section)
Length oI weir 0.76*1.502 1.422m
h
dw
750(12.46/919.243*1.2479)
2/3

36.78mm
h
w
h
ow
5036.78 86.78mm
k30.8(Iig 8.19)
minimum vapour velocity required through holes,

u
h
k-0.9(.4-d
h
)

p
G
30.8-0.9(25.4-5)
V.

133

9.507m/s under weeping conditions
Let A
h
/A
c
0.1
A
h
0.1*

4
(.)
2

0.1771m
2

Actual gas velocity through holes,
V
h
2.137/0.1771
12.066m/s ~U
h
9.507m/s
Hence weeping will not take place.

CHECKING OF DOWNCOMER FLOODING
Dry plate pressure drop,
h
d
51(V
h/
c
o
)
2

p
G/
p
L
plate thickness 5/5 1
hole diameter
A
h
/A
p
A
h
/0.76A
c
0.1/0.76
0.1315
C
o
0.87(Iig 8.20)
h
d
51*(12.066/0.87)
2
*(1.712/919.243)
18.26mmL
c

h
t
18.26 5036.7813.58
118.62mm
h
b
5036.78118.62h
dc

134

A
m
A
ap
0.04*1.1422
0.0456m
2

h
dc
166(12.46/919.243*0.0456)
2

14.667mmL
c

h
b
220.067mmL
c

Sh
w
60050 650mm
h
ap
h
ap
-5mm 45mm
A
m
A
ap
0.045*1.422
0.0513m
2

h
dc
14.667mm
h
b
220.0670.5 (60050)
downcomer Ilooding will not take place.
DOWNCOMER RESIDENCE TIME

T
A
d
h
b
p
L

L
wd

0.12*2.12*0.220*919.243
12.46
4.129sec ~3sec (satisIactory)

CHECKING OF DOWNCOMER FLOODING IN TOP SECTION
Dry plate pressure drop.
h
d
51(V
h
/w) p
G/
p
L
plate thickness/ hole diameter 5/5 1

133

A
h/
A
p
A
h
/0.76A
c
0.1/0.76 0.1315
C
o
0.87
h
d
51(10.0917/0.87)
2
*(1.717/976.148)
12.03mm
RESIDUAL PRESSURE DROP
h
r
12.5*10
3
/976.148
12.805mm
h
t
12.035012.8057.323
82.158mm
L
w
1.3847m
A
ap
0.045**1.347
0.062m
2

Head loss in downcomer,
h
dc
166|L
wd
/p
L.
A
m
|
2

166 |1.1753/(976.148*0.062)|
2

0.0626mm
H
h
50 7.32382.1586.06
139.541mm
Sh
w
45050 500mm
h
b
0.5(500)
Downcomer Ilooding will not take place.
Downcomer residue time

r
A
d
h
b
p
L

136


L
wd

0.12 (n) -1.5
2
*0.139*976.14
1.175
24.485 (satisIactory)
ESTIMATION OF HEIGHT

Tray eIIiciency 0.33
Actual number oI trays 3.2/0.33 10
Plate thickness 5mm
Plate openings 600mm
Take height oI dished head.510m

Total height 2*(dished head height) 9(600)(5*10)
2(510)(9*600)(5*10)
6.470m

10.3.2MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ABSORBER
1.THICKNESS OF FLANGE
tpD
i
/(2Ij-p) ,p3 bar,I Ior c-steel550MN
310
5
1.0131.822/(255010
6
0.85)-(31.01310
5
)
0.5922mm
Corrosive allowance0.59232mm
2.5923mm
Available thickness5mm

137

TO DETERMINE MAX INPUT PRESSURE
P2Ijt/D
o
-t
2*(550*10
6
)*0.85*3*10
-3
/1.832-0.003
1.50810
6
N/M
2

HEAD DESIGN
TYPE : DISHED HEAD
CALCULATION OF THICKNESS
tpD
o
c/2Ij
1
st
approximation
R
i
R
o
D
o
1.822m
r
o
0.06*1.822
0.1093m
h
o
R
o
- (R
o
-D
o
/2)*(R
o
D
o
/2-2r
o
)
h
o
0.3085m
D
o
2
/4801.822
2
/4*1.822
0.455m
(D
o
R
o
/2)
0.5
(1.822*0.1093/2)
0.5

0.3155m
H
o
is least, hence H
E
0.3085m
H
E
/D
o
0.3085/1.822 0.1693
J1
t/D
o
pc/2Ij
381.013*10
5
c/2*550*10
6
*1

138

`2.762*10
-4
c
C3.452
t/D
o
0.002
t0.002*1.822
3.644*10
-3
m
This is the corroded head thickness
DESIGN OF FLANGE
DESIGN OF GASKET AND BOLT SIZE
MATERIAL: carbon steel with a stainless steel lining
GASKET: Ilat asbestos oI 1822 mm ID & 1900 mm OD , 3mm thickness , gasket
Iactor0.2mm
Basic gasket sealing width b
o
0.5*(1862-1822)/2
EIIective gasket sealing width b2.5Vbo
2.5V9.
7.905mm
W
m1
n*7.9*(18621822)/2*11.2
512017.27N
W
m2
n*2*7.9*(18621822)/2*2*3n/4*((18221862)/2)
2
3
8543073.01N
A
m1
512017.27/587087.22 cm
2

A
m2
8543073.01 /54501567.53cm
2

NUMBER OF BOLTS
G/2.5b
o


139

1861/(2.5*10)
75 bolts
Diameter oI bolts((639.226/57)*(4n))
0.5

3.77cm
We use M18 bolts .
Pitch dia16.376 mm
Bolt dia14.48 mm
ACTUAL BOLT AREA
n/4*(16.376
2
14.48
2
)/2*57
106.95 cm
2

A
b
(2n/58.7)*1390*11.2*10
166.63 cm
2

Hence bolt area suggested is satiaIactory
Pitch oI bolts4.75*18
85.6mm
Pitch circle dia(B):
(85.6*57)/n
1553.09mm
Outside dia oI Ilangepitch circle (2*dia oI bolt)
1553.092*18
1.589m
FLANGE THCKNESS T
f

K1/(0.31.5*(W
m
h
g
/H
g
)

160

1/(0.31.5*3483785.732*(1553.09-1420)/2)

4
-
2
*2.03*1390
2.623
T
I
G(p/k
I
)
0.5
c
1420*(2.03/2.623*95)
0.5

T
I
128.16mm

10.3.3 SUPPORT DESIGN FOR ABSORBER
TYPE: Skirt support.
MATERIAL: IS-2062-1962 Gr St 42-W. I96MN/M
2
. E210
5
MN/M
2

The minimum weight oI the vessel with two heads and shell will be-
W
min
n(D
i
t
a
)t
a
(H-4)V
s
2(7500)
D
i
1.822m
t
a
0.014m
H5.842m
V
s
speciIic weight oI shell material
778509.81n/m
3

77000n/m
3

77kn/m
3

W
min
n(1.8220.014)0.014(5.842-4)772(7.5)
26.45KN
W
max
W
s
W
i
W
l
W
a


161

W
s
weight oI shell
W
max
4W
min

426.45KN 105.81KN
Period oI vibration at minimum dead weight is
T
min
(6.3510
-5
)(H/D)
1.5
(W
min
/t
a
)
0.5

6.3510
-5
(5.842/1.822)
1.5
(26.45/0.014)
0.5

0.015

sec 0.5sec
Hence K
1
CoeII to determine wind load
1
Period oI vibration at maximum daed weight
T
max
(6.3510
-5
)(H/D)
1.5
(W
max/
t
a
)
0.5

6.3510
-5
(5.842/1.822)
0.5
(105.81/0.014)
0.5
T
max
0.031 sec 0.5 sec
Hence K
2
1
WIND LOAD
P
w
K
1
K
2
p
w
H
d

For min weight condition, D1.9m.
For max weight condition, D2m.
Hence P
w
(min)11*10005.8421.9
11099.8N
P
w
(max)11*10008.8421.9
11684N
MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM WIND MOMENTS

162

M
w
(min)P
w
(min)H/2
11.0995.842/2
32.42 KJ
M
w
(max)P
w
(max) H/2
11.6845.842/2
34.12KJ
II the thickness oI the skirt is expected to be small, Assume D
i
D
o
1.9m

2
Wm(min)4M
w
(min)/nD
2
t
432.42*10
-3
/n1.9
2
t
0.011/t Mn/M
2

2
W
m
(max)434.12/n1.9
2
t
0.012/t Mn/M
2

MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM DEAD LOAD STRESSES

2
W(min)W(min)/nDt
26.45*10
-3
/n1.9t
0.0043/t MN/M
2

2
W(max)105.8110
-3
/n1.9t
0.0177/t MN/M
2

2
(tensile)
2
Wm(min)-
2
W(min)
0.00657/t MN/M
2

2
(tensile) IJ
960.7

163

67.2MN/M
2

J0.7 Ior double welded joint but joint Ior class 3 const.
67.20.00657/t
t1mm

2
(compression)
2
W(max)
2
W
m
(max)
(0.0120.0177)/t
0.0299/t

2
(compression)0.125Et/D
o

0.125210
5
t/2
1.2510
4
t
1.2510
4
t0.0299/t
t2mm
As per IS:2825-1969,minimum corroded skirt thickness is 7mm.providing 1mm
corrosion allowance a standard 8mm thick plate can be used Ior skirt.



DESIGN OF SKIRT BEARING PLATE
F
c
W(max)/A M
w
(max)/Z
W(max)105.81KN
An(D
o
-l)l , ZnR
m
2
l
F
c
0.10581/n(1.9-l)l 0.03412/n(1.9-l)l

164

The allowable compressive strength oI concrete Ioundation varies Irom 5.5 to 9.5
MN/M
2,
Assuming F
c
5.5 MN/M
2
,l7.5mm
As the required width oI the bearing plate is very small, a 100mm width is
selected i.e. l0.1mm.
THICKNESS OF BEARING PLATE
t
bp
l(3 F
c
/I)
0.5
l100mm , F
c
1.85
t
bp
100(31.85/96)
0.5
t
bp
24.04mm
Casing plate thickness oI 24.04mm is required. As the plate thickness required is
larger than 20mm,gussets may be used to reinIorce the plate.
From table no 10.1 (battacharya) Ior 1/b1,M
max
M
y
-0.119 F
c
l
2

-0.1191.850.1
2

-2.210
3
MJ
t
bp
(6M
max
/I)
0.5

(62.210
-3
/96)
0.5

1.1810
-2
M
II gussets are used at 100mm spacing, bearing plate thickness oI 12mm will be
suIIicient. thereIore rolled angle bearing plate oI size
100mm100mm12mmwith 62 gussets may be used. II no oI gussets are reduced
thicker plate will be required.
F
min
W(min)/A - M
w
(min)/Z
0.02645/0.1n(1.9-0.1)
2
- 0.03242/0.1[(1.9-0.1)
2

163


F
min
0.0139MN/M
2

J W(min)R/M
w

0.02645(1.9-0.1)0.1/0.03242
J0.01468
As this value is less than 1.5 the vessel will not be steady by its own weight ,
thereIore anchor are to be used-
P
bolt
n (min )A
0.0139n(1.9-0.1)0.1 MN
7.8610
-3
MN
II hot rolled carbon steel is selected Ior bolts, table 7.5 gives I53.5 MN/M
2

( a
r
n) I P
bolt
7.8610
-3
MN

a
r
n7.8610
-3
/53.5
14.6mm
2

Where , a
r
root area oI bolt
nno oI bolts
For M
121.5
bolts a
r
63mm
2
, this indicates that 1 such anchor bolt is more than
suIIicient Ior this purpose. But as the wind may blow Irom any side eight such
bolts are to be used equally distributed.







166

11.3.4. DATA SHEET


Address Coimbatore institute oI technology,
coimbatore-14
design unit absorber column
design details
inlet Ieed rate 18589.521kg/hr
bottom product 11719.051 kg/hr
top product 10953.799kg/hr
inlet temperature 120c
outlet temperature 50c
height oI the column 6.470m
diameter oI column 1.822 m
temperature oI column 50c
pressure oI absorber column 1atm
tray spacing 0.45m
tray eIIiciency 0.33
actual number oI trays 10
plate thickness 5mm
plate openings 600mm
thickness oI Ilange 5mm
maximum inlet pressure 1.50810
6
n/m
2

no.oI bolts 75 bolts
diameter oI bolts 3.77cm
eIIective gasket sealing width 7.905mm
diameter oI bolts 3.77cm
bolt diameter 14.48 mm








167















PLAA1 LOCA1IOA

168


CHAPTER 12
12 PLANT LOCATION

PARAMETER LOCATION A:
Kundaim ,Goa
LOCATION B:
Dewas industrial estate
,Indore(M.P)

1.CLIMATIC
CONDITIONS
Hot, average
temperature35-40%C
Sub tropical ,hot dry
summer, cool and
relatively dry winter,
average
temperature30c,max.
temperature40%C
2.SOURCES OF RAW
MATERIAL
Zurai Industries ltd.(Goa)
Ior urea and easy
availability oI
Iormaldehyde as well.
Vishnupari , Indore-lord
oI urea industries, Terai
Organics-Siliguri (West
Bengal)
3.TRANSPORTATION
COST
Reasonable , less Ior bulk
quantities.
Relaitively cheaper.
4.ACCESS TO MARKET Panaji -Goa, Mumbai ,
Nagpur, Pune and a
number oI local markets.
Indore, Ranchi,Bhopal
,Gwalior, Jabalpur ,
Khandwa , Dewas
5.LINK RAODS Yes Yes, extensive road
networks , 5 major
airports
6.RAILWAYS Yes Yes
7.SEAPORTS Yes No
8.WATER
AVAILABILITY
Easily available Easily available ,
Bhansagar dam on Sone
river, large river basins
and catchment oI many
rivers
9.ELECTRICITY Cheap Cheap

169

10. LABOUR Easily available at low
cost
Easily available at low
cost
11.BANKS AND
FINANCIAL
INSTITUTIONS
Goa, Mumbai, Pune. Bhopal , Dewas , Indore.
12.GOVERNMENT
INFLUENCE
Good Comparatively better
13.COST OF LAND 90 lakhs /acre 65 lakhs /acre

On the basis oI the above Iactors we have chosen Dewas industrial estate
(Indore) as the location Ior the plant.












170














COS1 ES1IMA1IOA
AAD ECOAOMICS

171


CHAPTER 13

13 COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMICS


Cost oI Urea Formaldehyde plant oI capacity 100 TPD in 1970 is Rs.3000.2
10
5

ThereIore cost oI 250 TPD in 2010 is:
C1 C2 (Q1/Q2)
0.6
3000.2 10
5
(250/100)
0.6
Rs. 5198.9310
5


i.e., Fixed Capital Cost (FCI) Rs. 5.1989310
8


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX

Cost index in 1970114
Cost index in 2003402

Present cost oI plant (original cost) (present cost index)/(past cost index)
5198.9310
5
(402/114) Rs 1.83330610
9
Fixed capital cost Rs 1.83330610
9

ESTIMATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT COST

I. DIRECT COSTS: material and labour involved in actual installation oI
complete Iacility (70-85 oI Iixed-capital investment)

a) Equipment installation instrumentation piping electrical insulation
painting (50-60 oI Fixed-capital investment)

1. PURCHASED EQUIPMENT COST (PEC): (15-40 oI Fixed-capital
investment)
Consider purchased equipment cost 25 oI Fixed-capital investment
i.e., PEC 25 oI 1.83330610
9
0.25 1.83330610
9
Rs. 4.5832610
8



172

2. INSTALLATION, INCLUDING INSULATION AND PAINTING: (25-55
oI purchased equipment cost.)
Consider the Installation cost 40 oI Purchased equipment cost
40 oI 4.5832610
8
0.40 4.5832610
8
Rs.1.8333 10
8


3. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS, INSTALLED: (6-30 oI
Purchased equipment cost.)
Consider the installation cost 20 oI Purchased equipment cost
20 oI 4.5832610
8
0.20 4.5832610
8
Rs.
9.166510
7


4. PIPING INSTALLED: (10-80 oI Purchased equipment cost)
Consider the piping cost 40 Purchased equipment cost
40 oI Purchased equipment cost 0.40 4.5832610
8
Rs.
1.833310
8


5. ELECTRICAL, INSTALLED: (10-40 oI Purchased equipment cost)
Consider Electrical cost 25 oI Purchased equipment cost
25 oI 4.5832610
8
0.25 4.5832610
8
Rs. 1.1458110
8



B. BUILDINGS, PROCESS AND AUXILIARY: (10-70 oI Purchased
equipment cost)
Consider Buildings, process and auxiliary cost 40 oI PEC
40 oI 4.5832610
8
0.40 4.583.2610
8
Rs. 1.833310
8


C. SERVICE FACILITIES AND YARD IMPROVEMENTS: (40-100 oI
Purchased equipment cost)
Consider the cost oI service Iacilities and yard improvement 60 oI PEC
60 oI 4.5832610
8
0.60 4.5832610
8
Rs. 2.74995610
8


D. LAND: (1-2 oI Iixed capital investment or 4-8 oI Purchased equipment
cost)
Consider the cost oI land 6 PEC 6 oI 4.5832610
8
0.06 4.5832610
8

Rs. 2.749910
7

But presently cost oI 3 acres oI landRs 2.40 10
7

Thus, Direct cost Rs. 1.513557610
10



173

II. INDIRECT COSTS: expenses which are not directly involved with
material and labour oI actual installation oI complete Iacility (15-30 oI
Fixed-capital investment)

A. ENGINEERING AND SUPERVISION: (5-30 oI direct costs)
Consider the cost oI engineering and supervision 10 oI Direct costs
i.e., cost oI engineering and supervision 10 oI 1.5135.57610
10
0.11.5135.57610
10
Rs. 1.5135.57610
9


B. CONSTRUCTION EXPENSE AND CONTRACTOR`S FEE: (6-40 oI
direct costs)
Consider the construction expense and contractor`s Iee 40 oI Direct costs
i.e., construction expense and contractor`s Iee 40 oI 1.513557610
9

0.41.513557610
9

Rs6.0542210
8


C. CONTINGENCY: (5-30 oI Fixed-capital investment)
Consider the contingency cost 30 oI Fixed-capital investment
i.e., Contingency cost 30 oI 10
5
0.3 1.83330610
9

Rs. 5.49991810
8

Thus, Indirect Costs Rs. 1.3067688 10
9


III. FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT:

Fixed capital investment Direct costs Indirect costs
2.8203.26410
9

i.e., Fixed capital investment Rs. 2.8203.26410
9


IV. WORKING CAPITAL: (10-20 oI Fixed-capital investment)
Consider the Working Capital 15 oI Fixed-capital investment
i.e., Working capital 15 oI 2.8203.26410
9
0.15 2.8203.26410
9

Rs. 4.2304810
8


V. TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT (TCI):
Total capital investment Fixed capital investment Working capital
(28203.2644230.48) 10
5
i.e., Total capital investment Rs. 3.24337510
9





174

ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST:

I. MANUFACTURING COST Direct production cost Fixed chargesPlant
overhead cost.


A. FIXED CHARGES: (10-20 total product cost)

i. DEPRECIATION: (depends on liIe period, salvage value and method oI
calculation-about 13 oI FCI Ior machinery and equipment and 2-3 Ior Building
Value Ior Buildings)

Consider depreciation 20 oI FCI Ior machinery and equipment and 10 Ior
Building Value Ior Buildings)
i.e., Depreciation (0.228203.26410
5
) (0.128203.26410
5
)
Rs. 8.4609710
8


ii. LOCAL TAXES: (1-5 oI Iixed capital investment)
Consider the local taxes 5 oI Iixed capital investment
i.e. Local Taxes 0.052.820326410
9
Rs. 1.4101610
8


iii. INSURANCES: (0.4-1 oI Iixed capital investment)
Consider the Insurance 1 oI Iixed capital investment
i.e. Insurance 0.012.820326410
9
Rs2.820310
7


Thus, Fixed Charges Rs. 1.01531610
9


B. DIRECT PRODUCTION COST: (about 60 oI total product cost)
Now we have Fixed charges 5-20 oI total product charges
Consider the Fixed charges 5 oI total product cost
Total product charge Iixed charges/5
Total product charge 10153.16 10
5
/5
Total product charge 10153.1610
5
/0.05
Total product charge (TPC) Rs. 2.03063210
10


i. RAW MATERIALS: (10-50 oI total product cost)
Consider the cost oI raw materials 25 oI total product cost
Raw material cost 25 oI 2.03063210
10
0.25 2.03063210
10

Raw material cost Rs.5.07658 10
9



173

ii. OPERATING LABOUR (OL): (10-20 oI total product cost)
Consider the cost oI operating labour 12 oI total product cost
Operating labour cost 12 oI 2.03063210
10
0.12 2.03063210
10

Operating labour cost Rs.2.4367584 10
9


iii. DIRECT SUPERVISORY AND CLERICAL LABOUR (DS & CL): (10-
25 oI OL)
Consider the cost Ior Direct supervisory and clerical labour 12 oI OL
Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost 12 oI 2.4367584 10
9
0.122.4367584 10
9

Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost Rs. 2924.11 lakhs

iv. UTILITIES: (10-20 oI total product cost)
Consider the cost oI Utilities 12 oI total product cost
Utilities cost 12 oI 2.030632 10
10
0.122.030632 10
10

Utilities cost Rs. 24367.584lakhs

v. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS (M & R): (2-10 oI Iixed capital
investment)
Consider the maintenance and repair cost 5 oI Iixed capital investment
i.e. Maintenance and repair cost 0.052.820326410
9
Rs. 1.4101610
8


vi. OPERATING SUPPLIES: (10-20 oI M & R or 0.5-1 oI FCI)
Consider the cost oI Operating supplies 15 oI M & R
Operating supplies cost 15 oI 1.4101610
8
0.15 1.4101610
8

Operating supplies cost Rs 211.52lakhs

vii. LABORATORY CHARGES: (10-20 oI OL)
Consider the Laboratory charges 15 oI OL
Laboratory charges 15 oI 24367.584 10
5
0.1524367.584 10
5

Laboratory charges Rs. 3.6551310
8


viii. PATENT AND ROYALTIES: (0-6 oI total product cost)
Consider the cost oI Patent and royalties 4 oI total product cost
Patent and Royalties 4 oI 2.03063210
10
0.04 2.03063210
10
Patent and
Royalties cost Rs. 8.1225210
8

Thus, Direct Production Cost Rs. 1.1582440810
10


C. PLANT OVERHEAD COSTS (50-70 oI Operating labour, supervision, and
maintenance or 5-15 oI total product cost); includes Ior the Iollowing: general

176

plant upkeep and overhead, payroll overhead, packaging, medical services, saIety
and protection, restaurants, recreation, salvage, laboratories, and storage Iacilities.

Consider the plant overhead cost 60 oI OL, DS & CL, and M & R
Plant overhead cost 60 oI ((2.4367584 10
9
) (2.92411 10
8
)
(1.4101610
8
))
Plant overhead cost Rs. 17221.112 lakhs
Thus, ManuIacture cost Direct production cost Fixed charges Plant overhead
costs.
ManuIacture cost (2.03063210
10
) (1.01531610
9
) (1.7221112 10
9
)
ManuIacture cost Rs. 2.3043747210
10


II. GENERAL EXPENSES Administrative costs distribution and selling
costs research and development costs

A. ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS :(2-6 oI total product cost)
Consider the Administrative costs 5 oI total product cost
Administrative costs 0.05 2.03063210
10

Administrative costs Rs. 1.01531610
9


B.DISTRIBUTION AND SELLING COSTS: (2-20 oI total product cost);
includes costs Ior sales oIIices, salesmen, shipping, and advertising.

Consider the Distribution and selling costs 15 oI total product cost
Distribution and selling costs 15 oI 2.03063210
10

Distribution and selling costs 0.15
Distribution and Selling costs Rs3.04594810
9


C. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS: (about 5 oI total product
cost)
Consider the Research and development costs 5 oI total product cost
Research and Development costs 5 oI 2.03063210
10

Research and development costs 0.05 2.03063210
10

Research and Development costs Rs. 1.01531610
9


D. FINANCING (INTEREST): (0-10 oI total capital investment)
Consider interest 5 oI total capital investment
i.e. interest 5 oI 3.24337510
9
0.053.24337510
9

Interest Rs. 1.6216810
8

Thus, General Expenses Rs. 5.23874810
9


177


IV. GROSS EARNINGS/INCOME
Wholesale Selling Price oI Urea Formaldehyde per kg Rs.275
Total Income Selling price Quantity oI product manuIactured
Total Income Rs. 2.0625010
10

Gross income Total Income Total Product Cost
(2.0625010
10
) (2.03063210
10
)
Gross Income Rs. 3.186810
8

Let the Tax rate be 45 (common)
Net ProIit Gross income - Taxes Gross income (1- Tax rate)
Net proIit 3186.8 (1-0.45) Rs.1.7527410
8


RATE OF RETURN
Rate oI return Net proIit100/Total Capital Investment
Rate oI Return 1752.7410
5
100/ (32433.7510
5
)
Rate oI Return 6

BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
Data available:
Annual Direct Production Cost Rs 2.03063210
10

Annual Fixed charges Rs. 1.01531610
9

Total Annual sales Rs. 2.0625010
10

Wholesale Selling Price Urea Formaldehyde per ton. Rs. 275000

Direct production cost per ton oI Urea Formaldehyde (1.01531610
9
)/
(2.0625010
10
/275000)
Rs. 13537.54 per ton
Let n` TPA be the break even production rate.
Number oI tons needed Ior a break-even point is given by
(1.01531610
9
) (13537.54n) (275000n)
~ n 3883.21 tons/year
Hence, the break-even production rate is 5.1 oI the considered plant capacity.

PAYBACK PERIOD

PPTotal Fixed Investment interest/ Avg Depreciation Net ProIit

28203.26452387.48/8460.971752.74
7.89 years


178



















SAFE1Y SHEE1

179

CHAPTER 14

14 SAFETY SHEET


14.1 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET UREA


SECTION 1: CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Urea

Catalog Codes: SLU1063, SLU1132, SLU1093, SLU1162

CAS#: 57-13-6

RTECS: YR6250000

TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Urea

CI#: Not available.

Synonym: Carbamide

Chemical Name: carbonyldiamide

Chemical Formula: (NH2)2CO or CH4N2O

SECTION 2: COMPOSITION AND INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

COMPOSITION:

Name CAS # by Weight
Urea 57-13-6 100

Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Urea: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 8471 mg/kg
|Rat|. 11000 mg/kg |Mouse|.




180

SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

POTENTIAL ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS
Hazardous in case oI skin contact (irritant), oI eye contact (irritant), oI
ingestion, oI inhalation.

POTENTIAL CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.
MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic Ior mammalian somatic cells.
TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.
DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available.
The substance may be toxic to blood, cardiovascular system. Repeated or
prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.

SECTION 4: FIRST AID MEASURES
EYE CONTACT
Check Ior and remove any contact lenses. In case oI contact, immediately Ilush
eyes with plenty oI water Ior at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get
medical attention.

SKIN CONTACT
In case oI contact, immediately Ilush skin with plenty oI water. Cover the irritated
skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may
be used.Wash clothing beIore reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes beIore reuse. Get
medical attention.

SERIOUS SKIN CONTACT
Wash with a disinIectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-
bacterial cream. Seek medical attention.

INHALATION
II inhaled, remove to Iresh air. II not breathing, give artiIicial respiration. II
breathing is diIIicult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.







181

14.2 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET FOR FORMALDEHYDE

SECTION 1: CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Formaldehyde 37 solution

Catalog Codes: SLF1426

CAS#: Mixture.

RTECS: LP8925000

TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Formaldehyde; Methyl alcohol;
Water

CI#: Not applicable.

Synonym: Formalin

Chemical Name: Formaldehyde

Chemical Formula: HCHO

SECTION 2: COMPOSITION AND INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
COMPOSITION:

NAME CAS # BY WEIGHT
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 36.5-38
Methyl alcohol 67-56-1 10-15
Water 7732-18-5 47-53.5

TOXICOLOGICAL DATA ON INGREDIENTS: Formaldehyde: ORAL
(LD50): Acute: 100 mg/kg |Rat|. 42 mg/kg |Mouse|. 260 mg/kg |Guinea pig|.
MIST (LC50): Acute: 454000 mg/m 4 hours |Mouse|. Methyl alcohol: ORAL
(LD50): Acute: 5628 mg/kg |Rat|.
DERMAL (LD50): Acute: 15800 mg/kg |Rabbit|. VAPOR (LC50): Acute: 64000
ppm 4 hours |Rat|.



182

SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION POTENTIAL ACUTE
HEALTH EFFECTS
Very hazardous in case oI eye contact (irritant), oI ingestion, . Hazardous in
case oI skin contact (irritant, sensitizer, permeator), oI eye contact (corrosive).
Slightly hazardous in case oI skin contact (corrosive). Severe over-exposure can
result in death. InIlammation oI the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and
itching.

POTENTIAL CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS
Hazardous in case oI skin contact (sensitizer).
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: ClassiIied A2 (Suspected Ior human.) by ACGIH,
2A (Probable Ior human.) by IARC |Formaldehyde|.
MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic Ior mammalian somatic cells.
|Formaldehyde|. Mutagenic Ior bacteria
and/or yeast. |Formaldehyde|. Mutagenic Ior mammalian somatic cells. |Methyl
alcohol|. Mutagenic Ior bacteria
and/or yeast. |Methyl alcohol|.
TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: ClassiIied POSSIBLE Ior human |Methyl alcohol|.
DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available
The substance may be toxic to kidneys, liver, skin, central nervous system (CNS).
Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs
damage. Repeated exposure to a
highly toxic material may produce general deterioration oI health by an
accumulation in one or many human organs.

SECTION 4: FIRST AID MEASURES
EYE CONTACT
Check Ior and remove any contact lenses. Immediately Ilush eyes with running
water Ior at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Cold water may be used. Get
medical attention immediately.

SKIN CONTACT
In case oI contact, immediately Ilush skin with plenty oI water. Cover the irritated
skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may
be used. Wash clothing beIore reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes beIore reuse. Get
medical attention.
SERIOUS SKIN CONTACT
Wash with a disinIectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-
bacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention.


183

INHALATION
II inhaled, remove to Iresh air. II not breathing, give artiIicial respiration. II
breathing is diIIicult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately.

SERIOUS INHALATION
Evacuate the victim to a saIe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such
as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. II breathing is diIIicult, administer oxygen. II the
victim is not breathing, perIorm mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. WARNING: It may
be hazardous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
when the inhaled material is toxic, inIectious or corrosive. Seek immediate medical
attention.

INGESTION
II swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical
personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight
clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention immediately.


SECTION 5: FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA

Flammability of the Product: Flammable.

Auto-Ignition Temperature: 430C (806F)

Flash Points: CLOSED CUP: 50C (122F). OPEN CUP: 60C (140F).

Flammable Limits: The greatest known range is LOWER: 6 UPPER: 36.5
(Methyl alcohol)

Products of Combustion: These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).

FIRE HAZARDS IN PRESENCE OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES
Flammable in presence oI open Ilames and sparks, oI heat. Non-Ilammable
in presence oI shocks, oI oxidizing materials, oI reducing materials, oI combustible
materials, oI organic materials, oI metals, oI acids, oI alkalis.

EXPLOSION HAZARDS IN PRESENCE OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES:
Non-explosive in presence oI open Ilames and sparks, oI shocks.



184

FIRE FIGHTING MEDIA AND INSTRUCTIONS
Flammable liquid, soluble or dispersed in water.
SMALL FIRE: Use DRY chemical powder.
LARGE FIRE: Use alcohol Ioam, water spray or Iog. Cool containing vessels with
water jet in order to prevent pressure build-up, autoignition or explosion.

SPECIAL REMARKS ON FIRE HAZARDS
Explosive in the Iorm oI vapor when exposed to heat or Ilame. Vapor may travel
considerable distance to source oI ignition and Ilash back. When heated to
decomposition, it emits acrid smoke and irritating Iumes. CAUTION:
MAY BURN WITH NEAR INVISIBLE FLAME (Methyl alcohol)

SPECIAL REMARKS ON EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Reaction with peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, and permIormic acid can cause an
explosion.(Formaldehyde gas)





14.3 SAFTY SHEET FOR UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION: Hardwood Plywood, Veneer Core PlatIorms,
Uniply, Lumber Core PlatIorms, Particleboard,Medium Density Fiberboard (Urea-
Formaldehyde), Medium Density Overlay

SYNONYMS: VCPF, Blanks, LCPF, 2-Ply, Plywood, PB, MDF, MDO

TRADE NAME: None

DESCRIPTION
This panel products contains a hardwood veneer Iace (occasionally a decorative
soItwood Iace) bondedto wood components such as other
woodveneer,particleboard, or medium density Iiberboard (MDF) using urea-
Iormaldehyde resin.

POTENTIAL AIRBORNE RELEASES
The product may release small quantities oI Iormaldehyde (CAS No.50-00-0) in
gaseous Iorm. Emissionsdecrease through time as the panels age. Manual or

183

mechanical cutting or abrasion processes perIormed onthe product can result in
generation oI wood dust.


FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA
Flash point.......................................................................................... Not applicable
Autoignition Temperature.................................................................. Not available
(will depend upon duration oI exposure to heat source and other variables)
Explosive Limits in Air...................................................................... See below
under 'Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
Extinguishing Media.......................................................................... Water, Carbon
Dioxide, Sand
Special Fire Fighting Procedures....................................................... None
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards................................................. Sawing,
sanding or machining can produce wood dust as a byproduct which may present an
explosion hazard iI a dust cloud contacts an ignition source. An airborne
concentration oI 40 grams oI dust per cubic meter oI air is oIten used as the LEL
Ior wood dust.

REACTIVITY DATA
Conditions Contributing to
Instability........................................................................................... Stable under
normal conditions.
Incompatibility................................................................................... Avoid contact
with oxidizing agents. Avoid open Ilame. Product may ignite in excess oI 400
degrees F. Hazardous Decomposition
Products..............................................................................................Thermal and/or
thermal oxidative decomposition can produce irritating and toxic Iumes and gases,
including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, organic acids and
polynuclear aromatic compounds.
Hazardous Polymerization................................................................. Not applicable

HEALTH EFFECTS INFORMATION
Exposure Limits:
Formaldehyde.....................................................................................OSHA
PELTWA: 0.75 ppm
OSHA PEL-STEL: 2 ppm
ACGIH TLV-CEILING: 0.3 ppm
Exposure Limits (cont`d.):

186

Wood Dust...................................................................................................OSHA
PEL-TWA: 15.0 mg/m3
(total dust);
5.0 mg/m3 (respirable Iraction)
1
See important Iootnote below concerning
OSHA PELs Ior wood dust
Wood Dust (SoItwood)............................................................................... ACGIH
TLV-TWA: 5.0 mg/m3
ACGIH TLV - STEL (15 min.): 10.0 mg/m3
Wood Dust (Certain hardwoods such
as beech and oak).........................................................................................ACGIH
TLV-TWA: 1.0 mg/m3
Eye Contact................................................................................................. Gaseous
Iormaldehyde may cause temporary irritation or a burning sensation. Wood dust
can cause mechanical irritation.
Skin Contact..... ........................................................................................... Both
Iormaldehyde and various species oI wood dust may evoke allergic contact
dermatitis insensitized individuals.
Ingestion...................................................................................................... Not
likely to occur.
Gaseous Iormaldehyde................................................................................ May
cause temporary irritation to eyes, nose and throat. Some reports suggest that
Iormaldehyde may cause respiratory sensitization, such as asthma, and that pre-
existing respiratory disorders may be aggravated by exposure. Formaldehyde is
listed by the International Agency Ior Research on Cancer (IARC) as a probable
human carcinogen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) includes
Iormaldehyde in the Annual Report on Carcinogens. Formaldehyde is regulated by
OSHA as a potential cancer agent.1 In AFL-CIO v. OSHA 965 F. 2d 962 (11th
Cir. 1992), the court overturned OSHA`s 1989 Air Contaminants Rule, including
the speciIic PELs Ior wood dust that OSHA had established at that time. The 1989
PELs were: TWA - 5.0 mg/m3; STEL (15 min.) - 10.0 mg/m3 (all soIt and hard
woods, except Western red cedar); Western red cedar: TWA - 2.5 mg/m3. Wood
dust is now oIIicially regulated as an organic dust under the Particulate Not
Otherwise Regulated (PNOR) or Inert or Nuisance Dust categories at PELs noted
under the Health EIIects InIormation section oI this MSDS. However, a number oI
states have incorporated provisions oI the 1989 standard in their state plans.
Additionally, OSHA has announced that it may cite companies under the OSH Act
General Duty Clause under appropriate circumstances Ior non-compliance with the
1989 PELs.

187

Gaseous Iormaldehyde (cont`d.)................................................... In studies
involving rats, Iormaldehyde has been shown to cause nasal cancer Irom long-term
exposure to very high concentrations (14 ppm), Iar above those normally Iound in
the workplace using this product.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted an
epidemiological study oI industrial workers exposed to Iormaldehyde (published
June 1986). The NCI concluded that the data provides little evidence that mortality
Irom cancer is associated with Iormaldehyde exposure at the levels experienced by
workers in the
study.
WOOD DUST: May cause nasal dryness, irritation and obstruction. Coughing,
wheezing, and sneezing; sinusitis and prolonged colds have also been
reported.Depending on species, may cause
Respiratory sensitization and/or irritation.IARC classiIies wood dust as a
carcinogen to humans (Group 1). This classiIication is based primarily on IARC`s
evaluation oI increased risk in the occurrence oI adenocarcinomas oI the nasal
cavities and paranasal sinuses associated with exposure to wood dust. IARC did
not Iind suIIicient evidence to associate cancer oI the oropharynx, lung,
hypopharynx, lymphatic, stomach and hematopoietic systems, colon or rectum
with exposure to wood dust. The NTP includes wood dust in The Annual Report
on Carcinogens.

PRECAUTIONS, SAFE HANDLING
Formaldehyde: Provide adequate ventilation to reduce the possible buildup oI
Iormaldehyde gas, particularly when high temperatures occur.

WOOD DUST: Avoid dusty conditions and provide good ventilation.

GENERALLY APPLICABLE CONTROL MEASURES
Ventilation: Provide adequate general and local exhaust ventilation to keep
airborne contaminant concentration levels below the OSHA PELs. Personal
Protective Equipment: Wear goggles or saIety glasses when manuIacturing or
machining the product. Wear NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator when the
allowable exposure limits may be exceeded. Other protective equipment such as
gloves and outer garments may be needed depending on dust conditions.

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

EYES:Flush eyes with large amounts oIwater. Remove to Iresh air. IIirritation
persists, get medcal attention.


188

SKIN: Wash aIIected areas with soap andwater. Get medical advice iI rash or
persistentirritation or dermatitisoccurs.

Inhalation..................................................................................................... Remove
to Iresh air. Get medical advice iI persistent irritation, severe coughing or
breathingdiIIiculty occurs.

INGESTION: Not applicable


















189












PID DIACRAM

190

CHAP1ER
15 PID DIAGRAM






















191





















PLAA1 LAYOU1


192

CHAPTER 16
16 PLANT LAYOUT

The economic construction and operation oI a process unit will depend on
how well the plant equipment speciIied on the process Ilow sheet and laid out.
The principal Iactors to be considered are:
1. Economic consideration: construction and operation cost.
2. The process requirement
3. Convenience oI operation
4. convenience oI maintenance
5. SaIety
6. Future expansion
7. Modular construction

16.1 COSTS:
The cost oI construction can be minimized by adopting a layout that
gives shortest run oI connecting pipes between equipment, and adopting the
least amount oI structural steel work. However, this will not necessarily be
the best arrangement Ior operation and maintenance.
16.2 PROCESS REQUIREMENT
All the required equipments have to be placed properly within process.
Even the installation oI the auxiliaries should be done in such a way that it
will occupy the least space.




193

16.3 OPERATION
Equipment that needs to have Irequent operation should be located
convenient to the control room. Valves, sample points, and instruments should be
located at convenient position and height. SuIIicient workingspace and headroom
must be provided to allow easy access to equipment.

16.4 MAINTENANCE
Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can be easily
withdrawn Ior cleaning and tube replacement. Vessels that require Irequent
replacement oI catalyst or packing should be located on the outside oI buildings.
Equipment that requires dismantling Ior maintenance,
such as compressors and large pumps, should be placed under cover.

16.5 SAFETY
Blast walls may be needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and
conIine the eIIects oI an explosion. At least two escape routes Ior operator must be
provided Irom each level in the process building.

PLANT EXPANSION
Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any
Iuture expansion oI the process. Space should be leIt on pipe alleys Ior Iuture
needs, service pipes over-sized to allow Ior Iuture requirements.

MODULAR CONSTRUCTION:
In recent years, there has been a move to assemble sections oI the plant at
the manuIacturer site. These modules will include the equipment, structural steel,
piping and instrumentation. The modules then transported to the plant site, by road.

194
















COACLUSIOA


193

CHAPTER 17
17 CONCLUSION
Thus the project based on manuIacturing oI urea Iormaldehyde resin oI capacity
250 tons per day includes
1 Various method oI production
2 Selection oI suitable method
3 Process description
4 Material balance
5 Energy balance
6 Design oI equipment such as
6.1 Heat exchanger
6.2 Evaporator
6.3 Absorption column
7 Estimation oI cost oI plant and payback period
8 PID diagram
9 Plant layout
In carrying out this subject we have applied
1 Chemical process calculation concepts
2 Process equipment and design process
3 Application oI heat and mass balance principles
4 Economics oI process
5 Instrumentation Process and control
Thus the project covers all aspects required Ior the manuIacturing oI urea
Iormaldehyde resin and could be implemented in reality.
This book also covers the production oI raw materials oI urea Iormaldehyde
resin, selection oI plant location and saIety aspects oI handling oI raw materials
and product




196















ILIOCRAPHY

197

CHAPTER 18
18 BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. B.I.Batt and S.M.Vohra 'Stiochiometry, Tata McGraw Hill International
Editions. (3
rd
Edition)
2. David Himmelblau,Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, Prentice Hall India, 2004
3. Dryden`s 'Outlines oI Chemical Technology, East-West Press Private
Limited, 2004
4. Faith, Keyes and Clark , Industrial Chemicals,4
th
edition.
5. George T.Austin,Shreve`s Chemical Process Industries, Tata McGraw Hill
International Editions
6. George Stephanopoulos,' Chemical process control,(2005)
7. James A.Kent 'Riegel`s Handbook oI Industrial Chemistry,10
th
edition
8. Jerry L.Atwood and Jonathan 'W.Steed Encyclopedia oI Supramolecule
Chemistry,vol.2
9. John Brydron also discussed about urea Iormaldehyde resins in the journal
oI applied science, vol-77,page no 64-67.
10. Jon Williams ,American Journal oI Pharmacy, page no220.
11. Kenneth W.Britt,Handbook oI Pulp oI Paper Technology, CBS Publishers
(2
nd
Edition)
12 kernuC"process heaL Lransfer" Mcgraw Plll(1930)
13 Keyes and Clark`s has given the details oI Iormaldehyde in Industrial
Chemicals, 4
th
edition.
14 R.S.Khurmi,Staem Tables and humidity charts.
13 klrk and CLhmer(Ld)"encyclopaedla ln chemlcal Lechnology"(volumes
23121422) ,4
th
edition.
16. Robert Salley Synthetic Resins and allied plastics, 2
nd
edition.
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