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^CII 1IA! 1 ^IIIIC! \CIII' 'CII \CIII\III
THE OFFICIAL GUIDE FOR GMAT
®
REVIEW, 12TH EDITION
Copyright © 2009 by thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council¹. All rights rcscrvcd.
Publishcd by Vilcy Publishing, !nc., Hobokcn, Ncw Jcrscy
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¹
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¹
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¹
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¹
arc
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¹
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¹
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sm
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¹
.
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Iable of Contents I.0 What Is the GMAT
®
î ö
ì.ì why 1ake the 0l/1
®
1est' 7
ì.Z 0l/1
®
1est lormat 8
ì.3 what ls the Content ol the 1est l|ke' I0
ì.4 Çuant|tat|ve 3ect|on I0
ì.o Verba| 3ect|on I0
ì.b what Computer 3k|||s w||| l Need' II
ì./ what /re the 1est Centers l|ke' II
ì.ß How /re 3cores Ca|cu|ated' II
ì.9 /na|yt|ca| wr|t|n¿ /ssessment 3cores IZ
ì.ìC 1est 0eve|opment lrocess I3
Z.0 Hcw tc Preµare I4
Z.ì How Can l Best lrepare to 1ake the 1est' Ib
Z.Z what /bout lract|ce 1ests' Ib
Z.3 How 3hou|d l 0se the 0|a¿nost|c 1est' Iö
Z.4 where Can l 0et /dd|t|ona| lract|ce' Iö
Z.o 0enera| 1est·1ak|n¿ 3u¿¿est|ons Iö
3.0 D|agncst|c Test I8
3.ì Çuant|tat|ve 3amp|e Çuest|ons Z0
3.Z Verba| 3amp|e Çuest|ons Z7
3.3 Çuant|tat|ve and Verba| /nswer beys 4b
3.4 lnterpret|ve 0u|de 4b
3.o Çuant|tat|ve /nswer Lxp|anat|ons 4ö
3.b Verba| /nswer Lxp|anat|ons öb
4.0 Math Rev|ew I0ö
4.ì /r|thmet|c I08
4.Z /|¿ebra IZ0
4.3 0eometry IZ7
4.4 word lrob|ems I40
b.0 Prcb|em Sc|v|ng I48
o.ì 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es Ib0
o.Z 1he 0|rect|ons Ib0
o.3 3amp|e Çuest|ons IbZ
o.4 /nswer bey I8ö
o.o /nswer Lxp|anat|ons I88
ö.0 Data Sufhc|ency Zöö
b.ì 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es Zö8
b.Z 1he 0|rect|ons Z70
b.3 3amp|e Çuest|ons Z7Z
b.4 /nswer bey Z89
b.o /nswer Lxp|anat|ons Z90
7.0 Read|ng Ccmµrehens|cn 3bZ
/.ì what ls leasured 3b4
/.Z 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es 3bö
/.3 1he 0|rect|ons 3b7
/.4 3amp|e Çuest|ons 3b8
/.o /nswer bey 408
/.b /nswer Lxp|anat|ons 409
8.0 Cr|t|ca| Reascn|ng 48Z
ß.ì what ls leasured 484
ß.Z 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es 484
ß.3 1he 0|rect|ons 48b
ß.4 3amp|e Çuest|ons 48ö
ß.o /nswer bey bZb
ß.b /nswer Lxp|anat|ons bZö
9.0 Sentence Ccrrect|cn öb0
9.ì Bas|c Ln¿||sh 0rammar bu|es öbI
9.Z 3tudy 3u¿¿est|ons öbö
9.3 what ls leasured öbö
9.4 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es öbö
9.o 1he 0|rect|ons öb7
9.b 3amp|e Çuest|ons öb8
9./ /nswer bey ö84
9.ß /nswer Lxp|anat|ons ö8b
I0.0 Ana|yt|ca| Wr|t|ng Assessment 7b8
ìC.ì what ls leasured 7b9
ìC.Z 1est·1ak|n¿ 3trate¿|es 7ö0
ìC.3 1he 0|rect|ons 7öI
ìC.4 0l/1
®
3cor|n¿ 0u|de: /na|ys|s ol an lssue 7öZ
ìC.o 3amp|e: /na|ys|s ol an lssue 7ö4
ìC.b /na|ys|s ol an lssue 3amp|e 1op|cs 7ö9
ìC./ 0l/1
®
3cor|n¿ 0u|de: /na|ys|s ol an /r¿ument 790
ìC.ß 3amp|e: /na|ys|s ol an /r¿ument 79Z
ìC.9 /na|ys|s ol an /r¿ument 3amp|e 1op|cs 79ö
Aµµend|x A lercent||e bank|n¿ 1ab|es 8Z8
Aµµend|x ß /nswer 3heets 834
0|a¿nost|c /nswer 3heet 83b
lrob|em 3o|v|n¿ /nswer 3heet 83ö
0ata 3ulhc|ency /nswer 3heet 837
bead|n¿ Comprehens|on /nswer 3heet 838
Cr|t|ca| beason|n¿ /nswer 3heet 839
3entence Correct|on /nswer 3heet 840
Ðcar Futurc 8usincss Lcadcr,
8y using this book to prcparc lor thc GMAT¹ tcst, you arc taking a vcry important stcp toward
gaining admission to a highquality busincss or managcmcnt program and achicving a rcwarding
carccr in managcmcnt. ! applaud your dccision.
c Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council¹ dcvclopcd thc GMAT tcst morc than 50 ycars
ago to hclp lcading graduatc schools ol busincss and managcmcnt choosc thc applicants who bcst
suit thcir programs. Today, thc tcst is uscd by morc than 1,800 graduatc programs and is givcn to
tcst takcrs daily in morc than 110 countrics around thc world. Programs that usc GMAT scorcs in
sclcctivc admissions havc hclpcd cstablish thc M8A dcgrcc as a hallmark ol cxccllcncc worldwidc.
Vhy do GMAT scorcs mattcr so much: Òthcr admissions lactorssuch as work cxpcricncc,
gradcs, admissions cssays, and intcrvicwscan say somcthing about who you arc and what you havc
donc in your carccr, but only your GMAT scorcs can tcll schools how you arc likcly to pcrlorm
acadcmically in thc busincss school courscs that arc lundamcntal to thc M8A dcgrcc. !n lact, thc
tcst has bccn provcn rcliablc as a prcdictor ol acadcmic pcrlormancc lor morc than hall a ccntury.
!n othcr words, busincss schools that rcquirc you to takc thc GMAT rcally carc about thc
quality ol thcir studcnt body. And cxccllcnt M8A studcnts mcan a strongcr M8A program, a
morc cnriching lcarning cnvironmcnt, and a morc valuablc dcgrcc lor you to takc into thc busincss
world. 8y cnrolling in a school that uscs thc GMAT tcst lor your graduatc busincss dcgrcc, you
in many ways, throughout
your carccr.
! wish you grcat succcss in prcparing lor this important ncxt stcp in your prolcssional cducation,
and ! wish you a vcry rcwarding managcmcnt carccr.
Sinccrcly
Ðavid A. Vilson
Prcsidcnt and C¡Ò
Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council¹
6
1.0 What Is the GMAT
®
?
7
1.0 What Is the GMAT
®
?
c Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Tcst¹ (GMAT¹) is a standardizcd, thrccpart tcst dclivcrcd
c tcst was dcsigncd to hclp admissions olnccrs cvaluatc how suitablc individual
applicants arc lor thcir graduatc busincss and managcmcnt programs. !t mcasurcs basic vcrbal,
mathcmatical, and analytical writing skills that a tcst takcr has dcvclopcd ovcr a long pcriod ol timc
through cducation and work.
c GMAT tcst docs not a mcasurc a pcrson's knowlcdgc ol spccinc nclds ol study. Graduatc
crcnt undcrgraduatc and work
backgrounds, so rathcr than tcst your mastcry ol any particular subjcct arca, thc GMAT tcst will
asscss your acquircd skills. Your GMAT scorc will givc admissions olnccrs a statistically rcliablc
mcasurc ol how wcll you arc likcly to pcrlorm acadcmically in thc corc curriculum ol a graduatc
busincss program.
Òl coursc, thcrc arc many othcr qualincations that can hclp pcoplc succccd in busincss school and in
thcir carccrslor instancc, job cxpcricncc, lcadcrship ability, motivation, and intcrpcrsonal skills.
at is why your GMAT scorc is intcndcd to bc
uscd as onc standard admissions critcrion among othcr, morc subjcctivc, critcria, such as admissions
cssays and intcrvicws.
1.1 Why Take the GMAT
®
Test?
GMAT scorcs arc uscd by admissions olnccrs in roughly 1,800 graduatc busincss and managcmcnt
programs worldwidc. Schools that rcquirc prospcctivc studcnts to submit GMAT scorcs in thc
application proccss arc gcncrally intcrcstcd in
admitting thc bcstqualincd applicants lor thcir
programs, which mcans that you may nnd a morc
bcncncial lcarning cnvironmcnt at schools that
rcquirc GMAT scorcs as part ol your application.
8ccausc thc GMAT tcst gaugcs skills that arc
important to succcsslul study ol busincss and
managcmcnt at thc graduatc lcvcl, your scorcs will
givc you a good indication ol how wcll prcparcd
you arc to succccd acadcmically in a graduatc
managcmcnt program, how wcll you do on thc tcst
may also hclp you choosc thc busincss schools to
which you apply. Furthcrmorc, thc pcrccntilc tablc
you rcccivc with your scorcs will tcll you how your
pcrlormancc on thc tcst comparcs to thc
pcrlormancc ol othcr tcst takcrs, giving you onc
way to gaugc your compctition lor admission to
busincss school.
1.0 What Is the GMAT
®
?
- I! I don't score in the 90th
percentiIe, I von't get into
any schooI I choose.
f - Very !ev peopIe get very
high scores.
lewer lhan 50 ol lhe more lhan 200,000
people laking lhe CMAT lesl each year
gel a perlecl score ol 800. Thus, while
you may be exceplionally capable, lhe odds
are againsl your achieving a perlecl score.
Also, lhe CMAT lesl is jusl one piece ol
your applicalion packel. Admissions ollcers
use CMAT scores in conjunclion wilh
undergraduale records, applicalion essays,
inlerviews, lellers ol recommendalion, and
olher inlormalion when deciding whom lo
accepl inlo lheir programs.
 fACT
8
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
crcnt aspccts ol an application bclorc making an admissions dccision, so
cvcn il you scorc wcll on thc GMAT tcst, you should contact thc schools that intcrcst you to lcarn
morc about thcm and to ask about how thcy usc GMAT scorcs and othcr admissions critcria (such
as your undcrgraduatc gradcs, cssays, and lcttcrs ol rccommcndation) to cvaluatc candidatcs lor
admission. School admissions olnccs, school Vcb sitcs, and matcrials publishcd by thc school arc
thc bcst sourccs lor you to tap whcn you arc doing rcscarch about whcrc you might want to go to
busincss school.
For morc inlormation about how schools should usc GMAT scorcs in admissions dccisions,
plcasc rcad Appcndix A ol this book. For morc inlormation on thc GMAT, rcgistcring to takc
thc tcst, scnding your scorcs to schools, and applying to busincss school, plcasc visit our Vcb sitc
at www.mba.com.
1.2 GMAT
®
Test format
c GMAT tcst consists ol lour scparatcly timcd scctions (scc thc tablc on thc ncxt pagc).
You start thc tcst with two 30minutc Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt (AVA) qucstions that
c writing scction is lollowcd by
two 75minutc, multiplcchoicc scctions: thc Quantitativc and \crbal scctions ol thc tcst.
c GMAT is a computcradaptivc tcst (CAT),
which mcans that in thc multiplcchoicc scctions
ol thc tcst, thc computcr constantly gaugcs how
wcll you arc doing on thc tcst and prcscnts you
with qucstions that arc appropriatc to your ability
csc qucstions arc drawn lrom a hugc pool
ol possiblc tcst qucstions. So, although wc talk
about thc GMAT as onc tcst, thc GMAT tcst you
crcnt lrom thc tcst ol
thc pcrson sitting ncxt to you.
Hcrc's how it works. At thc start ol cach GMAT
multiplcchoicc scction (\crbal and Quantitativc),
you will bc prcscntcd with a qucstion ol modcratc
c computcr uscs your rcsponsc to that
nrst qucstion to dctcrminc which qucstion to
prcscnt ncxt. !l you rcspond corrcctly, thc tcst
usually will givc you qucstions ol incrcasing
dilnculty. !l you rcspond incorrcctly, thc ncxt
qucstion you scc usually will bc casicr than thc onc
you answcrcd incorrcctly. As you continuc to
rcspond to thc qucstions prcscntcd, thc computcr
will narrow your scorc to thc numbcr that bcst
charactcrizcs your ability. Vhcn you complctc
cach scction, thc computcr will havc an accuratc
asscssmcnt ol your ability.
- Getting an easier question
means I ansvered the Iast one
vrong.
f - Getting an easier question
does not necessariIy mean you
got the previous question
vrong.
To ensure lhal everyone receives lhe same
conlenl, lhe lesl selecls a specilc number
ol queslions ol each lype. The lesl may call
lor your nexl queslion lo be a relalively
hard problem-solving ilem involving
arilhmelic operalions. 8ul, il lhere are no
more relalively dillcull problem-solving
ilems involving arilhmelic, you mighl be
given an easier ilem.
Mosl people are nol skilled al eslimaling
ilem dillcully, so don'l worry when laking
lhe lesl or wasle valuable lime lrying lo
delermine lhe dillcully ol lhe queslions
you are answering.
 fACT
9
8ccausc cach qucstion is prcscntcd on thc basis ol your answcrs to all prcvious qucstions, you must
answcr cach qucstion as it appcars. You may not skip, rcturn to, or changc your rcsponscs to
prcvious qucstions. Random gucssing can signincantly lowcr your scorcs. !l you do not know thc
answcr to a qucstion, you should try to climinatc as many choiccs as possiblc, thcn sclcct thc answcr
you think is bcst. !l you answcr a qucstion incorrcctly by mistakcor corrcctly by lucky gucss
your answcrs to subscqucnt qucstions will lcad you back to qucstions that arc at thc appropriatc lcvcl
ol dilnculty lor you.
¡ach multiplcchoicc qucstion uscd in thc GMAT tcst has bccn thoroughly rcvicwcd by
prolcssional tcst dcvclopcrs. Ncw multiplcchoicc qucstions arc tcstcd cach timc thc tcst is
administcrcd. Answcrs to trial qucstions arc not countcd in thc scoring ol your tcst, but thc trial
crclorc, you should try to do
your bcst on cvcry qucstion.
c tcst includcs thc typcs ol qucstions lound in this guidc, but thc lormat and prcscntation ol thc
crcnt on thc computcr. Vhcn you takc thc tcst:
Ònly onc qucstion at a timc is prcscntcd on thc computcr scrccn. ·
c answcr choiccs lor thc multiplcchoicc qucstions will bc prcccdcd by circlcs, rathcr than by ·
lcttcrs.
crcnt qucstion typcs appcar in random ordcr in thc multiplcchoicc scctions ol thc tcst. ·
You must sclcct your answcr using thc computcr. ·
You must choosc an answcr and connrm your choicc bclorc moving on to thc ncxt qucstion. ·
You may not go back to changc answcrs to prcvious qucstions. ·
1.2 What Is the GMAT
®
? GMAT
®
Test format
format o! the GMAT
®
Qucstions Timing
Analytical Vriting
Analysis ol an Argumcnt
Analysis ol an !ssuc
1
1
30 min.
30 min.
Òptional brcak 5 min.
Quantitativc
Problcm Solving
Ðata Sulncicncy
37 75 min.
Òptional brcak 5 min.
\crbal
Rcading Comprchcnsion
Critical Rcasoning
Scntcncc Corrcction
41 75 min.
Total Timc: 210220 min.
10
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
1.3 What Is the Content o! the Test Like?
!t is important to rccognizc that thc GMAT tcst cvaluatcs skills and abilitics dcvclopcd ovcr a
rclativcly long pcriod ol timc. Although thc scctions contain qucstions that arc basically vcrbal and
mathcmatical, thc complctc tcst providcs onc mcthod ol mcasuring ovcrall ability.
Kccp in mind that although thc qucstions in this guidc arc arrangcd by qucstion typc and ordcrcd
crcnt
typcs ol qucstions in any ordcr.
1.4 Çuantitative 5ection
c GMAT Quantitativc scction mcasurcs your ability to rcason quantitativcly, solvc quantitativc
problcms, and intcrprct graphic data.
Two typcs ol multiplcchoicc qucstions arc uscd in thc Quantitativc scction:
Problcm solving ·
Ðata sulncicncy ·
Problcm solving and data sulncicncy qucstions arc intcrminglcd throughout thc Quantitativc
scction. 8oth typcs ol qucstions rcquirc basic knowlcdgc ol:
Arithmctic ·
¡lcmcntary algcbra ·
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry ·
To rcvicw thc basic mathcmatical conccpts that will bc tcstcd in thc GMAT Quantitativc
qucstions, scc thc math rcvicw in chaptcr 4. For tcsttaking tips spccinc to thc qucstion typcs in
thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst, samplc qucstions, and answcr cxplanations, scc
chaptcrs 5 and 6.
1.5 VerbaI 5ection
c GMAT \crbal scction mcasurcs your ability to rcad and comprchcnd writtcn matcrial, to
rcason and cvaluatc argumcnts, and to corrcct writtcn matcrial to conlorm to standard writtcn
crcnt contcnt arcas,
you may bc gcncrally lamiliar with somc ol thc matcrial, howcvcr, ncithcr thc rcading passagcs nor
thc qucstions assumc dctailcd knowlcdgc ol thc topics discusscd.
rcc typcs ol multiplcchoicc qucstions arc uscd in thc \crbal scction:
Rcading comprchcnsion ·
Critical rcasoning ·
Scntcncc corrcction ·
csc qucstion typcs arc intcrminglcd throughout thc \crbal scction.
11
For tcsttaking tips spccinc to cach qucstion typc in thc \crbal scction, samplc qucstions, and
answcr cxplanations, scc chaptcrs 7 through 9.
1.6 What Computer 5kiIIs WiII I Need?
You only nccd minimal computcr skills to takc thc GMAT ComputcrAdaptivc Tcst (CAT). You
will bc rcquircd to typc your cssays on thc computcr kcyboard using standard wordproccssing
kcystrokcs. !n thc multiplcchoicc scctions, you will sclcct your rcsponscs using cithcr your mousc or
thc kcyboard.
To lcarn morc about thc spccinc skills rcquircd to takc thc GMAT CAT, download thc lrcc tcst
prcparation soltwarc availablc at www.mba.com.
1.7 What Are the Test Centers Like?
c GMAT tcst is administcrcd at a tcst ccntcr providing thc quict and privacy ol individual
computcr workstations. You will havc thc opportunity to takc two nvcminutc brcaksonc altcr
complcting thc cssays and anothcr bctwccn thc Quantitativc and \crbal scctions. An crasablc
notcpad will bc providcd lor your usc during thc tcst.
1.8 Hov Are 5cores CaIcuIated?
Your GMAT scorcs arc dctcrmincd by:
c numbcr ol qucstions you answcr ·
Vhcthcr you answcr corrcctly or incorrcctly ·
c lcvcl ol dilnculty and othcr statistical charactcristics ol cach qucstion ·
Your \crbal, Quantitativc, and Total GMAT scorcs arc dctcrmincd by a complcx mathcmatical
proccdurc that takcs into account thc dilnculty ol thc qucstions that wcrc prcscntcd to you and how
you answcrcd thcm. Vhcn you answcr thc casicr qucstions corrcctly, you gct a chancc to answcr
hardcr qucstionsmaking it possiblc to carn a highcr scorc. Altcr you havc complctcd all thc
qucstions on thc tcstor whcn your timc is upthc computcr will calculatc your scorcs. Your
scorcs on thc \crbal and Quantitativc scctions arc combincd to producc your Total scorc. !l you havc
not rcspondcd to all thc qucstions in a scction (37 Quantitativc qucstions or 41 \crbal qucstions),
your scorc is adjustcd, using thc proportion ol qucstions answcrcd.
Appcndix A contains thc 2007 pcrccntilc ranking tablcs that cxplain how your GMAT scorcs
comparc with scorcs ol othcr 2007 GMAT tcst takcrs.
1.6 What Is the GMAT
®
? What Computer 5kiIIs WiII I Need?
12
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
1.9 AnaIyticaI Writing Assessment 5cores
c Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt consists ol two writing tasks: Analysis ol an !ssuc and Analysis
c rcsponscs to cach ol thcsc tasks arc scorcd on a 6point scalc, with 6 bcing thc
topic, arc in a
lorcign languagc, mcrcly attcmpt to copy thc topic, consist only ol kcystrokc charactcrs, or arc
blank.
c rcadcrs who cvaluatc thc rcsponscs arc collcgc and univcrsity laculty mcmbcrs lrom various
csc rcadcrs rcad holisticallythat is, thcy
rcspond to thc ovcrall quality ol your critical thinking and writing. (For dctails on how rcadcrs arc
qualincd, visit www.mba.com.) !n addition, rcsponscs may bc scorcd by an automatcd scoring
program dcsigncd to rcßcct thc judgmcnt ol cxpcrt rcadcrs.
rcadcr adjudicatcs. (8ccausc ol ongoing training and monitoring, discrcpant ratings arc rarc.)
Your nnal scorc is thc avcragc (roundcd to thc ncarcst hall point) ol thc lour scorcs indcpcndcntly
assigncd to your rcsponscstwo scorcs lor thc Analysis ol an !ssuc and two lor thc Analysis ol an
Argumcnt. For cxamplc, il you carncd scorcs ol 6 and 5 on thc Analysis ol an !ssuc and 4 and 4 on
thc Analysis ol an Argumcnt, your nnal scorc would bc 5: (6 ÷ 5 ÷ 4 ÷ 4) ÷ 4 - 4.75, which rounds
up to 5.
Your Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt scorcs arc computcd and rcportcd scparatcly lrom thc
cct on your \crbal, Quantitativc, or Total scorcs.
c schools that you havc dcsignatcd to rcccivc your scorcs may rcccivc your rcsponscs to thc
Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt with your scorc rcport. Your own copy ol your scorc rcport will not
includc copics ol your rcsponscs.
13
1.10 Test DeveIopment Process
c GMAT tcst is dcvclopcd by cxpcrts who usc standardizcd proccdurcs to cnsurc highquality,
widcly appropriatc tcst matcrial. All qucstions arc subjcctcd to indcpcndcnt rcvicws and arc rcviscd
or discardcd as ncccssary. Multiplcchoicc qucstions arc tcstcd during GMAT tcst administrations.
Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt tasks arc tricd out on nrstycar busincss school studcnts and thcn
asscsscd lor thcir lairncss and rcliability. For morc inlormation on tcst dcvclopmcnt, scc www.
mba.com.
1.10 What Is the GMAT
®
? Test DeveIopment Process
14
2.0 Hov to Prepare
15
2.0 Hov to Prepare
2.0 Hov to Prepare
2.1 Hov Can I ßest Prepare to Take the Test?
Vc at thc Graduatc Managcmcnt Admission Council¹ (GMAC¹) nrmly bclicvc that thc tcst
taking skills you can dcvclop by using this guidcand thc \crbal and Quantitativc guidcs, il you
want additional practiccarc all you nccd to pcrlorm your bcst whcn you takc thc GMAT¹ tcst.
8y answcring qucstions that havc appcarcd on thc GMAT tcst bclorc, you will gain cxpcricncc with
thc typcs ol qucstions you may scc on thc tcst whcn you takc it. As you practicc with this guidc, you
will dcvclop conndcncc in your ability to rcason through thc tcst qucstions. No additional
tcchniqucs or stratcgics arc nccdcd to do wcll on thc standardizcd tcst il you dcvclop a practical
lamiliarity with thc abilitics it rcquircs. Simply by practicing and undcrstanding thc conccpts that
arc asscsscd on thc tcst, you will lcarn what you nccd to know to answcr thc qucstions corrcctly.
2.2 What About Practice Tests?
8ccausc a computcradaptivc tcst cannot bc prcscntcd in papcr lorm, wc havc crcatcd GMATPrcp
c soltwarc is availablc lor download at no chargc lor
thosc who havc crcatcd a uscr pronlc on www.mba.com. !t is also providcd on a disk, by rcqucst, to
plus additional practicc qucstions, inlormation about thc tcst, and tutorials to hclp you bccomc
lamiliar with how thc GMAT tcst will appcar on thc computcr scrccn at thc tcst ccntcr.
Vc rccommcnd that you download thc soltwarc as
you start to prcparc lor thc tcst. Takc onc practicc
tcst to lamiliarizc yourscll with thc tcst and to gct
an idca ol how you might scorc. Altcr you havc
studicd using this book, and as your tcst datc
approachcs, takc thc sccond practicc tcst to
dctcrminc whcthcr you nccd to shilt your locus
to othcr arcas you nccd to strcngthcn.
!l you complctc all thc qucstions in this guidc and
think you would likc additional practicc, you may
purchasc e Ofµcial Guide for GMÆT" !erbal
Fe.ie. or e Ofµcial Guide for GMÆT"
Quantitati.e Fe.ie. at www.mba.com.
 crc may bc somc ovcrlap bctwccn this
book and thc rcvicw scctions ol thc GMATPrcp
soltwarc.
- You need very advanced
math skiIIs to get a high
GMAT score.
f - The math skiIIs tested on the
GMAT test are quite basic.
The CMAT lesl only requires basic
quanlilalive analylic skills. You should
review lhe malh skills (algebra, geomelry,
basic arilhmelic) presenled in lhis book, bul
lhe required skill level is low. The dillcully
ol CMAT Quanlilalive queslions slems
lrom lhe logic and analysis used lo solve
lhe problems and nol lhe underlying malh
skills.
 fACT
16
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
2.3 Hov 5houId I Use the Diagnostic Test?
is book contains a Ðiagnostic Tcst to hclp you dctcrminc thc typcs ol qucstions that you nccd to
practicc most. You should takc thc Ðiagnostic Tcst around thc samc timc that you takc thc nrst
c Ðiagnostic Tcst will givc you a
ratingbelo. a.erage, a.erage, abo.e a.erage, or excellentol your skills in cach typc ol GMAT
csc ratings will hclp you idcntily arcas to locus on as you prcparc lor thc
GMAT tcst.
Usc thc rcsults ol thc Ðiagnostic Tcst to hclp you sclcct thc right chaptcr ol this book to start with.
Ncxt, rcad thc introductory matcrial carclully, and answcr thc samplc qucstions in that chaptcr.
Makc surc you lollow thc dircctions lor cach typc ol qucstion and try to work as quickly and as
cn rcvicw thc cxplanations lor thc corrcct answcrs, spcnding as much timc
as ncccssary to lamiliarizc yourscll with thc rangc ol qucstions or problcms prcscntcd.
2.4 Where Can I Get AdditionaI Practice?
!l you nnd you would likc additional practicc with thc \crbal scction ol thc tcst, e Ofµcial Guide
for GMÆT" !erbal Fe.ie. is availablc lor purchasc at www.mba.com. !l you want morc practicc
with thc Quantitativc scction, e Ofµcial Guide for GMÆT" Quantitati.e Fe.ie. is also availablc
lor purchasc at www.mba.com.
2.5 GeneraI Test-Taking 5uggestions
c
lollowing arc gcncral suggcstions to hclp you pcrlorm your bcst on thc tcst.
1. Use your time viseIy.
Although thc GMAT tcst strcsscs accuracy morc than spccd, it is important to usc your timc wiscly.
Òn avcragc, you will havc about 1¾ minutcs lor cach vcrbal qucstion and about two minutcs lor
cach quantitativc qucstion. Òncc you start thc tcst, an onscrccn clock will continuously count thc
timc you havc lclt. You can hidc this display il you want, but it is a good idca to chcck thc clock
c clock will automatically alcrt you whcn nvc minutcs
rcmain in thc allottcd timc lor thc scction you arc working on.
2. Ansver practice questions ahead o! time.
Altcr you bccomc gcncrally lamiliar with all qucstion typcs, usc thc samplc qucstions in this book
to prcparc lor thc actual tcst. !t may bc usclul to timc yourscll as you answcr thc practicc qucstions
to gct an idca ol how long you will havc lor cach qucstion during thc actual GMAT tcst as wcll as
to dctcrminc whcthcr you arc answcring quickly cnough to complctc thc tcst in thc timc allottcd.
3. ßead aII test directions care!uIIy.
c dircctions cxplain cxactly what is rcquircd to answcr cach qucstion typc. !l you rcad hastily, you
may miss important instructions and lowcr your scorcs. To rcvicw dircctions during thc tcst, click
17
on thc Hclp icon. 8ut bc awarc that thc timc you spcnd rcvicwing dircctions will count against thc
timc allottcd lor that scction ol thc tcst.
4. ßead each question care!uIIy and
thoroughIy.
8clorc you answcr a multiplcchoicc qucstion,
dctcrminc cxactly what is bcing askcd, thcn
climinatc thc wrong answcrs and sclcct thc bcst
choicc. Ncvcr skim a qucstion or thc possiblc
answcrs, skimming may causc you to miss
important inlormation or nuanccs.
5. Do not spend too much time on any one
question.
!l you do not know thc corrcct answcr, or il thc
qucstion is too timcconsuming, try to climinatc
choiccs you know arc wrong, sclcct thc bcst ol thc
rcmaining answcr choiccs, and movc on to thc ncxt
qucstion. Try not to worry about thc impact on
your scorcgucssing may lowcr your scorc, but
not nnishing thc scction will lowcr your scorc
morc.
8car in mind that il you do not nnish a scction in
thc allottcd timc, you will still rcccivc a scorc.
6. Conñrm your ansvers ONLY vhen you are
ready to move on.
Òncc you havc sclcctcd your answcr to a multiplc
choicc qucstion, you will bc askcd to connrm it.
Òncc you connrm your rcsponsc, you cannot go
back and changc it. You may not skip qucstions,
bccausc thc computcr sclccts cach qucstion on thc
basis ol your rcsponscs to prcccding qucstions.
7. PIan your essay ansvers be!ore you begin
to vrite.
c bcst way to approach thc two writing tasks
that comprisc thc Analytical Vriting Asscssmcnt
is to rcad thc dircctions carclully, takc a lcw
minutcs to think about thc qucstion, and plan a
rcsponsc bclorc you bcgin writing. Takc carc to
organizc your idcas and dcvclop thcm lully, but
lcavc timc to rcrcad your rcsponsc and makc any
rcvisions that you think would improvc it.
2.5 Hov to Prepare GeneraI Test-Taking 5uggestions
- It is more important to
respond correctIy to the test
questions than it is to ñnish
the test.
f - There is a severe penaIty
!or not compIeting the
GMAT test.
ll you are slumped by a queslion, give il
your besl guess and move on. ll you guess
incorreclly, lhe compuler program will likely
give you an easier queslion, which you are
likely lo answer correclly, and lhe compuler
will rapidly relurn lo giving you queslions
malched lo your abilily. ll you don'l lnish
lhe lesl, your score will be reduced greally.
lailing lo answer lve verbal queslions, lor
example, could reduce your score lrom
lhe 9!sl percenlile lo lhe 77lh percenlile.
Pacing is imporlanl.
 fACT
- The ñrst 10 questions are
criticaI and you shouId invest
the most time on those.
f - AII questions count.
ll is lrue lhal lhe compuler-adaplive lesling
algorilhm uses lhe lrsl !0 queslions lo
oblain an inilial eslimale ol your abilily,
however, lhal is only an eslimale. As
you conlinue lo answer queslions, lhe
algorilhm sell-correcls by compuling an
updaled eslimale on lhe basis ol all lhe
queslions you have answered, and lhen
adminislers ilems lhal are closely malched
lo lhis new eslimale ol your abilily. Your
lnal score is based on all your responses
and considers lhe dillcully ol all lhe
queslions you answered. Taking addilional
lime on lhe lrsl !0 queslions will nol game
lhe syslem and can hurl your abilily lo
lnish lhe lesl.
 fACT
18
3.0 Diagnostic Test
19
3.0 Diagnostic Test
Likc thc practicc scctions latcr in thc book, thc Ðiagnostic Tcst uscs qucstions lrom rcal GMAT¹
c purposc ol thc Ðiagnostic Tcst is to hclp you dctcrminc how skillcd you arc in answcring
cach ol thc nvc typcs ol qucstions on thc GMAT tcst: data sulncicncy, problcm solving, rcading
comprchcnsion, critical rcasoning, and scntcncc corrcction.
Scorcs on thc Ðiagnostic Tcst arc dcsigncd to hclp you answcr thc qucstion, "!l all thc qucstions on
thc GMAT tcst wcrc likc thc qucstions in this scction, how wcll would ! do:" Your scorcs arc
classincd as bcing excellent, abo.e a.erage, a.erage, or belo. a.erage, rclativc to thc scorcs ol othcr tcst
takcrs. You can usc this inlormation to locus your tcstprcparation activitics.
Instructions
c Ðiagnostic Tcst is not timcd. 1.
!l you arc stumpcd by a qucstion, you should gucss and movc on, just likc you should 2.
do on thc rcal GMAT tcst.
You can takc onc scgmcnt at a timc, il you want. !t is bcttcr to nnish an cntirc scction 3.
(Quantitativc or \crbal) in onc sitting, but this is not a rcquircmcnt.
You can go back and changc your answcrs in thc Ðiagnostic Tcst. 4.
Altcr you takc thc tcst, chcck your answcrs using thc answcr kcy that lollows thc tcst. 5.
c numbcr ol corrcct answcrs is your raw scorc.
Convcrt your raw scorc, using thc tablc providcd. 6.
Note· c Ðiagnostic Tcst is dcsigncd to givc you guidancc on how to prcparc lor thc GMAT tcst,
howcvcr, a strong scorc on onc typc ol qucstion docs not guarantcc that you will pcrlorm as wcll on
c statistical rcliability ol scorcs on thc Ðiagnostic Tcst rangcs lrom 0.75 to
0.89, and thc subscalc classincation is about 85º90º accuratc, mcaning that your scorcs on thc
Ðiagnostic Tcst arc a good, but not pcrlcct, mcasurc ol how you arc likcly to pcrlorm on thc rcal
tcst. Usc thc tcsts on thc lrcc onlinc soltwarc to obtain a good cstimatc ol your cxpcctcd GMAT
\crbal, Quantitativc, and Total scorcs.
You should not comparc thc numbcr ol qucstions you got right in cach scction. !nstcad, you should
comparc how your rcsponscs arc ratcd in cach scction.
3.0 Diagnostic Test
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
20
ì. last month a certa|n mus|c c|ub ollered a d|scount to
prelerred customers. /lter the hrst compact d|sc
purchased, prelerred customers pa|d S3.99 lor each
add|t|ona| compact d|sc purchased. ll a prelerred
customer purchased a tota| ol b compact d|scs and
pa|d Sìo.9o lor the hrst compact d|sc, then the do||ar
amount that the customer pa|d lor the b compact
d|scs |s equ|va|ent to wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì o|4.CCì + ìo.9C
|Bì o|4.CCì + ìo.9o
|Cì o|4.CCì + ìb.CC
|0ì o|4.CC - C.Cìì + ìo.9C
|Lì o|4.CC - C.Coì + ìo.9o
Z. 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the |nte¿ers lrom
ZCC to 4CC, |nc|us|ve, |s how much ¿reater than the
avera¿e ol the |nte¿ers lrom oC to ìCC, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì ìoC
|Bì ì/o
|Cì ZCC
|0ì ZZo
|Lì 3CC
3. 1he sequence a
ì
, a
Z
, a
3
,...,a
n
,... |s such that
a
n



lor a|| n a
3
 4 and
a
o
 ZC, what |s the va|ue ol a
b

'
|/ì ìZ
|Bì ìb
|Cì ZC
|0ì Z4
|Lì Zß
4. /mon¿ a ¿roup ol Z,oCC peop|e, 3o percent |nvest |n
mun|c|pa| bonds, ìß percent |nvest |n o|| stocks, and
/ percent |nvest |n both mun|c|pa| bonds and o||
stocks. ll ì person |s to be random|y se|ected lrom
the Z,oCC peop|e, what |s the probab|||ty that the
person se|ected w||| be one who |nvests |n mun|c|pa|
bonds but N01 |n o|| stocks'
|/ì
|Bì
/
Zo
|Cì
/
ZC
|0ì

oC
|Lì
Z/
oC
water and |s h||ed to ha|l |ts capac|ty. when the tank
|s p|aced upr|¿ht on |ts c|rcu|ar base on |eve| ¿round,
the he|¿ht ol the water |n the tank |s 4 leet. when the
tank |s p|aced on |ts s|de on |eve| ¿round, what |s the
he|¿ht, |n leet, ol the surlace ol the water above the
¿round'
|/ì Z
|Bì 3
|Cì 4
|0ì b
|Lì 9
3.1 Çuantitative 5ampIe Çuestions
ProbIem 5oIving
5oIve the probIem and indicate the best o! the ansver choices given.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures. AII ñgures accompanying probIem soIving questions are intended to provide in!ormation
use!uI in soIving the probIems. figures are dravn as accurateIy as possibIe. Exceptions viII be
cIearIy noted. Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso
straight. The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe
measures are greater than zero. AII ñgures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
21
b. / market|n¿ hrm determ|ned that, ol ZCC househo|ds
surveyed, ßC used ne|ther Brand / nor Brand B soap,
bC used on|y Brand / soap, and lor every househo|d
that used both brands ol soap, 3 used on|y Brand B
soap. How many ol the ZCC househo|ds surveyed used
both brands ol soap'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ZC
|Cì 3C
|0ì 4C
|Lì 4o
/. / certa|n c|ub has ìC members, |nc|ud|n¿ Harry. 0ne
ol the ìC members |s to be chosen at random to be
the pres|dent, one ol the rema|n|n¿ 9 members |s to
be chosen at random to be the secretary, and one ol
the rema|n|n¿ ß members |s to be chosen at random
to be the treasurer. what |s the probab|||ty that Harry
w||| be e|ther the member chosen to be the secretary
or the member chosen to be the treasurer'
|/ì
ì
/ZC
|Bì
ì
ßC
|Cì
ì
ìC
|0ì
ì
9
|Lì
ì
o
ß. ll a certa|n toy store's revenue |n November was
Z
o
ol |ts revenue |n 0ecember and |ts revenue |n
January was
ì
4
ol |ts revenue |n November, then the
store's revenue |n 0ecember was how many t|mes the
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol |ts revenues |n November
and January'
|/ì
ì
4
|Bì
ì
Z
|Cì
Z
3
|0ì Z
|Lì 4
9. / researcher computed the mean, the med|an, and the
standard dev|at|on lor a set ol perlormance scores.
ll o were to be added to each score, wh|ch ol these
three stat|st|cs wou|d chan¿e'
|/ì 1he mean on|y
|Bì 1he med|an on|y
|Cì 1he standard dev|at|on on|y
|0ì 1he mean and the med|an
|Lì 1he mean and the standard dev|at|on

x
.
.
y
z
ìC. ln the h¿ure shown, what |s the va|ue ol
v + x + y + z + w '
|/ì 4o
|Bì 9C
|Cì ìßC
|0ì Z/C
|Lì 3bC
3.1 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative 5ampIe Çuestions
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
22
ìì. 0l the three·d|¿|t |nte¿ers ¿reater than /CC, how many
have two d|¿|ts that are equa| to each other and the
rema|n|n¿ d|¿|t d|llerent lrom the other two'
|/ì 9C
|Bì ßZ
|Cì ßC
|0ì 4o
|Lì 3b
ìZ. los|t|ve |nte¿er y |s oC percent ol oC percent ol
pos|t|ve |nte¿er x, and y percent ol x equa|s ìCC. what
|s the va|ue ol x '
|/ì oC
|Bì ìCC
|Cì ZCC
|0ì ì,CCC
|Lì Z,CCC
ì3. ll s and t are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers such that
s
t
 b4.ìZ,
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the rema|nder when
s |s d|v|ded by t '
|/ì Z
|Bì 4
|Cì ß
|0ì ZC
|Lì 4o
ì4. 0l the ß4 parents who attended a meet|n¿ at a
schoo|, 3o vo|unteered to superv|se ch||dren dur|n¿
the schoo| p|cn|c and ìì vo|unteered both to superv|se
ch||dren dur|n¿ the p|cn|c and to br|n¿ relreshments to
the p|cn|c. ll the number ol parents who vo|unteered
to br|n¿ relreshments was ì.o t|mes the number ol
parents who ne|ther vo|unteered to superv|se ch||dren
dur|n¿ the p|cn|c nor vo|unteered to br|n¿
relreshments, how many ol the parents vo|unteered to
br|n¿ relreshments'
|/ì Zo
|Bì 3b
|Cì 3ß
|0ì 4Z
|Lì 4o
ìo. 1he product ol a|| the pr|me numbers |ess than ZC |s
c|osest to wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ powers ol ìC '
|/ì ìC
9
|Bì ìC
ß
|Cì ìC
/
|0ì ìC
b
|Lì ìC
o
ìb. ll 3 Z Z ì    x x , then 4x
Z

|/ì ì
|Bì 4
|Cì Z - Zx
|0ì 4x - Z
|Lì bx - ì
ì/. ll n =
ìb
ßì
, what |s the va|ue ol '
|/ì
ì
9
|Bì
ì
4
|Cì
4
9
|0ì
Z
3
|Lì
9
Z
ìß. ll n |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ì to ß,
|nc|us|ve, how many d|llerent pr|me lactors ¿reater
than ì does n have'
|/ì lour
|Bì l|ve
|Cì 3|x
|0ì 3even
|Lì L|¿ht
ì9. ll k |s an |nte¿er and Z < k < /, lor how many d|llerent
va|ues ol k |s there a tr|an¿|e w|th s|des ol |en¿ths Z,
/, and k '
|/ì 0ne
|Bì 1wo
|Cì 1hree
|0ì lour
|Lì l|ve
23
3.1 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative 5ampIe Çuestions
ZC. / r|¿ht c|rcu|ar cone |s |nscr|bed |n a hem|sphere so
that the base ol the cone co|nc|des w|th the base ol
the hem|sphere. what |s the rat|o ol the he|¿ht ol the
cone to the rad|us ol the hem|sphere'
|/ì
|Bì ì:ì
|Cì :ì
ì
Z
|0ì
|Lì Z:ì
Zì. John depos|ted SìC,CCC to open a new sav|n¿s
account that earned 4 percent annua| |nterest,
compounded quarter|y. ll there were no other
transact|ons |n the account, what was the amount ol
money |n John's account b months alter the account
was opened'
|/ì SìC,ìCC
|Bì SìC,ìCì
|Cì SìC,ZCC
|0ì SìC,ZCì
|Lì SìC,4CC
ZZ. / conta|ner |n the shape ol a r|¿ht c|rcu|ar cy||nder
|s
ì
Z
lu|| ol water. ll the vo|ume ol water |n the
conta|ner |s 3b cub|c |nches and the he|¿ht ol the
conta|ner |s 9 |nches, what |s the d|ameter ol the base
ol the cy||nder, |n |nches'
|/ì
ìb
9
|Bì
4
|Cì
ìZ
|0ì
Z
|Lì 4
Z
Z3. ll the pos|t|ve |nte¿er x |s a mu|t|p|e ol 4 and the
pos|t|ve |nte¿er y |s a mu|t|p|e ol b, then xy must be a
mu|t|p|e ol wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
l. ß
ll. ìZ
lll. ìß
|/ì ll on|y
|Bì l and ll on|y
|Cì l and lll on|y
|0ì ll and lll on|y
|Lì l, ll, and lll
Z4. /aron w||| jo¿ lrom home at x m||es per hour and then
wa|k back home by the same route at y m||es per hour.
How many m||es lrom home can /aron jo¿ so that he
spends a tota| ol t hours jo¿¿|n¿ and wa|k|n¿'
|/ì
xt
y
|Bì
x + t
xy
|Cì
xy t
x + y
|0ì
x + y + t
xy
|Lì
y + t
-
t
x y
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
24
Data 5u!ñciency
Each data su!ñciency probIem consists o! a question and tvo statements, IabeIed (1) and (2), vhich
contain certain data. Using these data and your knovIedge o! mathematics and everyday !acts (such as
the number o! days in 1uIy or the meaning o! the vord counterclockwise), decide vhether the data
given are su!ñcient !or ansvering the question and then indicate one o! the !oIIoving ansver choices.
A 5tatement (1) ALONE is su!ñcient, but statement (2) aIone is not su!ñcient.
ß 5tatement (2) ALONE is su!ñcient, but statement (1) aIone is not su!ñcient.
C ßOTH statements TOGETHEß are su!ñcient, but NEITHEß statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
D EACH statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
E 5tatements (1) and (2) TOGETHEß are not su!ñcient.
Note. In data su!ñciency probIems that ask !or the vaIue o! a quantity, the data given in the statements
are su!ñcient onIy vhen it is possibIe to determine exactIy one numericaI vaIue !or the quantity.
ExampIe.
x
º
y
º
z
º
P
Q F
ln lÇR, what |s the va|ue ol x '
|ìì lÇ = lR
|Zì y = 4C
ExpIanation. According to statement (1) PQ = PR, there!ore, PQR is isosceIes and y = z. 5ince x + y + z =
180, it !oIIovs that x + 2y = 180. 5ince statement (1) does not give a vaIue !or y, you cannot ansver the
question using statement (1) aIone. According to statement (2), y = 40, there!ore, x + z = 140. 5ince
statement (2) does not give a vaIue !or z, you cannot ansver the question using statement (2) aIone.
Using both statements together, since x + 2y = 180 and the vaIue o! y is given, you can ñnd the vaIue
o! x. There!ore, ßOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHEß are su!ñcient to ansver the question, but
NEITHEß statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures.
º figures con!orm to the in!ormation given in the question, but viII not necessariIy con!orm to the
additionaI in!ormation given in statements (1) and (2).
º Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
º The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures are
greater than zero.
º AII ñgures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
25
3.1 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative 5ampIe Çuestions
Zo. ll the un|ts d|¿|t ol |nte¿er n |s ¿reater than Z, what |s
the un|ts d|¿|t ol n '
|ìì 1he un|ts d|¿|t ol n |s the same as the un|ts d|¿|t
ol n
Z
.
|Zì 1he un|ts d|¿|t ol n |s the same as the un|ts d|¿|t
ol n
3
.
Zb. what |s the va|ue ol the |nte¿er p '
|ìì Lach ol the |nte¿ers Z, 3, and o |s a lactor ol p.
|Zì Lach ol the |nte¿ers Z, o, and / |s a lactor ol p.
Z/. ll the |en¿th ol wanda's te|ephone ca|| was rounded up
to the nearest who|e m|nute by her te|ephone
company, then wanda was char¿ed lor how many
m|nutes lor her te|ephone ca||'
|ìì 1he tota| char¿e lor wanda's te|ephone ca|| was
Sb.oC.
|Zì wanda was char¿ed SC.oC more lor the hrst
m|nute ol the te|ephone ca|| than lor each
m|nute alter the hrst.
Zß. what |s the per|meter ol |sosce|es tr|an¿|e MNl '
|ìì MN  ìb
|Zì Nl  20
Z9. ln a survey ol reta||ers, what percent had purchased
computers lor bus|ness purposes'
|ìì ßo percent ol the reta||ers surveyed who owned
the|r own store had purchased computers lor
bus|ness purposes.
|Zì 4C percent ol the reta||ers surveyed owned the|r
own store.
3C. 1he on|y ¿|lt cert|hcates that a certa|n store so|d
yesterday were worth e|ther SìCC each or SìC each. ll
the store so|d a tota| ol ZC ¿|lt cert|hcates yesterday,
how many ¿|lt cert|hcates worth SìC each d|d the
store se|| yesterday'
|ìì 1he ¿|lt cert|hcates so|d by the store yesterday
were worth a tota| ol between Sì,boC and
Sì,ßCC.
|Zì Yesterday the store so|d more than ìo ¿|lt
cert|hcates worth SìCC each.
3ì. ls the standard dev|at|on ol the set ol measurements
x
ì
, x
Z
, x
3
, x
4
, . . ., x
ZC
|ess than 3 '
|ìì 1he var|ance lor the set ol measurements |s 4.
|Zì lor each measurement, the d|llerence between
the mean and that measurement |s Z.
3Z. ls the ran¿e ol the |nte¿ers b, 3, y, 4, o, and x ¿reater
than 9 '
|ìì y > 3x
|Zì y > x > 3
33. ls '
|ìì o
x
< ì
|Zì x < C
34. 0l the compan|es surveyed about the sk|||s they
requ|red |n prospect|ve emp|oyees, ZC percent
requ|red both computer sk|||s and wr|t|n¿ sk|||s. what
percent ol the compan|es surveyed requ|red ne|ther
computer sk|||s nor wr|t|n¿ sk|||s'
|ìì 0l those compan|es surveyed that requ|red
computer sk|||s, ha|l requ|red wr|t|n¿ sk|||s.
|Zì 4o percent ol the compan|es surveyed requ|red
wr|t|n¿ sk|||s but not computer sk|||s.
3o. what |s the va|ue ol w + q '
|ìì 3w  3 - 3q
|Zì ow + oq  o
3b. ll X and Y are po|nts |n a p|ane and X ||es |ns|de the
c|rc|e L w|th center U and rad|us Z, does Y ||e |ns|de
c|rc|e L '
|ìì 1he |en¿th ol ||ne se¿ment XY |s 3.
|Zì 1he |en¿th ol ||ne se¿ment UY |s ì.o.
3/. ls x > y '
|ìì x  y + Z
|Zì  y - ì
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
26
3ß. ll lau|a drove the d|stance lrom her home to her
co||e¿e at an avera¿e speed that was ¿reater than
/C k||ometers per hour, d|d |t take her |ess than
3 hours to dr|ve th|s d|stance'
|ìì 1he d|stance that lau|a drove lrom her home to
her co||e¿e was ¿reater than ZCC k||ometers.
|Zì 1he d|stance that lau|a drove lrom her home to
her co||e¿e was |ess than ZCo k||ometers.
39. ln the xy·p|ane, |l ||ne k has ne¿at|ve s|ope and passes
throu¿h the po|nt |-o,r ì , |s the x·|ntercept ol ||ne k
pos|t|ve'
|ìì 1he s|ope ol ||ne k |s -o.
|Zì r > C
4C. ll So,CCC |nvested lor one year at p percent s|mp|e
annua| |nterest y|e|ds SoCC, what amount must be
|nvested at k percent s|mp|e annua| |nterest lor one
year to y|e|d the same number ol do||ars'
|ìì k  C.ßp
|Zì k  ß
4ì. ll
x + y
z
> C, |s x < C '
|ìì x < y
|Zì z < C
4Z. 0oes the |nte¿er k have at |east three d|llerent
pos|t|ve pr|me lactors'
|ìì
k
ìo
|s an |nte¿er.
|Zì
k
ìC
|s an |nte¿er.
43. ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, was the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
da||y h|¿h temperature ¿reater than the med|an da||y
h|¿h temperature'
|ìì ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, the sum ol the 3C da||y h|¿h
temperatures was Z,ìbC".
|Zì ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, bC percent ol the da||y h|¿h
temperatures were |ess than the avera¿e da||y
h|¿h temperature.
44. ll m and n are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, |s an |nte¿er'
|ìì |s an |nte¿er.
|Zì |s an |nte¿er.
4o. 0l the bb peop|e |n a certa|n aud|tor|um, at most
b peop|e have the|r b|rthdays |n any one ¿|ven month.
0oes at |east one person |n the aud|tor|um have a
b|rthday |n January'
|ìì lore ol the peop|e |n the aud|tor|um have the|r
b|rthday |n lebruary than |n larch.
|Zì l|ve ol the peop|e |n the aud|tor|um have the|r
b|rthday |n larch.
4b. last year the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì sa|ary ol the
ìC emp|oyees ol Company / was S4Z,ßCC. what |s the
avera¿e sa|ary ol the same ìC emp|oyees th|s year'
|ìì lor ß ol the ìC emp|oyees, th|s year's sa|ary |s
ìo percent ¿reater than |ast year's sa|ary.
|Zì lor Z ol the ìC emp|oyees, th|s year's sa|ary |s
the same as |ast year's sa|ary.
4/. ln a certa|n c|assroom, there are ßC books, ol wh|ch
Z4 are hct|on and Z3 are wr|tten |n 3pan|sh. How many
ol the hct|on books are wr|tten |n 3pan|sh'
|ìì 0l the hct|on books, there are b more that are
not wr|tten |n 3pan|sh than are wr|tten |n
3pan|sh.
|Zì 0l the books wr|tten |n 3pan|sh, there are o
more nonhct|on books than hct|on books.
4ß. ll p |s the per|meter ol rectan¿|e Ç, what |s the va|ue
ol p '
|ìì Lach d|a¿ona| ol rectan¿|e Ç has |en¿th ìC.
|Zì 1he area ol rectan¿|e Ç |s 4ß.
27
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
l|ne
|oì
|ìCì
|ìoì
|ZCì
|Zoì
|3Cì
/ccord|n¿ to econom|c s|¿na||n¿ theory,
consumers may perce|ve the lrequency w|th
wh|ch an unlam|||ar brand |s advert|sed as a cue
that the brand |s ol h|¿h qua||ty. 1he not|on that
h|¿h|y advert|sed brands are assoc|ated w|th
h|¿h·qua||ty products does have some emp|r|ca|
support. larquardt and lc0ann lound that
heav||y advert|sed products d|d |ndeed rank h|¿h
on certa|n measures ol product qua||ty.Because
|ar¿e advert|s|n¿ expend|tures represent
a s|¿n|hcant |nvestment on the part ol a
manulacturer, on|y compan|es that expect to
recoup these costs |n the |on¿ run, throu¿h
consumers' repeat purchases ol the product,
can allord to spend such amounts.
However, two stud|es by b|rman| have lound
that a|thou¿h consumers |n|t|a||y perce|ve expens|ve
advert|s|n¿ as a s|¿na| ol h|¿h brand qua||ty,
at some |eve| ol spend|n¿ the manulacturer's
advert|s|n¿ ellort may be perce|ved as unreasonab|y
h|¿h, |mp|y|n¿ |ow manulacturer conhdence |n
product qua||ty. ll consumers perce|ve excess|ve
advert|s|n¿ ellort as a s|¿n ol a manulacturer's
desperat|on, the resu|t may be |ess lavorab|e
brand percept|ons. ln add|t|on, a th|rd study by
b|rman|, ol pr|nt advert|sements, lound that the
use ol co|or allected consumer percept|on ol
brand qua||ty. Because consumers reco¿n|ze that
co|or advert|sements are more expens|ve than
b|ack and wh|te, the po|nt at wh|ch repet|t|on ol an
advert|sement |s perce|ved as excess|ve comes
sooner lor a co|or advert|sement than lor a b|ack·
and·wh|te advert|sement.
ì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ best descr|bes the purpose ol
the sentence |n ||nes ìC-ìo '
|/ì 1o show that econom|c s|¿na||n¿ theory la||s to
exp|a|n a hnd|n¿
|Bì 1o |ntroduce a d|st|nct|on not accounted lor by
econom|c s|¿na||n¿ theory
|Cì 1o account lor an except|on to a ¿enera||zat|on
su¿¿ested by larquardt and lc0ann
|0ì 1o exp|a|n why larquardt and lc0ann's
research was conducted
|Lì 1o oller an exp|anat|on lor an observat|on
reported by larquardt and lc0ann
Z. 1he pr|mary purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì present hnd|n¿s that contrad|ct one exp|anat|on
lor the ellects ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ce
|Bì ar¿ue that theoret|ca| exp|anat|ons about the
ellects ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿ pract|ce are
ol ||m|ted va|ue w|thout emp|r|ca| ev|dence
|Cì d|scuss how and why part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ces may allect consumers' percept|ons
|0ì contrast the research methods used |n two
d|llerent stud|es ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ce
|Lì exp|a|n why a hnd|n¿ about consumer responses
to a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿ pract|ce was
unexpected
3.2 VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
ßeading Comprehension
Each o! the reading comprehension questions is based on the content o! a passage. A!ter reading the
passage, ansver aII questions pertaining to it on the basis o! vhat is stated or impIied in the passage. for
each question, seIect the best ansver o! the choices given.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
28
3. b|rman|'s research, as descr|bed |n the passa¿e,
su¿¿ests wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ re¿ard|n¿ consumers'
expectat|ons about the qua||ty ol advert|sed products'
|/ì 1hose expectat|ons are ||ke|y to be h|¿hest |l a
manulacturer runs both b|ack·and·wh|te and
co|or advert|sements lor the same product.
|Bì 1hose expectat|ons can be shaped by the
presence ol co|or |n an advert|sement as we|| as
by the lrequency w|th wh|ch an advert|sement
appears.
|Cì 1hose expectat|ons are usua||y h|¿h lor
lrequent|y advert|sed new brands but not lor
lrequent|y advert|sed lam|||ar brands.
|0ì 1hose expectat|ons are ||ke|y to be h|¿her lor
products whose b|ack·and·wh|te advert|sements
are olten repeated than lor those whose co|or
advert|sements are |ess olten repeated.
|Lì 1hose expectat|ons are |ess dehn|t|ve|y shaped
by the manulacturer's advert|sements than by
|nlormat|on that consumers ¿ather lrom other
sources.
4. b|rman|'s th|rd study, as descr|bed |n the passa¿e,
su¿¿ests wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ conc|us|ons about a
b|ack·and·wh|te advert|sement'
|/ì lt can be repeated more lrequent|y than a
comparab|e co|or advert|sement cou|d belore
consumers be¿|n to suspect |ow manulacturer
conhdence |n the qua||ty ol the advert|sed
product.
|Bì lt w||| have the ¿reatest |mpact on consumers'
percept|ons ol the qua||ty ol the advert|sed
product |l |t appears dur|n¿ per|ods when a co|or
vers|on ol the same advert|sement |s a|so be|n¿
used.
|Cì lt w||| attract more attent|on lrom readers ol the
pr|nt pub||cat|on |n wh|ch |t appears |l |t |s used
on|y a lew t|mes.
|0ì lt may be perce|ved by some consumers as
more expens|ve than a comparab|e co|or
advert|sement.
|Lì lt |s ||ke|y to be perce|ved by consumers as a
s|¿n ol h|¿her manulacturer conhdence |n the
qua||ty ol the advert|sed product than a
comparab|e co|or advert|sement wou|d be.
o. 1he passa¿e su¿¿ests that b|rman| wou|d be most
||ke|y to a¿ree w|th wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ statements
about consumers' percept|ons ol the re|at|onsh|p
between the lrequency w|th wh|ch a product |s
advert|sed and the product's qua||ty'
|/ì Consumers' percept|ons about the lrequency
w|th wh|ch an advert|sement appears are the|r
pr|mary cons|derat|on when eva|uat|n¿ an
advert|sement's c|a|ms about product qua||ty.
|Bì Because most consumers do not not|ce the
lrequency ol advert|sement, |t has ||tt|e |mpact
on most consumers' expectat|ons re¿ard|n¿
product qua||ty.
|Cì Consumers perce|ve lrequency ol advert|sement
as a s|¿na| about product qua||ty on|y when the
advert|sement |s lor a product that |s new|y on
the market.
|0ì 1he lrequency ol advert|sement |s not a|ways
perce|ved by consumers to |nd|cate that
manulacturers are h|¿h|y conhdent about the|r
products' qua||ty.
|Lì Consumers who try a new product that has been
lrequent|y advert|sed are ||ke|y to perce|ve the
advert|sement's lrequency as hav|n¿ been an
accurate |nd|cator ol the product's qua||ty.
29
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
l|ne
|oì
|ìCì
|ìoì
|ZCì
|Zoì
|3Cì
|3oì
|4Cì
1he |dea ol the bra|n as an |nlormat|on
processor-a mach|ne man|pu|at|n¿ b||ps ol ener¿y
accord|n¿ to lathomab|e ru|es-has come to
dom|nate neurosc|ence. However, one enemy ol
the bra|n·as·computer metaphor |s John b. 3ear|e,
a ph||osopher who ar¿ues that s|nce computers
s|mp|y lo||ow a|¿or|thms, they cannot dea| w|th
|mportant aspects ol human thou¿ht such as
mean|n¿ and content. Computers are syntact|c,
rather than semant|c, creatures. leop|e, on the
other hand, understand mean|n¿ because they have
someth|n¿ 3ear|e obscure|y ca||s the causa| powers
ol the bra|n.
Yet how wou|d a bra|n work |l not by reduc|n¿
what |t |earns about the wor|d to |nlormat|on-some
k|nd ol code that can be transm|tted lrom neuron
to neuron' what e|se cou|d mean|n¿ and content
be' ll the code can be cracked, a computer shou|d
be ab|e to s|mu|ate |t, at |east |n pr|nc|p|e. But
even |l a computer cou|d s|mu|ate the work|n¿s
ol the m|nd, 3ear|e wou|d c|a|m that the mach|ne
wou|d not rea||y be th|nk|n¿; |t wou|d just be act|n¿
as |l |t were. H|s ar¿ument proceeds thus: |l a
computer were used to s|mu|ate a stomach, w|th
the stomach's churn|n¿s la|thlu||y reproduced on a
v|deo screen, the mach|ne wou|d not be d|¿est|n¿
rea| lood. lt wou|d just be b||nd|y man|pu|at|n¿ the
symbo|s that ¿enerate the v|sua| d|sp|ay.
3uppose, thou¿h, that a stomach were s|mu|ated
us|n¿ p|ast|c tubes, a motor to do the churn|n¿, a
supp|y ol d|¿est|ve ju|ces, and a t|m|n¿ mechan|sm.
ll lood went |n one end ol the dev|ce, what came out
the other end wou|d sure|y be d|¿ested lood. Bra|ns,
un||ke stomachs, are |nlormat|on processors, and |l
one |nlormat|on processor were made to s|mu|ate
another |nlormat|on processor, |t |s hard to see
how one and not the other cou|d be sa|d to th|nk.
3|mu|ated thou¿hts and rea| thou¿hts are made ol
the same e|ement: |nlormat|on. 1he representat|ons
ol the wor|d that humans carry around |n the|r heads
are a|ready s|mu|at|ons. 1o accept 3ear|e's ar¿ument,
one wou|d have to deny the most lundamenta| not|on
|n psycho|o¿y and neurosc|ence: that bra|ns work
by process|n¿ |nlormat|on.
b. 1he ma|n purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì propose an exper|ment
|Bì ana|yze a lunct|on
|Cì relute an ar¿ument
|0ì exp|a|n a contrad|ct|on
|Lì s|mu|ate a process
/. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s most cons|stent w|th 3ear|e's
reason|n¿ as presented |n the passa¿e'
|/ì lean|n¿ and content cannot be reduced to
a|¿or|thms.
|Bì 1he process ol d|¿est|on can be s|mu|ated
mechan|ca||y, but not on a computer.
|Cì 3|mu|ated thou¿hts and rea| thou¿hts are
essent|a||y s|m||ar because they are composed
pr|mar||y ol |nlormat|on.
|0ì / computer can use "causa| powers' s|m||ar to
those ol the human bra|n when process|n¿
|nlormat|on.
|Lì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the wor|d can ach|eve
the comp|ex|ty ol the bra|n's representat|ons ol
the wor|d.
ß. 1he author ol the passa¿e wou|d be most ||ke|y to
a¿ree w|th wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ statements about the
s|mu|at|on ol or¿an lunct|ons'
|/ì /n art|hc|a| dev|ce that ach|eves the lunct|ons ol
the stomach cou|d be cons|dered a va||d mode|
ol the stomach.
|Bì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the bra|n are best used
to crack the bra|n's codes ol mean|n¿ and
content.
|Cì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the bra|n cha||en¿e
|deas that are lundamenta| to psycho|o¿y and
neurosc|ence.
|0ì Because the bra|n and the stomach both act as
processors, they can best be s|mu|ated by
mechan|ca| dev|ces.
|Lì 1he computer's ||m|tat|ons |n s|mu|at|n¿
d|¿est|on su¿¿est equa| ||m|tat|ons |n computer·
s|mu|ated th|nk|n¿.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
30
9. lt can be |nlerred that the author ol the passa¿e
be||eves that 3ear|e's ar¿ument |s Nawed by |ts
la||ure to
|/ì d|st|n¿u|sh between syntact|c and semant|c
operat|ons
|Bì exp|a|n adequate|y how peop|e, un||ke
computers, are ab|e to understand mean|n¿
|Cì prov|de concrete examp|es |||ustrat|n¿ |ts c|a|ms
about th|nk|n¿
|0ì understand how computers use a|¿or|thms to
process |nlormat|on
|Lì dec|pher the code that |s transm|tted lrom
neuron to neuron |n the bra|n
ìC. lrom the passa¿e, |t can be |nlerred that the author
wou|d a¿ree w|th 3ear|e on wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
po|nts'
|/ì Computers operate by lo||ow|n¿ a|¿or|thms.
|Bì 1he human bra|n can never lu||y understand |ts
own lunct|ons.
|Cì 1he compar|son ol the bra|n to a mach|ne |s
over|y s|mp||st|c.
|0ì 1he most accurate mode|s ol phys|ca|
processes are computer s|mu|at|ons.
|Lì Human thou¿ht and computer·s|mu|ated thou¿ht
|nvo|ve s|m||ar processes ol representat|on.
ìì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ most accurate|y represents
3ear|e's cr|t|c|sm ol the bra|n·as·computer metaphor,
as that cr|t|c|sm |s descr|bed |n the passa¿e'
|/ì 1he metaphor |s not exper|menta||y ver|hab|e.
|Bì 1he metaphor does not take |nto account the
un|que powers ol the bra|n.
|Cì 1he metaphor su¿¿ests that a bra|n's lunct|ons
can be s|mu|ated as eas||y as those ol a
stomach.
|0ì 1he metaphor su¿¿ests that a computer can
s|mu|ate the work|n¿s ol the m|nd by us|n¿ the
codes ol neura| transm|ss|on.
|Lì 1he metaphor |s unhe|plu| because both the
bra|n and the computer process |nlormat|on.
31
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
l|ne
|oì
|ìCì
|ìoì
|ZCì
|Zoì
|3Cì
women's ¿rassroots act|v|sm and the|r v|s|on
ol a new c|v|c consc|ousness |ay at the heart ol
soc|a| relorm |n the 0n|ted 3tates throu¿hout the
lro¿ress|ve Lra, the per|od between the depress|on
ol ìß93 and /mer|ca's entry |nto the 3econd
wor|d war. 1hou¿h |ar¿e|y d|senlranch|sed except
lor schoo| e|ect|ons, wh|te m|dd|e·c|ass women
relormers won a var|ety ol v|ctor|es, notab|y |n
the |mprovement ol work|n¿ cond|t|ons, espec|a||y
lor women and ch||dren. lron|ca||y, thou¿h,
ch||d |abor |e¿|s|at|on p|tted women ol d|llerent
c|asses a¿a|nst one another. 1o the relormers,
ch||d |abor and |ndustr|a| home work were equa||y
|nhumane pract|ces that shou|d be out|awed, but,
as a number ol women h|stor|ans have recent|y
observed, work|n¿·c|ass mothers d|d not a|ways
share th|s v|ew. 0|ven the precar|ous hnances ol
work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es and the necess|ty ol poo||n¿
the wa¿es ol as many lam||y members as poss|b|e,
work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es v|ewed the passa¿e and
enlorcement ol str|n¿ent ch||d |abor statutes as a
persona| econom|c d|saster and made strenuous
ellorts to c|rcumvent ch||d |abor |aws. Yet
relormers rare|y understood th|s res|stance |n terms
ol the desperate econom|c s|tuat|on ol work|n¿·
c|ass lam|||es, |nterpret|n¿ |t |nstead as ev|dence
ol poor parent|n¿. 1h|s |s not to d|spute women
relormers' percept|on ol ch||d |abor as a terr|b|y
exp|o|tat|ve pract|ce, but the|r understand|n¿ ol
ch||d |abor and the|r |e¿|s|at|ve so|ut|ons lor end|n¿
|t la||ed to take account ol the econom|c needs ol
work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es.
ìZ. 1he pr|mary purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì exp|a|n why women relormers ol the lro¿ress|ve
Lra la||ed to ach|eve the|r ¿oa|s
|Bì d|scuss the or|¿|ns ol ch||d |abor |aws |n the |ate
n|neteenth and ear|y twent|eth centur|es
|Cì compare the ||v|n¿ cond|t|ons ol work|n¿·c|ass
and m|dd|e·c|ass women |n the lro¿ress|ve Lra
|0ì d|scuss an overs|¿ht on the part ol women
relormers ol the lro¿ress|ve Lra
|Lì rev|se a trad|t|ona| v|ew ol the ro|e p|ayed by
women relormers |n enact|n¿ lro¿ress|ve Lra
relorms
ì3. 1he view ment|oned |n ||ne ì/ ol the passa¿e relers to
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì 3ome work|n¿·c|ass mothers' res|stance to the
enlorcement ol ch||d |abor |aws
|Bì belormers' be||el that ch||d |abor and |ndustr|a|
home work shou|d be abo||shed
|Cì belormers' op|n|ons about how work|n¿·c|ass
lam|||es ra|sed the|r ch||dren
|0ì Certa|n women h|stor|ans' observat|on that there
was a |ack ol consensus between women ol
d|llerent c|asses on the |ssue ol ch||d |abor and
|ndustr|a| home work
|Lì work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es' lears about the adverse
consequences that ch||d |abor |aws wou|d have
on the|r ab|||ty to earn an adequate ||v|n¿
ì4. 1he author ol the passa¿e ment|ons the observat|ons
ol women h|stor|ans |||nes ìo-ì/ì most probab|y |n
order to
|/ì prov|de support lor an assert|on made |n the
preced|n¿ sentence |||nes ìC-ìZì
|Bì ra|se a quest|on that |s answered |n the |ast
sentence ol the passa¿e |||nes Z/-3Zì
|Cì |ntroduce an op|n|on that cha||en¿es a statement
made |n the hrst sentence ol the passa¿e
|0ì oller an a|ternat|ve v|ew to the one attr|buted |n
the passa¿e to work|n¿·c|ass mothers
|Lì po|nt out a contrad|ct|on |nherent |n the
trad|t|ona| v|ew ol ch||d |abor relorm as |t |s
presented |n the passa¿e
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
32
ìo. 1he passa¿e su¿¿ests that wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ was
a reason lor the d|llerence ol op|n|on between
work|n¿·c|ass mothers and women relormers on the
|ssue ol ch||d |abor'
|/ì belormers' be||el that |ndustr|a| home work was
prelerab|e to ch||d |abor outs|de the home
|Bì belormers' be||el that ch||d |abor |aws shou|d
perta|n to work|n¿ cond|t|ons but not to pay
|Cì work|n¿·c|ass mothers' resentment at relormers'
attempts to |nterlere w|th the|r parent|n¿
|0ì work|n¿·c|ass mothers' be||el that ch||d |abor
was an |nhumane pract|ce
|Lì work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es' need lor every
emp|oyab|e member ol the|r lam|||es to earn
money
ìb. 1he author ol the passa¿e asserts wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ about women relormers who tr|ed to abo||sh
ch||d |abor'
|/ì 1hey a||enated work|n¿·c|ass mothers by
attempt|n¿ to en||st them |n a¿|tat|n¿ lor
pro¿ress|ve causes.
|Bì 1hey underest|mated the preva|ence ol ch||d
|abor amon¿ the work|n¿ c|asses.
|Cì 1hey were correct |n the|r conv|ct|on that ch||d
|abor was dep|orab|e but shorts|¿hted about the
|mpact ol ch||d |abor |e¿|s|at|on on work|n¿·c|ass
lam|||es.
|0ì 1hey were a¿¿ress|ve |n the|r attempts to
enlorce ch||d |abor |e¿|s|at|on, but were unab|e
to prevent work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es lrom
c|rcumvent|n¿ them.
|Lì 1hey were prevented by the|r near|y tota|
d|senlranch|sement lrom mak|n¿ s|¿n|hcant
pro¿ress |n ch||d |abor relorm.
ì/. /ccord|n¿ to the passa¿e, one ol the most str|k|n¿
ach|evements ol wh|te m|dd|e·c|ass women relormers
dur|n¿ the lro¿ress|ve Lra was
|/ì ¿a|n|n¿ the r|¿ht to vote |n schoo| e|ect|ons
|Bì mob|||z|n¿ work|n¿·c|ass women |n the h¿ht
a¿a|nst ch||d |abor
|Cì un|t|n¿ women ol d|llerent c|asses |n ¿rassroots
act|v|sm
|0ì |mprov|n¿ the econom|c cond|t|ons ol work|n¿·
c|ass lam|||es
|Lì |mprov|n¿ women's and ch||dren's work|n¿
cond|t|ons
33
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
ìß. Vasquez·lorre|| /ssurance spec|a||zes |n |nsur|n¿
manulacturers. whenever a po||cyho|der makes a
c|a|m, a c|a|ms adjuster determ|nes the amount that
Vasquez·lorre|| |s ob||¿ated to pay. Vasquez·lorre|| |s
cutt|n¿ |ts stall ol c|a|ms adjusters by ìo percent. 1o
ensure that the company's ab|||ty to hand|e c|a|ms
prompt|y |s allected as ||tt|e as poss|b|e by the stall
cuts, consu|tants recommend that Vasquez·lorre|| |ay
oll those adjusters who now take |on¿est, on avera¿e,
to comp|ete work on c|a|ms ass|¿ned to them.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y ca||s |nto
quest|on the consu|tants' cr|ter|on lor se|ect|n¿ the
stall to be |a|d oll'
|/ì ll the t|me that Vasquez·lorre|| takes to sett|e
c|a|ms |ncreases s|¿n|hcant|y, |t cou|d |ose
bus|ness to other |nsurers.
|Bì 3uperv|sors at Vasquez·lorre|| tend to ass|¿n
the most comp|ex c|a|ms to the most capab|e
adjusters.
|Cì /t Vasquez·lorre||, no |nsurance payments are
made unt|| a c|a|ms adjuster has reached a hna|
determ|nat|on on the c|a|m.
|0ì 1here are no pos|t|ons at Vasquez·lorre|| to
wh|ch stall current|y emp|oyed as c|a|ms
adjusters cou|d be reass|¿ned.
|Lì 1he prem|ums that Vasquez·lorre|| current|y
char¿es are no h|¿her than those char¿ed lor
s|m||ar covera¿e by compet|tors.
ì9. lro|on¿ed spe||s ol hot, dry weather at the end ol the
¿rape·¿row|n¿ season typ|ca||y reduce a v|neyard's
y|e|d, because the ¿rapes stay re|at|ve|y sma||. ln
years w|th such weather, w|ne producers can make
on|y a re|at|ve|y sma|| quant|ty ol w|ne lrom a ¿|ven
area ol v|neyards. Nonethe|ess, |n re¿|ons where w|ne
producers ¿enera||y ¿row the|r own ¿rapes, ana|ysts
typ|ca||y expect a |on¿, hot, dry spe|| |ate |n the
¿row|n¿ season to resu|t |n |ncreased revenues lor
|oca| w|ne producers.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, does most to just|ly the
ana|ysts' expectat|on'
|/ì 1he |ower a v|neyard's y|e|d, the |ess |abor |s
requ|red to harvest the ¿rapes.
|Bì lon¿, hot, dry spe||s at the be¿|nn|n¿ ol the
¿rape·¿row|n¿ season are rare, but they can
have a devastat|n¿ ellect on a v|neyard's y|e|d.
|Cì 0rapes ¿rown lor w|ne product|on are typ|ca||y
made |nto w|ne at or near the v|neyard |n wh|ch
they were ¿rown.
|0ì when hot, dry spe||s are lo||owed by heavy ra|ns,
the ra|ns lrequent|y destroy ¿rape crops.
|Lì 0rapes that have matured |n hot, dry weather
make s|¿n|hcant|y better w|ne than ord|nary
¿rapes.
ZC. ln the past, most ch||dren who went s|edd|n¿ |n the
w|nter snow |n Ver|and used wooden s|eds w|th
runners and steer|n¿ bars. 1en years a¿o, smooth
p|ast|c s|eds became popu|ar; they ¿o laster than
wooden s|eds but are harder to steer and s|ow. 1he
concern that p|ast|c s|eds are more dan¿erous |s
c|ear|y borne out by the lact that the number ol
ch||dren |njured wh||e s|edd|n¿ was much h|¿her |ast
w|nter than |t was ìC years a¿o.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true |n Ver|and, most
ser|ous|y underm|nes the lorce ol the ev|dence c|ted'
CriticaI ßeasoning
Each o! the criticaI reasoning questions is based on a short argument, a set o! statements,
or a pIan o! action. for each question, seIect the best ansver o! the choices given.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
34
|/ì / lew ch||dren st||| use trad|t|ona| wooden s|eds.
|Bì Very lew ch||dren wear any k|nd ol protect|ve
¿ear, such as he|mets, wh||e s|edd|n¿.
|Cì l|ast|c s|eds can be used |n a much w|der var|ety
ol snow cond|t|ons than wooden s|eds can.
|0ì lost s|edd|n¿ |njur|es occur when a s|ed co|||des
w|th a tree, a rock, or another s|ed.
|Lì Because the trad|t|ona| wooden s|eds can
carry more than one r|der, an acc|dent |nvo|v|n¿
a wooden s|ed can resu|t |n severa| ch||dren
be|n¿ |njured.
Zì. leta| r|n¿s recent|y excavated lrom seventh·century
sett|ements |n the western part ol lex|co were made
us|n¿ the same meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques as those used
by Lcuador|an art|sans belore and dur|n¿ that per|od.
1hese techn|ques are sulhc|ent|y comp|ex to make
the|r |ndependent deve|opment |n both areas un||ke|y.
3|nce the peop|e ol these two areas were |n cu|tura|
contact, archaeo|o¿|sts hypothes|ze that the
meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques used to make the r|n¿s lound
|n lex|co were |earned by lex|can art|sans lrom
Lcuador|an counterparts.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ wou|d |t be most uselu| to
estab||sh |n order to eva|uate the archaeo|o¿|sts'
hypothes|s'
|/ì whether meta| objects were traded lrom
Lcuador to western lex|co dur|n¿ the seventh
century
|Bì whether trave| between western lex|co and
Lcuador |n the seventh century wou|d have been
pr|mar||y by |and or by sea
|Cì whether art|sans lrom western lex|co cou|d
have |earned comp|ex meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques
lrom the|r Lcuador|an counterparts w|thout
actua||y |eav|n¿ western lex|co
|0ì whether meta| too|s were used |n the seventh·
century sett|ements |n western lex|co
|Lì whether any ol the techn|ques used |n the
manulacture ol the meta| r|n¿s lound |n western
lex|co are st||| pract|ced amon¿ art|sans |n
Lcuador today
ZZ. lo||ow|n¿ severa| years ol dec||n|n¿ advert|s|n¿
sa|es, the Ureenville !imes reor¿an|zed |ts
advert|s|n¿ sa|es lorce. Belore reor¿an|zat|on, the
sa|es lorce was or¿an|zed ¿eo¿raph|ca||y, w|th some
sa|es representat|ves concentrat|n¿ on c|ty·center
bus|nesses and others concentrat|n¿ on d|llerent
out|y|n¿ re¿|ons. 1he reor¿an|zat|on attempted to
|ncrease the sa|es representat|ves' know|ed¿e ol
c||ents' bus|nesses by hav|n¿ each sa|es
representat|ve dea| w|th on|y one type ol |ndustry or
ol reta|||n¿. /lter the reor¿an|zat|on, revenue lrom
advert|s|n¿ sa|es |ncreased.
ln assess|n¿ whether the |mprovement |n advert|s|n¿
sa|es can proper|y be attr|buted to the reor¿an|zat|on,
|t wou|d be most he|plu| to hnd out wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì what proport|on ol the tota| revenue ol the
Ureenville !imes |s ¿enerated by advert|s|n¿
sa|es'
|Bì Has the c|rcu|at|on ol the Ureenville !imes
|ncreased substant|a||y |n the |ast two years'
|Cì /mon¿ a|| the types ol |ndustry and reta|||n¿ that
use the Ureenville !imes as an advert|s|n¿
veh|c|e, wh|ch type accounts lor the |ar¿est
proport|on ol the newspaper's advert|s|n¿ sa|es'
|0ì 0o any c||ents ol the sa|es representat|ves ol
the Ureenville !imes have a stand|n¿ order w|th
the !imes lor a hxed amount ol advert|s|n¿ per
month'
|Lì /mon¿ the advert|sers |n the Ureenville !imes,
are there more types ol reta|| bus|ness or more
types ol |ndustr|a| bus|ness'
35
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
Z3. lotor|sts |n a certa|n country lrequent|y comp|a|n
that tralhc con¿est|on |s much worse now than |t was
ZC years a¿o. No rea| measure ol how much tralhc
con¿est|on there was ZC years a¿o ex|sts, but the
motor|sts' comp|a|nts are a|most certa|n|y
unwarranted. 1he country's h|¿hway capac|ty has
tr|p|ed |n the |ast twenty years, thanks to a v|¿orous
h|¿hway construct|on pro¿ram, whereas the number
ol automob||es re¿|stered |n the country has |ncreased
by on|y /o percent.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens
the ar¿ument'
|/ì lost automob||e trave| |s |oca|, and the
networks ol roads and streets |n the country's
sett|ed areas have chan¿ed ||tt|e over the |ast
ZC years.
|Bì 0aso||ne pr|ces are h|¿h, and m||es trave|ed per
car per year have not chan¿ed much over the
|ast ZC years.
|Cì 1he country's urban centers have we||·deve|oped
pub||c trans|t systems that carry most ol the
peop|e who commute |nto those centers.
|0ì 1he avera¿e a¿e ol automob||es re¿|stered |n the
country |s |ower now than |t was ZC years a¿o.
|Lì bad|o stat|ons have |on¿ been broadcast|n¿
re¿u|ar tralhc reports that |nlorm motor|sts
about tralhc con¿est|on.
Z4. 1he percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome
ol more than S4C,CCC |s h|¿her |n lerton County than
|n any other county. However, the percenta¿e ol
househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol SbC,CCC or more
|s h|¿her |n 3ommer County.
ll the statements above are true, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be true'
|/ì 1he percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua|
|ncome ol SßC,CCC |s h|¿her |n 3ommer County
than |n lerton County.
|Bì lerton County has the second h|¿hest
percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome
ol SbC,CCC or more.
|Cì 3ome househo|ds |n lerton County have an
annua| |ncome between S4C,CCC and SbC,CCC.
|0ì 1he number ol househo|ds w|th an annua|
|ncome ol more than S4C,CCC |s ¿reater |n
lerton County than |n 3ommer County.
|Lì /vera¿e annua| househo|d |ncome |s h|¿her |n
3ommer County than |n lerton County.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
36
Zo. 1|¿er beet|es are such last runners that they can
capture v|rtua||y any nonNy|n¿ |nsect. However, when
runn|n¿ toward an |nsect, a t|¿er beet|e w|||
|nterm|ttent|y stop and then, a moment |ater, resume
|ts attack. lerhaps the beet|es cannot ma|nta|n the|r
pace and must pause lor a moment's rest; but an
a|ternat|ve hypothes|s |s that wh||e runn|n¿, t|¿er
beet|es are unab|e to adequate|y process the resu|t|n¿
rap|d|y chan¿|n¿ v|sua| |nlormat|on and so qu|ck|y ¿o
b||nd and stop.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l d|scovered |n exper|ments
us|n¿ art|hc|a||y moved prey |nsects, wou|d support
one ol the two hypotheses and underm|ne the other'
|/ì when a prey |nsect |s moved d|rect|y toward a
beet|e that has been chas|n¿ |t, the beet|e
|mmed|ate|y stops and runs away w|thout |ts
usua| |nterm|ttent stopp|n¿.
|Bì ln pursu|n¿ a swerv|n¿ |nsect, a beet|e a|ters |ts
course wh||e runn|n¿ and |ts pauses become
more lrequent as the chase pro¿resses.
|Cì ln pursu|n¿ a mov|n¿ |nsect, a beet|e usua||y
responds |mmed|ate|y to chan¿es |n the |nsect's
d|rect|on, and |t pauses equa||y lrequent|y
whether the chase |s up or down an |nc||ne.
|0ì ll, when a beet|e pauses, |t has not ¿a|ned on
the |nsect |t |s pursu|n¿, the beet|e ¿enera||y
ends |ts pursu|t.
|Lì 1he laster a beet|e pursues an |nsect Nee|n¿
d|rect|y away lrom |t, the more lrequent|y the
beet|e stops.
Zb. 0u|||emots are b|rds ol /rct|c re¿|ons. 1hey leed on
hsh that ¿ather beneath th|n sheets ol Noat|n¿ |ce, and
they nest on nearby |and. 0u|||emots need ßC
consecut|ve snow·lree days |n a year to ra|se the|r
ch|cks, so unt|| avera¿e temperatures |n the /rct|c
be¿an to r|se recent|y, the ¿u|||emots' ran¿e was
||m|ted to the southernmost /rct|c coast. 1herelore, |l
the warm|n¿ cont|nues, the ¿u|||emots' ran¿e w|||
probab|y be en|ar¿ed by be|n¿ extended northward
a|on¿ the coast.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens
the ar¿ument'
|/ì Lven |l the warm|n¿ trend cont|nues, there w|||
st||| be years |n wh|ch ¿u|||emot ch|cks are k|||ed
by an unusua||y ear|y snow.
|Bì ll the /rct|c warm|n¿ cont|nues, ¿u|||emots'
current predators are ||ke|y to succeed |n
extend|n¿ the|r own ran¿e larther north.
|Cì 0u|||emots nest |n coasta| areas, where
temperatures are ¿enera||y h|¿her than |n |n|and
areas.
|0ì ll the /rct|c warm|n¿ cont|nues, much ol the th|n
|ce |n the southern /rct|c w||| d|sappear.
|Lì 1he hsh that ¿u|||emots eat are current|y preyed
on by a w|der var|ety ol predators |n the
southernmost /rct|c re¿|ons than they are
larther north.
Z/. 3ome batches ol po||o vacc|ne used around ì9bC
were contam|nated w|th 3V4C, a v|rus that |n monkeys
causes var|ous cancers. 3ome researchers now c|a|m
that th|s contam|nat|on caused some cases ol a
certa|n cancer |n humans, mesothe||oma. 1h|s c|a|m |s
not undercut by the lact that a very carelu| survey
made |n the ì9bCs ol peop|e who had rece|ved the
contam|nated vacc|ne lound no e|evated |nc|dence ol
any cancer, s|nce ____________.
|/ì most cases ol mesothe||oma are caused by
exposure to asbestos
|Bì |n some countr|es, there was no contam|nat|on
ol the vacc|ne
|Cì 3V4C |s w|de|y used |n |aborator|es to produce
cancers |n an|ma|s
|0ì mesothe||omas take severa| decades to deve|op
|Lì mesothe||oma was somewhat |ess common |n
ì9bC than |t |s now
37
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
Zß. 0ort|and has |on¿ been narrow|y se|l·sulhc|ent |n both
¿ra|n and meat. However, as per cap|ta |ncome |n
0ort|and has r|sen toward the wor|d avera¿e, per
cap|ta consumpt|on ol meat has a|so r|sen toward the
wor|d avera¿e, and |t takes severa| pounds ol ¿ra|n to
produce one pound ol meat. 1herelore, s|nce per
cap|ta |ncome cont|nues to r|se, whereas domest|c
¿ra|n product|on w||| not |ncrease, 0ort|and w||| soon
have to |mport e|ther ¿ra|n or meat or both.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s an assumpt|on on wh|ch the
ar¿ument depends'
|/ì 1he tota| acrea¿e devoted to ¿ra|n product|on |n
0ort|and w||| soon decrease.
|Bì lmport|n¿ e|ther ¿ra|n or meat w||| not resu|t |n a
s|¿n|hcant|y h|¿her percenta¿e ol 0ort|anders'
|ncomes be|n¿ spent on lood than |s current|y
the case.
|Cì 1he per cap|ta consumpt|on ol meat |n 0ort|and
|s |ncreas|n¿ at rou¿h|y the same rate across a||
|ncome |eve|s.
|0ì 1he per cap|ta |ncome ol meat producers |n
0ort|and |s r|s|n¿ laster than the per cap|ta
|ncome ol ¿ra|n producers.
|Lì leop|e |n 0ort|and who |ncrease the|r
consumpt|on ol meat w||| not rad|ca||y decrease
the|r consumpt|on ol ¿ra|n.
Z9. 1he Haze|ton coa|·process|n¿ p|ant |s a major
emp|oyer |n the Haze|ton area, but nat|ona|
env|ronmenta| re¿u|at|ons w||| lorce |t to c|ose |l |t
cont|nues to use o|d, po||ut|n¿ process|n¿ methods.
However, to update the p|ant to use newer, c|eaner
methods wou|d be so expens|ve that the p|ant w|||
c|ose un|ess |t rece|ves the tax break |t has requested.
ln order to prevent a major |ncrease |n |oca|
unemp|oyment, the Haze|ton ¿overnment |s
cons|der|n¿ ¿rant|n¿ the p|ant's request.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ wou|d be most |mportant lor the
Haze|ton ¿overnment to determ|ne belore dec|d|n¿
whether to ¿rant the p|ant's request'
|/ì whether the company that owns the p|ant wou|d
open a new p|ant |n another area |l the present
p|ant were c|osed
|Bì whether the p|ant wou|d emp|oy lar lewer
workers when updated than |t does now
|Cì whether the |eve| ol po||utants present|y be|n¿
em|tted by the p|ant |s h|¿h enou¿h to const|tute
a hea|th hazard lor |oca| res|dents
|0ì whether the major|ty ol the coa| processed by
the p|ant |s so|d outs|de the Haze|ton area
|Lì whether the p|ant wou|d be ab|e to process
more coa| when updated than |t does now
3C. / phys|ca||y act|ve ||lesty|e has been shown to he|p
|ncrease |on¿ev|ty. ln the w|star re¿|on ol Be||ar|a, the
avera¿e a¿e at death |s cons|derab|y h|¿her than |n
any other part ol the country. w|star |s the on|y
mounta|nous part ol Be||ar|a. / mounta|nous terra|n
makes even such bas|c act|v|t|es as wa|k|n¿ re|at|ve|y
strenuous; |t essent|a||y |mposes a phys|ca||y act|ve
||lesty|e on peop|e. C|ear|y, th|s c|rcumstance exp|a|ns
the |on¿ ||ves ol peop|e |n w|star.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens
the ar¿ument'
|/ì ln Be||ar|a a|| med|ca| expenses are pa|d by the
¿overnment, so that persona| |ncome does not
allect the qua||ty ol hea|th care a person
rece|ves.
|Bì 1he w|star re¿|on |s one ol Be||ar|a's |east
popu|ated re¿|ons.
|Cì lany peop|e who ||ve |n the w|star re¿|on have
moved there |n m|dd|e a¿e or upon ret|rement.
|0ì 1he many opportun|t|es lor h|k|n¿, sk||n¿, and
other outdoor act|v|t|es that w|star's mounta|ns
oller make |t a lavor|te dest|nat|on lor
vacat|on|n¿ Be||ar|ans.
|Lì ler cap|ta spend|n¿ on recreat|ona| act|v|t|es |s
no h|¿her |n w|star than |t |s |n other re¿|ons ol
Be||ar|a.
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38
3ì. Cheever Co||e¿e ollers severa| on||ne courses v|a
remote computer connect|on, |n add|t|on to trad|t|ona|
c|assroom·based courses. / study ol student
perlormance at Cheever lound that, overa||, the
avera¿e student ¿rade lor on||ne courses matched
that lor c|assroom·based courses. ln th|s ca|cu|at|on
ol the avera¿e ¿rade, course w|thdrawa|s were
we|¿hted as equ|va|ent to a course la||ure, and the
rate ol w|thdrawa| was much |ower lor students
enro||ed |n c|assroom·based courses than lor students
enro||ed |n on||ne courses.
ll the statements above are true, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be true ol Cheever Co||e¿e'
|/ì /mon¿ students who d|d not w|thdraw, students
enro||ed |n on||ne courses ¿ot h|¿her ¿rades, on
avera¿e, than students enro||ed |n c|assroom·
based courses.
|Bì 1he number ol students enro||ed per course at
the start ol the schoo| term |s much h|¿her, on
avera¿e, lor the on||ne courses than lor the
c|assroom·based courses.
|Cì 1here are no students who take both an on||ne
and a c|assroom·based course |n the same
schoo| term.
|0ì /mon¿ Cheever Co||e¿e students w|th the best
¿rades, a s|¿n|hcant major|ty take on||ne, rather
than c|assroom·based, courses.
|Lì Courses ollered on||ne tend to dea| w|th subject
matter that |s |ess cha||en¿|n¿ than that ol
c|assroom·based courses.
3Z. lor years the beaut|lu| bena|ssance bu||d|n¿s |n la||t|to
have been dama¿ed by exhaust lrom the many tour
buses that come to the c|ty. 1here has been ||tt|e
park|n¿ space, so most buses have |d|ed at the curb
dur|n¿ each stop on the|r tour, and |d||n¿ produces as
much exhaust as dr|v|n¿. 1he c|ty has now prov|ded
park|n¿ that accommodates a th|rd ol the tour buses,
so dama¿e to la||t|to's bu||d|n¿s lrom the buses'
exhaust w||| d|m|n|sh s|¿n|hcant|y.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most stron¿|y supports
the ar¿ument'
|/ì 1he exhaust lrom la||t|to's lew automob||es |s
not a s|¿n|hcant threat to la||t|to's bu||d|n¿s.
|Bì la||t|to's bena|ssance bu||d|n¿s are not
threatened by po||ut|on other than en¿|ne
exhaust.
|Cì 1our buses typ|ca||y spend |ess than one·quarter
ol the t|me they are |n la||t|to transport|n¿
passen¿ers lrom one s|te to another.
|0ì lore tour|sts come to la||t|to by tour bus than
by any other s|n¿|e means ol transportat|on.
|Lì 3ome ol the tour buses that are unab|e to hnd
park|n¿ dr|ve around la||t|to wh||e the|r
passen¿ers are v|s|t|n¿ a s|te.
39
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
33. 0ur|n¿ the ì9ßCs and ì99Cs, the annua| number ol
peop|e who v|s|ted the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |ncreased
cont|nua||y, and many new sk| resorts were bu||t. 0ver
the same per|od, however, the number ol v|s|tors to
sk| resorts who were cau¿ht |n ava|anches decreased,
even thou¿h there was no reduct|on |n the annua|
number ol ava|anches |n the 3orde|||an lounta|ns.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true |n the 3orde|||an
lounta|ns dur|n¿ the ì9ßCs and ì99Cs, most he|ps to
exp|a|n the decrease'
|/ì /va|anches were most ||ke|y to happen when a
|ar¿e new snowla|| covered an o|der |ayer ol
snow.
|Bì /va|anches destroyed at |east some bu||d|n¿s |n
the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |n every year.
|Cì leop|e p|ann|n¿ new sk| s|opes and other resort
lac|||t|es used |ncreas|n¿|y accurate |nlormat|on
about wh|ch |ocat|ons are ||ke|y to be |n the path
ol ava|anches.
|0ì 1he avera¿e |en¿th ol stay lor peop|e v|s|t|n¿
the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |ncreased s||¿ht|y.
|Lì Construct|on ol new sk| resorts olten |ed to the
c|ear|n¿ ol wooded areas that had he|ped to
prevent ava|anches.
34. / year a¿o, 0|etz loods |aunched a year|on¿
advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n lor |ts canned tuna. last year
0|etz so|d ìZ m||||on cans ol tuna compared to the ìC
m||||on so|d dur|n¿ the prev|ous year, an |ncrease
d|rect|y attr|butab|e to new customers brou¿ht |n by
the campa|¿n. lrohts lrom the add|t|ona| sa|es,
however, were substant|a||y |ess than the cost ol the
advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n. C|ear|y, therelore, the campa|¿n
d|d noth|n¿ to lurther 0|etz's econom|c |nterests.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens
the ar¿ument'
|/ì 3a|es ol canned tuna account lor a re|at|ve|y
sma|| percenta¿e ol 0|etz loods' prohts.
|Bì lost ol the peop|e who bou¿ht 0|etz's canned
tuna lor the hrst t|me as a resu|t ol the
campa|¿n were a|ready |oya| customers ol other
0|etz products.
|Cì / |ess expens|ve advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n wou|d
have brou¿ht |n s|¿n|hcant|y lewer new
customers lor 0|etz's canned tuna than d|d the
campa|¿n 0|etz loods |aunched |ast year.
|0ì 0|etz made money on sa|es ol canned tuna |ast
year.
|Lì ln each ol the past hve years, there was a steep,
|ndustry·w|de dec||ne |n sa|es ol canned tuna.
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ßeviev 12th Edition
40
3o. 0n||ke the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch
were arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an was
lo||owed lor a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey: w|th houses
|a|d out on a north·south, east·west ¿r|d, and houses
and wa||s were bu||t ol standard·s|ze br|cks.
|/ì the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch were
arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an was
lo||owed lor a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey: w|th
houses
|Bì the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch were
haphazard |n arran¿ement, the same bas|c p|an
was used |n a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey: houses
were
|Cì the arran¿ement ol bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an
c|t|es, wh|ch were haphazard, the c|t|es ol the
lndus Va||ey a|| lo||owed the same bas|c p|an:
houses
|0ì lesopotam|an c|t|es, |n wh|ch bu||d|n¿s were
arran¿ed haphazard|y, the c|t|es ol the lndus
Va||ey a|| lo||owed the same bas|c p|an: houses
were
|Lì lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch had bu||d|n¿s that
were arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an
was used lor a|| c|t|es |n the lndus Va||ey: houses
that were
3b. New data lrom 0n|ted 3tates lorest 3erv|ce eco|o¿|sts
show that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, |t saves seven do||ars that
wou|d not be spent on hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh b|¿ hres.
|/ì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol
hre·mana¿ement personne|, |t saves seven
do||ars that wou|d not be spent on hav|n¿ to
ext|n¿u|sh
|Bì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol
hre·mana¿ement personne|, seven do||ars are
saved that wou|d have been spent on
ext|n¿u|sh|n¿
|Cì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol
hre·mana¿ement personne| saves seven do||ars
on not hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh
|0ì lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·sca|e
burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, that |t saves seven
do||ars on not hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh
|Lì lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·sca|e
burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, that seven do||ars are
saved that wou|d not have been spent on
ext|n¿u|sh|n¿
5entence Correction
Each o! the sentence correction questions presents a sentence, part or aII o! vhich is underIined.
ßeneath the sentence you viII ñnd ñve vays o! phrasing the underIined part. The ñrst o! these repeats
the originaI, the other !our are di!!erent. foIIov the requirements o! standard vritten EngIish to choose
your ansver, paying attention to grammar, vord choice, and sentence construction. 5eIect the ansver
that produces the most e!!ective sentence, your ansver shouId make the sentence cIear, exact, and !ree
o! grammaticaI error. It shouId aIso minimize avkvardness, ambiguity, and redundancy.
41
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
3/. l|ke the ¿rassy he|ds and o|d pastures that the up|and
sandp|per needs lor leed|n¿ and nest|n¿ when |t
returns |n lay alter w|nter|n¿ |n the /r¿ent|ne
lampas, the sandp|pers van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates |s a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and |ndustr|a|
deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n larm|n¿ pract|ces.
|/ì the sandp|pers van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates |s a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n
|Bì the b|rd |tse|l |s van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates as a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n
|Cì that the b|rds themse|ves are van|sh|n¿ |n the
northeastern 0n|ted 3tates |s due to res|dent|a|
and |ndustr|a| deve|opment and chan¿es to
|0ì |n the northeastern 0n|ted 3tates, sandp|pers'
van|sh|n¿ due to res|dent|a| and |ndustr|a|
deve|opment and to chan¿es |n
|Lì |n the northeastern 0n|ted 3tates, the
sandp|pers' van|sh|n¿, a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and chan¿|n¿
3ß. 1he resu|ts ol two recent unre|ated stud|es support
the |dea that do|ph|ns may share certa|n co¿n|t|ve
ab|||t|es w|th humans and ¿reat apes; the stud|es
|nd|cate do|ph|ns as capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to ¿rasp
spontaneous|y the mood or |ntent|on ol humans.
|/ì do|ph|ns as capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿ themse|ves
|n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten cons|dered a
s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to ¿rasp
spontaneous|y
|Bì do|ph|ns' ab|||ty to reco¿n|ze themse|ves |n
m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten cons|dered as a
s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and ol spontaneous|y
¿rasp|n¿
|Cì do|ph|ns to be capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to
¿rasp spontaneous|y
|0ì that do|ph|ns have the ab|||ty ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered as a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and
spontaneous|y ¿rasp|n¿
|Lì that do|ph|ns are capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and ol
spontaneous|y ¿rasp|n¿
39. /ccord|n¿ to scho|ars, the ear||est wr|t|n¿ was
probab|y not a d|rect render|n¿ ol speech, but was
more ||ke|y to be¿|n as a separate and d|st|nct
symbo||c system ol commun|cat|on, and on|y |ater
mer¿ed w|th spoken |an¿ua¿e.
|/ì was more ||ke|y to be¿|n as
|Bì more than ||ke|y be¿an as
|Cì more than ||ke|y be¿|nn|n¿ lrom
|0ì |t was more than ||ke|y be¿un lrom
|Lì |t was more ||ke|y that |t be¿an
4C. ln ì99o b|chard 3ta||man, a we||·known cr|t|c ol the
patent system, test|hed |n latent 0lhce hear|n¿s
that, to test the system, a co||ea¿ue ol h|s had
mana¿ed to w|n a patent lor one ol b|rchholl's |aws,
an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst made |n
ìß4o and now |nc|uded |n v|rtua||y every textbook ol
e|ementary phys|cs.
|/ì |aws, an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst
made |n ìß4o and
|Bì |aws, wh|ch was an observat|on about e|ectr|c
current hrst made |n ìß4o and |t |s
|Cì |aws, name|y, |t was an observat|on about
e|ectr|c current hrst made |n ìß4o and
|0ì |aws, an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst
made |n ìß4o, |t |s
|Lì |aws that was an observat|on about e|ectr|c
current, hrst made |n ìß4o, and |s
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ßeviev 12th Edition
42
4ì. Lxcavators at the lndus Va||ey s|te ol Harappa |n
eastern lak|stan say the d|scovery ol |nscr|bed
shards dat|n¿ to c|rca ZßCC-ZbCC B.C. |nd|cate the|r
deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿ system, the use
ol |nscr|bed sea|s |mpressed |nto c|ay lor mark|n¿
ownersh|p, and the standard|zat|on ol we|¿hts lor
trade or taxat|on occurred many decades, |l not
centur|es, ear||er than was prev|ous|y be||eved.
|/ì |nd|cate the|r deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿
system, the use ol
|Bì |nd|cate that the deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, us|n¿
|Cì |nd|cates that the|r deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, us|n¿
|0ì |nd|cates the deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿
system, the|r use ol
|Lì |nd|cates that the deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, the use ol
4Z. 1he 3upreme Court has ru|ed that pub||c un|vers|t|es
may co||ect student act|v|ty lees even w|th students'
object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es, so |on¿ as the
¿roups they ¿|ve money to w||| be chosen w|thout
re¿ard to the|r v|ews.
|/ì w|th students' object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es,
so |on¿ as the ¿roups they ¿|ve money to w||| be
|Bì |l they have object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es
and the ¿roups that are ¿|ven the money are
|Cì |l they object to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es, but the
¿roups that the money |s ¿|ven to have to be
|0ì lrom students who object to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es,
so |on¿ as the ¿roups ¿|ven money are
|Lì thou¿h students have an object|on to part|cu|ar
act|v|t|es, but the ¿roups that are ¿|ven the
money be
43. 0esp|te the |ncreas|n¿ number ol women ¿raduat|n¿
lrom |aw schoo| and pass|n¿ bar exam|nat|ons, the
proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major |aw hrms
who are women have not r|sen to a comparab|e
extent.
|/ì the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major
|aw hrms who are women have not r|sen to a
comparab|e extent
|Bì the proport|on ol women jud¿es and partners at
major |aw hrms have not r|sen comparab|y
|Cì the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major
|aw hrms who are women has not r|sen
comparab|y
|0ì yet the proport|on ol women jud¿es and
partners at major |aw hrms has not r|sen to a
comparab|e extent
|Lì yet the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at
major |aw hrms who are women has not r|sen
comparab|y
44. 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ leet deep,
but |t ran 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed w||derness
ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana| connected the
Hudson b|ver at /|bany to the 0reat lakes at Bulla|o,
prov|d|n¿ the port ol New York C|ty w|th a d|rect water
||nk to the heart|and ol the North /mer|can cont|nent.
|/ì 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ leet
deep, but |t ran 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed
w||derness ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana|
connected
|Bì 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de or ìZ leet deep
but runn|n¿ 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed
w||derness ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana|
connected
|Cì lt was se|dom more than 4C leet w|de and
ìZ leet deep, and ran 3b3 m||es across the
ru¿¿ed w||derness ol upstate New York, but the
Lr|e Cana|, connect|n¿
|0ì 1he Lr|e Cana| was se|dom more than 4C leet
w|de or ìZ leet deep and |t ran 3b3 m||es
across the ru¿¿ed w||derness ol upstate New
York, wh|ch connected
|Lì 1he Lr|e Cana|, se|dom more than 4C leet w|de
and ìZ leet deep, but runn|n¿ 3b3 m||es across
the ru¿¿ed w||derness ol upstate New York,
connect|n¿
43
3.2 Diagnostic Test VerbaI 5ampIe Çuestions
4o. ln ì9Z3, the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum wa¿e
lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a as
unconst|tut|ona|, and ru||n¿ that |t was a lorm ol pr|ce·
hx|n¿ and, as such, an abr|d¿ment ol the r|¿ht ol
contract.
|/ì the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum wa¿e
lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol
Co|umb|a as unconst|tut|ona|, and
|Bì the 3upreme Court dec|ared as unconst|tut|ona|
a m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a, and
|Cì the 3upreme Court dec|ared unconst|tut|ona| a
m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a,
|0ì a m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a was dec|ared
unconst|tut|ona| by the 3upreme Court,
|Lì when the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum
wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol
Co|umb|a as unconst|tut|ona|,
4b. besearchers have lound that |nd|v|dua|s who have
been b||nd lrom b|rth, and who thus have never seen
anyone ¿esture, neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons
when speak|n¿ just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the
same way as s|¿hted peop|e do, and that they w|||
¿esture even when convers|n¿ w|th another b||nd
person.
|/ì who thus have never seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the same way
as s|¿hted peop|e do, and that they w||| ¿esture
|Bì who thus never saw anyone ¿estur|n¿,
neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent and |n v|rtua||y the same way as
s|¿hted peop|e d|d, and that they w||| ¿esture
|Cì who thus have never seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess made hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the same way
as s|¿hted peop|e do, as we|| as ¿estur|n¿
|0ì thus never hav|n¿ seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess made hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent and |n v|rtua||y the same way as
s|¿hted peop|e d|d, as we|| as ¿estur|n¿
|Lì thus never hav|n¿ seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess to make hand mot|ons when
speak|n¿ just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the
same way as s|¿hted peop|e do, and to ¿esture
4/. l|ke embryon|c ¿erm ce||s, wh|ch are ce||s that
deve|op ear|y |n the lormat|on ol the letus and that
|ater ¿enerate e¿¿s or sperm, embryon|c stem ce||s
have the ab|||ty ol deve|op|n¿ themse|ves |nto d|llerent
k|nds ol body t|ssue.
|/ì embryon|c stem ce||s have the ab|||ty ol
deve|op|n¿ themse|ves |nto d|llerent k|nds ol
body t|ssue
|Bì embryon|c stem ce||s have the ab|||ty to deve|op
|nto d|llerent k|nds ol body t|ssue
|Cì |n embryon|c stem ce||s there |s the ab|||ty to
deve|op |nto d|llerent k|nds ol body t|ssue
|0ì the ab|||ty to deve|op themse|ves |nto d|llerent
k|nds ol body t|ssue character|zes embryon|c
stem ce||s
|Lì the ab|||ty ol deve|op|n¿ |nto d|llerent k|nds ol
body t|ssue character|zes embryon|c stem ce||s
4ß. Cr|t|cs contend that the new m|ss||e |s a weapon
whose |mportance |s |ar¿e|y symbo||c, more a too|
lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than to lu|h||
a rea| m|||tary need.
|/ì lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than
to lu|h||
|Bì lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than
lor lu|h|||n¿
|Cì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons rather than
that |t lu|h||s
|0ì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons rather than
lu|h|||n¿
|Lì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons than
lor lu|h|||n¿
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
44
49. /s an actress and, more |mportant|y, as a teacher ol
act|n¿, 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, who tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿ lar|on Brando and
bobert 0e N|ro.
|/ì 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, who tra|ned
severa| ¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿
|Bì 3te||a /d|er, one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n
the /mer|can theater, tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors who |nc|ude
|Cì 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, tra|n|n¿ severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors whose ranks |nc|uded
|0ì one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n the
/mer|can theater was 3te||a /d|er, who tra|ned
severa| ¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿
|Lì one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n the
/mer|can theater, 3te||a /d|er, tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors whose ranks |nc|uded
oC. By deve|op|n¿ the 3ecure 0|¿|ta| lus|c ln|t|at|ve, the
record|n¿ |ndustry assoc|at|ons ol North /mer|ca,
Japan, and Lurope hope to create a standard|zed way
ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on the
lnternet that w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders and lo|| the
many aud|o p|rates who copy and d|str|bute d|¿|ta|
mus|c |||e¿a||y.
|/ì ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet that w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|| the many aud|o p|rates who copy and
d|str|bute
|Bì ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet and to protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|||n¿ the many aud|o p|rates copy|n¿ and
d|str|but|n¿
|Cì lor d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet wh||e |t protects copyr|¿ht
ho|ders and lo||s the many aud|o p|rates who
copy and d|str|bute
|0ì to d|str|bute son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on
the lnternet wh||e they w||| protect copyr|¿ht
ho|ders and lo|| the many aud|o p|rates copy|n¿
and d|str|but|n¿
|Lì to d|str|bute son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on
the lnternet and |t w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|||n¿ the many aud|o p|rates who copy and
d|str|bute
oì. whereas a ramjet ¿enera||y cannot ach|eve h|¿h
speeds w|thout the |n|t|a| ass|stance ol a rocket, h|¿h
speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets, or superson|c
combust|on ramjets, |n that they reduce a|rNow
compress|on at the entrance ol the en¿|ne and |ett|n¿
a|r pass throu¿h at superson|c speeds.
|/ì h|¿h speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets, or
superson|c combust|on ramjets, |n that they
reduce
|Bì that h|¿h speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets,
or superson|c combust|on ramjets, |s a resu|t ol
the|r reduc|n¿
|Cì the ab|||ty ol scramjets, or superson|c
combust|on ramjets, to ach|eve h|¿h speeds |s
because they reduce
|0ì scramjets, or superson|c combust|on ramjets,
have the ab|||ty ol atta|n|n¿ h|¿h speeds when
reduc|n¿
|Lì scramjets, or superson|c combust|on ramjets,
can atta|n h|¿h speeds by reduc|n¿
oZ. lt w||| not be poss|b|e to |mp||cate me|t|n¿ sea |ce |n
the coasta| Nood|n¿ that many ¿|oba| warm|n¿ mode|s
have projected: just ||ke a ¿|ass ol water that w||| not
overNow due to me|t|n¿ |ce cubes, so me|t|n¿ sea |ce
does not |ncrease ocean|c vo|ume.
|/ì ||ke a ¿|ass ol water that w||| not overNow due to
me|t|n¿ |ce cubes,
|Bì ||ke me|t|n¿ |ce cubes that do not cause a ¿|ass
ol water to overNow,
|Cì a ¿|ass ol water w||| not overNow because ol
me|t|n¿ |ce cubes,
|0ì as me|t|n¿ |ce cubes that do not cause a ¿|ass
ol water to overNow,
|Lì as me|t|n¿ |ce cubes do not cause a ¿|ass ol
water to overNow,
45
3.3 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative and VerbaI Ansver Keys
ì. /
Z. 0
3. L
4. B
o. B
b. /
/. L
ß. L
9. 0
ìC. C
ìì. C
ìZ. C
ì3. L
ì4. B
ìo. C
ìb. L
ì/. 0
ìß. /
ì9. /
ZC. B
Zì. 0
ZZ. L
Z3. B
Z4. C
Zo. L
Zb. L
Z/. L
Zß. L
Z9. L
3C. /
3ì. 0
3Z. C
33. 0
34. C
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. /
3ß. B
39. L
4C. 0
4ì. C
4Z. C
43. B
44. /
4o. 0
4b. L
4/. 0
4ß. C
ì. L
Z. C
3. B
4. /
o. 0
b. C
/. /
ß. /
9. B
ìC. /
ìì. B
ìZ. 0
ì3. B
ì4. /
ìo. L
ìb. C
ì/. L
ìß. B
ì9. L
ZC. C
Zì. /
ZZ. B
Z3. /
Z4. C
Zo. B
Zb. 0
Z/. 0
Zß. L
Z9. B
3C. C
3ì. /
3Z. C
33. C
34. L
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. B
3ß. L
39. B
4C. /
4ì. L
4Z. 0
43. C
44. B
4o. C
4b. /
4/. B
4ß. B
49. C
oC. /
oì. L
oZ. L
3.3 Çuantitative and VerbaI Ansver Keys
Çuantitative VerbaI
3.4 Interpretive Guide
c lollowing tablc providcs a guidc lor intcrprcting your scorc, on thc basis ol thc numbcr ol qucstions
you got right.

Interpretive Guide
Rcmcmbcr, you should not comparc thc numbcr ol qucstions you got right in cach scction. !nstcad, you
should comparc how your rcsponsc ratcd in cach scction.
¡xccllcnt Abovc Avcragc Avcragc 8clow Avcragc
Problcm Solving 1924 1618 1015 09
Ðata Sulncicncy 1924 1618 1015 09
Rcading Comprchcnsion 1617 1415 913 08
Critical Rcasoning 1417 913 68 05
Scntcncc Corrcction 1618 1115 810 07
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
46
ì. last month a certa|n mus|c c|ub ollered a d|scount to
prelerred customers. /lter the hrst compact d|sc
purchased, prelerred customers pa|d S3.99 lor each
add|t|ona| compact d|sc purchased. ll a prelerred
customer purchased a tota| ol b compact d|scs and
pa|d Sìo.9o lor the hrst compact d|sc, then the do||ar
amount that the customer pa|d lor the b compact
d|scs |s equ|va|ent to wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì o|4.CCì + ìo.9C
|Bì o|4.CCì + ìo.9o
|Cì o|4.CCì + ìb.CC
|0ì o|4.CC - C.Cìì + ìo.9C
|Lì o|4.CC - C.Coì + ìo.9o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c cost ol thc 6 compact discs, with 815.95 lor
thc nrst onc and 83.99 lor thc othcr 5 discs, can
bc cxprcsscd as 5(3.99) ÷ 15.95. !t is clcar lrom
looking at thc answcr choiccs that somc
rcgrouping ol thc valucs is nccdcd bccausc nonc
ol thc answcr choiccs uscs 83.99 in thc
calculation.
!l 84.00 is uscd instcad ol 83.99, cach onc ol thc
5 additional compact discs is calculatcd at 80.01
too much, and thc total cost is 5(0.01) - 80.05
crc is an ovcragc ol 80.05 that
must bc subtractcd lrom thc 815.95, or thus
crclorc, thc cost
can bc cxprcsscd as 5(4.00) ÷ 15.90.
e correct answer is A.
Z. 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the |nte¿ers lrom
ZCC to 4CC, |nc|us|ve, |s how much ¿reater than the
avera¿e ol the |nte¿ers lrom oC to ìCC, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì ìoC
|Bì ì/o
|Cì ZCC
|0ì ZZo
|Lì 3CC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!n thc list ol intcgcrs lrom 200 to 400 inclusivc,
thc middlc valuc is 300. For cvcry intcgcr abovc
300, thcrc cxists an intcgcr bclow 300 that is thc
samc distancc away lrom 300, thus thc avcragc ol
thc intcgcrs lrom 200 to 400, inclusivc, will bc
kcpt at 300. !n thc samc manncr, thc avcragc ol
thc intcgcrs lrom 50 to 100, inclusivc, is 75.
crcncc is 300 75 - 225.
e correct answer is D.
3. 1he sequence a
ì
, a
Z
, a
3
,...,a
n
,... |s such that
lor a|| n a
3
 4 and
a
o
 ZC, what |s the va|ue ol a
b
'
|/ì ìZ
|Bì ìb
|Cì ZC
|0ì Z4
|Lì Zß
3.5 Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
ProbIem 5oIving
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to probIem soIving questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter
are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! quantitative questions you viII encounter on the GMAT.
ßemember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs o! a
particuIar question.
47
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra AppIied probIems
According to this lormula, it is ncccssary to know
thc two prior tcrms in thc scqucncc to dctcrminc
thc valuc ol a tcrm, that is, it is ncccssary
to know both a
n - 1
and a
n - 2
to nnd a
n
.
crclorc, to nnd a
6
, thc valucs ol a
5
and a
4

must bc dctcrmincd. To nnd a
4
, lct a
n
- a
5
,
which makcs a
n - 1
- a
4
and a
n - 2
- a
3
cn, by
substituting thc givcn valucs into thc lormula
substitutc known valucs
40 - a
4
÷ 4 multiply both sidcs
36 - a
4
subtract 4 lrom both sidcs
cn, lctting a
n
- a
6
, substitutc thc known valucs:
4
substitutc known valucs
simplily
a
6
- 28
e correct answer is E.
4. /mon¿ a ¿roup ol Z,oCC peop|e, 3o percent |nvest |n
mun|c|pa| bonds, ìß percent |nvest |n o|| stocks, and
/ percent |nvest |n both mun|c|pa| bonds and o||
stocks. ll ì person |s to be random|y se|ected lrom
the Z,oCC peop|e, what |s the probab|||ty that the
person se|ected w||| be one who |nvests |n mun|c|pa|
bonds but N01 |n o|| stocks'
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sincc thcrc arc 2,500 pcoplc, 2,500(0.35) -
875 pcoplc invcst in municipal bonds, and
2,500(0.07) - 175 ol thosc pcoplc invcst in
crclorc,
thcrc arc 875 175 - 700 pcoplc who invcst in
municipal bonds but not in oil stocks. Probability
ol an cvcnt -
Probability ol invcsting in municipal bonds but
not in oil stocks -

.
e correct answer is B.
water and |s h||ed to ha|l |ts capac|ty. when the tank |s
p|aced upr|¿ht on |ts c|rcu|ar base on |eve| ¿round, the
he|¿ht ol the water |n the tank |s 4 leet. when the tank
|s p|aced on |ts s|de on |eve| ¿round, what |s the
he|¿ht, |n leet, ol the surlace ol the water above the
¿round'
|/ì Z
|Bì 3
|Cì 4
|0ì b
|Lì 9
Geometry VoIume
Sincc thc cylindcr is hall lull, it will bc nllcd to
hall its hcight, whcthcr it is upright or on its sidc.
Vhcn thc cylindcr is on its sidc, hall its hcight is
cqual to its radius.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
48
water |eve|
rad|us = ha|l the he|¿ht
Using thc inlormation about thc volumc ol watcr
in thc upright cylindcr, solvc lor this radius to
dctcrminc thc hcight ol thc watcr whcn thc
cylindcr is on its sidc.
! r
2
h
2
)(hcight)
r
2
h
36 - r
2
(4) substitutc 4 lor h, dividc both
9 - r
2
solvc lor r
3 - r radius - hcight ol thc watcr
in thc cylindcr on its sidc
e correct answer is B.
b. / market|n¿ hrm determ|ned that, ol ZCC househo|ds
surveyed, ßC used ne|ther Brand / nor Brand B soap,
bC used on|y Brand / soap, and lor every househo|d
that used both brands ol soap, 3 used on|y Brand B
soap. How many ol the ZCC househo|ds surveyed used
both brands ol soap'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ZC
|Cì 3C
|0ì 4C
|Lì 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc it is givcn that 80 houscholds usc ncithcr
8rand A nor 8rand 8, thcn 200 80 - 120 must
usc 8rand A, 8rand 8, or both. !t is also givcn
that 60 houscholds usc only 8rand A and that
thrcc timcs as many houscholds usc 8rand 8
cxclusivcly as usc both brands. !l x is thc numbcr
ol houscholds that usc both 8rand A and
8rand 8, thcn 3x usc 8rand 8 alonc. A \cnn
diagram can bc hclplul lor visualizing thc logic
ol thc givcn inlormation lor this itcm:
Brand / Brand B
bC 3x x
All thc scctions in thc circlcs can bc addcd up
and sct cqual to 120, and thcn thc cquation can
bc solvcd lor x:
60 ÷ x ÷ 3x - 120
60 ÷ 4x - 120 combinc likc tcrms
4x - 60 subtract 60 lrom both sidcs
x - 15 dividc both sidcs by 4
e correct answer is A.
/. / certa|n c|ub has ìC members, |nc|ud|n¿ Harry.
0ne ol the ìC members |s to be chosen at random
to be the pres|dent, one ol the rema|n|n¿ 9 members
|s to be chosen at random to be the secretary, and
one ol the rema|n|n¿ ß members |s to be chosen at
random to be the treasurer. what |s the probab|||ty
that Harry w||| be e|ther the member chosen to be the
secretary or the member chosen to be the treasurer'
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
49
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Two probabilitics must bc calculatcd hcrc: (1) thc
probability ol Harry's bcing choscn lor sccrctary
and (2) thc probability ol Harry's bcing choscn lor
trcasurcr. For any probability, thc probability ol
an cvcnt's occurring -
(1) !l Harry is to bc sccrctary, hc nrst
CANNÒT havc bccn choscn lor prcsidcnt, and
c
probability that hc will bc choscn lor prcsidcnt
is , so thc probability ol his NÒT bcing
choscn lor prcsidcnt is cn, thc
probability ol his bcing choscn lor sccrctary is .
Òncc hc is choscn, thc probability that hc will bc
sclcctcd lor trcasurcr is 0, so thc probability that
hc will NÒT bc sclcctcd lor trcasurcr is 1 0 - 1.
us, thc probability that Harry will bc choscn
lor sccrctary is

.
(2) !l Harry is to bc trcasurcr, hc nccds to bc
NÒT choscn lor prcsidcnt, thcn NÒT choscn lor
sccrctary, and thcn nnally choscn lor trcasurcr.
c probability that hc will NÒT bc choscn lor
prcsidcnt is again

c probability ol
his NÒT bcing choscn lor sccrctary is

.
c probability ol his bcing choscn lor trcasurcr
is , so thc probability that Harry will bc choscn
lor trcasurcr is

.
(3) So, nnally, thc probability ol Harry's bcing
choscn as cithcr sccrctary or trcasurcr is thus

.
e correct answer is E.
ß. ll a certa|n toy store's revenue |n November was
ol |ts revenue |n 0ecember and |ts revenue |n
January was ol |ts revenue |n November, then the
store's revenue |n 0ecember was how many t|mes the
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol |ts revenues |n November
and January'
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì Z
|Lì 4
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Lct n bc thc storc's rcvcnuc in Novcmbcr, d bc thc
storc's rcvcnuc in Ðcccmbcr, and j bc thc storc's
c inlormation lrom thc
problcm can bc cxprcsscd as
Substituting lor n in thc sccond cquation
givcs
rcvcnucs in Novcmbcr and January can bc lound
by using thcsc valucs in thc lormula

avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
as lollows:  ,
avcragc 
22
5
1
10
2
4
10
1
10
2
5
10
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
d d d d d
d d



 

Solvc lor thc storc's rcvcnuc in Ðcccmbcr by
multiplying both sidcs ol this cquation by 4:
avcragc -
4(avcragc) - d
us, thc storc's rcvcnuc in Ðcccmbcr was 4 timcs
its avcragc rcvcnuc in Novcmbcr and January.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
50
9. / researcher computed the mean, the med|an, and the
standard dev|at|on lor a set ol perlormance scores. ll
o were to be added to each score, wh|ch ol these
three stat|st|cs wou|d chan¿e'
|/ì 1he mean on|y
|Bì 1he med|an on|y
|Cì 1he standard dev|at|on on|y
|0ì 1he mean and the med|an
|Lì 1he mean and the standard dev|at|on
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!l 5 wcrc addcd to cach scorc, thc mcan would go
up by 5, as would thc mcdian. Howcvcr, thc
sprcad ol thc valucs would rcmain thc samc,
simply ccntcrcd around a ncw valuc. So, thc
standard dcviation would NOT changc.
e correct answer is D.
x
.
.
y
z
ìC. ln the h¿ure shown, what |s the va|ue ol
v + x + y + z + w '
|/ì 4o
|Bì 9C
|Cì ìßC
|0ì Z/C
|Lì 3bC
Geometry AngIes and their measure
!n thc lollowing ngurc, thc ccntcr scction ol thc
star is a pcntagon.
x
.
.
y
z
a
b
c d
e
c sum ol thc intcrior anglcs ol any polygon is
180(n 2), whcrc n us,
a ÷ b ÷ c ÷ d ÷ e - 180(5 - 2) - 180(3) - 540.
¡ach ol thc intcrior anglcs ol thc pcntagon
dcnncs a trianglc with two ol thc anglcs at thc
is givcs thc lollowing nvc
cquations:
a ÷ x ÷ z - 180
b ÷ . ÷ y - 180
c ÷ x ÷ . - 180
d ÷ . ÷ z - 180
e ÷ y ÷ . - 180
Summing thcsc 5 cquations givcs:
a ÷ b ÷ c ÷ d ÷ e ÷ 2. ÷ 2x ÷ 2y ÷ 2z ÷ 2. - 900.
Substituting 540 lor a ÷ b ÷ c ÷ d ÷ e givcs:
540 ÷ 2. ÷ 2x ÷ 2y ÷ 2z ÷ 2. - 900.
From this:
2. ÷ 2x ÷ 2y ÷ 2z ÷ 2. - 360 subtract 540 lrom
both sidcs
2(. ÷ x ÷ y ÷ z ÷ .) - 360 lactor out 2 on thc
lclt sidc
. ÷ x ÷ y ÷ z ÷ . - 180 dividc both sidcs
by 2
e correct answer is C.
ìì. 0l the three·d|¿|t |nte¿ers ¿reater than /CC, how many
have two d|¿|ts that are equa| to each other and the
rema|n|n¿ d|¿|t d|llerent lrom the other two'
|/ì 9C
|Bì ßZ
|Cì ßC
|0ì 4o
|Lì 3b
51
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!n thrccdigit intcgcrs, thcrc arc thrcc pairs ol
digits that can bc thc samc whilc thc othcr digit is
crcnt: tcns and oncs, hundrcds and tcns, and
hundrcds and oncs. !n cach ol thcsc pairs, thcrc
arc 9 options lor having thc third digit bc
c singlc cxccption
to this is in thc 700799 sct, whcrc thc numbcr
700 cannot bc includcd bccausc thc problcm
calls lor intcgcrs "grcatcr than 700." So, in thc
700799 sct, thcrc arc only 8 options lor whcn
is is shown in
thc tablc bclow.
Number o! digits avaiIabIe !or the third digit
vhen tvo given digits are the same
Samc 701799 800899 900999
tcns and oncs 8 9 9
hundrcds and tcns 9 9 9
hundrcds and oncs 9 9 9
us, ol thc thrccdigit intcgcrs grcatcr than 700,
thcrc arc 9(9) 1 - 80 numbcrs that havc two
digits that arc cqual to cach othcr whcn thc
crcnt lrom thcsc two.
e correct answer is C.
ìZ. los|t|ve |nte¿er y |s oC percent ol oC percent ol
pos|t|ve |nte¿er x, and y percent ol x equa|s ìCC. what
|s the va|ue ol x '
|/ì oC
|Bì ìCC
|Cì ZCC
|0ì ì,CCC
|Lì Z,CCC
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
5imuItaneous equations
8ccausc y is a positivc intcgcr, y pcrccnt is
notatcd as . According to thc problcm,
y - 0.50(0.50x) and x - 100 .
c nrst cquation simplincs to y - 0.25x , and
multiplying thc sccond cquation by 100 givcs
xy - 10,000 .
Substituting thc simplincd nrst cquation into this
sccond cquation givcs:
x(0.25x) - 10,000
0.25x
2
- 10,000 simplily lclt sidc
x
2
- 40,000 dividc both sidcs by 0.25
x - 200 solvc lor thc valuc ol x
e correct answer is C.
ì3. ll s and t are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers such that  b4.ìZ,
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the rema|nder when
s |s d|v|ded by t '
|/ì Z
|Bì 4
|Cì ß
|0ì ZC
|Lì 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8y using a long division modcl, it can bc sccn that
thc rcmaindcr altcr dividing s by t is s 64t:
 t s
t
s t


64
64
64
cn, thc givcn cquation can bc writtcn as 64.12t - s.
8y splitting portions ol t into its intcgcr multiplc
and its dccimal multiplc, this bccomcs
64t ÷ 0.12t - s, or 0.12t - s 64t, which is thc
rcmaindcr. So, 0.12t - rcmaindcr. Tcst thc answcr
choiccs to nnd thc situation in which t is an
intcgcr.
A 0.12t - 2 or t - 16.67 NÒT an intcgcr
8 0.12t - 4 or t - 33.33 NÒT an intcgcr
C 0.12t - 8 or t - 66.67 NÒT an intcgcr
Ð 0.12t - 20 or t - 166.67 NÒT an intcgcr
¡ 0.12t - 45 or t - 375 !NT¡G¡R
e correct answer is E.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
52
ì4. 0l the ß4 parents who attended a meet|n¿ at a
schoo|, 3o vo|unteered to superv|se ch||dren dur|n¿
the schoo| p|cn|c and ìì vo|unteered both to superv|se
ch||dren dur|n¿ the p|cn|c and to br|n¿ relreshments to
the p|cn|c. ll the number ol parents who vo|unteered
to br|n¿ relreshments was ì.o t|mes the number ol
parents who ne|ther vo|unteered to superv|se ch||dren
dur|n¿ the p|cn|c nor vo|unteered to br|n¿
relreshments, how many ol the parents vo|unteered to
br|n¿ relreshments'
|/ì Zo
|Bì 3b
|Cì 3ß
|0ì 4Z
|Lì 4o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Òut ol thc 35 parcnts who agrccd to supcrvisc
childrcn during thc school picnic, 11 parcnts
arc also bringing rclrcshmcnts, so 35 11 -
24 parcnts arc only supcrvising childrcn. Lct x
bc thc numbcr ol parcnts who voluntccrcd to
bring rclrcshmcnts, and lct y bc thc numbcr ol
parcnts who dcclincd to supcrvisc or to bring
c lact that thc numbcr ol
parcnts who voluntccrcd to bring rclrcshmcnts
is 1.5 timcs thc numbcr who did not voluntccr at
all can thcn bc cxprcsscd as x - 1.5y. A \cnn
diagram, such as thc onc bclow, can bc hclplul in
answcring problcms ol this kind.
Supcrvisc
8ring
Rclrcshmcnts, x
24 11
y
cn, thc sum ol thc scctions can bc sct cqual to
thc total numbcr ol parcnts at thc picnic, and thc
cquation can bc solvcd lor y:
y ÷ 24 ÷ x - 84 sum ol scctions - total
parcnts at picnic
y ÷ x - 60 subtract 24 lrom cach sidc
y - 60 x subtract x lrom cach sidc
cn, substituting thc valuc 60 x lor y in thc
cquation x - 1.5y givcs thc lollowing:
x - 1.5(60 x)
x - 90 1.5x distributc thc 1.5
2.5x - 90 add 1.5x to both sidcs
x - 36 dividc both sidcs by 2.5
e correct answer is B.
ìo. 1he product ol a|| the pr|me numbers |ess than ZC |s
c|osest to wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ powers ol ìC '
|/ì ìC
9
|Bì ìC
ß
|Cì ìC
/
|0ì ìC
b
|Lì ìC
o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c primc numbcrs lcss than 20 arc 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,
cir product is 9,699,690
(arrivcd at as lollows:
2 × 3 × 5 × 7 × 11 × 13 × 17 × 19 - 9,699,690).
is is closcst to 10,000,000 - 10
7

(10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 - 10,000,000).
e correct answer is C.
ìb. ll then, 4x
Z
=
|/ì ì
|Bì 4
|Cì Z - Zx
|0ì 4x - Z
|Lì bx - ì
53
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Vork with thc cquation to crcatc 4x
2
on onc sidc.
ovc all non
squarcroot tcrms to
onc sidc (i.c.,
subtrract and 1) 2x
sqquarc both sidcs
isolatc thc 4 add

2
x
x 4
(
aand subtract 1
lrom both sidcs)
dividc both sidcs by 2
e correct answer is E.
ì/. ll n =
ìb
ßì
, what |s the va|ue ol '
|/ì
ì
9
|Bì
ì
4
|Cì
4
9
|0ì
Z
3
|Lì
9
Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
Vork thc problcm.
Sincc , thcn . n n    
16
81
4
9
4
9
2
3
e correct answer is D.
ìß. ll n |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ì to ß,
|nc|us|ve, how many d|llerent pr|me lactors ¿reater
than ì does n have'
|/ì lour
|Bì l|ve
|Cì 3|x
|0ì 3even
|Lì L|¿ht
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!l n is thc product ol thc intcgcrs lrom 1 to 8,
thcn its primc lactors will bc thc primc numbcrs
crc arc lour primc numbcrs
bctwccn 1 and 8: 2, 3, 5, and 7.
e correct answer is A.
ì9. ll k |s an |nte¿er and Z < k < /, lor how many d|llerent
va|ues ol k |s there a tr|an¿|e w|th s|des ol |en¿ths Z,
/, and k '
|/ì 0ne
|Bì 1wo
|Cì 1hree
|0ì lour
|Lì l|ve
Geometry TriangIes
!n a trianglc, thc sum ol thc smallcr two sidcs
must bc largcr than thc largcst sidc.
For k valucs 3, 4, 5, and 6, thc only trianglc
possiblc is 2, 7, and k - 6 bccausc only 2 ÷ 6 ~ 7.
For k valucs 3, 4, and 5, thc sum ol thc smallcr
two sidcs is not largcr than thc third sidc, thus,
6 is thc only possiblc valuc ol k that satisncs thc
conditions.
e correct answer is A.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
54
ZC. / r|¿ht c|rcu|ar cone |s |nscr|bed |n a hem|sphere so
that the base ol the cone co|nc|des w|th the base ol
the hem|sphere. what |s the rat|o ol the he|¿ht ol the
cone to the rad|us ol the hem|sphere'
|/ì
|Bì ì:ì
|Cì
ì
Z

|0ì :
|Lì Z:ì
Geometry VoIume
As thc diagram bclow shows, thc hcight ol thc
conc will bc thc radius ol thc hcmisphcrc, so thc
ratio is 1:1.
r
e correct answer is B.
Zì. John depos|ted SìC,CCC to open a new sav|n¿s
account that earned 4 percent annua| |nterest,
compounded quarter|y. ll there were no other
transact|ons |n the account, what was the amount ol
money |n John's account b months alter the account
was opened'
|/ì SìC,ìCC
|Bì SìC,ìCì
|Cì SìC,ZCC
|0ì SìC,ZCì
|Lì SìC,4CC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc John's account is compoundcd quartcrly,
hc rcccivcs ol his annual intcrcst, or 1º,
is is addcd to thc amount
alrcady in thc account to accruc intcrcst lor thc
ncxt quartcr. Altcr 6 months, this proccss will
havc occurrcd twicc, so thc amount in John's
account will thcn bc
(810,000)(1.01)(1.01) - 810,000(1.01)
2
- 810,201
e correct answer is D.
ZZ. / conta|ner |n the shape ol a r|¿ht c|rcu|ar cy||nder
|s
ì
Z
lu|| ol water. ll the vo|ume ol water |n the
conta|ner |s 3b cub|c |nches and the he|¿ht ol the
conta|ner |s 9 |nches, what |s the d|ameter ol the base
ol the cy||nder, |n |nches'
|/ì
ìb
9
|Bì
4
|Cì
ìZ
|0ì
Z
|Lì 4
Z
Geometry VoIume
For a right cylindcr, volumc - (radius)
2
(hcight).
Sincc thc volumc ol watcr is 36 cubic inchcs and
sincc this rcprcscnts thc containcr, thc watcr
is occupying thc containcr's hcight, or
9 - 4.5 inchcs. Lct r bc thc radius ol thc
cylindcr.
r
2
(4.5)
r
2
dividc both sidcs by 4.5
2
 r
8
8
 r
takc thc squarc root ol both

sidcs
simplily thc to gct thc radius
55
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
cn, sincc thc diamctcr is twicc thc lcngth ol thc
radius, thc diamctcr cquals
e correct answer is E.
Z3. ll the pos|t|ve |nte¿er x |s a mu|t|p|e ol 4 and the
pos|t|ve |nte¿er y |s a mu|t|p|e ol b, then xy must be a
mu|t|p|e ol wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
l. ß
ll. ìZ
lll. ìß
|/ì ll on|y
|Bì l and ll on|y
|Cì l and lll on|y
|0ì ll and lll on|y
|Lì l, ll, and lll
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c product xy must bc a multiplc ol 4(6) - 24
and any ol its lactors. Tcst cach altcrnativc.
!. - 3 8 is a lactor ol 24
MUST bc a multiplc ol 8
!!. 12 is a lactor ol 24
MUST bc a multiplc ol 12
!!!. 18 is NÒT a lactor ol 24
N¡¡Ð NÒT bc a multiplc ol 18
e correct answer is B.
Z4. /aron w||| jo¿ lrom home at x m||es per hour and then
wa|k back home by the same route at y m||es per hour.
How many m||es lrom home can /aron jo¿ so that he
spends a tota| ol t hours jo¿¿|n¿ and wa|k|n¿'
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct j bc thc numbcr ol hours Aaron spcnds
jogging, thcn lct t j bc thc total numbcr ol
hours hc spcnds walking. !t can bc statcd that
Aaron jogs a distancc ol xj milcs and walks a
distancc ol y (t j ) milcs. 8ccausc Aaron travcls
thc samc routc, thc milcs joggcd must cqual thc
milcs walkcd, and thcy can bc sct cqual.
xj - y(t - j) sct numbcr ol milcs cqual to
cach othcr
xj - yt - jy distributc thc y
xj ÷ jy - yt add jy to both sidcs to gct all
tcrms with j to onc sidc
j(x ÷ y) - yt lactor out thc j
dividc both sidcs by x ÷ y
So, thc numbcr ol hours Aaron spcnds jogging is
j - .
c numbcr ol milcs hc can jog is xj or, by
substitution ol this valuc ol
e correct answer is C.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
56
Zo. ll the un|ts d|¿|t ol |nte¿er n |s ¿reater than Z, what |s
the un|ts d|¿|t ol n '
|ìì 1he un|ts d|¿|t ol n |s the same as the un|ts d|¿|t
ol n
Z
.
|Zì 1he un|ts d|¿|t ol n |s the same as the un|ts d|¿|t
ol n
3
.
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations
!l thc units digit ol n is grcatcr than 2, thcn it can
only bc thc digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
(1) To solvc this problcm, it is ncccssary to
nnd a digit that is thc samc as thc units digit ol
its squarc. For cxamplc, both 43 squarcd (1,849)
and 303 squarcd (91,809) havc a units digit ol 9,
crcnt lrom thc units digit ol 43 and
303. Howcvcr, 25 squarcd (625) and 385 squarcd
(148,225) both havc a units digit ol 5, and 16 and
226 both havc a units digit ol 6 and thcir squarcs
(256 and 51,076, rcspcctivcly) do, too. Howcvcr,
thcrc is no lurthcr inlormation to choosc
bctwccn 5 or 6, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) Òncc again, 5 and 6 arc thc only numbcrs
which, whcn cubcd, will both havc a 5 or 6
rcspcctivcly in thcir units digits. Howcvcr, thc
inlormation givcn docs not distinguish bctwccn
thcm, NÒT sulncicnt.
Sincc (1) and (2) togcthcr yicld thc samc
inlormation but with no dircction as to which to
choosc, thcrc is not cnough inlormation to
dctcrminc thc answcr.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Zb. what |s the va|ue ol the |nte¿er p '
|ìì Lach ol the |nte¿ers Z, 3, and o |s a lactor ol p.
|Zì Lach ol the |nte¿ers Z, o, and / |s a lactor ol p.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
csc arc lactors ol p, but it is not clcar that
thcy arc thc only lactors ol p, NÒT sulncicnt.
csc arc lactors ol p, but it is not clcar that
thcy arc thc only lactors ol p, NÒT sulncicnt.
Takcn togcthcr, (1) and (2) ovcrlap, but again
thcrc is no clcar indication that thcsc arc thc only
lactors ol p.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Z/. ll the |en¿th ol wanda's te|ephone ca|| was rounded up
to the nearest who|e m|nute by her te|ephone
company, then wanda was char¿ed lor how many
m|nutes lor her te|ephone ca||'
|ìì 1he tota| char¿e lor wanda's te|ephone ca|| was
Sb.oC.
|Zì wanda was char¿ed SC.oC more lor the hrst
m|nute ol the te|ephone ca|| than lor each
m|nute alter the hrst.
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations
is docs not givc any inlormation as to thc
call's cost pcr minutc, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) From this, it can bc dctcrmincd only that thc
call was longcr than onc minutc and that thc chargc
lor thc nrst minutc was 80.50 morc than thc chargc
lor cach succccding minutc, NÒT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc numbcr ol
minutcs cannot bc dctcrmincd as long as thc
cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst is unknown.
For cxamplc, il thc cost ol cach minutc altcr thc
nrst minutc wcrc 80.40, thcn thc cost ol thc nrst
cn thc total cost ol thc
othcr minutcs would bc 86.50 80.90 - 85.60,
Data 5u!ñciency
The !oIIoving section on data su!ñciency is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and
e!!ective approaches to the kinds o! probIems common to data su!ñciency. The particuIar questions in
this chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! data su!ñciency questions you viII encounter on
the GMAT. ßemember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs o!
a particuIar question.
57
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
and 85.60 ÷ 80.40 would yicld 14. !n this casc,
thc timc ol thc call would bc 1 ÷ 14 - 15 minutcs.
!l, howcvcr, thc cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst
minutc wcrc 80.15, thcn thc cost ol thc nrst
cn 86.50 80.65
would bc 85.85, and this in turn, whcn dividcd
by 80.15, would yicld 39 minutcs, lor a total call
lcngth ol 40 minutcs. Morc inlormation on thc
cost ol cach minutc altcr thc nrst minutc is still
nccdcd.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Zß. what |s the per|meter ol |sosce|es tr|an¿|e MNl '
|ìì MN = ìb
|Zì Nl = ZC
Geometry TriangIes
c pcrimctcr ol a trianglc is thc sum ol all thrcc
sidcs. !n thc casc ol an isoscclcs trianglc, two ol
thc sidcs arc cqual. To dctcrminc thc pcrimctcr ol
this trianglc, it is ncccssary to know both thc
lcngth ol an cqual sidc and thc lcngth ol thc basc
ol thc trianglc.
(1) Ònly givcs thc lcngth ol onc sidc, NÒT
sulncicnt.
(2) Ònly givcs thc lcngth ol onc sidc, NÒT
sulncicnt.
Sincc it is unclcar whcthcr MN or NP is onc ol
thc cqual sidcs, it is not possiblc to dctcrminc
thc lcngth ol thc third sidc or thc pcrimctcr
c pcrimctcr could bc cithcr
((2)(16)) ÷ 20 - 52 or ((2)(20)) ÷ 16 - 56.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
Z9. ln a survey ol reta||ers, what percent had purchased
computers lor bus|ness purposes'
|ìì ßo percent ol the reta||ers surveyed who owned
the|r own store had purchased computers lor
bus|ness purposes.
|Zì 4C percent ol the reta||ers surveyed owned the|r
own store.
Arithmetic Percents
(1) Vith only this, it cannot bc known what
pcrccnt ol thc rctailcrs not owning thcir own storc
had purchascd computcrs, and so it cannot bc
known how many rctailcrs purchascd computcrs
ovcrall, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) Vhilc this pcrmits thc pcrccnt ol owncrs
and nonowncrs in thc survcy to bc dcduccd, thc
ovcrall pcrccnt ol rctailcrs who had purchascd
computcrs cannot bc dctcrmincd, NÒT sulncicnt.
Using thc inlormation lrom both (1) and (2), thc
pcrccnt ol survcycd owncrrctailcrs who had
purchascd computcrs can bc dcduccd, and thc
pcrccnt ol nonowncrrctailcrs can also bc
dcduccd. Howcvcr, thc inlormation that would
pcrmit a dctcrmination ol cithcr thc pcrccnt ol
nonowncrrctailcrs who had purchascd computcrs
or thc ovcrall pcrccnt ol all rctailcrs (both owncrs
and nonowncrs) who had purchascd computcrs is
still not providcd.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
3C. 1he on|y ¿|lt cert|hcates that a certa|n store so|d
yesterday were worth e|ther SìCC each or SìC each. ll
the store so|d a tota| ol ZC ¿|lt cert|hcates yesterday,
how many ¿|lt cert|hcates worth SìC each d|d the
store se|| yesterday'
|ìì 1he ¿|lt cert|hcates so|d by the store yesterday
were worth a tota| ol between Sì,boC and
Sì,ßCC.
|Zì Yesterday the store so|d more than ìo ¿|lt
cert|hcates worth SìCC each.
AIgebra AppIied probIems, 5imuItaneous
equations, InequaIities
Lct x rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol 8100 ccrtincatcs
sold, and lct y rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol 810
bc cxprcsscd as x ÷ y - 20 or thus y - 20 x c
valuc ol thc 8100 ccrtincatcs sold is 100x, and thc
valuc ol thc 810 ccrtincatcs sold is 10y.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
58
(1) From this, it is known that 100x ÷ 10y ~
1,650. Sincc y - 20 x, this valuc can bc
substitutcd lor y, and thc incquality can bc solvcd
lor x:
100x ÷ 10y ~ 1,650
100x ÷ 10(20 x) ~ 1,650 substitutc lor y
100x ÷ 200 10x ~ 1,650 distributc
90x ÷ 200 ~ 1,650 simplily
90x ~ 1,450 subtract 200 lrom
both sidcs
x ~ 16.1
us, morc than 16 ol thc 8100 ccrtincatcs wcrc
sold. !l 17 8100 ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, thcn it must
bc that 3 810 ccrtincatcs wcrc also sold lor a total
ol 81,730, which satisncs thc condition ol bcing
bctwccn 81,650 and 81,800. !l, howcvcr, 18 8100
ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, thcn it must bc that 2 810
ccrtincatcs wcrc sold, and this totals 81,820,
which is morc than 81,800 and lails to satisly thc
crclorc, 3 ol thc 810 ccrtincatcs wcrc
sold, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) From this it can bc known only that thc
numbcr ol 810 ccrtincatcs sold was 4 or lcwcr,
NÒT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
3ì. ls the standard dev|at|on ol the set ol measurements
x
ì
, x
Z
, x
3
, x
4
, ..., x
ZC
|ess than 3 '
|ìì 1he var|ance lor the set ol measurements |s 4.
|Zì lor each measurement, the d|llerence between
the mean and that measurement |s Z.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
!n dctcrmining thc standard dcviation, thc
crcncc bctwccn cach mcasurcmcnt and thc
crcnccs
arc addcd and dividcd by thc numbcr ol
c quoticnt is thc variancc and
thc positivc squarc root ol thc variancc is thc
standard dcviation.
(1) !l thc variancc is 4, thcn thc standard
dcviation , which is lcss than 3,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
crcncc
bctwccn thc mcan and that mcasurcmcnt is 2.
crcncc is 4, and
c
standard dcviation is , which is
lcss than 3, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
3Z. ls the ran¿e ol the |nte¿ers b, 3, y, 4, o, and x ¿reater
than 9 '
|ìì y > 3x
|Zì y > x > 3
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c rangc ol a sct ol intcgcrs is cqual to thc
crcncc bctwccn thc largcst intcgcr and thc
c rangc ol thc sct ol intcgcrs
3, 4, 5, and 6 is 3, which is dcrivcd lrom 6 3.
(1) Although it is known that y ~ 3x, thc valuc
ol x is unknown. !l, lor cxamplc, x - 1, thcn thc
valuc ol y would bc grcatcr than 3. Howcvcr, il
x - 2, thcn thc valuc ol y would bc grcatcr than 6,
and, sincc 6 would no longcr bc thc largcst
cctcd. 8ccausc thc
actual valucs ol x and y arc unknown, thc valuc ol
thc rangc is also unknown, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l x ~ 3, and y ~ x, thcn x could bc 4 and y
cn thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs would
still bc 6 3 or 3. Howcvcr, il x wcrc 4 and y wcrc
15, thcn thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs would bc
crc is no mcans to cstablish thc
valucs ol x and y, bcyond thc lact that thcy both
arc grcatcr than 3, NÒT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, it is known that
x ~ 3 and that y ~ 3x. Sincc thc smallcst intcgcr
that x could bc is thus 4, thcn y ~ 3(4) or y ~ 12.
crclorc, thc intcgcr y must bc 13 or largcr.
Vhcn y is cqual to 13, thc rangc ol thc 6 intcgcrs
is 13 3 - 10, which is largcr than 9. As y incrcascs
in valuc, thc valuc ol thc rangc will also incrcasc.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
59
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
!t is givcn that 20 pcrccnt ol thc survcycd
companics lcll into catcgory 1. !t is ncccssary to
dctcrminc what pcrccnt ol thc survcycd
companics lcll into catcgory 4.
is hclps idcntily thc pcrccntagc in
catcgory 2. Sincc thc companics that rcquircd
computcr skills also rcquircd writing skills
(i.c., thosc in catcgory 1), thcn thc othcr
ol thc companics that rcquircd computcr skills
did not rcquirc writing skills (thus catcgory 2 -
catcgory 1). Howcvcr, this inlormation only
cstablishcs that 20 pcrccnt rcquircd computcr
skills, but not writing skills, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) Vhilc this cstablishcs catcgory 3, that is,
that 45 pcrccnt rcquircd writing skills but not
computcr skills, no lurthcr inlormation is
availablc, NÒT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc nrst thrcc
catcgorics add up to 85 pcrccnt (20 ÷ 20 ÷ 45).
crclorc, catcgory 4 would bc cqual to 100 85 -
15 pcrccnt ol thc survcycd companics rcquircd
ncithcr computcr skills nor writing skills.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
3o. what |s the va|ue ol w + q '
|ìì 3w = 3 - 3q
|Zì ow + oq = o
AIgebra first- and second-degree equations
(1) !l 3q is addcd to both sidcs ol this cquation, it
can bc rcwrittcn as 3. ÷ 3q - 3. Vhcn cach tcrm
is thcn dividcd by 3, it yiclds . ÷ q - 1,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Vhcn cach tcrm in this cquation is dividcd
by 5, it bccomcs . ÷ q - 1, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
33. ls '
|ìì o
x
< ì
|Zì x < C
AIgebra InequaIities
Notc that x
r + s
-(x
r
)(x
s
).
If 5
x
< 1, then < 1 since
= = 5
x
; SUFFICIENT.
(2) !l x · 0, thcn
x + 2 < 2 add 2 to both sides
5
x + 2
< 5
2
because a < b implies 5
a
< 5
b

< 1 divide both sides by 5
2
= 25;
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
34. 0l the compan|es surveyed about the sk|||s they
requ|red |n prospect|ve emp|oyees, ZC percent
requ|red both computer sk|||s and wr|t|n¿ sk|||s. what
percent ol the compan|es surveyed requ|red ne|ther
computer sk|||s nor wr|t|n¿ sk|||s'
|ìì 0l those compan|es surveyed that requ|red
computer sk|||s, ha|l requ|red wr|t|n¿ sk|||s.
|Zì 4o percent ol the compan|es surveyed requ|red
wr|t|n¿ sk|||s but not computer sk|||s.
Arithmetic Percents
c survcycd companics could bc placcd into onc
ol thc lollowing lour catcgorics:
1. Rcquiring computcr skills and rcquiring writing
skills
2. Rcquiring computcr skills but not rcquiring
writing skills
3. Not rcquiring computcr skills but rcquiring
writing skills
4. Not rcquiring cithcr computcr skills or writing
skills
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
60
3b. ll X and Y are po|nts |n a p|ane and X ||es |ns|de the
c|rc|e L w|th center U and rad|us Z, does Y ||e |ns|de
c|rc|e L '
|ìì 1he |en¿th ol ||ne se¿ment XY |s 3.
|Zì 1he |en¿th ol ||ne se¿ment UY |s ì.o.
Geometry CircIes
c maximum distancc bctwccn two points
that lic on a circlc is cqual to thc diamctcr, or
2 timcs thc radius. Sincc thc radius ol circlc
C is 2, thc diamctcr in this casc is 4. !t cannot bc
assumcd, howcvcr, that X and Y arc points on thc
diamctcr, X can lic anywhcrc within thc circlc.
Vhcn thc distancc bctwccn X and Y is 3, it is
still possiblc cithcr that Y is within thc circlc or
that Y is outsidc thc circlc, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l thc lcngth ol thc linc scgmcnt OY is 1.5
and thc circlc has a radius ol 2, thcn thc distancc
lrom thc ccntcr O to point Y is lcss than thc
radius, and point Y must thcrclorc lic within thc
circlc, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
3/. ls x > y '
|ìì x  y + Z
|Zì  y - ì
AIgebra first- and second-degree equations
(1) Sincc 2 has to bc addcd to y in ordcr to
makc it cqual to x, it can bc rcasoncd that x ~ y,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Multiplying both sidcs ol this cquation by 2
rcsults in x - 2(y 1) or x - 2y 2. !l y wcrc 0,
thcn x would bc 2, and y would bc grcatcr than
x. !l y wcrc a ncgativc numbcr likc 2, thcn
x - 2(2) 2 - 6, and again y would bc grcatcr
than x. Howcvcr, il y wcrc a positivc numbcr such
as 4, thcn x - 2(4) 2 - 6, and x ~ y. Sincc thcrc is
no othcr inlormation conccrning thc valuc ol y, it
cannot bc dctcrmincd il x ~ y, NÒT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
3ß. ll lau|a drove the d|stance lrom her home to her
co||e¿e at an avera¿e speed that was ¿reater than
/C k||ometers per hour, d|d |t take her |ess than
3 hours to dr|ve th|s d|stance'
|ìì 1he d|stance that lau|a drove lrom her home to
her co||e¿e was ¿reater than ZCC k||ometers.
|Zì 1he d|stance that lau|a drove lrom her home to
her co||e¿e was |ess than ZCo k||ometers.
Arithmetic Distance probIem
A distancc problcm uscs thc lormula distancc -
ratc × timc. To nnd thc timc, thc lormula would
bc rcarrangcd as timc - . To solvc this
problcm, it is ncccssary to know thc ratc (givcn
hcrc as 70 kilomctcrs pcr hour) and thc distancc.
(1) If D is the distance Paula drove then
D > 200 and > = so t > and
t may or may not be less than 3; NOT sufficient.
(2) !l D is thc distancc Paula drovc thcn
D < 205 and < - so t < < 3,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
39. ln the xy·p|ane, |l ||ne k has ne¿at|ve s|ope and
passes throu¿h the po|nt |-o,r ì, |s the x·|ntercept ol
||ne k pos|t|ve'
|ìì 1he s|ope ol ||ne k |s -o.
|Zì r > C
61
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
Geometry Coordinate geometry
c xintcrccpt is thc xcoordinatc ol thc point in
which thc linc k crosscs thc xaxis and would
havc thc coordinatcs (x,0).
(1) Knowing thc slopc ol thc linc docs not hclp
in dctcrmining thc xintcrccpt, sincc lrom point
(5,r ) thc linc k cxtcnds in both dircctions.
Vithout knowing thc valuc ol r, thc xintcrccpt
could bc 5 il r wcrc 0, or it could bc othcr
numbcrs, both positivc and ncgativc, dcpcnding
on thc valuc ol r , NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) Knowing that r ~ 0, suggcsts that thc
xintcrccpt is not 5, thc point (5,r ), whcrc r is a
positivc numbcr, docs lic in quadrant !!. !t could,
howcvcr, bc any point with an xcoordinatc
ol 5 in that quadrant and linc k could havc any
ncgativc slopc, and so thc linc k would vary with
thc valuc ol r crclorc, thc xintcrccpt ol linc k
cannot bc dctcrmincd, NÒT sulncicnt.
Using (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not hclp in thc
dctcrmination ol thc xintcrccpt, sincc thc point
(5,r ) could havc any positivc ycoordinatc and
thus linc k could cross thc xaxis at many
crcnt placcs.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
4C. ll So,CCC |nvested lor one year at p percent s|mp|e
annua| |nterest y|e|ds SoCC, what amount must be
|nvested at k percent s|mp|e annua| |nterest lor one
year to y|e|d the same number ol do||ars'
|ìì k = C.ßp
|Zì k = ß
Arithmetic Interest probIem
Vith simplc annual intcrcst, thc lormula to usc
is intcrcst - principal × ratc × timc. !t is givcn
that 8500 - 85,000 ×
p
100
× 1 (ycar), so
p - 10 pcrccnt intcrcst.
(1) !l p is 10 pcrccnt, thcn k - 0.8p is 0.08. Using
thc samc lormula, thc timc is again 1 ycar, thc
intcrcst is thc samc amount, and thc ratc is 0.08,
us, 8500 - principal × 0.08 × 1, or
principal - 86,250, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) !l k - 8, thcn thc ratc is 8 pcrccnt, and thc
samc lormula and proccdurc as abovc arc
cmploycd again, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4ì. ll > C, |s x < C '
|ìì x < y
|Zì z < C
AIgebra InequaIities
!l ~ 0 , thcn cithcr onc ol two cascs holds
truc. ¡ithcr (x ÷ y) ~ 0 and z ~ 0, or (x ÷ y) · 0
and z · 0. !n othcr words, in ordcr lor thc tcrm to
bc grcatcr than zcro, it must bc truc that cithcr
1) both thc numcrator and dcnominator arc
grcatcr than 0 or 2) both thc numcrator and
dcnominator arc lcss than 0.
(1) Rcgardlcss ol whcthcr (x ÷ y) is positivc or
ncgativc, thc positivc or ncgativc valuc ol z must
bc in agrccmcnt with thc sign ol (x ÷ y) in ordcr
lor ~ 0. Howcvcr, thcrc is no inlormation
about z hcrc, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l z · 0, thcn (x ÷ y) must bc lcss than 0.
Howcvcr, this statcmcnt givcs no inlormation
about (x ÷ y), NÒT sulncicnt.
is can bc solvcd using (1) and (2) togcthcr.
From (2), it is known that z · 0, and, going back
to thc original analysis, lor thc tcrm to bc grcatcr
than zcro, (x ÷ y) must also bc lcss than 0. !l
x ÷ y · 0 thcn x · y. 8ut x · y lrom (1) so
x ÷ x · y ÷ y
2x · 0
x · 0.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
62
4Z. 0oes the |nte¿er k have at |east three d|llerent
pos|t|ve pr|me lactors'
|ìì |s an |nte¿er.
|Zì |s an |nte¿er.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c primc lactors ol 15 arc 3 and 5. So in
this casc, k crcnt positivc primc
lactors, but it is unknown il thcrc arc morc
positivc primc lactors, NÒT sulncicnt.
c primc lactors ol 10 arc 2 and 5,
showing that k crcnt
positivc primc lactors, but k might or might not
havc morc, NÒT sulncicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, sincc k is divisiblc
by both 10 and 15, it must bc divisiblc by thcir
crcnt positivc primc lactors ol 2, 3, and 5.
us k crcnt positivc primc
lactors.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
43. ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, was the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
da||y h|¿h temperature ¿reater than the med|an da||y
h|¿h temperature'
|ìì ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, the sum ol the 3C da||y h|¿h
temperatures was Z,ìbC".
|Zì ln C|ty / |ast /pr||, bC percent ol the da||y h|¿h
temperatures were |ess than the avera¿e da||y
h|¿h temperature.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c lormula lor calculating thc arithmctic mcan,
or thc avcragc, is as lollows:
Avcragc -
csc data will producc an avcragc ol
thcrc is no inlormation rcgarding thc mcdian lor
comparison, NÒT sulncicnt.
c mcdian is thc middlc tcmpcraturc ol
thc data. As such, 50 pcrccnt ol thc daily high
tcmpcraturcs will bc at or abovc thc mcdian, and
50 pcrccnt will bc at or bclow thc mcdian. !l
60 pcrccnt ol thc daily high tcmpcraturcs wcrc
lcss than thc avcragc daily high tcmpcraturc, thcn
thc avcragc ol thc daily highs must bc grcatcr
than thc mcdian, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
44. ll m and n are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, |s an |nte¿er'
|ìì |s an |nte¿er.
|Zì |s an |nte¿er.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) !l is an intcgcr and n is a positivc
intcgcr, thcn is an intcgcr bccausc an
intcgcr raiscd to a positivc intcgcr is an intcgcr,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
c inlormation that is an intcgcr is
not hclplul in answcring thc qucstion. For
cxamplc, il m - 2 and n - 9, - 3, which is an
intcgcr, but - , which is not an
intcgcr. 8ut il m - 4 and n - 9, thcn - 3,
which is an intcgcr, and - 2
9
- 512 is an
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
63
3.5 Diagnostic Test Çuantitative Ansver ExpIanations
4o. 0l the bb peop|e |n a certa|n aud|tor|um, at most
b peop|e have b|rthdays |n any one ¿|ven month. 0oes
at |east one person |n the aud|tor|um have a b|rthday
|n January'
|ìì lore ol the peop|e |n the aud|tor|um have
b|rthdays |n lebruary than |n larch.
|Zì l|ve ol the peop|e |n the aud|tor|um have
b|rthdays |n larch.
AIgebra 5ets and !unctions
8ccausc it is givcn that 6 is thc grcatcst numbcr
ol individuals who can havc birthdays in any
particular month, thcsc 66 pcoplc could bc
cvcnly distributcd across 11 ol thc 12 months ol
at is to say, it could bc possiblc lor thc
distribution to bc 11 × 6 - 66, and thus any givcn
month, such as January, would not havc a pcrson
with a birthday. Assumc that January has no
pcoplc with birthdays, and scc il this assumption
is disprovcd.
c inlormation that morc pcoplc havc
Fcbruary birthdays than March birthdays
indicatcs that thc distribution is not cvcn.
crclorc, March is undcrrcprcscntcd and
must thus havc lcwcr than 6 birthdays. Sincc
no month can havc morc than 6 pcoplc with
birthdays, and cvcry month but January alrcady
has as many pcoplc with birthdays as it can havc,
January has to havc at lcast 1 pcrson with a
birthday, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Again, March is undcrrcprcscntcd with
only 5 birthdays, and nonc ol thc othcr months
crclorc, thc
cxtra birthday (lrom March) must occur in
January, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4b. last year the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì sa|ary ol the
ìC emp|oyees ol Company / was S4Z,ßCC. what |s the
avera¿e sa|ary ol the same ìC emp|oyees th|s year'
|ìì lor ß ol the ìC emp|oyees, th|s year's sa|ary |s
ìo percent ¿reater than |ast year's sa|ary.
|Zì lor Z ol the ìC emp|oyees, th|s year's sa|ary |s
the same as |ast year's sa|ary.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
(1) Sincc all 10 cmployccs did not rcccivc thc
samc 15 pcrccnt incrcasc, it cannot bc assumcd
that thc mcan this ycar is 15 pcrccnt highcr than
last ycar. !t rcmains unknown whcthcr thcsc 8
salarics wcrc thc top 8 salarics, thc bottom 8
salarics, or somcwhcrc inbctwccn. Vithout this
typc ol inlormation lrom last ycar, thc mcan lor
this ycar cannot bc dctcrmincd, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l 2 salarics rcmaincd thc samc as last ycar,
thcn 8 salarics changcd. Vithout lurthcr
inlormation about thc changcs, thc mcan lor this
ycar cannot bc dctcrmincd, NÒT sulncicnt.
¡vcn taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, it rcmains
impossiblc to tcll thc mcan salary lor this ycar
without additional data.
e correct answer is E,
both statements together are still not sufhcient.
4/. ln a certa|n c|assroom, there are ßC books, ol wh|ch
Z4 are hct|on and Z3 are wr|tten |n 3pan|sh. How many
ol the hct|on books are wr|tten |n 3pan|sh'
|ìì 0l the hct|on books, there are b more that are
not wr|tten |n 3pan|sh than are wr|tten |n 3pan|sh.
|Zì 0l the books wr|tten |n 3pan|sh, there are o
more nonhct|on books than hct|on books.
AIgebra 5ets and !unctions
Lct x rcprcscnt thc nction books that arc writtcn
in Spanish. A tablc could bc sct up likc thc onc
bclow, nlling in thc inlormation that is known or
ablc to bc known:
Spanish NonSpanish Total
Fiction x 24
Nonnction 56
Total 23 57 80
(1) !l x rcprcscnts thc nction books writtcn in
Spanish, thcn x ÷ 6 can now bc uscd to rcprcscnt
thc nction books that arc not writtcn in Spanish.
From thc tablc abovc, it can bc sccn thcn that
x ÷ x ÷ 6 - 24, or 2x crclorc, x , or thc
numbcr ol nction books writtcn in Spanish, is 9,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
64
(2) !l x rcprcscnts thc nction books writtcn in
Spanish, thcn x ÷ 5 can now bc uscd to rcprcscnt
thc nonnction books writtcn in Spanish. From
thc tablc, it can bc said that x ÷ x ÷ 5 - 23, or
2x crclorc, x, or thc numbcr ol nction
books writtcn in Spanish, is 9, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
4ß. ll p |s the per|meter ol rectan¿|e Ç, what |s the
va|ue ol p '
|ìì Lach d|a¿ona| ol rectan¿|e Ç has |en¿th ìC.
|Zì 1he area ol rectan¿|e Ç |s 4ß.
Geometry ßectangIes, Perimeter, Area
c pcrimctcr ol a rcctanglc is cqual to 2 timcs
thc rcctanglc's lcngth plus 2 timcs thc rcctanglc's
width, or p - 2 l ÷ 2. c diagonals ol a rcctanglc
arc cqual. !n a rcctanglc, bccausc a diagonal lorms
a right trianglc, thc lcngth ol a diagonal is cqual
to thc squarc root ol thc lcngth squarcd plus thc
width squarcd, or .
(1) !l a diagonal - 10, thcn , or,
by squaring both sidcs, 100 - l
2
÷ .
2
. Vithout
knowing thc valuc or thc rclationship bctwccn
thc othcr two sidcs ol thc right trianglc, it is
impossiblc to solvc lor l or ., and thus lor thc
pcrimctcr ol thc rcctanglc, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l thc arca ol thc rcctanglc is 48, thcn it can
bc statcd that l . - 48. Howcvcr, without lurthcr
inlormation, thc pcrimctcr cannot bc dctcrmincd.
For cxamplc, l could bc 6 and . could bc 8,
and thc pcrimctcr would thcn bc 12 ÷ 16 - 28.
Howcvcr, it could also bc that l is 4 and . is 12,
and in that casc thc pcrimctcr would bc 8 ÷ 24 -
32, NÒT sulncicnt.
Using (1) and (2) togcthcr, it is possiblc to solvc
this problcm. Sincc lrom (2) l. - 48, thcn
. Substituting this into 100 - l
2
÷ .
2
lrom
(1) thc cquation can bc solvcd as lollows:

substitution
100l
2
- l
4
÷ 2,304 multiply both sidcs by l
2
l
4
100l
2
÷ 2,304 - 0 movc all tcrms to onc sidc
(l
2
64)(l
2
36) - 0 lactor likc a quadratic
l
2
- 64, l
2
- 36 solvc lor l
2
Sincc l is a lcngth, it must bc positivc, so l is
cithcr 8 or 6. Vhcn l - 8, . - - 6, and whcn
l - 6, . - - 8, both ol which givc thc samc
pcrimctcr.
e correct answer is C,
both statements together are sufhcient.
65
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Çuestions 1-5 re!er to the passage on page 27.
ì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ best descr|bes the purpose ol
the sentence |n ||nes ìC-ìo'
|/ì 1o show that econom|c s|¿na||n¿ theory la||s to
exp|a|n a hnd|n¿
|Bì 1o |ntroduce a d|st|nct|on not accounted lor by
econom|c s|¿na||n¿ theory
|Cì 1o account lor an except|on to a ¿enera||zat|on
su¿¿ested by larquardt and lc0ann
|0ì 1o exp|a|n why larquardt and lc0ann's
research was conducted
|Lì 1o oller an exp|anat|on lor an observat|on
reported by larquardt and lc0ann
LogicaI structure
Marquardt and McGann lound a corrclation
bctwccn highly advcrtiscd products and high
c conncction can bc cxplaincd
by undcrstanding that companics may invcst
hcavily in such advcrtising, anticipating that
rccurring purchascs ol highquality products will
c
consumcrs will continuc to buy thcsc products
ovcr timc bccausc ol loyalty to thcir high quality.
c statcmcnt in bold providcs this cxplanation
lor thc corrclation notcd by Marquardt and
McGann.
c shadcd scntcncc docs not cxplain a
lailurc ol thc cconomic signaling thcory.
8 ¡conomic signaling thcory is about
pcrccptions ol quality, but this cxplanation
is about actual quality and its corrclation
with advcrtising.
C No cxccption is mcntioncd in Marquardt
and McGann's work.
c statcmcnt docs not cxaminc why or how
thc rcscarch was undcrtakcn.
E Correct. is statcmcnt providcs an
cxplanation ol why highly advcrtiscd products
did indeed rank high on certain measures of
product quality.
e correct answer is E.
Z. 1he pr|mary purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì present hnd|n¿s that contrad|ct one exp|anat|on
lor the ellects ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ce
|Bì ar¿ue that theoret|ca| exp|anat|ons about the
ellects ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿ pract|ce are ol
||m|ted va|ue w|thout emp|r|ca| ev|dence
|Cì d|scuss how and why part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ces may allect consumers' percept|ons
|0ì contrast the research methods used |n two
d|llerent stud|es ol a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿
pract|ce
|Lì exp|a|n why a hnd|n¿ about consumer responses
to a part|cu|ar advert|s|n¿ pract|ce was
unexpected
3.6 VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ßeading Comprehension
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to reading comprehension. The particuIar questions in this chapter are
generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! reading comprehension questions you viII encounter on the
GMAT. ßemember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs o! a
particuIar question.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
66
Main idea
c primary purposc can bc dctcrmincd only by
c nrst paragraph
discusscs consumcrs' pcrccptions ol quality bascd
c sccond paragraph
discusscs thrcc studics that show how consumcrs
basc thcir cvaluations ol products on thc kinds
crclorc, thc purposc ol
thc wholc passagc is to show how consumcrs'
pcrccptions ol products arc shapcd by ccrtain
advcrtising practiccs.
c passagc shows that cxpcnsivc
advcrtising works to a ccrtain point, but not
altcr it, this mcthod cxamincs a continuum,
not a contradiction.
8 Most ol thc passagc is dcvotcd to cmpirical
cvidcncc.
C Correct. c passagc shows how thc
lrcqucncy and thc kind ol advcrtising
inßucncc consumcrs' pcrccptions about thc
quality ol thc products advcrtiscd.
c passagc rcports thc nndings ol lour
studics but docs not mcntion rcscarch
mcthods.
c passagc docs not indicatc that any ol thc
nndings wcrc uncxpcctcd.
e correct answer is C.
3. b|rman|'s research, as descr|bed |n the passa¿e,
su¿¿ests wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ re¿ard|n¿ consumers'
expectat|ons about the qua||ty ol advert|sed products'
|/ì 1hose expectat|ons are ||ke|y to be h|¿hest |l a
manulacturer runs both b|ack·and·wh|te and
co|or advert|sements lor the same product.
|Bì 1hose expectat|ons can be shaped by the
presence ol co|or |n an advert|sement as we|| as
by the lrequency w|th wh|ch an advert|sement
appears.
|Cì 1hose expectat|ons are usua||y h|¿h lor
lrequent|y advert|sed new brands but not lor
lrequent|y advert|sed lam|||ar brands.
|0ì 1hose expectat|ons are ||ke|y to be h|¿her lor
products whose b|ack·and·wh|te advert|sements
are olten repeated than lor those whose co|or
advert|sements are |ess olten repeated.
|Lì 1hose expectat|ons are |ess dehn|t|ve|y shaped
by the manulacturer's advert|sements than by
|nlormat|on that consumers ¿ather lrom other
sources.
In!erence
c qucstion's usc ol thc word suggests mcans that
is
rcscarch is discusscd in thc sccond paragraph.
Kirmani lound that too much advcrtising tcndcd
to makc thc consumcrs bclicvc that manulacturcrs
c usc ol color was also lound to
cct consumcrs' pcrccptions ol brand quality.
Rcalizing that color advcrtising is morc cxpcnsivc
than blackandwhitc, consumcrs rcact morc
quickly to what thcy pcrccivc to bc its ovcrusc
than thcy do to a rcpctition ol blackandwhitc
advcrtiscmcnts.
67
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
is situation is not discusscd in thc
rcscarch, at lcast as it is rcportcd in this
passagc.
B Correct. !t can bc inlcrrcd that consumcrs'
pcrccptions ol product quality arc inßucnccd
by thc usc ol color in an advcrtiscmcnt and
by thc lrcqucncy ol thc advcrtiscmcnt's
appcarancc.
c rcscarch docs not makc a distinction
bctwccn ncw and lamiliar brands.
c rcscarch indicatcs only that consumcrs
can tolcratc blackandwhitc advcrtiscmcnts
lor a longcr timc than color advcrtiscmcnts
bclorc dismissing thcm as cxccssivc.
crc is no discussion ol what consumcrs
lcarn lrom othcr sourccs.
e correct answer is B.
4. b|rman|'s th|rd study, as descr|bed |n the passa¿e,
su¿¿ests wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ conc|us|ons about a
b|ack·and·wh|te advert|sement'
|/ì lt can be repeated more lrequent|y than a
comparab|e co|or advert|sement cou|d belore
consumers be¿|n to suspect |ow manulacturer
conhdence |n the qua||ty ol the advert|sed
product.
|Bì lt w||| have the ¿reatest |mpact on consumers'
percept|ons ol the qua||ty ol the advert|sed
product |l |t appears dur|n¿ per|ods when a co|or
vers|on ol the same advert|sement |s a|so be|n¿
used.
|Cì lt w||| attract more attent|on lrom readers ol the
pr|nt pub||cat|on |n wh|ch |t appears |l |t |s used
on|y a lew t|mes.
|0ì lt may be perce|ved by some consumers as
more expens|ve than a comparab|e co|or
advert|sement.
|Lì lt |s ||ke|y to be perce|ved by consumers as a
s|¿n ol h|¿her manulacturer conhdence |n the
qua||ty ol the advert|sed product than a
comparab|e co|or advert|sement wou|d be.
In!erence
Kirmani's third study is discusscd in thc nnal two
scntcnccs. Consumcrs suspcct cxpcnsivc
advcrtising rcsults lrom a manulacturcr's lack ol
conndcncc in thc quality ol thc product.
Consumcrs rcach thc point at which thcy nnd
advcrtising excessi.e morc quickly with color
advcrtising than with blackandwhitc advcrtising
bccausc thcy undcrstand that thc addition ol color
incrcascs advcrtising cxpcnscs. !t is rcasonablc to
inlcr that thc rcvcrsc is also truc and thus that
consumcrs will tolcratc lcngthicr rcpctitions ol
blackandwhitc advcrtising without bccoming
suspicious ol product quality.
A Correct. Consumcrs nnd color advcrtising
cxccssivc morc quickly and thus can bc
cxpcctcd to nnd blackandwhitc advcrtising
cxccssivc lcss quickly.
c study docs not discuss concurrcnt
appcaranccs ol color and blackandwhitc
advcrtiscmcnts lor thc samc product.
c solc conclusion about lrcqucncy is that
consumcrs can tolcratc a grcatcr lrcqucncy
ol blackandwhitc advcrtiscmcnts than
color advcrtiscmcnts.
Ð !t is statcd that consumcrs undcrstand that
color advcrtiscmcnts arc morc cxpcnsivc.
c rcscarch ccrtainly docs not rcport this
nnding.
e correct answer is A.
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68
o. 1he passa¿e su¿¿ests that b|rman| wou|d be most
||ke|y to a¿ree w|th wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ statements
about consumers' percept|ons ol the re|at|onsh|p
between the lrequency w|th wh|ch a product |s
advert|sed and the product's qua||ty'
|/ì Consumers' percept|ons about the lrequency
w|th wh|ch an advert|sement appears are the|r
pr|mary cons|derat|on when eva|uat|n¿ an
advert|sement's c|a|ms about product qua||ty.
|Bì Because most consumers do not not|ce the
lrequency ol advert|sement, |t has ||tt|e |mpact
on most consumers' expectat|ons re¿ard|n¿
product qua||ty.
|Cì Consumers perce|ve lrequency ol advert|sement
as a s|¿na| about product qua||ty on|y when the
advert|sement |s lor a product that |s new|y on
the market.
|0ì 1he lrequency ol advert|sement |s not a|ways
perce|ved by consumers to |nd|cate that
manulacturers are h|¿h|y conhdent about the|r
products' qua||ty.
|Lì Consumers who try a new product that has been
lrequent|y advert|sed are ||ke|y to perce|ve the
advert|sement's lrequency as hav|n¿ been an
accurate |nd|cator ol the product's qua||ty.
In!erence
c nrst scntcncc ol thc sccond paragraph
providcs thc answcr to this qucstion: at some le.el
ort may
be percei.ed as unreasonably high, implying lo.
manufacturer conµdence in product quality us, it
is logical to assumc that il a product is advcrtiscd
too lrcqucntly, consumcrs may bclicvc that thc
manulacturcr is spcnding cxccssivc amounts on
advcrtising bccausc that manulacturcr is not
conndcnt ol thc product's quality.
A Kirmani's rcscarch, as rcportcd hcrc, docs
not support this claim.
8 Kirmani's rcscarch cxamincs how consumcrs
rcspond to thc lrcqucncy ol advcrtising, thc
rcscarch docs not indicatc that consumcrs do
not noticc lrcqucncy.
c rcscarch docs not distinguish bctwccn
ncw and lamiliar products.
D Correct. ¡xccssivc advcrtising may lcad
consumcrs to bclicvc that thc manulacturcr
lacks conndcncc in thc quality ol thc
product.
¡ Kirmani's rcscarch docs not spccincally
addrcss ncw products.
e correct answer is D.
Çuestions 6-11 re!er to the passage on
page 29.
b. 1he ma|n purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì propose an exper|ment
|Bì ana|yze a lunct|on
|Cì relute an ar¿ument
|0ì exp|a|n a contrad|ct|on
|Lì s|mu|ate a process
Main idea
Ðctcrmining thc main purposc comcs lrom
c nrst
paragraph bcgins by noting that the idea of the
brain as an information processor is gcncrally
c author thcn
prcscnts Scarlc as an enemy ol this position and
cxplains Scarlc's bclicl that human thought is
c sccond
paragraph qucstions Scarlc's position, and thc
third asscrts that thc brain is an inlormation
proccssor, rcluting Scarlc's argumcnt.
69
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
A c author uscs thc idca ol a mcchanical
simulation ol a stomach as a mctaphor lor a
computcr's simulation ol thought, this is not
a proposal lor an cxpcrimcnt.
c author analyzcs Scarlc's position, but no
lunction is analyzcd.
C Correct. c author cxplains Scarlc's
argumcnt in ordcr to rclutc it.
c author points out a wcakncss in Scarlc's
thinking, but not a contradiction.
c simulation ol a proccss is includcd as a
mctaphor, but it is not csscntial to thc
passagc.
e correct answer is C.
/. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s most cons|stent w|th 3ear|e's
reason|n¿ as presented |n the passa¿e'
|/ì lean|n¿ and content cannot be reduced to
a|¿or|thms.
|Bì 1he process ol d|¿est|on can be s|mu|ated
mechan|ca||y, but not on a computer.
|Cì 3|mu|ated thou¿hts and rea| thou¿hts are
essent|a||y s|m||ar because they are composed
pr|mar||y ol |nlormat|on.
|0ì / computer can use "causa| powers' s|m||ar to
those ol the human bra|n when process|n¿
|nlormat|on.
|Lì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the wor|d can ach|eve
the comp|ex|ty ol the bra|n's representat|ons ol
the wor|d.
EvaIuation
Scarlc's position is statcd in thc nrst paragraph:
bccausc computcrs mcrcly lollow algorithms,
they cannot deal .ith important aspects of human
thought such as meaning and content us, Scarlc
bclicvcs that mcaning and contcnt cannot bc
rcduccd to algorithms.
A Correct. Scarlc bclicvcs that mcaning and
contcnt cannot bc rcduccd to algorithms.
c author argucs lor thc mcchanical
crs no cvidcncc that
Scarlc would agrcc.
is statcmcnt rcßccts thc author's position,
but it is thc oppositc ol Scarlc's.
Ð Scarlc asscrts that only pcoplc, not
computcrs, havc the causal po.ers of the brain.
c passagc docs not discuss computcr
simulations ol thc world.
e correct answer is A.
ß. 1he author ol the passa¿e wou|d be most ||ke|y to
a¿ree w|th wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ statements about the
s|mu|at|on ol or¿an lunct|ons'
|/ì /n art|hc|a| dev|ce that ach|eves the lunct|ons ol
the stomach cou|d be cons|dered a va||d mode|
ol the stomach.
|Bì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the bra|n are best used
to crack the bra|n's codes ol mean|n¿ and
content.
|Cì Computer s|mu|at|ons ol the bra|n cha||en¿e
|deas that are lundamenta| to psycho|o¿y and
neurosc|ence.
|0ì Because the bra|n and the stomach both act as
processors, they can best be s|mu|ated by
mechan|ca| dev|ces.
|Lì 1he computer's ||m|tat|ons |n s|mu|at|n¿
d|¿est|on su¿¿est equa| ||m|tat|ons |n computer·
s|mu|ated th|nk|n¿.
AppIication
To answcr this qucstion, think about how thc
author would rcspond to cach statcmcnt.
Anticipating thc author's rcsponsc dcpcnds on
undcrstanding thc author's point ol vicw. !n this
passagc, thc author is arguing against Scarlc's
vicw ol thc brain and in lavor ol thc brain as
c author bclicvcs that
thc computcr can bc a modcl ol thc brain and uscs
thc cxamplc ol thc mcchanical stomach to
support his position on simulations.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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A Correct. c nrst two scntcnccs ol thc third
paragraph imply that a mcchanical dcvicc is
a valid modcl.
c author bclicvcs a computcr can simulatc
thc brain but docs not commcnt on how
crc is
no way to prcdict thc author's rcaction to
this statcmcnt.
c author would rcjcct this statcmcnt sincc
ncuroscicncc and psychology do in lact scc
thc brain as an inlormation proccssor.
c author agrccs that both thc brain and
thc stomach act as proccssors, bclicvcs that
thc computcr, a nonmcchanical dcvicc, can
crs a way that a
mcchanical dcvicc could simulatc thc
c author docs not suggcst that
mcchanical dcviccs arc thc bcst way to
simulatc both thcir proccsscs.
is statcmcnt rcßccts Scarlc's vicwpoint,
which thc author rcjccts.
e correct answer is A.
9. lt can be |nlerred that the author ol the passa¿e
be||eves that 3ear|e's ar¿ument |s Nawed by |ts
la||ure to
|/ì d|st|n¿u|sh between syntact|c and semant|c
operat|ons
|Bì exp|a|n adequate|y how peop|e, un||ke
computers, are ab|e to understand mean|n¿
|Cì prov|de concrete examp|es |||ustrat|n¿ |ts c|a|ms
about th|nk|n¿
|0ì understand how computers use a|¿or|thms to
process |nlormat|on
|Lì dec|pher the code that |s transm|tted lrom
neuron to neuron |n the bra|n
In!erence
c author's attitudc toward Scarlc's argumcnt is
apparcnt in thc nrst paragraph, which cnds with
thc author's summary ol what Scarlc is saying.
Computcrs undcrstand structurcs, Scarlc argucs,
but only pcoplc undcrstand mcaning. How do
c author notcs
that Scarlc is not ablc to answcr this qucstion and
is ablc only to asscrt that pcoplc havc causal po.ers
of the brain.
c author makcs it clcar in thc nrst
paragraph that Scarlc docs distinguish
bctwccn thc two. !n Scarlc's vicw computcrs
arc syntactic, intcrprcting structurc or
arrangcmcnt, rathcr than scmantic,
undcrstanding mcaning.
B Correct. c nrst paragraph cnds with thc
contrast bctwccn pcoplc and computcrs:
People, on the other hand, understand meaning
because they ha.e something Searle obscurely
calls the causal po.ers of the brain. 8y calling
Scarlc's cxplanation obscurc, thc author
implics that Scarlc has not adcquatcly
clarincd how pcoplc undcrstand mcaning.
C Nothing in thc passagc criticizcs Scarlc lor
not providing concrctc cxamplcs. !ndccd, in
thc sccond paragraph, thc author anticipatcs
how Scarlc would rcact to onc concrctc
cxamplc, thc computcr simulation ol thc
stomach.
Ð !n thc nrst paragraph, thc author says that
Scarlc argucs that computers simply follo.
algorithms, whcthcr or not Scarlc
undcrstands how thcy usc algorithms is
irrclcvant.
¡ Sincc, as thc author suggcsts in thc nrst
paragraph, Scarlc docs not bclicvc
inlormation could bc a codc transmittcd
lrom ncuron to ncuron, hc cannot bc
cxpcctcd to dcciphcr that codc.
e correct answer is B.
71
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ìC. lrom the passa¿e, |t can be |nlerred that the author
wou|d a¿ree w|th 3ear|e on wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
po|nts'
|/ì Computers operate by lo||ow|n¿ a|¿or|thms.
|Bì 1he human bra|n can never lu||y understand |ts
own lunct|ons.
|Cì 1he compar|son ol the bra|n to a mach|ne |s
over|y s|mp||st|c.
|0ì 1he most accurate mode|s ol phys|ca|
processes are computer s|mu|at|ons.
|Lì Human thou¿ht and computer·s|mu|ated thou¿ht
|nvo|ve s|m||ar processes ol representat|on.
In!erence
An inlcrcncc rcquircs going bcyond thc matcrial
cxplicitly statcd in thc passagc to thc author's
c author and
Scarlc takc oppositc points ol vicw on thc brain
cir arca ol agrccmcnt
is narrow. Howcvcr, thcy do both agrcc that
computcrs work by lollowing algorithms.
A Correct. c nrst paragraph cxplains that
Scarlc dismisscs computcrs bccausc thcy
simply follo. algorithms, whilc thc author
disagrccs with Scarlc on virtually cvcry
othcr point, no disagrccmcnt is voiccd hcrc.
c nrst paragraph shows this to bc Scarlc's
position, but not thc author's.
c nrst paragraph shows this to bc Scarlc's
position, but not thc author's.
c sccond paragraph cxplains Scarlc's
rcjcction ol this position.
c nnal paragraph cstablishcs this as thc
author's position, but not Scarlc's.
e correct answer is A.
ìì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ most accurate|y represents
3ear|e's cr|t|c|sm ol the bra|n·as·computer metaphor,
as that cr|t|c|sm |s descr|bed |n the passa¿e'
|/ì 1he metaphor |s not exper|menta||y ver|hab|e.
|Bì 1he metaphor does not take |nto account the
un|que powers ol the bra|n.
|Cì 1he metaphor su¿¿ests that a bra|n's lunct|ons
can be s|mu|ated as eas||y as those ol a
stomach.
|0ì 1he metaphor su¿¿ests that a computer can
s|mu|ate the work|n¿s ol the m|nd by us|n¿ the
codes ol neura| transm|ss|on.
|Lì 1he metaphor |s unhe|plu| because both the
bra|n and the computer process |nlormat|on.
In!erence
Scarlc's criticism ol thc brainascomputcr
mctaphor is discusscd in thc nrst paragraph.
Computcrs arc mcrcly machincs, only pcoplc arc
cndowcd with causal po.ers of the brain that allow
thcm to undcrstand mcaning and contcnt.
A Scarlc docs not bclicvc in thc valuc ol thc
mctaphor, so its vcrincation is bcsidc thc
point.
B Correct. Scarlc bclicvcs that pcoplc havc
somcthing computcrs do not, causal po.ers of
the brain lor undcrstanding important aspects
of human thought.
C Comparing thc brain to a computcr, thc
mctaphor docs not makc this suggcstion.
Ð !n thc sccond paragraph, thc author says,
but e.en if a computer could simulate the
.orkings of the mind, making it clcar that
prcscntly it cannot, this statcmcnt docs not
rcßcct why Scarlc rcjccts thc mctaphor.
is is not thc basis ol Scarlc's objcction
sincc hc docs not acccpt thc prcmisc that thc
brain is an inlormation proccssor.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ßeviev 12th Edition
72
Çuestions 12-17 re!er to the passage on
page 31.
ìZ. 1he pr|mary purpose ol the passa¿e |s to
|/ì exp|a|n why women relormers ol the lro¿ress|ve
Lra la||ed to ach|eve the|r ¿oa|s
|Bì d|scuss the or|¿|ns ol ch||d |abor |aws |n the |ate
n|neteenth and ear|y twent|eth centur|es
|Cì compare the ||v|n¿ cond|t|ons ol work|n¿·c|ass
and m|dd|e·c|ass women |n the lro¿ress|ve Lra
|0ì d|scuss an overs|¿ht on the part ol women
relormers ol the lro¿ress|ve Lra
|Lì rev|se a trad|t|ona| v|ew ol the ro|e p|ayed by
women relormers |n enact|n¿ lro¿ress|ve Lra
relorms
Main idea
Undcrstanding thc author's purposc comcs only
c
bcginning ol thc passagc notcs thc succcss ol
middlcclass womcn rclormcrs in improving
c
middlc discusscs thc position ol workingclass
mothcrs, who wcrc morc conccrncd with thc
cconomic survival ol thcir lamilics than with
labor rclorm and conscqucntly tricd to circumvcnt
c closc ol thc passagc obscrvcs that,
although middlcclass rclormcrs wcrc right to
point out cxploitation ol childrcn, thcy lailcd to
undcrstand thc cconomic plight ol workingclass
lamilics, who nccdcd thc incomc carncd by cvcry
c purposc ol this passagc is
to show thc lailurc ol middlcclass rclormcrs to
undcrstand thc cconomic position ol working
class lamilics.
A Lincs 610 cmphasizc thc victorics ol thc
rclormcrs.
ccts, rathcr
than thc origins, ol child labor laws.
C Living conditions ol middlcclass and
workingclass womcn arc not comparcd.
D Correct. As is madc clcar, cspccially in thc
nnal scntcncc ol thc passagc, womcn
rclormcrs lailcd to undcrstand thc cconomic
nccds ol workingclass lamilics.
¡ A traditional vicw is not comparcd with a
ncwcr, rcviscd vicw ol thc rclormcrs.
e correct answer is D.
ì3. 1he view ment|oned |n ||ne ì/ ol the passa¿e relers to
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì 3ome work|n¿·c|ass mothers' res|stance to the
enlorcement ol ch||d |abor |aws
|Bì belormers' be||el that ch||d |abor and |ndustr|a|
home work shou|d be abo||shed
|Cì belormers' op|n|ons about how work|n¿·c|ass
lam|||es ra|sed the|r ch||dren
|0ì Certa|n women h|stor|ans' observat|on that there
was a |ack ol consensus between women ol
d|llerent c|asses on the |ssue ol ch||d |abor and
|ndustr|a| home work
|Lì work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es' lears about the adverse
consequences that ch||d |abor |aws wou|d have
on the|r ab|||ty to earn an adequate ||v|n¿
In!erence
To nnd what this appcarancc ol .ie. rclcrs to, it
is ncccssary to look back to thc bcginning ol thc
scntcncc. is .ie., not sharcd by workingclass
mothcrs, rclcrs to thc rclormcrs' conviction that
child labor and industrial home .ork .ere equally
inhumane practices that should be outla.ed.
73
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
A is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, rcsistancc to child labor laws is not
discusscd until thc lollowing scntcncc.
B Correct. is .ie. rclcrs to thc position
ol rclormcrs statcd carlicr in thc samc
scntcncc: that child labor and industrial home
.ork.should be outla.ed.
C is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, thc rclormcrs' bclicl that rcsistancc to
child labor laws was duc to poor parcnting is
discusscd latcr in thc passagc.
Ð A numbcr ol womcn historians havc said
that workingclass mothcrs did not always
sharc thc .ie. ol middlcclass womcn
rclormcrs about child labor.
¡ is .ie. must rclcr back to a point alrcady
statcd, thc lcars ol workingclass lamilics
arc cxamincd in thc lollowing scntcncc.
e correct answer is B.
ì4. 1he author ol the passa¿e ment|ons the observat|ons
ol women h|stor|ans |||nes ìo-ì/ì most probab|y |n
order to
|/ì prov|de support lor an assert|on made |n the
preced|n¿ sentence |||nes ìC-ìZì
|Bì ra|se a quest|on that |s answered |n the |ast
sentence ol the passa¿e |||nes Z/-3Zì
|Cì |ntroduce an op|n|on that cha||en¿es a statement
made |n the hrst sentence ol the passa¿e
|0ì oller an a|ternat|ve v|ew to the one attr|buted |n
the passa¿e to work|n¿·c|ass mothers
|Lì po|nt out a contrad|ct|on |nherent |n the
trad|t|ona| v|ew ol ch||d |abor relorm as |t |s
presented |n the passa¿e
EvaIuation
!n lincs 1012, thc author asscrts that child labor
laws erent classes against one
another. c vicw ol thc middlcclass womcn
rclormcrs is statcd, and thcn, to show that
workingclass mothcrs did not hold thc samc
opinion, thc author turns to thc rcccnt work ol
womcn historians to support this statcmcnt.
A Correct. c author uscs thc rcccnt work ol
womcn historians to support thc statcmcnt
crcnt social classcs wcrc
pittcd against onc anothcr.
c womcn historians ha.e recently obser.ed ,
thc vcrb obser.ed introduccs a statcmcnt
rathcr than a qucstion.
c rclcrcncc to womcn historians has to do
with workingclass mothcrs, it docs not
challcngc womcn's activism and rolc in
social rclorm.
c passagc supports what thc womcn
historians say about workingclass mothcrs.
c author docs not dcnnc or prcscnt thc
traditional vicw ol child labor rclorm, nor is
any inhcrcnt contradiction pointcd out.
e correct answer is A.
ìo. 1he passa¿e su¿¿ests that wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ was
a reason lor the d|llerence ol op|n|on between
work|n¿·c|ass mothers and women relormers on the
|ssue ol ch||d |abor'
|/ì belormers' be||el that |ndustr|a| home work was
prelerab|e to ch||d |abor outs|de the home
|Bì belormers' be||el that ch||d |abor |aws shou|d
perta|n to work|n¿ cond|t|ons but not to pay
|Cì work|n¿·c|ass mothers' resentment at relormers'
attempts to |nterlere w|th the|r parent|n¿
|0ì work|n¿·c|ass mothers' be||el that ch||d |abor
was an |nhumane pract|ce
|Lì work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es' need lor every
emp|oyab|e member ol the|r lam|||es to earn
money
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ßeviev 12th Edition
74
In!erence
c qucstion's usc ol thc word suggests mcans that
thc answcr dcpcnds on making an inlcrcncc.
crcnt vicws ol
middlcclass rclormcrs and workingclass
mothcrs on child labor laws. Vhilc thc rclormcrs
saw child labor as an inhumane practicc that
should bc outla.ed, working class mothcrs
undcrstood the necessity of pooling the .ages of as
many family members as possible and vicwcd child
labor lcgislation as a personal economic disaster.
A Lincs 1214 show that rclormcrs rcgardcd
both kinds ol work as equally inhumane
practices that should be outla.ed.
8 Pay is not spccincally discusscd in thc
passagc.
C Lincs 2427 indicatc that thc rclormcrs
bclicvcd workingclass rcsistancc to child
labor laws was a sign ol poor parcnting, but
nothing is said about thc workingclass
rcsponsc to this vicw.
Ð Lincs 1217 say that thc rclormcrs hcld this
position, but .orking class mothers did not
al.ays share this .ie..
E Correct. Lincs 1723 cxplain that working
class lamilics nccdcd the .ages of as many
family members as possible.
e correct answer is E.
ìb. 1he author ol the passa¿e asserts wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ about women relormers who tr|ed to abo||sh
ch||d |abor'
|/ì 1hey a||enated work|n¿·c|ass mothers by
attempt|n¿ to en||st them |n a¿|tat|n¿ lor
pro¿ress|ve causes.
|Bì 1hey underest|mated the preva|ence ol ch||d
|abor amon¿ the work|n¿ c|asses.
|Cì 1hey were correct |n the|r conv|ct|on that ch||d
|abor was dep|orab|e but shorts|¿hted about the
|mpact ol ch||d |abor |e¿|s|at|on on work|n¿·c|ass
lam|||es.
|0ì 1hey were a¿¿ress|ve |n the|r attempts to
enlorce ch||d |abor |e¿|s|at|on, but were unab|e
to prevent work|n¿·c|ass lam|||es lrom
c|rcumvent|n¿ them.
|Lì 1hey were prevented by the|r near|y tota|
d|senlranch|sement lrom mak|n¿ s|¿n|hcant
pro¿ress |n ch||d |abor relorm.
5upporting ideas
is qucstion is bascd on inlormation cxplicitly
statcd in thc nnal scntcncc ol thc passagc.
Vomcn rclormcrs vicwcd child labor as a terribly
exploitati.e practice but thcy failed to take account of
the economic needs of .orking-class families.
c passagc docs not say that rclormcrs
tricd to cnlist workingclass mothcrs in
progrcssivc causcs.
crcd to support such a
statcmcnt.
C Correct. c nnal scntcncc makcs clcar that
thc rclormcrs rccognizcd child labor as
exploitati.e but did not undcrstand the
economic needs of .orking-class families.
c rclormcrs' activitics involvcd promoting
lcgislation, thcrc is no cvidcncc in thc
passagc that thc rclormcrs thcmsclvcs
attcmptcd to cnlorcc thcsc laws.
¡ Lincs 610 show that thc rclormcrs
improvcd working conditions lor
womcn and childrcn, dcspitc thcir
discnlranchiscmcnt.
e correct answer is C.
75
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ì/. /ccord|n¿ to the passa¿e, one ol the most str|k|n¿
ach|evements ol wh|te m|dd|e·c|ass women relormers
dur|n¿ the lro¿ress|ve Lra was
|/ì ¿a|n|n¿ the r|¿ht to vote |n schoo| e|ect|ons
|Bì mob|||z|n¿ work|n¿·c|ass women |n the h¿ht
a¿a|nst ch||d |abor
|Cì un|t|n¿ women ol d|llerent c|asses |n ¿rassroots
act|v|sm
|0ì |mprov|n¿ the econom|c cond|t|ons ol work|n¿·
c|ass lam|||es
|Lì |mprov|n¿ women's and ch||dren's work|n¿
cond|t|ons
5upporting ideas
c qucstion's usc ol thc phrasc according to the
passage indicatcs that thc answcr can bc lound
is
qucstion is bascd on inlormation cxplicitly statcd
in lincs 710, which statc that .hite middle-class
.omen reformers .on a .ariety of .ictories, notably
in the impro.ement of .orking conditions, especially
for .omen and children.
A Lincs 67 show that womcn alrcady had thc
right to votc in school clcctions.
8 Lincs 2024 show that workingclass
lamilics tried to circum.ent child labor la.s.
C Lincs 1112 say that onc product ol
grassroots activism, child labor lcgislation,
erent classes against one
another.
Ð Lincs 3132 say that thc rclormcrs failed to
take account of the economic needs of .orking-
class families.
E Correct. c passagc statcs that rclormcrs
improvcd thc working conditions ol womcn
and childrcn.
e correct answer is E.
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76
ìß. Vasquez·lorre|| /ssurance spec|a||zes |n |nsur|n¿ manulacturers. whenever a po||cyho|der makes a c|a|m, a c|a|ms
adjuster determ|nes the amount that Vasquez·lorre|| |s ob||¿ated to pay. Vasquez·lorre|| |s cutt|n¿ |ts stall ol c|a|ms
adjusters by ìo percent. 1o ensure that the company's ab|||ty to hand|e c|a|ms prompt|y |s allected as ||tt|e as poss|b|e by
the stall cuts, consu|tants recommend that Vasquez·lorre|| |ay oll those adjusters who now take |on¿est, on avera¿e, to
comp|ete work on c|a|ms ass|¿ned to them.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y ca||s |nto quest|on the consu|tants' cr|ter|on lor se|ect|n¿ the stall to be
|a|d oll'
|/ì ll the t|me that Vasquez·lorre|| takes to sett|e c|a|ms |ncreases s|¿n|hcant|y, |t cou|d |ose bus|ness to other |nsurers.
|Bì 3uperv|sors at Vasquez·lorre|| tend to ass|¿n the most comp|ex c|a|ms to the most capab|e adjusters.
|Cì /t Vasquez·lorre||, no |nsurance payments are made unt|| a c|a|ms adjuster has reached a hna| determ|nat|on on
the c|a|m.
|0ì 1here are no pos|t|ons at Vasquez·lorre|| to wh|ch stall current|y emp|oyed as c|a|ms adjusters cou|d be reass|¿ned.
|Lì 1he prem|ums that Vasquez·lorre|| current|y char¿es are no h|¿her than those char¿ed lor s|m||ar covera¿e by
compet|tors.
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation ol claims adjustcrs. To cnsurc continuing
thosc adjustcrs who
takc thc longcst to complctc claims.
ßeasoning !hat problem could there be .ith the criterion? c consultants' critcrion is thc timc an adjustcr
takcs to scttlc a claim. Howcvcr, somc claims arc naturally morc complicatcd and rcquirc morc
timc. !l it is truc that thc company now assigns thcsc timcconsuming cascs to its most capablc
adjustcrs, thcn thcsc adjustcrs would bc likcly to bc thc oncs who takc longcst to complctc thcir
thc company's
, which could vcry wcll dccrcasc its ability to handlc claims promptly.
c consultants' advicc makcs scnsc il incrcascd timc to handlc claims causcs thc company to losc busincss.
B Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc problcm with thc consultants' critcrion.
is statcmcnt mcrcly dcscribcs thc proccss ol handling a claim, it docs not providc any inlormation about
s.
, so indicating that thcrc arc no positions
availablc docs not call thcir advicc into qucstion.
c consultants do not rccommcnd a changc in prcmiums, noting that thcy arc similar to compctitors'
prcmiums docs not undcrminc thc plan that thc consultants rccommcnd.
e correct answer is B.
CriticaI ßeasoning
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and e!!ective approaches
to criticaI reasoning questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter are generaIIy representative o!
the kinds o! criticaI reasoning questions you viII encounter on the GMAT. ßemember that it is the
probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
77
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ì9. lro|on¿ed spe||s ol hot, dry weather at the end ol the ¿rape·¿row|n¿ season typ|ca||y reduce a v|neyard's y|e|d, because
the ¿rapes stay re|at|ve|y sma||. ln years w|th such weather, w|ne producers can make on|y a re|at|ve|y sma|| quant|ty ol
w|ne lrom a ¿|ven area ol v|neyards. Nonethe|ess, |n re¿|ons where w|ne producers ¿enera||y ¿row the|r own ¿rapes,
ana|ysts typ|ca||y expect a |on¿, hot, dry spe|| |ate |n the ¿row|n¿ season to resu|t |n |ncreased revenues lor |oca| w|ne
producers.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, does most to just|ly the ana|ysts' expectat|on'
|/ì 1he |ower a v|neyard's y|e|d, the |ess |abor |s requ|red to harvest the ¿rapes.
|Bì lon¿, hot, dry spe||s at the be¿|nn|n¿ ol the ¿rape·¿row|n¿ season are rare, but they can have a devastat|n¿ ellect
on a v|neyard's y|e|d.
|Cì 0rapes ¿rown lor w|ne product|on are typ|ca||y made |nto w|ne at or near the v|neyard |n wh|ch they were ¿rown.
|0ì when hot, dry spe||s are lo||owed by heavy ra|ns, the ra|ns lrequent|y destroy ¿rape crops.
|Lì 0rapes that have matured |n hot, dry weather make s|¿n|hcant|y better w|ne than ord|nary ¿rapes.
Argument Construction
5ituation Hot, dry wcathcr at thc cnd ol thc grapcgrowing scason rcduccs yicld, so wincmakcrs can only
producc a small quantity ol winc. Howcvcr, analysts cxpcct that this wcathcr will incrcasc
wincmakcrs' rcvcnucs.
ßeasoning !hat additional piece of information explains the analysts` expectations? c samc conditions that
lcad to low quantity also lcad to somcthing that incrcascs rcvcnucs. Vhat could this bc: !l thcsc
wcathcr conditions lcad to highcrquality winc that will scll lor highcr priccs, thc analysts'
cxpcctations lor incrcascd rcvcnucs arc justincd.
A Lowcr labor costs mcan lcss cxpcnditurc lor thc wincmakcrs, this docs not cxplain how rcvcnucs would
incrcasc.
is statcmcnt about low yiclds docs not cxplain an incrcasc in rcvcnucs.
c proximity ol production to thc vincyard is irrclcvant to thc qucstion ol how hot, dry wcathcr can bc
rcsponsiblc lor dccrcascd yicld and incrcascd rcvcnucs.
cct on grapc crops, but it docs not cxplain how
rcvcnucs arc incrcascd.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly providcs thc cxplanation that thc wcathcr conditions will lcad to bcttcr
wincs. Vith bcttcr wincs typically commanding highcr priccs, thc wincmakcrs will gain thc incrcascd
rcvcnucs that thc analysts anticipatc.
e correct answer is E.
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ZC. ln the past, most ch||dren who went s|edd|n¿ |n the w|nter snow |n Ver|and used wooden s|eds w|th runners and steer|n¿
bars. 1en years a¿o, smooth p|ast|c s|eds became popu|ar; they ¿o laster than wooden s|eds but are harder to steer and
s|ow. 1he concern that p|ast|c s|eds are more dan¿erous |s c|ear|y borne out by the lact that the number ol ch||dren |njured
wh||e s|edd|n¿ was much h|¿her |ast w|nter than |t was ìC years a¿o.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true |n Ver|and, most ser|ous|y underm|nes the lorce ol the ev|dence c|ted'
|/ì / lew ch||dren st||| use trad|t|ona| wooden s|eds.
|Bì Very lew ch||dren wear any k|nd ol protect|ve ¿ear, such as he|mets, wh||e s|edd|n¿.
|Cì l|ast|c s|eds can be used |n a much w|der var|ety ol snow cond|t|ons than wooden s|eds can.
|0ì lost s|edd|n¿ |njur|es occur when a s|ed co|||des w|th a tree, a rock, or another s|ed.
|Lì Because the trad|t|ona| wooden s|eds can carry more than one r|der, an acc|dent |nvo|v|n¿ a wooden s|ed can resu|t
|n severa| ch||dren be|n¿ |njured.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Tcn ycars ago, woodcn slcds bcgan to bc rcplaccd by plastic slcds that go lastcr but arc hardcr to
contr crcd
injurics last ycar than thcy did 10 ycars ago.
ßeasoning !hat .eakens this argument? is argumcnt dcpcnds on a comparison ol two kinds ol slcds.
Any cvidcncc that would cithcr strcngthcn or wcakcn thc argumcnt must indicatc a comparison.
¡vidcncc that applics only to onc kind ol slcd or to both kinds ol slcds cqually cannot wcakcn
this argumcnt. Considcr thc implications ol thc cvidcncc prcscntcd in thc answcr choiccs. !l
plastic slcds can bc uscd in a widcr varicty ol conditions than woodcn slcds can, thcn plastic
slcds can bc uscd morc lrcqucntly. !t is possiblc that morc lrcqucnt usc, rathcr than thc slcds
thcmsclvcs, has lcd to morc accidcnts.
c limitcd usc ol somc woodcn slcds docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt.
cct accidcnts with both kinds ol slcds.
C Correct.
incrcascd accidcnts.
is statcmcnt is truc ol accidcnts with both kinds ol slcds.
is cxplains why woodcn slcds may bc dangcrous but docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt that plastic slcds arc
cvcn morc dangcrous.
e correct answer is C.
79
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Zì. leta| r|n¿s recent|y excavated lrom seventh·century sett|ements |n the western part ol lex|co were made us|n¿ the same
meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques as those used by Lcuador|an art|sans belore and dur|n¿ that per|od. 1hese techn|ques are
sulhc|ent|y comp|ex to make the|r |ndependent deve|opment |n both areas un||ke|y. 3|nce the peop|e ol these two areas
were |n cu|tura| contact, archaeo|o¿|sts hypothes|ze that the meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques used to make the r|n¿s lound |n
lex|co were |earned by lex|can art|sans lrom Lcuador|an counterparts.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ wou|d |t be most uselu| to estab||sh |n order to eva|uate the archaeo|o¿|sts' hypothes|s'
|/ì whether meta| objects were traded lrom Lcuador to western lex|co dur|n¿ the seventh century
|Bì whether trave| between western lex|co and Lcuador |n the seventh century wou|d have been pr|mar||y by |and or
by sea
|Cì whether art|sans lrom western lex|co cou|d have |earned comp|ex meta||ur¿|ca| techn|ques lrom the|r Lcuador|an
counterparts w|thout actua||y |eav|n¿ western lex|co
|0ì whether meta| too|s were used |n the seventh·century sett|ements |n western lex|co
|Lì whether any ol the techn|ques used |n the manulacture ol the meta| r|n¿s lound |n western lex|co are st||| pract|ced
amon¿ art|sans |n Lcuador today
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Mctal rings cxcavatcd lrom scvcnthccntury scttlcmcnts in wcstcrn Mcxico wcrc madc with thc
samc complcx tcchniqucs uscd in ¡cuador bclorc and during a pcriod whcn thc two culturcs
wcrc known to bc in contact. Mcxican artisans arc thought to havc lcarncd thc tcchniqucs lrom
¡cuadorian artisans.
ßeasoning !hat point could best be applied in e.aluating this hypothesis? Considcr what spccinc inlormation
would hclp to asscss thc archacologists' thcory. !t is givcn that thc two arcas had somc cultural
contact. !l it wcrc dctcrmincd that mctal objccts wcrc tradcd lrom onc culturc to thc othcr, it
could bc possiblc that thc mctalworking tcchniqucs wcrc passcd along as wcll. Such cvidcncc
would bc rclcvant to thc hypothcsis that Mcxican artisans saw thc work ol thcir ¡cuadorian
countcrparts and, lrom this cxchangc, lcarncd thc tcchniqucs to makc thc mctal rings.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs inlormation that would bc usclul in thc cvaluation ol thc
archacologists' hypothcsis.
c mcans ol travcl is irrclcvant to thc hypothcsis about thc sourcc ol thc tcchniqucs.
c hypothcsis is not about whcrc Mcxican artisans lcarncd thc tcchniqucs, but whcthcr thcy lcarncd thcm
lrom thc ¡cuadorians.
c cxistcncc ol mctal tools providcs no hclplul inlormation in cstablishing whcthcr thc ¡cuadorians wcrc
thc sourcc ol thc mctallurgical tcchniqucs.
c comparison to thc prcscnt day is irrclcvant to thc hypothcsis.
e correct answer is A.
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ZZ. lo||ow|n¿ severa| years ol dec||n|n¿ advert|s|n¿ sa|es, the Ureenville !imes reor¿an|zed |ts advert|s|n¿ sa|es lorce. Belore
reor¿an|zat|on, the sa|es lorce was or¿an|zed ¿eo¿raph|ca||y, w|th some sa|es representat|ves concentrat|n¿ on c|ty·
center bus|nesses and others concentrat|n¿ on d|llerent out|y|n¿ re¿|ons. 1he reor¿an|zat|on attempted to |ncrease the
sa|es representat|ves' know|ed¿e ol c||ents' bus|nesses by hav|n¿ each sa|es representat|ve dea| w|th on|y one type ol
|ndustry or ol reta|||n¿. /lter the reor¿an|zat|on, revenue lrom advert|s|n¿ sa|es |ncreased.
ln assess|n¿ whether the |mprovement |n advert|s|n¿ sa|es can proper|y be attr|buted to the reor¿an|zat|on, |t wou|d be
most he|plu| to hnd out wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì what proport|on ol the tota| revenue ol the Ureenville !imes |s ¿enerated by advert|s|n¿ sa|es'
|Bì Has the c|rcu|at|on ol the Ureenville !imes |ncreased substant|a||y |n the |ast two years'
|Cì /mon¿ a|| the types ol |ndustry and reta|||n¿ that use the Ureenville !imes as an advert|s|n¿ veh|c|e, wh|ch type
accounts lor the |ar¿est proport|on ol the newspaper's advert|s|n¿ sa|es'
|0ì 0o any c||ents ol the sa|es representat|ves ol the Ureenville !imes have a stand|n¿ order w|th the !imes lor a hxed
amount ol advert|s|n¿ per month'
|Lì /mon¿ the advert|sers |n the Ureenville !imes, are there more types ol reta|| bus|ness or more types ol |ndustr|a|
bus|ness'
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation !n thc lacc ol dcclining advcrtising salcs, a ncwspapcr rcorganizcs its salcs lorcc so that salcs
rcprcscntativcs havc a bcttcr undcrstanding ol busincsscs. Rcvcnuc lrom advcrtising salcs
incrcascd altcr thc rcorganization.
ßeasoning !hat additional e.idence .ould help determine the source of the increased re.enue? !n ordcr to
attributc thc incrcascd rcvcnuc to thc rcorganization ol thc salcs lorcc, othcr possiblc causcs
must bc climinatcd. Ncwspapcr advcrtising ratcs arc linkcd to circulation, whcn circulation
incrcascs, highcr ratcs can bc chargcd and rcvcnucs will incrcasc. An altcrnatc cxplanation
might bc a signincant risc in circulation, so it would bc particularly hclplul to know il
circulation had incrcascd.
c qucstion conccrns only incrcascd rcvcnuc lrom advcrtising salcs, thc proportion ol advcrtising rcvcnuc
to total rcvcnuc is outsidc thc scopc ol thc qucstion.
B Correct. is statcmcnt providcs anothcr possiblc cxplanation lor incrcascd rcvcnuc ol advcrtising salcs,
and so thc answcr to this qucstion would hclp to clarily thc rcason lor thc incrcascd rcvcnuc.
C Knowing how thc advcrtising salcs brcak down by typc ol busincss might bc usclul lor othcr purposcs, but
it docs not hclp to show thc causc ol thc incrcasc.
Ð A nxcd amount ol advcrtising would not cxplain incrcascd rcvcnuc, so thc answcr to this qucstion would
bc irrclcvant.
¡ Ðistinguishing bctwccn thc typcs ol busincsscs will not contributc to dctcrmining whcthcr thc
rcorganization was rcsponsiblc lor thc incrcascd rcvcnuc.
e correct answer is B.
81
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z3. lotor|sts |n a certa|n country lrequent|y comp|a|n that tralhc con¿est|on |s much worse now than |t was ZC years a¿o. No
rea| measure ol how much tralhc con¿est|on there was ZC years a¿o ex|sts, but the motor|sts' comp|a|nts are a|most
certa|n|y unwarranted. 1he country's h|¿hway capac|ty has tr|p|ed |n the |ast twenty years, thanks to a v|¿orous h|¿hway
construct|on pro¿ram, whereas the number ol automob||es re¿|stered |n the country has |ncreased by on|y /o percent.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens the ar¿ument'
|/ì lost automob||e trave| |s |oca|, and the networks ol roads and streets |n the country's sett|ed areas have chan¿ed
||tt|e over the |ast twenty years.
|Bì 0aso||ne pr|ces are h|¿h, and m||es trave|ed per car per year have not chan¿ed much over the |ast ZC years.
|Cì 1he country's urban centers have we||·deve|oped pub||c trans|t systems that carry most ol the peop|e who commute
|nto those centers.
|0ì 1he avera¿e a¿e ol automob||es re¿|stered |n the country |s |ower now than |t was ZC years a¿o.
|Lì bad|o stat|ons have |on¿ been broadcast|n¿ re¿u|ar tralhc reports that |nlorm motor|sts about tralhc con¿est|on.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Motorists complain that tralnc congcstion in thcir country is much worsc than it was twcnty
ycars ago. 8ut thcsc complaints havc no basis sincc thc highway capacity in this country has
triplcd in thc samc pcriod, whcrcas thc numbcr ol cars rcgistcrcd has riscn by only 75 pcrccnt.
ßeasoning !hich point most undermines the argument that the complaints are un.arranted? Considcr that thc
rcsponsc to thc gcncralizcd complaints about congcstion discusscs only thc topic ol highway
capacity. Vhat il thc congcstion that motorists arc complaining about is not on highways but on
local roads: Ðiscovcring that travcl tcnds to bc local in this country and that thc local roads
havc not bccn improvcd in thc last twcnty ycars would scriously wcakcn thc argumcnt.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a wcakncss in thc argumcnt: thc rcsponsc to thc broad
most motorists.
8 !l high gas priccs actually prcvcntcd motorists lrom driving, and il motorists' driving habits wcrc thc samc
as thcy wcrc twcnty ycars ago, thcn thcsc points should strcngthcn thc argumcnt that thcrc is no basis lor
thcir complaints.
cct thc argumcnt that thc motorists'
complaints havc no basis.
c agc ol rcgistcrcd cars is irrclcvant to thc argumcnt.
cct thc
argumcnt.
e correct answer is A.
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Z4. 1he percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol more than S4C,CCC |s h|¿her |n lerton County than |n any other
county. However, the percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol SbC,CCC or more |s h|¿her |n 3ommer County.
ll the statements above are true, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be true'
|/ì 1he percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol SßC,CCC |s h|¿her |n 3ommer County than |n lerton County.
|Bì lerton County has the second h|¿hest percenta¿e ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol SbC,CCC or more.
|Cì 3ome househo|ds |n lerton County have an annua| |ncome between S4C,CCC and SbC,CCC.
|0ì 1he number ol househo|ds w|th an annua| |ncome ol more than S4C,CCC |s ¿reater |n lerton County than |n 3ommer
County.
|Lì /vera¿e annua| househo|d |ncome |s h|¿her |n 3ommer County than |n lerton County.
Argument Construction
5ituation c pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs ol morc than 840,000 is highcr in Mcrton
County than in any othcr county, thc pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs ol 860,000
or morc is highcr in Sommcr County.
ßeasoning On the basis of this information, .hat point must be true? c givcn inlormation makcs clcar that
Mcrton County has somc houscholds that cxcccd 840,000 in annual incomc. Sommcr County
has a highcr pcrccntagc ol houscholds with annual incomcs at or abovc 860,000. A highcr
pcrccntagc ol thc Mcrton County houscholds must in turn havc annual incomcs ol 860,000 or
us, thc annual incomc ol somc houscholds in Mcrton County is bctwccn 840,000 and
860,000.
A Sincc it is possiblc that thcrc arc no houscholds with an annual incomc ol 880,000 in Sommcr County, this
statcmcnt docs not lollow lrom thc situation.
8 !t is not possiblc to makc this dctcrmination on thc basis ol thc availablc cvidcncc, Mcrton County may
havc no houscholds at all with an incomc ol morc than 860,000.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a conclusion that can bc drawn lrom thc givcn inlormation: in
ordcr lor thc pcrccntagc ol 840,000plus incomcs to bc highcr in Mcrton county than any othcr county
whilc Sommcr has thc highcst pcrccntagc ol 860,000plus incomcs, thcrc must bc somc houscholds in
Mcrton County that bring in bctwccn 840,000 and 860,000 annually.
Ð Òn thc basis ol inlormation about thc percentages ol houscholds, it is not possiblc to arrivc at this conclusion
about thc number ol houscholds.
¡ From thc givcn inlormation, it is not possiblc to dctcrminc whcrc thc avcragc incomc is grcatcr. !t is
cntircly possiblc that thc numbcr ol 860,000plus incomcs in Sommcr County is quitc small and that thc
numbcr ol 840,000plus incomcs in Mcrton County is substantial.
e correct answer is C.
83
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Zo. 1|¿er beet|es are such last runners that they can capture v|rtua||y any nonNy|n¿ |nsect. However, when runn|n¿ toward an
|nsect, a t|¿er beet|e w||| |nterm|ttent|y stop and then, a moment |ater, resume |ts attack. lerhaps the beet|es cannot
ma|nta|n the|r pace and must pause lor a moment's rest; but an a|ternat|ve hypothes|s |s that wh||e runn|n¿, t|¿er beet|es
are unab|e to adequate|y process the resu|t|n¿ rap|d|y chan¿|n¿ v|sua| |nlormat|on and so qu|ck|y ¿o b||nd and stop.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l d|scovered |n exper|ments us|n¿ art|hc|a||y moved prey |nsects, wou|d support one ol the two
hypotheses and underm|ne the other'
|/ì when a prey |nsect |s moved d|rect|y toward a beet|e that has been chas|n¿ |t, the beet|e |mmed|ate|y stops and runs
away w|thout |ts usua| |nterm|ttent stopp|n¿.
|Bì ln pursu|n¿ a swerv|n¿ |nsect, a beet|e a|ters |ts course wh||e runn|n¿ and |ts pauses become more lrequent as the
chase pro¿resses.
|Cì ln pursu|n¿ a mov|n¿ |nsect, a beet|e usua||y responds |mmed|ate|y to chan¿es |n the |nsect's d|rect|on, and |t pauses
equa||y lrequent|y whether the chase |s up or down an |nc||ne.
|0ì ll, when a beet|e pauses, |t has not ¿a|ned on the |nsect |t |s pursu|n¿, the beet|e ¿enera||y ends |ts pursu|t.
|Lì 1he laster a beet|e pursues an |nsect Nee|n¿ d|rect|y away lrom |t, the more lrequent|y the beet|e stops.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation crcd to cxplain thc suddcn stop that tigcr bcctlcs makc whilc pursuing
thcir prcy: (1) thcy cannot maintain thc rapid pacc and must rcst, and (2) thcy run too quickly to
proccss visual inlormation and so tcmporarily go blind.
ßeasoning !hat point .ould strengthen one of the t.o hypotheses and .eaken the other? Considcr thc
inlormation providcd in cach answcr choicc, rcmcmbcring that inlormation that supports onc
hypothcsis must ncccssarily dctract lrom thc othcr. Any inlormation that is not about pursuit or
ccts thc two hypothcscs cqually may bc dismisscd lrom considcration. !l thc lrcqucncy ol
stopping incrcascs whcn thc bcctlc lollows a swcrving inscct and must constantly changc its
coursc, thcn thc sccond hypothcsis is strcngthcncd, thc bcctlc's pauscs incrcasc as thc varicty ol
visual inlormation that it nccds to dcal with incrcascs.
c hypothcscs conccrn ongoing pursuit, sincc this inlormation is not about thc bcctlc's continuing pursuit
ol prcy, it ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns cithcr hypothcsis.
B Correct. is statcmcnt providcs inlormation that strcngthcns thc sccond hypothcsis: thc swcrving pursuit
and thc rcsulting continual coursc adjustmcnts appcar to bc lorcing thc bcctlc to stop with incrcasing
lrcqucncy to sort out thc crratic visual inlormation.
C !n this cxpcrimcnt, sincc ncithcr vision nor tircdncss appcars to bc problcmatic, thc bcctlc could bc
stopping lor cithcr rcason, this inlormation ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns cithcr hypothcsis.
is inlormation is irrclcvant sincc both thc hypothcscs arc about midpursuit bchaviors.
ccts both hypothcscs cqually, thc pauscs could bc
cqually duc to an inability to maintain thc pacc or duc to a nccd to proccss thc visual inlormation.
e correct answer is B.
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Zb. 0u|||emots are b|rds ol /rct|c re¿|ons. 1hey leed on hsh that ¿ather beneath th|n sheets ol Noat|n¿ |ce, and they nest on
nearby |and. 0u|||emots need ßC consecut|ve snow·lree days |n a year to ra|se the|r ch|cks, so unt|| avera¿e temperatures
|n the /rct|c be¿an to r|se recent|y, the ¿u|||emots' ran¿e was ||m|ted to the southernmost /rct|c coast. 1herelore, |l the
warm|n¿ cont|nues, the ¿u|||emots' ran¿e w||| probab|y be en|ar¿ed by be|n¿ extended northward a|on¿ the coast.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens the ar¿ument'
|/ì Lven |l the warm|n¿ trend cont|nues, there w||| st||| be years |n wh|ch ¿u|||emot ch|cks are k|||ed by an unusua||y
ear|y snow.
|Bì ll the /rct|c warm|n¿ cont|nues, ¿u|||emots' current predators are ||ke|y to succeed |n extend|n¿ the|r own ran¿e
larther north.
|Cì 0u|||emots nest |n coasta| areas, where temperatures are ¿enera||y h|¿her than |n |n|and areas.
|0ì ll the /rct|c warm|n¿ cont|nues, much ol the th|n |ce |n the southern /rct|c w||| d|sappear.
|Lì 1he hsh that ¿u|||emots eat are current|y preyed on by a w|der var|ety ol predators |n the southernmost /rct|c
re¿|ons than they are larther north.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation !n thc southcrn Arctic, guillcmots nnd thcir prcy bcncath thin shccts ol icc, ncst ncarby, and
rcquirc 80 snowlrcc days to raisc thcir young. A warming trcnd mcans that thcir rangc may bc
cnlargcd by cxtcnding northward along thc coast.
ßeasoning !hich point .eakens the argument about the enlargement of the guillemots` range? How could thc
birds movc northward and simultancously not cnlargc thcir rangc: Considcr thc assumption
implicd by thc idca ol enlargement. !l thc guillcmots lost thcir southcrn habitat, thcn thcir
northward movc would bc a displaccmcnt rathcr than an cnlargcmcnt. !l thcir sourcc ol lood
was no longcr availablc to thcm in thc southcrn Arctic, thcn thcy would abandon that arca as
part ol thcir rangc.
A An cxccptional ycar is not an argumcnt against an cnlargcd rangc bccausc an unusually early sno. could
happcn in thc southcrn Arctic as wcll.
8 !l thcir currcnt prcdators also migratc northward, thcn thc guillcmots' situation has not changcd, so this is
not an argumcnt against thcir cnlargcd rangc.
c argumcnt suggcsts that thcy will movc not inland, but north.ard along the coast.
D Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that wcakcns thc argumcnt: thc guillcmots' movc
northward would not cnlargc thcir rangc il thcy lost thcir lood sourcc, nsh lound undcr thin icc, in thc
southcrn Arctic.
c possibility that thcy may nnd prcy morc casily in thc north docs not mcan that thcy would abandon
thc southcrn Arctic, and so this point docs not wcakcn thc argumcnt.
e correct answer is D.
85
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z/. 3ome batches ol po||o vacc|ne used around ì9bC were contam|nated w|th 3V4C, a v|rus that |n monkeys causes var|ous
cancers. 3ome researchers now c|a|m that th|s contam|nat|on caused some cases ol a certa|n cancer |n humans,
mesothe||oma. 1h|s c|a|m |s not undercut by the lact that a very carelu| survey made |n the ì9bCs ol peop|e who had
rece|ved the contam|nated vacc|ne lound no e|evated |nc|dence ol any cancer, s|nce __________.
|/ì most cases ol mesothe||oma are caused by exposure to asbestos
|Bì |n some countr|es, there was no contam|nat|on ol the vacc|ne
|Cì 3V4C |s w|de|y used |n |aborator|es to produce cancers |n an|ma|s
|0ì mesothe||omas take severa| decades to deve|op
|Lì mesothe||oma was somewhat |ess common |n ì9bC than |t |s now
Argument Construction
5ituation Rcscarchcrs claim that contaminatcd polio vaccinc administcrcd in 1960 causcd somc cascs ol
mcsot cir claim is not undcrmincd by thc rcsults ol a 1960s survcy
showing that thosc who rcccivcd thc contaminatcd vaccinc had no clcvatcd incidcncc ol canccr.
ßeasoning !hy did the sur.ey results not challenge the researchers` claim? c survcy did not rcvcal a highcr
is qucstion thcn rcquircs complcting a scntcncc that cstablishcs
causc. Vhat could bc thc rcason that thc pcoplc survcycd in thc 1960s showcd no signs ol thc
discasc: !l thc discasc takcs dccadcs to dcvclop, thcn thosc pcoplc survcycd would not yct havc
shown any signs ol it, lcss than a dccadc had passcd bctwccn thcir cxposurc to thc vaccinc and
thc survcy.
c contaminatcd vaccinc is said to havc causcd some cascs, not most, thc qucstion rcmains why thc survcy
rcsults posc no obstaclc to thc rcscarchcrs' claim.
c claim is only about contaminatcd vaccinc, not uncontaminatcd vaccinc.
at thc virus can causc canccrs in laboratory animals had alrcady bccn providcd as a givcn, this additional
inlormation is irrclcvant to thc survcy ol pcoplc who rcccivcd contaminatcd vaccinc.
D Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc rcason that thc survcy docs not call into qucstion thc
rcscarchcrs' claim: thc pcoplc survcycd in thc 1960s showcd no signs ol discasc bccausc thc canccr takcs
dccadcs to dcvclop.
c lrcqucncy ol mcsothclioma in thc gcncral population is not rclatcd to thc claim that contaminatcd
vaccinc causcd thc discasc in a spccinc population.
e correct answer is D.
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Zß. 0ort|and has |on¿ been narrow|y se|l·sulhc|ent |n both ¿ra|n and meat. However, as per cap|ta |ncome |n 0ort|and has r|sen
toward the wor|d avera¿e, per cap|ta consumpt|on ol meat has a|so r|sen toward the wor|d avera¿e, and |t takes severa|
pounds ol ¿ra|n to produce one pound ol meat. 1herelore, s|nce per cap|ta |ncome cont|nues to r|se, whereas domest|c
¿ra|n product|on w||| not |ncrease, 0ort|and w||| soon have to |mport e|ther ¿ra|n or meat or both.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s an assumpt|on on wh|ch the ar¿ument depends'
|/ì 1he tota| acrea¿e devoted to ¿ra|n product|on |n 0ort|and w||| soon decrease.
|Bì lmport|n¿ e|ther ¿ra|n or meat w||| not resu|t |n a s|¿n|hcant|y h|¿her percenta¿e ol 0ort|anders' |ncomes be|n¿ spent
on lood than |s current|y the case.
|Cì 1he per cap|ta consumpt|on ol meat |n 0ort|and |s |ncreas|n¿ at rou¿h|y the same rate across a|| |ncome |eve|s.
|0ì 1he per cap|ta |ncome ol meat producers |n 0ort|and |s r|s|n¿ laster than the per cap|ta |ncome ol ¿ra|n producers.
|Lì leop|e |n 0ort|and who |ncrease the|r consumpt|on ol meat w||| not rad|ca||y decrease the|r consumpt|on ol ¿ra|n.
Argument Construction
5ituation A country prcviously scllsulncicnt in grain and mcat will soon havc to import onc or thc othcr
or both. Consumption ol mcat has riscn as pcr capita incomc has riscn, and it takcs scvcral
pounds ol grain to producc onc pound ol mcat.
ßeasoning !hat conditions must be true for the conclusion to be true? Mcat consumption is rising. Vhat about
grain consumption: A sharp rcduction in thc amount ol grain consumcd could compcnsatc lor
incrcascd mcat consumption, making thc conclusion lalsc. !l pcoplc did radically dccrcasc thcir
grain consumption, it might not bc ncccssary to import grain or mcat or both. Sincc thc argumcnt
concludcs that thc imports arc ncccssary, it assumcs grain consumption will not plungc.
c argumcnt makcs no assumptions about thc acrcagc dcvotcd to grain, it assumcs only that thc dcmand
lor grain will risc.
c argumcnt docs not discuss thc pcrccntagc ol thcir incomc that Gortlandcrs spcnd on lood, so an
assumption about this topic is not nccdcd.
c argumcnt involvcs only mcat consumption in gcncral, not its distribution by incomc lcvcl.
Ð Sincc thc argumcnt docs not rclcr to thc incomcs ol mcat produccrs and grain produccrs, it cannot dcpcnd
on an assumption about thcm.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc assumption that thcrc will bc no grcat dccrcasc in grain
consumption.
e correct answer is E.
87
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
Z9. 1he Haze|ton coa|·process|n¿ p|ant |s a major emp|oyer |n the Haze|ton area, but nat|ona| env|ronmenta| re¿u|at|ons w|||
lorce |t to c|ose |l |t cont|nues to use o|d, po||ut|n¿ process|n¿ methods. However, to update the p|ant to use newer,
c|eaner methods wou|d be so expens|ve that the p|ant w||| c|ose un|ess |t rece|ves the tax break |t has requested. ln order
to prevent a major |ncrease |n |oca| unemp|oyment, the Haze|ton ¿overnment |s cons|der|n¿ ¿rant|n¿ the p|ant's request.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ wou|d be most |mportant lor the Haze|ton ¿overnment to determ|ne belore dec|d|n¿ whether to
¿rant the p|ant's request'
|/ì whether the company that owns the p|ant wou|d open a new p|ant |n another area |l the present p|ant were c|osed
|Bì whether the p|ant wou|d emp|oy lar lewer workers when updated than |t does now
|Cì whether the |eve| ol po||utants present|y be|n¿ em|tted by the p|ant |s h|¿h enou¿h to const|tute a hea|th hazard lor
|oca| res|dents
|0ì whether the major|ty ol the coa| processed by the p|ant |s so|d outs|de the Haze|ton area
|Lì whether the p|ant wou|d be ab|e to process more coa| when updated than |t does now
EvaIuation o! a PIan
5ituation 8ccausc ol thc cxpcnscs ol mandatory updating, a plant that is a major cmploycr in thc local
arca will closc unlcss it rcccivcs thc tax brcak it has rcqucstcd lrom thc local govcrnmcnt.
ßeasoning !hat point is most critical to the e.aluation of the request? Considcr thc inlormation providcd in
c plant is important to thc local govcrnmcnt primarily bccausc it is a
major cmploycr ol local rcsidcnts. Vhat il updating thc plant signincantly rcduccd thc numbcr
ol cmployccs nccdcd: !t is crucial lor thc local govcrnmcnt to dctcrminc whcthcr thc plant will
continuc to cmploy thc samc numbcr ol pcoplc oncc it has updatcd.
c local govcrnmcnt is conccrncd only with thc local arca, so a ncw sitc outsidc that arca is irrclcvant.
B Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that is critical to thc plant's argumcnt and thc local
govcrnmcnt's dccision.
cctcd
by thc plant's pollutants or not.
Ð At issuc is thc plant's rolc as a major cmploycr, whcrc its product is sold is irrclcvant.
c amount ol coal proccsscd by thc updatcd plant is irrclcvant to thc critical issuc ol thc numbcr ol pcoplc
cmploycd to proccss that coal.
e correct answer is B.
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3C. / phys|ca||y act|ve ||lesty|e has been shown to he|p |ncrease |on¿ev|ty. ln the w|star re¿|on ol Be||ar|a, the avera¿e a¿e at
death |s cons|derab|y h|¿her than |n any other part ol the country. w|star |s the on|y mounta|nous part ol Be||ar|a. /
mounta|nous terra|n makes even such bas|c act|v|t|es as wa|k|n¿ re|at|ve|y strenuous; |t essent|a||y |mposes a phys|ca||y
act|ve ||lesty|e on peop|e. C|ear|y, th|s c|rcumstance exp|a|ns the |on¿ ||ves ol peop|e |n w|star.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens the ar¿ument'
|/ì ln Be||ar|a a|| med|ca| expenses are pa|d by the ¿overnment, so that persona| |ncome does not allect the qua||ty ol
hea|th care a person rece|ves.
|Bì 1he w|star re¿|on |s one ol Be||ar|a's |east popu|ated re¿|ons.
|Cì lany peop|e who ||ve |n the w|star re¿|on have moved there |n m|dd|e a¿e or upon ret|rement.
|0ì 1he many opportun|t|es lor h|k|n¿, sk||n¿, and other outdoor act|v|t|es that w|star's mounta|ns oller make |t a lavor|te
dest|nat|on lor vacat|on|n¿ Be||ar|ans.
|Lì ler cap|ta spend|n¿ on recreat|ona| act|v|t|es |s no h|¿her |n w|star than |t |s |n other re¿|ons ol Be||ar|a.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation c highcr avcragc agc
at timc ol dcath is attributcd to thc hcalthy lilcstylc ol thc pcoplc in this rcgion, whcrc thc
mountainous tcrrain dcmands a physically activc lilc.
ßeasoning !hat point .eakens the argument? Considcr what assumption undcrlics thc argumcnt that thc
physically activc lilcstylc rcquircd ol living in Vistar is rcsponsiblc lor its rcsidcnts' rclativc
c mountainous cnvironmcnt ncccssitatcs lilclong lcvcls ol rigorous physical activity
that build a morc robust population. Vhat il a signincant portion ol thc population has not
bccn conditioncd sincc childhood to thc dcmands ol thc tcrrain: !t is assumcd hcrc that thc
hcalthy lilcstylc imposcd by thc tcrrain has shapcd rcsidcnts lrom birth and accounts lor thcir
longcr lilc span. !l many rcsidcnts only movcd thcrc latcr in lilc, thc argumcnt is wcakcncd.
c argumcnt is not about thc quality ol hcalth carc throughout thc country, but thc lcngth ol thc
rcsidcnts' livcs in a particular rcgion.
cct thc argumcnt.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a point that wcakcns thc argumcnt.
cct thc longcvity ol thc local rcsidcnts.
c argumcnt cstablishcs that mcrcly living in thc rcgion is strcnuous, thc spcnding on rccrcational
activitics is irrclcvant.
e correct answer is C.
89
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
3ì. Cheever Co||e¿e ollers severa| on||ne courses v|a remote computer connect|on, |n add|t|on to trad|t|ona| c|assroom·based
courses. / study ol student perlormance at Cheever lound that, overa||, the avera¿e student ¿rade lor on||ne courses
matched that lor c|assroom·based courses. ln th|s ca|cu|at|on ol the avera¿e ¿rade, course w|thdrawa|s were we|¿hted as
equ|va|ent to a course la||ure, and the rate ol w|thdrawa| was much |ower lor students enro||ed |n c|assroom·based courses
than lor students enro||ed |n on||ne courses.
ll the statements above are true, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be true ol Cheever Co||e¿e'
|/ì /mon¿ students who d|d not w|thdraw, students enro||ed |n on||ne courses ¿ot h|¿her ¿rades, on avera¿e, than
students enro||ed |n c|assroom·based courses.
|Bì 1he number ol students enro||ed per course at the start ol the schoo| term |s much h|¿her, on avera¿e, lor the on||ne
courses than lor the c|assroom·based courses.
|Cì 1here are no students who take both an on||ne and a c|assroom·based course |n the same schoo| term.
|0ì /mon¿ Cheever Co||e¿e students w|th the best ¿rades, a s|¿n|hcant major|ty take on||ne, rather than c|assroom·
based, courses.
|Lì Courses ollered on||ne tend to dea| w|th subject matter that |s |ess cha||en¿|n¿ than that ol c|assroom·based
courses.
Argument Construction
5ituation A comparison ol onlinc and classroom courscs showcd similar avcragc gradcs. !n dctcrmining
avcragc g c ratc ol withdrawal
was highcr lrom onlinc than lrom classroom courscs.
ßeasoning !hat conclusion about the courses can be deri.ed from this comparison? Considcr thc ramincations ol
thc mcthodology uscd to calculatc thc gradc avcragcs lor thc two typcs ol courscs. 8ccausc ol
coursc withdrawals, thc onlinc courscs cxpcricnccd a highcr ratc ol lailurc, but thc avcragc
gradc lor thcsc courscs still matchcd thc avcragc gradc lor classroom courscs. From this it is
logical to concludc that, lor thc two avcragcs to match, thc studcnts who rcmaincd in thc onlinc
courscs must havc had highcr initial avcragc gradcs than thosc in classroom courscs.
A Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs thc logical conclusion that thc highcr pcrccntagc ol withdrawals
lrom onlinc classcs rcquircs highcr gradcs, on avcragc, to compcnsatc lor thc highcr ratc ol lailurc.
8 A numbcr ol studcnts cannot bc dcrivcd lrom a discussion ol avcragc gradcs and ratcs ol withdrawal.
is conclusion cannot bc dctcrmincd on thc basis ol thc inlormation providcd.
c inlormation is about avcragc gradcs, thc argumcnt docs not providc any basis lor a conclusion about
bcst gradcs.
¡ !t is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc dilnculty ol subjcct mattcr lrom this inlormation.
e correct answer is A.
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3Z. lor years the beaut|lu| bena|ssance bu||d|n¿s |n la||t|to have been dama¿ed by exhaust lrom the many tour buses that
come to the c|ty. 1here has been ||tt|e park|n¿ space, so most buses have |d|ed at the curb dur|n¿ each stop on the|r tour,
and |d||n¿ produces as much exhaust as dr|v|n¿. 1he c|ty has now prov|ded park|n¿ that accommodates a th|rd ol the tour
buses, so dama¿e to la||t|to's bu||d|n¿s lrom the buses' exhaust w||| d|m|n|sh s|¿n|hcant|y.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most stron¿|y supports the ar¿ument'
|/ì 1he exhaust lrom la||t|to's lew automob||es |s not a s|¿n|hcant threat to la||t|to's bu||d|n¿s.
|Bì la||t|to's bena|ssance bu||d|n¿s are not threatened by po||ut|on other than en¿|ne exhaust.
|Cì 1our buses typ|ca||y spend |ess than one·quarter ol the t|me they are |n la||t|to transport|n¿ passen¿ers lrom one
s|te to another.
|0ì lore tour|sts come to la||t|to by tour bus than by any other s|n¿|e means ol transportat|on.
|Lì 3ome ol the tour buses that are unab|e to hnd park|n¿ dr|ve around la||t|to wh||e the|r passen¿ers are v|s|t|n¿ a s|te.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation Tour buscs havc damagcd Rcnaissancc buildings with thcir cxhaust lumcs bccausc lack ol
parking has kcpt thc buscs idling at curbs. Providing ncw parking lor a third ol thc buscs should
signincantly rcducc thc damagc causcd by thc cxhaust.
ßeasoning !hat point strengthens the argument? c argumcnt lor rcduccd damagc rclics on thc rcduction ol
thc vchiclcs' cxhaust lumcs. Any additional cvidcncc rcgarding thc cxtcnt to which thc
vchicular cmissions arc likcly to bc rcduccd also supports thc argumcnt lor thc bcncnts ol thc
ncw parking spaccs. Lcarning that tour buscs spcnd not just a lcw minutcs but most ol thcir
, causing no damagc at all.
cctcd.
is statcmcnt docs not addrcss thc qucstion ol whcthcr thc ncw parking will rcducc thc damagc causcd by
cnginc cxhaust lrom thc buscs.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly citcs a lactor that supports thc argumcnt: sincc most ol thc buscs' timc
has bccn spcnt producing damaging cxhaust, thc ncw parking should rcducc thc damagc signincantly.
is statcmcnt about tourists' choscn mcans ol transportation is irrclcvant to thc issuc ol what thc buscs do
whilc in thc city.
¡ !t is givcn that thc ncw parking will only providc spacc lor a third ol thc buscs, and thus somc buscs will
is
statcmcnt docs not strcngthcn thc argumcnt.
e correct answer is C.
91
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
33. 0ur|n¿ the ì9ßCs and ì99Cs, the annua| number ol peop|e who v|s|ted the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |ncreased cont|nua||y, and
many new sk| resorts were bu||t. 0ver the same per|od, however, the number ol v|s|tors to sk| resorts who were cau¿ht |n
ava|anches decreased, even thou¿h there was no reduct|on |n the annua| number ol ava|anches |n the 3orde|||an
lounta|ns.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true |n the 3orde|||an lounta|ns dur|n¿ the ì9ßCs and ì99Cs, most he|ps to exp|a|n the decrease'
|/ì /va|anches were most ||ke|y to happen when a |ar¿e new snowla|| covered an o|der |ayer ol snow.
|Bì /va|anches destroyed at |east some bu||d|n¿s |n the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |n every year.
|Cì leop|e p|ann|n¿ new sk| s|opes and other resort lac|||t|es used |ncreas|n¿|y accurate |nlormat|on about wh|ch
|ocat|ons are ||ke|y to be |n the path ol ava|anches.
|0ì 1he avera¿e |en¿th ol stay lor peop|e v|s|t|n¿ the 3orde|||an lounta|ns |ncreased s||¿ht|y.
|Lì Construct|on ol new sk| resorts olten |ed to the c|ear|n¿ ol wooded areas that had he|ped prevent ava|anches.
Argument Construction
5ituation Òvcr a ccrtain pcriod, ncw ski rcsorts accommodatcd an incrcasing numbcr ol visitors at thc
samc timc that lcwcr visitors wcrc caught in avalanchcs. Yct thcrc wcrc no lcwcr avalanchcs
than usual during this pcriod.
ßeasoning !hat explains the apparent contradiction of increased .isitors but fe.er .isitors caught in a.alanches?
Morc rcsort visitors would imply morc avalanchcrclatcd accidcnts, but thc avcragc has shiltcd
so that lcwcr visitors arc bcing caught in thc avalanchcs. !t must bc that lcwcr visitors arc
cxposcd to this dangcr, considcr thc answcr choiccs to idcntily a logical rcason lor this
improvcmcnt in thcir cxposurc. !l thc likcly paths ol avalanchcs had bccomc bcttcr undcrstood,
that inlormation would havc bccn applicd to idcntily salcr locations lor ncw ski slopcs and ski
c lacilitics would thus havc bccn built wcll out ol thc way ol avalanchcs, rcsulting in
lcwcr visitors trappcd in avalanchcs.
is likclihood would rcmain truc lrom ycar to ycar, it docs not cxplain thc dccrcasc.
is point docs not cxplain why lcwcr visitors wcrc caught in thcsc avalanchcs.
C Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that cxplains thc dccrcascd numbcr ol accidcnts.
c grcatcr lcngth ol stay would sccm to cxposc visitors to grcatcr dangcr.
is inlormation points to an cxpcctcd incrcasc, rathcr than dccrcasc, in visitors who might bc caught
by avalanchcs.
e correct answer is C.
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34. / year a¿o, 0|etz loods |aunched a year|on¿ advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n lor |ts canned tuna. last year 0|etz so|d ìZ m||||on cans
ol tuna compared to the ìC m||||on so|d dur|n¿ the prev|ous year, an |ncrease d|rect|y attr|butab|e to new customers
brou¿ht |n by the campa|¿n. lrohts lrom the add|t|ona| sa|es, however, were substant|a||y |ess than the cost ol the
advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n. C|ear|y, therelore, the campa|¿n d|d noth|n¿ to lurther 0|etz's econom|c |nterests.
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿, |l true, most ser|ous|y weakens the ar¿ument'
|/ì 3a|es ol canned tuna account lor a re|at|ve|y sma|| percenta¿e ol 0|etz loods' prohts.
|Bì lost ol the peop|e who bou¿ht 0|etz's canned tuna lor the hrst t|me as a resu|t ol the campa|¿n were a|ready |oya|
customers ol other 0|etz products.
|Cì / |ess expens|ve advert|s|n¿ campa|¿n wou|d have brou¿ht |n s|¿n|hcant|y lewer new customers lor 0|etz's canned
tuna than d|d the campa|¿n 0|etz loods |aunched |ast year.
|0ì 0|etz made money on sa|es ol canned tuna |ast year.
|Lì ln each ol the past hve years, there was a steep, |ndustry·w|de dec||ne |n sa|es ol canned tuna.
Argument EvaIuation
5ituation An advcrtising campaign was rcsponsiblc lor incrcascd salcs ol canncd tuna. Sincc thc pronts
lrom thc incrcascd salcs wcrc lcss than thc costs ol thc campaign, thc campaign did not
contributc to thc company's cconomic intcrcsts.
ßeasoning !hich point .eakens the argument? Considcr thc basis ol thc argumcnt: il pronts arc lowcr than
costs, thc campaign madc no contribution to thc company's nnancial wcllbcing. !n what casc
might this bc untruc: Vhat il thc advcrtising campaign rcvcrscd an industrywidc trcnd ol
dcclining salcs: !l Ðictz cxpcricnccd incrcasing salcs, whilc othcr companics cxpcricnccd
dccrcascd salcs, thcn thc campaign did contributc to thc cconomic intcrcsts ol thc company, and
thc argumcnt is considcrably wcakcncd.
c issuc is not thc pcrccntagc ol pronts that canncd tuna contributcs, but thc succcss ol thc advcrtising
campaign.
8 !l thc customcrs bought thc tuna bccausc ol thc campaign, it is irrclcvant to thc argumcnt that thcy also
bought othcr Ðictz products.
is inlormation ncithcr strcngthcns nor wcakcns thc argumcnt.
c argumcnt is not about pronts only, but about whcthcr thc advcrtising campaign contributcd to thc
cconomic intcrcsts ol thc company.
E Correct. is statcmcnt propcrly idcntincs a lactor that wcakcns thc argumcnt: thc campaign sccurcd thc
bcncnts ol incrcascd salcs at a timc whcn thc cntirc industry was cxpcricncing a dcclinc in salcs.
e correct answer is E.
93
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
3o. 0n||ke the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch
were arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an was
lo||owed lor a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey: w|th houses
|a|d out on a north·south, east·west ¿r|d, and houses
and wa||s were bu||t ol standard·s|ze br|cks.
|/ì the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch were
arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an was
lo||owed lor a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey: w|th
houses
|Bì the bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch
were haphazard |n arran¿ement, the same bas|c
p|an was used |n a|| c|t|es ol the lndus Va||ey:
houses were
|Cì the arran¿ement ol bu||d|n¿s |n lesopotam|an
c|t|es, wh|ch were haphazard, the c|t|es ol the
lndus Va||ey a|| lo||owed the same bas|c p|an:
houses
|0ì lesopotam|an c|t|es, |n wh|ch bu||d|n¿s were
arran¿ed haphazard|y, the c|t|es ol the lndus
Va||ey a|| lo||owed the same bas|c p|an: houses
were
|Lì lesopotam|an c|t|es, wh|ch had bu||d|n¿s that
were arran¿ed haphazard|y, the same bas|c p|an
was used lor a|| c|t|es |n the lndus Va||ey: houses
that were
Comparison-contrast, Modi!ying cIause
c contrast introduccd by unlike must bc
logical and clcar. Contrasting the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan docs
not makc scnsc, Mesopotamian cities should bc
contrastcd with the cities of the Indus !alley. Also,
it nccds to bc clcar that it was thc buildings in thc
citics that .ere arranged haphazardly rathcr than
thc cities c sccond hall ol thc scntcncc nccds
houses .ere laid out to bc parallcl in structurc to
and houses and .alls .ere built.
A !llogically contrasts the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan,
not clcar whcthcr .hich .ere arranged
haphazardly modincs cities or buildings, .ith
houses lacks parallclism and is conlusing.
8 !llogically contrasts the buildings in
Mesopotamian cities with the same basic plan,
docs not clarily what .hich .ere haphazard
in arrangement modincs.
C !llogically contrasts the arrangement of
buildings with the cities of the Indus !alley,
not clcar whcthcr .hich .ere haphazard
modincs buildings or cities, houses not
lollowcd by a vcrb.
D Correct. !n this scntcncc, Mesopotamian
cities arc propcrly contrastcd with the cities
of the Indus !alley, in .hich buildings .ere
arranged haphazardly cxprcsscs thc idca
clcarly, and houses is lollowcd by .ere as
rcquircd.
¡ !llogically contrasts Mesopotamian cities with
the same basic plan, houses that .ere lacks
parallclism and is conlusing.
e correct answer is D.
3b. New data lrom 0n|ted 3tates lorest 3erv|ce eco|o¿|sts
show that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, |t saves seven do||ars that
wou|d not be spent on hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh b|¿ hres.
|/ì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed
sma||·sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the
tra|n|n¿ ol hre·mana¿ement personne|, |t saves
seven do||ars that wou|d not be spent on hav|n¿
to ext|n¿u|sh
5entence Correction
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and e!!ective approaches
to sentence correction questions. The particuIar questions in this chapter are generaIIy representative o!
the kinds o! sentence correction questions you viII encounter on the GMAT. ßemember that it is the
probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
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|Bì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol
hre·mana¿ement personne|, seven do||ars are
saved that wou|d have been spent on
ext|n¿u|sh|n¿
|Cì that lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·
sca|e burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol
hre·mana¿ement personne| saves seven do||ars
on not hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh
|0ì lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·sca|e
burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, that |t saves seven
do||ars on not hav|n¿ to ext|n¿u|sh
|Lì lor every do||ar spent on contro||ed sma||·sca|e
burn|n¿, lorest th|nn|n¿, and the tra|n|n¿ ol hre·
mana¿ement personne|, that seven do||ars are
saved that wou|d not have been spent on
ext|n¿u|sh|n¿
LogicaI predication, ßhetoricaI construction
c pronoun it (it sa.es se.en dollars) has no
rclcrcnt. Making se.en dollars thc subjcct ol
thc clausc climinatcs this problcm, and it also
lulnlls a rcadcr's cxpcctation that altcr thc
phrasc bcginning for e.ery dollar anothcr spccinc
is changc
in structurc also allows thc awkward and wordy
clausc that .ould not be spent on ha.ing to
extinguish to bc rcwrittcn so that spent balanccs
sa.ed: se.en dollars are sa.ed that .ould ha.e been
spent on extinguishing, and thc unncccssary ha.ing
to is omittcd.
A It has no rclcrcnt, not be spent is awkward,
on ha.ing to extinguish is wordy.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly uscs se.en
dollars as thc subjcct ol thc clausc to balancc
e.ery dollar in thc introductory phrasc, thc
phrasing is concisc and parallcl.
C Sa.es docs not havc a subjcct, construction is
not a complctc scntcncc, not ha.ing to
extinguish is wordy and awkward.
Ð at introduccs a subordinatc rathcr than
main clausc, making a scntcncc lragmcnt,
it has no rclcrcnt, not ha.ing to extinguish is
wordy and awkward.
¡ !ntroductory that makcs a scntcncc
lragmcnt, that .ould not ha.e been spent on
extinguishing is awkward and illogical.
e correct answer is B.
3/. l|ke the ¿rassy he|ds and o|d pastures that the up|and
sandp|per needs lor leed|n¿ and nest|n¿ when |t
returns |n lay alter w|nter|n¿ |n the /r¿ent|ne
lampas, the sandp|pers van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates |s a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and |ndustr|a|
deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n larm|n¿ pract|ces.
|/ì the sandp|pers van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates |s a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n
|Bì the b|rd |tse|l |s van|sh|n¿ |n the northeastern
0n|ted 3tates as a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and ol chan¿es |n
|Cì that the b|rds themse|ves are van|sh|n¿ |n the
northeastern 0n|ted 3tates |s due to res|dent|a|
and |ndustr|a| deve|opment and chan¿es to
|0ì |n the northeastern 0n|ted 3tates, sandp|pers'
van|sh|n¿ due to res|dent|a| and |ndustr|a|
deve|opment and to chan¿es |n
|Lì |n the northeastern 0n|ted 3tates, the
sandp|pers' van|sh|n¿, a resu|t ol res|dent|a| and
|ndustr|a| deve|opment and chan¿|n¿
Comparison, 5entence structure
c comparison introduccd by like must bc logical
and clcar, thc point ol this comparison is that
both thc habitat and thc bird arc disappcaring lor
c comparison must usc
comparablc grammatical componcnts, the bird
itself is a noun phrasc and matchcs thc noun
phrascs grassy µelds and old pastures.
A !llogically comparcs the sandpipers .anishing
to grassy µelds and old pastures, omits
apostrophc in sandpipers` .anishing, wordy.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly comparcs
the bird itself to grassy µelds and old pastures, is
.anishing as thc vcrb strcngthcns thc
scntcncc by making thc comparison clcarcr.
95
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
C Ðocs not nnish thc comparison bcgun with
like but instcad substitutcs a clausc (that the
birds themsel.es are .anishing).
Ð !llogically comparcs the sandpipers' .anishing
to grassy µelds and old pastures, crcatcs a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
¡ !llogically comparcs the sandpipers' .anishing
to grassy µelds and old pastures, crcatcs a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is B.
3ß. 1he resu|ts ol two recent unre|ated stud|es support
the |dea that do|ph|ns may share certa|n co¿n|t|ve
ab|||t|es w|th humans and ¿reat apes; the stud|es
|nd|cate do|ph|ns as capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to ¿rasp
spontaneous|y the mood or |ntent|on ol humans.
|/ì do|ph|ns as capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿ themse|ves
|n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten cons|dered a
s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to ¿rasp
spontaneous|y
|Bì do|ph|ns' ab|||ty to reco¿n|ze themse|ves |n
m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten cons|dered as a
s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and ol spontaneous|y
¿rasp|n¿
|Cì do|ph|ns to be capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and to
¿rasp spontaneous|y
|0ì that do|ph|ns have the ab|||ty ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered as a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and
spontaneous|y ¿rasp|n¿
|Lì that do|ph|ns are capab|e ol reco¿n|z|n¿
themse|ves |n m|rrors-an ab|||ty that |s olten
cons|dered a s|¿n ol se|l·awareness-and ol
spontaneous|y ¿rasp|n¿
GrammaticaI construction, ParaIIeIism
!n thc contcxt ol this scntcncc, the studies indicate
must introducc a clausc, thc clausc must bcgin
with that and havc a subjcct, dolphins, and a vcrb,
are (thc complctc vcrb phrasc would bc are capable
of c two capabilitics should bc parallcl: capable
of recognizing.and of spontaneously grasping.
A Contcxt rcquircs a clausc, but this
construction is not a clausc, capable of
recognizing is not parallcl to to grasp
spontaneously.
8 Construction is not a clausc, and a clausc is
rcquircd, dolphins` ability to recognize is not
parallcl to of spontaneously grasping.
C A clausc is rcquircd lollowing the studies
indicate, to be capable of recognizing is not
parallcl to to grasp spontaneously.
Ð Ha.e the ability of is wordy and unidiomatic,
of recognizing and spontaneously grasping arc
not parallcl.
E Correct. at introduccs thc subordinatc
clausc ncccssary to complctc this scntcncc
propcrly, of recognizing and of spontaneously
grasping arc parallcl.
e correct answer is E.
39. /ccord|n¿ to scho|ars, the ear||est wr|t|n¿ was
probab|y not a d|rect render|n¿ ol speech, but was
more ||ke|y to be¿|n as a separate and d|st|nct
symbo||c system ol commun|cat|on, and on|y |ater
mer¿ed w|th spoken |an¿ua¿e.
|/ì was more ||ke|y to be¿|n as
|Bì more than ||ke|y be¿an as
|Cì more than ||ke|y be¿|nn|n¿ lrom
|0ì |t was more than ||ke|y be¿un lrom
|Lì |t was more ||ke|y that |t be¿an
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96
Idiom, Verb !orm
is scntcncc is a comparison in which probably
not x is balanccd by but more than likely y. Vhcn
more is uscd in thc comparativc lorm ol an
adjcctivc (more difµcult) or advcrb (more likely), it is
lollowcd by than c words uscd to show thc
comparison bctwccn x and y, but more than likely,
must also introducc thc corrcct vcrb lorm,
allowing y to nt grammatically into thc rcst ol thc
c subjcct ol thc scntcncc has thrcc
vcrbs, all ol which should bc parallcl: the earliest
.riting .as.began.merged. !as.to begin is not
parallcl and rcsults in a construction that is not
grammatically corrcct.
A !n this contcxt, more likely is not a complctc
idiomatic cxprcssion, .as.to begin is not
parallcl to .as and merged.
B Correct. !n this scntcncc, more than likely is
thc corrcct comparativc construction, thc
simplc past tcnsc began, parallcl to .as and
merged, nts grammatically into thc scntcncc.
C Subjcct should bc lollowcd by thrcc vcrbs,
beginning from is not a vcrb.
Ð Usc ol thc pronoun it makcs this
construction a main clausc, in which casc
thc comma altcr communication must bc
omittcd and began must bc uscd to bc
parallcl to merged, .as.begun is not thc
corrcct tcnsc.
¡ !n this awkward, unclcar, and wordy
construction, thc nrst it must bc lollowcd by
is, not .as, bccausc thc thcory is currcnt, thc
sccond it acts as thc subjcct ol thc
subordinatc clausc, and this usagc rcquircs
thc omission ol thc comma altcr
communication.
e correct answer is B.
4C. ln ì99o b|chard 3ta||man, a we||·known cr|t|c ol the
patent system, test|hed |n latent 0lhce hear|n¿s
that, to test the system, a co||ea¿ue ol h|s had
mana¿ed to w|n a patent lor one ol b|rchholl's |aws,
an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst made |n
ìß4o and now |nc|uded |n v|rtua||y every textbook ol
e|ementary phys|cs.
|/ì |aws, an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst
made |n ìß4o and
|Bì |aws, wh|ch was an observat|on about e|ectr|c
current hrst made |n ìß4o and |t |s
|Cì |aws, name|y, |t was an observat|on about
e|ectr|c current hrst made |n ìß4o and
|0ì |aws, an observat|on about e|ectr|c current hrst
made |n ìß4o, |t |s
|Lì |aws that was an observat|on about e|ectr|c
current, hrst made |n ìß4o, and |s
LogicaI predication, ParaIIeIism
c lunction ol thc cntirc long phrasc
(obser.ation.physics) that lollows `s
la.s is to dcscribc that law. !t is a noun phrasc in
apposition, which mcans that it has thc samc
syntactic rclation to all thc othcr parts ol thc
scntcncc that thc noun phrasc `s
la.s docs. Vithin thc long modilying phrasc,
parallclism is maintaincd by balancing an
obser.ation.µrst made with and no. included.
A Correct. !n this scntcncc, thc noun phrasc
in apposition propcrly idcntincs and cxplains
thc law, using parallcl structurc and concisc
cxprcssion.
8 !hich is ambiguous bccausc it could rclcr to
one or to la.s, it is violatcs thc parallclism ol
µrst made and no. included.
C It is ambiguous, thc introduction ol it .as
docs not allow this construction to nt
grammatically into thc scntcncc.
c rclcrcnt ol it is unclcar, it is crcatcs a
runon scntcncc and violatcs thc parallclism
ol µrst made and no. included.
¡ at appcars to rclcr to la.s rathcr than one,
thc
phrasc µrst made in 1843 in commas distorts
mcaning, is violatcs parallclism.
e correct answer is A.
97
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
4ì. Lxcavators at the lndus Va||ey s|te ol Harappa |n
eastern lak|stan say the d|scovery ol |nscr|bed
shards dat|n¿ to c|rca ZßCC-ZbCC B.C. |nd|cate the|r
deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿ system, the use
ol |nscr|bed sea|s |mpressed |nto c|ay lor mark|n¿
ownersh|p, and the standard|zat|on ol we|¿hts lor
trade or taxat|on occurred many decades, |l not
centur|es, ear||er than was prev|ous|y be||eved.
|/ì |nd|cate the|r deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿
system, the use ol
|Bì |nd|cate that the deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, us|n¿
|Cì |nd|cates that the|r deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, us|n¿
|0ì |nd|cates the deve|opment ol a Harappan wr|t|n¿
system, the|r use ol
|Lì |nd|cates that the deve|opment ol a Harappan
wr|t|n¿ system, the use ol
Agreement, Idiom, ParaIIeIism
!n long scntcnccs such as this onc, thc
rclationship bctwccn parts ol thc scntcncc may bc
dilncult to scc. Hcrc, thc main clausc ol thc
scntcncc is exca.ators.say and thc logical
scqucncc that lollows is the disco.ery.indicates
that c subjcct ol this nrst subordinatc clausc is
thc singular noun disco.ery, which should bc
lollowcd by thc singular vcrb indicates rathcr than
by thc plural indicate, as is donc in thc original
scntcncc. eir, uscd with cithcr de.elopment or
use, has no clcar or logical rclcrcnt in any ol thc
c subjcct ol thc lollowing
subordinatc (that) clausc, which has occurred as its
vcrb, is a scrics ol thrcc phrascs, which must bc
parallcl, cspccially in a scntcncc ol this lcngth and
complcxity: the de.elopment of., the use of., and
the standardization of..
A Indicate docs not agrcc with disco.ery, thc
pronoun their has no logical rclcrcnt, and
their de.elopment is not parallcl to the use and
the standardization.
8 Indicate docs not agrcc with disco.ery, using
is not parallcl to the de.elopment and the
standardization.
C eir has no logical rclcrcnt, thc scrics ol
thrcc clcmcnts should bc parallcl, but hcrc
crcnt.
c pronoun their has no logical rclcrcnt,
and their use is not parallcl to the de.elopment
and the standardization, thc prclcrrcd
scntcncc structurc would havc indicates
lollowcd by that whcn introducing a clausc.
E Correct. !n this scntcncc, indicates agrccs
with disco.ery and is lollowcd by that to
introducc a clausc, thc thrcc parallcl phrascs
bcgin with an articlc (the), a noun, and thc
prcposition of.
e correct answer is E.
4Z. 1he 3upreme Court has ru|ed that pub||c un|vers|t|es
can co||ect student act|v|ty lees even w|th students'
object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es, so |on¿ as the
¿roups they ¿|ve money to w||| be chosen w|thout
re¿ard to the|r v|ews.
|/ì w|th students' object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es,
so |on¿ as the ¿roups they ¿|ve money to w||| be
|Bì |l they have object|ons to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es
and the ¿roups that are ¿|ven the money are
|Cì |l they object to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es, but the
¿roups that the money |s ¿|ven to have to be
|0ì lrom students who object to part|cu|ar act|v|t|es,
so |on¿ as the ¿roups ¿|ven money are
|Lì thou¿h students have an object|on to part|cu|ar
act|v|t|es, but the ¿roups that are ¿|ven the
money be
LogicaI predication, ßhetoricaI construction
c undcrlincd portion ol thc scntcncc lails to
cstablish a clcar rclationship among uni.ersities,
students, and groups. To which ol thcsc thrcc docs
they rclcr: !t would appcar that thc uni.ersities
must givc thc moncy, but they docs not havc a
rclcrcnt. Furthcrmorc, they is lollowcd by their
.ie.s, and in this casc their must rclcr to groups.
Vordy and awkward phrasing as wcll as an
unncccssary shilt in vcrb tcnsc (.ill be chosen)
compound thc dilnculty ol undcrstanding this
scntcncc in its original lorm.
A !ith students` objections.is awkward and
dcnsc, they docs not havc a rclcrcnt, thc
luturc .ill be is incorrcct sincc thc Suprcmc
Court has alrcady ruled.
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98
8 Rclcrcnt lor they is student acti.ity fees,
which cannot possibly ha.e objections., thc
usc ol and is illogical.
C ey rclcrs to studcnt acti.ity fees rathcr than
students, but docs not havc thc rcquisitc
scnsc ol .ith the pro.ision that, ha.e to be is
wordy.
D Correct. !n this scntcncc, from students .ho
object is clcar and idiomatic, so long as is uscd
appropriatcly, groups gi.en money climinatcs
thc problcm ol a pronoun without a rclcrcnt,
are is thc propcr tcnsc.
¡ Ha.e an objection is an unncccssarily wordy
way to say object, thc vcrb be docs not
complctc thc lattcr part ol thc scntcncc.
e correct answer is D.
43. 0esp|te the |ncreas|n¿ number ol women ¿raduat|n¿
lrom |aw schoo| and pass|n¿ bar exam|nat|ons, the
proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major |aw hrms
who are women have not r|sen to a comparab|e
extent.
|/ì the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major
|aw hrms who are women have not r|sen to a
comparab|e extent
|Bì the proport|on ol women jud¿es and partners at
major |aw hrms have not r|sen comparab|y
|Cì the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at major
|aw hrms who are women has not r|sen
comparab|y
|0ì yet the proport|on ol women jud¿es and
partners at major |aw hrms has not r|sen to a
comparab|e extent
|Lì yet the proport|on ol jud¿es and partners at
major |aw hrms who are women has not r|sen
comparab|y
Agreement, ßhetoricaI construction
Vhcn a numbcr ol plural nouns appcar in phrascs
bctwccn a singular subjcct and thc vcrb, it can bc
casy to ovcrlook thc truc subjcct ol thc vcrb. Hcrc,
judges, partners, µrms, and .omen all occur
bctwccn thc singular subjcct, proportion, and thc
vcrb, which should also bc singular, has risen.
Concisc cxprcssion is particularly important in a
long construction, to a comparable extent may bc
morc conciscly cxprcsscd as comparably.
A Plural vcrb, ha.e risen, docs not agrcc with
thc singular subjcct, proportion.
8 Ha.e risen docs not agrcc with proportion,
hcrc, .omen applics only to judges, not to
partners at major la. µrms.
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, has risen agrccs
with proportion, and comparably is morc
concisc than to a comparable extent c
modilying clausc .ho are .omen lollows
(1) judges and (2) partners at major la. µrms
as closcly as is possiblc givcn thc contcnt ol
thc scntcncc, this positioning has thc virtuc
ol bcing clcar in its mcaning.
c contrast has alrcady bccn introduccd by
despite, so thc addition ol yet is illogical and
ungrammatical, to a comparable extent is
wordy.
¡ Despite introduccs thc contrast, adding yet is
illogical and rcsults in an ungrammatical
construction.
e correct answer is C.
44. 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ leet deep,
but |t ran 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed w||derness
ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana| connected the
Hudson b|ver at /|bany to the 0reat lakes at Bulla|o,
prov|d|n¿ the port ol New York C|ty w|th a d|rect water
||nk to the heart|and ol the North /mer|can cont|nent.
|/ì 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ leet
deep, but |t ran 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed
w||derness ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana|
connected
|Bì 3e|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ leet
deep but runn|n¿ 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed
w||derness ol upstate New York, the Lr|e Cana|
connected
99
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
|Cì lt was se|dom more than 4C leet w|de and ìZ
leet deep, and ran 3b3 m||es across the ru¿¿ed
w||derness ol upstate New York, but the Lr|e
Cana|, connect|n¿
|0ì 1he Lr|e Cana| was se|dom more than 4C leet
w|de or ìZ leet deep and |t ran 3b3 m||es
across the ru¿¿ed w||derness ol upstate New
York, wh|ch connected
|Lì 1he Lr|e Cana|, se|dom more than 4C leet w|de
and ìZ leet deep, but runn|n¿ 3b3 m||es across
the ru¿¿ed w||derness ol upstate New York,
connect|n¿
LogicaI predication, GrammaticaI construction
c phrasc seldom.deep is thc nrst hall ol a
modincr that dcscribcs the Erie Canal. Howcvcr,
bccausc a comma incorrcctly lollows deep, this
phrasc appcars to bc thc cntirc modincr, which
must agrcc with thc noun or pronoun that
is phrasc cannot modily
thc conjunction but, and it has no rclcrcnt, but it
ran is not a logical or grammatical construction
lollowing thc modilying phrasc. Substituting
running lor it ran crcatcs an adjcctivc phrasc
parallcl to thc nrst adjcctivc phrasc (seldom...deep).
To contrast thc small sizc rcportcd in thc nrst
phrasc with thc grcat distancc rcportcd in thc
sccond, thc two phrascs may bc joincd with but,
togcthcr thcy crcatc a singlc modincr corrcctly
modilying the Erie Canal. e Erie Canal is thcn
thc subjcct ol thc scntcncc and rcquircs thc vcrb
connected to providc a logical statcmcnt.
A But it ran cannot logically or grammatically
lollow thc modilying phrasc.
B Correct. is scntcncc propcrly has thc
singlc modincr consisting ol two contrasting
parts.
C Ncithcr and nor but acts as a logical
conncctor, thc usc ol connecting rcsults in a
scntcncc lragmcnt.
c paircd conccpts ol width and dcpth
should bc joincd by and, not or, this
construction calls lor two main clauscs to bc
scparatcd by a comma altcr deep, .hich is
ambiguous.
c two halvcs ol thc modincr should not
bc scparatcd by a comma altcr deep, thc
subjcct is awkwardly and conlusingly placcd
at a grcat distancc lrom thc prcdicatc, thc
usc ol connecting rathcr than connected crcatcs
a scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is B.
4o. ln ì9Z3, the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum wa¿e
lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a as
unconst|tut|ona|, and ru||n¿ that |t was a lorm ol pr|ce·
hx|n¿ and, as such, an abr|d¿ment ol the r|¿ht ol
contract.
|/ì the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum wa¿e
lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol
Co|umb|a as unconst|tut|ona|, and
|Bì the 3upreme Court dec|ared as unconst|tut|ona|
a m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a, and
|Cì the 3upreme Court dec|ared unconst|tut|ona| a
m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a,
|0ì a m|n|mum wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the
0|str|ct ol Co|umb|a was dec|ared
unconst|tut|ona| by the 3upreme Court,
|Lì when the 3upreme Court dec|ared a m|n|mum
wa¿e lor women and ch||dren |n the 0|str|ct ol
Co|umb|a as unconst|tut|ona|,
Idiom, GrammaticaI construction
is scntcncc dcpcnds on thc corrcct usc ol an
idiom: the court declares x unconstitutional. c
invcrtcd lorm should bc uscd hcrc bccausc ol
thc long phrascs involvcd: the court declares
e Supreme Court is thc subjcct
ol thc scntcncc, declared is thc vcrb. Fuling.
contract acts a modincr dcscribing thc action ol
thc main clausc, bccausc thc modincr is
subordinatc to thc main clausc, thc conjunction
and must bc omittcd. Ænd is uscd to join two
indcpcndcnt clauscs, not a clausc and its modincr.
A Declared.as unconstitutional is not thc
corrcct idiom, thc usc ol and crcatcs an
ungrammatical construction.
8 Declared as unconstitutional is not thc corrcct
idiom, thc usc ol and crcatcs an
ungrammatical construction.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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100
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, thc corrcct idiom
is uscd, and thc modincr is grammatically
and logically attachcd to thc main clausc.
Ð Passivc voicc construction is wcak and
wordy, its usc causcs thc modincr to bc
misplaccd and ambiguous.
¡ Declared.as unconstitutional is not thc
corrcct idiom, .hen translorms thc main
clausc into a subordinatc clausc, rcsulting in
a scntcncc lragmcnt.
e correct answer is C.
4b. besearchers have lound that |nd|v|dua|s who have
been b||nd lrom b|rth, and who thus have never seen
anyone ¿esture, neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons
when speak|n¿ just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the
same way as s|¿hted peop|e do, and that they w|||
¿esture even when convers|n¿ w|th another b||nd
person.
|/ì who thus have never seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the same way
as s|¿hted peop|e do, and that they w||| ¿esture
|Bì who thus never saw anyone ¿estur|n¿,
neverthe|ess make hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent and |n v|rtua||y the same way as
s|¿hted peop|e d|d, and that they w||| ¿esture
|Cì who thus have never seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess made hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the same way
as s|¿hted peop|e do, as we|| as ¿estur|n¿
|0ì thus never hav|n¿ seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess made hand mot|ons when speak|n¿
just as lrequent and |n v|rtua||y the same way as
s|¿hted peop|e d|d, as we|| as ¿estur|n¿
|Lì thus never hav|n¿ seen anyone ¿esture,
neverthe|ess to make hand mot|ons when
speak|n¿ just as lrequent|y and |n v|rtua||y the
same way as s|¿hted peop|e do, and to ¿esture
ParaIIeIism, Verb !orm, Diction
c rcscarchcrs havc lound (1) that indi.iduals.
make hand motions.as sighted people do and (2)
that they .ill gesture..ith another blind person. !n
thc original scntcncc, thc two nndings arc
rcportcd in two parallcl subordinatc clauscs
introduccd by that c vcrb tcnscs arc logical and
parallcl: .ho ha.e been blind and .ho ha.e ne.er
seen indicatc a condition that bcgan in thc past
and continucs in thc prcscnt, make and do rclcr to
c vcrb make (hand motions) is
corrcctly modincd by thc advcrb frequently to
show how thc action ol thc vcrb is carricd out.
c cmphatic luturc .ill gesture is propcrly uscd
hcrc with e.en to cmphasizc thc cxtrcmc or thc
uncxpcctcd.
A Correct. Although thc original scntcncc is
complicatcd, thc parallclism ol its structurc
and phrasing allows its mcaning to bc clcar
cctivc.
8 \crbs sa. and did indicatc action complctcd
in thc past, thc simplc past tcnsc is not
appropriatc in cithcr casc, thc adjcctivc
frequent cannot modily thc vcrb, awkward
and muddy.
C Made indicatcs past action, but thc
prcscnt tcnsc is logically rcquircd, as .ell as
gesturing violatcs thc parallclism ol thc two
subordinatc (that) clauscs, choppy and
unclcar.
Ð Ha.ing seen is not parallcl to ha.e been,
made and did do not show ongoing action,
frequent incorrcctly modincs thc vcrb, as .ell
as gesturing dcstroys thc parallclism ol thc
two subordinatc (that) clauscs, awkward and
unclcar.
¡ Rcplacing thc vcrb make with thc innnitivc
to make rcsults in an ungrammatical
construction that lails to complctc thc
scntcncc.
e correct answer is A.
101
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
4/. l|ke embryon|c ¿erm ce||s, wh|ch are ce||s that
deve|op ear|y |n the lormat|on ol the letus and that
|ater ¿enerate e¿¿s or sperm, embryon|c stem ce||s
have the ab|||ty ol deve|op|n¿ themse|ves |nto d|llerent
k|nds ol body t|ssue.
|/ì embryon|c stem ce||s have the ab|||ty ol
deve|op|n¿ themse|ves |nto d|llerent k|nds ol
body t|ssue
|Bì embryon|c stem ce||s have the ab|||ty to deve|op
|nto d|llerent k|nds ol body t|ssue
|Cì |n embryon|c stem ce||s there |s the ab|||ty to
deve|op |nto d|llerent k|nds ol body t|ssue
|0ì the ab|||ty to deve|op themse|ves |nto d|llerent
k|nds ol body t|ssue character|zes embryon|c
stem ce||s
|Lì the ab|||ty ol deve|op|n¿ |nto d|llerent k|nds ol
body t|ssue character|zes embryon|c stem ce||s
Idiom, GrammaticaI construction
Two constructions crcatc problcms in thc original
c nrst is thc unidiomatic construction
ha.e the ability of de.eloping, ability must bc
lollowcd by an innnitivc, to de.elop, not a phrasc.
c sccond problcmatic construction is to de.elop
themsel.es into. !n this biological contcxt, thc vcrb
de.elop mcans to progrcss lrom an carlicr to a latcr
stagc, it is uscd intransitivcly, which mcans that it
c pronoun themsel.es acts
as an objcct, crcating a construction that is not
grammatical or logical. Òmitting thc pronoun
rcmovcs thc problcm.
A Æbility is incorrcctly lollowcd by of
de.eloping, a pronoun cannot lollow de.elop,
whcn it is uscd, as it is hcrc, in its
intransitivc scnsc.
B Correct. Æbility is propcrly lollowcd by thc
innnitivc in this scntcncc, and thc pronoun
themsel.es is omittcd.
is awkward and wordy construction
violatcs thc parallclism ol like embryonic
germ cells.embryonic stem cells..
c two parts ol thc comparison must bc
parallcl, like embryonic germ cells must bc
lollowcd by embryonic stem cells, not the
ability to de.elop.
¡ Æbility is lollowcd by thc unidiomatic of
de.eloping rathcr than to de.elop, thc main
clausc must bcgin with embryonic stem cells to
balancc and complctc like embryonic germ
cells.
e correct answer is B.
4ß. Cr|t|cs contend that the new m|ss||e |s a weapon
whose |mportance |s |ar¿e|y symbo||c, more a too|
lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than to lu|h|| a
rea| m|||tary need.
|/ì lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than to
lu|h||
|Bì lor man|pu|at|n¿ peop|e's percept|ons than lor
lu|h|||n¿
|Cì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons rather than
that |t lu|h||s
|0ì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons rather than
lu|h|||n¿
|Lì to man|pu|ate peop|e's percept|ons than lor
lu|h|||n¿
ParaIIeIism
is scntcncc uscs thc comparativc construction
more x than y whcrc x and y must bc parallcl.
Hcrc, x is a tool for manipulating people`s
perceptions, and y is to fulµll a real military need.
Æ tool docs not nccd to bc rcpcatcd in thc sccond
hall ol thc comparison bccausc it is undcrstood,
but thc wording ol thc two phrascs docs nccd to
crc arc two acccptablc solutions: (1) for
manipulating can bc lollowcd by for fulµlling or
(2) to manipulate can bc lollowcd by to fulµll.
A For manipulating is not parallcl to to fulµll.
B Correct. For manipulating and for fulµlling
arc parallcl in this scntcncc.
C To manipulate is not parallcl to that it fulµlls.
Ð To manipulate is not parallcl to fulµlling.
¡ To manipulate is not parallcl to for fulµlling.
e correct answer is B.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
102
49. /s an actress and, more |mportant|y, as a teacher ol
act|n¿, 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, who tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿ lar|on Brando and
bobert 0e N|ro.
|/ì 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, who tra|ned
severa| ¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿
|Bì 3te||a /d|er, one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n
the /mer|can theater, tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors who |nc|ude
|Cì 3te||a /d|er was one ol the most |nNuent|a|
art|sts |n the /mer|can theater, tra|n|n¿ severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors whose ranks |nc|uded
|0ì one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n the
/mer|can theater was 3te||a /d|er, who tra|ned
severa| ¿enerat|ons ol actors |nc|ud|n¿
|Lì one ol the most |nNuent|a| art|sts |n the
/mer|can theater, 3te||a /d|er, tra|ned severa|
¿enerat|ons ol actors whose ranks |nc|uded
LogicaI predication
c original scntcncc contains a numbcr ol
modincrs, but not all ol thcm arc corrcctly
c clausc .ho trained. dcscribcs
Stella Ædler, yct a rclativc clausc such as this onc
must bc placcd immcdiatcly altcr thc noun or
pronoun it modincs, and this clausc lollows
theater rathcr than Ædler. Rcplacing .ho trained
with training corrccts thc crror bccausc thc phrasc
training. modincs thc wholc prcccding clausc
rathcr than thc singlc prcccding noun. Se.eral
generations of actors including shows thc samc crror
in rcvcrsc, including modincs thc wholc phrasc,
but thc two actors namcd arc not generations of
actors c morc limiting clausc .hose ranks
included (rclcrring to actors) is appropriatc hcrc.
A Rclativc (.ho) clausc lollows theater rathcr
than Ædler, including rclcrs to generations of
actors, whcn thc rclcrcncc should bc to actors
only.
is construction, in which thc subjcct is
both prcccdcd and lollowcd by modincrs, is
awkward, thc vcrbs should bc consistcntly in
thc past tcnsc, but include is prcscnt tcnsc.
C Correct. !n this scntcncc, substituting
training lor .ho trained and .hose ranks
included lor including climinatcs thc
modincation crrors.
Ð !ntroductory modincr must bc immcdiatcly
lollowcd by Stella Ædler, not one., including
rclcrs to generations of actors rathcr than to
actors only.
¡ !ntroductory modincr must bc immcdiatcly
lollowcd by Stella Ædler, not one.
e correct answer is C.
oC. By deve|op|n¿ the 3ecure 0|¿|ta| lus|c ln|t|at|ve, the
record|n¿ |ndustry assoc|at|ons ol North /mer|ca,
Japan, and Lurope hope to create a standard|zed way
ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on the
lnternet that w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders and lo|| the
many aud|o p|rates who copy and d|str|bute d|¿|ta|
mus|c |||e¿a||y.
|/ì ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet that w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|| the many aud|o p|rates who copy and
d|str|bute
|Bì ol d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet and to protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|||n¿ the many aud|o p|rates copy|n¿ and
d|str|but|n¿
|Cì lor d|str|but|n¿ son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s
on the lnternet wh||e |t protects copyr|¿ht
ho|ders and lo||s the many aud|o p|rates who
copy and d|str|bute
|0ì to d|str|bute son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on
the lnternet wh||e they w||| protect copyr|¿ht
ho|ders and lo|| the many aud|o p|rates copy|n¿
and d|str|but|n¿
|Lì to d|str|bute son¿s and lu||·|en¿th record|n¿s on
the lnternet and |t w||| protect copyr|¿ht ho|ders
and lo|||n¿ the many aud|o p|rates who copy and
d|str|bute
103
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
ParaIIeIism
c original scntcncc dcpcnds on thc parallclism
ol its vcrbs to makc its point clcarly and
cctivcly. Æ standardized .ay..ill protect and
(.ill undcrstood) foil, pirates.copy and distribute.
!n thc nrst pair ol parallcl vcrbs, .ill docs not
nccd to bc rcpcatcd bccausc it is undcrstood.
A Correct. c vcrbs .ill protect and (.ill ) foil
arc parallcl in this scntcncc, as arc thc vcrbs
copy and distribute.
8 Ænd to protect distorts mcaning, suggcsting
that protcction comcs in addition to the
standardized .ay, foiling is not parallcl to
to protect.
C !ay for should instcad bc .ay of, thc
pronoun rclcrcncc in .hile it protects is
ambiguous, construction suggcsts that
protcction comcs lrom somcthing othcr
than thc standardized .ay.
Ð Pronoun they has no rclcrcnt, usc ol .hile
suggcsts that protcction comcs lrom
somcthing othcr than thc standardized .ay
ol distribution.
¡ Ænd it .ill protect distorts mcaning,
suggcsting that protcction comcs in addition
to the standardized .ay, .ill protect and
foiling arc not parallcl.
e correct answer is A.
oì. whereas a ramjet ¿enera||y cannot ach|eve h|¿h
speeds w|thout the |n|t|a| ass|stance ol a rocket,
h|¿h speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets, or
superson|c combust|on ramjets, |n that they reduce
a|rNow compress|on at the entrance ol the en¿|ne
and |ett|n¿ a|r pass throu¿h at superson|c speeds.
|/ì h|¿h speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets, or
superson|c combust|on ramjets, |n that they
reduce
|Bì that h|¿h speeds can be atta|ned by scramjets,
or superson|c combust|on ramjets, |s a resu|t ol
the|r reduc|n¿
|Cì the ab|||ty ol scramjets, or superson|c
combust|on ramjets, to ach|eve h|¿h speeds |s
because they reduce
|0ì scramjets, or superson|c combust|on ramjets,
have the ab|||ty ol atta|n|n¿ h|¿h speeds when
reduc|n¿
|Lì scramjets, or superson|c combust|on ramjets,
can atta|n h|¿h speeds by reduc|n¿
ßhetoricaI construction
c undcrlincd portion ol thc original scntcncc is
cctivc. Translorming it lrom
passivc (high speeds can be attained by scramjets) to
activc voicc (scramjets can attain high speeds)
climinatcs much ol thc problcm. As thc subjcct ol
thc main clausc, scramjets corrcctly parallcls a
ramjet, thc subjcct ol thc subordinatc clausc, thc
cctivcly drawn. In
that they reduce is wordy and awkward, it can bc
rcplaccd by thc morc concisc phrasc by reducing.
A Passivc voicc contributcs to a wordy,
cctivc construction; in
that they reduce is also wordy and awkward.
8 Passivc voicc and subordinatc (that) clausc
constructions arc wordy, awkward, and
cctivc.
C e ability.is because is not a grammatical
construction, scramjets, not the ability, should
bc parallcl to a ramjet.
Ð Ha.e the ability of attaining is wordy, .hen
cct
rclationship.
E Correct. Scramjets parallcls a ramjet lor an
cctivc contrast in this scntcncc, thc activc
voicc is clcar and concisc, by reducing shows
how scramjcts attain high spccds.
e correct answer is E.
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
104
oZ. lt w||| not be poss|b|e to |mp||cate me|t|n¿ sea |ce |n
the coasta| Nood|n¿ that many ¿|oba| warm|n¿ mode|s
have projected: just ||ke a ¿|ass ol water that w||| not
overNow due to me|t|n¿ |ce cubes, so me|t|n¿ sea |ce
does not |ncrease ocean|c vo|ume.
|/ì ||ke a ¿|ass ol water that w||| not overNow due to
me|t|n¿ |ce cubes,
|Bì ||ke me|t|n¿ |ce cubes that do not cause a ¿|ass
ol water to overNow,
|Cì a ¿|ass ol water w||| not overNow because ol
me|t|n¿ |ce cubes,
|0ì as me|t|n¿ |ce cubes that do not cause a ¿|ass
ol water to overNow,
|Lì as me|t|n¿ |ce cubes do not cause a ¿|ass ol
water to overNow,
Diction, ParaIIeIism
c prcposition like introduccs nouns and noun
phrascs, thc conjunction as introduccs vcrbs or
clauscs, so as c comparativc
construction uscd hcrc is just as x so y, x and y
c y clausc is writtcn in
cctivc subjcctvcrbobjcct ordcr: melting sea
ice does not increase oceanic .olume c original
wordy, awkward x clausc is not parallcl. To makc
it parallcl, melting ice cubes should bc thc subjcct
ol thc clausc, do not cause.to o.erµo. thc vcrb
phrasc, and a glass of .ater thc objcct.
A Like is uscd in placc ol as, thc two clcmcnts
ol comparison arc not parallcl.
8 Like is uscd in placc ol as, that violatcs
parallclism.
C Æs or just as is nccdcd to introducc thc
clausc, thc two clauscs arc not parallcl.
Ð at violatcs thc parallclism ol thc two
clauscs and crcatcs an ungrammatical
construction.
¡ Correct. is scntcncc has just as propcrly
introducing thc nrst clausc, and thc two
clauscs arc parallcl.
e correct answer is E.
105
3.6 Diagnostic Test VerbaI Ansver ExpIanations
To register !or the GMAT test go to vvv.mba.com
106
4.0 Math ßeviev
107
4.0 Math ßeviev
4.0 Math ßeviev
Although this chaptcr providcs a rcvicw ol somc ol thc mathcmatical conccpts ol arithmctic,
algcbra, and gcomctry, it is not intcndcd to bc a tcxtbook. You should usc this chaptcr to lamiliarizc
yourscll with thc kinds ol topics that arc tcstcd in thc GMAT¹ tcst. You may wish to consult an
arithmctic, algcbra, or gcomctry book lor a morc dctailcd discussion ol somc ol thc topics.
Scction 4.1, "Arithmctic," includcs thc lollowing topics:
1. Propcrtics ol !ntcgcrs 7. Powcrs and Roots ol Numbcrs
2. Fractions 8. Ðcscriptivc Statistics
3. Ðccimals 9. Scts
4. Rcal Numbcrs 10. Counting Mcthods
5. Ratio and Proportion 11. Ðiscrctc Probability
6. Pcrccnts
Scction 4.2, "Algcbra," docs not cxtcnd bcyond what is usually covcrcd in a nrstycar high school
c topics includcd arc as lollows:
1. Simplilying Algcbraic ¡xprcssions 7. ¡xponcnts
2. ¡quations 8. !ncqualitics
3. Solving Lincar ¡quations with Ònc Unknown 9. Absolutc \aluc
4. Solving Two Lincar ¡quations with 10. Functions
Two Unknowns
5. Solving ¡quations by Factoring
6. Solving Quadratic ¡quations
Scction 4.3, "Gcomctry," is limitcd primarily to mcasurcmcnt and intuitivc gcomctry or spatial
visualization. ¡xtcnsivc knowlcdgc ol thcorcms and thc ability to construct prools, skills that arc
c topics includcd in this scction arc
thc lollowing:
1. Lincs 6. Trianglcs
2. !ntcrsccting Lincs and Anglcs 7. Quadrilatcrals
3. Pcrpcndicular Lincs 8. Circlcs
4. Parallcl Lincs 9. Rcctangular Solids and Cylindcrs
5. Polygons (Convcx) 10. Coordinatc Gcomctry
Scction 4.4, "Vord Problcms," prcscnts cxamplcs ol and solutions to thc lollowing typcs ol word
problcms:
1. Ratc Problcms 6. Pront
2. Vork Problcms 7. Scts
3. Mixturc Problcms 8. Gcomctry Problcms
4. !ntcrcst Problcms 9. Mcasurcmcnt Problcms
5. Ðiscount 10. Ðata !ntcrprctation
108
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
4.1 Arithmetic
1. Properties o! Integers
An integer is any numbcr in thc sct [. . . 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .]. !l x and y arc intcgcrs and x
thcn x is a di.isor (factor) ol y providcd that y - xn lor somc intcgcr n. !n this casc, y is also said to
bc di.isible by x or to bc a multiple ol x. For cxamplc, 7 is a divisor or lactor ol 28 sincc 28 - (7)(4),
but 8 is not a divisor ol 28 sincc thcrc is no intcgcr n such that 28 - 8n.
!l x and y arc positivc intcgcrs, thcrc cxist uniquc intcgcrs q and r, callcd thc quotient and remainder,
rcspcctivcly, such that y - xq + r r · x. For cxamplc, whcn 28 is dividcd by 8, thc quoticnt
is 3 and thc rcmaindcr is 4 sincc 28 - (8)(3) ÷ 4. Notc that y is divisiblc by x il and only il thc
rcmaindcr r is 0, lor cxamplc, 32 has a rcmaindcr ol 0 whcn dividcd by 8 bccausc 32 is divisiblc
by 8. Also, notc that whcn a smallcr intcgcr is dividcd by a largcr intcgcr, thc quoticnt is 0 and thc
rcmaindcr is thc smallcr intcgcr. For cxamplc, 5 dividcd by 7 has thc quoticnt 0 and thc rcmaindcr 5
sincc 5 - (7)(0) ÷ 5.
Any intcgcr that is divisiblc by 2 is an e.en integer, thc sct ol cvcn intcgcrs is
[. . . 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, . . .]. !ntcgcrs that arc not divisiblc by 2 arc odd integers,
[. . . 3, 1, 1, 3, 5, . . .] is thc sct ol odd intcgcrs.
!l at lcast onc lactor ol a product ol intcgcrs is cvcn, thcn thc product is cvcn, othcrwisc thc product
crcncc arc cvcn.
crcncc arc odd.
A prime crcnt positivc divisors, 1 and itscll.
crcnt
divisor. ¡vcry intcgcr grcatcr than 1 cithcr is primc or can bc uniqucly cxprcsscd as a product ol
primc lactors. For cxamplc, 14 - (2)(7), 81 - (3)(3)(3)(3), and 484 - (2)(2)(11)(11).
c numbcrs 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 arc consecuti.e integers. Consccutivc intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd
by n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, . . . , whcrc n is an i c numbcrs 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 arc consecuti.e e.en
integers, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 arc consecuti.e odd integers. Consccutivc cvcn intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd
by 2n, 2n + 2, 2n + 4, . . . , and consccutivc odd intcgcrs can bc rcprcscntcd by 2n + 1, 2n + 3,
2n + 5, . . . , whcrc n is an intcgcr.
Properties of the integer 1. !l n n - n, and lor any numbcr n n
1
n
- 1.
c numbcr 1 can bc cxprcsscd in many ways, lor cxamplc,
n
n
- 1 lor any numbcr n .
Multiplying or dividing an cxprcssion by 1, in any lorm, docs not changc thc valuc ol that
cxprcssion.
Properties of the integer 0 c intcgcr 0 is ncithcr positivc nor ncgativc. !l n is any numbcr,
thcn n + 0 - n and n
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
109
2. fractions
!n a lraction
n
d
, n is thc numerator and d is thc denominator c dcnominator ol a lraction can ncvcr
bc 0, bccausc division by 0 is not dcnncd.
Two lractions arc said to bc equi.alent il thcy rcprcscnt thc samc numbcr. For cxamplc,
8
36
and
14
63
arc cquivalcnt sincc thcy both rcprcscnt thc numbcr
2
9
. !n cach casc, thc lraction is rcduccd to
lowcst tcrms by dividing both numcrator and dcnominator by thcir greatest common di.isor (gcd).
c gcd ol 8 and 36 is 4 and thc gcd ol 14 and 63 is 7.
Addition and subtraction o! !ractions.
Two lractions with thc samc dcnominator can bc addcd or subtractcd by pcrlorming thc rcquircd
opcration with thc numcrators, lcaving thc dcnominators thc samc. For cxamplc,
3
5
4
5
3 4
5
+
+

÷
÷

7
5
5
7
2
7
5 2
7
3
7
, and . !l two lractions do not havc thc samc dcnominator, cxprcss thcm as
cquivalcnt lractions with thc samc dcnominator. For cxamplc, to add
3
5
4
7
and , multiply thc
numcrator and dcnominator ol thc nrst lraction by 7 and thc numcrator and dcnominator ol thc
sccond lraction by 5, obtaining
21
35
20
35
21
35
20
35
41
35
and , rcspcctivcly, + .
For thc ncw dcnominator, choosing thc least common multiple (lcm) ol thc dcnominators
usually lcsscns thc work. For
2
3
1
6
+ , thc lcm ol 3 and 6 is 6 (not 3 × 6 - 18), so
2
3
1
6
2
3
2
2
1
6
4
6
1
6
5
6
+ × + + .
MuItipIication and division o! !ractions.
To multiply two lractions, simply multiply thc two numcrators and multiply thc two dcnominators.
For cxamplc, .
2
3
4
7
2 4
3 7
8
21
×
×
×

To dividc by a lraction, invcrt thc divisor (that is, nnd its reciprocal) and multiply. For cxamplc
2
3
4
7
2
3
7
4
14
12
7
6
× - .
!n thc problcm abovc, thc rcciprocal ol
4
7
7
4
is . !n gcncral, thc rcciprocal ol a lraction
n
d
d
n
is .
whcrc n and d arc not zcro.
110
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
Mixed numbers.
A numbcr that consists ol a wholc numbcr and a lraction, lor cxamplc, 7
2
3
, is a mixcd numbcr:
7
2
3
mcans 7 ÷
2
3
.
To changc a mixcd numbcr into a lraction, multiply thc wholc numbcr by thc dcnominator ol thc
lraction and add this numbcr to thc numcrator ol thc lraction, thcn put thc rcsult ovcr thc
dcnominator ol thc lraction. For cxamplc, 7
2
3
3 7 2
3
- -
23
3
.
( ) × +
3. DecimaIs
!n thc dccimal systcm, thc position ol thc pcriod or decimal point dctcrmincs thc placc valuc ol thc
digits. For cxamplc, thc digits in thc numbcr 7,654.321 havc thc lollowing placc valucs:
7 , 6 5 4 . 3 2 1
Somc cxamplcs ol dccimals lollow.
0 321
3
10
2
100
1
1 000
321
1 000
0 0321
0
10
3
100
2
1 000
1
10 0
.
, ,
.
, ,
+ +
+ + +
000
321
10 000
1 56 1
5
10
6
100
156
100

+ +
,
.
Somctimcs dccimals arc cxprcsscd as thc product ol a numbcr with only onc digit to thc lclt ol thc
dccimal p is is callcd scientiµc notation. For cxamplc, 231 can bc writtcn as
2.31 × 10
2
and 0.0231 can bc writtcn as 2.31 × 10
2
. Vhcn a numbcr is cxprcsscd in scicntinc
notation, thc cxponcnt ol thc 10 indicatcs thc numbcr ol placcs that thc dccimal point is to bc
c
dccimal point is movcd to thc right il thc cxponcnt is positivc and to thc lclt il thc cxponcnt is
ncgativc. For cxamplc, 2.013 × 10
4
is cqual to 20,130 and 1.91 × 10
4
is cqual to 0.000191.
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
111
Addition and subtraction o! decimaIs.
To add or subtract two dccimals, thc dccimal points ol both numbcrs should bc lincd up. !l onc ol
thc numbcrs has lcwcr digits to thc right ol thc dccimal point than thc othcr, zcros may bc inscrtcd
to thc right ol thc last digit. For cxamplc, to add 17.6512 and 653.27, sct up thc numbcrs in a
column and add:
17 6512
653 2700
670 9212
.
.
.
+
Likcwisc lor 653.27 minus 17.6512:
653 2700
17 6512
635 6188
.
.
.
÷
MuItipIication o! decimaIs.
To multiply dccimals, multiply thc numbcrs as il thcy wcrc wholc numbcrs and thcn inscrt thc
dccimal point in thc product so that thc numbcr ol digits to thc right ol thc dccimal point is cqual
to thc sum ol thc numbcrs ol digits to thc right ol thc dccimal points in thc numbcrs bcing
multiplicd. For cxamplc:
2090
2 09 2
627
. ( digits to thc right)
1.3 (1 digit to thc right)



2 digits to thc right) 2 717 1 3 . (  

Division o! decimaIs.
To dividc a numbcr (thc dividcnd) by a dccimal (thc divisor), movc thc dccimal point ol thc divisor
cn movc thc dccimal point ol thc dividcnd thc
c dccimal point
in thc quoticnt will bc dircctly abovc thc dccimal point in thc ncw dividcnd. For cxamplc, to dividc
698.12 by 12.4:
)
12 4 698 12 . .
will bc rcplaccd by: ) 124 6981 2 .
and thc division would procccd as lollows:
)
124 6981 2
620
781
56 3
.
.

744
372
372
0
112
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
4. ßeaI Numbers
All real numbcrs corrcspond to points on thc numbcr linc and all points on thc numbcr linc
corrcspond to rcal numbcrs. All rcal numbcrs cxccpt zcro arc cithcr positivc or ncgativc.

÷
3
2
0 2 2 .
] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ]
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
· · ·
Òn a numbcr linc, numbcrs corrcsponding to points to thc lclt ol zcro arc ncgativc and numbcrs
corrcsponding to points to thc right ol zcro arc positivc. For any two numbcrs on thc numbcr linc,
thc numbcr to thc lclt is lcss than thc numbcr to thc right, lor cxamplc,
÷ < ÷ < ÷ < ÷ < < 4 3
3
2
1 1 2 2 , and .
To say that thc numbcr n is bctwccn 1 and 4 on thc numbcr linc mcans that n 1 and n · 4, that is,
1 · n · 4. !l n n
c distancc bctwccn a numbcr and zcro on thc numbcr linc is callcd thc absolute .alue ol thc
us 3 and 3 havc thc samc absolutc valuc, 3, sincc thcy arc both thrcc units lrom zcro.
c absolutc valuc ol 3 is dcnotcd ]3] . ¡xamplcs ol absolutc valucs ol numbcrs arc
÷ ÷ 5 5 5
7
2
0 ,
7
2
, and 0
Notc that thc absolutc valuc ol any nonzcro numbcr is positivc.
Hcrc arc somc propcrtics ol rcal numbcrs that arc uscd lrcqucntly. !l x, y, and z arc rcal numbcrs, thcn
(1) x ÷ y - y ÷ x and xy - yx.
For cxamplc, 8 ÷ 3 - 3 ÷ 8 - 11, and (17)(5) - (5)(17) - 85.
(2) (x ÷ y) ÷ z - x ÷ (y ÷ z) and (xy)z - x (yz).
For cxamplc, (7 ÷ 5) ÷ 2 - 7 ÷ (5 ÷ 2) - 7 ÷ (7) - 14, and 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 15
( )( )

( )
( )( ) .
(3) x(y ÷ z) - xy ÷ xz.
For cxamplc, 718(36) ÷ 718(64) - 718(36 ÷ 64) - 718(100) - 71,800.
(4) !l x and y arc both positivc, thcn x ÷ y and xy arc positivc.
(5) !l x and y arc both ncgativc, thcn x ÷ y is ncgativc and xy is positivc.
(6) !l x is positivc and y is ncgativc, thcn xy is ncgativc.
(7) !l xy - 0, thcn x - 0 or y - 0. For cxamplc, 3y - 0 implics y - 0.
(8) ] x ÷ y x] ÷ ]y]. For cxamplc, il x - 10 and y - 2, thcn ]x ÷ y ] - ]12] - 12 - ]x] ÷ ]y ],
and il x - 10 and y - 2, thcn ]x ÷ y] - ]8] - 8 · 12 - ]x] ÷ ]y].
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
113
5. ßatio and Proportion
c ratio ol thc numbcr a to thc numbcr b (b
a
b
.
A ratio may bc cxprcsscd or rcprcscntcd in scvcral ways. For cxamplc, thc ratio ol 2 to 3 can bc
writtcn as 2 to 3, 2:3, or
2
3
c ordcr ol thc tcrms ol a ratio is important. For cxamplc, thc ratio ol
thc numbcr ol months with cxactly 30 days to thc numbcr with cxactly 31 days is
4
7
, not
7
4
.
A proportion is a statcmcnt that two ratios arc cqual, lor cxamplc,
2
3
-
8
12
is a proportion. Ònc way
to solvc a proportion involving an unknown is to cross multiply, obtaining a ncw cquality. For
cxamplc, to solvc lor n in thc proportion
2
3
-
n
12
, cross multiply, obtaining 24 - 3n, thcn dividc
both sidcs by 3, to gct n - 8.
6. Percents
Percent mcans per hundred or number out of 100. A pcrccnt can bc rcprcscntcd as a lraction with a
dcnominator ol 100, or as a dccimal. For cxamplc, 37º -
37
100
- 0.37.
To nnd a ccrtain pcrccnt ol a numbcr, multiply thc numbcr by thc pcrccnt cxprcsscd as a dccimal or
lraction. For cxamplc:
20 90 0 2 90 18
20
100
90
1
5
90 18
º .
.
ol
or
20º ol 90
×
× ×
Percents greater than 100%.
Pcrccnts grcatcr than 100º arc rcprcscntcd by numbcrs grcatcr than 1. For cxamplc:
300
300
100
3
250 2 5 80 200
º
º . .

× ol 80
Percents Iess than 1%.
c pcrccnt 0.5 º mcans
1
2
ol 1 pcrccnt. For cxamplc, 0.5 º ol 12 is cqual to 0.005 × 12 - 0.06.
Percent change.
Òltcn a problcm will ask lor thc pcrccnt incrcasc or dccrcasc lrom onc quantity to anothcr quantity.
For cxamplc, "!l thc pricc ol an itcm incrcascs lrom 824 to 830, what is thc pcrccnt incrcasc in
pricc:" To nnd thc pcrccnt incrcasc, nrst nnd thc amount ol thc incrcasc, thcn dividc this incrcasc
by thc original amount, and cxprcss this quoticnt as a pcrccnt. !n thc cxamplc abovc, thc pcrccnt
crclorc,
thc pcrccnt incrcasc is
6
24
- 0.25 - 25º.
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Likcwisc, to nnd thc pcrccnt dccrcasc (lor cxamplc, thc pricc ol an itcm is rcduccd lrom 830 to 824),
nrst nnd thc amount ol thc dccrcasc, thcn dividc this dccrcasc by thc original amount, and cxprcss
this quoticnt as a pcrccnt. !n thc cxamplc abovc, thc amount ol dccrcasc is (30 24) - 6.
crclorc, thc pcrccnt dccrcasc is
6
30
- 0.20 - 20º.
Notc that thc pcrccnt incrcasc lrom 24 to 30 is not thc samc as thc pcrccnt dccrcasc lrom 30 to 24.
!n thc lollowing cxamplc, thc incrcasc is grcatcr than 100 pcrccnt: !l thc cost ol a ccrtain housc in
1983 was 300 pcrccnt ol its cost in 1970, by what pcrccnt did thc cost incrcasc:
!l n is thc cost in 1970, thcn thc pcrccnt incrcasc is cqual to
7. Povers and ßoots o! Numbers
Vhcn a numbcr k is to bc uscd n timcs as a lactor in a product, it can bc cxprcsscd as k
n
, which
mcans thc nth powcr ol k. For cxamplc, 2
2
- 2 × 2 - 4 and 2
3
- 2 × 2 × 2 - 8 arc powcrs ol 2.
Squaring a numbcr that is grcatcr than 1, or raising it to a highcr powcr, rcsults in a largcr numbcr,
squaring a numbcr bctwccn 0 and 1 rcsults in a smallcr numbcr. For cxamplc:

A square root ol a numbcr n is a numbcr that, whcn squarcd, is cqual to n c squarc root ol a
ncgativc numbcr is not a rcal numbcr. ¡vcry positivc numbcr n has two squarc roots, onc positivc
and thc othcr ncgativc, but dcnotcs thc positivc numbcr whosc squarc is n. For cxamplc,
c two squarc roots ol 9 arc - 3 and - 3.
¡vcry rcal numbcr r has cxactly onc rcal cube root, which is thc numbcr s such that s
3
- r. c rcal
cubc root ol r is dcnotcd by
8. Descriptive 5tatistics
A list ol numbcrs, or numcrical data, can bc dcscribcd by various statistical mcasurcs. Ònc ol thc
most common ol thcsc mcasurcs is thc a.erage, or (arithmetic) mean, which locatcs a typc ol "ccntcr"
c avcragc ol n numbcrs is dcnncd as thc sum ol thc n numbcrs dividcd by n. For
cxamplc, thc avcragc ol 6, 4, 7, 10, and 4 is
c median is anothcr typc ol ccntcr lor a list ol numbcrs. To calculatc thc mcdian ol n numbcrs,
nrst ordcr thc numbcrs lrom lcast to grcatcst, il n is odd, thc mcdian is dcnncd as thc middlc
numbcr, whcrcas il n is cvcn, thc mcdian is dcnncd as thc avcragc ol thc two middlc numbcrs. !n
thc cxamplc abovc, thc numbcrs, in ordcr, arc 4, 4, 6, 7, 10, and thc mcdian is 6, thc middlc numbcr.
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
115
For thc numbcrs 4, 6, 6, 8, 9, 12, thc mcdian is
6 ÷ 8
2
- 7. Notc that thc mcan ol thcsc numbcrs is 7.5.
c mcdian ol a sct ol data can bc lcss than, cqual to, or grcatcr than thc mcan. Notc that lor a largc
sct ol data (lor cxamplc, thc salarics ol 800 company cmployccs), it is oltcn truc that about hall ol
thc data is lcss than thc mcdian and about hall ol thc data is grcatcr than thc mcdian, but this is not
always thc casc, as thc lollowing data show.
3, 5, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10
Hcrc thc mcdian is 7, but only
2
15
ol thc data is lcss than thc mcdian.
c mode ol a list ol numbcrs is thc numbcr that occurs most lrcqucntly in thc list. For cxamplc, thc
modc ol 1, 3, 6, 4, 3, 5 is 3. A list ol numbcrs may havc morc than onc modc. For cxamplc, thc list
1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 7, 10, 10, 10, 20 has two modcs, 3 and 10.
c
simplcst mcasurc ol dispcrsion is thc range, which is dcnncd as thc grcatcst valuc in thc numcrical
data minus thc lcast valuc. For cxamplc, thc rangc ol 11, 10, 5, 13, 21 is 21 5 - 16. Notc how thc
rangc dcpcnds on only two valucs in thc data.
Ònc ol thc most common mcasurcs ol dispcrsion is thc standard de.iation. Gcncrally spcaking,
c standard
dcviation ol n numbcrs can bc calculatcd as lollows: (1) nnd thc arithmctic mcan, (2) nnd thc
crcnccs bctwccn thc mcan and cach ol thc n crcnccs, (4) nnd
crcnccs, and (5) takc thc nonncgativc squarc root ol this avcragc.
Shown bclow is this calculation lor thc data 0, 7, 8, 10, 10, which havc arithmctic mcan 7.
x x 7 (x 7)
2
0 7 49
7 0 0
8 1 1
10 3 9
10 3 9
Total 68

Standard dcviation
68
5
3 7 .
Noticc that thc standard dcviation dcpcnds on cvcry data valuc, although it dcpcnds most on valucs
that a is is why a distribution with data groupcd closcly around thc
mcan will havc a smallcr standard dcviation than will data sprcad lar lrom thc mcan. To illustratc
this, comparc thc data 6, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9, which also havc mcan 7. Notc that thc numbcrs in thc sccond
sct ol data sccm to bc groupcd morc closcly around thc mcan ol 7 than thc numbcrs in thc nrst sct.
is is rcßcctcd in thc standard dcviation, which is lcss lor thc sccond sct (approximatcly 1.1) than
lor thc nrst sct (approximatcly 3.7).
crc arc many ways to display numcrical data that show how thc data arc distributcd. Ònc simplc
way is with a frequency distribution, which is usclul lor data that havc valucs occurring with varying
lrcqucncics. For cxamplc, thc 20 numbcrs
4 0 0 3 2 1 1 0 1 4
1 5 0 2 0 5 2 0 0 1
crcnt valuc x and thc
lrcqucncy f with which x occurs.
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Ðata \aluc
x
Frcqucncy
f
5 2
4 2
3 1
2 3
1 5
0 7
Total 20
From thc lrcqucncy distribution, onc can rcadily computc dcscriptivc statistics:
Mcan: -
Mcdian: 1 (thc avcragc ol thc 10th and 11th numbcrs)
Modc: 0 (thc numbcr that occurs most lrcqucntly)
Rangc: 0 (5) - 5
Standard dcviation:
9. 5ets
!n mathcmatics a set c objccts arc callcd thc elements
ol thc sct. !l S is a sct having a nnitc numbcr ol clcmcnts, thcn thc numbcr ol clcmcnts is dcnotcd
by ]S]. Such a sct is oltcn dcnncd by listing its clcmcnts, lor cxamplc, S- [5, 0, 1] is a sct with ]S] - 3.
c ordcr in which thc clcmcnts arc listcd in a sct docs not mattcr, thus [5, 0, 1] - [0, 1, 5]. !l all
thc clcmcnts ol a sct S arc also clcmcnts ol a sct T, thcn S is a subset ol T , lor cxamplc, S - [5, 0, 1]
is a subsct ol T - [5, 0, 1, 4, 10].
For any two scts Æ and B, thc union ol Æ and B is thc sct ol all clcmcnts that arc in Æ or in B or in
c intersection ol Æ and B is thc sct ol all clcmcnts that arc both in Æ and in B c union
is dcnotcd by and thc intcrscction is dcnotcd by . As an cxamplc, il Æ - [3, 4] and
B - [4, 5, 6], thcn - [3, 4, 5, 6] and - [4]. Two scts that havc no clcmcnts in common
arc said to bc disjoint or mutually exclusi.e.
c rclationship bctwccn scts is oltcn illustratcd with a !enn diagram in which scts arc rcprcscntcd
by rcgions in a planc. For two scts S and T that arc not disjoint and ncithcr is a subsct ol thc othcr,
thc intcrscction is rcprcscntcd by thc shadcd rcgion ol thc diagram bclow.
S T
is diagram illustratcs a lact about any two nnitc scts S and T : thc numbcr ol clcmcnts in thcir
union cquals thc sum ol thcir individual numbcrs ol clcmcnts minus thc numbcr ol clcmcnts in thcir
intcrscction (bccausc thc lattcr arc countcd twicc in thc sum), morc conciscly,
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
117
S T S T S T + ÷ .
is counting mcthod is callcd thc gcncral addition rulc lor two scts. As a spccial casc, il S and T
arc disjoint, thcn
S T S T +
sincc S T - 0.
10. Counting Methods
crc arc somc usclul mcthods lor counting objccts and scts ol objccts without actually listing thc
c lollowing principlc ol multiplication is lundamcntal to thcsc mcthods.
!l an objcct is to bc choscn lrom a sct ol m objccts and a sccond objcct is to bc choscn lrom a
crcnt sct ol n objccts, thcn thcrc arc mn ways ol choosing both objccts simultancously.
As an cxamplc, supposc thc objccts arc itcms on a mcnu. !l a mcal consists ol onc cntrcc and onc
crcnt mcals
that can bc ordcrcd lrom thc mcnu. As anothcr cxamplc, cach timc a coin is ßippcd, thcrc arc two
possiblc outcomcs, hcads and tails. !l an cxpcrimcnt consists ol 8 consccutivc coin ßips, thcn thc
cxpcrimcnt has 2
8
possiblc outcomcs, whcrc cach ol thcsc outcomcs is a list ol hcads and tails in
somc ordcr.
A symbol that is oltcn uscd with thc multiplication principlc is thc factorial. !l n is an intcgcr
grcatcr than 1, thcn n lactorial, dcnotcd by thc symbol n!, is dcnncd as thc product ol all thc
intcgcrs lrom 1 to n crclorc,
2 1 2 2
3 1 2 3 6
4 1 2 3 4 24
! ( )( ) ,
! ( )( )( ) ,
! ( )( )( )( ) ,


ctc.
Also, by dcnnition, 0! - 1! - 1.
c lactorial is usclul lor counting thc numbcr ol ways that a sct ol objccts can bc ordcrcd. !l a
sct ol n objccts is to bc ordcrcd lrom 1st to nth, thcn thcrc arc n choiccs lor thc 1st objcct, n 1
choiccs lor thc 2nd objcct, n ÷ 2 choiccs lor thc 3rd objcct, and so on, until thcrc is only 1 choicc lor
thc n us, by thc multiplication principlc, thc numbcr ol ways ol ordcring thc n objccts is
n(n ÷ 1)(n 2) · · · (3)(2)(1) - n!.
For cxamplc, thc numbcr ol ways ol ordcring thc lcttcrs A, 8, and C is 3!, or 6:
A8C, AC8, 8AC, 8CA, CA8, and C8A.
csc ordcrings arc callcd thc permutations ol thc lcttcrs A, 8, and C.
A pcrmutation can bc thought ol as a sclcction proccss in which objccts arc sclcctcd onc by onc in a
ccrtain ordcr. !l thc ordcr ol sclcction is not rclcvant and only k objccts arc to bc sclcctcd lrom a
largcr sct ol n crcnt counting mcthod is cmploycd.
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Spccincally, considcr a sct ol n objccts lrom which a complctc sclcction ol k objccts is to bc madc
k n cn thc numbcr ol possiblc complctc sclcctions ol k
objccts is callcd thc numbcr ol combinations ol n objccts takcn k at a timc and is dcnotcd by .
c valuc ol is givcn by .
Notc that is thc numbcr ol kclcmcnt subscts ol a sct with n clcmcnts. For cxamplc, il
S - [A, 8, C, Ð, ¡], thcn thc numbcr ol 2clcmcnt subscts ol S, or thc numbcr ol combinations ol
5 lcttcrs takcn 2 at a timc, is
c subscts arc [A, 8], [A, C], [A, Ð], [A, ¡], [8, C], [8, Ð], [8, ¡], [C, Ð], [C, ¡,], and [Ð, ¡].
Notc that bccausc cvcry 2clcmcnt subsct choscn lrom a sct ol 5 clcmcnts
corrcsponds to a uniquc 3clcmcnt subsct consisting ol thc clcmcnts not choscn.
!n gcncral,
11. Discrete ProbabiIity
Many ol thc idcas discusscd in thc prcccding thrcc topics arc important to thc study ol discrctc
probability. Ðiscrctc probability is conccrncd with experiments that havc a nnitc numbcr ol outcomes.
Givcn such an cxpcrimcnt, an e.ent is a particular sct ol outcomcs. For cxamplc, rolling a numbcr
cubc with laccs numbcrcd 1 to 6 (similar to a 6sidcd dic) is an cxpcrimcnt with 6 possiblc
outcomcs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Ònc cvcnt in this cxpcrimcnt is that thc outcomc is 4, dcnotcd [4],
anothcr cvcnt is that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr: [1, 3, 5].
c probability than an cvcnt E occurs, dcnotcd by P (E), is a numbcr bctwccn 0 and 1, inclusivc.
!l E has no outcomcs, thcn E is impossible and P (E ) - 0, il E is thc sct ol all possiblc outcomcs ol
thc cxpcrimcnt, thcn E is certain to occur and P (E) - 1. Òthcrwisc, E is possiblc but unccrtain, and
0 · P (E) · 1. !l F is a subsct ol E, thcn P (F P (E). !n thc cxamplc abovc, il thc probability
ol cach ol thc 6 outcomcs is thc samc, thcn thc probability ol cach outcomc is
1
6
, and thc outcomcs
arc said to bc equally likely. For cxpcrimcnts in which all thc individual outcomcs arc cqually likcly,
thc probability ol an cvcnt E is
P (E) -
c numbcr ol outcomcs in E
c total numbcr ol possiblc outcomcs
.
!n thc cxamplc, thc probability that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr is
P 1 3 5
1 3 5
6
3
6
, ,
, ,
. { } ( )
=
{ }
=
Givcn an cxpcrimcnt with cvcnts E and F, thc lollowing cvcnts arc dcnncd:
"not E" is thc sct ol outcomcs that arc not outcomcs in E,
"E or F" is thc sct ol outcomcs in E or F or both, that is, E F,
"E and F" is thc sct ol outcomcs in both E and F, that is, E F.
4.1 Math ßeviev Arithmetic
119
c probability that E docs not occur is P (not E) - 1 P (E c probability that "E or F " occurs is
P (E or F ) - P (E) ÷ P (F ) P (E and F ), using thc gcncral addition rulc at thc cnd ol scction 4.1.9
("Scts"). For thc numbcr cubc, il E is thc cvcnt that thc outcomc is an odd numbcr, [1, 3, 5], and
F is thc cvcnt that thc outcomc is a primc numbcr, [2, 3, 5], thcn P (E and F ) - P([3, 5]) -
2
6
and
so P(E or F) - P(E) ÷ P(F) P E F ( ) . and ÷ + ÷
3
6
3
6
2
6
4
6
Notc that thc cvcnt "E or F " is E F
¦ ¦
1 2 3 5 , , , , and hcncc P E F or ( ) =
{ }
=
1 2 3 5
6
4
6
, , ,
.
!l thc cvcnt "E and F " is impossiblc (that is, E F has no outcomcs), thcn E and F arc said to
bc mutually exclusi.e cvcnts, and P(E and F cn thc gcncral addition rulc is rcduccd to
P (E or F ) - P (E) ÷ P (F ).
is is thc spccial addition rulc lor thc probability ol two mutually cxclusivc cvcnts.
Two cvcnts Æ and B arc said to bc independent il thc occurrcncc ol cithcr cvcnt docs not altcr thc
probability that thc othcr cvcnt occurs. For onc roll ol thc numbcr cubc, lct Æ - [2, 4, 6] and lct
B cn thc probability that Æ occurs is P Æ
Æ
( ) ,   
6
3
6
1
2
whilc, presuming B occurs, thc
probability that Æ occurs is
Æ B
B
=
{ }
{ }
=
6
5 6
1
2
,
.
Similarly, thc probability that B occurs is P B
B
( ) ,
6
2
6
1
3
whilc, presuming Æ occurs, thc
probability that B occurs is
B Æ
Æ
=
{ }
{ }
=
6
2 4 6
1
3
, ,
.
cct thc probability that thc othcr cvcnt occurs.
crclorc, Æ and B arc indcpcndcnt.
c lollowing multiplication rulc holds lor any indcpcndcnt cvcnts E and F:
P (E and F ) - P (E) P (F ).
For thc indcpcndcnt cvcnts Æ and B abovc, .
Notc that thc cvcnt "Æ and B" is Æ B P Æ B P ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ( ) 6 6
1
6
, and hcncc and ( ) . !t lollows lrom
thc gcncral addition rulc and thc multiplication rulc abovc that il E and F arc indcpcndcnt, thcn
P (E or F)- P(E) ÷ P (F ) ÷ P (E) P (F).
For a nnal cxamplc ol somc ol thcsc rulcs, considcr an cxpcrimcnt with cvcnts Æ, B, and C lor which
P (Æ) - 0.23, P (B) - 0.40, and P (C) - 0.85. Also, supposc that cvcnts Æ and B arc mutually cxclusivc
and cvcnts B and C cn
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Notc that P (Æ or C) and P (Æ and C) cannot bc dctcrmincd using thc inlormation givcn. 8ut it
can bc dctcrmincd that Æ and C arc not mutually cxclusivc sincc P (Æ) ÷ P (C) - 1.08, which is
grcatcr than 1, and thcrclorc cannot cqual P (Æ or C), lrom this it lollows that P (Æ and C
Ònc can also dcducc that P (Æ and C P (Æ) - 0.23, sincc is a subsct ol Æ, and that
P (Æ or C P (C) - 0.85 sincc C is a subsct ol . us, onc can concludc that
P (Æ or C P(Æ and C
4.2 AIgebra
Algcbra is bascd on thc opcrations ol arithmctic and on thc conccpt ol an unkno.n quantity, or
.ariable. Lcttcrs such as x or n arc uscd to rcprcscnt unknown quantitics. For cxamplc, supposc
Pam has 5 morc pcncils than Frcd. !l F rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol pcncils that Frcd has, thcn thc
numbcr ol pcncils that Pam has is F ÷ 5. As anothcr cxamplc, il Jim's prcscnt salary S is incrcascd
by 7º, thcn his ncw salary is 1.07S. A combination ol lcttcrs and arithmctic opcrations, such as
, is callcd an algebraic expression.
c cxprcssion 19x
2
6x ÷ 3 consists ol thc terms 19x
2
, 6x, and 3, whcrc 19 is thc coefµcient ol x
2
,
6 is thc coclncicnt ol x
1
, and 3 is a constant term (or coclncicnt ol x
0
- 1). Such an cxprcssion is
callcd a second degree (or quadratic) polynomial in x sincc thc highcst powcr ol x c cxprcssion
F ÷ 5 is a µrst degree (or linear) polynomial in F sincc thc highcst powcr ol F c cxprcssion
is not a polynomial bccausc it is not a sum ol tcrms that arc cach powcrs ol x multiplicd
by coclncicnts.
1. 5impIi!ying AIgebraic Expressions
Òltcn whcn working with algcbraic cxprcssions, it is ncccssary to simplily thcm by lactoring
or combining like tcrms. For cxamplc, thc cxprcssion 6x + 5x is cquivalcnt to (6 ÷ 5)x, or 11x.
!n thc cxprcssion 9x 3y, 3 is a lactor common to both tcrms: 9x 3y - 3(3x y). !n thc cxprcssion
5x
2
÷ 6y, thcrc arc no likc tcrms and no common lactors.
!l thcrc arc common lactors in thc numcrator and dcnominator ol an cxprcssion, thcy can bc dividcd
out, providcd that thcy arc not cqual to zcro.
For cxamplc, il x
x 3
x 3
is cqual to 1, thcrclorc,
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4.2 Math ßeviev AIgebra
To multiply two algcbraic cxprcssions, cach tcrm ol onc cxprcssion is multiplicd by cach tcrm ol thc
othcr cxprcssion. For cxamplc:
An algcbraic cxprcssion can bc cvaluatcd by substituting valucs ol thc unknowns in thc cxprcssion.
For cxamplc, il x - 3 and y - 2, thcn 3xy x
2
÷ y can bc cvaluatcd as
3(3)(2) (3)
2
÷ (2) - 18 9 2 - 29
2. Equations
A major locus ol algcbra is to solvc cquations involving algcbraic cxprcssions. Somc cxamplcs ol
such cquations arc
0 on thc othcr (an cquation that is lactorcd on onc sidc with
5 2 9
3 1 2
x x
x y
(a lincar cquation with onc unknown)
(a lincar cquation with two unknowns)
5 3 2 7
2
x x x (a quadratic cquation with onc unknown)
x x x
x
( )( )

3 5
4
0
2
)
c solutions ol an cquation with onc or morc unknowns arc thosc valucs that makc thc cquation
truc, or "satisly thc cquation," whcn thcy arc substitutcd lor thc unknowns ol thc cquation. An
cquation may havc no solution or onc or morc solutions. !l two or morc cquations arc to bc solvcd
togcthcr, thc solutions must satisly all thc cquations simultancously.
Two cquations having thc samc solution(s) arc equi.alent equations. For cxamplc, thc cquations
2 ÷ x - 3
4 ÷ 2x - 6
cach havc thc uniquc solution x - 1. Notc that thc sccond cquation is thc nrst cquation multiplicd
by 2. Similarly, thc cquations
3x ÷ y - 6
6x ÷ 2y - 12
havc thc samc solutions, although in this casc cach cquation has innnitcly many solutions. !l any
valuc is assigncd to x, thcn 3x ÷ 6 is a corrcsponding valuc lor y that will satisly both cquations, lor
cxamplc, x - 2 and y - 0 is a solution to both cquations, as is x - 5 and y - 9.
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3. 5oIving Linear Equations vith One Unknovn
To solvc a lincar cquation with onc unknown (that is, to nnd thc valuc ol thc unknown that satisncs
is can bc donc by
pcrlorming thc samc mathcmatical opcrations on both sidcs ol thc cquation. Rcmcmbcr that il thc
samc numbcr is addcd to or subtractcd lrom both sidcs ol thc cquation, this docs not changc thc
cquality, likcwisc, multiplying or dividing both sidcs by thc samc nonzcro numbcr docs not changc
thc cquality. For cxamplc, to solvc thc cquation
5x 6
3
- 4 lor x, thc variablc x can bc isolatcd using
thc lollowing stcps:
5 6 12
18
18
5
x
5x
x


(multiplying by 3)
(adding 6)
(dividing g by 5)
c solution,
18
5
, can bc chcckcd by substituting it lor x in thc original cquation to dctcrminc
whcthcr it satisncs that cquation:
crclorc, x -
18
5
is thc solution.
4. 5oIving Tvo Linear Equations vith Tvo Unknovns
For two lincar cquations with two unknowns, il thc cquations arc cquivalcnt, thcn thcrc arc
innnitcly many solutions to thc cquations, as illustratcd at thc cnd ol scction 4.2.2 ("¡quations").
c
lattcr casc is illustratcd by thc two cquations:
3x ÷ 4y - 17
6x ÷ 8y - 35
Notc that 3x ÷ 4y - 17 implics 6x ÷ 8y us, no valucs
ol x and y can simultancously satisly both cquations.
crc arc scvcral mcthods ol solving two lincar cquations with two unknowns. Vith any mcthod,
il a contradiction is rcachcd, thcn thc cquations havc no solution, il a trivial cquation such as 0 - 0
is rcachcd, thcn thc cquations arc cquivalcnt and havc innnitcly many solutions. Òthcrwisc, a
uniquc solution can bc lound.
Ònc way to solvc lor thc two unknowns is to cxprcss onc ol thc unknowns in tcrms ol thc othcr using
onc ol thc cquations, and thcn substitutc thc cxprcssion into thc rcmaining cquation to obtain an
is cquation can bc solvcd and thc valuc ol thc unknown substitutcd
into cithcr ol thc original cquations to nnd thc valuc ol thc othcr unknown. For cxamplc, thc
lollowing two cquations can bc solvcd lor x and y.
123
4.2 Math ßeviev AIgebra
(1) 3x ÷ 2y - 11
(2) x y - 2
!n cquation (2), x - 2 ÷ y. Substitutc 2 ÷ y in cquation (1) lor x:
3 2 2 11
6 3 2 11
6 5 11
5 5
1
( ) + +
+ +
+

y y
y y
y
y
y
!l y - 1, thcn x 1 - 2 and x - 2 ÷ 1 - 3.
crc is anothcr way to solvc lor x and y is can bc donc by
making thc coclncicnts ol onc ol thc unknowns thc samc (disrcgarding thc sign) in both cquations
and cithcr adding thc cquations or subtracting onc cquation lrom thc othcr. For cxamplc, to solvc
thc cquations
(1) 6x ÷ 5y - 29
(2) 4x 3y - 6
by this mcthod, multiply cquation (1) by 3 and cquation (2) by 5 to gct
18x ÷ 15y - 87
20x 15y - 30
Adding thc two cquations climinatcs y, yiclding 38x - 57, or x -
3
2
. Finally, substituting
3
2
lor x
in onc ol thc cquations givcs y csc answcrs can bc chcckcd by substituting both valucs into
both ol thc original cquations.
5. 5oIving Equations by factoring
Somc cquations can bc solvcd by lactoring. To do this, nrst add or subtract cxprcssions to bring all
cn try to lactor thc nonzcro
sidc into a product ol cxprcssions. !l this is possiblc, thcn using propcrty (7) in scction 4.1.4 ("Rcal
Numbcrs") cach ol thc lactors can bc sct cqual to 0, yiclding scvcral simplcr cquations that possibly
c solutions ol thc simplcr cquations will bc solutions ol thc lactorcd cquation. As
an cxamplc, considcr thc cquation x
3
2x
2
÷ x - 5(x 1)
2
:
x
3
2x
2
÷ x ÷ 5(x 1)
2
- 0
x(x
2
÷ 2x ÷ 1) ÷ 5(x 1)
2
- 0
x(x 1)
2
÷ 5(x 1)
2
- 0
(x ÷ 5)(x 1)
2
- 0
x ÷ 5 - 0 or (x 1)
2
- 0
x - 5 or x - 1.
For anothcr cxamplc, considcr
x(x - 3)(x
2
÷ 5)
x 4
- 0. A lraction cquals 0 il and only il its numcrator
us, x(x 3)(x
2
÷ 5) - 0:
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x - 0 or x 3 - 0 or x
2
÷ 5 - 0
x - 0 or x - 3 or x
2
÷ 5 - 0.
8ut x
2
÷ 5 - 0 has no rcal solution bccausc x
2
us, thc solutions
arc 0 and 3.
c solutions ol an cquation arc also callcd thc roots csc roots can bc chcckcd by
substituting thcm into thc original cquation to dctcrminc whcthcr thcy satisly thc cquation.
6. 5oIving Çuadratic Equations
c standard lorm lor a quadratic equation is
ax
2
÷ bx ÷ c - 0,
whcrc a, b, and c arc rcal numbcrs and a
Somc quadratic cquations can casily bc solvcd by lactoring. For cxamplc:
(1)
(2)
A quadratic cquation has at most two rcal roots and may havc just onc or cvcn no rcal root. For
cxamplc, thc cquation x
2
6x ÷ 9 - 0 can bc cxprcsscd as (x 3)
2
- 0, or (x 3)(x 3) - 0, thus thc
c cquation x
2
÷ 4 - 0 has no rcal root, sincc thc squarc ol any rcal numbcr is grcatcr
than or cqual to zcro, x
2
÷ 4 must bc grcatcr than zcro.
An cxprcssion ol thc lorm a
2
- b
2
can bc lactorcd as (a b)(a ÷ b).
For cxamplc, thc quadratic cquation 9x
2
25 - 0 can bc solvcd as lollows.
!l a quadratic cxprcssion is not casily lactorcd, thcn its roots can always bc lound using thc quadratic
formula: !l ax
2
÷ bx ÷ c - 0 (a
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4.2 Math ßeviev AIgebra
csc arc two distinct rcal numbcrs unlcss b
2
4ac b
2
4ac - 0, thcn thcsc two cxprcssions
lor x arc cqual to
b
2a
, and thc cquation has only onc root. !l is not a
rcal numbcr and thc cquation has no rcal roots.
7. Exponents
A positivc intcgcr cxponcnt ol a numbcr or a variablc indicatcs a product, and thc positivc intcgcr is
thc numbcr ol timcs that thc numbcr or variablc is a lactor in thc product. For cxamplc, x
5
mcans
(x)(x)(x)(x)(x), that is, x is a lactor in thc product 5 timcs.
Somc rulcs about cxponcnts lollow.
Lct x and y bc any positivc numbcrs, and lct r and s bc any positivc intcgcrs.
  
!t can bc shown that rulcs 16 also apply whcn r and s arc not intcgcrs and arc not positivc, that is,
whcn r and s arc any rcal numbcrs.
8. InequaIities
An inequality is a statcmcnt that uscs onc ol thc lollowing symbols:
> grcatcr than
grcatcr than or cqual to
< lcss than
lcss than or cqual to
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Somc cxamplcs ol incqualitics arc 5 3 9 6
3
4
x x y , , and
1
2
. Solving a lincar incquality
with onc unknown is similar to solving an cquation, thc unknown is isolatcd on onc sidc ol thc
incquality. As in solving an cquation, thc samc numbcr can bc addcd to or subtractcd lrom both
sidcs ol thc incquality, or both sidcs ol an incquality can bc multiplicd or dividcd by a positivc
numbcr without changing thc truth ol thc incquality. Howcvcr, multiplying or dividing an
incquality by a ncgativc numbcr rcvcrscs thc ordcr ol thc incquality. For cxamplc, 6 ~ 2, but
(1)(6) · (1)(2).
To solvc thc incquality 3x 2 ~ 5 lor x, isolatc x by using thc lollowing stcps:
3 2 5
3 7
7
3
x
x
x
÷ >
>
>
(adding 2 to both sidcs)
dividing both sid ( ccs by 3)
To solvc thc incquality
5x 1
2
· 3 lor x, isolatc x by using thc lollowing stcps:
5 1
5 1 6
5 5
x
x
x
2
· 3
(multiplying both sidcs by 2)
(adding 1 to both sidcs)
(dividing both sidcs by 5) x 1
9. AbsoIute VaIue
10. functions
An algcbraic cxprcssion in onc variablc can bc uscd to dcnnc a function ol that variablc. A lunction
is dcnotcd by a lcttcr such as f or g along with thc variablc in thc cxprcssion. For cxamplc, thc
cxprcssion x
3
5x
2
÷ 2 dcnncs a lunction f that can bc dcnotcd by
f (x) - x
3
5x
2
÷ 2.
c cxprcssion
2 7
1
z
z
+
+
dcnncs a lunction g that can bc dcnotcd by
g z
z
z
( )
+
+
2 7
1
c symbols " f (x)" or "g (z)" do not rcprcscnt products, cach is mcrcly thc symbol lor an cxprcssion,
and is rcad " f ol x" or "g ol z."
Function notation providcs a short way ol writing thc rcsult ol substituting a valuc lor a variablc.
!l x - 1 is substitutcd in thc nrst cxprcssion, thc rcsult can bc writtcn f (1) - 2, and f (1) is callcd
thc "valuc ol f at x - 1." Similarly, il z - 0 is substitutcd in thc sccond cxprcssion, thcn thc valuc
ol g at z - 0 is g(0) - 7.
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4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
Òncc a lunction f (x) is dcnncd, it is usclul to think ol thc variablc x as an input and f (x) as thc
corrcsponding output. !n any lunction thcrc can bc no morc than onc output lor any givcn input.
Howcvcr, morc than onc input can givc thc samc output, lor cxamplc, il h (x) - ]x ÷ 3], thcn
h (4) - 1 - h (2).
c sct ol all allowablc inputs lor a lunction is callcd thc domain ol thc lunction. For f and g dcnncd
abovc, thc domain ol f is thc sct ol all rcal numbcrs and thc domain ol g is thc sct ol all numbcrs
c domain ol any lunction can bc arbitrarily spccincd, as in thc lunction dcnncd
by "h(x) - 9x x
ol x that rcsult in a rcal numbcr whcn substitutcd into thc lunction.
c domain ol a lunction can consist ol only thc positivc intcgcrs and possibly 0. For cxamplc,
a(n) - n
2
÷
n
5
lor n - 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
Such a lunction is callcd a sequence and a(n) is dcnotcd by a
n
c valuc ol thc scqucncc a
n
at n - 3
is . As anothcr cxamplc, considcr thc scqucncc dcnncd by b
n
- (1)
n
(n!) lor
n - 1, 2, 3, . . . . A scqucncc likc this is oltcn indicatcd by listing its valucs in thc ordcr
b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, . . . , b
n
, . . . as lollows:
1, 2, 6, . . . , (1)
n
(n!), . . . , and (1)
n
(n!) is callcd thc nth tcrm ol thc scqucncc.
4.3 Geometry
1. Lines
!n gcomctry, thc word "linc" rclcrs to a straight linc that cxtcnds without cnd in both dircctions.
c linc abovc can bc rclcrrcd to as linc PQ or linc c part ol thc linc lrom P to Q is callcd a
line segment. P and Q arc thc endpoints c notation PQ is uscd to dcnotc linc
scgmcnt PQ and PQ is uscd to dcnotc thc lcngth ol thc scgmcnt.
2. Intersecting Lines and AngIes
!l two lincs intcrscct, thc oppositc anglcs arc callcd .ertical angles and havc thc samc mcasurc.
!n thc ngurc
PFQ and SFT arc vcrtical anglcs and QFS and PFT arc vcrtical anglcs. Also, x ÷ y - 180
sincc PFS is a straight linc.
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3. PerpendicuIar Lines
An anglc that has a mcasurc ol 90´ is a right angle. !l two lincs intcrscct at right anglcs, thc lincs arc
perpendicular. For cxamplc:
1
and
2
abovc arc pcrpcndicular, dcnotcd by
1

2
. A right anglc symbol in an anglc ol
intcrscction indicatcs that thc lincs arc pcrpcndicular.
4. ParaIIeI Lines
!l two lincs that arc in thc samc planc do not intcrscct, thc two lincs arc parallel. !n thc ngurc
lincs
1
and
2
arc parallcl, dcnotcd by
1

2
. !l two parallcl lincs arc intcrscctcd by a third linc, as
shown bclow, thcn thc anglc mcasurcs arc rclatcd as indicatcd, whcrc x ÷ y - 180.
yx
x y
yx
xy
5. PoIygons (Convex)
A polygon is a closcd planc ngurc lormcd by thrcc or morc linc scgmcnts, callcd thc sides ol thc
c points ol intcrscction ol
thc sidcs arc .ertices c tcrm "polygon" will bc uscd to mcan a convcx polygon, that is, a polygon
in which cach intcrior anglc has a mcasurc ol lcss than 180´.
c lollowing ngurcs arc polygons:

c lollowing ngurcs arc not polygons:

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4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
A polygon with thrcc sidcs is a triangle, with lour sidcs, a quadrilateral, with nvc sidcs, a pentagon,
and with six sidcs, a hexagon.
c sum ol thc intcrior anglc mcasurcs ol a trianglc is 180´. !n gcncral, thc sum ol thc intcrior
anglc mcasurcs ol a polygon with n sidcs is cqual to (n 2)180´. For cxamplc, this sum lor a
pcntagon is (5 2)180 - (3)180 - 540 dcgrccs.
Notc that a pcntagon can bc partitioncd into thrcc trianglcs and thcrclorc thc sum ol thc anglc
mcasurcs can bc lound by adding thc sum ol thc anglc mcasurcs ol thrcc trianglcs.
c perimeter ol a polygon is thc sum ol thc lcngths ol its sidcs.
c commonly uscd phrasc "arca ol a trianglc" (or any othcr planc ngurc) is uscd to mcan thc arca ol
thc rcgion cncloscd by that ngurc.
6. TriangIes
crc arc scvcral spccial typcs ol trianglcs with important propcrtics. 8ut onc propcrty that all
trianglcs sharc is that thc sum ol thc lcngths ol any two ol thc sidcs is grcatcr than thc lcngth ol thc
third sidc, as illustratcd bclow.
x
y
z
x + y z, x + z y, and y + z x
An equilateral trianglc has all sidcs ol cqual lcngth. All anglcs ol an cquilatcral trianglc havc cqual
mcasurc. An isosceles trianglc has at lcast two sidcs ol thc samc lcngth. !l two sidcs ol a trianglc
havc thc samc lcngth, thcn thc two anglcs oppositc thosc sidcs havc thc samc mcasurc. Convcrscly,
il two anglcs ol a trianglc havc thc samc mcasurc, thcn thc sidcs oppositc thosc anglcs havc thc
samc lcngth. !n isoscclcs trianglc PQF bclow, x - y sincc PQ - QF.
y x
Q
P F
10 10
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A trianglc that has a right anglc is a right trianglc. !n a right trianglc, thc sidc oppositc thc right
anglc is thc hypotenuse, and thc othcr two sidcs arc thc legs. An important thcorcm conccrning right
trianglcs is thc Pythagorean theorem, which statcs: !n a right trianglc, thc squarc ol thc lcngth ol thc
hypotcnusc is cqual to thc sum ol thc squarcs ol thc lcngths ol thc lcgs.



6
8
FST is a right trianglc, so (FS)
2
÷ (FT)
2
- (ST )
2
. Hcrc, FS - 6 and FT - 8,
so ST - 10, sincc 6
2
÷ 8
2
- 36 ÷ 64 - 100 - (ST )
2
and ST - 100 . Any trianglc in which thc lcngths
ol thc sidcs arc in thc ratio 3:4:5 is a right trianglc. !n gcncral, il a, b, and c arc thc lcngths ol thc
sidcs ol a trianglc and a
2
+ b
2
- c
2
, thcn thc trianglc is a right trianglc.
L
K
J
45º
2
45º
Z
Y
X
30º
3
60º
!n 45´45´90´ trianglcs, thc lcngths ol thc sidcs arc in thc ratio 1:1: 2 JKL,
il JL - 2, thcn JK - 2 and KL - 2 2 . !n 30´60´90´ trianglcs, thc lcngths ol thc sidcs arc in thc
ratio 1: 3 XYZ, il XZ - 3, thcn XY - 3 3 and YZ - 6.
c altitude ol a trianglc is thc scgmcnt drawn lrom a vcrtcx pcrpcndicular to thc sidc oppositc that
vcrtcx. Rclativc to that vcrtcx and altitudc, thc oppositc sidc is callcd thc base.
c arca ol a trianglc is cqual to:
(thc lcngth ol thc altitudc) × (thc lcngth ol thc basc)
2
Æ
D
E
B
C
8
BD - 3
ÆBC, BD is thc altitudc to basc ÆC and ÆE is thc altitudc to basc BC ÆBC is
cqual to
BD ÆC ×

×

2
5 8
2
20 .
131
4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
c arca is also cqual to
ÆE × BC
2
ÆBC abovc is isoscclcs and ÆB - BC, thcn altitudc BD
bisccts thc basc, that is, ÆD - DC - 4. Similarly, any altitudc ol an cquilatcral trianglc bisccts thc
sidc to which it is drawn.
D
60º
G
E
F
30º
6
!n cquilatcral trianglc DEF, il DE - 6, thcn DG - 3 and EG - 3 3 DEF is cqual
to
3 3 6
2
9 3


.
7. ÇuadriIateraIs
A polygon with lour sidcs is a quadrilateral. A quadrilatcral in which both pairs ol oppositc sidcs arc
parallcl is a parallelogram c oppositc sidcs ol a parallclogram also havc cqual lcngth.
K
L
M
J
N
6
4
!n parallclogram JKLM, JK LM and JK - LM, KL JM and KL - JM.
c diagonals ol a parallclogram biscct cach othcr (that is, KN - NM and JN - NL).
c arca ol a parallclogram is cqual to
(thc lcngth ol thc altitudc) × (thc lcngth ol thc basc).
c arca ol JKLM is cqual to 4 × 6 - 24.
A parallclogram with right anglcs is a rectangle, and a rcctanglc with all sidcs ol cqual lcngth is
a square.
X
!
Y
Z
3
7
c pcrimctcr ol !XYZ - 2(3) ÷ 2(7) - 20 and thc arca ol !XYZ is cqual to 3 × 7 - 21.
c diagonals ol a rcctanglc arc cqual, thcrclorc !Y XZ + 9 49 58.
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P
F
S
16
12
Q
8
A quadrilatcral with two sidcs that arc parallcl, as shown abovc, is a trapezoid c arca ol trapczoid
PQFS may bc calculatcd as lollows:
1
2
(thc sum ol thc lcngths ol thc bascs)(thc hcight) -
1
2
(QF ÷ PS)(8) -
1
2
(28 × 8) - 112.
8. CircIes
A circle is a sct ol points in a planc that arc all locatcd thc samc distancc lrom a nxcd point (thc
center ol thc circlc).
A chord ol a circlc is a linc scgmcnt that has its cndpoints on thc circlc. A chord that passcs through
thc ccntcr ol thc circlc is a diameter ol thc circlc. A radius ol a circlc is a scgmcnt lrom thc ccntcr ol
c words "diamctcr" and "radius" arc also uscd to rclcr to thc
lcngths ol thcsc scgmcnts.
c circumference ol a circlc is thc distancc around thc circlc. !l r is thc radius ol thc circlc, thcn thc
circumlcrcncc is cqual to 2 r, whcrc is approximatcly
22
7
c area ol a circlc ol radius r is
cqual to r
2
.
K
P F
J
O
7
!n thc circlc abovc, O is thc ccntcr ol thc circlc and JK and PF arc chords. PF is a diamctcr and OF
is a radius. !l OF - 7, thcn thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc is 2 (7) - 14 and thc arca ol thc circlc is
(7)
2
- 49 .
c numbcr ol dcgrccs ol arc in a circlc (or thc numbcr ol dcgrccs in a complctc rcvolution) is 360.
133
4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
S
T
F
O xº
!n thc circlc with ccntcr O abovc, thc lcngth ol arc FST is
x
360
ol thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc,
lor cxamplc, il x - 60, thcn arc FST has lcngth
1
6
ol thc circumlcrcncc ol thc circlc.
A linc that has cxactly onc point in common with a circlc is said to bc tangent to thc circlc, and that
common point is callcd thc point of tangency. A radius or diamctcr with an cndpoint at thc point ol
tangcncy is pcrpcndicular to thc tangcnt linc, and, convcrscly, a linc that is pcrpcndicular to a
diamctcr at onc ol its cndpoints is tangcnt to thc circlc at that cndpoint.
O T
c linc abovc is tangcnt to thc circlc and radius OT is pcrpcndicular to .
!l cach vcrtcx ol a polygon lics on a circlc, thcn thc polygon is inscribed in thc circlc and thc circlc is
circumscribed about thc polygon. !l cach sidc ol a polygon is tangcnt to a circlc, thcn thc polygon is
circumscribed about thc circlc and thc circlc is inscribed in thc polygon.
Q F
S P
Æ
B
C D
E
F
!n thc ngurc abovc, quadrilatcral PQFS is inscribcd in a circlc and hcxagon ÆBCDEF is
circumscribcd about a circlc.
!l a trianglc is inscribcd in a circlc so that onc ol its sidcs is a diamctcr ol thc circlc, thcn thc trianglc
is a right trianglc.
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X Z
Y
O
!n thc circlc abovc, XZ is a diamctcr and thc mcasurc ol XYZ is 90´.
9. ßectanguIar 5oIids and CyIinders
A rectangular solid is a thrccdimcnsional ngurc lormcd by 6 rcctangular surlaccs, as shown bclow.
¡ach rcctangular surlacc is a face. ¡ach solid or dottcd linc scgmcnt is an edge, and cach point at
which thc cdgcs mcct is a .ertex. A rcctangular solid has 6 laccs, 12 cdgcs, and 8 vcrticcs. Òppositc
laccs arc parallcl rcctanglcs that havc thc samc dimcnsions. A rcctangular solid in which all cdgcs
arc ol cqual lcngth is a cube.
c surface area c .olumc is
cqual to
(lcngth) × (width) × (hcight),
in othcr words, (arca ol basc) × (hcight).
Q
F
U !
! T
P
4
3 S
8
c surlacc arca is cqual to
2(3 × 4) + 2(3 × 8) + 2(4 × 8) c volumc is cqual to 3 × 4 × 8 96.
O
P
c ngurc abovc is a right circular cylinder c two bascs arc circlcs ol thc samc sizc with ccntcrs
O and P, rcspcctivcly, and altitudc (hcight) OP c surlacc arca ol a
right circular cylindcr with a basc ol radius r and hcight h r
2
) + rh (thc sum ol thc
arcas ol thc two bascs plus thc arca ol thc curvcd surlacc).
r
2
h, that is,
(arca ol basc) × (hcight).
135
4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
8
5
!n thc cylindcr abovc, thc surlacc arca is cqual to
+
and thc volumc is cqual to

10. Coordinate Geometry
y
x
O
3
!\
!!!
! !!
2
1
1 2 3 4
1
2
3
1 2 3 4
c ngurc abovc shows thc (rcctangular) coordinate plane c horizontal linc is callcd thc x-axis
and thc pcrpcndicular vcrtical linc is callcd thc y-axis c point at which thcsc two axcs intcrscct,
dcsignatcd O, is callcd thc origin c axcs dividc thc planc into lour quadrants, !, !!, !!!, and !\,
as shown.
¡ach point in thc planc has an x-coordinate and a y-coordinate. A point is idcntincd by an ordcrcd
pair (x,y) ol numbcrs in which thc xcoordinatc is thc nrst numbcr and thc ycoordinatc is thc
sccond numbcr.
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y
x
O
3
2
1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5
4
5
4
5
Q
P
!n thc graph abovc, thc (x,y ) coordinatcs ol point P arc (2,3) sincc P is 2 units to thc right ol
thc yaxis (that is, x 2) and 3 units abovc thc xaxis (that is, y 3). Similarly, thc (x,y ) coordinatcs
ol point Q c origin O has coordinatcs (0,0).
Ònc way to nnd thc distancc bctwccn two points in thc coordinatc planc is to usc thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm.
y
O
S
F
(2,4)
(3,3)
Z
x
To nnd thc distancc bctwccn points F and S using thc Pythagorcan thcorcm, draw thc trianglc as
shown. Notc that Z has (x,y) coordinatcs (2,3), FZ 7, and ZS crclorc, thc distancc
bctwccn F and S is cqual to
For a linc in thc coordinatc planc, thc coordinatcs ol cach point on thc linc satisly a lincar cquation
ol thc lorm y mx + b (or thc lorm x a il thc linc is vcrtical). For cxamplc, cach point on thc linc
on thc ncxt pagc satisncs thc cquation y
1
2
x + 1. Ònc can vcrily this lor thc points (2,2), (2,0),
and (0,1) by substituting thc rcspcctivc coordinatcs lor x and y in thc cquation.
137
4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 3 1 2 3
(2,2)
(0,1)
(2,0)
!n thc cquation y mx + b ol a linc, thc coclncicnt m is thc slope ol thc linc and thc constant tcrm b
is thc y-intercept ol thc linc. For any two points on thc linc, thc slopc is dcnncd to bc thc ratio ol thc
crcncc in thc y- crcncc in thc xcoordinatcs. Using (2, 2) and (2, 0) abovc,
thc slopc is
1 y
xcoordinatcs
  
0 2
2 2
2
4 2 ( )
.
c yintcrccpt is thc ycoordinatc ol thc point at which thc linc intcrsccts thc yaxis. For thc linc
abovc, thc yintcrccpt is 1, and this is thc rcsulting valuc ol y whcn x is sct cqual to 0 in thc
cquation y -
1
2
x c x-intercept is thc xcoordinatc ol thc point at which thc linc intcrsccts
thc x c xintcrccpt can bc lound by sctting y - 0 and solving lor x. For thc linc y
1
2
x ÷ 1,
this givcs
÷ +
÷ ÷

1
2
1 0
1
2
1
2
x
x
x

.
us, thc xintcrccpt is 2.
Givcn any two points (x
1
,y
1
) and (x
2
,y
2
) with x
1
x
2
, thc cquation ol thc linc passing through
thcsc points can bc lound by applying thc dcnnition ol slopc. Sincc thc slopc is m -
y
2
- y
1
x
2
- x
1
,
thcn using a point known to bc on thc linc, say (x
1
,y
1
), any point (x,y) on thc linc must satisly
y - y
1
x - x
1
- m, or y y
1
- m(x x
1
). (Using (x
2
,y
2
) as thc known point would yicld an cquivalcnt
cquation.) For cxamplc, considcr thc points (2,4) and (3,3) on thc linc bclow.
y
x
O
3
2
1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 1 2 4 3
4
5
4
5
(2,4)
(3,3)
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c slopc ol this linc is
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

÷ 3 4
3 2
7
5 ( )
, so an cquation ol this linc can bc lound using thc point
(3,3) as lollows:
y
y x
y x
( )
.
3
7
5
3
3
7
5
21
5
7
5
6
5
( ) x
c yintcrccpt is
6
5
c x-intercept can bc lound as lollows:
0
7
5
6
5
7
5
6
5
6
7
÷ +

x
x
x
8oth ol thcsc intcrccpts can bc sccn on thc graph.
!l thc slopc ol a linc is ncgativc, thc linc slants downward lrom lclt to right, il thc slopc is positivc,
thc linc slants upward. !l thc slopc is 0, thc linc is horizontal, thc cquation ol such a linc is ol thc
lorm y b sincc m 0. For a vcrtical linc, slopc is not dcnncd, and thc cquation is ol thc lorm x a,
whcrc a is thc xintcrccpt.
crc is a conncction bctwccn graphs ol lincs in thc coordinatc planc and solutions ol two lincar
cquations with two unknowns. !l two lincar cquations with unknowns x and y havc a uniquc
solution, thcn thc graphs ol thc cquations arc two lincs that intcrscct in onc point, which is thc
solution. !l thc cquations arc cquivalcnt, thcn thcy rcprcscnt thc samc linc with innnitcly many
points or solutions. !l thc cquations havc no solution, thcn thcy rcprcscnt parallcl lincs, which
do not intcrscct.
crc is also a conncction bctwccn lunctions (scc scction 4.2.10) and thc coordinatc planc. !l a
crcnt and usclul
ways. Considcr thc lunction dcnncd by
f x x ( ) . ÷ +
7
5
6
5
!l thc valuc ol thc lunction, f (x), is cquatcd with thc variablc y, thcn thc graph ol thc lunction in thc
xycoordinatc planc is simply thc graph ol thc cquation
y x
7
5
6
5
shown abovc. Similarly, any lunction f (x) can bc graphcd by cquating y with thc valuc ol thc
lunction:
y f (x).
139
4.3 Math ßeviev Geometry
So lor any x in thc domain ol thc lunction f, thc point with coordinatcs (x, f (x)) is on thc graph ol f,
and thc graph consists cntircly ol thcsc points.
As anothcr cxamplc, considcr a quadratic polynomial lunction dcnncd by f (x) x
2
1. Ònc can plot
scvcral points (x, f (x)) on thc graph to undcrstand thc conncction bctwccn a lunction and its graph:
x f (x)
2 3
1 0
0 1
1 0
2 3
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 1 2
(2,3) (2,3)
(1,0)
3
2
(1,0)
!l all thc points wcrc graphcd lor 2 x 2, thcn thc graph would appcar as lollows.
y
x
O
2
1
1
1 2 1 2
3
2
c graph ol a quadratic lunction is callcd a parabola and always has thc shapc ol thc curvc abovc,
although it may bc upsidc down or havc a grcatcr or lcsscr width. Notc that thc roots ol thc cquation
f (x) - x
2
1 - 0 arc x - 1 and x - 1, thcsc coincidc with thc xintcrccpts sincc xintcrccpts arc
lound by sctting y - 0 and solving lor x. Also, thc yintcrccpt is f (0) - ÷1 bccausc this is thc valuc
ol y corrcsponding to x - 0. For any lunction f, thc xintcrccpts arc thc solutions ol thc cquation
f (x) - 0 and thc yintcrccpt is thc valuc f (0).
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4.4 Word ProbIems
c lollowing
discussion ol word problcms illustratcs somc ol thc tcchniqucs and conccpts uscd in solving such
problcms.
1. ßate ProbIems
c distancc that an objcct travcls is cqual to thc product ol thc avcragc spccd at which it travcls and
thc amount ol timc it takcs to travcl that distancc, that is,
Ratc × Timc Ðistancc.
Example 1: !l a car travcls at an avcragc spccd ol 70 kilomctcrs pcr hour lor 4 hours, how many
kilomctcrs docs it travcl:
Solution: Sincc ratc × timc distancc, simply multiply 70 km/hour × us, thc car travcls
280 kilomctcrs in 4 hours.
To dctcrminc thc avcragc ratc at which an objcct travcls, dividc thc total distancc travclcd by thc
total amount ol travcling timc.
Example 2: Òn a 400milc trip, Car X travclcd hall thc distancc at 40 milcs pcr hour (mph) and thc
othcr hall at 50 mph. Vhat was thc avcragc spccd ol Car X :
Solution: First it is ncccssary to dctcrminc thc amount ol travcling timc. Ðuring thc nrst 200 milcs,
thc car travclcd at 40 mph, thcrclorc, it took
200
40
- 5 hours to travcl thc nrst 200 milcs.
Ðuring thc sccond 200 milcs, thc car travclcd at 50 mph, thcrclorc, it took
200
50
- 4 hours to travcl
us, thc avcragc spccd ol Car X was
400
9
- 44
4
9
mph. Notc that thc avcragc
spccd is not
40 + 50
2
- 45.
Somc ratc problcms can bc solvcd by using ratios.
Example l: !l 5 shirts cost 844, thcn, at this ratc, what is thc cost ol 8 shirts:
Solution: !l c is thc cost ol thc 8 shirts, thcn
5
44
-
8
c
. Cross multiplication rcsults in thc cquation
5c - 8 × 44 - 352
c -
352
5
- 70.40
c 8 shirts cost 870.40.
141
4.4 Math ßeviev Word ProbIems
2. Work ProbIems
!n a work problcm, thc ratcs at which ccrtain pcrsons or machincs work alonc arc usually givcn, and
it is ncccssary to computc thc ratc at which thcy work togcthcr (or vicc vcrsa).
c basic lormula lor solving work problcms is
1
r
+
1
s

1
h
, whcrc r and s arc, lor cxamplc, thc
numbcr ol hours it takcs Rac and Sam, rcspcctivcly, to complctc a job whcn working alonc, and
h c rcasoning
is that in 1 hour Rac docs
1
r
ol thc job, Sam docs
1
s
ol thc job, and Rac and Sam togcthcr do
1
h
ol
thc job.
Example 1: !l Machinc X can producc 1,000 bolts in 4 hours and Machinc Y can producc 1,000
bolts in 5 hours, in how many hours can Machincs X and Y, working togcthcr at thcsc constant
ratcs, producc 1,000 bolts:
Solution:
1
4
1
5
1
5
20
4
20
1
9
20
1
9 20
20
9
2
2
9
+
+

h
h
h
h
h
Vorking togcthcr, Machincs X and Y can producc 1,000 bolts in 2
2
9
hours.
Example 2: !l Art and Rita can do a job in 4 hours whcn working togcthcr at thcir rcspcctivc
constant ratcs and Art can do thc job alonc in 6 hours, in how many hours can Rita do thc job
alonc:
Solution:
1
6
1 1
4
6
6
1
4
4 24 6
24 2
12
+
+

+

F
F
F
F F
F
F
Vorking alonc, Rita can do thc job in 12 hours.
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3. Mixture ProbIems
crcnt charactcristics arc combincd, and it is ncccssary to
dctcrminc thc charactcristics ol thc rcsulting mixturc.
Example 1: !l 6 pounds ol nuts that cost 81.20 pcr pound arc mixcd with 2 pounds ol nuts that cost
81.60 pcr pound, what is thc cost pcr pound ol thc mixturc:
Solution:
6(81.20) ÷ 2(81.60) - 810.40.
c cost pcr pound is
810.40
8
- 81.30.
Example 2: How many litcrs ol a solution that is 15 pcrccnt salt must bc addcd to 5 litcrs ol a
solution that is 8 pcrccnt salt so that thc rcsulting solution is 10 pcrccnt salt:
Solution: Lct n c amount ol salt in thc 15º
solution |0.15n| plus thc amount ol salt in thc 8º solution |(0.08)(5)| must bc cqual to thc amount ol
salt in thc 10º mixturc |0.10 (n crclorc,
0.15n ÷ 0.08(5) - 0.10(n ÷ 5)
15n ÷ 40 - 10n ÷ 50
5n - 10
n - 2 litcrs
Two litcrs ol thc 15º salt solution must bc addcd to thc 8º solution to obtain thc 10º solution.
4. Interest ProbIems
!ntcrcst can bc computcd in two basic ways. Vith simplc annual intcrcst, thc intcrcst is computcd
on thc principal only and is cqual to (principal) × (intcrcst ratc) × (timc). !l intcrcst is compoundcd,
thcn intcrcst is computcd on thc principal as wcll as on any intcrcst alrcady carncd.
Example 1: !l 88,000 is invcstcd at 6 pcrccnt simplc annual intcrcst, how much intcrcst is carncd
altcr 3 months:
Solution: Sincc thc annual intcrcst ratc is 6º, thc intcrcst lor 1 ycar is
(0.06)(88,000) - 8480.
c intcrcst carncd in 3 months is
3
12
(8480) 8120.
Example 2: !l 810,000 is invcstcd at 10 pcrccnt annual intcrcst, compoundcd scmiannually, what is
thc balancc altcr 1 ycar:
Solution: c balancc altcr thc nrst 6 months would bc
10,000 + (10,000)(0.05) 810,500.
c balancc altcr onc ycar would bc 10,500 + (10,500)(0.05) 811,025.
143
4.4 Math ßeviev Word ProbIems
Notc that thc intcrcst ratc lor cach 6month pcriod is 5º, which is hall ol thc 10º annual ratc.
c balancc altcr onc ycar can also bc cxprcsscd as
5. Discount
!l a pricc is discountcd by n pcrccnt, thcn thc pricc bccomcs (100 n) pcrccnt ol thc original pricc.
Example 1: A ccrtain customcr paid 824 lor a drcss. !l that pricc rcprcscntcd a 25 pcrccnt discount
on thc original pricc ol thc drcss, what was thc original pricc ol thc drcss:
Solution: !l p is thc original pricc ol thc drcss, thcn 0.75p is thc discountcd pricc and 0.75p 824,
or p c original pricc ol thc drcss was 832.
Example 2: c pricc ol an itcm is discountcd by 20 pcrccnt and thcn this rcduccd pricc is discountcd
csc two discounts arc cqual to an ovcrall discount ol what pcrccnt:
Solution: !l p is thc original pricc ol thc itcm, thcn 0.8p c pricc
altcr thc sccond discount is (0.7)(0.8)p 0.56p is rcprcscnts an ovcrall discount ol 44 pcrccnt
(100º 56º).
6. Proñt
Gross pront is cqual to rcvcnucs minus cxpcnscs, or sclling pricc minus cost.
Example: A ccrtain appliancc costs a mcrchant 830. At what pricc should thc mcrchant scll thc
appliancc in ordcr to makc a gross pront ol 50 pcrccnt ol thc cost ol thc appliancc:
Solution: !l s is thc sclling pricc ol thc appliancc, thcn s 30 (0.5)(30), or s c mcrchant
should scll thc appliancc lor 845.
7. 5ets
!l S is thc sct ol numbcrs 1, 2, 3, and 4, you can writc S - [1, 2, 3, 4]. Scts can also bc rcprcscntcd by
at is, thc rclationship among thc mcmbcrs ol scts can bc rcprcscntcd by circlcs.
Example 1: ¡ach ol 25 pcoplc is cnrollcd in history, mathcmatics, or both. !l 20 arc cnrollcd in
history and 18 arc cnrollcd in mathcmatics, how many arc cnrollcd in both history and
mathcmatics:
Solution:
us a \cnn diagram may bc
drawn as lollows, whcrc n is thc numbcr ol pcoplc cnrollcd in both courscs, 20 n is thc numbcr
cnrollcd in history only, and 18 n is thc numbcr cnrollcd in mathcmatics only.
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20 n 18 n n
History
Mathcmatics
Sincc thcrc is a total ol 25 pcoplc, (20 n) + n + (18 n) 25, or n irtccn pcoplc arc
cnrollcd in both history and mathcmatics. Notc that 20 + 18 13 25, which is thc gcncral
addition rulc lor two scts (scc scction 4.1.9).
Example 2: !n a ccrtain production lot, 40 pcrccnt ol thc toys arc rcd and thc rcmaining toys arc
grccn. Hall ol thc toys arc small and hall arc largc. !l 10 pcrccnt ol thc toys arc rcd and small, and
40 toys arc grccn and largc, how many ol thc toys arc rcd and largc.
Solution: For this kind ol problcm, it is hclplul to organizc thc inlormation in a tablc:
Rcd Grccn Total
Small 10º 50º
Largc 50º
Total 40º 60º 100º
c lollowing pcrccntagcs can bc computcd on
thc basis ol what is givcn:
Rcd Grccn Total
Small 10º 40º 50º
Largc 30º 20º 50º
Total 40º 60º 100º
Sincc 20º ol thc numbcr ol toys (n) arc grccn and largc, 0.20n 40 (40 toys arc grccn and largc), or
n crclorc, 30º ol thc 200 toys, or (0.3)(200) 60, arc rcd and largc.
8. Geometry ProbIems
c lollowing is an cxamplc ol a word problcm involving gcomctry.
Example:
200 mctcrs
c ngurc abovc shows an acrial vicw ol a piccc ol land. !l all anglcs shown arc right anglcs, what is
thc pcrimctcr ol thc piccc ol land:
145
4.4 Math ßeviev Word ProbIems
Solution: For rclcrcncc, labcl thc ngurc as
Q F
S
T
S
U
P
!
!
!l all thc anglcs arc right anglcs, thcn QF + ST + U! P!, and FS + TU ÷ !! PQ. Hcncc, thc
pcrimctcr ol thc land is 2P! + 2PQ 2 × 200 + 2 × 200 800 mctcrs.
9. Measurement ProbIems
Somc qucstions on thc GMAT involvc mctric units ol mcasurc, whcrcas othcrs involvc ¡nglish
units ol mcasurc. Howcvcr, cxccpt lor units ol timc, il a qucstion rcquircs convcrsion lrom onc unit
ol mcasurc to anothcr, thc rclationship bctwccn thosc units will bc givcn.
Example: A train travcls at a constant ratc ol 25 mctcrs pcr sccond. How many kilomctcrs docs it
travcl in 5 minutcs: (1 kilomctcr - 1,000 mctcrs)
Solution: !n 1 minutc thc train travcls (25)(60) - 1,500 mctcrs, so in 5 minutcs it travcls
7,500 mctcrs. Sincc 1 kilomctcr - 1,000 mctcrs, it lollows that 7,500 mctcrs cquals
7,500
1,000
, or
7.5 kilomctcrs.
10. Data Interpretation
Òccasionally a qucstion or sct ol qucstions will bc bascd on data providcd in a tablc or graph. Somc
cxamplcs ol tablcs and graphs arc givcn bclow.
Example 1:
PopuIation by Age Group
(in lhousands)
Agc Population
17 ycars and undcr 63,376
1844 ycars 86,738
4564 ycars 43,845
65 ycars and ovcr 24,054
How many pcoplc arc 44 ycars old or youngcr:
Solution c answcr in thousands can bc obtaincd
150,114,000.
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Example 2:
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND
PREC¡P¡TAT¡ON ¡N C¡TY 
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Prccipitation
(righthand scalc)
Tcmpcraturc
(lclthand scalc)
January April July Òctobcr
Vhat arc thc avcragc tcmpcraturc and prccipitation in City X during April:
Solution: Notc that thc scalc on thc lclt applics to thc tcmpcraturc linc graph and thc onc on thc
right applics to thc prccipitation linc graph. According to thc graph, during April thc avcragc
tcmpcraturc is approximatcly 14´ Cclsius and thc avcragc prccipitation is approximatcly
8 ccntimctcrs.
Example l:
D¡STR¡BUT¡ON OI AL'S WEEKLY NET SALARY
Food
15º
Rcnt and
Utilitics
10º
30º
Savings
25º
Òthcr
20º
Fucl and
!nsurancc
lor Automobilc
Al's wcckly nct salary is 8350. To how many ol thc catcgorics listcd was at lcast 880 ol Al's wcckly
nct salary allocatcd:
Solution: !n thc circlc graph, thc rclativc sizcs ol thc scctors arc proportional to thcir corrcsponding
valucs and thc sum ol thc pcrccnts givcn is 100º. Notc that
80
350
is approximatcly 23º, so at lcast
880 was allocatcd to cach ol 2 catcgoricsRcnt and Utilitics, and Savingssincc thcir allocations
arc cach grcatcr than 23º.
147
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4.4 Math ßeviev Word ProbIems
148
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
149
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
c Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT¹ tcst uscs problcm solving and data sulncicncy qucstions to
is chaptcr locuscs on problcm solving qucstions. Rcmcmbcr that
quantitativc qucstions rcquirc knowlcdgc ol thc lollowing:
Arithmctic ·
¡lcmcntary algcbra ·
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry ·
Problcm solving qucstions arc dcsigncd to tcst your basic mathcmatical skills and undcrstanding ol
clcmcntary mathcmatical conccpts, as wcll as your ability to rcason quantitativcly, solvc quantitativc
c mathcmatics knowlcdgc rcquircd to answcr thc qucstions
is no morc advanccd than what is gcncrally taught in sccondary school (or high school) mathcmatics
classcs.
!n thcsc qucstions, you arc askcd to solvc cach problcm and sclcct thc bcst ol thc nvc answcr
choiccs givcn. 8cgin by rcading thc qucstion thoroughly to dctcrminc cxactly what inlormation is
givcn and to makc surc you undcrstand what is bcing askcd. Scan thc answcr choiccs to undcrstand
your options. !l thc problcm sccms simplc, takc a lcw momcnts to scc whcthcr you can dctcrminc
cn chcck your answcr against thc choiccs providcd.
!l you do not scc your answcr among thc choiccs, or il thc problcm is complicatcd, takc a closcr
look at thc answcr choiccs and think again about what thc problcm is asking. Scc whcthcr you can
climinatc somc ol thc answcr choiccs and narrow down your options. !l you arc still unablc to
narrow thc answcr down to a singlc choicc, rcrcad thc qucstion. Kccp in mind that thc answcr will
bc bascd solcly on thc inlormation providcd in thc qucstiondon't allow your own cxpcricncc and
assumptions to intcrlcrc with your ability to nnd thc corrcct answcr to thc qucstion.
!l you nnd yourscll stuck on a qucstion or unablc to sclcct thc singlc corrcct answcr, kccp in mind
that you havc about two minutcs to answcr cach quantitativc qucstion. You may run out ol timc il
you takc too long to answcr any onc qucstion, so you may simply nccd to pick thc answcr that sccms
to makc thc most scnsc. Although gucssing is gcncrally not thc bcst way to achicvc a high GMAT
scorc, making an cducatcd gucss is a good stratcgy lor answcring qucstions you arc unsurc ol. ¡vcn
il your answcr to a particular qucstion is incorrcct, your answcrs to othcr qucstions will allow thc
tcst to accuratcly gaugc your ability lcvcl.
c lollowing pagcs includc tcsttaking stratcgics, dircctions that will apply to qucstions ol this
csc cxplanations
prcscnt problcm solving stratcgics that could bc hclplul in answcring thc qucstions.
5.0 ProbIem 5oIving
150
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®
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5.1 Test-Taking 5trategies
1. Pace yourseI!.
Consult thc onscrccn timcr pcriodically. Vork as carclully as possiblc, but do not spcnd
valuablc timc chccking answcrs or pondcring problcms that you nnd dilncult.
2. Use the erasabIe notepad provided.
Vorking a problcm out may hclp you avoid crrors in solving thc problcm. !l diagrams or
ngurcs arc not prcscntcd, it may hclp il you draw your own.
3. ßead each question care!uIIy to determine vhat is being asked.
For word problcms, takc onc stcp at a timc, rcading cach scntcncc carclully and translating thc
inlormation into cquations or othcr usclul mathcmatical rcprcscntations.
4. 5can the ansver choices be!ore attempting to ansver a question.
Scanning thc answcrs can prcvcnt you lrom putting answcrs in a lorm that is not givcn
(c.g., nnding thc answcr in dccimal lorm, such as 0.25, whcn thc choiccs arc givcn in lractional
lorm, such as
1
4
). Also, il thc qucstion rcquircs approximations, a shortcut could scrvc wcll
(c.g., you may bc ablc to approximatc 48 pcrccnt ol a numbcr by using hall).
5. Don't vaste time trying to soIve a probIem that is too di!ñcuIt !or you.
Makc your bcst gucss and movc on to thc ncxt qucstion.
5.2 The Directions
csc dircctions arc vcry similar to thosc you will scc lor problcm solving qucstions whcn you takc
thc GMAT tcst. !l you rcad thcm carclully and undcrstand thcm clcarly bclorc sitting lor thc
GMAT tcst, you will not nccd to spcnd too much timc rcvicwing thcm oncc thc tcst bcgins.
Solvc thc problcm and indicatc thc bcst ol thc answcr choiccs givcn.
Numbers· All numbcrs uscd arc rcal numbcrs.
Iigures· A ngurc accompanying a problcm solving qucstion is intcndcd to providc inlormation
usclul in solving thc problcm. Figurcs arc drawn as accuratcly as possiblc. ¡xccptions will bc clcarly
c
positions ol points, anglcs, rcgions, ctc., cxist in thc ordcr shown, and anglc mcasurcs arc grcatcr
than zcro. All ngurcs lic in a planc unlcss othcrwisc indicatcd.
151
5.2 ProbIem 5oIving The Directions
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152
ì. / project schedu|ed to be carr|ed out over a s|n¿|e
hsca| year has a bud¿et ol SìZ,bCC, d|v|ded |nto
ìZ equa| month|y a||ocat|ons. /t the end ol the lourth
month ol that hsca| year, the tota| amount actua||y
spent on the project was S4,oßC. By how much was
the project over |ts bud¿et'
|/ì S 3ßC
|Bì S o4C
|Cì Sì,CoC
|0ì Sì,3ßC
|Lì Sì,43C
Z. ll the sum ol o, ß, ìZ, and ìo |s equa| to the sum ol 3,
4, x, and x + 3, what |s the va|ue ol x '
|/ì ì4
|Bì ìo
|Cì ìb
|0ì ì/
|Lì ìß
3. lor wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ va|ues ol n |s
ìCC + n
n

N01 an |nte¿er'
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
4. bectan¿u|ar l|oors / and Y have equa| area. ll l|oor /
|s ìZ leet by ìß leet and l|oor Y |s 9 leet w|de, what |s
the |en¿th ol l|oor Y, |n leet'
|/ì ì3
ì
Z

|Bì ìß
|Cì ìß
3
4

|0ì Zì
|Lì Z4
l/Yb0ll /1 C0ll/NY /
Number ol
Lmp|oyees
3a|ary
o SZC,CCC
4 SZZ,CCC
ß SZo,CCC
3 S3C,CCC
o. 1he tab|e above shows the number ol emp|oyees
at each ol lour sa|ary |eve|s at Company /. what
|s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì sa|ary lor the
ZC emp|oyees'
|/ì SZ3,oCC
|Bì SZ3,/oC
|Cì SZ3,9CC
|0ì SZ4,ìZo
|Lì SZ4,ZoC
5.3 5ampIe Çuestions
5oIve the probIem and indicate the best o! the ansver choices given.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures. A ñgure accompanying a probIem soIving question is intended to provide in!ormation use!uI
in soIving the probIem. figures are dravn as accurateIy as possibIe. Exceptions viII be cIearIy
noted. Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures
are greater than zero. AII ñgures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
153
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
b. / case conta|ns c cartons. Lach carton conta|ns
b boxes, and each box conta|ns ìCC paper c||ps. How
many paper c||ps are conta|ned |n Z cases'
|/ì ìCCbc
|Bì
ìCCb
c
|Cì ZCCbc
|0ì
ZCCb
c
|Lì
ZCC
bc
/. 1he sum ol pr|me numbers that are ¿reater than bC
but |ess than /C |s
|/ì b/
|Bì ìZß
|Cì ì9ì
|0ì ì9/
|Lì ZbC
ß. / ra|nstorm |ncreased the amount ol water stored |n
3tate J reservo|rs lrom ìZ4 b||||on ¿a||ons to
ì3ß b||||on ¿a||ons. ll the storm |ncreased the amount
ol water |n the reservo|rs to ßZ percent ol tota|
capac|ty, approx|mate|y how many b||||on ¿a||ons ol
water were the reservo|rs short ol tota| capac|ty pr|or
to the storm'
|/ì 9
|Bì ì4
|Cì Zo
|0ì 3C
|Lì 44
y
2
2 x 2
O
2
9. 0n the ¿raph above, when x =
ì
Z
, y = Z; and when
x = ì, y = ì. 1he ¿raph |s symmetr|c w|th respect to
the vert|ca| ||ne at x = Z. /ccord|n¿ to the ¿raph, when
x = 3, y =
|/ì -ì
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì ì
ìC. when
ì
ìC
percent ol o,CCC |s subtracted lrom
ì
ìC
ol
o,CCC, the d|llerence |s
|/ì C
|Bì oC
|Cì 4oC
|0ì 49o
|Lì oCC
ìì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s the va|ue ol '
|/ì C.CC4
|Bì C.CCß
|Cì C.CZ
|0ì C.C4
|Lì C.Z
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
154
ìZ. balNe t|ckets numbered consecut|ve|y lrom ìCì
throu¿h 3oC are p|aced |n a box. what |s the
probab|||ty that a t|cket se|ected at random w|||
have a number w|th a hundreds d|¿|t ol Z '
|/ì
Z
o
|Bì
Z
/
|Cì
33
ß3
|0ì
99
ZoC
|Lì
ìCC
Z49
ì3. when leo |mported a certa|n |tem, he pa|d a / percent
|mport tax on the port|on ol the tota| va|ue ol the |tem
|n excess ol Sì,CCC. ll the amount ol the |mport tax
that leo pa|d was Sß/.oC, what was the tota| va|ue ol
the |tem'
|/ì Sì,bCC
|Bì Sì,ßoC
|Cì SZ,ZoC
|0ì SZ,4CC
|Lì SZ,/oC
ì4. 0n londay, a person ma||ed ß packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ an
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol ìZ
3
ß
pounds, and on
1uesday, 4 packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ an avera¿e ol
ìo
ì
4
pounds. what was the avera¿e we|¿ht, |n pounds,
ol a|| the packa¿es the person ma||ed on both days'
|/ì ì3
ì
3
|Bì ì3
ì3
ìb

|Cì ìo
ì
Z

|0ì ìo
ìo
ìb

|Lì ìb
ì
Z

ìo. C.ì + |C.ìì
Z
+ |C.ìì
3
=
|/ì C.ì
|Bì C.ììì
|Cì C.ìZìì
|0ì C.Z34ì
|Lì C.3
ìb. / carpenter constructed a rectan¿u|ar sandbox w|th a
capac|ty ol ìC cub|c leet. ll the carpenter were to
make a s|m||ar sandbox tw|ce as |on¿, tw|ce as w|de,
and tw|ce as h|¿h as the hrst sandbox, what wou|d be
the capac|ty, |n cub|c leet, ol the second sandbox'
|/ì ZC
|Bì 4C
|Cì bC
|0ì ßC
|Lì ìCC
ì/. / bakery opened yesterday w|th |ts da||y supp|y ol
4C dozen ro||s. Ha|l ol the ro||s were so|d by noon, and
ßC percent ol the rema|n|n¿ ro||s were so|d between
noon and c|os|n¿ t|me. How many dozen ro||s had not
been so|d when the bakery c|osed yesterday'
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
ìß. ll the area ol a square re¿|on hav|n¿ s|des ol |en¿th
b cent|meters |s equa| to the area ol a rectan¿u|ar
re¿|on hav|n¿ w|dth Z.o cent|meters, then the |en¿th
ol the rectan¿|e, |n cent|meters, |s
|/ì ß.o
|Bì 9.o
|Cì 9.b
|0ì ìC.o
|Lì ì4.4
155
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ì9. ìoC |s what percent ol 3C '
|/ì oº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì oCº
|0ì ZCCº
|Lì oCCº
ZC. 1he rat|o Z to
ì
3
|s equa| to the rat|o
|/ì b to ì
|Bì o to ì
|Cì 3 to Z
|0ì Z to 3
|Lì ì to b
Zì. bunn|n¿ at the same constant rate, b |dent|ca|
mach|nes can produce a tota| ol Z/C bott|es per
m|nute. /t th|s rate, how many bott|es cou|d ìC such
mach|nes produce |n 4 m|nutes'
|/ì b4ß
|Bì ì,ßCC
|Cì Z,/CC
|0ì ìC,ßCC
|Lì b4,ßCC
1 2 1 2 0
Æ B C D E
ZZ. 0l the hve coord|nates assoc|ated w|th po|nts A, ß, L,
0, and L on the number ||ne above, wh|ch has the
¿reatest abso|ute va|ue'
|/ì A
|Bì ß
|Cì L
|0ì 0
|Lì L
Z3. ll n |s a pr|me number ¿reater than 3, what |s the
rema|nder when n
Z
|s d|v|ded by ìZ '
|/ì C
|Bì ì
|Cì Z
|0ì 3
|Lì o
Z4.
ì
ì
ì
3
+
-
ì
ì
ì
Z
+
=
|/ì
-
ì
3
|Bì -
ì
b
|Cì
-
ì
ìZ
|0ì
ì
ìZ
|Lì
ì
3
y
x
5 O
5
!
Zo. ln the h¿ure above, the coord|nates ol po|nt \ are
|/ì |-/,oì
|Bì |-o,/ì
|Cì |o,/ì
|0ì |/,oì
|Lì |/,-oì
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
156
Zb. / rope 4C leet |on¿ |s cut |nto two p|eces. ll one p|ece
|s ìß leet |on¿er than the other, what |s the |en¿th, |n
leet, ol the shorter p|ece'
|/ì 9
|Bì ìì
|Cì ìß
|0ì ZZ
|Lì Z9
Z/. / student's avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì test score on
4 tests |s /ß. what must be the student's score on a
oth test lor the student's avera¿e score on the o tests
to be ßC '
|/ì ßC
|Bì ßZ
|Cì ß4
|0ì ßb
|Lì ßß
Zß. 1he avera¿e d|stance between the 3un and a certa|n
p|anet |s approx|mate|y Z.3 × ìC
ì4
|nches. wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ |s c|osest to the avera¿e d|stance between
the 3un and the p|anet, |n k||ometers' |ì k||ometer |s
approx|mate|y 3.9 × ìC
4
|nches.ì
|/ì /.ì × ìC
ß
|Bì o.9 × ìC
9
|Cì ì.b × ìC
ìC
|0ì ì.b × ìC
ìì
|Lì o.9 × ìC
ìì
Z9. ll the quot|ent
a
b
|s pos|t|ve, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must be true'
|/ì a > C
|Bì b > C
|Cì ab > C
|0ì a - b > C
|Lì a + b > C
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
3C. 1he dots on the ¿raph above |nd|cate the we|¿hts and
lue| elhc|ency rat|n¿s lor ZC cars. How many ol the
cars we|¿h more than Z,oCC pounds and a|so ¿et
more than ZZ m||es per ¿a||on'
|/ì 3
|Bì o
|Cì ß
|0ì ìC
|Lì ì ì
3ì. How many m|nutes does |t take John to type y words |l
he types at the rate ol x words per m|nute'
|/ì
x
y
|Bì
y
x
|Cì xy
|0ì
bCx
y
|Lì
y
bCx
3Z.
| ì| ì | ì| ì ìb ZC ß 3Z
|/ì 4 ZC
|Bì Z4
|Cì Zo
|0ì 4 ZC ß Z +
|Lì 3Z
157
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
150
º
O
33. ll U |s the center ol the c|rc|e above, what lract|on ol
the c|rcu|ar re¿|on |s shaded'
|/ì
ì
ìZ
|Bì
ì
9
|Cì
ì
b
|0ì
ì
4
|Lì
ì
3
34. ll Juan takes ìì seconds to run y yards, how many
seconds w||| |t take h|m to run x yards at the same
rate'
|/ì
ììx
y
|Bì
ììy
x
|Cì
x
ììy
|0ì
ìì
xy
|Lì
xy
ìì
3o. John has ìC pa|rs ol matched socks. ll he |oses
/ |nd|v|dua| socks, what |s the ¿reatest number
ol pa|rs ol matched socks he can have |elt'
|/ì /
|Bì b
|Cì o
|0ì 4
|Lì 3
3b. what |s the |owest pos|t|ve |nte¿er that |s d|v|s|b|e by
each ol the |nte¿ers ì throu¿h /, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì 4ZC
|Bì ß4C
|Cì ì,ZbC
|0ì Z,oZC
|Lì o,C4C
3/.
=
|/ì -4
|Bì -C.Zo
|Cì C.Zo
|0ì C./o
|Lì 4
3ß. ll , then
ì o
C Z
o
.
. +

x
x
|/ì -3./
|Bì C.ì
|Cì C.3
|0ì C.o
|Lì Z.ß
2 3
x
1
2
1
1 1
y
Q(3,2)
P
O
39. ln the h¿ure above, the po|nt on se¿ment lÇ that |s
tw|ce as lar lrom l as lrom Ç |s
|/ì |3,ìì
|Bì |Z,ìì
|Cì |Z,-ìì
|0ì |ì.o,C.oì
|Lì |ì,Cì
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
158
4C. ll n |s an |nte¿er, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must be even'
|/ì n + ì
|Bì n + Z
|Cì Zn
|0ì Zn + ì
|Lì n
Z
4ì. ll 4 |s one so|ut|on ol the equat|on x
Z
 3x  k  ìC,
where k |s a constant, what |s the other so|ut|on'
|/ì -/
|Bì -4
|Cì -3
|0ì ì
|Lì b
4Z. ll
a b
c d
= ad - bc lor a|| numbers a, b, c, and d, then
=
|/ì -ZZ
|Bì -Z
|Cì Z
|0ì /
|Lì ZZ
43. 1he sum
/
ß
+
ì
9
|s between
|/ì
ì
Z
and
3
4
|Bì
3
4
and ì
|Cì ì and ì
ì
4
|0ì ì
ì
4
and ì
ì
Z
|Lì ì
ì
Z
and Z
44. ll x = ì - 3t and y = Zt - ì, then lor what va|ue ol t
does x = y '
|/ì
o
Z
|Bì
3
Z
|Cì
Z
3
|0ì
Z
o
|Lì C
4o. ì - =
|/ì
b
o
|Bì
/
b
|Cì
b
/
|0ì
o
b
|Lì C
4b.
|C.3ì
o
|C.3ì
3
=
|/ì C.CCì
|Bì C.Cì
|Cì C.C9
|0ì C.9
|Lì ì.C
4/. ln a hort|cu|tura| exper|ment, ZCC seeds were p|anted
|n p|ot l and 3CC were p|anted |n p|ot ll. ll o/ percent
ol the seeds |n p|ot l ¿erm|nated and 4Z percent ol the
seeds |n p|ot ll ¿erm|nated, what percent ol the tota|
number ol p|anted seeds ¿erm|nated'
|/ì 4o.oº
|Bì 4b.oº
|Cì 4ß.Cº
|0ì 49.oº
|Lì oì.Cº
159
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
A
ß
L
L 0
Note: l|¿ure not drawn to sca|e.
4ß. ln the h¿ure above, |l Aß [[ LL, LL = 0L, and y = 4o,
then x =
|/ì 4o
|Bì bC
|Cì b/.o
|0ì ììZ.o
|Lì ì3o
49. How many |nte¿ers n are there such that
ì < on + o < Zo '
|/ì l|ve
|Bì lour
|Cì 1hree
|0ì 1wo
|Lì 0ne
oC. ll y |s an |nte¿er, then the |east poss|b|e va|ue ol
[Z3 - oy[ |s
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
oì. =
|/ì 9ß
|Bì 49
|Cì Zß
|0ì Zì
|Lì ì4
oZ. ln a certa|n popu|at|on, there are 3 t|mes as many
peop|e a¿ed Zì or under as there are peop|e over Zì.
1he rat|o ol those Zì or under to the tota| popu|at|on |s
|/ì ì to Z
|Bì ì to 3
|Cì ì to 4
|0ì Z to 3
|Lì 3 to 4
(2x)°
(3x)°
(y ÷30)°
o3. ln the h¿ure above, the va|ue ol y |s
|/ì b
|Bì ìZ
|Cì Z4
|0ì 3b
|Lì 4Z
o4. ßC + ìZo =
|/ì 9 o
|Bì ZC o
|Cì 4ì o
|0ì ZCo
|Lì ìCC
oo. be||y and Chr|s packed severa| boxes w|th books. ll
Chr|s packed bC percent ol the tota| number ol boxes,
what was the rat|o ol the number ol boxes be||y
packed to the number ol boxes Chr|s packed'
|/ì ì to b
|Bì ì to 4
|Cì Z to o
|0ì 3 to o
|Lì Z to 3
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
160
ob. 0l the lo||ow|n¿, wh|ch |s the c|osest approx|mat|on
ol
oC.Z  C.49
ì99.ß
'
|/ì
ì
ìC
|Bì
ì
ß

|Cì
ì
4

|0ì
o
4

|Lì
Zo
Z

o/. 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol ìC, 3C, and oC |s o
more than the avera¿e ol ZC, 4C, and
|/ì ìo
|Bì Zo
|Cì 3o
|0ì 4o
|Lì oo
y = kx + 3
oß. ln the equat|on above, k |s a constant. ll y = ì/ when
x = Z, what |s the va|ue ol y when x = 4 '
|/ì 34
|Bì 3ì
|Cì ì4
|0ì ìì
|Lì /
o9. Lach week, Harry |s pa|d x do||ars per hour lor the hrst
3C hours and ì.ox do||ars lor each add|t|ona| hour
worked that week. Lach week, James |s pa|d x do||ars
per hour lor the hrst 4C hours and Zx do||ars lor each
add|t|ona| hour worked that week. last week James
worked a tota| ol 4ì hours. ll Harry and James were
pa|d the same amount |ast week, how many hours d|d
Harry work |ast week'
|/ì 3o
|Bì 3b
|Cì 3/
|0ì 3ß
|Lì 39
bC. / ¿|ass was h||ed w|th ìC ounces ol water, and
C.Cì ounce ol the water evaporated each day dur|n¿
a ZC·day per|od. what percent ol the or|¿|na| amount
ol water evaporated dur|n¿ th|s per|od'
|/ì C.CCZº
|Bì C.CZº
|Cì C.Zº
|0ì Zº
|Lì ZCº
bì. / ¿|ucose so|ut|on conta|ns ìo ¿rams ol ¿|ucose
per ìCC cub|c cent|meters ol so|ut|on. ll 4o cub|c
cent|meters ol the so|ut|on were poured |nto an empty
conta|ner, how many ¿rams ol ¿|ucose wou|d be |n the
conta|ner'
|/ì 3.CC
|Bì o.CC
|Cì o.oC
|0ì b.oC
|Lì b./o
Q
F
S P
140
º 2y
º
x
º
bZ. ln the h¿ure above, |l lÇRS |s a para||e|o¿ram,
then y - x =
|/ì 3C
|Bì 3o
|Cì 4C
|0ì /C
|Lì ìCC
161
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
b3. ll ì k||ometer |s approx|mate|y C.b m||e, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ best approx|mates the number ol k||ometers
|n Z m||es'
|/ì
ìC
3

|Bì 3
|Cì
b
o

|0ì
ì
3

|Lì
3
ìC

b4. lucy |nvested SìC,CCC |n a new mutua| lund account
exact|y three years a¿o. 1he va|ue ol the account
|ncreased by ìC percent dur|n¿ the hrst year,
|ncreased by o percent dur|n¿ the second year, and
decreased by ìC percent dur|n¿ the th|rd year. what |s
the va|ue ol the account today'
|/ì SìC,3oC
|Bì SìC,39o
|Cì SìC,oCC
|0ì Sìì,oCC
|Lì SìZ,/Co
bo. / certa|n lru|t stand so|d app|es lor SC./C each and
bananas lor SC.oC each. ll a customer purchased both
app|es and bananas lrom the stand lor a tota| ol
Sb.3C, what tota| number ol app|es and bananas d|d
the customer purchase'
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìì
|Cì ìZ
|0ì ì3
|Lì ì4
bb. /t a certa|n schoo|, the rat|o ol the number ol second
¿raders to the number ol lourth ¿raders |s ß to o, and
the rat|o ol the number ol hrst ¿raders to the number
ol second ¿raders |s 3 to 4. ll the rat|o ol the number
ol th|rd ¿raders to the number ol lourth ¿raders |s 3
to Z, what |s the rat|o ol the number ol hrst ¿raders to
the number ol th|rd ¿raders'
|/ì ìb to ìo
|Bì 9 to o
|Cì o to ìb
|0ì o to 4
|Lì 4 to o
A = ¦Z, 3, 4, o¦
ß = ¦4, o, b, /, ߦ
b/. 1wo |nte¿ers w||| be random|y se|ected lrom the sets
above, one |nte¿er lrom set A and one |nte¿er lrom
set ß. what |s the probab|||ty that the sum ol the two
|nte¿ers w||| equa| 9 '
|/ì C.ìo
|Bì C.ZC
|Cì C.Zo
|0ì C.3C
|Lì C.33
bß. /t a certa|n |nstant |n t|me, the number ol cars, N,
trave||n¿ on a port|on ol a certa|n h|¿hway can be
est|mated by the lormu|a
N =
where L |s the number ol |anes |n the same d|rect|on,
d |s the |en¿th ol the port|on ol the h|¿hway, |n leet,
and s |s the avera¿e speed ol the cars, |n m||es per
hour. Based on the lormu|a, what |s the est|mated
number ol cars trave||n¿ on a
ì
Z
·m||e port|on ol the
h|¿hway |l the h|¿hway has Z |anes |n the same
d|rect|on and the avera¿e speed ol the cars |s
4C m||es per hour' |o,ZßC leet = ì m||eì
|/ì ìoo
|Bì 9b
|Cì ßC
|0ì 4ß
|Lì Z4
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
162
4CC,CCC
3CC,CCC
ZCC,CCC
ìCC,CCC
C
ì99C ì99Z ì994 ì99b ì99ß ZCCC
year
N0lBLb 0l 3HlllLN13 0l l/N0l/C10bL0 H0lL3
lN 1HL 0Nl1L0 31/1L3, ì99C-ZCCC
b9. /ccord|n¿ to the chart shown, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s
c|osest to the med|an annua| number ol sh|pments ol
manulactured homes |n the 0n|ted 3tates lor the
years lrom ì99C to ZCCC, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì ZoC,CCC
|Bì ZßC,CCC
|Cì 3ìC,CCC
|0ì 3Zo,CCC
|Lì 34C,CCC
/C. ll y
x
y
3 o
Z
÷
and y x =
|/ì
Z
3
|Bì
o
3
|Cì
/
3

|0ì ì
|Lì 4
/ì. ll x + o > Z and x - 3 < /, the va|ue ol x must be
between wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ pa|rs ol numbers'
|/ì -3 and ìC
|Bì -3 and 4
|Cì Z and /
|0ì 3 and 4
|Lì 3 and ìC
/Z. / ¿ym c|ass can be d|v|ded |nto ß teams w|th an equa|
number ol p|ayers on each team or |nto ìZ teams w|th
an equa| number ol p|ayers on each team. what |s the
|owest poss|b|e number ol students |n the c|ass'
|/ì ZC
|Bì Z4
|Cì 3b
|0ì 4ß
|Lì 9b
/3. ll r = C.34o, s = |C.34oì
Z
, and t = C 34o . , wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ |s the correct order|n¿ ol r, s, and t '
|/ì r < s < t
|Bì r < t < s
|Cì s < t < r
|0ì s < r < t
|Lì t < r < s
/4. / tota| ol n trucks and cars are parked |n a |ot. ll the
number ol cars |s
ì
4
the number ol trucks, and
Z
3
ol
the trucks are p|ckups, how many p|ckups, |n terms ol
n, are parked |n the |ot'
|/ì
ì
b
n
|Bì
o
ìZ
n
|Cì
n
|0ì
ß
ìo
n
|Lì
ìì
ìZ
n
/o. /t |east
Z
3
ol the 4C members ol a comm|ttee must
vote |n lavor ol a reso|ut|on lor |t to pass. what |s the
¿reatest number ol members who cou|d vote a¿a|nst
the reso|ut|on and st||| have |t pass'
|/ì ì9
|Bì ì/
|Cì ìb
|0ì ì4
|Lì ì3
163
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
/b. ln the Johnsons' month|y bud¿et, the do||ar
amounts a||ocated to househo|d expenses, lood, and
m|sce||aneous |tems are |n the rat|o o:Z:ì, respect|ve|y.
ll the tota| amount a||ocated to these three cate¿or|es
|s Sì,ßCC, what |s the amount a||ocated to lood'
|/ì S9CC
|Bì S/ZC
|Cì Sb/o
|0ì S4oC
|Lì SZZo
//. 1here are 4 more women than men on Centerv|||e's
board ol educat|on. ll there are ìC members on the
board, how many are women'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì b
|0ì /
|Lì ß
/ß. leona bou¿ht a ì·year, SìC,CCC cert|hcate ol depos|t
that pa|d |nterest at an annua| rate ol ß percent
compounded sem|annua||y. what was the tota| amount
ol |nterest pa|d on th|s cert|hcate at matur|ty'
|/ì SìC,4b4
|Bì S ßb4
|Cì S ßìb
|0ì S ßCC
|Lì S 4ßC
/9.
C CC3b Z ß
C C4 C ì C CC3
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )
=
|/ì ß4C.C
|Bì ß4.C
|Cì ß.4
|0ì C.ß4
|Lì C.Cß4
ßC. lach|ne / produces bo|ts at a un|lorm rate ol ìZC
every 4C seconds, and lach|ne B produces bo|ts at a
un|lorm rate ol ìCC every ZC seconds. ll the two
mach|nes run s|mu|taneous|y, how many seconds w||| |t
take lor them to produce a tota| ol ZCC bo|ts'
|/ì ZZ
|Bì Zo
|Cì Zß
|0ì 3Z
|Lì ob
Amount o! ßacteria Present
1|me /mount
ì:CC l.l. ìC.C ¿rams
4:CC l.l. x ¿rams
/:CC l.l. ì4.4 ¿rams
ßì. 0ata lor a certa|n b|o|o¿y exper|ment are ¿|ven |n
the tab|e above. ll the amount ol bacter|a present
|ncreased by the same lactor dur|n¿ each ol the two
3·hour per|ods shown, how many ¿rams ol bacter|a
were present at 4:CC l.l. '
|/ì ìZ.C
|Bì ìZ.ì
|Cì ìZ.Z
|0ì ìZ.3
|Lì ìZ.4
ßZ. ll n |s an |nte¿er ¿reater than b, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must be d|v|s|b|e by 3 '
|/ì n|n + ìì|n - 4ì
|Bì n|n + Zì|n - ìì
|Cì n|n + 3ì|n - oì
|0ì n|n + 4ì|n - Zì
|Lì n|n + oì|n - bì
ß3. 1he tota| cost lor Company / to produce a batch ol
too|s |s SìC,CCC p|us S3 per too|. Lach too| se||s lor
Sß. 1he ¿ross proht earned lrom produc|n¿ and se|||n¿
these too|s |s the tota| |ncome lrom sa|es m|nus the
tota| product|on cost. ll a batch ol ZC,CCC too|s |s
produced and so|d, then Company /'s ¿ross proht per
too| |s
|/ì S3.CC
|Bì S3./o
|Cì S4.oC
|0ì So.CC
|Lì So.oC
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
164
ß4. / dea|er or|¿|na||y bou¿ht ìCC |dent|ca| batter|es at
a tota| cost ol q do||ars. ll each battery was so|d at
oC percent above the or|¿|na| cost per battery,
then, |n terms ol q, lor how many do||ars was each
battery so|d'
|/ì
3q
ZCC
|Bì
3q
Z
|Cì ìoCq
|0ì
q
ìCC
+ oC
|Lì
ìoC
q
ßo. ln an |ncreas|n¿ sequence ol ìC consecut|ve |nte¿ers,
the sum ol the hrst o |nte¿ers |s obC. what |s the sum
ol the |ast o |nte¿ers |n the sequence'
|/ì oßo
|Bì oßC
|Cì o/o
|0ì o/C
|Lì obo
ßb. lach|ne / produces ìCC parts tw|ce as last as
lach|ne B does. lach|ne B produces ìCC parts |n
4C m|nutes. ll each mach|ne produces parts at a
constant rate, how many parts does lach|ne /
produce |n b m|nutes'
|/ì 3C
|Bì Zo
|Cì ZC
|0ì ìo
|Lì /.o
ß/. / neck|ace |s made by str|n¿|n¿ N |nd|v|dua| beads
to¿ether |n the repeat|n¿ pattern red bead, ¿reen
bead, wh|te bead, b|ue bead, and ye||ow bead. ll the
neck|ace des|¿n be¿|ns w|th a red bead and ends w|th
a wh|te bead, then N cou|d equa|
|/ì ìb
|Bì 3Z
|Cì 4ì
|0ì o4
|Lì bß
ßß. ln the xy·coord|nate system, |l |a,bì and |a + 3,b + kì
are two po|nts on the ||ne dehned by the equat|on
x = 3y - /, then k =
|/ì 9
|Bì 3
|Cì
/
3
|0ì ì
|Lì
ì
3
ß9. ll s |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ìCC to ZCC,
|nc|us|ve, and t |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ìCC
to ZCì, |nc|us|ve, what |s |n terms ol t '
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
9C. ll Jake |oses ß pounds, he w||| we|¿h tw|ce as much as
h|s s|ster. 1o¿ether they now we|¿h Z/ß pounds. what
|s Jake's present we|¿ht, |n pounds'
|/ì ì3ì
|Bì ì3o
|Cì ì39
|0ì ì4/
|Lì ìßß
165
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
9ì. / certa|n store se||s a|| maps at one pr|ce and a||
books at another pr|ce. 0n londay the store so|d
ìZ maps and ìC books lor a tota| ol S3ß.CC, and on
1uesday the store so|d ZC maps and ìo books lor a
tota| ol SbC.CC. /t th|s store, how much |ess does a
map se|| lor than a book'
|/ì S C.Zo
|Bì S C.oC
|Cì S C./o
|0ì S ì.CC
|Lì S ì.Zo
9Z. / store reported tota| sa|es ol S3ßo m||||on lor
lebruary ol th|s year. ll the tota| sa|es lor the same
month |ast year was S3ZC m||||on, approx|mate|y what
was the percent |ncrease |n sa|es'
|/ì Zº
|Bì ì/º
|Cì ZCº
|0ì boº
|Lì ß3º
l|st l: 3, b, ß, ì9
l|st ll: x, 3, b, ß, ì9
93. ll the med|an ol the numbers |n ||st l above |s equa| to
the med|an ol the numbers |n ||st ll above, what |s the
va|ue ol x '
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì 9
|Lì ìC
94. ln a certa|n c|ty, bC percent ol the re¿|stered voters
are 0emocrats and the rest are bepub||cans. ln a
mayora| race, |l /o percent ol the re¿|stered voters
who are 0emocrats and ZC percent ol the re¿|stered
voters who are bepub||cans are expected to vote lor
Cand|date /, what percent ol the re¿|stered voters are
expected to vote lor Cand|date / '
|/ì oCº
|Bì o3º
|Cì o4º
|0ì ooº
|Lì o/º
9o.
ì
Z
Z
3
3
ß
4
9
ìb
+ × ÷
|/ì
Z9
ìb
|Bì
ì9
ìb
|Cì
ìo
ìb
|0ì
9
ì3
|Lì C
9b. water cons|sts ol hydro¿en and oxy¿en, and the
approx|mate rat|o, by mass, ol hydro¿en to oxy¿en |s
Z:ìb. /pprox|mate|y how many ¿rams ol oxy¿en are
there |n ì44 ¿rams ol water'
|/ì ìb
|Bì /Z
|Cì ììZ
|0ì ìZß
|Lì ì4Z
9/. ll and ,
then
x x x x
x
| ì Z ì C
ì
Z
Z 3 C + + ÷ ( )

|/ì -3
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì
3
Z
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
166
9ß. 0n a sca|e that measures the |ntens|ty ol a certa|n
phenomenon, a read|n¿ ol n + ì corresponds to an
|ntens|ty that |s ìC t|mes the |ntens|ty correspond|n¿
to a read|n¿ ol n. 0n that sca|e, the |ntens|ty
correspond|n¿ to a read|n¿ ol ß |s how many t|mes
as ¿reat as the |ntens|ty correspond|n¿ to a read|n¿
ol 3 '
|/ì o
|Bì oC
|Cì ìC
o

|0ì o
ìC

|Lì ß
ìC
- 3
ìC

99. lor the pos|t|ve numbers, n, n + ì, n + Z, n + 4, and
n + ß, the mean |s how much ¿reater than the med|an'
|/ì C
|Bì ì
|Cì n + ì
|0ì n + Z
|Lì n + 3
ìCC. ll ! =
o
9
|r - 3Zì, and |l ! = Z9C, then r =
|/ì
ì,/3ß
9
|Bì 3ZZ
|Cì 49C
|0ì oo4
|Lì
Z,ß9ß
o
ìCì. 1he water lrom one out|et, Now|n¿ at a constant rate,
can h|| a sw|mm|n¿ poo| |n 9 hours. 1he water lrom a
second out|et, Now|n¿ at a constant rate, can h|| the
same poo| |n o hours. ll both out|ets are used at the
same t|me, approx|mate|y what |s the number ol hours
requ|red to h|| the poo|'
|/ì C.ZZ
|Bì C.3ì
|Cì Z.oC
|0ì 3.Zì
|Lì 4.ob
ìCZ. ll a square m|rror has a ZC·|nch d|a¿ona|, what |s the
approx|mate per|meter ol the m|rror, |n |nches'
|/ì 4C
|Bì bC
|Cì ßC
|0ì ìCC
|Lì ìZC
ìC3. 1he present rat|o ol students to teachers at a certa|n
schoo| |s 3C to ì. ll the student enro||ment were to
|ncrease by oC students and the number ol teachers
were to |ncrease by o, the rat|o ol students to
teachers wou|d then be Zo to ì. what |s the present
number ol teachers'
|/ì o
|Bì ß
|Cì ìC
|0ì ìZ
|Lì ìo
ìC4. what |s the sma||est |nte¿er n lor wh|ch Zo
n
> o
ìZ
'
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì 9
|Lì ìC
ìCo. 3|xty percent ol the members ol a study ¿roup are
women, and 4o percent ol those women are |awyers.
ll one member ol the study ¿roup |s to be se|ected at
random, what |s the probab|||ty that the member
se|ected |s a woman |awyer'
|/ì C.ìC
|Bì C.ìo
|Cì C.Z/
|0ì C.33
|Lì C.4o
167
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ìCb. when pos|t|ve |nte¿er x |s d|v|ded by pos|t|ve |nte¿er y,
the rema|nder |s 9. ll
x
y
= 9b.ìZ, what |s the va|ue ol y '
|/ì 9b
|Bì /o
|Cì 4ß
|0ì Zo
|Lì ìZ
ìC/. ll x |s the product ol the pos|t|ve |nte¿ers lrom ì to ß,
|nc|us|ve, and |l i, k, m, and p are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers
such that x = Z
i
3
k
o
m
/
p
, then i + k + m + p =
|/ì 4
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì ìì
|Lì ìZ
ìCß. ll t =
ì
Z o
9 3

|s expressed as a term|nat|n¿ dec|ma|,
how many zeros w||| t have between the dec|ma| po|nt
and the hrst nonzero d|¿|t to the r|¿ht ol the dec|ma|
po|nt'
|/ì 1hree
|Bì lour
|Cì l|ve
|0ì 3|x
|Lì N|ne
ìC9. / pharmaceut|ca| company rece|ved S3 m||||on |n
roya|t|es on the hrst SZC m||||on |n sa|es ol the ¿ener|c
equ|va|ent ol one ol |ts products and then S9 m||||on
|n roya|t|es on the next SìCß m||||on |n sa|es. By
approx|mate|y what percent d|d the rat|o ol roya|t|es
to sa|es decrease lrom the hrst SZC m||||on |n sa|es to
the next SìCß m||||on |n sa|es'
|/ì ߺ
|Bì ìoº
|Cì 4oº
|0ì oZº
|Lì obº
ììC. ll p |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ì to 3C,
|nc|us|ve, what |s the ¿reatest |nte¿er k lor wh|ch 3
k
|s
a lactor ol p '
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìZ
|Cì ì4
|0ì ìb
|Lì ìß
ììì. ll candy bars that re¿u|ar|y se|| lor SC.4C each are on
sa|e at two lor SC./o, what |s the percent reduct|on |n
the pr|ce ol two such candy bars purchased at the
sa|e pr|ce'
|/ì Z
ì
Z
º
|Bì b
ì
4
º
|Cì b
Z
3
º
|0ì ߺ
|Lì ìZ
ì
Z
º
ììZ. ll and , what |s |n terms ol s
r
s
s r s > C '
|/ì
ì
s
|Bì s
|Cì s s
|0ì s
3
|Lì s
Z
- s
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
168
6 lt.
8 lt.
ìì3. 1he lront ol a b·loot·by·ß·loot rectan¿u|ar door has
brass rectan¿u|ar tr|m, as |nd|cated by the shad|n¿ |n
the h¿ure above. ll the tr|m |s un|lorm|y ì loot w|de,
what lract|on ol the door's lront surlace |s covered by
the tr|m'
|/ì
ì3

|Bì
o
ìZ
|Cì
ì
Z
|0ì
/
ìZ
|Lì
o
ß
ìì4. ll a = -C.3, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s true'
|/ì a < a
Z
< a
3
|Bì a < a
3
< a
Z
|Cì a
Z
< a < a
3
|0ì a
Z
< a
3
< a
|Lì a
3
< a < a
Z
ììo. lary's |ncome |s bC percent more than 1|m's |ncome,
and 1|m's |ncome |s 4C percent |ess than Juan's
|ncome. what percent ol Juan's |ncome |s lary's
|ncome'
|/ì ìZ4º
|Bì ìZCº
|Cì 9bº
|0ì ßCº
|Lì b4º
C|ty / C|ty B C|ty C C|ty 0 C|ty L
C|ty / º º º º
C|ty B º º º
C|ty C º º
C|ty 0 º
C|ty L
ììb. Lach º |n the m||ea¿e tab|e above represents an entry
|nd|cat|n¿ the d|stance between a pa|r ol the hve
c|t|es. ll the tab|e were extended to represent the
d|stances between a|| pa|rs ol 3C c|t|es and each
d|stance were to be represented by on|y one entry,
how many entr|es wou|d the tab|e then have'
|/ì bC
|Bì 43o
|Cì 4oC
|0ì 4bo
|Lì 9CC
ìì/. ll n |s pos|t|ve, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s equa| to

ì
ì n n +

'
|/ì ì
|Bì Z ì n +
|Cì
n
n
+ ì
|0ì n n + ì
|Lì n n + + ì
ììß. 1he rat|o ol the |en¿th to the w|dth ol a rectan¿u|ar
advert|s|n¿ d|sp|ay |s approx|mate|y 3.3 to Z. ll the
w|dth ol the d|sp|ay |s ß meters, what |s the
approx|mate |en¿th ol the d|sp|ay, |n meters'
|/ì /
|Bì ì ì
|Cì ì3
|0ì ìb
|Lì Zb
169
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ìì9. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s equ|va|ent to the pa|r ol
|nequa||t|es x + b > ìC and x
x < ìb
x < 4
|Cì Z < x
|0ì 4 < x
x < ìb
ìZC. 0av|d has d books, wh|ch |s 3 t|mes as many as Jell
and
ì
Z
as many as lau|a. How many books do the
three ol them have a|to¿ether, |n terms ol d '
|/ì
o
b
d
|Bì
/
3
d
|Cì
ìC
3
d
|0ì
/
Z
d
|Lì
9
Z
d
ìZì. 1here are ß teams |n a certa|n |ea¿ue and each team
p|ays each ol the other teams exact|y once. ll each
¿ame |s p|ayed by Z teams, what |s the tota| number
ol ¿ames p|ayed'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ìb
|Cì Zß
|0ì ob
|Lì b4
ìZZ. /n operat|on |s dehned by the equat|on
a b =
a - b
a + b
, lor a|| numbers a and b such that
a -b. ll a c and a c = C, then c =
|/ì -a
|Bì -
ì
a
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
a
|Lì a
ìZ3. 1he pr|ce ol |unch lor ìo peop|e was SZC/.CC,
|nc|ud|n¿ a ìo percent ¿ratu|ty lor serv|ce. what was
the avera¿e pr|ce per person, L/Cl00lN0 the
¿ratu|ty'
|/ì Sìì./3
|Bì SìZ.CC
|Cì Sì3.ßC
|0ì Sì4.CC
|Lì Sìo.ß/
ìZ4. ln 1own /, b4 percent ol the popu|at|on are emp|oyed,
and 4ß percent ol the popu|at|on are emp|oyed ma|es.
what percent ol the emp|oyed peop|e |n 1own / are
lema|es'
|/ì ìbº
|Bì Zoº
|Cì 3Zº
|0ì 4Cº
|Lì oZº
ìZo. ll
p
q
< ì, and p and q are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ must be ¿reater than ì '
|/ì
p
q
|Bì
p
q
Z
|Cì
p
Zq
|0ì
q
p
Z
|Lì
q
p
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
170
ìZb. lt wou|d take one mach|ne 4 hours to comp|ete a |ar¿e
product|on order and another mach|ne 3 hours to
comp|ete the same order. How many hours wou|d |t
take both mach|nes, work|n¿ s|mu|taneous|y at the|r
respect|ve constant rates, to comp|ete the order'
|/ì
/
ìZ
|Bì ì
ì
Z
|Cì ì
o
/
|0ì 3
ì
Z
|Lì /
ìZ/. 1o ma|| a packa¿e, the rate |s x cents lor the hrst
pound and y cents lor each add|t|ona| pound, where
x > y. 1wo packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ 3 pounds and o pounds,
respect|ve|y, can be ma||ed separate|y or comb|ned as
one packa¿e. wh|ch method |s cheaper, and how
much money |s saved'
|/ì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x - y cents
|Bì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol y - x cents
|Cì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x cents
|0ì 3eparate|y, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x - y cents
|Lì 3eparate|y, w|th a sav|n¿s ol y cents
ìZß. ll money |s |nvested at r percent |nterest, compounded
annua||y, the amount ol the |nvestment w||| doub|e
|n approx|mate|y
/C
r
years. ll lat's parents |nvested
So,CCC |n a |on¿·term bond that pays ß percent
|nterest, compounded annua||y, what w||| be the
approx|mate tota| amount ol the |nvestment ìß years
|ater, when lat |s ready lor co||e¿e'
|/ì SZC,CCC
|Bì Sì o,CCC
|Cì Sì Z,CCC
|0ì Sì C,CCC
|Lì S 9,CCC
ìZ9. 0n a recent tr|p, C|ndy drove her car Z9C m||es,
rounded to the nearest ìC m||es, and used ìZ ¿a||ons
ol ¿aso||ne, rounded to the nearest ¿a||on. 1he actua|
number ol m||es per ¿a||on that C|ndy's car ¿ot on th|s
tr|p must have been between
|/ì
Z9C
ìZ.o
and
Z9C
ìì.o
|Bì
Z9o
ìZ
and
Zßo
ìì.o
|Cì
Zßo
ìZ
and
Z9o
ìZ
|0ì
Zßo
ìZ.o
and
Z9o
ìì.o
|Lì
Z9o
ìZ.o
and
Zßo
ìì.o
x 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5 0
ì3C. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |nequa||t|es |s an a|¿ebra|c
express|on lor the shaded part ol the number ||ne
above'
|/ì [x|
|Bì [x|
|Cì [x - Z|
|0ì [x - ì|
|Lì [x + ì|
ì3ì. / lactory has oCC workers, ìo percent ol whom are
women. ll oC add|t|ona| workers are to be h|red and a||
ol the present workers rema|n, how many ol the
add|t|ona| workers must be women |n order to ra|se
the percent ol women emp|oyees to ZC percent'
|/ì 3
|Bì ì C
|Cì Zo
|0ì 3C
|Lì 3o
171
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ì3Z. ln a sma|| snack shop, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
revenue was S4CC per day over a ìC·day per|od.
0ur|n¿ th|s per|od, |l the avera¿e da||y revenue was
S3bC lor the hrst b days, what was the avera¿e da||y
revenue lor the |ast 4 days'
|/ì S4ZC
|Bì S44C
|Cì S4oC
|0ì S4bC
|Lì S4ßC
ì33. / certa|n country had a tota| annua| expend|ture ol
Sì.Z  ìC
ìZ
|ast year. ll the popu|at|on ol the country
was Z4C m||||on |ast year, what was the per cap|ta
expend|ture'
|/ì S oCC
|Bì Sì,CCC
|Cì SZ,CCC
|0ì S3,CCC
|Lì So,CCC
ì34. / certa|n rectan¿u|ar w|ndow |s tw|ce as |on¿ as |t |s
w|de. ll |ts per|meter |s ìC leet, then |ts d|mens|ons |n
leet are
|/ì
3
Z
by
/
Z
|Bì
o
3
by
ìC
3
|Cì Z by 4
|0ì 3 by b
|Lì
ìC
3
by
ZC
3

X
Y
ì3o. 1he d|a¿ram above shows the var|ous paths a|on¿
wh|ch a mouse can trave| lrom po|nt X, where |t |s
re|eased, to po|nt Y, where |t |s rewarded w|th a lood
pe||et. How many d|llerent paths lrom X to Y can the
mouse take |l |t ¿oes d|rect|y lrom X to Y w|thout
retrac|n¿ any po|nt a|on¿ a path'
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ìZ
|0ì ì4
|Lì ì/
ì3b. ll the operat|on |s dehned by x y = xy lor a||
pos|t|ve numbers x and y, then |o 4oì bC =
|/ì 3C
|Bì bC
|Cì 9C
|0ì 3C ìo
|Lì bC ìo
ì3/. / bar over a sequence ol d|¿|ts |n a dec|ma| |nd|cates
that the sequence repeats |ndehn|te|y.
what |s the va|ue ol |ìC
4
- ìC
Z
ì|C.CCìZì '
|/ì C
|Bì C.ìZ
|Cì ì.Z
|0ì ìC
|Lì ìZ
ì3ß. /t a |oad|n¿ dock, each worker on the n|¿ht crew
|oaded
3
4
as many boxes as each worker on the day
crew. ll the n|¿ht crew has
4
o
as many workers as the
day crew, what lract|on ol a|| the boxes |oaded by the
two crews d|d the day crew |oad'
|/ì
ì
Z
|Bì
Z
o
|Cì
3
o
|0ì
4
o
|Lì
o
ß
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
172
ì39. / restaurant mea| cost S3o.oC and there was no tax.
ll the t|p was more than ìC percent but |ess than
ìo percent ol the cost ol the mea|, then the tota|
amount pa|d must have been between
|/ì S4C and S4Z
|Bì S39 and S4 ì
|Cì S3ß and S4C
|0ì S3/ and S39
|Lì S3b and S3/
ì4C. ln a we|¿ht·||lt|n¿ compet|t|on, the tota| we|¿ht ol
Joe's two ||lts was /oC pounds. ll tw|ce the we|¿ht ol
h|s hrst ||lt was 3CC pounds more than the we|¿ht ol
h|s second ||lt, what was the we|¿ht, |n pounds, ol h|s
hrst ||lt'
|/ì ZZo
|Bì Z/o
|Cì 3Zo
|0ì 3oC
|Lì 4CC
ì4ì. / c|ub co||ected exact|y So99 lrom |ts members. ll
each member contr|buted at |east SìZ, what |s the
¿reatest number ol members the c|ub cou|d have'
|/ì 43
|Bì 44
|Cì 49
|0ì oC
|Lì oì
ì4Z. ll y |s the sma||est pos|t|ve |nte¿er such that 3,ìoC
mu|t|p||ed by y |s the square ol an |nte¿er, then y
must be
|/ì Z
|Bì o
|Cì b
|0ì /
|Lì ì4
ì43. ll |x} |s the ¿reatest |nte¿er |ess than or equa| to x,
what |s the va|ue ol |-ì.b} + |3.4} + |Z./} '
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
ì44. ll
4 - x
Z  x
 x , what |s the va|ue ol x
Z
 3x - 4 '
|/ì -4
|Bì - ì
|Cì C
|0ì ì
|Lì Z
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
Æ
ì4o. 1he trapezo|d shown |n the h¿ure above represents a
cross sect|on ol the rudder ol a sh|p. ll the d|stance
lrom A to ß |s ì3 leet, what |s the area ol the cross
sect|on ol the rudder |n square leet'
|/ì 39
|Bì 4C
|Cì 4Z
|0ì 4o
|Lì 4b.o
ì4b. ln a certa|n sequence, the term x
n
|s ¿|ven by the
lormu|a x
n
= Zx
n - ì
-
ì
Z
|x
n - Z
ì lor a|| n x
C
= 3 and
x
ì
= Z, what |s the va|ue ol x
3
'
|/ì Z.o
|Bì 3.ìZo
|Cì 4
|0ì o
|Lì b./o
173
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
5 lt.
F
!
S
10 lt.
ì4/. ln the h¿ure above, \ represents an observat|on po|nt
at one end ol a poo|. lrom \, an object that |s actua||y
|ocated on the bottom ol the poo| at po|nt R appears
to be at po|nt S. ll \R = ìC leet, what |s the d|stance
RS, |n leet, between the actua| pos|t|on and the
perce|ved pos|t|on ol the object'
|/ì ìC - o 3
|Bì ìC - o Z
|Cì Z
|0ì Z
ì
Z

|Lì 4
ì4ß. ll x, y, and k are pos|t|ve numbers such that

and |l x < y,
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the va|ue ol k '
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìZ
|Cì ìo
|0ì ìß
|Lì 3C
ì49. 0ur|n¿ a tr|p, lranc|ne trave|ed x percent ol the tota|
d|stance at an avera¿e speed ol 4C m||es per hour
and the rest ol the d|stance at an avera¿e speed ol
bC m||es per hour. ln terms ol x, what was lranc|ne's
avera¿e speed lor the ent|re tr|p'
|/ì

ìßC
Z
x
|Bì

x + bC
4
|Cì

3CC
o
x
|0ì

bCC
ììo x
|Lì

ìZ CCC
ZCC
,
x +
ìoC. ll x = -ì, then
x
4
- x
3
+ x
Z
x - ì
=
|/ì -
3
Z
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì
3
Z
ìoì. / toy store re¿u|ar|y se||s a|| stock at a d|scount ol
ZC percent to 4C percent. ll an add|t|ona| Zo percent
were deducted lrom the d|scount pr|ce dur|n¿ a
spec|a| sa|e, what wou|d be the |owest poss|b|e pr|ce
ol a toy cost|n¿ Sìb belore any d|scount'
|/ì S o.bC
|Bì S /.ZC
|Cì S ß.ßC
|0ì S 9.bC
|Lì Sìo.ZC
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
174
y yd
z yd
x yd
ìoZ. 1he shaded port|on ol the rectan¿u|ar |ot shown
above represents a Nower bed. ll the area ol the bed
|s Z4 square yards and x = y + Z, then z equa|s
|/ì ì3
|Bì Z ì3
|Cì b
|0ì ß
|Lì ì C
ìo3. Jack |s now ì4 years o|der than B|||. ll |n ìC years
Jack w||| be tw|ce as o|d as B|||, how o|d w||| Jack be
|n o years'
|/ì 9
|Bì ì 9
|Cì Z ì
|0ì Z3
|Lì 33
ìo4. /n empty poo| be|n¿ h||ed w|th water at a constant
rate takes ß hours to h|| to
3
o
ol |ts capac|ty. How
much more t|me w||| |t take to hn|sh h|||n¿ the poo|'
|/ì o hr 3C m|n
|Bì o hr ZC m|n
|Cì 4 hr 4ß m|n
|0ì 3 hr ìZ m|n
|Lì Z hr 4C m|n
ìoo. / pos|t|ve number x |s mu|t|p||ed by Z, and th|s product
|s then d|v|ded by 3. ll the pos|t|ve square root ol the
resu|t ol these two operat|ons equa|s x, what |s the
va|ue ol x '
|/ì
9
4
|Bì
3
Z
|Cì
4
3
|0ì
Z
3
|Lì
ì
Z
ìob. / tank conta|ns ìC,CCC ¿a||ons ol a so|ut|on that |s
o percent sod|um ch|or|de by vo|ume. ll Z,oCC ¿a||ons
ol water evaporate lrom the tank, the rema|n|n¿
so|ut|on w||| be approx|mate|y what percent sod|um
ch|or|de'
|/ì ì.Zoº
|Bì 3./oº
|Cì b.Zoº
|0ì b.b/º
|Lì ìì./º
ìo/. lor any pos|t|ve |nte¿er n, the sum ol the hrst
n pos|t|ve |nte¿ers equa|s
n n +
( )
ì
Z
. what |s the sum
ol a|| the even |nte¿ers between 99 and 3Cì '
|/ì ìC,ìCC
|Bì ZC,ZCC
|Cì ZZ,boC
|0ì 4C,ZCC
|Lì 4o,ìoC
ìoß. / comm|ttee |s composed ol w women and m men. ll
3 women and Z men are added to the comm|ttee, and
|l one person |s se|ected at random lrom the en|ar¿ed
comm|ttee, then the probab|||ty that a woman |s
se|ected can be represented by
175
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
|/ì
w
m
|Bì
w
w  m
|Cì
w  3
m  Z
|0ì
w  3
w  m  3
|Lì
w  3
w  m  o
ìo9. How many pr|me numbers between ì and ìCC are
lactors ol /,ìoC '
|/ì 0ne
|Bì 1wo
|Cì 1hree
|0ì lour
|Lì l|ve
8 lcct O
ìbC. 1he h¿ure above shows a c|rcu|ar Nower bed, w|th |ts
center at U, surrounded by a c|rcu|ar path that |s
3 leet w|de. what |s the area ol the path, |n square leet'
|/ì Zo
|Bì 3ß
|Cì oo
|0ì o/
|Lì b4
ìbì. 1he pos|t|ve |nte¿er n |s d|v|s|b|e by Zo. ll n |s
¿reater than Zo, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the
va|ue ol
n
Zo
'
|/ì ZZ
|Bì Z3
|Cì Z4
|0ì Zo
|Lì Zb
ìbZ. / lru|t·sa|ad m|xture cons|sts ol app|es, peaches,
and ¿rapes |n the rat|o b:o:Z, respect|ve|y, by we|¿ht.
ll 39 pounds ol the m|xture |s prepared, the m|xture
|nc|udes how many more pounds ol app|es than
¿rapes'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ìZ
|Cì 9
|0ì b
|Lì 4
ìb3. 1h|s year Henry w||| save a certa|n amount ol h|s
|ncome, and he w||| spend the rest. Next year Henry
w||| have no |ncome, but lor each do||ar that he saves
th|s year, he w||| have ì + r do||ars ava||ab|e to spend.
ln terms ol r, what lract|on ol h|s |ncome shou|d Henry
save th|s year so that next year the amount he has
ava||ab|e to spend w||| be equa| to ha|l the amount that
he spends th|s year'
|/ì

ì
Z r +
|Bì

ì
Z Z r +
|Cì

ì
3 Z r +
|0ì

ì
3 r +
|Lì

ì
Z 3 r +
ìb4. ll m

= -
ì
3
, then m
-Z
|s equa| to
|/ì
-9
|Bì
-3
|Cì -
ì
9
|0ì
ì
9
|Lì 9
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
176
ìbo. lo|s has x do||ars more than J|m has, and to¿ether
they have a tota| ol y do||ars. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
represents the number ol do||ars that J|m has'
|/ì
y - x
Z

|Bì y -
x
Z
|Cì
y
2
- x
|0ì Zy - x
|Lì y - Zx
ìbb. 0ur|n¿ a certa|n season, a team won ßC percent ol |ts
hrst ìCC ¿ames and oC percent ol |ts rema|n|n¿
¿ames. ll the team won /C percent ol |ts ¿ames lor
the ent|re season, what was the tota| number ol
¿ames that the team p|ayed'
|/ì ìßC
|Bì ì/C
|Cì ìob
|0ì ìoC
|Lì ìCo
ìb/. 0l 3C app||cants lor a job, ì4 had at |east 4 years'
exper|ence, ìß had de¿rees, and 3 had |ess than
4 years' exper|ence and d|d not have a de¿ree. How
many ol the app||cants had at |east 4 years'
exper|ence and a de¿ree'
|/ì ì4
|Bì ì3
|Cì 9
|0ì /
|Lì o
ìbß. ll + ì
ì
Z
Z
÷
x x
, then x =
|/ì -ì
|Bì
ì
3
|Cì
Z
3
|0ì Z
|Lì 3
ìb9. last year, lor every ìCC m||||on veh|c|es that trave|ed
on a certa|n h|¿hway, 9b veh|c|es were |nvo|ved |n
acc|dents. ll 3 b||||on veh|c|es trave|ed on the h|¿hway
|ast year, how many ol those veh|c|es were |nvo|ved |n
acc|dents' |ì b||||on = ì,CCC,CCC,CCCì
|/ì Zßß
|Bì 3ZC
|Cì Z,ßßC
|0ì 3,ZCC
|Lì Zß,ßCC
ì/C. 1h|rty percent ol the members ol a sw|m c|ub have
passed the ||lesav|n¿ test. /mon¿ the members
who have not passed the test, ìZ have taken the
preparatory course and 3C have not taken the course.
How many members are there |n the sw|m c|ub'
|/ì bC
|Bì ßC
|Cì ìCC
|0ì ìZC
|Lì ì4C
ì/ì. what |s the d|llerence between the s|xth and the hlth
terms ol the sequence Z, 4, /, . whose nth term |s
n + Z
n - ì
'
|/ì Z
|Bì 3
|Cì b
|0ì ìb
|Lì ì/
ì/Z. ll |x - ìì
Z
= 4CC, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the
va|ue ol x - o '
|/ì ìo
|Bì ì4
|Cì -Z4
|0ì -Zo
|Lì -Zb
ì/3. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ descr|bes a|| va|ues ol x lor
wh|ch ì - x
Z
C '
|/ì x ì
|Bì x -ì
|Cì C x ì
|0ì x -ì or x ì
|Lì -ì x ì
177
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ì/4. 1he probab|||ty |s
ì
Z
that a certa|n co|n w||| turn up
heads on any ¿|ven toss. ll the co|n |s to be tossed
three t|mes, what |s the probab|||ty that on at |east one
ol the tosses the co|n w||| turn up ta||s'
|/ì
ì
ß
|Bì
ì
Z
|Cì
3
4
|0ì
/
ß
|Lì
ìo
ìb
ì/o. 0l the hna| ¿rades rece|ved by the students |n a
certa|n math course,
ì
o
are /'s,
ì
4
are B's,
ì
Z
are C's,
and the rema|n|n¿ ìC ¿rades are 0's. what |s the
number ol students |n the course'
|/ì ßC
|Bì ì ìC
|Cì ìbC
|0ì ZCC
|Lì 4CC
ì/b. /s x |ncreases lrom ìbo to ìbb, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must |ncrease'
l. Zx - o
ll. ì -
ì
x
lll.
ì
x
Z
- x
|/ì l on|y
|Bì lll on|y
|Cì l and ll
|0ì l and lll
|Lì ll and lll
ì//. / rectan¿u|ar box |s ìC |nches w|de, ìC |nches |on¿,
and o |nches h|¿h. what |s the ¿reatest poss|b|e
|stra|¿ht·||neì d|stance, |n |nches, between any two
po|nts on the box'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ZC
|Cì Zo
|0ì ìC Z
|Lì ìC 3
C|ub
Number ol
3tudents
Chess 4C
0rama 3C
lath Zo
ì/ß. 1he tab|e above shows the number ol students |n
three c|ubs at lc/u||lle 3choo|. /|thou¿h no student |s
|n a|| three c|ubs, ìC students are |n both Chess and
0rama, o students are |n both Chess and lath, and
b students are |n both 0rama and lath. How many
d|llerent students are |n the three c|ubs'
|/ì bß
|Bì b9
|Cì /4
|0ì /9
|Lì ß4
ì/9. 1he rat|o ol two quant|t|es |s 3 to 4. ll each ol the
quant|t|es |s |ncreased by o, what |s the rat|o ol these
two new quant|t|es'
|/ì
3
4
|Bì
ß
9
|Cì
ìß
ì9
|0ì
Z3
Z4
|Lì lt cannot be determ|ned lrom the |nlormat|on
¿|ven.
ìßC. ll the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol x and y |s bC and
the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol y and z |s ßC, what |s
the va|ue ol z - x '
|/ì /C
|Bì 4C
|Cì ZC
|0ì ìC
|Lì lt cannot be determ|ned lrom the |nlormat|on
¿|ven.
ìßì. ll
ì
Z
ol the a|r |n a tank |s removed w|th each stroke
ol a vacuum pump, what lract|on ol the or|¿|na|
amount ol a|r has been removed alter 4 strokes'
|/ì
ìo
ìb
|Bì
/
ß
|Cì
ì
4
|0ì
ì
ß
|Lì
ì
ìb
ìßZ. ll the two·d|¿|t |nte¿ers M and N are pos|t|ve and have
the same d|¿|ts, but |n reverse order, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ C/NN01 be the sum ol M and N '
|/ì ìß ì
|Bì ìbo
|Cì ìZì
|0ì 99
|Lì 44
ìß3. Car / and Car Y trave|ed the same ßC·m||e route. ll Car /
took Z hours and Car Y trave|ed at an avera¿e speed that
was oC percent laster than the avera¿e speed ol Car /,
how many hours d|d |t take Car Y to trave| the route'
|/ì
Z
3
|Bì ì
|Cì ì
ì
3
|0ì ì
3
o
|Lì 3
ìß4. ll the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the lour numbers
r, Zr + 3, 3r - o, and or + ì |s b3, what |s the va|ue
ol r '
|/ì ìì
|Bì ìo
3
4
|Cì ZZ
|0ì Z3
|Lì Zo
3
ìC
ìßo. ll p |s an even |nte¿er and q |s an odd |nte¿er, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ must be an odd |nte¿er'
|/ì
p
q
|Bì pq
|Cì Zp + q
|0ì Z|p + qì
|Lì
3p
q
ìßb. 0rum / |s
ì
Z
lu|| ol o|| and 0rum Y, wh|ch has tw|ce
the capac|ty ol 0rum /, |s
Z
3
lu|| ol o||. ll a|| ol the o||
|n 0rum / |s poured |nto 0rum Y, then 0rum Y w||| be
h||ed to what lract|on ol |ts capac|ty'
|/ì
3
4
|Bì
o
b
|Cì
ìì
ìZ
|0ì
/
b
|Lì
ìì
b
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 11th Edition
178
ìß/. ll x > C,
x
oC
+
x
Zo
|s what percent ol x '
|/ì bº
|Bì Zoº
|Cì 3/º
|0ì bCº
|Lì /oº
ìßß. ll the operat|on |s dehned lor a|| a and b by the
equat|on a b =
a
Z
b
3
, then Z |3 -ìì =
|/ì 4
|Bì Z
|Cì -
4
3
|0ì - Z
|Lì - 4
ìß9. 1he |ns|de d|mens|ons ol a rectan¿u|ar wooden box
are b |nches by ß |nches by ìC |nches. / cy||ndr|ca|
can|ster |s to be p|aced |ns|de the box so that |t stands
upr|¿ht when the c|osed box rests on one ol |ts s|x
laces. 0l a|| such can|sters that cou|d be used, what |s
the rad|us, |n |nches, ol the one that has max|mum
vo|ume'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì ß
ì9C. what |s the un|ts d|¿|t ol |ì3ì
4
|ì/ì
Z
|Z9ì
3
'
|/ì 9
|Bì /
|Cì o
|0ì 3
|Lì ì
4th Strcct
3rd Strcct
2nd Strcct
1st Strcct
X
Y
ì9ì. lat w||| wa|k lrom lntersect|on X to lntersect|on Y
a|on¿ a route that |s conhned to the square ¿r|d ol
lour streets and three avenues shown |n the map
above. How many routes lrom X to Y can lat take
that have the m|n|mum poss|b|e |en¿th'
|/ì b
|Bì ß
|Cì ìC
|0ì ì4
|Lì ìb
ì9Z. 1he rat|o, by vo|ume, ol soap to a|coho| to water |n a
certa|n so|ut|on |s Z:oC:ìCC. 1he so|ut|on w||| be
a|tered so that the rat|o ol soap to a|coho| |s doub|ed
wh||e the rat|o ol soap to water |s ha|ved. ll the a|tered
so|ut|on w||| conta|n ìCC cub|c cent|meters ol a|coho|,
how many cub|c cent|meters ol water w||| |t conta|n'
|/ì oC
|Bì ZCC
|Cì 4CC
|0ì bZo
|Lì ßCC
ì93. ll /o percent ol a c|ass answered the hrst quest|on
on a certa|n test correct|y, oo percent answered the
second quest|on on the test correct|y, and ZC percent
answered ne|ther ol the quest|ons correct|y, what
percent answered both correct|y'
|/ì ìCº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì 3Cº
|0ì oCº
|Lì boº
179
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
180
O
Æ
y - x
y
x
ì94. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system above, the ||ne
y = x |s the perpend|cu|ar b|sector ol se¿ment Aß |not
shownì, and the x·ax|s |s the perpend|cu|ar b|sector ol
se¿ment ßL |not shownì. ll the coord|nates ol po|nt A
are |Z,3ì, what are the coord|nates ol po|nt L '
|/ì |-3,-Zì
|Bì |-3,Zì
|Cì |Z,-3ì
|0ì |3,-Zì
|Lì |Z,3ì
ì9o. / store current|y char¿es the same pr|ce lor each
towe| that |t se||s. ll the current pr|ce ol each towe|
were to be |ncreased by Sì, ìC lewer ol the towe|s
cou|d be bou¿ht lor SìZC, exc|ud|n¿ sa|es tax. what |s
the current pr|ce ol each towe|'
|/ì S ì
|Bì S Z
|Cì S 3
|0ì S 4
|Lì Sì Z
Number o! 5oIid-CoIored MarbIes in Three 1ars
Jar
Number ol
red marb|es
Number ol
¿reen marb|es
1ota| number
ol red and
¿reen marb|es
l x y ßC
Ç y z ìZC
b x z ìbC
ì9b. ln the tab|e above, what |s the number ol ¿reen
marb|es |n Jar b '
|/ì /C
|Bì ßC
|Cì 9C
|0ì ìCC
|Lì ììC
ì9/. / po|nt on the ed¿e ol a lan b|ade that |s rotat|n¿ |n a
p|ane |s ìC cent|meters lrom the center ol the lan.
what |s the d|stance trave|ed, |n cent|meters, by th|s
po|nt |n ìo seconds when the lan runs at the rate ol
3CC revo|ut|ons per m|nute'
|/ì /oC
|Bì ì,oCC
|Cì ì,ß/o
|0ì 3,CCC
|Lì /,oCC
ì9ß. ll n = 4p, where p |s a pr|me number ¿reater than Z,
how many d|llerent pos|t|ve even d|v|sors does n have,
|nc|ud|n¿ n '
|/ì 1wo
|Bì 1hree
|Cì lour
|0ì 3|x
|Lì L|¿ht
l. /Z, /3, /4, /o, /b
ll. /4, /4, /4, /4, /4
lll. bZ, /4, /4, /4, ß9
ì99. 1he data sets l, ll, and lll above are ordered lrom
¿reatest standard dev|at|on to |east standard dev|at|on
|n wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì l, ll, lll
|Bì l, lll, ll
|Cì ll, lll, l
|0ì lll, l, ll
|Lì lll, ll, l
181
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ZCC. 0l the oC researchers |n a work¿roup, 4C percent w|||
be ass|¿ned to 1eam / and the rema|n|n¿ bC percent
to 1eam B. However, /C percent ol the researchers
preler 1eam / and 3C percent preler 1eam B. what |s
the |owest poss|b|e number ol researchers who w|||
N01 be ass|¿ned to the team they preler'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ì/
|Cì ZC
|0ì Zo
|Lì 3C
ZCì. ll m |s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the hrst
ìC pos|t|ve mu|t|p|es ol o and |l M |s the med|an ol the
hrst ìC pos|t|ve mu|t|p|es ol o, what |s the va|ue ol
M - m '
|/ì -o
|Bì C
|Cì o
|0ì Zo
|Lì Z /.o
ZCZ. ll m > C and x |s m percent ol y, then, |n terms ol m, y
|s what percent ol x '
|/ì ìCCm
|Bì
ì
ìCCm
|Cì
ì
m
|0ì
ìC
m
|Lì
ìC,CCC
m
ZC3. what |s the Zoth d|¿|t to the r|¿ht ol the dec|ma| po|nt
|n the dec|ma| lorm ol
b
ìì
'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
ZC4. John and lary were each pa|d x do||ars |n advance to
do a certa|n job to¿ether. John worked on the job lor
ìC hours and lary worked Z hours |ess than John. ll
lary ¿ave John y do||ars ol her payment so that they
wou|d have rece|ved the same hour|y wa¿e, what was
the do||ar amount, |n terms ol y, that John was pa|d |n
advance'
|/ì 4y
|Bì oy
|Cì by
|0ì ßy
|Lì 9y
y
x
P (4,0) O
ZCo. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system above, |l po|nt R
|not shownì ||es on the pos|t|ve y·ax|s and the area ol
tr|an¿|e URl |s ìZ, what |s the y·coord|nate ol po|nt R '
|/ì 3
|Bì b
|Cì 9
|0ì ìZ
|Lì Z4
ZCb. Car / |s ZC m||es beh|nd Car B, wh|ch |s trave||n¿ |n
the same d|rect|on a|on¿ the same route as Car /.
Car / |s trave||n¿ at a constant speed ol oß m||es
per hour and Car B |s trave||n¿ at a constant speed
ol oC m||es per hour. How many hours w||| |t take lor
Car / to overtake and dr|ve ß m||es ahead ol Car B '
|/ì ì.o
|Bì Z.C
|Cì Z.o
|0ì 3.C
|Lì 3.o
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
182
ZC/. lor the past n days, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
da||y product|on at a company was oC un|ts. ll today's
product|on ol 9C un|ts ra|ses the avera¿e to oo un|ts
per day, what |s the va|ue ol n '
|/ì 3C
|Bì ìß
|Cì ìC
|0ì 9
|Lì /
x
x
+
÷
ì
ì
Z
ZCß. ll x x x |s rep|aced by
ì
x
everywhere
|n the express|on above, then the resu|t|n¿ express|on
|s equ|va|ent to
|/ì
x
x
+
÷
ì
ì
Z
|Bì
x
x
÷
+
ì
ì
Z
|Cì
x
x
Z
Z
ì
ì
+
÷
|0ì
x
x
Z
Z
ì
ì
÷
+
|Lì ÷
÷
+
x
x
ì
ì
Z



ZC9. ln the h¿ure above, |l z = oC, then x + y =
|/ì Z3C
|Bì ZoC
|Cì ZbC
|0ì Z/C
|Lì Z9C
O 1
y
x
1
ZìC. ln the coord|nate system above, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
|s the equat|on ol ||ne '
|/ì Zx - 3y = b
|Bì Zx + 3y = b
|Cì 3x + Zy = b
|0ì Zx - 3y = -b
|Lì 3x - Zy = -b
Zìì. ll a two·d|¿|t pos|t|ve |nte¿er has |ts d|¿|ts reversed,
the resu|t|n¿ |nte¿er d|llers lrom the or|¿|na| by Z/.
By how much do the two d|¿|ts d|ller'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
O
y
x
C
ZìZ. 1he c|rc|e w|th center L shown above |s tan¿ent to
both axes. ll the d|stance lrom U to L |s equa| to k,
what |s the rad|us ol the c|rc|e, |n terms ol k '
|/ì k
|Bì

k
Z
|Cì

k
3
|0ì
k
Z
|Lì
k
3
183
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
Zì3. ln an e|ectr|c c|rcu|t, two res|stors w|th res|stances x
and y are connected |n para||e|. ln th|s case, |l r |s the
comb|ned res|stance ol these two res|stors, then the
rec|proca| ol r |s equa| to the sum ol the rec|proca|s ol
x and y. what |s r |n terms ol x and y '
|/ì xy
|Bì x + y
|Cì
ì
x + y
|0ì
xy
x + y
|Lì
x + y
xy
Zì4. /av|er, Yvonne, and Ze|da each try |ndependent|y to
so|ve a prob|em. ll the|r |nd|v|dua| probab|||t|es lor
success are
ì
4
,
ì
Z
, and
o
ß
, respect|ve|y, what |s the
probab|||ty that /av|er and Yvonne, but not Ze|da, w|||
so|ve the prob|em'
|/ì
ìì
ß
|Bì
/
ß
|Cì
9
b4
|0ì
o
b4
|Lì
3
b4
Zìo. ll
ì
x
-
ì
x + ì
=
ì
x + 4
, then x cou|d be
|/ì C
|Bì -ì
|Cì -Z
|0ì -3
|Lì -4
Zìb.
ì
Z
ì
4
ì
ìb
3 Z ì

÷ ÷ ÷
|/ì
ì
Z
4ß ÷
|Bì
ì
Z
ìì ÷
|Cì
ì
Z
b ÷
|0ì
ì
ß
ìì ÷
|Lì
ì
ß
b ÷
Zì/. ln a certa|n ¿ame, a |ar¿e conta|ner |s h||ed w|th red,
ye||ow, ¿reen, and b|ue beads worth, respect|ve|y, /,
o, 3, and Z po|nts each. / number ol beads are then
removed lrom the conta|ner. ll the product ol the po|nt
va|ues ol the removed beads |s ì4/,CCC, how many
red beads were removed'
|/ì o
|Bì 4
|Cì 3
|0ì Z
|Lì C
Zìß. ll
Z
ì
Z
ì
+

y
, then y =
|/ì - Z
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì
ì
Z
|0ì Z
|Lì 3
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
184
Zì9. ll a, b, and c are consecut|ve pos|t|ve |nte¿ers and
a < b < c, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must be true'
l. c - a = Z
ll. abc |s an even |nte¿er.
lll.
a + b + c
3
|s an |nte¿er.
|/ì l on|y
|Bì ll on|y
|Cì l and ll on|y
|0ì ll and lll on|y
|Lì l, ll, and lll
ZZC. / part·t|me emp|oyee whose hour|y wa¿e was
|ncreased by Zo percent dec|ded to reduce the
number ol hours worked per week so that the
emp|oyee's tota| week|y |ncome wou|d rema|n
unchan¿ed. By what percent shou|d the number ol
hours worked be reduced'
|/ì ìZ.oº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì Zoº
|0ì oCº
|Lì /oº
ZZì. 0l the ZCC students at Co||e¿e 1 major|n¿ |n one or
more ol the sc|ences, ì3C are major|n¿ |n chem|stry
and ìoC are major|n¿ |n b|o|o¿y. ll at |east 3C ol the
students are not major|n¿ |n e|ther chem|stry or
b|o|o¿y, then the number ol students major|n¿ |n both
chem|stry and b|o|o¿y cou|d be any number lrom
|/ì ZC to oC
|Bì 4C to /C
|Cì oC to ì3C
|0ì ììC to ì3C
|Lì ììC to ìoC
ZZZ. ll o -
b
x
= x, then x has how many poss|b|e va|ues'
|/ì None
|Bì 0ne
|Cì 1wo
|0ì / hn|te number ¿reater than two
|Lì /n |nhn|te number
ZZ3. 3eed m|xture / |s 4C percent rye¿rass and bC percent
b|ue¿rass by we|¿ht; seed m|xture Y |s Zo percent
rye¿rass and /o percent lescue. ll a m|xture ol / and
Y conta|ns 3C percent rye¿rass, what percent ol the
we|¿ht ol the m|xture |s / '
|/ì ìCº
|Bì 33
ì
3
º
|Cì 4Cº
|0ì oCº
|Lì bb
Z
3
º
ZZ4. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, then n|n + ìì|n + Zì |s
|/ì even on|y when n |s even
|Bì even on|y when n |s odd
|Cì odd whenever n |s odd
|0ì d|v|s|b|e by 3 on|y when n |s odd
|Lì d|v|s|b|e by 4 whenever n |s even
ZZo. / stra|¿ht p|pe ì yard |n |en¿th was marked oll |n
lourths and a|so |n th|rds. ll the p|pe was then cut |nto
separate p|eces at each ol these mark|n¿s, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ ¿|ves a|| the d|llerent |en¿ths ol the
p|eces, |n lract|ons ol a yard'
|/ì
ì
b
and
ì
4
on|y
|Bì
ì
4
and
ì
3
on|y
|Cì
ì
b
,
ì
4
, and
ì
3
|0ì
ì
ìZ
,
ì
b
, and
ì
4
|Lì
ì
ìZ
,
ì
b
, and
ì
3
ZZb. ll
C.CCìo × ìC
m
C.C3 × ìC
k
= o  ìC
/
, then m - k =
|/ì 9
|Bì ß
|Cì /
|0ì b
|Lì o
185
5.3 ProbIem 5oIving 5ampIe Çuestions
ZZ/. ll x + y = a and x - y = b, then Zxy =
|/ì
a
Z
- b
Z
Z
|Bì
b
Z
- a
Z
Z
|Cì
a - b
Z
|0ì
ab
Z
|Lì
a
Z
+ b
Z
Z
p, r, s, t, u
ZZß. /n ar|thmet|c sequence |s a sequence |n wh|ch each
term alter the hrst |s equa| to the sum ol the
preced|n¿ term and a constant. ll the ||st ol |etters
shown above |s an ar|thmet|c sequence, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be an ar|thmet|c sequence'
l. Zp, Zr, Zs, Zt, Zu
ll. p - 3, r - 3, s - 3, t - 3, u - 3
lll. p
Z
, r
Z
, s
Z
, t
Z
, u
Z

|/ì l on|y
|Bì ll on|y
|Cì lll on|y
|0ì l and ll
|Lì ll and lll
ZZ9. b|¿ht tr|an¿|e lÇR |s to be constructed |n the xy·p|ane
so that the r|¿ht an¿|e |s at l and lR |s para||e| to the
x·ax|s. 1he x· and y·coord|nates ol l, Ç, and R are to
be |nte¿ers that sat|sly the |nequa||t|es -4 x o and
b y ìb. How many d|llerent tr|an¿|es w|th these
propert|es cou|d be constructed'
|/ì ììC
|Bì ì,ìCC
|Cì 9,9CC
|0ì ìC,CCC
|Lì ìZ,ìCC
Z3C. 1he va|ue ol

|s how many
t|mes the va|ue ol Z
-ì/
'
|/ì

3
Z
|Bì

o
Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
186
ì. /
Z. B
3. C
4. L
o. C
b. C
/. B
ß. L
9. L
ìC. 0
ìì. L
ìZ. /
ì3. C
ì4. /
ìo. B
ìb. 0
ì/. 0
ìß. L
ì9. L
ZC. /
Zì. B
ZZ. /
Z3. B
Z4. 0
Zo. L
Zb. B
Z/. L
Zß. B
Z9. C
3C. B
3ì. B
3Z. B
33. C
34. /
3o. B
3b. /
3/. /
3ß. B
39. B
4C. C
4ì. /
4Z. L
43. B
44. 0
4o. B
4b. C
4/. C
4ß. C
49. B
oC. B
oì. C
oZ. L
o3. L
o4. /
oo. L
ob. B
o/. /
oß. B
o9. 0
bC. 0
bì. L
bZ. /
b3. /
b4. B
bo. B
bb. L
b/. B
bß. 0
b9. C
/C. C
/ì. /
/Z. B
/3. 0
/4. 0
/o. L
/b. 0
//. 0
/ß. C
/9. /
ßC. B
ßì. /
ßZ. /
ß3. C
ß4. /
ßo. /
ßb. /
ß/. L
ßß. 0
ß9. 0
9C. L
9ì. B
9Z. C
93. B
94. B
9o. L
9b. 0
9/. B
9ß. C
99. B
ìCC. 0
ìCì. 0
ìCZ. B
ìC3. L
ìC4. B
ìCo. C
ìCb. B
ìC/. 0
ìCß. B
ìC9. C
ììC. C
ììì. B
ììZ. 0
ìì3. 0
ìì4. B
ììo. C
ììb. B
ìì/. L
ììß. C
ìì9. 0
ìZC. C
5.4 Ansver Key
187
5.4 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver Key
ìZì. C
ìZZ. L
ìZ3. B
ìZ4. B
ìZo. L
ìZb. C
ìZ/. /
ìZß. /
ìZ9. 0
ì3C. L
ì3ì. L
ì3Z. 0
ì33. L
ì34. B
ì3o. C
ì3b. /
ì3/. L
ì3ß. L
ì39. B
ì4C. 0
ì4ì. C
ì4Z. L
ì43. /
ì44. C
ì4o. C
ì4b. C
ì4/. /
ì4ß. 0
ì49. L
ìoC. /
ìoì. B
ìoZ. L
ìo3. 0
ìo4. B
ìoo. 0
ìob. 0
ìo/. B
ìoß. L
ìo9. 0
ìbC. 0
ìbì. L
ìbZ. B
ìb3. L
ìb4. 0
ìbo. /
ìbb. 0
ìb/. L
ìbß. L
ìb9. C
ì/C. /
ì/ì. L
ì/Z. C
ì/3. L
ì/4. 0
ì/o. 0
ì/b. C
ì//. /
ì/ß. C
ì/9. L
ìßC. B
ìßì. /
ìßZ. /
ìß3. C
ìß4. 0
ìßo. C
ìßb. C
ìß/. /
ìßß. L
ìß9. B
ì9C. L
ì9ì. C
ì9Z. L
ì93. 0
ì94. 0
ì9o. C
ì9b. 0
ì9/. B
ì9ß. C
ì99. 0
ZCC. /
ZCì. B
ZCZ. L
ZC3. C
ZC4. L
ZCo. B
ZCb. L
ZC/. L
ZCß. /
ZC9. 0
ZìC. B
Zìì. /
ZìZ. B
Zì3. 0
Zì4. L
Zìo. C
Zìb. B
Zì/. 0
Zìß. 0
Zì9. L
ZZC. B
ZZì. 0
ZZZ. C
ZZ3. B
ZZ4. L
ZZo. 0
ZZb. /
ZZ/. /
ZZß. 0
ZZ9. C
Z3C. C
188
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ì. / project schedu|ed to be carr|ed out over a s|n¿|e
hsca| year has a bud¿et ol SìZ,bCC, d|v|ded |nto
ìZ equa| month|y a||ocat|ons. /t the end ol the lourth
month ol that hsca| year, the tota| amount actua||y
spent on the project was S4,oßC. By how much was
the project over |ts bud¿et'
|/ì S 3ßC
|Bì S o4C
|Cì Sì,CoC
|0ì Sì,3ßC
|Lì Sì,43C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
c budgct lor lour months is
us, thc projcct was
84,580 - 84,200 - 8380 ovcr budgct lor thc nrst
lour months.
e correct answer is A.
Z. ll the sum ol o, ß, ìZ, and ìo |s equa| to the sum ol 3,
4, x, and x + 3, what |s the va|ue ol x '
|/ì ì4
|Bì ìo
|Cì ìb
|0ì ì/
|Lì ìß
AIgebra first-degree equations
Convcrt thc words into symbols and solvc thc
cquation:
5 ÷ 8 ÷ 12 ÷ 15 - 3 ÷ 4 ÷ x ÷ (x ÷ 3)
40 - 2x ÷ 10
30 - 2x
15 - x
e correct answer is B.
3. lor wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ va|ues ol n |s
ìCC + n
n

N01 an |nte¿er'
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Substitutc thc valuc lor n givcn in cach answcr
choicc into thc cxprcssion, and thcn simplily to
dctcrminc whcthcr or not that valuc rcsults in an
intcgcr.
A
100 1
1
101
1
101

  !ntcgcr
8
100 2
2
102
2
51

  !ntcgcr
C
100 3
3
103
3
34 333

  . ... NÒT an intcgcr
Ð
100 4
4
104
4
26

  !ntcgcr
¡
100 5
5
105
5
21

  !ntcgcr
5.5 Ansver ExpIanations
The !oIIoving discussion is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and e!!ective approaches
to the kinds o! probIems common to probIem soIving questions. The particuIar questions in this
chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! probIem soIving questions you viII encounter on
the GMAT. ßemember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc detaiIs
o! a particuIar question.
189
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Anothcr mcthod is to rcwritc thc givcn
cxprcssion,
100+ n
n
, as
100 100
1
n
n
n n
+ = + .
is shows that thc givcn cxprcssion is an intcgcr
cxactly whcn
100
n
is an intcgcr. Sincc 100 is not
divisiblc by 3, but 100 is divisiblc by 1, 2, 4, and 5,
it lollows that n - 3.
e correct answer is C.
4. bectan¿u|ar l|oors / and Y have equa| area. ll l|oor /
|s ìZ leet by ìß leet and l|oor Y |s 9 leet w|de, what |s
the |en¿th ol l|oor Y, |n leet'
|/ì ì3
ì
Z

|Bì ìß
|Cì ìß
3
4

|0ì Zì
|Lì Z4
Geometry Area
Sincc Floor X is a rcctanglc, its arca is
(width)(lcngth) - (12)(18). !t is givcn that this
is also thc arca ol Floor Y, so il L is thc lcngth
ol Floor Y, it lollows that 9L - (12)(18), or
L -
12 18
9
12 9 2
9
( )( )
=
( )( )( )
- (12)(2) - 24.
e correct answer is E.
l/Yb0ll /1 C0ll/NY /
Number ol
Lmp|oyees
3a|ary
o SZC,CCC
4 SZZ,CCC
ß SZo,CCC
3 S3C,CCC
o. 1he tab|e above shows the number ol emp|oyees
at each ol lour sa|ary |eve|s at Company /. what
|s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì sa|ary lor the
ZC emp|oyees'
|/ì SZ3,oCC
|Bì SZ3,/oC
|Cì SZ3,9CC
|0ì SZ4,ìZo
|Lì SZ4,ZoC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
From thc tablc, thcrc arc 5 cmployccs cach with a
salary ol 820,000, 4 cmployccs cach with a salary
c avcragc (arithmctic
mcan) lor all 20 cmployccs is thcn
5 20 000 4 22 000 8 25 000 3 30 000
20
, , , , ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( )

-

100 000 88 000 200 000 90 000
20
, , , , + + +
-
478 000
20
,
- 23,900
e correct answer is C.
b. / case conta|ns c cartons. Lach carton conta|ns
b boxes, and each box conta|ns ìCC paper c||ps. How
many paper c||ps are conta|ned |n Z cases'
|/ì ìCCbc
|Bì
ìCCb
c
|Cì ZCCbc
|0ì
ZCCb
c
|Lì
ZCC
bc
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
¡ach casc has bc boxcs, cach ol which has
c total numbcr ol papcr clips
in 2 cascs is thus 2(bc)(100) - 200bc.
e correct answer is C.
190
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
/. 1he sum ol pr|me numbers that are ¿reater than bC
but |ess than /C |s
|/ì b/
|Bì ìZß
|Cì ì9ì
|0ì ì9/
|Lì ZbC
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
A primc numbcr is a positivc intcgcr divisiblc
crcnt positivc divisors, 1 and
itscll. Notc that 62, 64, 66, and 68 arc also
divisiblc by 2, 63, 66, and 69 arc also divisiblc by
c only primc
numbcrs bctwccn 60 and 70 arc 61 and 67, and
61 ÷ 67 - 128.
e correct answer is B.
ß. / ra|nstorm |ncreased the amount ol water stored
|n 3tate J reservo|rs lrom ìZ4 b||||on ¿a||ons to
ì3ß b||||on ¿a||ons. ll the storm |ncreased the amount
ol water |n the reservo|rs to ßZ percent ol tota|
capac|ty, approx|mate|y how many b||||on ¿a||ons ol
water were the reservo|rs short ol tota| capac|ty pr|or
to the storm'
|/ì 9
|Bì ì4
|Cì Zo
|0ì 3C
|Lì 44
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct t bc thc total capacity ol thc rcscrvoirs in
c inlormation that thc post
storm watcr amount ol 138 billion gallons
rcprcscntcd 82 pcrccnt ol total capacity can bc
cxprcsscd as 0.82t - 138. Solvc lor t and thcn
cstimatc thc valuc ol t:
us, thc amount thc
rcscrvoirs wcrc short ol total capacity prior to thc
storm, in billions ol gallons, was approximatcly
175 124 - 51, so ¡ is thc bcst choicc. A morc
accuratc calculation givcs 168.3 124 - 44.3.
e correct answer is E.
y
2
2 x 2
O
2
9. 0n the ¿raph above, when x =
ì
Z
, y = Z; and when
x = ì, y = ì. 1he ¿raph |s symmetr|c w|th respect to
the vert|ca| ||ne at x = Z. /ccord|n¿ to the ¿raph, when
x = 3, y =
|/ì -ì
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì ì
Arithmetic, AIgebra Interpretation o! graphs,
5econd-degree equations
Sincc thc graph is symmctric with rcspcct to
x - 2, thc y valuc whcn x - 3 will bc thc samc as
thc y valuc whcn x - 1, which is 1.
e correct answer is E.
ìC. when
ì
ìC
percent ol o,CCC |s subtracted lrom
ì
ìC
ol
o,CCC the d|llerence |s
|/ì C
|Bì oC
|Cì 4oC
|0ì 49o
|Lì oCC
Arithmetic Percents
Sincc
1
10
pcrccnt is
1
1 000 ,
crcncc askcd
lor is -
500 5 - 495.
e correct answer is D.
191
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
ìì. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s the va|ue ol '
|/ì C.CC4
|Bì C.CCß
|Cì C.CZ
|0ì C.C4
|Lì C.Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
c squarc root and cubc root cvaluations arc
morc casily carricd out whcn 0.000064 is
rcwrittcn as 64 × 10
6
. Using this rcwrittcn lorm,
thc valuc askcd lor is

-
-
-
-
- 2 × 10
1
- 0.2
e correct answer is E.
ìZ. balNe t|ckets numbered consecut|ve|y lrom ìCì
throu¿h 3oC are p|aced |n a box. what |s the
probab|||ty that a t|cket se|ected at random w|||
have a number w|th a hundreds d|¿|t ol Z '
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
crc arc 250 intcgcrs lrom 101 to 350 inclusivc,
100 ol which (that is, 200 through 299) havc a
crclorc, thc probability
that a tickct sclcctcd lrom thc box at random
will havc a hundrcds digit ol 2 can bc cxprcsscd
as
e correct answer is A.
ì3. when leo |mported a certa|n |tem, he pa|d a / percent
|mport tax on the port|on ol the tota| va|ue ol the |tem
|n excess ol Sì,CCC. ll the amount ol the |mport tax
that leo pa|d was Sß/.oC, what was the tota| va|ue ol
the |tem'
|/ì Sì,bCC
|Bì Sì,ßoC
|Cì SZ,ZoC
|0ì SZ,4CC
|Lì SZ,/oC
AIgebra first-degree equations
Lctting x rcprcscnt thc total valuc ol thc itcm,
convcrt thc words to symbols and solvc thc
cquation.
7º ol valuc in cxccss ol 81,000 - 87.50
0.07(x 1,000) - 87.50
x 1,000 - 1,250
x - 2,250
e correct answer is C.
ì4. 0n londay, a person ma||ed ß packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ an
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol ìZ pounds, and on
1uesday, 4 packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ an avera¿e ol
ìo
ì
4
pounds. what was the avera¿e we|¿ht, |n pounds,
ol a|| the packa¿es the person ma||ed on both days'
|/ì ì3
|Bì ì3
|Cì ìo
|0ì ìo
|Lì ìb
192
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Sincc avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
thc inlormatio
 ,
nn about thc two shipmcnts
ol packagcs can bc cxprcsscd as
avvcragc 





 
8 12
3
8
4 15
1
4
12
8
99
8
4
61
4
12
99 61
12
160
12
13
11
3
.
e correct answer is A.
ìo. C.ì + |C.ìì
Z
+ |C.ìì
3
=
|/ì C.ì
|Bì C.ììì
|Cì C.ìZìì
|0ì C.Z34ì
|Lì C.3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Calculatc thc squarcd and thc cubcd tcrm, and
thcn add thc thrcc tcrms.
0.1 ÷ (0.1)
2
÷ (0.1)
3
- 0.1 ÷ 0.01 ÷ 0.001 - 0.111
e correct answer is B.
ìb. / carpenter constructed a rectan¿u|ar sandbox w|th a
capac|ty ol ìC cub|c leet. ll the carpenter were to
make a s|m||ar sandbox tw|ce as |on¿, tw|ce as w|de,
and tw|ce as h|¿h as the hrst sandbox, what wou|d be
the capac|ty, |n cub|c leet, ol the second sandbox'
|/ì ZC
|Bì 4C
|Cì bC
|0ì ßC
|Lì ìCC
Geometry VoIume
Vhcn all thc dimcnsions ol a thrccdimcnsional
objcct arc changcd by a lactor ol 2, thc capacity,
or volumc, changcs by a lactor ol (2)(2)(2) - 2
3
-
us thc capacity ol thc sccond sandbox is
10(8) - 80 cubic lcct.
e correct answer is D.
ì/. / bakery opened yesterday w|th |ts da||y supp|y ol
4C dozen ro||s. Ha|l ol the ro||s were so|d by noon, and
ßC percent ol the rema|n|n¿ ro||s were so|d between
noon and c|os|n¿ t|me. How many dozen ro||s had not
been so|d when the bakery c|osed yesterday'
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers,
Percents
Sincc hall ol thc 40 dozcn rolls wcrc sold by
noon, thcn
1
2
(40) - 20 dozcn rolls wcrc lclt to bc
sold altcr noon. 8ccausc 80 pcrccnt ol thosc 20
wcrc sold, 100 80 - 20 pcrccnt ol thcm or
20(0.20) - 4 dozcn rolls had not bccn sold whcn
thc bakcry closcd.
e correct answer is D.
ìß. ll the area ol a square re¿|on hav|n¿ s|des ol |en¿th
b cent|meters |s equa| to the area ol a rectan¿u|ar
re¿|on hav|n¿ w|dth Z.o cent|meters, then the |en¿th
ol the rectan¿|e, |n cent|meters, |s
|/ì ß.o
|Bì 9.o
|Cì 9.b
|0ì ìC.o
|Lì ì4.4
Geometry ÇuadriIateraIs
c arca ol a squarc rcgion with sidc lcngth 6 is
36 and thc arca ol a rcctangular rcgion with
width 2.5 and lcngth x is 2.5x c two arcas arc
cqual, so
36 - 2.5x
36 -
5
2
x
36 - x

72
5
- x
14.4 - x
e correct answer is E.
193
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
ì9. ìoC |s what percent ol 3C '
|/ì oº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì oCº
|0ì ZCCº
|Lì oCCº
Arithmetic Percents
Lct x bc thc dcsircd pcrccnt in thc problcm.
c givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd by thc
lollowing cquation, which can thcn bc solvcd lor x.
150 - 30x

15 10
3 10
( )( )
( )( )
- x
5 - x
cn, 5 cxprcsscd as a pcrccnt is 500º.
e correct answer is E.
ZC. 1he rat|o Z to
ì
3
|s equa| to the rat|o
|/ì b to ì
|Bì o to ì
|Cì 3 to Z
|0ì Z to 3
|Lì ì to b
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c ratio 2 to is thc samc as - 6,
which is
1
3
2
1
3
2
3
1

tthc samc as a ratio ol 6 to 1.
e correct answer is A.
Zì. bunn|n¿ at the same constant rate, b |dent|ca|
mach|nes can produce a tota| ol Z/C bott|es per
m|nute. /t th|s rate, how many bott|es cou|d ìC such
mach|nes produce |n 4 m|nutes'
|/ì b4ß
|Bì ì,ßCC
|Cì Z,/CC
|0ì ìC,ßCC
|Lì b4,ßCC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc thcrc arc 6 machincs, cach machinc docs
1
6
ol thc work. ¡ach machinc can producc
270
1
6
45  bottlcs pcr minutc, so 10 machincs
can producc 45(10) - 450 bottlcs pcr minutc.
crclorc, thc 10 machincs can producc 450(4) -
1,800 bottlcs in 4 minutcs.
e correct answer is B.
1 2 1 2 0
Æ B C D E
ZZ. 0l the hve coord|nates assoc|ated w|th po|nts A, ß, L,
0, and L on the number ||ne above, wh|ch has the
¿reatest abso|ute va|ue'
|/ì A
|Bì ß
|Cì L
|0ì 0
|Lì L
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c absolutc valuc ol a numbcr x is thc distancc
bctwccn x and 0 on thc numbcr linc. Point Æ is
larthcst lrom 0 and thus its coordinatc has thc
grcatcst absolutc valuc.
e correct answer is A.
Z3. ll n |s a pr|me number ¿reater than 3, what |s the
rema|nder when n
Z
|s d|v|ded by ìZ '
|/ì C
|Bì ì
|Cì Z
|0ì 3
|Lì o
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c simplcst way to solvc this problcm is to
choosc a primc numbcr grcatcr than 3 and dividc
194
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
its squarc by 12 to scc what thc rcmaindcr is. For
cxamplc, il n - 5, thcn n
2
- 25, and thc rcmaindcr
is 1 whcn 25 is dividcd by 12. A sccond primc
numbcr can bc uscd to chcck thc rcsult. For
cxamplc, il n - 7, thcn n
2
- 49, and thc rcmaindcr
is 1 whcn 49 is dividcd by 12. 8ccausc only onc ol
thc answcr choiccs can bc corrcct, thc rcmaindcr
must bc 1.
For thc morc mathcmatically inclincd, considcr
thc rcmaindcr whcn cach primc numbcr n grcatcr
c rcmaindcr cannot bc 0
bccausc that would imply that n is divisiblc by 6,
which is impossiblc sincc n is a primc numbcr.
c rcmaindcr cannot bc 2 or 4 bccausc that
would imply that n is cvcn, which is impossiblc
sincc n c
rcmaindcr cannot bc 3 bccausc that would imply
that n is divisiblc by 3, which is impossiblc sincc
n crclorc,
thc only possiblc rcmaindcrs whcn a primc
numbcr n grcatcr than 3 is dividcd by 6 arc 1
us, n has thc lorm 6q ÷ 1 or 6q ÷ 5,
whcrc q is an intcgcr, and, thcrclorc, n
2
has thc
lorm 36q
2
÷ 12q ÷ 1 - 12(3q
2
÷ q) ÷ 1 or
36q
2
÷ 60q ÷ 25 - 12(3q
2
÷ 5q ÷ 2) ÷ 1. !n cithcr
casc, n
2
has a rcmaindcr ol 1 whcn dividcd by 12.
e correct answer is B.
Z4.
ì
ì
ì
3
+

-

ì
ì
ì
Z
+

=
|/ì -
ì
3
|Bì -
ì
b
|Cì -
ì
ìZ
|0ì
ì
ìZ
|Lì
ì
3
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:

-
-
-

-

-

1
12
e correct answer is D.
y
x
5 O
5
!
Zo. ln the h¿ure above, the coord|nates ol po|nt \ are
|/ì |-/,oì
|Bì |-o,/ì
|Cì |o,/ì
|0ì |/,oì
|Lì |/,-oì
Geometry Coordinate geometry
c x-coordinatc ol ! is 7, and thc y-coordinatc
ol ! us, thc coordinatcs, (x,y), ol ! arc
(7,5).
e correct answer is E.
195
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Zb. / rope 4C leet |on¿ |s cut |nto two p|eces. ll one p|ece
|s ìß leet |on¿er than the other, what |s the |en¿th, |n
leet, ol the shorter p|ece'
|/ì 9
|Bì ìì
|Cì ìß
|0ì ZZ
|Lì Z9
AIgebra first-degree equations
8uild an cquation to cxprcss thc givcn
inlormation and solvc lor thc answcr.
Lct x - lcngth ol thc shortcr piccc ol ropc in lcct.
cn x ÷ 18 - lcngth ol thc longcr piccc ol ropc
in lcct.
us x ÷ (x ÷ 18) - 40 is thc cntirc lcngth ol thc
ropc in lcct.
2x ÷ 18 - 40 combinc likc tcrms
2x - 22 subtract 18 lrom both sidcs
x - 11 dividc both sidcs by 2
e correct answer is B.
Z/. / student's avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì test score on
4 tests |s /ß. what must be the student's score on a
oth test lor the student's avera¿e score on the o tests
to be ßC '
|/ì ßC
|Bì ßZ
|Cì ß4
|0ì ßb
|Lì ßß
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c avcragc ol thc studcnt's nrst 4 tcst scorcs is
78, so thc sum ol thc nrst 4 tcst scorcs is 4(78) -
312. !l x rcprcscnts thc nlth tcst scorc, thcn thc
sum ol all 5 tcst scorcs is 312 ÷ x and thc avcragc
ol all 5 tcst scorcs is
312
5
+ x
. 8ut thc avcragc ol
all 5 tcst scorcs is 80 so

312
5
+ x

- 80
312 ÷ x - 400
x - 88
e correct answer is E.
Zß. 1he avera¿e d|stance between the 3un and a certa|n
p|anet |s approx|mate|y Z.3 × ìC
ì4
|nches. wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ |s c|osest to the avera¿e d|stance between
the 3un and the p|anet, |n k||ometers' |ì k||ometer |s
approx|mate|y 3.9 × ìC
4
|nches.ì
|/ì /.ì × ìC
ß
|Bì o.9 × ìC
9
|Cì ì.b × ìC
ìC
|0ì ì.b × ìC
ìì
|Lì o.9 × ìC
ìì
Arithmetic Measurement conversion
Convcrt to kilomctcrs and thcn cstimatc.
(2.3 × 10
14
in)

-

km
-
2 3
3 9
.
.
× 10
14 4
km
2
4
× 10
10
- 0.5 × 10
10
- 5 × 10
9
e correct answer is B.
Z9. ll the quot|ent
a
b
|s pos|t|ve, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must be true'
|/ì a > C
|Bì b > C
|Cì ab > C
|0ì a - b > C
|Lì a + b > C
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
!l thc quoticnt
a
b
is positivc, thcn cithcr a and b
arc both positivc, or a and b arc both ncgativc.
196
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
A a - 1 and b - 1 show it N¡¡Ð NÒT 8¡
TRU¡ that a ~ 0.
8 a - 1 and b - 1 show it N¡¡Ð NÒT 8¡
TRU¡ that b ~ 0.
c condition that ab is positivc is cxactly
thc samc condition that
a
b
us,
it MUST 8¡ TRU¡ that ab ~ 0.
Ð a - 1 and b - 2 show it N¡¡Ð NÒT 8¡
TRU¡ that a b ~ 0.
¡ a - 1 and b - 1 show it N¡¡Ð NÒT 8¡
TRU¡ that a ÷ b ~ 0.
e correct answer is C.
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
3C. 1he dots on the ¿raph above |nd|cate the we|¿hts and
lue| elhc|ency rat|n¿s lor ZC cars. How many ol the
cars we|¿h more than Z,oCC pounds and a|so ¿et
more than ZZ m||es per ¿a||on'
|/ì 3
|Bì o
|Cì ß
|0ì ìC
|Lì ì ì
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and tabIes
28
32
24
20
20 25 30
Vcight
(hundrcds ol pounds)
c only dots on thc graph that mcct thc
conditions ol thc problcm arc thosc to thc right
ol 25 (that is, thc car has a wcight in cxccss ol
2,500 pounds) and abovc 22 (that is, thc car has a
lucl clncicncy ovcr 22 milcs pcr gallon) as shown.
e correct answer is B.
3ì. How many m|nutes does |t take John to type y words |l
he types at the rate ol x words per m|nute'
|/ì
x
y
|Bì
y
x
|Cì xy
|0ì
bCx
y
|Lì
y
bCx
AIgebra first-degree equations
Lct m rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol minutcs it takcs
John to typc y words. !n this ratc problcm, thc
numbcr ol words typcd - (typing ratc)(timc).
us, y - xm, or m -
y
x
.
e correct answer is B.
197
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
3Z. | ì| ì | ì| ì ìb ZC ß 3Z
|/ì 4 ZC
|Bì Z4
|Cì Zo
|0ì 4 ZC ß Z 
|Lì 3Z
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
c lollowing
is onc way to lcsscn thc amount ol arithmctic
computation.

16 20 8 32
( )( )
+
( )( )

-

16 20 16 16
( )( )
+
( )( )

-

16 20 16 ( ) + ( )
- 16 20 16 +
- 4 36
- (4)(6)
- 24
e correct answer is B.
150
º
O
33. ll U |s the center ol the c|rc|e above, what lract|on ol
the c|rcu|ar re¿|on |s shaded'
|/ì
ì
ìZ
|Bì
ì
9
|Cì
ì
b
|0ì
ì
4
|Lì
ì
3
Geometry CircIes and area
\crtical anglcs arc congrucnt, so 150´ ÷ 150´ -
300´ ol thc circlc is not shadcd. Sincc thcrc arc
360´ in a circlc, this makcs 360´ 300´ - 60´ ol
c lraction ol thc circular
rcgion that is shadcd is thus -
60
360
1
6
 .
e correct answer is C.
34. ll Juan takes ìì seconds to run y yards, how many
seconds w||| |t take h|m to run x yards at the same
rate'
|/ì
ììx
y
|Bì
ììy
x
|Cì
x
ììy
|0ì
ìì
xy
|Lì
xy
ìì
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Juan's running ratc can bc cxprcsscd as
y
11
yards
pcr sccond. Usc this valuc in thc lormula
distancc - (ratc)(timc), lctting t cqual thc timc in
scconds that it will takc Juan to run thc distancc
ol x yards:
x -
y
11
t distancc - (ratc)(timc)

11 x
y
- t solvc lor t by multiplying both sidcs
by
11
y
e correct answer is A.
3o. John has ìC pa|rs ol matched socks. ll he |oses
/ |nd|v|dua| socks, what |s the ¿reatest number ol
pa|rs ol matched socks he can have |elt'
|/ì /
|Bì b
|Cì o
|0ì 4
|Lì 3
198
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Ðctcrminc nrst thc lowcst numbcr ol pairs ol
matchcd socks that can bc madc lrom thc 7
c lowcst numbcr ol pairs that
7 individual socks can comc lrom is 3 lull pairs
c grcatcst
numbcr ol pairs ol matchcd socks John can havc
lclt is thcrclorc 10 4 - 6 lully matchcd pairs.
e correct answer is B.
3b. what |s the |owest pos|t|ve |nte¿er that |s d|v|s|b|e by
each ol the |nte¿ers ì throu¿h /, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì 4ZC
|Bì ß4C
|Cì ì,ZbC
|0ì Z,oZC
|Lì o,C4C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
A numbcr that is divisiblc by thc intcgcrs lrom 1
through 7 inclusivc must havc 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7
c lowcst positivc intcgcr will havc
c lowcst common
multiplc ol 2, 3, 4, and 6 is 12, and 5 and 7 arc
primc, so thc lowcst positivc intcgcr that is
divisiblc by cach ol thc intcgcrs 1 through 7
inclusivc is 12(5)(7) - 420.
e correct answer is A.
3/.
=
|/ì -4
|Bì -C.Zo
|Cì C.Zo
|0ì C./o
|Lì 4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:

-
-
1
4
- 4
e correct answer is A.
3ß. ll , then
ì o
C Z
o
.
. 
 
x
x
|/ì -3./
|Bì C.ì
|Cì C.3
|0ì C.o
|Lì Z.ß
AIgebra first-degree equations
Vork thc problcm to solvc lor x.
1 5
0 2
5
.
. 

x
1.5 - 1 ÷ 5x multiply both sidcs by 0.2 ÷ x
0.5 - 5x subtract 1 lrom both sidcs
0.1 - x dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is B.
2 3
x
1
2
1
1 1
y
Q(3,2)
P
O
39. ln the h¿ure above, the po|nt on se¿ment lÇ that |s
tw|ce as lar lrom l as lrom Ç |s
|/ì |3,ìì
|Bì |Z,ìì
|Cì |Z,-ìì
|0ì |ì.o,C.oì
|Lì |ì,Cì
Geometry Coordinate geometry
Òn a scgmcnt, a point that is twicc as lar lrom
onc cnd as thc othcr is
1
3
thc distancc lrom onc
199
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
c points (0,1), (1,0), (2,1), and (3,2) arc
on scgmcnt PQ, and thcy dividc thc scgmcnt into
thrcc intcrvals ol cqual lcngth as shown in thc
ngurc bclow.
Q(3,2)
y
1
2
1
1
(1,0)
1 2 3 x
O
(2,1)
P(0,1)
Notc that thc point (2,1) is twicc as lar lrom
P (0,1) as lrom Q (3,2) and also that it is
1
3
thc
distancc lrom Q.
e correct answer is B.
4C. ll n |s an |nte¿er, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must be even'
|/ì n + ì
|Bì n + Z
|Cì Zn
|0ì Zn + ì
|Lì n
Z
Arithmetic Properties o! integers
A quick look at thc answcr choiccs rcvcals thc
cxprcssion 2n in answcr choicc C. 2n is a multiplc
ol 2 and hcncc must bc cvcn.
Sincc only onc answcr choicc can bc corrcct, thc
othcr answcr choiccs nccd not bc chcckcd.
Howcvcr, lor complctcncss:
A n ÷ 1 is odd il n is cvcn and cvcn il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n ÷ 1 must bc
cvcn.
8 n ÷ 2 is cvcn il n is cvcn and odd il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n ÷ 2 must bc
cvcn.
Ð 2n ÷ 1 is odd whcthcr n is cvcn or odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that 2n ÷ 1 must bc
cvcn.
¡ n
2
is cvcn il n is cvcn and odd il n is odd.
crclorc, it is not truc that n
2
must bc cvcn.
e correct answer is C.
4ì. ll 4 |s one so|ut|on ol the equat|on x
Z
+ 3x + k = ìC,
where k |s a constant, what |s the other so|ut|on'
|/ì -/
|Bì -4
|Cì -3
|0ì ì
|Lì b
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
!l 4 is onc solution ol thc cquation, thcn substitutc
4 lor x and solvc lor k.
x
2
÷ 3x ÷ k - 10
(4)
2
÷ 3(4) ÷ k - 10
16 ÷ 12 ÷ k - 10
28 ÷ k - 10
k - 18
cn, substitutc 18 lor k and solvc lor x.
x
2
÷ 3x 18 - 10
x
2
÷ 3x 28 - 0
(x ÷ 7)(x 4) - 0
x - 7, x - 4
e correct answer is A.
4Z. ll
a b
c d
= ad - bc lor a|| numbers a, b, c, and d,
then =
|/ì -ZZ
|Bì -Z
|Cì Z
|0ì /
|Lì ZZ
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Using thc givcn pattcrn, with a - 3, b - 5, c - 2,
and d - 4, givcs
3 5
2 4
- (3)(4) (5)(2) -
12 ÷ 10 - 22.
e correct answer is E.
200
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
43. 1he sum
/
ß
+
ì
9
|s between
|/ì
ì
Z
and
3
4
|Bì
3
4
and ì
|Cì ì and ì
ì
4
|0ì ì
ì
4
and ì
ì
Z
|Lì ì
ì
Z
and Z
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Sincc
1
9
·
1
8
,
7
8
÷
1
9
·
7
8
÷
1
8
- 1, and answcr
choiccs C, Ð, and ¡ can bc climinatcd. Sincc
7
8
~
6
8
-
3
4
,
7
8
÷
1
9

~
3
4
, and answcr choicc A
us,
3
4
·
7
8
÷
1
9
· 1.
e correct answer is B.
44. ll x = ì - 3t and y = Zt - ì, then lor what va|ue ol t
does x = y '
|/ì
o
Z
|Bì
3
Z
|Cì
Z
3
|0ì
Z
o
|Lì C
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations
Sincc it is givcn that x - y, sct thc cxprcssions lor
x and y cqual to cach othcr and solvc lor t.
1 - 3t - 2t - 1
2 - 5t add 3t and 1 to both sidcs, thcn

2
5
- t dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is D.
4o. ì - =
|/ì
b
o
|Bì
/
b
|Cì
b
/
|0ì
o
b
|Lì C
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc arithmctic calculations as lollows:
1 - 1
- 1
- 1 ÷
1
6
-
7
6
e correct answer is B.
4b.
|C.3ì
o
|C.3ì
3
=
|/ì C.CCì
|Bì C.Cì
|Cì C.C9
|0ì C.9
|Lì ì.C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Vork thc problcm.
( . )
( . )
( . ) ( . ) .
0 3
0 3
0 3 0 3 0 09
5
3
5 3 2
  
e correct answer is C.
4/. ln a hort|cu|tura| exper|ment, ZCC seeds were p|anted
|n p|ot l and 3CC were p|anted |n p|ot ll. ll o/ percent
ol the seeds |n p|ot l ¿erm|nated and 4Z percent ol the
seeds |n p|ot ll ¿erm|nated, what percent ol the tota|
number ol p|anted seeds ¿erm|nated'
201
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
|/ì 4o.oº
|Bì 4b.oº
|Cì 4ß.Cº
|0ì 49.oº
|Lì oì.Cº
Arithmetic Percents
c total numbcr ol sccds that gcrminatcd was
200 (0.57) ÷ 300 (0.42) - 114 ÷ 126 - 240.
8ccausc this was out ol 500 sccds plantcd, thc
pcrccnt ol thc total plantcd that gcrminatcd was
240
500
- 0.48, or 48.0º.
e correct answer is C.
A
ß
L
L 0
Note: l|¿ure not drawn to sca|e.
4ß. ln the h¿ure above, |l Aß [[ LL, LL = 0L, and y = 4o,
then x =
|/ì 4o
|Bì bC
|Cì b/.o
|0ì ììZ.o
|Lì ì3o
Geometry AngIe measure in degrees,
TriangIes
A
ß
L
L 0
Note: l|¿ure not drawn to sca|e.
Sincc ÆB ]] CE, B and ECD arc
corrcsponding anglcs and, thcrclorc, havc thc
samc mcasurc. Sincc CE - DE, CED is isoscclcs
so D and ECD c
anglcs ol CED havc dcgrcc mcasurcs x, x, and y,
so 2x ÷ y - 180. Sincc y - 45,
2x ÷ y - 180
2x ÷ 45 - 180
2x - 135
x - 67.5
e correct answer is C.
49. How many |nte¿ers n are there such that
ì < on + o < Zo '
|/ì l|ve
|Bì lour
|Cì 1hree
|0ì 1wo
|Lì 0ne
AIgebra InequaIities
!solatc thc variablc in thc incqualitics to
dctcrminc thc rangc within which n lics.
1  5n  5  25
-4  5n  20 subtract 5 lrom all thrcc valucs
-
4
5
 n  4 dividc all thrcc valucs by 5
crc arc lour intcgcrs bctwccn -
4
5
and 4, namcly
0, 1, 2, and 3.
e correct answer is B.
oC. ll y |s an |nte¿er, then the |east poss|b|e va|ue ol
[Z3 - oy[ |s
|/ì ì
|Bì Z
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
Arithmetic AbsoIute vaIue, Operations vith
integers
Sincc y is an intcgcr, 23 5y is also an intcgcr.
c task is to nnd thc intcgcr y lor which
]23 5y] is thc lcast. !l y y 0, and
202
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
23 5y 23. Òn thc othcr hand, il y 0, 5y
and 23 5y crclorc, thc lcast possiblc
valuc ol ]23 5y] occurs at a nonncgativc valuc ol
y. From thc chart bclow, it is clcar that thc lcast
possiblc intcgcr valuc ol ]23 5y] is 2, which
occurs whcn y - 5.
y ]23 5y]
0 23
1 18
2 13
3 8
4 3
5 2
6 7
7 12
Altcrnativcly, sincc ]23 5| O, tHe minimum
possible real value oi |23 - 5| is O. THe integer
value oi  ior wHicH |23 - 5| is least is tHe integer
closest to tHe solution oi tHe equation 23 - 5 = O.
THe solution is  =
23
5
= 4.G and tHe integer
closest to 4.G is 5.
e correct answer is B.
oì. / /
Z

 
=
|/ì 9ß
|Bì 49
|Cì Zß
|0ì Zì
|Lì ì4
Arithmetic Operations vith radicaI
expressions
Simplily thc cxprcssion.

e correct answer is C.
oZ. ln a certa|n popu|at|on, there are 3 t|mes as many
peop|e a¿ed Zì or under as there are peop|e over Zì.
1he rat|o ol those Zì or under to the tota| popu|at|on |s
|/ì ì to Z
|Bì ì to 3
|Cì ì to 4
|0ì Z to 3
|Lì 3 to 4
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x cn 3x
rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol pcoplc 21 or undcr,
and x ÷ 3x - 4x rcprcscnts thc total population.
us, thc ratio ol thosc 21 or undcr to thc total
population is
3
4
3
4
x
x
 , or 3 to 4.
e correct answer is E.
(2x)
(3x)
(y ÷30)
o3. ln the h¿ure above, the va|ue ol y |s
|/ì b
|Bì ìZ
|Cì Z4
|0ì 3b
|Lì 4Z
Geometry AngIe measure in degrees
c sum ol thc mcasurcs ol anglcs that lorm a
straight linc cquals 180. From this, 2x ÷ 3x - 180
so 5x - 180 and thus x cn, bccausc
vcrtical anglcs arc congrucnt, thcir mcasurcs in
is can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor y:
2x - y ÷ 30
2(36) - y ÷ 30 substitutc 36 lor x
72 - y ÷ 30 simplily
42 - y subtract 30 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
203
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
o4. ßC + ìZo =
|/ì 9 o
|Bì ZC o
|Cì 4ì o
|0ì ZCo
|Lì ìCC
Arithmetic Operations vith radicaI
expressions
Rcwritc cach radical in thc lorm a b , whcrc a
and b arc positivc intcgcrs and b is as small as
possiblc, and thcn add.

80 ÷ 125 - 16 5 ( ) ÷ 25 5 ( )
- 16 5
( )( )
÷ 25 5
( )( )
- 4 5 ÷ 5 5
- 9 5
e correct answer is A.
oo. be||y and Chr|s packed severa| boxes w|th books.
ll Chr|s packed bC percent ol the tota| number ol
boxes, what was the rat|o ol the number ol boxes
be||y packed to the number ol boxes Chr|s packed'
|/ì ì to b
|Bì ì to 4
|Cì Z to o
|0ì 3 to o
|Lì Z to 3
Arithmetic Percents
!l Chris packcd 60 pcrccnt ol thc boxcs, thcn
Kclly packcd 100 60 - 40 pcrccnt ol thc boxcs.
c ratio ol thc numbcr ol boxcs Kclly packcd to
thc numbcr Chris packcd is
40
60
2
3
º
º
. 
e correct answer is E.
ob. 0l the lo||ow|n¿, wh|ch |s the c|osest approx|mat|on
ol
oC.Z  C.49
ì99.ß
'
|/ì
ì
ìC
|Bì
ì
ß

|Cì
ì
4

|0ì
o
4

|Lì
Zo
Z

Arithmetic Estimation
Simplily thc cxprcssion using approximations.
e correct answer is B.
o/. 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol ìC, 3C, and oC |s
o more than the avera¿e ol ZC, 4C, and
|/ì ìo
|Bì Zo
|Cì 3o
|0ì 4o
|Lì oo
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Using thc lormula
sum ol n valucs
n
- avcragc,
thc givcn inlormation about thc nrst sct ol
numbcrs can bc cxprcsscd in thc cquation
10 ÷ 30 ÷ 50
3
- 30 . From thc givcn inlormation
thcn, thc avcragc ol thc sccond sct ol numbcrs
is 30 5 - 25. Lctting x rcprcscnt thc missing
numbcr, sct up thc cquation lor calculating thc
avcragc lor thc sccond sct ol numbcrs, and solvc
lor x.
204
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition

20 ÷ 40 ÷ x
3
- 25

60 ÷ x
3
- 25 simplily
60 ÷ x - 75 multiply both sidcs by 3
x - 15 subtract 60 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is A.
y = kx + 3
oß. ln the equat|on above, k |s a constant. ll y = ì/ when
x = Z, what |s the va|ue ol y when x = 4 '
|/ì 34
|Bì 3ì
|Cì ì4
|0ì ìì
|Lì /
AIgebra first-degree equations
!l y - kx ÷ 3 and y - 17 whcn x - 2, thcn
17 - 2k ÷ 3
14 - 2k
7 - k
crclorc, y - 7x ÷ 3. Vhcn x - 4, y - 7(4) ÷ 3 - 31.
e correct answer is B.
o9. Lach week, Harry |s pa|d x do||ars per hour lor the hrst
3C hours and ì.ox do||ars lor each add|t|ona| hour
worked that week. Lach week, James |s pa|d x do||ars
per hour lor the hrst 4C hours and Zx do||ars lor each
add|t|ona| hour worked that week. last week James
worked a tota| ol 4ì hours. ll Harry and James were
pa|d the same amount |ast week, how many hours d|d
Harry work |ast week'
|/ì 3o
|Bì 3b
|Cì 3/
|0ì 3ß
|Lì 39
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Harry's pay, H, is givcn by
H -

and Jamcs's pay, J, is givcn by
J -
Jamcs workcd 41 hours, lor which his pay was
40x ÷ 2x(41 40) - 42x. Harry was paid thc samc
amount as Jamcs, so Harry's pay was also 42x.
us,
42x - 30x ÷ 1.5x(h 30)
12x - 1.5x(h 30)
8 - h 30
38 - h
e correct answer is D.
bC. / ¿|ass was h||ed w|th ìC ounces ol water, and
C.Cì ounce ol the water evaporated each day dur|n¿
a ZC·day per|od. what percent ol the or|¿|na| amount
ol water evaporated dur|n¿ th|s per|od'
|/ì C.CCZº
|Bì C.CZº
|Cì C.Zº
|0ì Zº
|Lì ZCº
Arithmetic Percents
Sincc 0.01 ouncc ol watcr cvaporatcd cach day
lor 20 days, a total ol 20(0.01) - 0.2 ouncc
cn, to nnd thc pcrccnt ol thc
original amount ol watcr that cvaporatcd, dividc
thc amount that cvaporatcd by thc original
amount and multiply by 100 to convcrt thc
us,
0 2
10
.
× 100 -
0.02 × 100 or 2º.
e correct answer is D.
205
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
bì. / ¿|ucose so|ut|on conta|ns ìo ¿rams ol ¿|ucose
per ìCC cub|c cent|meters ol so|ut|on. ll 4o cub|c
cent|meters ol the so|ut|on were poured |nto an
empty conta|ner, how many ¿rams ol ¿|ucose wou|d
be |n the conta|ner'
|/ì 3.CC
|Bì o.CC
|Cì o.oC
|0ì b.oC
|Lì b./o
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc numbcr ol grams ol glucosc in thc
c proportion
comparing thc glucosc in thc 45 cubic ccntimctcrs
to thc givcn inlormation about thc 15 grams ol
glucosc in thc cntirc 100 cubic ccntimctcrs ol
solution can bc cxprcsscd as
x
45
15
100
 , and thus
100x - 675 or x - 6.75.
e correct answer is E.
Q
F
S P
140
º 2y
º
x
º
bZ. ln the h¿ure above, |l lÇRS |s a para||e|o¿ram,
then y - x =
|/ì 3C
|Bì 3o
|Cì 4C
|0ì /C
|Lì ìCC
Geometry PoIygons
Sincc PQFS is a parallclogram, thc lollowing
must bc truc:
140 - 2y corrcsponding anglcs
arc congrucnt
2y ÷ x - 180 consccutivc anglcs arc
supplcmcntary (sum - 180)
Solving thc nrst cquation lor y givcs y - 70.
Substituting this into thc sccond cquation givcs
2(70) ÷ x - 180
140 ÷ x - 180
x - 40
us, y x - 70 40 - 30.
e correct answer is A.
b3. ll ì k||ometer |s approx|mate|y C.b m||e, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ best approx|mates the number ol k||ometers
|n Z m||es'
|/ì
ìC
3
|Bì 3
|Cì
b
o

|0ì
ì
3

|Lì
3
ìC

Arithmetic AppIied probIems
3
5
mi, dividc to nnd that
5
3
crclorc,
2
10
3
e correct answer is A.
b4. lucy |nvested SìC,CCC |n a new mutua| lund account
exact|y three years a¿o. 1he va|ue ol the account
|ncreased by ìC percent dur|n¿ the hrst year,
|ncreased by o percent dur|n¿ the second year,
and decreased by ìC percent dur|n¿ the th|rd year.
what |s the va|ue ol the account today'
|/ì SìC,3oC
|Bì SìC,39o
|Cì SìC,oCC
|0ì Sìì,oCC
|Lì SìZ,/Co
206
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ßeviev 12th Edition
Arithmetic Percents
c nrst ycar's incrcasc ol 10 pcrccnt can bc
cxprcsscd as 1.10, thc sccond ycar's incrcasc ol
5 pcrccnt can bc cxprcsscd as 1.05, and thc third
ycar's dccrcasc ol 10 pcrccnt can bc cxprcsscd as
0.90. Multiply thc original valuc ol thc account by
cach ol thcsc ycarly changcs.
10,000(1.10)(1.05)(0.90) - 10,395
e correct answer is B.
bo. / certa|n lru|t stand so|d app|es lor SC./C each and
bananas lor SC.oC each. ll a customer purchased both
app|es and bananas lrom the stand lor a tota| ol
Sb.3C, what tota| number ol app|es and bananas d|d
the customer purchase'
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìì
|Cì ìZ
|0ì ì3
|Lì ì4
AIgebra first-degree equations, Operations
vith integers
!l cach applc sold lor 80.70, cach banana sold lor
80.50, and thc total purchasc pricc was 86.30,
thcn 0.70x ÷ 0.50y - 6.30, whcrc x and y arc
positivc intcgcrs rcprcscnting thc numbcr ol
applcs and bananas, rcspcctivcly, thc customcr
purchascd.
0.70x ÷ 0.50y - 6.30
0.50y - 6.30 0.70x
0.50y - 0.70(9 x)
y -
7
5
(9 x)
Sincc y must bc an intcgcr, 9 x must bc divisiblc
by 5. Furthcrmorc, both x and y must bc positivc
intcgcrs. For x - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, thc
corrcsponding valucs ol 9 x arc 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2,
and 1. Ònly onc ol thcsc, 5, is divisiblc by 5.
crclorc, x - 4 and y -
7
5
(9 4) - 7 and thc
total numbcr ol applcs and bananas thc customcr
purchascd is 4 ÷ 7 - 11.
e correct answer is B.
bb. /t a certa|n schoo|, the rat|o ol the number ol second
¿raders to the number ol lourth ¿raders |s ß to o, and
the rat|o ol the number ol hrst ¿raders to the number ol
second ¿raders |s 3 to 4. ll the rat|o ol the number ol
th|rd ¿raders to the number ol lourth ¿raders |s 3 to Z,
what |s the rat|o ol the number ol hrst ¿raders to the
number ol th|rd ¿raders'
|/ì ìb to ìo
|Bì 9 to o
|Cì o to ìb
|0ì o to 4
|Lì 4 to o
Arithmetic ßatio and proportion
!l F, S, T, and F rcprcscnt thc numbcr ol nrst,
sccond, third, and lourth gradcrs, rcspcctivcly,
thcn thc givcn ratios arc: (i)
S
F
=
8
5
, (ii)
F
S
=
3
4
,
and (iii)
T
F
=
3
2
c dcsircd ratio is
F
T
. From
(i), S -
8
5
F, and lrom (ii), F -
3
4
S. Combining
thcsc rcsults, F -
3
4
S -
3
4
-
6
5
F. From (iii),
T -
3
2
F cn
F
T
-
6
5
3
2
F
F
-

-
4
5
. So, thc
ratio ol thc numbcr ol nrst gradcrs to thc numbcr
ol third gradcrs is 4 to 5.
e correct answer is E.
A = ¦Z, 3, 4, o¦
ß = ¦4, o, b, /, ߦ
b/. 1wo |nte¿ers w||| be random|y se|ected lrom the sets
above, one |nte¿er lrom set A and one |nte¿er lrom set
ß. what |s the probab|||ty that the sum ol the two
|nte¿ers w||| equa| 9 '
|/ì C.ìo
|Bì C.ZC
|Cì C.Zo
|0ì C.3C
|Lì C.33
207
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic, AIgebra ProbabiIity,
Concepts o! sets
crcnt pairs ol numbcrs,
onc lrom sct Æ and onc lrom sct B is (4)(5) - 20.
Òl thcsc 20 pairs ol numbcrs, thcrc arc 4 possiblc
pairs that sum to 9: 2 and 7, 3 and 6, 4 and 5, and
us, thc probability that thc sum ol thc
two intcgcrs will bc 9 is cqual to
e correct answer is B.
bß. /t a certa|n |nstant |n t|me, the number ol cars, N,
trave||n¿ on a port|on ol a certa|n h|¿hway can be
est|mated by the lormu|a
N =
where L |s the number ol |anes |n the same d|rect|on,
d |s the |en¿th ol the port|on ol the h|¿hway, |n leet,
and s |s the avera¿e speed ol the cars, |n m||es per
hour. Based on the lormu|a, what |s the est|mated
number ol cars trave||n¿ on a ·m||e port|on ol the
h|¿hway |l the h|¿hway has Z |anes |n the same
d|rect|on and the avera¿e speed ol the cars |s 4C
m||es per hour' |o,ZßC leet = ì m||eì
|/ì ìoo
|Bì 9b
|Cì ßC
|0ì 4ß
|Lì Z4
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc L - 2, d - (5,280), and s - 40 into thc
givcn lormula and calculatc thc valuc lor N.
N -
-
-
-
-
- 48
e correct answer is D.
4CC,CCC
3CC,CCC
ZCC,CCC
ìCC,CCC
C
ì99C ì99Z ì994 ì99b ì99ß ZCCC
year
N0lBLb 0l 3HlllLN13 0l l/N0l/C10bL0 H0lL3
lN 1HL 0Nl1L0 31/1L3, ì99C-ZCCC
b9. /ccord|n¿ to the chart shown, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s
c|osest to the med|an annua| number ol sh|pments ol
manulactured homes |n the 0n|ted 3tates lor the
years lrom ì99C to ZCCC, |nc|us|ve'
|/ì ZoC,CCC
|Bì ZßC,CCC
|Cì 3ìC,CCC
|0ì 3Zo,CCC
|Lì 34C,CCC
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and
tabIes, 5tatistics
From thc chart, thc approximatc numbcrs ol
shipmcnts arc as lollows:
Ycar Numbcr ol shipmcnts
1990 190,000
1991 180,000
1992 210,000
1993 270,000
1994 310,000
1995 350,000
1996 380,000
1997 370,000
1998 390,000
1999 360,000
2000 270,000
Since tHere are 11 entries in tHe table and 11 is
an odd number, tHe median oi tHe numbers oi
208
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ßeviev 12th Edition
sHipments is tHe GtH entry wHen tHe numbers oi
sHipments are arranged in order irom least to
greatest. In order, irom least to greatest, tHe first
G entries are:
Numbcr ol shipmcnts
180,000
190,000
210,000
270,000
270,000
310,000
THe GtH entry is 31O,OOO.
e correct answer is C.
/C. ll and y x =
|/ì
Z
3
|Bì
o
3
|Cì
/
3

|0ì ì
|Lì 4
AIgebra first-degree equations
Sincc y
and solvc lor x as lollows:

dividc both sidcs by y
3x - 5 - 2 multiply both sidcs by 2
3x - 7 solvc lor x
x -
7
3
e correct answer is C.
/ì. ll x + o > Z and x - 3 < /, the va|ue ol x must be
between wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ pa|rs ol numbers'
|/ì -3 and ìC
|Bì -3 and 4
|Cì Z and /
|0ì 3 and 4
|Lì 3 and ìC
AIgebra InequaIities
!solatc x in cach givcn incquality. Sincc x  5  2,
thcn x  3. Sincc x 3  7, thcn x  us,
3  x  10, which mcans thc valuc ol x must bc
bctwccn 3 and 10.
e correct answer is A.
/Z. / ¿ym c|ass can be d|v|ded |nto ß teams w|th an equa|
number ol p|ayers on each team or |nto ìZ teams w|th
an equa| number ol p|ayers on each team. what |s the
|owest poss|b|e number ol students |n the c|ass'
|/ì ZC
|Bì Z4
|Cì 3b
|0ì 4ß
|Lì 9b
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c lowcst valuc that can bc dividcd cvcnly by
8 and 12 is thcir lcast common multiplc (LCM).
Sincc 8  2
3
and 12  2
2
(3), thc LCM is
2
3
(3)  24.
e correct answer is B.
/3. ll r = C.34o, s = |C.34oì
Z
, and t = C 34o . , wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ |s the correct order|n¿ ol r, s, and t '
|/ì r < s < t
|Bì r < t < s
|Cì s < t < r
|0ì s < r < t
|Lì t < r < s
Arithmetic Order
Givcn that r - 0.345, s - (0.345)
2
, and t - 0 345 . ,
s and t can bc cxprcsscd in tcrms ol r as r
2
and
r
1
2
, rcspcctivcly. 8ccausc 0 · r · 1, thc valuc ol
209
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
r
x
dccrcascs as x incrcascs. For cxamplc, 1 · 2, but
1
4
~ crclorc, sincc
1
2
· 1 · 2, r
1
2
~ r ~ r
2
,
and so t ~ r ~ s or s · r · t.
e correct answer is D.
/4. / tota| ol n trucks and cars are parked |n a |ot. ll the
number ol cars |s
ì
4
the number ol trucks, and
Z
3
ol
the trucks are p|ckups, how many p|ckups, |n terms ol
n, are parked |n the |ot'
|/ì
ì
b
n
|Bì
o
ìZ
n
|Cì
ì
Z
n
|0ì
ß
ìo
n
|Lì
ìì
ìZ
n
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
!t is givcn that n is thc numbcr ol trucks and cars
parkcd in thc lot and thc numbcr ol cars is
1
4
thc
numbcr ol trucks, so il t rcprcscnts thc numbcr
ol trucks and c rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cars,
n - c ÷ t and c -
1
4
t. Combining thcsc two
cquations givcs n -
1
4
t ÷ t -
5
4
t. !l p rcprcscnts
thc numbcr ol pickups parkcd in thc lot, thcn
p -
2
3
t. Sincc n -
5
4
t, or cquivalcntly t -
4
5
n,
thcn p -
2
3
t -
2
3
-
8
15
n.
e correct answer is D.
/o. /t |east
Z
3
ol the 4C members ol a comm|ttee must
vote |n lavor ol a reso|ut|on lor |t to pass. what |s the
¿reatest number ol members who cou|d vote a¿a|nst
the reso|ut|on and st||| have |t pass'
|/ì ì9
|Bì ì/
|Cì ìb
|0ì ì4
|Lì ì3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!l at lcast
2
3
ol thc mcmbcrs must votc in lavor ol
a rcsolution, thcn no morc than
1
3
ol thc mcmbcrs
can bc voting against it. Òn this 40mcmbcr
committcc,
1
3
(40) - 13
1
3
, which mcans that
no morc than 13 mcmbcrs can votc against thc
rcsolution and still havc it pass.
e correct answer is E.
/b. ln the Johnsons' month|y bud¿et, the do||ar amounts
a||ocated to househo|d expenses, lood, and
m|sce||aneous |tems are |n the rat|o o:Z:ì, respect|ve|y.
ll the tota| amount a||ocated to these three cate¿or|es
|s Sì,ßCC, what |s the amount a||ocated to lood'
|/ì S9CC
|Bì S/ZC
|Cì Sb/o
|0ì S4oC
|Lì SZZo
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Sincc thc ratio is 5:2:1, lct 5x bc thc moncy
allocatcd to houschold cxpcnscs, 2x bc thc moncy
allocatcd to lood, and 1x bc thc moncy allocatcd
c givcn inlormation can
thcn bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquation and
solvcd lor x.
5x ÷ 2x ÷ 1x - 81,800
8x - 81,800 combinc likc tcrms
x - 8225 dividc both sidcs by 8
c moncy allocatcd to lood is
2x - 2(8225) - 8450.
e correct answer is D.
210
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ßeviev 12th Edition
//. 1here are 4 more women than men on Centerv|||e's
board ol educat|on. ll there are ìC members on the
board, how many are women'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì b
|0ì /
|Lì ß
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations,
AppIied probIems
Lct m bc thc numbcr ol mcn on thc board and .
bc thc numbcr ol womcn on thc board. According
to thc problcm,
. - m ÷ 4 bccausc thcrc arc 4 morc womcn
than mcn and
. ÷ m - 10 bccausc thc board has a total ol
10 mcmbcrs.
Substituting m ÷ 4 lor . in thc sccond cquation
givcs:
m ÷ m ÷ 4 - 10
2m ÷ 4 - 10 combinc likc tcrms
2m - 6 subtract 4 lrom both sidcs
m - 3 dividc both sidcs by 2
Using thc nrst cquation, . - m ÷ 4 - 3 ÷ 4 - 7
womcn on thc board.
is problcm can also bc solvcd without algcbra
by listing thc (m,.) possibilitics lor . - m ÷ 4.
csc possibilitics arc (0,4), (1,5), (2,6), (3,7), ctc.,
and hcncc thc pair in which m ÷ . - 10 is (3,7).
e correct answer is D.
/ß. leona bou¿ht a ì·year, SìC,CCC cert|hcate ol depos|t
that pa|d |nterest at an annua| rate ol ß percent
compounded sem|annua||y. what was the tota| amount
ol |nterest pa|d on th|s cert|hcate at matur|ty'
|/ì SìC,4b4
|Bì S ßb4
|Cì S ßìb
|0ì S ßCC
|Lì S 4ßC
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Using thc lormula Æ P
r
n
nt
  ( ) , 1 whcrc Æ is
thc amount ol moncy altcr t (1 ycar), P is thc
principal amount invcstcd (810,000), r is thc
annual intcrcst ratc (0.08), and n is thc numbcr
ol timcs compounding occurs annually (2), thc
givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd as lollows
and solvcd lor Æ :
Æ   ( , )
.
( )( )
10 000 1
0 08
2
2 1
Æ  (10,000)(1.04)
2
Æ  (10,000)(1.0816)
Æ  10,816
us, sincc Æ is thc nnal valuc ol thc ccrtincatc,
thc amount ol intcrcst paid at maturity is
810,816 810,000 - 8816.
e correct answer is C.
/9.
C CC3b Z ß
C C4 C ì C CC3
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )
=
|/ì ß4C.C
|Bì ß4.C
|Cì ß.4
|0ì C.ß4
|Lì C.Cß4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
To makc thc calculations lcss tcdious, convcrt thc
dccimals to wholc numbcrs timcs powcrs ol 10 as
lollows:
0 0036 2 8
0 04 0 1 0 003
. .
. . .
( )( )
( )( )( )

-

-

-

211
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
-

-

- (12)(7) × 10
1
- 84 × 10
- 840
e correct answer is A.
ßC. lach|ne / produces bo|ts at a un|lorm rate ol ìZC
every 4C seconds, and lach|ne B produces bo|ts at
a un|lorm rate ol ìCC every ZC seconds. ll the two
mach|nes run s|mu|taneous|y, how many seconds w|||
|t take lor them to produce a tota| ol ZCC bo|ts'
|/ì ZZ
|Bì Zo
|Cì Zß
|0ì 3Z
|Lì ob
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Ðctcrminc thc production ratcs lor cach machinc
scparatcly, and thcn calculatc thcir production
ratc togcthcr.
Ratc ol Machinc A bolts pcr sccond
Ratc ol Machinc
 
120
40
3
88 bolts pcr sccond  
100
20
5
Combincd ratc - 3 ÷ 5 - 8 bolts pcr sccond
8uild an cquation with s - thc numbcr ol scconds
it takcs to producc 200 bolts.
8s - 200 (ratc)(timc) - amount produccd
s - 25 solvc lor s
e correct answer is B.
Amount o! ßacteria Present
1|me /mount
ì:CC l.l. ìC.C ¿rams
4:CC l.l. x ¿rams
/:CC l.l. ì4.4 ¿rams
ßì. 0ata lor a certa|n b|o|o¿y exper|ment are ¿|ven |n
the tab|e above. ll the amount ol bacter|a present
|ncreased by the same lactor dur|n¿ each ol the two
3·hour per|ods shown, how many ¿rams ol bacter|a
were present at 4:CC l.l. '
|/ì ìZ.C
|Bì ìZ.ì
|Cì ìZ.Z
|0ì ìZ.3
|Lì ìZ.4
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers,
5econd-degree equations
Lct f bc thc lactor by which thc amount ol
bactcria prcscnt incrcascd cvcry 3 hours.
cn, lrom thc tablc, 10.0f - x and xf - 14.4.
Substituting 10.0f lor x in thc sccond cquation
givcs
(10.0f )f - 14.4
10.0f
2
- 14.4
f
2
- 1.44
f - 1.2
and thcn x - 10.0(1.2) - 12.0.
e correct answer is A.
ßZ. ll n |s an |nte¿er ¿reater than b, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must be d|v|s|b|e by 3 '
|/ì n|n + ìì|n - 4ì
|Bì n|n + Zì|n - ìì
|Cì n|n + 3ì|n - oì
|0ì n|n + 4ì|n - Zì
|Lì n|n + oì|n - bì
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c casicst and quickcst way to do this problcm is
to choosc an intcgcr grcatcr than 6, such as 7, and
212
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climinatc answcr choiccs in which thc valuc ol thc
cxprcssion is not divisiblc by 3:
A 7(7 ÷ 1)(7 4) - (7)(8)(3), which is divisiblc
by 3, so A cannot bc climinatcd.
8 7(7 ÷ 2)(7 1) - (7)(9)(6), which is divisiblc
by 3, so 8 cannot bc climinatcd.
C 7(7 ÷ 3)(7 5) - (7)(10)(2), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so C can bc climinatcd.
Ð 7(7 ÷ 4)(7 2) - (7)(11)(5), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so Ð can bc climinatcd.
¡ 7(7 ÷ 5)(7 6) - (7)(12)(1), which is divisiblc
by 3, so ¡ cannot bc climinatcd.
Choosc anothcr intcgcr grcatcr than 6, such as 8,
and tcst thc rcmaining answcr choiccs:
A 8(8 ÷ 1)(8 4) - (8)(9)(4), which is divisiblc
by 3, so A cannot bc climinatcd.
8 8(8 ÷ 2)(8 1) - (8)(10)(7), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so 8 can bc climinatcd.
¡ 8(8 ÷ 5)(8 6) - (8)(13)(2), which is not
divisiblc by 3, so ¡ can bc climinatcd.
us, A is thc only answcr choicc that has not
bccn climinatcd.
For thc morc mathcmatically inclincd, il n is
divisiblc by 3, thcn thc cxprcssion in cach answcr
choicc is divisiblc by 3. Assumc, thcn, that n is
not divisiblc by 3. !l thc rcmaindcr whcn n is
dividcd by 3 is 1, thcn n - 3q ÷ 1 lor somc intcgcr
q. All ol thc cxprcssions n 4, n 1, n ÷ 2, and
n ÷ 5 arc divisiblc by 3 |i.c., n 4 - 3q 3 -
3(q 1), n 1 - 3q, n ÷ 2 - 3q ÷ 3 - 3(q ÷ 1),
n ÷ 5 - 3q ÷ 6 - 3(q ÷ 2)|, and nonc ol thc
cxprcssions n 6, n 5, n 2, n ÷ 1, n ÷ 3, and
n
whcn n is dividcd by 3 is 1, only thc cxprcssions
in answcr choiccs A, 8, and ¡ arc divisiblc by 3.
Òn thc othcr hand, il thc rcmaindcr whcn n is
dividcd by 3 is 2, thcn n - 3q ÷ 2 lor somc intcgcr
q. All ol thc cxprcssions n 5, n 2, n ÷ 1, and
n ÷ 4 arc divisiblc by 3 |i.c., n 5 - 3q 3 -
3(q 1), n 2 - 3q, n ÷ 1 - 3q ÷ 3 - 3(q ÷ 1),
n ÷ 4 - 3q ÷ 6 - 3(q ÷ 2)|, and nonc ol thc
cxprcssions n 6, n 4, n 1, n ÷ 2, n ÷ 3, and
n
whcn n is dividcd by 3 is 2, only thc cxprcssions
in answcr choiccs A, C, and Ð arc divisiblc by 3.
Ònly thc cxprcssion in answcr choicc A is
divisiblc by 3 rcgardlcss ol whcthcr n is divisiblc
by 3, has a rcmaindcr ol 1 whcn dividcd by 3, or
has a rcmaindcr ol 2 whcn dividcd by 3.
e correct answer is A.
ß3. 1he tota| cost lor Company / to produce a batch ol
too|s |s SìC,CCC p|us S3 per too|. Lach too| se||s lor
Sß. 1he ¿ross proht earned lrom produc|n¿ and se|||n¿
these too|s |s the tota| |ncome lrom sa|es m|nus the
tota| product|on cost. ll a batch ol ZC,CCC too|s |s
produced and so|d, then Company /'s ¿ross proht per
too| |s
|/ì S3.CC
|Bì S3./o
|Cì S4.oC
|0ì So.CC
|Lì So.oC
Arithmetic AppIied probIems
c total cost to producc 20,000 tools is
c rcvcnuc
rcsulting lrom thc salc ol 20,000 tools is
c gross pront is
8160,000 870,000 - 890,000, and thc gross
pront pcr tool is
890 000
20 000
,
,
- 84.50.
e correct answer is C.
ß4. / dea|er or|¿|na||y bou¿ht ìCC |dent|ca| batter|es at
a tota| cost ol q do||ars. ll each battery was so|d at
oC percent above the or|¿|na| cost per battery, then,
|n terms ol q, lor how many do||ars was each battery
so|d'
|/ì
3q
ZCC
|Bì
3q
Z
|Cì ìoCq
|0ì
q
ìCC
+ oC
|Lì
ìoC
q
213
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
AIgebra factoring and 5impIi!ying aIgebraic
expressions
Sincc 100 battcrics cost q dollars, division by 100
shows that 1 battcry costs
q
100
cn, sincc
thc sclling pricc is 50 pcrccnt abovc thc original
cost pcr battcry, thc sclling pricc ol cach battcry
can bc cxprcsscd as
e correct answer is A.
ßo. ln an |ncreas|n¿ sequence ol ìC consecut|ve |nte¿ers,
the sum ol the hrst o |nte¿ers |s obC. what |s the sum
ol the |ast o |nte¿ers |n the sequence'
|/ì oßo
|Bì oßC
|Cì o/o
|0ì o/C
|Lì obo
AIgebra first-degree equations
Lct thc nrst 5 consccutivc intcgcrs bc rcprcscntcd
by x, x ÷ 1, x ÷ 2, x ÷ 3, and x cn,
sincc thc sum ol thc intcgcrs is 560,
x ÷ (x ÷ 1) ÷ (x ÷ 2) ÷ (x ÷ 3) ÷ (x us,
5x ÷ 10 - 560
5x - 550 solvc lor x
x - 110
c nrst intcgcr in thc scqucncc is 110, so thc ncxt
intcgcrs arc 111, 112, 113, and 114. From this, thc
last 5 intcgcrs in thc scqucncc, and thus thcir sum,
c sum ol thc 6th, 7th, 8th,
9th, and 10th intcgcrs is
115 ÷ 116 ÷ 117 ÷ 118 ÷ 119 - 585.
is problcm can also bc solvcd without algcbra:
c sum ol thc last 5 intcgcrs cxcccds thc sum
ol thc nrst 5 intcgcrs by 1 ÷ 3 ÷ 5 ÷ 7 ÷ 9 - 25
bccausc thc 6th intcgcr cxcccds thc 5th intcgcr by
1, thc 7th intcgcr cxcccds thc 4th intcgcr by 3, ctc.
e correct answer is A.
ßb. lach|ne / produces ìCC parts tw|ce as last as
lach|ne B does. lach|ne B produces ìCC parts |n
4C m|nutes. ll each mach|ne produces parts at a
constant rate, how many parts does lach|ne /
produce |n b m|nutes'
|/ì 3C
|Bì Zo
|Cì ZC
|0ì ìo
|Lì /.o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!l Machinc A produccs thc parts twicc as last as
Machinc 8 docs, thcn Machinc A rcquircs hall
as much timc as Machinc 8 docs to producc
100 parts. So, il Machinc 8 takcs 40 minutcs lor
thc job, Machinc A takcs 20 minutcs lor thc job.
is is a ratc ol
100 parts
20 minutcs
- 5 parts pcr minutc.
At this ratc, in 6 minutcs Machinc A will producc
5(6) - 30 parts.
e correct answer is A.
ß/. / neck|ace |s made by str|n¿|n¿ N |nd|v|dua| beads
to¿ether |n the repeat|n¿ pattern red bead, ¿reen
bead, wh|te bead, b|ue bead, and ye||ow bead. ll the
neck|ace des|¿n be¿|ns w|th a red bead and ends w|th
a wh|te bead, then N cou|d equa|
|/ì ìb
|Bì 3Z
|Cì 4 ì
|0ì o4
|Lì bß
AIgebra AppIied probIems
c bcad pattcrn rcpcats altcr cvcry nlth bcad.
Sincc thc nrst bcad in this dcsign (or thc nrst in
thc pattcrn) is rcd and thc last bcad in this dcsign
(or third in thc pattcrn) is whitc, thc numbcr ol
bcads in this dcsign is 3 morc than somc multiplc
is can bc cxprcsscd as 5n ÷ 3, whcrc n is
an intcgcr. Tcst cach ol thc answcr choiccs to
dctcrminc which is a multiplc ol 5 plus a valuc
ol 3. Òl thc options, only 68 - 5(13) ÷ 3 can bc
writtcn in thc lorm 5n ÷ 3.
e correct answer is E.
214
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ßß. ln the xy·coord|nate system, |l |a,bì and |a + 3,b + kì
are two po|nts on the ||ne dehned by the equat|on
x = 3y - /, then k =
|/ì 9
|Bì 3
|Cì
/
3
|0ì ì
|Lì
ì
3
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
Substituting thc givcn coordinatcs lor x and y in
thc cquation x - 3y 7 yiclds
a - 3b - 7
a ÷ 3 - 3(b ÷ k) - 7
cn substitutc 3b 7 lor a in sccond cquation,
and solvc lor k
3b - 7 ÷ 3 - 3b ÷ 3k - 7
3b 4 - 3b ÷ 3k 7 combinc likc tcrms
3 - 3k subtract 3b lrom and
add 7 to both sidcs
1 - k dividc both sidcs by 3
e correct answer is D.
ß9. ll s |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ìCC to ZCC,
|nc|us|ve, and t |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ìCC
to ZCì, |nc|us|ve, what |s |n terms ol t '
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Sincc s - (100)(101)(102) . . . (200) and
t - (100)(101)(102) . . . (200)(201), t - 201s or
s - cn,

-
-

-
-

e correct answer is D.
9C. ll Jake |oses ß pounds, he w||| we|¿h tw|ce as much as
h|s s|ster. 1o¿ether they now we|¿h Z/ß pounds. what
|s Jake's present we|¿ht, |n pounds'
|/ì ì3ì
|Bì ì3o
|Cì ì39
|0ì ì4/
|Lì ìßß
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Lct J rcprcscnt Jakc's wcight and S rcprcscnt his
cn J 8 - 2S and J ÷ S - 278.
Solvc thc sccond cquation lor S and gct
S - 278 J. Substituting thc cxprcssion lor
S into thc nrst cquation givcs
J 8 - 2(278 J)
J 8

- 556 2J
J ÷ 2J - 556 ÷ 8
3J - 564
J - 188
e correct answer is E.
215
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
9ì. / certa|n store se||s a|| maps at one pr|ce and a||
books at another pr|ce. 0n londay the store so|d
ìZ maps and ìC books lor a tota| ol S3ß.CC, and on
1uesday the store so|d ZC maps and ìo books lor a
tota| ol SbC.CC. /t th|s store, how much |ess does a
map se|| lor than a book'
|/ì SC.Zo
|Bì SC.oC
|Cì SC./o
|0ì Sì.CC
|Lì Sì.Zo
AIgebra 5ystems o! equations
Lct m rcprcscnt thc pricc ol cach map and b
cn thc givcn
inlormation can bc rcprcscntcd by thc systcm
. Multiplying thc top cquation
by
3
2
givcs , and adding
thc two cquations givcs 2m - 3 or m - 1.5.
cn,
12(1.50) ÷ 10b - 38
18 ÷ 10b

- 38
10b - 20
b - 2
So, cach book sclls lor 82.00 and cach map sclls
lor 81.50, which is 82.00 81.50 - 80.50 lcss than
cach book.
e correct answer is B.
9Z. / store reported tota| sa|es ol S3ßo m||||on lor
lebruary ol th|s year. ll the tota| sa|es lor the same
month |ast year was S3ZC m||||on, approx|mate|y what
was the percent |ncrease |n sa|es'
|/ì Zº
|Bì ì/º
|Cì ZCº
|0ì boº
|Lì ß3º
Arithmetic Percents
c pcrccnt incrcasc in salcs lrom last ycar to this
crcncc in
salcs lor thc two ycars dividcd by thc salcs last
us, thc pcrccnt incrcasc is

385 320
320
100 

-

65
320
100 

-



-

- 20º
e correct answer is C.
l|st l: 3, b, ß, ì9
l|st ll: x, 3, b, ß, ì9
93. ll the med|an ol the numbers |n ||st l above |s equa| to
the med|an ol the numbers |n ||st ll above, what |s the
va|ue ol x '
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì 9
|Lì ìC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Sincc list ! has an cvcn numbcr ol numbcrs, thc
mcdian ol list ! is thc avcragc ol thc middlc two
numbcrs, so
6 ÷ 8
2
- 7 is thc mcdian ol list !.
Sincc list !! has an odd numbcr ol numbcrs,
thc mcdian ol list !! will bc thc middlc numbcr
whcn thc nvc numbcrs arc put in asccnding ordcr.
Sincc thc mcdian ol list !! must bc 7 (thc mcdian
ol list !) and sincc 7 is not in list !!, thcn x - 7.
e correct answer is B.
216
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ßeviev 12th Edition
94. ln a certa|n c|ty, bC percent ol the re¿|stered voters
are 0emocrats and the rest are bepub||cans. ln a
mayora| race, |l /o percent ol the re¿|stered voters
who are 0emocrats and ZC percent ol the re¿|stered
voters who are bepub||cans are expected to vote lor
Cand|date /, what percent ol the re¿|stered voters are
expected to vote lor Cand|date / '
|/ì oCº
|Bì o3º
|Cì o4º
|0ì ooº
|Lì o/º
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
AppIied probIems
Lctting . bc thc numbcr ol rcgistcrcd votcrs in
thc city, thcn thc inlormation that 60º ol thc
rcgistcrcd votcrs arc Ðcmocrats can bc cxprcsscd
as 0.60.. From this, it can bc statcd that
1.00. 0.60. - 0.40. c
pcrccntagc ol Ðcmocrats and thc pcrccntagc
ol Rcpublicans who arc cxpcctcd to votc
lor Candidatc A can thcn bc cxprcsscd as
(0.75)(0.60.) ÷ (0.20)(0.40.). Simplily thc
cxprcssion to dctcrminc thc total pcrccntagc
ol votcrs cxpcctcd to votc lor Candidatc A.
(0.75)(0.60.) ÷ (0.20)(0.40.)
- 0.45. ÷ 0.08.
- 0.53.
e correct answer is B.
9o.
|/ì
Z9
ìb
|Bì
ì9
ìb
|Cì
ìo
ìb
|0ì
9
ì3
|Lì C
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Pcrlorm thc opcrations in thc corrcct ordcr, using
lcast common dcnominators whcn adding or
subtracting lractions:
-
-

-

-

-

-

0
16
- 0
e correct answer is E.
9b. water cons|sts ol hydro¿en and oxy¿en, and the
approx|mate rat|o, by mass, ol hydro¿en to oxy¿en |s
Z:ìb. /pprox|mate|y how many ¿rams ol oxy¿en are
there |n ì44 ¿rams ol water'
|/ì ìb
|Bì /Z
|Cì ììZ
|0ì ìZß
|Lì ì4Z
AIgebra AppIied probIems
c mass ratio ol oxygcn to watcr is

-
16
16 2 +
-
8
9
crclorc, il
x is thc numbcr ol grams ol oxygcn in 144 grams
ol watcr, it lollows that
x
144
-
8
9
. Now solvc
lor x:
x - - (8)(4)(4) - 128.
e correct answer is D.
217
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
9/.
x x x x
x
|/ì -3
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì
3
Z
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations,
5imuItaneous equations
Sctting cach lactor cqual to 0, it can bc sccn that
thc solution sct to thc nrst cquation is
and thc solution sct to thc sccond cquation is
crclorc,
1
2
is thc solution to both
cquations.
e correct answer is B.
9ß. 0n a sca|e that measures the |ntens|ty ol a certa|n
phenomenon, a read|n¿ ol n + ì corresponds to an
|ntens|ty that |s ìC t|mes the |ntens|ty correspond|n¿
to a read|n¿ ol n. 0n that sca|e, the |ntens|ty
correspond|n¿ to a read|n¿ ol ß |s how many t|mes
as ¿reat as the |ntens|ty correspond|n¿ to a read|n¿
ol 3 '
|/ì o
|Bì oC
|Cì ìC
o
|0ì o
ìC
|Lì ß
ìC
- 3
ìC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc 8 can bc obtaincd lrom 3 by "adding 1" nvc
timcs, thc intcnsity rcading is grcatcr by a lactor
ol (10)(10)(10)(10)(10) - 10
5
.
e correct answer is C.
99. lor the pos|t|ve numbers, n, n + ì, n + Z, n + 4, and
n + ß, the mean |s how much ¿reater than the med|an'
|/ì C
|Bì ì
|Cì n + ì
|0ì n + Z
|Lì n + 3
AIgebra 5tatistics
Sincc thc nvc positivc numbcrs n, n ÷ 1, n ÷ 2,
n ÷ 4, and n ÷ 8 arc in asccnding ordcr, thc
mcdian is thc third numbcr, which is n c
mcan ol thc nvc numbcrs is
n n n n n + +
( )
+ +
( )
+ +
( )
+ +
( )
1 2 4 8
5

-

5 15
5
n+
- n ÷ 3
Sincc (n ÷ 3) (n ÷ 2) - 1, thc mcan is 1 grcatcr
than thc mcdian.
e correct answer is B.
ìCC. ll ! =
o
9
|r - 3Zì, and |l ! = Z9C, then r =
|/ì
ì,/3ß
9
|Bì 3ZZ
|Cì 49C
|0ì oo4
|Lì
Z,ß9ß
o
218
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
AIgebra first-degree equations
Substitutc 290 lor T in thc cquation, and solvc
lor K.



- K 32

- K 32

- K 32
522 - K 32
554 - K
e correct answer is D.
ìCì. 1he water lrom one out|et, Now|n¿ at a constant rate,
can h|| a sw|mm|n¿ poo| |n 9 hours. 1he water lrom a
second out|et, Now|n¿ at a constant rate, can h|| the
same poo| |n o hours. ll both out|ets are used at the
same t|me, approx|mate|y what |s the number ol hours
requ|red to h|| the poo|'
|/ì C.ZZ
|Bì C.3ì
|Cì Z.oC
|0ì 3.Zì
|Lì 4.ob
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c nrst outlct can nll thc pool at a ratc ol
1
9

ol thc pool pcr hour, and thc sccond can nll
thc pool at a ratc ol
1
5
ol thc pool pcr hour.
Togcthcr, thcy can nll thc pool at a ratc ol
ol thc pool pcr hour.
us, whcn both outlcts arc uscd at thc samc
timc, thcy nll thc pool in hours.
e correct answer is D.
ìCZ. ll a square m|rror has a ZC·|nch d|a¿ona|, what |s the
approx|mate per|meter ol the m|rror, |n |nches'
|/ì 4C
|Bì bC
|Cì ßC
|0ì ìCC
|Lì ìZC
Geometry Perimeter, Pythagorean theorem
Lct x bc thc lcngth ol onc ol thc sidcs ol thc
squarc mirror.



c trianglcs crcatcd by thc diagonal arc isoscclcs
right trianglcs lor which thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm yiclds thc lollowing cquation that can
bc solvcd lor x.
crclorc, thc pcrimctcr is 4x - . To avoid
cstimating a valuc lor , notc that
- (16)(200) - 3,200, (40)
2
- 1,600,
(60)
2
- 3,600, and (80)
2
c pcrimctcr is
closcst to 60 bccausc 3,200 is closcr to 3,600 than
it is to 1,600 or 6,400.
e correct answer is B.
ìC3. 1he present rat|o ol students to teachers at a certa|n
schoo| |s 3C to ì. ll the student enro||ment were to
|ncrease by oC students and the number ol teachers
were to |ncrease by o, the rat|o ol students to
219
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
teachers wou|d then be Zo to ì. what |s the present
number ol teachers'
|/ì o
|Bì ß
|Cì ìC
|0ì ìZ
|Lì ìo
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct s bc thc prcscnt numbcr ol studcnts, and lct t
bc thc prcscnt numbcr ol tcachcrs. According to
thc problcm, thc lollowing two cquations apply:


Currcnt studcnt to tcachcr ratio
s
t



50
5
25
1
Futurc studcnt to tcachcr ratio
Solving thc nrst cquation lor s givcs s - 30t.
Substitutc this valuc ol s into thc sccond cquation,
and solvc lor t.
30 50
5
25
1
t
t



30t ÷ 50 - 25t ÷ 125 multiply both sidcs by t ÷ 5
5t - 75 simplily by subtraction
t - 15
e correct answer is E.
ìC4. what |s the sma||est |nte¿er n lor wh|ch Zo
n
> o
ìZ
'
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì 9
|Lì ìC
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
8ccausc 5
2
- 25, a common basc is 5. Rcwritc thc
lclt sidc with 5 as a basc: 25
n
- (5
2
)
n
- 5
2n
. !t
lollows that thc dcsircd intcgcr is thc lcast intcgcr
n lor which 5
2n
~ 5
12
is will bc thc lcast intcgcr
n lor which 2n ~ 12, or thc lcast intcgcr n lor
which n ~ 6, which is 7.
e correct answer is B.
ìCo. 3|xty percent ol the members ol a study ¿roup are
women, and 4o percent ol those women are |awyers.
ll one member ol the study ¿roup |s to be se|ected at
random, what |s the probab|||ty that the member
se|ected |s a woman |awyer'
|/ì C.ìC
|Bì C.ìo
|Cì C.Z/
|0ì C.33
|Lì C.4o
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
For simplicity, supposc thcrc arc 100 mcmbcrs in
thc study group. Sincc 60 pcrccnt ol thc mcmbcrs
arc womcn, thcrc arc 60 womcn in thc group.
Also, 45 pcrccnt ol thc womcn arc lawycrs so
thcrc arc 0.45(60) - 27 womcn lawycrs in thc
crclorc thc probability ol sclccting
a woman lawycr is
27
100
- 0.27.
e correct answer is C.
ìCb. when pos|t|ve |nte¿er x |s d|v|ded by pos|t|ve |nte¿er y,
the rema|nder |s 9. ll
x
y
= 9b.ìZ, what |s the va|ue ol y '
|/ì 9b
|Bì /o
|Cì 4ß
|0ì Zo
|Lì ìZ
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c rcmaindcr is 9 whcn x is dividcd by y, so
x - yq ÷ 9 lor somc positivc intcgcr q. Ðividing
both sidcs by y givcs
x
y
- q ÷
9
y
. 8ut,
x
y
- 96.12 - 96 ÷ 0.12. ¡quating thc two
cxprcssions lor
x
y
givcs q ÷
9
y
- 96 ÷ 0.12.
us, q - 96 and

9
y
- 0.12
9

- 0.12y
y -
9
0 12 .
y - 75
e correct answer is B.
220
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ìC/. ll x |s the product ol the pos|t|ve |nte¿ers lrom ì to ß,
|nc|us|ve, and |l i, k, m, and p are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers
such that x = Z
i
3
k
o
m
/
p
, then i + k + m + p =
|/ì 4
|Bì /
|Cì ß
|0ì ìì
|Lì ìZ
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c product ol thc positivc intcgcrs lrom 1 to 8,
inclusivc, is
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8) - (2
1
)(3
1
)(2
2
)(5
1
)(2
1
)(3
1
)(7
1
)(2
3
)

- (2
1 ÷ 2 ÷ 1 ÷ 3
)(3
1 ÷ 1
)(5
1
)(7
1
)
- (2
7
)(3
2
)(5
1
)(7
1
)
So, i - 7, k - 2, m - 1, p - 1, and
i ÷ k ÷ m ÷ p - 7 ÷ 2 ÷ 1 ÷ 1 - 11.
e correct answer is D.
ìCß. ll t = |s expressed as a term|nat|n¿ dec|ma|,
how many zeros w||| t have between the dec|ma| po|nt
and the hrst nonzero d|¿|t to the r|¿ht ol the dec|ma|
po|nt'
|/ì 1hree
|Bì lour
|Cì l|ve
|0ì 3|x
|Lì N|ne
Arithmetic Exponents, Operations vith
rationaI numbers
Usc propcrtics ol positivc intcgcr cxponcnts to gct

-


-


-


-


-

- × 10
3
- × 10
3
So, t - × 10
3
.
Sincc × 10
3
· × 10
3
· × 10
3
, thcn
0.00001 · × 10
3
· 0.0001,
so 0.00001 · t · 0.0001 and t has 4 zcros bctwccn
thc dccimal point and thc nrst nonzcro digit to
thc right ol thc dccimal point.
e correct answer is B.
ìC9. / pharmaceut|ca| company rece|ved S3 m||||on |n
roya|t|es on the hrst SZC m||||on |n sa|es ol the ¿ener|c
equ|va|ent ol one ol |ts products and then S9 m||||on
|n roya|t|es on the next SìCß m||||on |n sa|es. By
approx|mate|y what percent d|d the rat|o ol roya|t|es
to sa|es decrease lrom the hrst SZC m||||on |n sa|es to
the next SìCß m||||on |n sa|es'
|/ì ߺ
|Bì ìoº
|Cì 4oº
|0ì oZº
|Lì obº
Arithmetic Percents
c ratio ol royaltics to salcs lor thc nrst
820 million in salcs is
3
20
, and thc ratio ol
royaltics to salcs lor thc ncxt 8108 million in salcs
is
9
108
-
1
12
c pcrccnt dccrcasc in thc
royaltics to salcs ratios is 100 timcs thc quoticnt
crcncc in thc ratios dividcd by thc ratio
ol royaltics to salcs lor thc nrst 820 million in
salcs or

-
-

221
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
-

-

e correct answer is C.
ììC. ll p |s the product ol the |nte¿ers lrom ì to 3C,
|nc|us|ve, what |s the ¿reatest |nte¿er k lor wh|ch 3
k
|s
a lactor ol p '
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìZ
|Cì ì4
|0ì ìb
|Lì ìß
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c tablc bclow shows thc numbcrs lrom 1 to 30,
inclusivc, that havc at lcast onc lactor ol 3 and
how many lactors ol 3 cach has.
Multiplcs ol 3
bctwccn 1 and 30
Numbcr ol lactors ol 3
3 1
6 - 2 × 3 1
9 - 3 × 3 2
12 - 2 × 2 × 3 1
15 - 3 × 5 1
18 - 2 × 3 × 3 2
21 - 3 × 7 1
24 - 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 1
27 - 3 × 3 × 3 3
30 - 2 × 3 × 5 1
THe sum oi tHe numbers in tHe rigHt column is
14. THereiore, 3
14
is tHe greatest power oi 3 tHat is
a iactor oi tHe product oi tHe first 3O positive
integers.
e correct answer is C.
ììì. ll candy bars that re¿u|ar|y se|| lor SC.4C each are on
sa|e at two lor SC./o, what |s the percent reduct|on |n
the pr|ce ol two such candy bars purchased at the
sa|e pr|ce'
|/ì Z
ì
Z
º
|Bì b
ì
4
º
|Cì b
Z
3
º
|0ì ߺ
|Lì ìZ
ì
Z
º
Arithmetic Percents
Two candy bars at thc rcgular pricc cost
2  c two candy bars at thc
c
pcrccnt ol thc rcduction lrom thc rcgular pricc
can thcrclorc bc cstablishcd as
8 .
8 .
. . º º.
0 05
0 80
0 0625 6 25 6
1
4
  
e correct answer is B.
ììZ. ll and , what |s |n terms ol s
r
s
s r s   C '
|/ì
ì
s
|Bì s
|Cì s s
|0ì s
3
|Lì s
Z
- s
AIgebra Equations
Solvc thc cquation lor r as lollows:
r
s
s 

r
s
- s
2
squarc both sidcs ol thc cquation
r - s
3
multiply both sidcs by s
e correct answer is D.
222
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®
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ßeviev 12th Edition
6 lt.
8 lt.
ìì3. 1he lront ol a b·loot·by·ß·loot rectan¿u|ar door has
brass rectan¿u|ar tr|m, as |nd|cated by the shad|n¿ |n
the h¿ure above. ll the tr|m |s un|lorm|y ì loot w|de,
what lract|on ol the door's lront surlace |s covered
by the tr|m'
|/ì
ì3

|Bì
o
ìZ
|Cì
ì
Z
|0ì
/
ìZ
|Lì
o
ß
Geometry Area
To dctcrminc thc arca ol thc trim, nnd thc arca
ol thc unshadcd portions ol thc door and subtract
unshadcd rcctanglc is thc width ol thc door minus
c amount ol
hcight availablc lor both unshadcd rcctanglcs is
thc hcight ol thc door minus thrcc trim strips, or
us, thc arca ol thc unshadcd
c arca ol thc
cntirc door is 6 × 8 - 48 squarc lcct, so thc arca ol
crclorc, thc
lraction ol thc door's lront surlacc that is covcrcd
by thc trim is
28
48
7
12
 .
e correct answer is D.
ìì4. ll a = -C.3, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s true'
|/ì a < a
Z
< a
3
|Bì a < a
3
< a
Z
|Cì a
Z
< a < a
3
|0ì a
Z
< a
3
< a
|Lì a
3
< a < a
Z
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
First, dctcrminc thc rclativc valucs ol a, a
2
, and a
3
,
rcmcmbcring that (ncgativc)(ncgativc) - positivc.
!l a - -0.3 thcn a
2
- (-0.3)
2
- (-0.3)(-0.3) - 0.09,
and a
3
- (-0.3)
3
- (-0.3)(-0.3)(-0.3) - -0.027.
Sincc 0.3 · 0.027 · 0.09, thcn a · a
3
· a
2
.
e correct answer is B.
ììo. lary's |ncome |s bC percent more than 1|m's |ncome,
and 1|m's |ncome |s 4C percent |ess than Juan's
|ncome. what percent ol Juan's |ncome |s lary's
|ncome'
|/ì ìZ4º
|Bì ìZCº
|Cì 9bº
|0ì ßCº
|Lì b4º
AIgebra, Arithmetic AppIied probIems,
Percents
Lct M bc Mary's incomc, T bc Tim's incomc, and
J bc Juan's incomc. Mary's incomc is 60 pcrccnt
morc than Tim's, so M - T ÷ 0.60T - 1.60T.
Sincc Tim's incomc is 40 pcrccnt lcss than
Juan's incomc, Tim's incomc cquals
100 40 - 60 pcrccnt ol Juan's incomc, or
T - 0.6 J. Substituting 0.6 J lor T in thc nrst
cquation givcs M - 1.6(0.6 J) or M - 0.96 J.
us Mary's incomc is 96 pcrccnt ol Juan's
incomc.
e correct answer is C.
223
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
C|ty / C|ty B C|ty C C|ty 0 C|ty L
C|ty / º º º º
C|ty B º º º
C|ty C º º
C|ty 0 º
C|ty L
ììb. Lach º |n the m||ea¿e tab|e above represents an entry
|nd|cat|n¿ the d|stance between a pa|r ol the hve
c|t|es. ll the tab|e were extended to represent the
d|stances between a|| pa|rs ol 3C c|t|es and each
d|stance were to be represented by on|y one entry,
how many entr|es wou|d the tab|e then have'
|/ì bC
|Bì 43o
|Cì 4oC
|0ì 4bo
|Lì 9CC
Arithmetic Interpretation o! tabIes
!n a tablc with 30 citics, thcrc arc 30(30) - 900
boxcs lor cntrics. Howcvcr, sincc a city docs not
nccd to havc any cntry lor a distancc to and lrom
itscll, 30 cntrics arc not nccdcd on thc diagonal
us, thc ncccssary numbcr ol
cn,
it is givcn that cach pair ol citics only nccds onc
tablc cntry, not two as thc tablc allows, thcrclorc,
thc tablc only nccds to havc
870
2
- 435 cntrics.

e correct answer is B.
ìì/. ll n |s pos|t|ve, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s equa| to

'
|/ì ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
AIgebra Computation vith radicaI expressions
To rationalizc thc dcnominator, multiply thc
givcn cxprcssion by 1 using , which
is cquivalcnt to 1.

-

-

-

-

-

e correct answer is E.
ììß. 1he rat|o ol the |en¿th to the w|dth ol a rectan¿u|ar
advert|s|n¿ d|sp|ay |s approx|mate|y 3.3 to Z. ll the
w|dth ol the d|sp|ay |s ß meters, what |s the
approx|mate |en¿th ol the d|sp|ay, |n meters'
|/ì /
|Bì ì ì
|Cì ì3
|0ì ìb
|Lì Zb
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lctting l bc thc lcngth ol thc advcrtising display,
thc proportion lor thc ratio ol thc lcngth to thc
width can bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquation,
which can bc solvcd lor l :

13.2 - l multiply both sidcs by 8
e correct answer is C.
224
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ìì9. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |s equ|va|ent to the pa|r ol
|nequa||t|es x + b > ìC and x
x < ìb
x < 4
|Cì Z < x
|0ì 4 < x
x < ìb
AIgebra InequaIities
Solvc thc incqualitics scparatcly and combinc thc
rcsults.
x ÷ 6 ~ 10
x ~ 4
x 3 5
x 8
Sincc x ~ 4, thcn 4 · x. Combining 4 · x and
x 8 givcs 4 · x 8.
e correct answer is D.
ìZC. 0av|d has d books, wh|ch |s 3 t|mes as many as Jell
and
ì
Z
as many as lau|a. How many books do the
three ol them have a|to¿ether, |n terms ol d '
|/ì
o
b
d
|Bì
/
3
d
|Cì
ìC
3
d
|0ì
/
Z
d
|Lì
9
Z
d
AIgebra AppIied probIems, 5imuItaneous
equations
Lct J has, and
lct P cn, thc
givcn inlormation about Ðavid's books can bc
cxprcsscd as d - 3J and d -
1
2
P. Solving thcsc
two cquations lor J and P givcs
d
3
- J and 2d - P.
us, d J P d
d
d d d       
3
2 3
1
3
10
3
.
e correct answer is C.
ìZì. 1here are ß teams |n a certa|n |ea¿ue and each team
p|ays each ol the other teams exact|y once. ll each
¿ame |s p|ayed by Z teams, what |s the tota| number
ol ¿ames p|ayed'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ìb
|Cì Zß
|0ì ob
|Lì b4
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Sincc no tcam nccds to play itscll, cach tcam
nccds to play 7 othcr tcams. !n addition, cach
gamc nccds to bc countcd only oncc, rathcr than
oncc lor cach tcam that plays that gamc. Sincc
two tcams play cach gamc,
8  7
2
- 28 gamcs
arc nccdcd.
e correct answer is C.
ìZZ. /n operat|on |s dehned by the equat|on
a b =
a - b
a + b
, lor a|| numbers a and b such that
a -b. ll a c and a c = C, then c =
|/ì -a
|Bì -
ì
a
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
a
|Lì a
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc c lor b and 0 lor a c in thc givcn
cquation, and solvc lor c.
225
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
0 -
a c
a ÷ c
0 - a c multiply both sidcs by a ÷ c
c - a add c to both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
ìZ3. 1he pr|ce ol |unch lor ìo peop|e was SZC/.CC,
|nc|ud|n¿ a ìo percent ¿ratu|ty lor serv|ce. what was
the avera¿e pr|ce per person, L/Cl00lN0 the
¿ratu|ty'
|/ì Sìì./3
|Bì SìZ.CC
|Cì Sì3.ßC
|0ì Sì4.CC
|Lì Sìo.ß/
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems
Lct c bc thc total pricc ol lunch lor cvcryonc
cxcluding thc gratuity. Sincc 8207.00 is givcn as
thc total pricc including thc 15º gratuity, thc
total pricc lor thc group lunch cxcluding thc
gratuity can bc cxprcsscd as 8207 - 1.15c,
or
8
.
8 .
207
1 15
180   c c avcragc pricc pcr
pcrson, or
sum ol valucs
avcragc
.
.
 , was thus
8
8 .
180
15
12 00  lor cach ol thc 15 individuals.
e correct answer is B.
ìZ4. ln 1own /, b4 percent ol the popu|at|on are emp|oyed,
and 4ß percent ol the popu|at|on are emp|oyed ma|es.
what percent ol the emp|oyed peop|e |n 1own / are
lema|es'
|/ì ìbº
|Bì Zoº
|Cì 3Zº
|0ì 4Cº
|Lì oZº
Arithmetic Percents
For simplicity, supposc that thc population ol
Town X is 100. !l 64º ol thc population arc
cmploycd, thcn 64 pcoplc arc cmploycd. !l 48º ol
thc population arc cmploycd malcs, thcn 48 ol thc
cn, thcrc arc
c
pcrccnt ol thc cmploycd pcoplc who arc lcmalcs is
thcn
16
64
× 100 - 25º.
e correct answer is B.
ìZo. ll
p
q
< ì, and p and q are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ must be ¿reater than ì '
|/ì
p
q
|Bì
p
q
Z
|Cì
p
Zq
|0ì
q
p
Z
|Lì
q
p
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc p and q arc positivc intcgcrs, 0 1  
p
q
.
A Sincc
p
q

 1, thcn q  p. Taking thc
squarc root ol both sidcs ol thc incquality
givcs q p  cn,
p
q
p
q

, so hcrc
thc dcnominator will still bc largcr than thc
numcrator. CANNÒT bc grcatcr than 1
8 Squaring thc dcnominator incrcascs thc
dcnominator, which dccrcascs thc valuc ol
thc lraction. CANNÒT bc grcatcr than 1
C Multiplying thc dcnominator by 2 incrcascs
thc dcnominator, which dccrcascs thc valuc
ol thc lraction. CANNÒT bc grcatcr than 1
226
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ßeviev 12th Edition
Ð Sincc
p
q
 1, thcn q  p. Vhcn p
2
 q, this
cxprcssion will bc grcatcr than 1, but
p
2
nccd not bc lcss than q. For cxamplc,
il p - 2 and q
p
q
  100
2
100
, and

q
p
2 2
100
2
100
4
25 1     .
Howcvcr, il p  3 and q  4, thcn
p
q

3
4

and

q
p
2 2
4
3
4
9
1    . N¡¡Ð NÒT bc grcatcr
than 1
¡ Again, sincc
p
q
 1, thcn q  p us, thc
rcciprocal,
q
p
, always has a valuc grcatcr
than 1 bccausc thc numcrator will always
bc a largcr positivc intcgcr than thc
dcnominator. MUST bc grcatcr than 1
e correct answer is E.
ìZb. lt wou|d take one mach|ne 4 hours to comp|ete a |ar¿e
product|on order and another mach|ne 3 hours to
comp|ete the same order. How many hours wou|d |t
take both mach|nes, work|n¿ s|mu|taneous|y at the|r
respect|ve constant rates, to comp|ete the order'
|/ì
/
ìZ
|Bì ì
ì
Z
|Cì ì
o
/
|0ì 3
ì
Z
|Lì /
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c nrst machinc can complctc
1
4
ol thc
production ordcr in onc hour, and thc sccond
machinc can complctc
1
3
ol thc samc ordcr in
us, working togcthcr thcy can
complctc
1
4
1
3
3
12
4
12
7
12
   
ol thc ordcr in
crclorc, it will takc
12
7
1
5
7
 hours
lor thc two machincs working simultancously to
complctc thc production ordcr.
e correct answer is C.
ìZ/. 1o ma|| a packa¿e, the rate |s x cents lor the hrst
pound and y cents lor each add|t|ona| pound, where
x > y. 1wo packa¿es we|¿h|n¿ 3 pounds and o pounds,
respect|ve|y, can be ma||ed separate|y or comb|ned as
one packa¿e. wh|ch method |s cheaper, and how
much money |s saved'
|/ì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x - y cents
|Bì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol y - x cents
|Cì Comb|ned, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x cents
|0ì 3eparate|y, w|th a sav|n¿s ol x - y cents
|Lì 3eparate|y, w|th a sav|n¿s ol y cents
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Shipping thc two packagcs scparatcly would cost
1x ÷ 2y lor thc 3pound packagc and 1x ÷ 4y lor
thc 5pound packagc. Shipping thcm togcthcr
(as a singlc 8pound packagc) would cost 1x ÷ 7y.
8y calculating thc sum ol thc costs lor shipping
thc two packagcs scparatcly minus thc cost lor
shipping thc onc combincd packagc, it is possiblc
crcncc in cost, as shown.
((1x ÷ 2y) ÷ (1x ÷ 4 y)) - (1x ÷ 7 y) (cost lor 3 lb.
÷ cost lor 5 lb.)
cost lor 8 lb.
- (2x ÷ 6y) - (1x ÷ 7 y) combinc likc
tcrms
- 2x ÷ 6y - 1x - 7 y distributc thc
ncgativc
- x - y combinc likc
tcrms
Sincc x ~ y, this valuc is positivc, which mcans it
us
it is chcapcr to mail onc combincd packagc at a
cost savings ol x y ccnts.
e correct answer is A.
227
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
ìZß. ll money |s |nvested at r percent |nterest, compounded
annua||y, the amount ol the |nvestment w||| doub|e |n
approx|mate|y
/C
r
years. ll lat's parents |nvested
So,CCC |n a |on¿·term bond that pays ß percent
|nterest, compounded annua||y, what w||| be the
approx|mate tota| amount ol the |nvestment ìß years
|ater, when lat |s ready lor co||e¿e'
|/ì SZC,CCC
|Bì Sìo,CCC
|Cì SìZ,CCC
|0ì SìC,CCC
|Lì S 9,CCC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Sincc thc invcstmcnt will doublc in
70 70
8 r
= -
18 ycars can bc approximatcd by doubling its
crclorc, thc approximatc
valuc will bc (85,000)(2)(2) - 820,000.
e correct answer is A.
ìZ9. 0n a recent tr|p, C|ndy drove her car Z9C m||es,
rounded to the nearest ìC m||es, and used ìZ ¿a||ons
ol ¿aso||ne, rounded to the nearest ¿a||on. 1he actua|
number ol m||es per ¿a||on that C|ndy's car ¿ot on th|s
tr|p must have been between
|/ì
Z9C
ìZ o .
and
Z9C
ìì o .
|Bì
Z9o
ìZ
and
Zßo
ìì o .
|Cì
Zßo
ìZ
and
Z9o
ìZ
|0ì
Zßo
ìZ o .
and
Z9o
ìì o .
|Lì
Z9o
ìZ o .
and
Zßo
ìì o .
Arithmetic Estimation
c lowcst numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon can bc
calculatcd using thc lowcst possiblc milcs and thc
highcst amount ol gasolinc. Also, thc highcst
numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon can bc calculatcd
using thc highcst possiblc milcs and thc lowcst
amount ol gasolinc.
Sincc thc milcs arc roundcd to thc ncarcst
10 milcs, thc numbcr ol milcs is bctwccn 285 and
295. Sincc thc gallons arc roundcd to thc ncarcst
gallon, thc numbcr ol gallons is bctwccn 11.5
crclorc, thc lowcst numbcr ol milcs
pcr gallon is
lowcst milcs
highcst gallons
=
285
12 5 .
and thc
highcst numbcr ol milcs pcr gallon is
highcst milcs
lowcst gallons
=
295
11 5 .
.
e correct answer is D.
x 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 3 5 0
ì3C. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ |nequa||t|es |s an a|¿ebra|c
express|on lor the shaded part ol the number ||ne
above'
|/ì [x|
|Bì [x|
|Cì [x - Z|
|0ì [x - ì|
|Lì [x + ì|
AIgebra InequaIities
c numbcr linc abovc shows -5 x 3. To turn
this into absolutc valuc notation, as all thc choiccs
arc writtcn, thc numbcrs nccd to bc oppositc
signs ol thc samc valuc.
Sincc thc distancc bctwccn 5 and 3 is 8
(3 (5)  8), that distancc nccds to bc split in
hall with 4 to onc sidc and 4 to thc othcr. ¡ach
ol thcsc two valucs is 1 morc than thc valucs in
thc incquality abovc, so adding 1 to all tcrms in
thc incquality givcs -4 x  1 4, which is thc
samc as ]x  1] 4.
e correct answer is E.
ì3ì. / lactory has oCC workers, ìo percent ol whom are
women. ll oC add|t|ona| workers are to be h|red and
a|| ol the present workers rema|n, how many ol the
add|t|ona| workers must be women |n order to ra|se
the percent ol women emp|oyees to ZC percent'
228
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
|/ì 3
|Bì ì C
|Cì Zo
|0ì 3C
|Lì 3o
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents,
AppIied probIems
Lct . bc thc numbcr ol additional workcrs who
must bc womcn to satisly thc problcm. !t can
bc statcd that, initially, 500(0.15)  75 ol thc
workcrs wcrc womcn. Sincc 50 morc workcrs arc
to bc hircd, thc total worklorcc will incrcasc to
500  50  c inlormation that
thc pcrccntagc ol womcn cmployccs will bc
20 pcrccnt altcr this incrcasc can bc cxprcsscd in
thc lollowing cquation and solvcd lor ..
75
550
0 20
75 110
35


 

.
.
.
.
multiply both sidcs by 550
subtract 75 lrom both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
ì3Z. ln a sma|| snack shop, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
revenue was S4CC per day over a ìC·day per|od.
0ur|n¿ th|s per|od, |l the avera¿e da||y revenue was
S3bC lor the hrst b days, what was the avera¿e da||y
revenue lor the |ast 4 days'
|/ì S4ZC
|Bì S44C
|Cì S4oC
|0ì S4bC
|Lì S4ßC
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics,
AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc avcragc daily rcvcnuc lor
thc last 4 days. Using thc lormula
avcragc
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
thc inlormation  ,
rcgarding thc avcragc rcvcnucs lor thc 10day
and 6day pcriods can bc cxprcsscd as lollows and
solvcd lor x:
8
(8 )
8 , 8 ,
8
400
6 360 4
10
4 000 2 160 4


 
x
x multiply both sidcs by 10
11 840 4
460
,
8


x
x
subtract 82,160 lrom
both sidcs
dividc both s sidcs by 4
e correct answer is D.
ì33. / certa|n country had a tota| annua| expend|ture ol
Sì.Z × ìC
ìZ
|ast year. ll the popu|at|on ol the country
was Z4C m||||on |ast year, what was the per cap|ta
expend|ture'
|/ì S oCC
|Bì Sì,CCC
|Cì SZ,CCC
|0ì S3,CCC
|Lì So,CCC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c pcr capita cxpcnditurc can bc calculatcd as
lollows:

-

-

-

- 80.5 × 10
4
- 85,000
e correct answer is E.
ì34. / certa|n rectan¿u|ar w|ndow |s tw|ce as |on¿ as |t |s
w|de. ll |ts per|meter |s ìC leet, then |ts d|mens|ons |n
leet are
|/ì

3
Z
/
Z
by
|Bì

o
3
ìC
3
by
|Cì Z by 4
|0ì 3 by b
|Lì

ìC
3
ZC
3
by
229
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Geometry Perimeter
Lct l and . bc thc lcngth and width in lcct,
cn thc inlormation
in thc problcm can bc cxprcsscd in thc lollowing
two cquations: l - 2. sincc thc lcngth is twicc thc
width and 2l ÷ 2. - 10 sincc thc pcrimctcr is 10.
Substitutc l lor 2. in thc sccond cquation to gct
2l ÷ l crclorc, 3l - 10, or l -
10
3
.
cn
10
3

- 2. so . -

5
3
.
e correct answer is B.
X
Y
ì3o. 1he d|a¿ram above shows the var|ous paths a|on¿
wh|ch a mouse can trave| lrom po|nt X, where |t |s
re|eased, to po|nt Y, where |t |s rewarded w|th a lood
pe||et. How many d|llerent paths lrom X to Y can the
mouse take |l |t ¿oes d|rect|y lrom X to Y w|thout
retrac|n¿ any po|nt a|on¿ a path'
|/ì b
|Bì /
|Cì ìZ
|0ì ì4
|Lì ì/
Arithmetic EIementary combinatorics
crcnt paths can bc lound
by multiplying thc numbcr ol possiblc routcs that
can bc takcn lrom cach intcrscction point ol thc
paths to thcir ncxt point ol intcrscction. Rclcr to
thc ngurc bclow.
X
Y
B Æ
c total numbcr ol ways to gct lrom X to Æ is 2,
crc
arc also only 2 ways to gct lrom Æ to B. To gct
lrom B to Y us, thc
crcnt paths is (2)(2)(3) - 12.
e correct answer is C.
ì3b. ll the operat|on |s dehned by x y = xy lor a||
pos|t|ve numbers x and y, then |o 4oì bC =
|/ì 3C
|Bì bC
|Cì 9C
|0ì 3C ìo
|Lì bC ìo
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substitutc thc valucs into thc lormula and
simplily:
(5 45) 60 - 5 45 60 ( )( )
- 5 5 9 60 ( )( )( )
- (5)(3) 60
- 15 60
- 15 60
( )( )
- 15 15 4 ( )( )( )
- (15)(2)
- 30
e correct answer is A.
ì3/. / bar over a sequence ol d|¿|ts |n a dec|ma| |nd|cates
that the sequence repeats |ndehn|te|y.
what |s the va|ue ol | ì| . ì ìC ìC C CCìZ
4 Z
'
|/ì C
|Bì C.ìZ
|Cì ì.Z
|0ì ìC
|Lì ìZ
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Ðistributc and simplily.
230
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
- 10,000(0.0012) 100(0.0012)
- 12.12 0.12 multiply by
multiplcs ol 10
to movc thc
dccimals
distributc thc
(0.0012)
10 ´ - 100
- 12
e correct answer is E.
ì3ß. /t a |oad|n¿ dock, each worker on the n|¿ht crew
|oaded
3
4
as many boxes as each worker on the day
crew. ll the n|¿ht crew has
4
o
as many workers as the
day crew, what lract|on ol a|| the boxes |oaded by the
two crews d|d the day crew |oad'
|/ì
ì
Z
|Bì
Z
o
|Cì
3
o
|0ì
4
o
|Lì
o
ß
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
From this, thc workcrs on thc night crcw will
load as many boxcs as thc day crcw.
c total loadcd by both thc day and night crcws
is thus 1
3
5
5
5
3
5
8
5
    ol thc day crcw's work.
crclorc, thc lraction ol all thc boxcs loadcd by
thc two crcws that was donc by thc day crcw was
e correct answer is E.
ì39. / restaurant mea| cost S3o.oC and there was no tax.
ll the t|p was more than ìC percent but |ess than
ìo percent ol the cost ol the mea|, then the tota|
amount pa|d must have been between
|/ì S4C and S4Z
|Bì S39 and S4 ì
|Cì S3ß and S4C
|0ì S3/ and S39
|Lì S3b and S3/
Arithmetic Estimation and percent
First calculatc thc actual total amount lor thc
mcal with a 10 pcrccnt tip and a 15 pcrccnt tip.
To calculatc cach, multiply thc cost ol thc mcal by
(1 ÷ thc pcrccnt as a dccimal).
10 pcrccnt tip: 15 pcrccnt tip:
835.50(1.10) 835.50(1.15)
839.05 840.825
c only answcr choicc that includcs all valucs
bctwccn 839.05 and 840.83 is 8.
e correct answer is B.
ì4C. ln a we|¿ht·||lt|n¿ compet|t|on, the tota| we|¿ht ol
Joe's two ||lts was /oC pounds. ll tw|ce the we|¿ht ol
h|s hrst ||lt was 3CC pounds more than the we|¿ht ol
h|s second ||lt, what was the we|¿ht, |n pounds, ol h|s
hrst ||lt'
|/ì ZZo
|Bì Z/o
|Cì 3Zo
|0ì 3oC
|Lì 4CC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct F and S bc thc wcights, in pounds, ol Joc's
nrst and sccond lilts, rcspcctivcly. Usc thcsc
variablcs to sct up two cquations and thcn solvc
thcm.
F ÷ S - 750 wcight ol two lilts was
750 pounds
2F - S ÷ 300 twicc thc wcight ol nrst
lilt was 300 pounds morc
than thc wcight ol sccond
231
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
F - 750 S solvc thc nrst cquation
lor F
2(750 S) - S ÷ 300 substitutc 750 S lor F
in thc sccond cquation
1,500 2S - S ÷ 300
1,200 - 3S solvc lor S
400 - S
Substituting this valuc ol S back into thc nrst
cquation givcs F ÷ 400 - 750, or F - 350.
e correct answer is D.
ì4ì. / c|ub co||ected exact|y So99 lrom |ts members. ll
each member contr|buted at |east SìZ, what |s the
¿reatest number ol members the c|ub cou|d have'
|/ì 43
|Bì 44
|Cì 49
|0ì oC
|Lì oì
AIgebra AppIied probIems
To dctcrminc thc grcatcst possiblc numbcr ol
mcmbcrs, nrst rccognizc that cach mcmbcr had to
contributc thc lowcst amount givcn. Vritc an
incquality lor thc individual contributions and thc
total amount collcctcd, with n rcprcscnting thc
cn solvc lor n.
12n 599 (lcast contribution)(numbcr ol
mcmbcrs) total collcctcd
solvc lor n
Sincc n rcprcscnts individual pcoplc, it must bc a
wholc numbcr, thc grcatcst possiblc valuc ol n is
thus 49.
c
incquality 12n 599, whcrc n is rcstrictcd to thc
sct ol positivc intcgcrs, is cquivalcnt to 12n · 600.
crclorc, n ·
600
12
12 5 10
12
=
( )( )( )
- (5)(10) - 50,
and thc grcatcst such valuc that is an intcgcr is 49.
e correct answer is C.
ì4Z. ll y |s the sma||est pos|t|ve |nte¿er such that 3,ìoC
mu|t|p||ed by y |s the square ol an |nte¿er, then y
must be
|/ì Z
|Bì o
|Cì b
|0ì /
|Lì ì4
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
To nnd thc smallcst positivc intcgcr y such that
3,150y is thc squarc ol an intcgcr, nrst nnd thc
primc lactorization ol 3,150 by a mcthod similar
to thc lollowing:
3,150 - 10 × 315
- (2 × 5) × (3 × 105)
- 2 × 5 × 3 × (5 × 21)
- 2 × 5 × 3 × 5 × (3 × 7)
- 2 × 3
2
× 5
2
× 7
To bc a pcrlcct squarc, 3,150y must havc an
cvcn numbcr ol cach ol its primc lactors. At a
minimum, y must havc onc lactor ol 2 and onc
lactor ol 7 so that 3,150y has two lactors ol cach
c smallcst positivc
intcgcr valuc ol y is thcn (2)(7) - 14.
e correct answer is E.
ì43. ll |x} |s the ¿reatest |nte¿er |ess than or equa| to x,
what |s the va|ue ol |-ì.b} + |3.4} + |Z./} '
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
Arithmetic Computation vith integers
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss than or cqual to
1.6 is 2. !t cannot bc 1 bccausc 1 is grcatcr
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss than
or cqual to 3.4 is 3. !t cannot bc 4 bccausc 4 is
c grcatcst intcgcr that is lcss
232
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
than or cqual to 2.7 is 2. !t cannot bc 3 bccausc 3
crclorc, |1.6| ÷ |3.4| ÷ |2.7|
- 2 ÷ 3 ÷ 2 - 3.
e correct answer is A.
ì44. ll
4 - x
Z  x
 x , what |s the va|ue ol x
Z
 3x - 4 '
|/ì -4
|Bì - ì
|Cì C
|0ì ì
|Lì Z
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Vork thc problcm.

4 - x
2 ÷ x
- x
4 - x - x (2 ÷ x) multiply both sidcs by (2 ÷ x)
4 - x - 2x ÷ x
2
distributc thc x
0 - x
2
÷ 3x - 4 movc all tcrms to right sidc
e correct answer is C.
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
Æ
ì4o. 1he trapezo|d shown |n the h¿ure above represents a
cross sect|on ol the rudder ol a sh|p. ll the d|stance
lrom A to ß |s ì3 leet, what |s the area ol the cross
sect|on ol the rudder |n square leet'
|/ì 39
|Bì 4C
|Cì 4Z
|0ì 4o
|Lì 4b.o
Geometry TriangIes and the Pythagorean
theorem
c lormula lor calculating thc arca ol a
trapczoid is
Arca -
1
2
(basc 1 ÷ basc 2)(hcight).
5 lt.
B
2 lt.
Æ Q
P
c bascs ol thc trapczoid arc givcn as 2 lcct and
5 lcct, so only thc hcight (ÆQ) nccds to bc lound.
Sincc thc dashcd linc ÆB - 13 lcct, and trianglc
BQÆ is a right trianglc, usc thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm to calculatc ÆQ us,
ÆQ ÆQ 13 5 144 12
2 2
, or lcct.
Substituting thc valucs into thc lormula lor
calculating thc arca ol a trapczoid:
Arca -
1
2
(2 ÷ 5)(12)
Arca - 42 squarc lcct.
e correct answer is C.
ì4b. ln a certa|n sequence, the term x
n
|s ¿|ven by the
lormu|a x
n
= Zx
n - ì
-
ì
Z
|x
n - Z
ì lor a|| n Z. ll x
C
= 3 and
x
ì
= Z, what |s the va|ue ol x
3
'
|/ì Z.o
|Bì 3.ìZo
|Cì 4
|0ì o
|Lì b./o
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Givcn thc lormula x
n
- 2x
n 1

1
2
x
n 2
with x
0
- 3
and x
1
- 2, thcn
x
2
- 2x
1

1
2
x
0
- 2(2)
1
2
(3)
-
5
2
233
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
x
3
- 2x
2

1
2
x
1
- 2
1
2
(2)
- 5 1
- 4
e correct answer is C.
5 lt.
F
!
S
10 lt.
ì4/. ln the h¿ure above, \ represents an observat|on po|nt
at one end ol a poo|. lrom \, an object that |s actua||y
|ocated on the bottom ol the poo| at po|nt R appears
to be at po|nt S. ll \R = ìC leet, what |s the d|stance
RS, |n leet, between the actua| pos|t|on and the
perce|ved pos|t|on ol the object'
|/ì ìC - o 3
|Bì ìC - o Z
|Cì Z
|0ì Z
ì
Z

|Lì 4
Geometry Pythagorean theorem
Lct P bc thc point 5 lcct dircctly bclow !. !PF
is thus a right trianglc.
!P
2
+ PF
2
- !F
2
Pythagorcan thcorcm applicd
to !PF.
5
2
+ PF
2
- 10
2
substitutc known quantitics
25 ÷ PF
2
- 100 solvc lor PF
PF
2
- 75
PF - 5 3
e correct answer is A.
ì4ß. ll x, y, and k are pos|t|ve numbers such that

and |l x < y,
wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the va|ue ol k '
|/ì ìC
|Bì ìZ
|Cì ìo
|0ì ìß
|Lì 3C
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Simplily thc cxprcssion lor k as lollows:
k -
-

10 20 x y
x y


-

10 10 x y y
x y
  

-

10
10
x y
x y
y
x y

 



- 10 ÷
10y
x y 
cn sincc 0 · x · y,
0 ÷ y · x ÷ y · y ÷ y
y · x ÷ y · 2y

1
2y
·
1
x y +
·
1
y

2y
10y
·
x y 
10y
·
y
10y
5 ·
10y
x y 
· 10
15 · 10 ÷
10y
x y 
· 20
15 · k · 20
234
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
c only answcr choicc bctwccn 15 and 20 is 18,
so 18 is thc only answcr choicc that could bc thc
valuc ol k.
e correct answer is D.
ì49. 0ur|n¿ a tr|p, lranc|ne trave|ed x percent ol the tota|
d|stance at an avera¿e speed ol 4C m||es per hour
and the rest ol the d|stance at an avera¿e speed ol
bC m||es per hour. ln terms ol x, what was lranc|ne's
avera¿e speed lor the ent|re tr|p'
|/ì

ìßC
Z
x
|Bì

x + bC
4
|Cì

3CC
o
x
|0ì

bCC
ììo x
|Lì

ìZ CCC
ZCC
,
x +
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Assumc lor simplicity that thc total distancc ol
cn thc tablc bclow
givcs all ol thc pcrtincnt inlormation.
Ðistancc Ratc Timc -
Ðistancc
Ratc
x 40
x
40
100 x 60
100 x
60
THe total time ior Francine´s trip is

x
40

÷

100 x
60

-

3x
120

÷

2 100 ( ) x
120
-

3 2 100 x x + ( )
120
-

3 200 2 x x +
120
-

x + 200
120
Francinc's avcragc spccd ovcr thc cntirc trip is
total distancc
total timc
-
1 0 0
200
120
x +
-
12,000
x + 200
.
e correct answer is E.
ìoC. ll x = -ì, then
x
4
- x
3
+ x
Z
x - ì
=
|/ì -
3
Z
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì C
|0ì
ì
Z
|Lì
3
Z
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substituting thc valuc ol 1 lor x in thc
cxprcssion rcsults in
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )

1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
2
3
2
4 3 2
e correct answer is A.
ìoì. / toy store re¿u|ar|y se||s a|| stock at a d|scount ol
ZC percent to 4C percent. ll an add|t|ona| Zo percent
were deducted lrom the d|scount pr|ce dur|n¿ a
spec|a| sa|e, what wou|d be the |owest poss|b|e pr|ce
ol a toy cost|n¿ Sìb belore any d|scount'
|/ì S o.bC
|Bì S /.ZC
|Cì S ß.ßC
|0ì S 9.bC
|Lì Sìo.ZC
Arithmetic Percents
c lowcst possiblc pricc is paid whcn thc
maximum initial discount ol 40º is rcccivcd.
235
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
816(0.6) - 89.60 calculatc thc nrst
40º discount
89.60(0.75) - 87.20 calculatc thc sccond
25º discount
e correct answer is B.
y yd
z yd
x yd
ìoZ. 1he shaded port|on ol the rectan¿u|ar |ot shown
above represents a Nower bed. ll the area ol the bed
|s Z4 square yards and x = y + Z, then z equa|s
|/ì ì3
|Bì Z ì3
|Cì b
|0ì ß
|Lì ì C
Geometry Area and the Pythagorean theorem
Using thc known arca ol thc triangular ßowcr
bcd and thc known lcngth ol sidc x ol thc
trianglc, dctcrminc thc lcngth ol sidc z ol thc
trianglc by applying thc lormula lor calculating
thc arca ol a trianglc:
Arca ol a trianglc -
1
2
(basc)(hcight)
Æ -
1
2
xy
24 -
1
2
(y ÷ 2)(y) substitutc 24 lor arca and
y ÷ 2 lor x
48 - y
2
÷ 2y solvc lor y
0 - y
2
÷ 2y 48
0 - (y ÷ 8)(y 6)
y ÷ 8 - 0 y 6 -0
y - 8 y - 6 climinatc y - 8 sincc it has
to bc a positivc lcngth
x - 6 ÷ 2 - 8
Sincc thc lcgs y and x ol thc right trianglc arc 6
and 8 yards long, rcspcctivcly, thc hypotcnusc, z,
must bc 10 yards bccausc 6810 is a Pythagorcan
triplc. Altcrnativcly, thc Pythagorcan thcorcm
can also bc uscd to solvc lor z, whcrc x
2
+ y
2
- z
2
.
us, 8
2
÷ 6 64 36 100 100 10
2 2
     z , and .
e correct answer is E.
ìo3. Jack |s now ì4 years o|der than B|||. ll |n ìC years Jack
w||| be tw|ce as o|d as B|||, how o|d w||| Jack be |n
o years'
|/ì 9
|Bì ì9
|Cì Zì
|0ì Z3
|Lì 33
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct J and B cn
thc inlormation lrom thc problcm can bc
cxprcsscd in thc lollowing two cquations:
J - B ÷ 14, or cquivalcntly B - J 14 and
J ÷ 10 - 2(B ÷ 10).
Sincc Jack's agc is to bc dctcrmincd, rcplacc B in
thc sccond cquation with J 14 to gct an cquation
that can bc solvcd lor J:
J ÷ 10 - 2(J 14 ÷ 10)
J ÷ 10 - 2J 8
18 - J
crclorc, Jack's currcnt agc is 18, and hcncc
Jack's agc in 5 ycars will bc 18 ÷ 5 - 23.
e correct answer is D.
ìo4. /n empty poo| be|n¿ h||ed w|th water at a constant
rate takes ß hours to h|| to
3
o
ol |ts capac|ty. How
much more t|me w||| |t take to hn|sh h|||n¿ the poo|'
|/ì o hr 3C m|n
|Bì o hr ZC m|n
|Cì 4 hr 4ß m|n
|0ì 3 hr ìZ m|n
|Lì Z hr 4C m|n
236
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
AIgebra AppIied probIems
8uild an cquation to cxprcss thc givcn
inlormation and solvc lor thc answcr.
Lct t - thc total timc nccdcd to nll thc pool.
Sincc it is givcn that it takcs 8 hours to nll
3
5
ol
thc pool:

3
5
t - 8
t -
40
3
solvc lor t
t - 13
1
3

us, to calculatc thc timc it will takc to nnish
nlling thc pool:
e correct answer is B.
ìoo. / pos|t|ve number x |s mu|t|p||ed by Z, and th|s product
|s then d|v|ded by 3. ll the pos|t|ve square root ol the
resu|t ol these two operat|ons equa|s x, what |s the
va|ue ol x '
|/ì
9
4
|Bì
3
Z
|Cì
4
3
|0ì
Z
3
|Lì
ì
Z
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Sct up an cquation according to thc givcn
inlormation, and thcn solvc lor x.
First, multiply x by 2, dividc that by 3, and sct thc
squarc root ol that cqual to x:
2
3
x
x 
To solvc this cquation:

2x
3
- x
2
squarc both sidcs
2x - 3x
2
0 - 3x
2
2x solvc lor possiblc valucs ol x
0 - x (3x - 2)
x - 0, 3x - 2 - 0
sincc x ~ 0, usc 3x 2 - 0 to solvc lor x:
3x 2 - 0
3x - 2
x -
2
3
e correct answer is D.
ìob. / tank conta|ns ìC,CCC ¿a||ons ol a so|ut|on that |s
o percent sod|um ch|or|de by vo|ume. ll Z,oCC ¿a||ons
ol water evaporate lrom the tank, the rema|n|n¿
so|ut|on w||| be approx|mate|y what percent sod|um
ch|or|de'
|/ì ì.Zoº
|Bì 3./oº
|Cì b.Zoº
|0ì b.b/º
|Lì ìì./º
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers,
Percents
8clorc thc cvaporation occurs, thc tank contains
10,000 (0.05) - 500 gallons ol sodium chloridc.
Altcr thc cvaporation occurs, thc tank contains
10,000 2,500 - 7,500 gallons ol solution, ol
which 500 gallons arc known to bc sodium
chloridc. Calculatc thc pcrccntagc bascd on thcsc
postcvaporation amounts:

e correct answer is D.
ìo/. lor any pos|t|ve |nte¿er n, the sum ol the hrst
n pos|t|ve |nte¿ers equa|s
n n + ( ) ì
Z
. what |s the sum
ol a|| the even |nte¿ers between 99 and 3Cì '
237
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
|/ì ìC,ìCC
|Bì ZC,ZCC
|Cì ZZ,boC
|0ì 4C,ZCC
|Lì 4o,ìoC
AIgebra 5impIi!ying expressions, Arithmetic
Computation vith integers
c givcn lormula translatcs into 1 ÷ 2 ÷ . ÷ n -
.

c sum ol thc cvcn intcgcrs
bctwccn 99 and 301 is thc sum ol thc cvcn
intcgcrs lrom 100 through 300, or thc sum ol thc
50th cvcn intcgcr through thc 150th cvcn intcgcr.
To gct this sum, nnd thc sum ol thc nrst 150 cvcn
intcgcrs and subtract thc sum ol thc nrst 49 cvcn
intcgcrs. !n symbols,

-

-

- 150(151) 49(50)
- 50|3(151) 49|
- 50(453 49)
- 50(404)
- 20,200
e correct answer is B.
ìoß. / comm|ttee |s composed ol w women and m men. ll
3 women and Z men are added to the comm|ttee, and
|l one person |s se|ected at random lrom the en|ar¿ed
comm|ttee, then the probab|||ty that a woman |s
se|ected can be represented by
|/ì
w
m
|Bì
w
w  m
|Cì
w  3
m  Z
|0ì
w  3
w  m  3
|Lì
w  3
w  m  o
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sct up an cquation according to thc givcn
inlormation rcgarding thc valucs ol . and m.
c total numbcr ol womcn on thc cnlargcd
committcc can bc cxprcsscd as . c total
numbcr ol mcmbcrs on thc cnlargcd committcc
can bc cxprcsscd as . ÷ m ÷ 3 ÷ 2 or thus
. ÷ m cn, thc probability that thc onc
pcrson sclcctcd at random lrom thc cnlargcd
committcc is a woman is cqual to
e correct answer is E.
ìo9. How many pr|me numbers between ì and ìCC are
lactors ol /,ìoC '
|/ì 0ne
|Bì 1wo
|Cì 1hree
|0ì lour
|Lì l|ve
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
To nnd thc numbcr ol primc numbcrs bctwccn 1
and 100 that arc lactors ol 7,150, nnd thc primc
lactorization ol 7,150 using a mcthod similar to
thc lollowing:
7,150 - 10 × 715
- (2 × 5) × (5 × 143)
- 2 × 5 × 5 × (11 × 13)
us, 7,150 has lour primc lactors: 2, 5, 11, and 13.
e correct answer is D.
238
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ßeviev 12th Edition
8 lcct O
ìbC. 1he h¿ure above shows a c|rcu|ar Nower bed, w|th |ts
center at U, surrounded by a c|rcu|ar path that |s 3 leet
w|de. what |s the area ol the path, |n square leet'
|/ì Zo
|Bì 3ß
|Cì oo
|0ì o/
|Lì b4
Geometry Area (CircIes)
c ßowcr bcd and thc path lorm two conccntric
circlcs. Sincc thc path is 3 lcct widc, thc radius
ol thc outcr circlc is 8 lcct ÷ 3 lcct - 11 lcct.
c arca ol a circlc can bc dctcrmincd using thc
lormula: arca - (radius)
2
.
c arca ol thc path can thus bc lound by
subtracting thc arca ol thc inncr circlc, Æ
1
,
lrom thc arca ol thc outcr circlc, Æ
2
.
Æ
2
- Æ
1
- (11)
2
- (8)
2
- 121 - 64 - 57
e correct answer is D.
ìbì. 1he pos|t|ve |nte¿er n |s d|v|s|b|e by Zo. ll |s
¿reater than Zo, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the
va|ue ol

'
|/ì ZZ
|Bì Z3
|Cì Z4
|0ì Zo
|Lì Zb
Arithmetic Operations on radicaI expressions
!l ~ 25, thcn n ~ 25
2
crclorc, ~ -
25 and thc only answcr choicc that is grcatcr than
25 is 26.
e correct answer is E.
ìbZ. / lru|t·sa|ad m|xture cons|sts ol app|es, peaches,
and ¿rapes |n the rat|o b:o:Z, respect|ve|y, by we|¿ht.
ll 39 pounds ol the m|xture |s prepared, the m|xture
|nc|udes how many more pounds ol app|es than
¿rapes'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ìZ
|Cì 9
|0ì b
|Lì 4
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Using thc givcn ratios, thc inlormation about
thc lruits in thc mixturc can bc cxprcsscd as
6x ÷ 5x ÷ 2x - 39, or 13x - 39 and thus x - 3.
crc arc 6x or 6(3) - 18 pounds ol applcs and
2x crclorc, thcrc
arc 18 6 - 12 morc pounds ol applcs than
pounds ol grapcs in 39 pounds ol thc mixturc.
e correct answer is B.
ìb3. 1h|s year Henry w||| save a certa|n amount ol h|s
|ncome, and he w||| spend the rest. Next year Henry
w||| have no |ncome, but lor each do||ar that he saves
th|s year, he w||| have ì + r do||ars ava||ab|e to spend.
ln terms ol r, what lract|on ol h|s |ncome shou|d Henry
save th|s year so that next year the amount he has
ava||ab|e to spend w||| be equa| to ha|l the amount that
he spends th|s year'
|/ì

|Bì

|Cì

|0ì

|Lì

AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct s bc thc amount Hcnry will savc this ycar and
lct I cn, I s is
thc amount hc will spcnd this ycar. For cach ol
thc s dollars hc savcs this ycar, hc will havc (1 ÷ r)
us, hc will havc
239
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
s(1 ÷ r is amount is
to bc
1
2
c task
is to nnd
s
I
, whcrc I and s satisly thc
condition s(1 ÷ r) -
1
2
(I s). Solvc lor I as lollows:
s(1 ÷ r) -
1
2
(I s)
2s(1 ÷ r) - I s
2s ÷ 2rs - I s
3s ÷ 2rs - I
s(3 ÷ 2r) - I
cn,
s
I
-
s
s r 3 2 + ( )

-
1
2 3 r +
.
e correct answer is E.
ìb4. ll m

= -
ì
3
, then m
-Z
|s equa| to
|/ì
-9
|Bì
-3
|Cì -
ì
9
|0ì
ì
9
|Lì 9
Arithmetic Negative exponents
Using rulcs ol cxponcnts, m
2
- m
1 2
- (m
1
)
2
,
and sincc m
1
-
ì
3
, m
2
- -
1
9
.
e correct answer is D.
ìbo. lo|s has x do||ars more than J|m has, and to¿ether
they have a tota| ol y do||ars. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
represents the number ol do||ars that J|m has'
|/ì
y - x
Z

|Bì y -
x
Z
|Cì
y
Z
- x
|0ì Zy - x
|Lì y - Zx
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Lct J bc thc numbcr ol dollars that Jim has.
cn, thc amount that Lois has can bc cxprcsscd
as J ÷ x dollars. !l Lois and Jim togcthcr havc a
total ol y dollars, thcn:
y - J + ( J + x) total dollars -
Jim's dollars ÷ Lois's dollars
Solvc this lor J to dctcrminc thc numbcr ol dollars
that Jim has:
y - 2 J ÷ x
y - x - 2 J

y - x
2
- J
e correct answer is A.
ìbb. 0ur|n¿ a certa|n season, a team won ßC percent ol
|ts hrst ìCC ¿ames and oC percent ol |ts rema|n|n¿
¿ames. ll the team won /C percent ol |ts ¿ames lor
the ent|re season, what was the tota| number ol
¿ames that the team p|ayed'
|/ì ìßC
|Bì ì/C
|Cì ìob
|0ì ìoC
|Lì ìCo
Arithmetic, AIgebra Percents, AppIied probIems
Lct G cqual thc numbcr ol gamcs playcd by thc
c givcn inlormation can bc
cxprcsscd as (0.80)(100) ÷ 0.50(G - 100) - 0.70G,
that is, 80 pcrccnt ol thc nrst 100 gamcs plus
50 pcrccnt ol thc rcmaining gamcs cquals
70 pcrccnt ol thc total numbcr ol gamcs playcd.
is cquation can bc solvcd lor G to dctcrminc
thc answcr to thc problcm:
(0.80)(100) ÷ 0.50(G - 100) - 0.70G
80 ÷ 0.50G - 50 - 0.70G simplily and distributc
30 - 0.20G simplily and subtract
0.05G lrom both sidcs
150 - G multiply by 5
e correct answer is D.
240
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ßeviev 12th Edition
ìb/. 0l 3C app||cants lor a job, ì4 had at |east 4 years'
exper|ence, ìß had de¿rees, and 3 had |ess than
4 years' exper|ence and d|d not have a de¿ree.
How many ol the app||cants had at |east 4 years'
exper|ence and a de¿ree'
|/ì ì4
|Bì ì3
|Cì 9
|0ì /
|Lì o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c problcm classincd thc job applicants into two
catcgorics: whcthcr thcy had morc or lcss than
4 ycars' cxpcricncc, and whcthcr thcy had a
c givcn inlormation can bc summarizcd
in thc lollowing tablc:
At lcast 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc
Lcss than 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc Total
Ðcgrcc 18
No dcgrcc 3
Total 14 30
us, according to thc givcn inlormation,
30 14 - 16 applicants had lcss than 4 ycars'
cn, ol thosc applicants with
lcss than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc, it is givcn that
3 applicants did not havc a dcgrcc, so 16 3 -
13 applicants had lcss than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc
crclorc, out ol thc givcn 18
applicants that had dcgrccs, 13 applicants had lcss
than 4 ycars' cxpcricncc, so 18 13 - 5 applicants
had at lcast 4 ycars' cxpcricncc with a dcgrcc.
csc rcsults arc shown in thc lollowing tablc.
At lcast 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc
Lcss than 4 ycars'
cxpcricncc Total
Ðcgrcc 5 13 18
No dcgrcc 3
Total 14 16 30
e correct answer is E.
ìbß.
|/ì -ì
|Bì
ì
3
|Cì
Z
3
|0ì Z
|Lì 3
AIgebra first-degree equations
Vork thc problcm to solvc thc cquation lor x.

x ÷ 1 - 2x - 2 multiply through by x
3 - x solvc lor x by adding 2 to
and subtracting x lrom
both sidcs
e correct answer is E.
ìb9. last year, lor every ìCC m||||on veh|c|es that trave|ed
on a certa|n h|¿hway, 9b veh|c|es were |nvo|ved |n
acc|dents. ll 3 b||||on veh|c|es trave|ed on the h|¿hway
|ast year, how many ol those veh|c|es were |nvo|ved |n
acc|dents' |ì b||||on = ì,CCC,CCC,CCCì
|/ì Zßß
|Bì 3ZC
|Cì Z,ßßC
|0ì 3,ZCC
|Lì Zß,ßCC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
According to thc givcn inlormation, 96 out ol
cvcry 100 million vchiclcs wcrc in an accidcnt
us, ol thc 3 billion vchiclcs on thc
highway last ycar, thc numbcr ol vchiclcs involvcd
in accidcnts was:
e correct answer is C.
241
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
ì/C. 1h|rty percent ol the members ol a sw|m c|ub have
passed the ||lesav|n¿ test. /mon¿ the members
who have not passed the test, ìZ have taken the
preparatory course and 3C have not taken the course.
How many members are there |n the sw|m c|ub'
|/ì bC
|Bì ßC
|Cì ìCC
|0ì ìZC
|Lì ì4C
AIgebra AppIied probIems
!l 30 pcrccnt ol thc club mcmbcrs havc passcd
thc tcst, thcn 70 pcrccnt havc not. Among thc
mcmbcrs who havc not passcd thc tcst, 12 havc
takcn thc coursc and 30 havc not, lor a total ol
12 ÷ 30 - 42 mcmbcrs who havc not passcd thc
tcst. Lctting x rcprcscnt thc total numbcr ol
mcmbcrs in thc swim club, this inlormation can
bc cxprcsscd as 0.70x - 42, and so x - 60.
e correct answer is A.
ì/ì. what |s the d|llerence between the s|xth and the hlth
terms ol the sequence Z, 4, /, . whose nth term |s
n + Z
n - ì
'
|/ì Z
|Bì 3
|Cì b
|0ì ìb
|Lì ì/
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
According to thc givcn lormula, thc sixth tcrm
ol thc scqucncc is 6 ÷ 2
6 1
- 6 ÷ 2
5
and thc nlth
tcrm is 5 ÷ 2
5 1
- 5 ÷ 2
4
cn,
(6 ÷ 2
5
) (5 ÷ 2
4
) - (6 5) ÷ (2
5
2
4
)
- 1 ÷ 2
4
(2 1)
- 1 ÷ 2
4
- 1 ÷ 16
- 17
e correct answer is E.
ì/Z. ll |x - ìì
Z
= 4CC, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ cou|d be the
va|ue ol x - o '
|/ì ìo
|Bì ì4
|Cì -Z4
|0ì -Zo
|Lì -Zb
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Vork thc problcm by taking thc squarc root ol
both sidcs and solving lor x.
(x - 1)
2
- 400
x - 1 -  20
x - 1 - -20, or x - 1 - 20
x - -19, or x - 21
us, x - 5 - -24 or 16.
e correct answer is C.
ì/3. wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ descr|bes a|| va|ues ol x lor
wh|ch ì - x
Z
C '
|/ì x ì
|Bì x
x
|0ì x x ì
x
AIgebra InequaIities
c cxprcssion 1 x
2
can bc lactorcd as
(1 x)(1 ÷ x c product is positivc whcn both
x and
x x 1) or both
lactors arc ncgativc (this happcns il 1 x and
x 1, which cannot happcn), and thcrclorc thc
solution is 1 x 1.
e correct answer is E.
ì/4. 1he probab|||ty |s
ì
Z
that a certa|n co|n w||| turn up
heads on any ¿|ven toss. ll the co|n |s to be tossed
three t|mes, what |s the probab|||ty that on at |east
one ol the tosses the co|n w||| turn up ta||s'
242
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
|/ì
ì
ß
|Bì
ì
Z
|Cì
3
4
|0ì
/
ß
|Lì
ìo
ìb
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Anothcr way ol stating that a coin toss will turn
up tails at lcast oncc is to say that it will not turn
c probability that on at
lcast onc ol thc tosscs thc coin will not turn up
hcads is 1 minus thc probability that thc coin
will turn up hcads on all thrcc tosscs. ¡ach toss
is an indcpcndcnt cvcnt, and so thc probability
ol gctting hcads all thrcc timcs is
1
2
1
8
3
 .

us, thc probability ol not gctting hcads all
thrcc timcs (that is, gctting tails at lcast oncc) is
1
1
8
7
8
.
e correct answer is D.
ì/o. 0l the hna| ¿rades rece|ved by the students |n a
certa|n math course,
ì
o
are /'s,
ì
4
are B's,
ì
Z
are C's,
and the rema|n|n¿ ìC ¿rades are 0's. what |s the
number ol students |n the course'
|/ì ßC
|Bì ì ìC
|Cì ìbC
|0ì ZCC
|Lì 4CC
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct x bc thc numbcr ol studcnts in thc coursc.
or or
19
20
o
1
5
1
4
1
2
4
20
5
20
10
20
    x x x
ll thc studcnts rcccivcd gradcs ol A, 8, or C.
is mcans thc 10 rcmaining gradcs rcprcscnt
1
20
ol thc studcnts in thc coursc.
us,
1
20
x - 10, and x - 200.
e correct answer is D.
ì/b. /s x |ncreases lrom ìbo to ìbb, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
must |ncrease'
l. Zx - o
ll. ì -
ì
x
lll.
ì
x
Z
- x
|/ì l on|y
|Bì lll on|y
|Cì l and ll
|0ì l and lll
|Lì ll and lll
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
!nvcstigatc cach ol thc lunctions to dctcrminc il
thcy incrcasc lrom x - 165 to x - 166.
!. Graphically, this rcprcscnts a linc with
crclorc, thc lunction
incrcascs bctwccn any two valucs ol x.
A dircct computation can also bc uscd:
|2(166) 5| |2(165) 5| - 2(166 165) -
2, which is positivc, and thus thc lunction
incrcascs lrom x - 165 to x - 166.
!!. 8ctwccn any two positivc valucs ol x,
1
x

dccrcascs, and hcncc both
1
x
and 1
1
x
incrcasc. A dircct computation can also bc
uscd:

-


1
165
1
166
166 165
165 166
1
165 166
=
( )( )
=
( )( )
,

which is positivc, and thus thc lunction
incrcascs lrom x - 165 to x - 166.
!!!. For x - 165, thc dcnominator is 165
2
165 -
(165)(165 1) - (165)(164), and lor
x - 166, thc dcnominator is 166
2
166 -
crclorc,
243
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
166
2
166 ~ 165
2
165, and hcncc
,
which shows that dccrcascs lrom
x - 165 to x - 166.
e correct answer is C.
ì//. / rectan¿u|ar box |s ìC |nches w|de, ìC |nches |on¿,
and o |nches h|¿h. what |s the ¿reatest poss|b|e
|stra|¿ht·||neì d|stance, |n |nches, between any two
po|nts on the box'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ZC
|Cì Zo
|0ì ìC
|Lì ìC
Geometry Pythagorean theorem
c grcatcst possiblc distancc bctwccn any two
points in a rcctangular solid is thc spacc diagonal
(ÆD) ol thc rcctangular solid as shown bclow.
Æ B
C
D
10
10
5
To computc thc lcngth ol ÆD, thc Pythagorcan
thcorcm must bc uscd twicc as lollows:
For ÆBC:
For ÆCD:
e correct answer is A.
C|ub
Number ol
3tudents
Chess 4C
0rama 3C
lath Zo
ì/ß. 1he tab|e above shows the number ol students |n
three c|ubs at lc/u||lle 3choo|. /|thou¿h no student |s
|n a|| three c|ubs, ìC students are |n both Chess and
0rama, o students are |n both Chess and lath, and
b students are |n both 0rama and lath. How many
d|llerent students are |n the three c|ubs'
|/ì bß
|Bì b9
|Cì /4
|0ì /9
|Lì ß4
Arithmetic Interpretation o! graphs and tabIes
A good way to solvc this problcm is to crcatc a
\cnn diagram. To dctcrminc how many studcnts
to put in cach scction, bcgin by putting thc givcn
sharcdstudcnt data in thc ovcrlapping scctions.
Put 0 in thc intcrscction ol all thrcc clubs, 10 in thc
Chcss and Ðrama intcrscction, 5 in thc Chcss and
Math intcrscction, and 6 in thc Ðrama and Math
intcrscction, as shown in thc \cnn diagram bclow.
Zo ì4
ì4
ìC
C
o b
0rama Chess
lath
Subtracting thc sharcd studcnts lrom thc totals in
cach club that arc listcd in thc tablc cstablishcs thc
rough
this proccss, it can bc dctcrmincd that thc Chcss
club has 25 such mcmbcrs (40 10 5 - 25), thc
Ðrama club has 14 such mcmbcrs (30 10 6 -
14), and thc Math club has 14 such mcmbcrs
(25 5 6 - 14). Putting thc numbcr ol unsharcd
club mcmbcrs into thc \cnn diagram and thcn
adding up all thc scctions ol thc diagram givcs
25 ÷ 14 ÷ 14 ÷ 10 ÷ 5 ÷ 6 - 74 studcnts.
e correct answer is C.
244
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ì/9. 1he rat|o ol two quant|t|es |s 3 to 4. ll each ol the
quant|t|es |s |ncreased by o, what |s the rat|o ol these
two new quant|t|es'
|/ì
3
4
|Bì
ß
9
|Cì
ìß
ì9
|0ì
Z3
Z4
|Lì lt cannot be determ|ned lrom the |nlormat|on
¿|ven.
AIgebra AppIied probIems
8oth 3 to 4 and 6 to 8 arc cxamplcs ol two
quantitics in thc ratio 3 to 4. !ncrcasing both
numbcrs in cach ol thcsc cxamplcs by 5 givcs
8 to 9 and 11 to 13. Sincc
8
9
11
13
, thc ratio ol
thc two ncw quantitics cannot bc dctcrmincd
lrom thc inlormation givcn.
e correct answer is E.
ìßC. ll the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol x and y |s bC and
the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol y and z |s ßC, what |s
the va|ue ol z - x '
|/ì /C
|Bì 4C
|Cì ZC
|0ì ìC
|Lì lt cannot be determ|ned lrom the |nlormat|on
¿|ven.
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems
c givcn inlormation givcs thc lollowing two
cquations:
x y 

2
60

sincc thc avcragc ol x and y is 60 and
y z 

2
80

sincc thc avcragc ol y and z is 80.
c two cquations can bc rcwrittcn as x ÷ y - 120
and y ÷ z - 160. Subtracting thc nrst cquation
lrom thc sccond cquation givcs (y ÷ z) (x ÷ y) -
160 120, or z x - 40.
e correct answer is B.
ìßì. ll
ì
Z
ol the a|r |n a tank |s removed w|th each stroke
ol a vacuum pump, what lract|on ol the or|¿|na|
amount ol a|r has been removed alter 4 strokes'
|/ì
ìo
ìb
|Bì
/
ß
|Cì
ì
4
|0ì
ì
ß
|Lì
ì
ìb
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Vith cach strokc's rcmoval ol
1
2
ol thc tank's
air, thc amount ol air bcing rcmovcd lrom thc
tank on that strokc is cqual to thc amount ol air
rcmaining in thc tank altcr that strokc. Vith thc
nrst strokc ol thc pump,
1
2
ol thc air is rcmovcd,
with thc sccond strokc, ol thc air is
rcmovcd, lcaving
1
4
ol thc air. Vith thc third
strokc, ol thc air is rcmovcd, lcaving
1
8
ol thc air, and with thc lourth strokc,
crclorc, with lour strokcs,
ol thc
air has bccn rcmovcd.
e correct answer is A.
245
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
ìßZ. ll the two·d|¿|t |nte¿ers M and N are pos|t|ve and have
the same d|¿|ts, but |n reverse order, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ C/NN01 be the sum ol M and N '
|/ì ìß ì
|Bì ìbo
|Cì ìZì
|0ì 99
|Lì 44
AIgebra AppIied probIems
!t is givcn that M and N havc thc samc digits in
rcvcrsc ordcr. Lct M - 10t ÷ u and N - 10u ÷ t,
whcrc t and u cn, M ÷ N -
(10t ÷ u) ÷ (10u ÷ t ) - 11t ÷ 11u - 11(t ÷ u is
mcans that any sum ol thc two intcgcrs M and
N must also bc a multiplc ol 11. Òl thc answcr
choiccs, only 181 is not a multiplc ol 11 and thus
cannot bc thc sum ol M and N.
e correct answer is A.
ìß3. Car / and Car Y trave|ed the same ßC·m||e route. ll
Car / took Z hours and Car Y trave|ed at an avera¿e
speed that was oC percent laster than the avera¿e
speed ol Car /, how many hours d|d |t take Car Y to
trave| the route'
|/ì
Z
3
|Bì ì
|Cì ì
ì
3
|0ì ì
3
o
|Lì 3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Substituting thc givcn inlormation in thc lormula
ratc -
distancc
timc
, it can bc dctcrmincd that Car X
travclcd at a ratc ol
80 milcs
2 hours
, or 40 milcs pcr
us, Car Y travclcd at 1.50(40) - 60 milcs
pcr hour. At this spccd, Car Y would travcl thc
80milc routc in hours.
80
60
4
3
1
1
3
 
e correct answer is C.
ìß4. ll the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the lour numbers
r, Zr + 3, 3r - o, and or + ì |s b3, what |s the va|ue
ol r '
|/ì ìì
|Bì ìo
3
4
|Cì ZZ
|0ì Z3
|Lì Zo
3
ìC
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Using thc lormula
sum ol n valucs
n
- avcragc,
thc givcn inlormation can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor K.
K K K K

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 3 3 5 5 1
4
63
K K K K

2 3 5 3 5 1
4
63
K

11 1
4
63
K 11 1 252
 11 253 K
 23 K
e correct answer is D.
ìßo. ll p |s an even |nte¿er and q |s an odd |nte¿er, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ must be an odd |nte¿er'
|/ì
p
q
|Bì pq
|Cì Zp + q
|0ì Z|p + qì
|Lì
3p
q
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc it is givcn that p is cvcn and q is odd, usc
thcsc propcrtics to tcst thc outcomc ol cach answcr
choicc to dctcrminc which onc must bc odd.
246
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A
cvcn
odd
- cvcn must bc cvcn
8 (cvcn)(odd) - cvcn must bc cvcn
C 2(cvcn) ÷ odd
- cvcn ÷ odd - odd must bc odd
Ð 2(cvcn ÷ odd)
- 2(odd) - cvcn must bc cvcn
¡
3(cvcn)
odd
-
cvcn
odd
- cvcn must bc cvcn
e correct answer is C.
ìßb. 0rum / |s
ì
Z
lu|| ol o|| and 0rum Y, wh|ch has tw|ce
the capac|ty ol 0rum /, |s
Z
3
lu|| ol o||. ll a|| ol the o||
|n 0rum / |s poured |nto 0rum Y, then 0rum Y w||| be
h||ed to what lract|on ol |ts capac|ty'
|/ì
3
4
|Bì
o
b
|Cì
ìì
ìZ
|0ì
/
b
|Lì
ìì
b
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct y rcprcscnt thc capacity ol Ðrum Y. Sincc Y
has twicc thc capacity ol Ðrum X, Ðrum X has
hall thc capacity ol Ðrum Y, and thus thc
capacity ol Ðrum X can bc cxprcsscd as
1
2
y.
Sincc Ðrum X is hall lull, thc amount ol oil in
Ðrum X is cqual to According
to thc givcn inlormation, thc initial amount ol
oil in Ðrum Y is
2
3
y. Vhcn thc oil in Ðrum X is
pourcd into Ðrum Y, Ðrum Y thus contains
e correct answer is C.
ìß/. ll x > C, |s what percent ol x '
|/ì bº
|Bì Zoº
|Cì 3/º
|0ì bCº
|Lì /oº
AIgebra, Arithmetic 5impIi!ying aIgebraic
expressions, Percents
8ccausc thc qucstion asks lor a pcrccnt, usc a
common dcnominator ol 100 to combinc thc two
tcrms.
, which
is 6 pcrccnt ol x.
e correct answer is A.
ìßß. ll the operat|on |s dehned lor a|| a and b by the
equat|on a b =
a
Z
b
3
, then Z |3 -ìì =
|/ì 4
|Bì Z
|Cì -
4
3
|0ì - Z
|Lì - 4
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8ccausc 3 1 is within thc parcnthcscs, its valuc
is computcd nrst:
3 1 -
-

-

- 3
247
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
cn, 2 (3 1) - 2 3, which has thc
lollowing valuc:
2 (3 1) - 2 3
-
-
- 4(1)
- 4
e correct answer is E.
ìß9. 1he |ns|de d|mens|ons ol a rectan¿u|ar wooden box
are b |nches by ß |nches by ìC |nches. / cy||ndr|ca|
can|ster |s to be p|aced |ns|de the box so that |t stands
upr|¿ht when the c|osed box rests on one ol |ts s|x
laces. 0l a|| such can|sters that cou|d be used, what |s
the rad|us, |n |nches, ol the one that has max|mum
vo|ume'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì ß
Geometry VoIume
c largcst cylindcr that can nt in a rcctangular
box will havc thc samc hcight as thc box and a
diamctcr cqual to thc smallcr dimcnsion ol thc
top ol thc box. 8y dcnnition, thc diamctcr ol thc
canistcr is twicc its radius. Ònc possible canistcr
placcmcnt in thc box is illustratcd bclow.
Howcvcr, sincc thc box can rcst on any ol thrcc
crcntly sizcd laccs, it is ncccssary to considcr
c lormula lor
calculating volumc is volumc - (radius)
2
(hcight),
or . - r
2
h, thc possiblc volumcs lor thc canistcr
arc thosc shown in thc lollowing tablc:
Ðimcnsions
ol thc box top r h .
6 by 8 3 10 90
6 by 10 3 8 72
8 by 10 4 6 96
us, thc radius, in inchcs, ol thc canistcr having
thc maximum volumc is 4.
e correct answer is B.
ì9C. what |s the un|ts d|¿|t ol |ì3ì
4
|ì/ì
Z
|Z9ì
3
'
|/ì 9
|Bì /
|Cì o
|0ì 3
|Lì ì
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c units digit ol 13
4
is 1, sincc 3  3  3  3 - 81,
thc units digit ol 17
2
is 9, sincc 7  7 - 49, and
thc units digit ol 29
3
is 9, sincc 9  9  9 - 729.
crclorc, thc units digit ol (13)
4
(17)
2
(29)
3
is 1,
sincc 1  9  9 - 81.
e correct answer is E.
4th Strcct
3rd Strcct
2nd Strcct
1st Strcct
X
Y
ì9ì. lat w||| wa|k lrom lntersect|on X to lntersect|on Y
a|on¿ a route that |s conhned to the square ¿r|d ol
lour streets and three avenues shown |n the map
above. How many routes lrom X to Y can lat take
that have the m|n|mum poss|b|e |en¿th'
248
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
|/ì b
|Bì ß
|Cì ìC
|0ì ì4
|Lì ìb
Arithmetic EIementary combinatorics
!n ordcr to walk lrom !ntcrscction X to
!ntcrscction Y by onc ol thc routcs ol minimum
possiblc lcngth, Pat must travcl only upward or
rightward bctwccn thc intcrscctions on thc map.
Lct U rcprcscnt upward movcmcnts and F
rcprcscnt rightward movcmcnts. !t takcs 3 upward
and 2 rightward movcmcnts to complctc thc routc.
c lollowing 10 routcs arc possiblc:
U U U F F U F F U U
U U F U F F F U U U
U U F F U F U U U F
U F U U F F U U F U
U F U F U F U F U U
e correct answer is C.
ì9Z. 1he rat|o, by vo|ume, ol soap to a|coho| to water |n
a certa|n so|ut|on |s Z:oC:ìCC. 1he so|ut|on w||| be
a|tered so that the rat|o ol soap to a|coho| |s doub|ed
wh||e the rat|o ol soap to water |s ha|ved. ll the a|tered
so|ut|on w||| conta|n ìCC cub|c cent|meters ol a|coho|,
how many cub|c cent|meters ol water w||| |t conta|n'
|/ì oC
|Bì ZCC
|Cì 4CC
|0ì bZo
|Lì ßCC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
From

wc gct
,

and lrom

wc gct

.

crclorc, thc amount ol soap in thc altcrcd
solution can bc lound by solving ,
which givcs , and now
thc amount ol watcr in thc altcrcd solution can bc
lound by solving , which givcs
.
e correct answer is E.
ì93. ll /o percent ol a c|ass answered the hrst quest|on
on a certa|n test correct|y, oo percent answered the
second quest|on on the test correct|y, and ZC percent
answered ne|ther ol the quest|ons correct|y, what
percent answered both correct|y'
|/ì ìCº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì 3Cº
|0ì oCº
|Lì boº
Arithmetic Percents
For qucstions ol this typc, it is convcnicnt to draw
a \cnn diagram to rcprcscnt thc conditions in thc
problcm. For cxamplc, thc givcn inlormation can
bc dcpictcd:
20º
Q1
75º
Q2
55º
!n thc diagram it can bc sccn that thc 80º ol thc
class answcring a qucstion corrcctly is rcprcscntcd
by thc two circlcs. Lct x rcprcscnt thc pcrccnt ol
thc class that answcrcd both qucstions corrcctly,
that is, thc shadcd rcgion abovc. Sincc thc sum ol
thc circlcs minus thcir ovcrlap cquals 80º ol thc
class, thc inlormation givcn in thc problcm can
thcn bc cxprcsscd as 75º ÷ 55º x is
cquation can bc solvcd lor x as lollows:
249
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
75º ÷ 55º x - 80º
130º x - 80º
x - 50º
x - 50º
e correct answer is D.
O
Æ
y - x
y
x
ì94. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system above, the ||ne
y = x |s the perpend|cu|ar b|sector ol se¿ment Aß |not
shownì, and the x·ax|s |s the perpend|cu|ar b|sector ol
se¿ment ßL |not shownì. ll the coord|nates ol po|nt A
are |Z,3ì, what are the coord|nates ol po|nt L '
|/ì |-3,-Zì
|Bì |-3,Zì
|Cì |Z,-3ì
|0ì |3,-Zì
|Lì |Z,3ì
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
Sincc thc linc y - x is thc pcrpcndicular biscctor
ol ÆB , B is thc rcßcction ol Æ through this linc.
!n any rcßcction through thc linc y - x, thc
x coordinatc and thc ycoordinatc ol a point
us, il thc coordinatcs ol
Æ arc (2,3), thc coordinatcs ol B arc (3,2).
O
Æ
y - x
y
x
3
2
1
1 2 3
B
Sincc thc xaxis is thc pcrpcndicular biscctor ol
BC , C is thc rcßcction ol B through thc xaxis. !n
any rcßcction through thc xaxis, thc xcoordinatc
rcmains thc samc, and thc sign ol thc ycoordinatc
changcs.
O
Æ
y - x
y
x
3
2
1
1
2
1 2
B
C
Sincc thc coordinatcs ol B arc (3,2), thc
coordinatcs ol C arc thcrclorc (3,2).
e correct answer is D.
ì9o. / store current|y char¿es the same pr|ce lor each
towe| that |t se||s. ll the current pr|ce ol each towe|
were to be |ncreased by Sì, ìC lewer ol the towe|s
cou|d be bou¿ht lor SìZC, exc|ud|n¿ sa|es tax. what |s
the current pr|ce ol each towe|'
|/ì S ì
|Bì S Z
|Cì S 3
|0ì S 4
|Lì SìZ
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct p bc thc currcnt pricc pcr towcl, and lct n bc
thc numbcr ol towcls that can bc bought lor 8120.
cn thc inlormation in thc problcm can bc
cxprcsscd in thc lollowing cquations:
(i) pn - 120
(ii) (p ÷ 1)(n 10) - 120 or cquivalcntly
(iii) pn ÷ n 10p 10 - 120.
250
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
cn rcplacc pn in (iii) with 120 to gct:
120 ÷ n 10p 10 - 120
n 10p 10 - 0
n 10(p ÷ 1) - 0
n - 10(p ÷ 1)
np - 10p(p ÷ 1)
120 - 10p(p ÷ 1)
12 - p(p ÷ 1)
0 - p
2
÷ p 12
0 - (p ÷ 4)(p 3)
p - 3
e correct answer is C.
Number o! 5oIid-CoIored MarbIes in Three 1ars
Jar
Number ol
red marb|es
Number ol
¿reen marb|es
1ota| number
ol red and
¿reen marb|es
l x y ßC
Ç y z ìZC
b x z ìbC
ì9b. ln the tab|e above, what |s the number ol ¿reen
marb|es |n Jar b '
|/ì /C
|Bì ßC
|Cì 9C
|0ì ìCC
|Lì ììC
Arithmetic, AIgebra Interpretation o! tabIes,
AppIied probIems
First, sct up an cquation to nnd thc total numbcr
ol marblcs in thc thrcc jars as lollows:
x ÷ y ÷ y ÷ z ÷ x ÷ z - 80 ÷ 120 ÷ 160
2x ÷ 2y ÷ 2z - 360 combinc thc likc tcrms
x ÷ y ÷ z - 180 dividc both sidcs by 2
cn, sincc it can bc sccn lrom thc tablc that thc
numbcr ol grccn marblcs in Jar R is z, solvc lor z
to answcr thc problcm. To do this most clncicntly,
usc thc inlormation lrom thc tablc lor Jar P, which
is that x ÷ y - 80.
x ÷ y ÷ z - 180
80 ÷ z - 180 substitutc 80 lor x ÷ y
z - 100
e correct answer is D.
ì9/. / po|nt on the ed¿e ol a lan b|ade that |s rotat|n¿ |n a
p|ane |s ìC cent|meters lrom the center ol the lan.
what |s the d|stance trave|ed, |n cent|meters, by th|s
po|nt |n ìo seconds when the lan runs at the rate ol
3CC revo|ut|ons per m|nute'
|/ì /oC
|Bì ì,oCC
|Cì ì,ß/o
|0ì 3,CCC
|Lì /,oCC
Geometry CircIes, Circum!erence,
AppIied probIems
Sincc 15 scconds is
15
60
-
1
4
minutc, il thc lan
bladc is rotating at thc ratc ol 300 rcvolutions
pcr minutc, thcn in
1
4
minutc it rotatcs
300
4
c distancc thc point on
thc cdgc ol thc lan bladc rotatcs in 75 rcvolutions
is 75 timcs thc circumlcrcncc ol a circlc with
c circumlcrcncc C ol a
circlc with radius r is C r us thc distancc
e correct answer is B.
ì9ß. ll n = 4p, where p |s a pr|me number ¿reater than Z,
how many d|llerent pos|t|ve even d|v|sors does n have,
|nc|ud|n¿ n '
|/ì 1wo
|Bì 1hree
|Cì lour
|0ì 3|x
|Lì L|¿ht
251
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc p is a primc grcatcr than 2, p must bc odd.
crclorc, thc possiblc cvcn divisors ol n - 4p arc
2, 4, 2p, and 4p. Altcrnativcly, choosc such a
primc, lor cxamplc p - 3, and dctcrminc thc
numbcr ol positivc cvcn divisors that n - 4p -
12 has.
e correct answer is C.
l. /Z, /3, /4, /o, /b
ll. /4, /4, /4, /4, /4
lll. bZ, /4, /4, /4, ß9
ì99. 1he data sets l, ll, and lll above are ordered lrom
¿reatest standard dev|at|on to |east standard dev|at|on
|n wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿'
|/ì l, ll, lll
|Bì l, lll, ll
|Cì ll, lll, l
|0ì lll, l, ll
|Lì lll, ll, l
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c data sct with thc lcast standard dcviation will
bc thc data sct with clcmcnts most closcly
clustcrcd around thc mcan ol thc data sct, and thc
data sct with thc grcatcst standard dcviation will
bc thc data sct with clcmcnts that arc sprcad out
larthcst lrom thc mcan ol thc data sct.
8ccausc sct ! is symmctric about 74 (73 is 1 lcss
than 74 and 75 is 1 morc than 74, 72 is 2 lcss
than 74 and 76 is 2 morc than 74), thc mcan ol
sct ! is 74. 8ccausc cvcry numbcr in sct !! is 74,
c mcan ol sct !!! is
62
5
+ ( ) +
= =
3 74 89
373
5
74 6 . .
c clcmcnts ol sct !! do not dcviatc at all lrom
c
crs lrom 74 is 2,
cr lrom
crclorc, sct !!! has a
grcatcr standard dcviation than sct !, which has a
grcatcr standard dcviation than sct !!.
e correct answer is D.
ZCC. 0l the oC researchers |n a work¿roup, 4C percent w|||
be ass|¿ned to 1eam / and the rema|n|n¿ bC percent
to 1eam B. However, /C percent ol the researchers
preler 1eam / and 3C percent preler 1eam B. what |s
the |owest poss|b|e number ol researchers who w|||
N01 be ass|¿ned to the team they preler'
|/ì ìo
|Bì ì/
|Cì ZC
|0ì Zo
|Lì 3C
Arithmetic Percents
c numbcr ol rcscarchcrs assigncd to Tcam A
will bc (0.40)(50) - 20, and so 30 will bc assigncd
c numbcr ol rcscarchcrs who prclcr
Tcam A is (0.70)(50) - 35, and thc rcst, 15, prclcr
Tcam 8.
!l all 15 who prclcr Tcam 8 arc assigncd to
Tcam 8, which is to havc 30 rcscarchcrs, thcn
15 who prclcr Tcam A will nccd to bc assigncd
to Tcam 8. Altcrnativcly, sincc thcrc arc only
20 spots on Tcam A, 35 20 - 15 who prclcr
Tcam A but will havc to go to Tcam 8 instcad.
e correct answer is A.
ZCì. ll m |s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol the hrst
ìC pos|t|ve mu|t|p|es ol o and |l M |s the med|an
ol the hrst ìC pos|t|ve mu|t|p|es ol o, what |s the
va|ue ol M - m '
|/ì -o
|Bì C
|Cì o
|0ì Zo
|Lì Z/.o
Arithmetic 5tatistics
c nrst 10 positivc multiplcs ol 5 arc 5, 10, 15,
20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50. From this, thc
avcragc (arithmctic mcan) ol thc 10 multiplcs,
that is,
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
, can bc calculatcd:
m 
        
 
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
10
275
10
27 5 . ..
252
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
Sincc thcrc is an cvcn numbcr ol multiplcs, thc
mcdian, M, is thc avcragc ol thc middlc two
numbcrs, 25 and 30:
M -
25 ÷ 30
2
- 27.5.
crclorc, thc mcdian minus thc avcragc is:
M m - 27.5 27.5 - 0.
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows. Sincc
thc valucs can bc groupcd in pairs (i.c., 5 and 50,
10 and 45, 15 and 40, ctc.), cach ol which is
symmctric with rcspcct to thc mcdian, it lollows
that thc avcragc and mcdian arc cqual.
e correct answer is B.
ZCZ. ll m > C and x |s m percent ol y, then, |n terms ol m, y
|s what percent ol x '
|/ì ìCCm
|Bì
ì
ìCCm
|Cì
ì
m
|0ì
ìC
m
|Lì
ìC,CCC
m
Arithmetic Percents
c inlormation that x is m pcrccnt ol y can bc
cxprcsscd as x
m
y 
100
and solvcd lor y as lollows:

x
m
y 
100
100
m
x y 
cn, to convcrt thc lraction
100
m
to an cquivalcnt
pcrccnt, multiply by 100, thus obtaining thc valuc
10,000
m
.
e correct answer is E.
ZC3. what |s the Zoth d|¿|t to the r|¿ht ol the dec|ma| po|nt
|n the dec|ma| lorm ol
b
ìì
'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c lraction in its dccimal lorm is
6
11
- 0.545454.. ¡vcry oddnumbcrcd digit to
thc right ol thc dccimal point is 5, so thc 25th
digit must bc 5.
e correct answer is C.
ZC4. John and lary were each pa|d x do||ars |n advance to
do a certa|n job to¿ether. John worked on the job lor
ìC hours and lary worked Z hours |ess than John. ll
lary ¿ave John y do||ars ol her payment so that they
wou|d have rece|ved the same hour|y wa¿e, what was
the do||ar amount, |n terms ol y, that John was pa|d |n
advance'
|/ì 4y
|Bì oy
|Cì by
|0ì ßy
|Lì 9y
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct . bc thc amount ol Mary and John's samc
hourly wagc. To sct thcir hourly pay cqual, John,
who workcd 10 hours, nccds to bc paid 10., and
Mary, who workcd 8 hours, nccds to bc paid 8..
Sincc Mary gavc John y dollars, Mary now has
x y dollars and John now has x ÷ y dollars.
cir pay can thus bc cxprcsscd as lollows:
x y - 8. Mary's pay
x ÷ y - 10. John's pay
Subtract thc nrst cquation lrom thc sccond and
solvc lor ..
2y - 2.
y - .
253
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Substitutc y lor . in thc sccond cquation, and
solvc lor x, thc amount cach was paid in advancc.
x ÷ y - 10 y
x - 9 y
e correct answer is E.
y
x
P (4,0) O
ZCo. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system above, |l po|nt R
|not shownì ||es on the pos|t|ve y·ax|s and the area ol
tr|an¿|e URl |s ìZ, what |s the y·coord|nate ol po|nt R '
|/ì 3
|Bì b
|Cì 9
|0ì ìZ
|Lì Z4
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry, Area
Sincc O and P ol trianglc OFP arc alrcady drawn
and F has to bc on thc positivc yaxis, thc trianglc
is a right trianglc with its basc lcngth thc distancc
lrom thc origin O (0,0) to P (4,0), which is 4.
Sincc thc arca ol a trianglc -
(basc)(hcight)
2
,
thc inlormation about thc arca and basc can bc
cxprcsscd as lollows and solvcd lor thc hcight ol
trianglc OPF:
12 -
(4)(hcight)
2
12 - 2(hcight) simplily thc right sidc
6 - hcight solvc lor thc hcight
Òn thc yaxis, thc xcoordinatc is 0 and thc
ycoordinatc is thc distancc abovc thc axis that
thc point is locatcd. !n this casc, thc ycoordinatc
is thc hcight ol thc trianglc.
e correct answer is B.
ZCb. Car / |s ZC m||es beh|nd Car B, wh|ch |s trave||n¿ |n
the same d|rect|on a|on¿ the same route as Car /.
Car / |s trave||n¿ at a constant speed ol oß m||es
per hour and Car B |s trave||n¿ at a constant speed
ol oC m||es per hour. How many hours w||| |t take lor
Car / to overtake and dr|ve ß m||es ahead ol Car B '
|/ì ì.o
|Bì Z.C
|Cì Z.o
|0ì 3.C
|Lì 3.o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
Undcrstand that Car A nrst has to travcl 20 milcs
to catch up to Car 8 and thcn has to travcl an
additional 8 milcs ahcad ol Car 8, lor a total ol
28 cxtra milcs to travcl rclativc to Car 8. !t can
bc statcd that Car A is travcling 58 50 - 8 milcs
pcr hour lastcr than Car 8. Solving thc
distancc - (ratc)(timc) lormula lor timc yiclds
distancc
ratc
- timc.
8y substitution into this lormula, it will takc
Car A
28 milcs
8 milcs pcr hour
- 3.5 hours to ovcrtakc
and drivc 8 milcs ahcad ol Car 8.
e correct answer is E.
ZC/. lor the past n days, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
da||y product|on at a company was oC un|ts. ll today's
product|on ol 9C un|ts ra|ses the avera¿e to oo un|ts
per day, what |s the va|ue ol n '
|/ì 3C
|Bì ìß
|Cì ìC
|0ì 9
|Lì /
Arithmetic, AIgebra 5tatistics, AppIied
probIems, 5imuItaneous equations
Lct x bc thc total production ol thc past n days.
Using thc lormula avcragc -
sum ol valucs
numbcr ol valucs
,
thc inlormation in thc problcm can bc cxprcsscd
in thc lollowing two cquations:
254
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
50 
x
n
daily avcragc ol 50 units
ovcr thc past n days
55
90
1



x
n
incrcascd daily avcragc
whcn including today's
90 units
Solving thc nrst cquation lor x givcs x - 50n.
cn substituting 50n lor x in thc sccond
cquation givcs thc lollowing that can bc solvcd
lor n:
55
50 90
1



n
n
55(n ÷ 1) - 50n ÷ 90 multiply both sidcs
by (n ÷ 1)
55n ÷ 55 - 50n ÷ 90 distributc thc 55
5n - 35 subtract 50n and 55 lrom
both sidcs
n - 7 dividc both sidcs by 5
e correct answer is E.
x
x
ì
ì
Z
ZCß. ll x x x |s rep|aced by
ì
x
everywhere
|n the express|on above, then the resu|t|n¿ express|on
|s equ|va|ent to
|/ì
x
x
ì
ì
Z
|Bì
x
x 
ì
ì
Z
|Cì
x
x
Z
Z
ì
ì

|0ì
x
x
Z
Z
ì
ì 
|Lì

x
x
ì
ì
Z
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
Substitutc
1
x
lor x in thc cxprcssion and simplily.

1
1
1
1
2
x
x

Multiply thc numcrator and dcnominator insidc
thc parcnthcscs by x to climinatc thc compound
lractions.
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
1
2

Ðistributc thc x's.
1
1
2
 x
x
Sincc this is not onc ol thc answcr choiccs,
it is ncccssary to simplily lurthcr. Vith thc
knowlcdgc that 1 ÷ x - x ÷ 1 and 1 x - (x 1),
it can bc statcd that
bccausc thc ncgativc, whcn squarcd, is positivc.
e correct answer is A.
y
z
x
ZC9. ln the h¿ure above, |l z = oC, then x + y =
|/ì Z3C
|Bì ZoC
|Cì ZbC
|0ì Z/C
|Lì Z9C
Geometry AngIes, Measures o! angIes
Rclcr to thc ngurc bclow.
255
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
Æ
E
B D C
y
z
x
Trianglc ÆBC is a right trianglc, and scgmcnt
ÆB is parallcl to scgmcnt ED sincc thcy arc
both pcrpcndicular to thc samc scgmcnt (BC ).
crclorc, m DEC - m BÆC - z - 50. So,
sincc DEC and ÆED lorm a straight linc
at E, y ÷ 50 - 180, or y - 130.
c mcasurc ol an cxtcrior anglc ol a trianglc is
thc sum ol thc mcasurcs ol thc nonadjaccnt
us,
m x - m z ÷ 90, or
m x - 50÷ 90- 140
us, x ÷ y - 140 ÷ 130 - 270.
e correct answer is D.
O 1
y
x
1
ZìC. ln the coord|nate system above, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿
|s the equat|on ol ||ne '
|/ì Zx - 3y = b
|Bì Zx + 3y = b
|Cì 3x + Zy = b
|0ì Zx - 3y = -b
|Lì 3x - Zy = -b
Geometry 5impIe coordinate geometry
c linc is shown going through thc points (0,2)
c slopc ol thc linc can bc lound with
thc lormula slopc -
changc in
changc in

y
x
y y
x x

2 1
2 1
,

lor two points (x
1
,y
1
) and (x
2
,y
2
us, thc slopc
ol this linc cquals . Using thc lormula
lor a linc ol y - mx ÷ b, whcrc m is thc slopc and
b is thc yintcrccpt (in this casc, 2), an cquation lor
this linc is x
2
3
2. Sincc this cquation must
bc comparcd to thc availablc answcr choiccs, thc
lollowing lurthcr stcps should bc takcn:
y x
2
3
2
3y - 2x ÷ 6 multiply both sidcs by 3
2x ÷ 3y - 6 add 2x to both sidcs
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows. From
thc graph, whcn x - 0, y is positivc, whcn y - 0,
x is climinatcs all but 8 and C. Òl
thcsc, 8 is thc only linc containing (0,2). Still
anothcr way is to usc (0,2) to climinatc A, C, and
¡, and thcn usc (3,0) to climinatc Ð.
e correct answer is B.
Zìì. ll a two·d|¿|t pos|t|ve |nte¿er has |ts d|¿|ts reversed,
the resu|t|n¿ |nte¿er d|llers lrom the or|¿|na| by Z/.
By how much do the two d|¿|ts d|ller'
|/ì 3
|Bì 4
|Cì o
|0ì b
|Lì /
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct thc onc twodigit intcgcr bc rcprcscntcd by
10t ÷ s, whcrc s and t arc digits, and lct thc othcr
intcgcr with thc rcvcrscd digits bc rcprcscntcd
by 10s ÷ t crcncc
bctwccn thc intcgcrs is 27 can bc cxprcsscd in
thc lollowing cquation, which can bc solvcd lor
thc answcr.
256
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(10s ÷ t ) - (10t ÷ s) - 27
10s ÷ t - 10t - s - 27 distributc thc ncgativc
9s - 9t - 27 combinc likc tcrms
s - t - 3 dividc both sidcs by 9
us, it is sccn that thc two digits s and t cr
by 3.
e correct answer is A.
O
y
x
C
ZìZ. 1he c|rc|e w|th center L shown above |s tan¿ent to
both axes. ll the d|stance lrom U to L |s equa| to k,
what |s the rad|us ol the c|rc|e, |n terms ol k '
|/ì k
|Bì

k
Z
|Cì

k
3
|0ì
k
Z
|Lì
k
3
Geometry CircIes, 5impIe coordinate
geometry
!n a circlc, all distanccs lrom thc circlc to thc
ccntcr arc thc samc and callcd thc radius, r.
O
y
x
C
r
k
r
Sincc thc horizontal distancc lrom C to thc yaxis
is also a radius, thc basc ol thc trianglc drawn will
bc r is crcatcs a right trianglc, and so
thc Pythagorcan thcorcm (or a
2
÷ b
2
- c
2
) applics.
r
2
+ r
2
- k
2
substitutc valucs into


Pythagorcan thcorcm,
2r
2
- k
2
combinc likc tcrms

r
k
2
2
2

dividc both sidcs by 2

r
k

2
2
takc thc squarc root ol
both sidcs
r
k

2
simplily thc squarc root
e correct answer is B.
Zì3. ln an e|ectr|c c|rcu|t, two res|stors w|th res|stances x
and y are connected |n para||e|. ln th|s case, |l r |s the
comb|ned res|stance ol these two res|stors, then the
rec|proca| ol r |s equa| to the sum ol the rec|proca|s ol
x and y. what |s r |n terms ol x and y '
|/ì xy
|Bì x + y
|Cì
ì
x + y
|0ì
xy
x + y
|Lì
x + y
xy
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Notc that two numbcrs arc rcciprocals ol cach
us thc
rcciprocals ol r, x, and y arc
1 1 1
r x y
, , and ,
rcspcctivcly. So, according to thc problcm,
1 1 1
r x y
  . To solvc this cquation lor r, bcgin by
crcating a common dcnominator on thc right sidc
by multiplying thc nrst lraction by
y
y
and thc
sccond lraction by
x
x
:
257
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
1 1 1
r x y
 
1
r
y
xy
x
xy
 
1
r
x y
xy


combinc thc lractions on thc
right sidc
r
xy
x y


invcrt thc lractions on both sidcs
e correct answer is D.
Zì4. /av|er, Yvonne, and Ze|da each try |ndependent|y to
so|ve a prob|em. ll the|r |nd|v|dua| probab|||t|es lor
success are
ì
4
,
ì
Z
, and
o
ß
, respect|ve|y, what |s the
probab|||ty that /av|er and Yvonne, but not Ze|da, w|||
so|ve the prob|em'
|/ì
ìì
ß
|Bì
/
ß
|Cì
9
b4
|0ì
o
b4
|Lì
3
b4
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
Sincc thc individuals' probabilitics arc
indcpcndcnt, thcy can bc multiplicd to ngurc out
c probability ol
Xavicr's succcss is givcn as
1
4
, and thc probability
ol Yvonnc's succcss is givcn as
1
2
. Sincc thc
probability ol Zclda's succcss is givcn as
5
8
, thcn
thc probability ol hcr NÒT solving thc problcm
is us, thc combincd probability is
e correct answer is E.
Zìo. ll
ì
x
ì
x + ì
ì
x + 4
- = , then x cou|d be
|/ì C
|Bì -ì
|Cì -Z
|0ì -3
|Lì -4
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Solvc thc cquation lor x. 8cgin by multiplying all
thc tcrms by x(x ÷ 1)(x ÷ 4) to climinatc thc
dcnominators.

(x ÷ 1)(x ÷ 4) x(x ÷ 4) - x(x ÷ 1)
(x ÷ 4)(x ÷ 1 x) - x(x ÷ 1) lactor thc (x ÷ 4) out
lront on thc lclt sidc
(x ÷ 4)(1) - x(x ÷ 1) simplily
x ÷ 4 - x
2
÷ x distributc thc x on
thc right sidc
4 - x
2
subtract x lrom both
sidcs
±2 - x takc thc squarc root
ol both sidcs
8oth 2 and 2 arc squarc roots ol 4 sincc (2)
2
- 4
and (2)
2
us, x could bc 2.
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows.
Rcwritc thc lclt sidc as ,
thcn sct cqual to thc right sidc to gct
1
1
1
4 x x x +
( )
=
+
. Ncxt, cross multiply:
(1)(x ÷ 4) - x(x crclorc, x ÷ 4 - x
2
÷ x,
or x
2
- 4, so x - ± 2.
e correct answer is C.
258
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Zìb.
ì
Z
ì
4
ì
ìb
3 Z ì

  
|/ì
ì
Z
4ß 
|Bì
ì
Z
ìì 
|Cì
ì
Z
b 
|0ì
ì
ß
ìì 
|Lì
ì
ß
b 
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
!t is clcar lrom thc answcr choiccs that all thrcc
lactors nccd to bc writtcn with a common
dcnominator, and thcy thus bccomc
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
3 3
2 2
2

 
 







 
4
1 4
1
4
3
1
16
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
So,
44
1
16
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
3 4 4


 
  

    3 4 4 11
1
2

.
e correct answer is B.
Zì/. ln a certa|n ¿ame, a |ar¿e conta|ner |s h||ed w|th red,
ye||ow, ¿reen, and b|ue beads worth, respect|ve|y, /,
o, 3, and Z po|nts each. / number ol beads are then
removed lrom the conta|ner. ll the product ol the po|nt
va|ues ol the removed beads |s ì4/,CCC, how many
red beads were removed'
|/ì o
|Bì 4
|Cì 3
|0ì Z
|Lì C
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
From this, thc rcd bcads rcprcscnt lactors ol 7 in
thc total point valuc ol 147,000. Sincc 147,000 -
147(1,000), and 1,000 - 10
3
, thcn 147 is all that
nccds to bc lactorcd to dctcrminc thc lactors ol 7.
Factoring 147 yiclds 147 - (3)(49) - (3)(7
2
is
mcans thcrc arc 2 lactors ol 7, or 2 rcd bcads.
e correct answer is D.
Zìß.
ll , then
Z
ì
Z
ì

 
y
y
|/ì - Z
|Bì -
ì
Z
|Cì
ì
Z
|0ì Z
|Lì 3
AIgebra first-degree equations
Solvc lor y.
2
1
2
1


y
1
2
2  
y
multiply both sidcs by 1
2

y

2
1
y
 subtract 1 lrom cach sidc
y - 2 solvc lor y
e correct answer is D.
Zì9. ll a, b, and c are consecut|ve pos|t|ve |nte¿ers and
a < b < c, wh|ch ol the lo||ow|n¿ must be true'
l. c - a = Z
ll. abc |s an even |nte¿er.
lll.
a + b + c
3
|s an |nte¿er.
259
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
|/ì l on|y
|Bì ll on|y
|Cì l and ll on|y
|0ì ll and lll on|y
|Lì l, ll, and lll
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Sincc a, b, and c arc consccutivc positivc intcgcrs
and a · b · c, thcn b - a ÷ 1 and c - a ÷ 2.
!. c a - (a ÷ 2) a - 2 MUST bc truc
!!. (odd)(cvcn)(odd) - cvcn MUST bc truc
(cvcn)(odd)(cvcn) - cvcn MUST bc truc
!!!.
a b c a a a  

       
3
1 2
3
3 3 a
a b 

  
3
1
b is an intcgcr MUST bc truc
e correct answer is E.
ZZC. / part·t|me emp|oyee whose hour|y wa¿e was
|ncreased by Zo percent dec|ded to reduce the
number ol hours worked per week so that the
emp|oyee's tota| week|y |ncome wou|d rema|n
unchan¿ed. By what percent shou|d the number ol
hours worked be reduced'
|/ì ìZ.oº
|Bì ZCº
|Cì Zoº
|0ì oCº
|Lì /oº
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct . rcprcscnt thc original hourly wagc.
Lctting h bc thc original numbcr ol hours thc
cmploycc workcd pcr wcck, thc original wcckly
incomc can bc cxprcsscd as .h. Givcn a 25º
incrcasc in hourly wagc, thc cmploycc's ncw wagc
is thus 1.25.. Lctting H bc thc rcduccd numbcr
ol hours, thc problcm can thcn bc cxprcsscd as:
1.25.H - .h (ncw wagc)(ncw hours) -
(original wagc)(original hours)
8y dividing both sidcs by ., this cquation can bc
solvcd lor H:
1.25H - h
H - 0.8h
Sincc thc ncw hours should bc 0.8 - 80º ol thc
original hours, thc numbcr ol hours workcd
should bc rcduccd by 20 pcrccnt.
e correct answer is B.
ZZì. 0l the ZCC students at Co||e¿e 1 major|n¿ |n one or
more ol the sc|ences, ì3C are major|n¿ |n chem|stry
and ìoC are major|n¿ |n b|o|o¿y. ll at |east 3C ol the
students are not major|n¿ |n e|ther chem|stry or
b|o|o¿y, then the number ol students major|n¿ |n both
chem|stry and b|o|o¿y cou|d be any number lrom
|/ì ZC to oC
|Bì 4C to /C
|Cì oC to ì3C
|0ì ììC to ì3C
|Lì ììC to ìoC
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
A \cnn diagram will hclp with this problcm.
crc arc two cxtrcmcs that nccd to bc
considcrcd: (1) having thc lcast numbcr ol
studcnts majoring in both chcmistry and biology
and (2) having thc grcatcst numbcr ol studcnts
majoring in both chcmistry and biology.
(1) !l at lcast 30 scicncc majors arc not majoring
in cithcr chcmistry or biology, thcn at most
200 30 - 170 studcnts can bc majoring in
cithcr or both. Sincc thcrc arc 130 ÷ 150 -
280 biology and chcmistry majors (somc ol
whom arc individual studcnts majoring in both
arcas), thcn thcrc arc at lcast 280 170 - 110
c diagram lollowing shows
this rclationship.
260
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ZC ììC 4C
Chem|stry B|o|o¿y
ì/C 101/l 3100LN13
l0b CHLll31bY /N0 Bl0l00Y l/J0b3
c maximum numbcr ol studcnts who can
bc majoring in both chcmistry and biology is 130,
sincc 130 is thc numbcr givcn as majoring in
chcmistry, thc smallcr ol thc two subjcct arcas.
Logically, thcrc cannot bc morc doublc majors
c
diagram bclow shows this rclationship in tcrms ol
thc givcn numbcrs ol majors in cach subjcct arca.
C ì3C ZC
Chem|stry B|o|o¿y
Additionally, lrom this diagram it can bc sccn
that thc total numbcr ol studcnts who arc
majoring in chcmistry, or in biology, or in both
us, thcrc arc 200 150 -
50 studcnts who arc ncithcr chcmistry nor biology
is numbcr is not in conßict with thc
condition that 30 is thc minimum numbcr ol
nonchcmistry and nonbiology majors.
us, thc numbcr ol studcnts majoring in both
chcmistry and biology could bc any numbcr lrom
a minimum ol 110 to a maximum ol 130.
e correct answer is D.
ZZZ. ll o -
b
x
= x, then x has how many poss|b|e va|ues'
|/ì None
|Bì 0ne
|Cì 1wo
|0ì / hn|te number ¿reater than two
|Lì /n |nhn|te number
AIgebra 5econd-degree equations
Solvc thc cquation to dctcrminc how many valucs
arc possiblc lor x.
5
6
x
- x
5x 6 - x
2
0 - x
2
5x ÷ 6
0 - (x 3)(x 2)
x - 3 or 2
e correct answer is C.
ZZ3. 3eed m|xture / |s 4C percent rye¿rass and bC percent
b|ue¿rass by we|¿ht; seed m|xture Y |s Zo percent
rye¿rass and /o percent lescue. ll a m|xture ol / and
Y conta|ns 3C percent rye¿rass, what percent ol the
we|¿ht ol the m|xture |s / '
|/ì ìCº
|Bì 33
ì
3
º
|Cì 4Cº
|0ì oCº
|Lì bb
Z
3
º
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct X bc thc amount ol sccd mixturc X in thc
nnal mixturc, and lct Y bc thc amount ol sccd
c nnal
mixturc ol X and Y nccds to contain 30 pcrccnt
rycgrass sccd, so any othcr kinds ol grass sccd arc
c
inlormation about thc rycgrass pcrccntagcs lor X,
Y, and thc nnal mixturc can bc cxprcsscd in thc
lollowing cquation and solvcd lor X.
261
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
0.40X ÷ 0.25Y - 0.30(X ÷ Y)
0.40X ÷ 0.25Y - 0.30X ÷ 0.30Y distributc thc
0.30 on thc
right sidc
0.10X - 0.05Y subtract 0.30X
and 0.25Y lrom
both sidcs
X - 0.5Y dividc both
sidcs by 0.10
Using this, thc pcrccnt ol thc wcight ol thc
combincd mixturc (X ÷ Y) that is X is
X
X Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Y 


   
0 5
0 5
0 5
1 5
0 5
1 5
0 333 33
1
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
. º
e correct answer is B.
ZZ4. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, then n|n + ìì|n + Zì |s
|/ì even on|y when n |s even
|Bì even on|y when n |s odd
|Cì odd whenever n |s odd
|0ì d|v|s|b|e by 3 on|y when n |s odd
|Lì d|v|s|b|e by 4 whenever n |s even
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
c numbcrs n, n + 1, and n ÷ 2 arc consccutivc
crclorc, cithcr thcir product is
(odd)(cvcn)(odd) - cvcn, or thcir product is
(cvcn)(odd)(cvcn) - cvcn. !n cithcr casc, thc
product ol n(n + 1)(n + us, cach
ol answcr choiccs A, 8, and C is lalsc.
A statcmcnt is lalsc il a countcrcxamplc can bc
shown. Tcst thc statcmcnt using an cvcn multiplc
ol 3 as thc valuc ol n in thc cquation. Vhcn
n - 6, n(n ÷ 1)(n ÷ 2) - 6(7)(8) - 336. Sincc in this
countcrcxamplc n is cvcn but 336 is still divisiblc
by 3, answcr choicc Ð is shown to bc lalsc.
Vhcn n is cvcn (mcaning divisiblc by 2), n ÷ 2
is also cvcn (and also divisiblc by 2). So
n(n + 1)(n + 2) is always divisiblc by 4.
e correct answer is E.
ZZo. / stra|¿ht p|pe ì yard |n |en¿th was marked oll |n
lourths and a|so |n th|rds. ll the p|pe was then cut |nto
separate p|eces at each ol these mark|n¿s, wh|ch ol
the lo||ow|n¿ ¿|ves a|| the d|llerent |en¿ths ol the
p|eces, |n lract|ons ol a yard'
|/ì
ì
b
and
ì
4
on|y
|Bì
ì
4
and
ì
3
on|y
|Cì
ì
b
,
ì
4
, and
ì
3
|0ì
ì
ìZ
,
ì
b
, and
ì
4
|Lì
ì
ìZ
,
ì
b
, and
ì
3
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
8 C Ð ¡ F
0
11
1
4
1
3
1
2
2
3
3
4
A
c numbcr linc abovc illustratcs thc markings
on thc pipc. Sincc thc pipc is cut at thc nvc
markings, six picccs ol pipc arc produccd.
c lcngth ol cach piccc, as a lraction ol a yard,
is givcn in thc lollowing tablc.
P|µe µ|ece Length
A
8
C
Ð
¡
F
e correct answer is D.
262
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ZZb. ll = o × ìC
/
, then m - k =
|/ì 9
|Bì ß
|Cì /
|0ì b
|Lì o
Arithmetic Operations on rationaI numbers
c lclt sidc is casicr to work with whcn thc
cxprcssions arc rcwrittcn so that intcgcrs arc
involvcd:

- 5 × 10
7


- 5 × 10
7

× - 5 × 10
7
5 × - 5 × 10
7

- 10
7
10
m 4 (k 2)
- 10
7
m 4 (k 2) - 7
m k 2 - 7
m k - 9
e correct answer is A.
ZZ/. ll x + y = a and x - y = b, then Zxy =
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì
|0ì
|Lì
AIgebra 5impIi!ying aIgebraic expressions
8cgin by adding thc two givcn cquations to
cstablish a valuc lor x. Adding x ÷ y - a and
x y - b givcs 2x - a ÷ b and thus x - .
cn, substitutc this valuc ol x into thc nrst
cquation and solvc lor y:
Finally, solvc thc cquation, substituting thc valucs
now cstablishcd lor x and y:
is problcm can also bc solvcd as lollows: Sincc
thc squarcs ol x ÷ y and x y, whcn cxpandcd,
cach includc thc cxprcssion x
2
÷ y
2
along with a
multiplc ol xy, wc can obtain a multiplc ol xy by
subtracting thcsc squarcs:
a
2
b
2
- (x ÷ y)
2
(x y)
2
- x
2
÷ 2xy + y
2
(x
2
2xy + y
2
)
- 4xy
- 2(2xy)

- 2xy
e correct answer is A.
263
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
p, r, s, t, u
ZZß. /n ar|thmet|c sequence |s a sequence |n wh|ch
each term alter the hrst |s equa| to the sum ol the
preced|n¿ term and a constant. ll the ||st ol |etters
shown above |s an ar|thmet|c sequence, wh|ch ol the
lo||ow|n¿ must a|so be an ar|thmet|c sequence'
l. Zp, Zr, Zs, Zt, Zu
ll. p - 3, r - 3, s - 3, t - 3, u - 3
lll. p
Z
, r
Z
, s
Z
, t
Z
, u
Z

|/ì l on|y
|Bì ll on|y
|Cì lll on|y
|0ì l and ll
|Lì ll and lll
AIgebra Concepts o! sets, functions
!t lollows lrom thc dcnnition ol arithmctic
scqucncc givcn in thc nrst scntcncc that thcrc is a
constant c such that r ÷ p - s ÷ r - t ÷ s - u ÷ t - c.
To tcst a scqucncc to dctcrminc whcthcr it is
crcncc ol cach pair
ol consccutivc tcrms in that scqucncc to scc il a
crcncc is lound.
!. 2r 2p - 2(r p) - 2c
2s 2r - 2(s r) - 2c
2t 2s - 2(t s) - 2c
2u 2t - 2(u t) - 2c MUST bc
arithmctic
!!. (r 3) (p 3) - r p - c MUST bc
arithmctic
Sincc all valucs arc just thrcc lcss than thc
crcncc applics.
!!!. r
2
- p
2
- (r - p)(r ÷ p) - c(r ÷ p)
s
2
- r
2
- (s - r)(s ÷ r) - c(s ÷ r) N¡¡Ð NÒT
bc arithmctic
Sincc p, r, s, t, and u arc an arithmctic scqucncc,
r ÷ p s ÷ r, bccausc p s unlcss c - 0.
e correct answer is D.
ZZ9. b|¿ht tr|an¿|e lÇR |s to be constructed |n the xy·p|ane
so that the r|¿ht an¿|e |s at l and lR |s para||e| to the
x·ax|s. 1he x· and y·coord|nates ol l, Ç, and R are to
be |nte¿ers that sat|sly the |nequa||t|es -4 x o and
b y ìb. How many d|llerent tr|an¿|es w|th these
propert|es cou|d be constructed'
|/ì ììC
|Bì ì,ìCC
|Cì 9,9CC
|0ì ìC,CCC
|Lì ìZ,ìCC
Geometry, Arithmetic 5impIe coordinate
geometry, EIementary combinatorics
!n thc xy-planc, right trianglc PQF is locatcd in
thc rcctangular rcgion dctcrmincd by -4 x 5
and 6 y 16 (scc lollowing illustration).
y
x
P
6
5 4
16
Sincc thc coordinatcs ol points P, Q, and F arc
intcgcrs, thcrc arc 10 possiblc x valucs and 11
possiblc y valucs, so point P can bc any onc ol
10(11) - 110 points in thc rcctangular arca.
Sincc PF

has to bc horizontal, F has thc samc
y valuc as P and can havc 9 othcr x valucs. PQ
has to bc vcrtical, so Q has thc samc x valuc as
P and can havc 10 othcr y is givcs
110(9)(10) - 9,900 possiblc trianglcs.
e correct answer is C.
264
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ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
Z3C. 1he va|ue ol |s how many
t|mes the va|ue ol Z
-ì/
'
|/ì
|Bì
|Cì 3
|0ì 4
|Lì o
Arithmetic Negative exponents
!l thc valuc ol is x timcs
thc valuc ol 2
17
, thcn
x(2
17
) -

x -
- × 2
17
-
-

-

-

- 3
e correct answer is C.
265
5.5 ProbIem 5oIving Ansver ExpIanations
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266
6.0 Data 5u!ñciency
6.0 Data 5u!ñciency
267
6.0 Data 5u!ñciency
Ðata sulncicncy qucstions appcar in thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT¹ tcst. Multiplcchoicc
data sulncicncy qucstions arc intcrminglcd with problcm solving qucstions throughout thc scction.
You will havc 75 minutcs to complctc thc Quantitativc scction ol thc GMAT tcst, or about 2
csc qucstions rcquirc knowlcdgc ol thc lollowing topics:
Arithmctic ·
¡lcmcntary algcbra ·
Commonly known conccpts ol gcomctry ·
Ðata sulncicncy qucstions arc dcsigncd to mcasurc your ability to analyzc a quantitativc problcm,
rccognizc which givcn inlormation is rclcvant, and dctcrminc at what point thcrc is sulncicnt
inlormation to solvc a problcm. !n thcsc qucstions, you arc to classily cach problcm according to
thc nvc nxcd answcr choiccs, rathcr than nnd a solution to thc problcm.
¡ach data sulncicncy qucstion consists ol a qucstion, oltcn accompanicd by somc initial
inlormation, and two statcmcnts, labclcd (1) and (2), which contain additional inlormation. You
must dccidc whcthcr thc inlormation in cach statcmcnt is sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion or
il ncithcr statcmcnt providcs cnough inlormationwhcthcr thc inlormation in thc two statcmcnts
togcthcr is sulncicnt. !t is also possiblc that thc statcmcnts in combination do not givc cnough
inlormation to answcr thc qucstion.
8cgin by rcading thc initial inlormation and thc qucstion carclully. Ncxt, considcr thc nrst statcmcnt.
Ðocs thc inlormation providcd by thc nrst statcmcnt cnablc you to answcr thc qucstion: Go on to
thc sccond statcmcnt. Try to ignorc thc inlormation givcn in thc nrst statcmcnt whcn you considcr
whcthcr thc sccond statcmcnt providcs inlormation that, by itscll, allows you to answcr thc qucstion.
Now you should bc ablc to say, lor cach statcmcnt, whcthcr it is sulncicnt to dctcrminc thc answcr.
Ncxt, considcr thc two statcmcnts in tandcm. Ðo thcy, togcthcr, cnablc you to answcr thc qucstion:
Look again at your answcr choiccs. Sclcct thc onc that most accuratcly rcßccts whcthcr thc
statcmcnts providc thc inlormation rcquircd to answcr thc qucstion.
268
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6.1 Test-Taking 5trategies
1. Do not vaste vaIuabIe time soIving a probIem.
You only nccd to dctcrminc whcthcr sulncicnt inlormation is givcn to solvc it.
2. Consider each statement separateIy.
First, dccidc whcthcr cach statcmcnt alonc givcs sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm. 8c
surc to disrcgard thc inlormation givcn in statcmcnt (1) whcn you cvaluatc thc inlormation givcn
in statcmcnt (2). !l cithcr, or both, ol thc statcmcnts givc(s) sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc
problcm, sclcct thc answcr corrcsponding to thc dcscription ol which statcmcnt(s) givc(s)
sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm.
3. 1udge the statements in tandem i! neither statement is su!ñcient by itseI!.
!t is possiblc that thc two statcmcnts togcthcr do not providc sulncicnt inlormation. Òncc you
dccidc, sclcct thc answcr corrcsponding to thc dcscription ol whcthcr thc statcmcnts togcthcr givc
sulncicnt inlormation to solvc thc problcm.
4. Ansver the question asked.
For cxamplc, il thc qucstion asks, "Vhat is thc valuc ol y :" lor an answcr statcmcnt to bc
sulncicnt, you must bc ablc to nnd onc and only onc valuc lor y. 8cing ablc to dctcrminc
minimum or maximum valucs lor an answcr (c.g., y - x ÷ 2) is not sulncicnt, bccausc such
answcrs constitutc a rangc ol valucs rathcr than thc spccinc valuc ol y.
5. ße very care!uI not to make unvarranted assumptions based on the
images represented.
Figurcs arc not ncccssarily drawn to scalc, thcy arc gcncralizcd ngurcs showing littlc morc than
intcrsccting linc scgmcnts and thc rclationships ol points, anglcs, and rcgions. So, lor cxamplc, il a
ngurc dcscribcd as a rcctanglc looks likc a squarc, do not concludc that it is, in lact, a squarc just by
looking at thc ngurc.
269
¡f statement 1 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc A or D.
¡f statement 2 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc A.
¡f statement 2 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc D.
¡f statement 1 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc B, C, or E.
¡f statement 2 is sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc B.
¡f statement 2 is not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc C or E.
¡f both statements together are sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc C.
¡f both statements together are still not sufhcient, thcn thc answcr must bc E.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes No
No
No
No
ls 3tatement ì 3ulhc|ent /|one'
ls 3tatement Z 3ulhc|ent /|one' ls 3tatement Z 3ulhc|ent /|one'
/re 3tatements ì & Z
3ulhc|ent 1o¿ether'
Correct
/nswer
|s 0
Correct
/nswer
|s /
Correct
/nswer
|s B
Correct
/nswer
|s C
Correct
/nswer
|s L
6.1 Data 5u!ñciency Test-Taking 5trategies
270
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®
ßeviev 12th Edition
6.2 The Directions
csc dircctions arc similar to thosc you will scc lor data sulncicncy qucstions whcn you takc thc
GMAT tcst. !l you rcad thc dircctions carclully and undcrstand thcm clcarly bclorc going to sit lor
thc tcst, you will not nccd to spcnd much timc rcvicwing thcm whcn you takc thc GMAT tcst.
¡ach data sulncicncy problcm consists ol a qucstion and two statcmcnts, labclcd (1) and (2), that
givc data. You havc to dccidc whcthcr thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts arc sufµcient lor answcring
thc qucstion. Using thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts plus your knowlcdgc ol mathcmatics and
cvcryday lacts (such as thc numbcr ol days in July or thc mcaning ol counterclock.ise), you must
indicatc whcthcr thc data givcn in thc statcmcnts arc sulncicnt lor answcring thc qucstions and thcn
indicatc onc ol thc lollowing answcr choiccs:
(A) Statcmcnt (1) ALÒN¡ is sulncicnt, but statcmcnt (2) alonc is not sulncicnt to answcr
thc qucstion askcd,
(8) Statcmcnt (2) ALÒN¡ is sulncicnt, but statcmcnt (1) alonc is not sulncicnt to answcr
thc qucstion askcd,
(C) 8ÒTH statcmcnts (1) and (2) TÒG¡TH¡R arc sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion
askcd, but N¡!TH¡R statcmcnt ALÒN¡ is sulncicnt,
(Ð) ¡ACH statcmcnt ALÒN¡ is sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion askcd,
(¡) Statcmcnts (1) and (2) TÒG¡TH¡R arc NÒT sulncicnt to answcr thc qucstion
askcd, and additional data arc nccdcd.
NÒT¡: !n data sulncicncy problcms that ask lor thc valuc ol a quantity, thc data givcn in thc
statcmcnts arc sulncicnt only whcn it is possiblc to dctcrminc cxactly onc numcrical valuc lor
thc quantity.
Numbers· All numbcrs uscd arc rcal numbcrs.
Iigures· A ngurc accompanying a data sulncicncy problcm will conlorm to thc inlormation givcn
in thc qucstion but will not ncccssarily conlorm to thc additional inlormation givcn in statcmcnts
(1) and (2).
Lincs shown as straight can bc assumcd to bc straight and lincs that appcar jaggcd can also bc
assumcd to bc straight.
You may assumc that thc positions ol points, anglcs, rcgions, and so lorth cxist in thc ordcr shown
and that anglc mcasurcs arc grcatcr than zcro dcgrccs.
All ngurcs lic in a planc unlcss othcrwisc indicatcd.
271
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6.2 Data 5u!ñciency The Directions
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6.3 5ampIe Çuestions
Each data su!ñciency probIem consists o! a question and tvo statements, IabeIed (1) and (2), vhich
contain certain data. Using these data and your knovIedge o! mathematics and everyday !acts (such as
the number o! days in 1uIy or the meaning o! the vord counterclockwise), decide vhether the data
given are su!ñcient !or ansvering the question and then indicate one o! the !oIIoving ansver choices.
A 5tatement (1) ALONE is su!ñcient, but statement (2) aIone is not su!ñcient.
ß 5tatement (2) ALONE is su!ñcient, but statement (1) aIone is not su!ñcient.
C ßOTH statements TOGETHEß are su!ñcient, but NEITHEß statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
D EACH statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
E 5tatements (1) and (2) TOGETHEß are not su!ñcient.
Note. In data su!ñciency probIems that ask !or the vaIue o! a quantity, the data given in the statements
are su!ñcient onIy vhen it is possibIe to determine exactIy one numericaI vaIue !or quantity.
ExampIe.
x
º
y
º
z
º
P
Q F
ln lÇR, what |s the va|ue ol x '
|ìì lÇ = lR
|Zì y = 4C
ExpIanation. According to statement (1) PQ = PR, there!ore, PQR is isosceIes and y = z. 5ince x + y + z =
180, it !oIIovs that x + 2y = 180. 5ince statement (1) does not give a vaIue !or y, you cannot ansver the
question using statement (1) aIone. According to statement (2), y = 40, there!ore, x + z = 140. 5ince
statement (2) does not give a vaIue !or z, you cannot ansver the question using statement (2) aIone.
Using both statements together, since x + 2y = 180 and the vaIue o! y is given, you can ñnd the vaIue
o! x. There!ore, ßOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHEß are su!ñcient to ansver the questions, but
NEITHEß statement ALONE is su!ñcient.
Numbers. AII numbers used are reaI numbers.
figures.
º figures con!orm to the in!ormation given in the question, but viII not necessariIy con!orm to the
additionaI in!ormation given in statements (1) and (2).
º Lines shovn as straight are straight, and Iines that appear jagged are aIso straight.
º The positions o! points, angIes, regions, etc., exist in the order shovn, and angIe measures are
greater than zero.
º AII ñgures Iie in a pIane unIess othervise indicated.
273
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
ì. what |s the va|ue ol [x[ '
|ìì x = -[x[
|Zì x
Z
= 4
Z. what percent ol a ¿roup ol peop|e are women w|th
red ha|r'
|ìì 0l the women |n the ¿roup, o percent have
red ha|r.
|Zì 0l the men |n the ¿roup, ìC percent have
red ha|r.
3. ln a certa|n c|ass, one student |s to be se|ected at
random to read. what |s the probab|||ty that a boy
w||| read'
|ìì 1wo·th|rds ol the students |n the c|ass are boys.
|Zì 1en ol the students |n the c|ass are ¿|r|s.
4. ln Co||e¿e / the number ol students enro||ed |n both a
chem|stry course and a b|o|o¿y course |s how much
|ess than the number ol students enro||ed |n ne|ther'
|ìì ln Co||e¿e / there are bC students enro||ed |n a
chem|stry course.
|Zì ln Co||e¿e / there are ßo students enro||ed |n a
b|o|o¿y course.
o. / certa|n expressway has Lx|ts J, b, l, and l, |n that
order. what |s the road d|stance lrom Lx|t b to Lx|t l '
|ìì 1he road d|stance lrom Lx|t J to Lx|t l |s
Zì k||ometers.
|Zì 1he road d|stance lrom Lx|t b to Lx|t l |s
Zb k||ometers.
b. ll n |s an |nte¿er, |s n + ì odd '
|ìì n + Z |s an even |nte¿er.
|Zì n - ì |s an odd |nte¿er.
/. lor wh|ch type ol |nvestment, J or b, |s the annua| rate
ol return ¿reater'
|ìì 1ype J returns Sììo per Sì,CCC |nvested lor any
one·year per|od and type b returns S3CC per
SZ,oCC |nvested lor any one·year per|od.
|Zì 1he annua| rate ol return lor an |nvestment ol
type b |s ìZ percent.
ß. / c|trus lru|t ¿rower rece|ves Sìo lor each crate ol
oran¿es sh|pped and Sìß lor each crate ol ¿rapelru|t
sh|pped. How many crates ol oran¿es d|d the ¿rower
sh|p |ast week'
|ìì last week the number ol crates ol oran¿es that
the ¿rower sh|pped was ZC more than tw|ce the
number ol crates ol ¿rapelru|t sh|pped.
|Zì last week the ¿rower rece|ved a tota| ol
S3ß,/CC lrom the crates ol oran¿es and
¿rapelru|t sh|pped.
9. ll lat saved SbCC ol h|s earn|n¿s |ast month, how
much d|d lat earn |ast month'
|ìì lat spent ol h|s earn|n¿s |ast month lor ||v|n¿
expenses and saved ol the rema|nder.
|Zì 0l h|s earn|n¿s |ast month, lat pa|d tw|ce as
much |n taxes as he saved.
ìC. water |s pumped |nto a part|a||y h||ed tank at a
constant rate throu¿h an |n|et p|pe. /t the same t|me,
water |s pumped out ol the tank at a constant rate
throu¿h an out|et p|pe. /t what rate, |n ¿a||ons per
m|nute, |s the amount ol water |n the tank |ncreas|n¿'
|ìì 1he amount ol water |n|t|a||y |n the tank |s
ZCC ¿a||ons.
|Zì water |s pumped |nto the tank at a rate ol
ìC ¿a||ons per m|nute and out ol the tank at a
rate ol ìC ¿a||ons every Z
ì
Z
m|nutes.
ìì. ls x a ne¿at|ve number'
|ìì 9x > ìCx
|Zì x + 3 |s pos|t|ve.
ìZ. ll i and j are |nte¿ers, |s i + j an even |nte¿er'
|ìì i < ìC
|Zì i = j
ì3. 1he char¿e lor a te|ephone ca|| between C|ty b and
C|ty 3 |s SC.4Z lor each ol the hrst 3 m|nutes and
SC.ìß lor each add|t|ona| m|nute. / certa|n ca||
between these two c|t|es |asted lor x m|nutes, where
x |s an |nte¿er. How many m|nutes |on¿ was the ca||'
|ìì 1he char¿e lor the hrst 3 m|nutes ol the ca|| was
SC.3b |ess than the char¿e lor the rema|nder ol
the ca||.
|Zì 1he tota| char¿e lor the ca|| was SZ.ßß.
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ì4. ll Car / lo||owed Car Y across a certa|n br|d¿e that |s

ì
Z
m||e |on¿, how many seconds d|d |t take Car / to
trave| across the br|d¿e'
|ìì Car / drove onto the br|d¿e exact|y 3 seconds
alter Car Y drove onto the br|d¿e and drove oll
the br|d¿e exact|y Z seconds alter Car Y drove
oll the br|d¿e.
|Zì Car Y trave|ed across the br|d¿e at a constant
speed ol 3C m||es per hour.
ìo. ll n + k = m, what |s the va|ue ol k '
|ìì n = ìC
|Zì m + ìC = n
ìb. ls x an |nte¿er'
|ìì
x
Z
|s an |nte¿er.
|Zì Zx |s an |nte¿er.
ì/. ls the |nte¿er l odd'
|ìì 1he sum ol l, l + 4, and l + ìì |s even.
|Zì 1he sum ol l - 3, l, and l + ìì |s odd.
ìß. what |s the max|mum number ol rectan¿u|ar b|ocks,
each w|th d|mens|ons ìZ cent|meters by b cent|meters
by 4 cent|meters, that w||| ht |ns|de rectan¿u|ar Box / '
|ìì when Box / |s h||ed w|th the b|ocks and rests
on a certa|n s|de, there are Zo b|ocks |n the
bottom |ayer.
|Zì 1he |ns|de d|mens|ons ol Box / are
bC cent|meters by 3C cent|meters by
ZC cent|meters.
ì9. ll sequence S has ZCC terms, what |s the ì9Znd term
ol S '
|ìì 1he hrst term ol S |s -4C.
|Zì Lach term ol S alter the hrst term |s 3 |ess than
the preced|n¿ term.
ZC. ln lÇR, |l lÇ = x, ÇR = x + Z, and lR = y, wh|ch ol
the three an¿|es ol lÇR has the ¿reatest de¿ree
measure'
|ìì y = x + 3
|Zì x = Z
Zì. what percent ol the drama c|ub members enro||ed at a
certa|n schoo| are lema|e students'
|ìì 0l the lema|e students enro||ed at the schoo|,
4C percent are members ol the drama c|ub.
|Zì 0l the ma|e students enro||ed at the schoo|,
Zo percent are members ol the drama c|ub.
ZZ. / lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| conta|ns more cerea| and
costs more than the re¿u|ar·s|ze box ol cerea|. what |s
the cost per ounce ol the lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea|'
|ìì 1he lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| conta|ns ìC ounces
more than the re¿u|ar·s|ze box ol cerea|.
|Zì 1he lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| costs So.4C.
Z3. 1he proht lrom the sa|e ol a certa|n app||ance
|ncreases, thou¿h not proport|ona||y, w|th the number
ol un|ts so|d. 0|d the proht exceed S4 m||||on on sa|es
ol 3ßC,CCC un|ts'
|ìì 1he proht exceeded SZ m||||on on sa|es ol
ZCC,CCC un|ts.
|Zì 1he proht exceeded So m||||on on sa|es ol
3oC,CCC un|ts.
Z4. ll n |s an |nte¿er, |s n even'
|ìì n
Z
- ì |s an odd |nte¿er.
|Zì 3n + 4 |s an even |nte¿er.
Zo. Carmen current|y works 3C hours per week at her
part·t|me job. ll her ¿ross hour|y wa¿e were to
|ncrease by Sì.oC, how many lewer hours cou|d she
work per week and st||| earn the same ¿ross week|y
pay as belore the |ncrease'
|ìì Her ¿ross week|y pay |s current|y SZZo.CC.
|Zì /n |ncrease ol Sì.oC wou|d represent an |ncrease
ol ZC percent ol her current ¿ross hour|y wa¿e.
Zb. 1he number n ol un|ts ol |ts product that Company / |s
schedu|ed to produce |n month t ol |ts next hsca| year
|s ¿|ven by the lormu|a n = , where c |s a
constant and t |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er between ì and b,
|nc|us|ve. what |s the number ol un|ts ol |ts product
that Company / |s schedu|ed to produce |n month b ol
|ts next hsca| year'
|ìì Company / |s schedu|ed to produce ìßC un|ts ol
|ts product |n month ì ol |ts next hsca| year.
|Zì Company / |s schedu|ed to produce 3CC un|ts ol
|ts product |n month Z ol |ts next hsca| year.
275
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
Z/. when ZCC ¿a||ons ol o|| were removed lrom a tank,
the vo|ume ol o|| |elt |n the tank was


ol the tank's
capac|ty. what was the tank's capac|ty'
|ìì Belore the ZCC ¿a||ons were removed, the
vo|ume ol o|| |n the tank was
ì
Z
ol the tank's
capac|ty.
|Zì /lter the ZCC ¿a||ons were removed, the vo|ume
ol the o|| |elt |n the tank was ì,bCC ¿a||ons |ess
than the tank's capac|ty.
Zß. 0|v|s|on b ol Company Ç has ì,CCC emp|oyees. what
|s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì annua| sa|ary ol the
emp|oyees at Company Ç '
|ìì 1he avera¿e annua| sa|ary ol the emp|oyees |n
0|v|s|on b |s S3C,CCC.
|Zì 1he avera¿e annua| sa|ary ol the emp|oyees
at Company Ç who are not |n 0|v|s|on b |s
S3o,CCC.
x mctcrs 
Z9. / c|rcu|ar tub has a band pa|nted around |ts
c|rcumlerence, as shown above. what |s the surlace
area ol th|s pa|nted band'
|ìì x = C.o
|Zì 1he he|¿ht ol the tub |s ì meter.
3C. what |s the va|ue ol |nte¿er n '
|ìì n | n + ìì = b
|Zì Z
Zn
= ìb
d = C.43t

/
3ì. ll t denotes the thousandths d|¿|t |n the dec|ma|
representat|on ol d above, what d|¿|t |s t '
|ìì ll d were rounded to the nearest hundredth,
the resu|t wou|d be C.44.
|Zì ll d were rounded to the nearest thousandth,
the resu|t wou|d be C.43b.
3Z. Jerry bou¿ht / c|oth|n¿ |tems, |nc|ud|n¿ a coat, and
the sum ol the pr|ces ol these |tems was S3bo. ll
there was no sa|es tax on any c|oth|n¿ |tem w|th a
pr|ce ol |ess than SìCC and a / percent sa|es tax on
a|| other c|oth|n¿ |tems, what was the tota| sa|es tax
on the / |tems that Jerry bou¿ht'
|ìì 1he pr|ce ol the coat was SìZo.
|Zì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì pr|ce lor the
b |tems other than the coat was S4C.
33. what was the pr|ce at wh|ch a merchant so|d a certa|n
app||ance'
|ìì 1he merchant's ¿ross proht on the app||ance
was ZC percent ol the pr|ce at wh|ch the
merchant so|d the app||ance.
|Zì 1he pr|ce at wh|ch the merchant so|d the
app||ance was SoC more than the merchant's
cost ol the app||ance.
34. 1he |ns|de ol a rectan¿u|ar carton |s 4ß cent|meters
|on¿, 3Z cent|meters w|de, and ìo cent|meters h|¿h.
1he carton |s h||ed to capac|ty w|th k |dent|ca|
cy||ndr|ca| cans ol lru|t that stand upr|¿ht |n rows and
co|umns, as |nd|cated |n the h¿ure above. ll the cans
are ìo cent|meters h|¿h, what |s the va|ue ol k '
|ìì Lach ol the cans has a rad|us ol 4 cent|meters.
|Zì 3|x ol the cans ht exact|y a|on¿ the |en¿th ol
the carton.
x z
y x
z t
 
 
 
4
ß
ß
3o. lor the system ol equat|ons ¿|ven, what |s the va|ue
ol z '
|ìì x = /
|Zì t = o
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The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
3b. lor a|| |nte¿ers n, the lunct|on í |s dehned by í|nì = a
n
,
where a |s a constant. what |s the va|ue ol í|ìì '
|ìì í|Zì = ìCC
|Zì í|3ì = -ì,CCC
3/. 1he se|||n¿ pr|ce ol an art|c|e |s equa| to the cost ol
the art|c|e p|us the markup. 1he markup on a certa|n
te|ev|s|on set |s what percent ol the se|||n¿ pr|ce'
|ìì 1he markup on the te|ev|s|on set |s Zo percent
ol the cost.
|Zì 1he se|||n¿ pr|ce ol the te|ev|s|on set |s SZoC.
3ß. ll p
ì
and p
Z
are the popu|at|ons and r
ì
and r
Z
are the
numbers ol representat|ves ol 0|str|ct ì and 0|str|ct Z,
respect|ve|y, the rat|o ol the popu|at|on to the number
ol representat|ves |s ¿reater lor wh|ch ol the two
d|str|cts'
|ìì p
ì
> p
Z
|Zì r
Z
> r
ì
39. ln a random samp|e ol ßC adu|ts, how many are
co||e¿e ¿raduates'
|ìì ln the samp|e, the number ol adu|ts who are not
co||e¿e ¿raduates |s 3 t|mes the number who
are co||e¿e ¿raduates.
|Zì ln the samp|e, the number ol adu|ts who are not
co||e¿e ¿raduates |s 4C more than the number
who are co||e¿e ¿raduates.
F S T U
F 0 y x 62
S y 0 56 75
T x 56 0 69
U 62 75 69 0
4C. 1he tab|e above shows the d|stance, |n k||ometers,
by the most d|rect route, between any two ol the lour
c|t|es, b, 3, 1, and 0. lor examp|e, the d|stance
between C|ty b and C|ty 0 |s bZ k||ometers. what |s
the va|ue ol x '
|ìì By the most d|rect route, the d|stance between
3 and 1 |s tw|ce the d|stance between 3 and b.
|Zì By the most d|rect route, the d|stance between
1 and 0 |s ì.o t|mes the d|stance between b
and 1.
4ì. what |s the va|ue ol the two·d|¿|t |nte¿er x '
|ìì 1he sum ol the two d|¿|ts |s 3.
|Zì x |s d|v|s|b|e by 3.
r
t
4Z. 1he h¿ure above shows the c|rcu|ar cross sect|on ol a
concrete water p|pe. ll the |ns|de rad|us ol the p|pe |s
r leet and the outs|de rad|us ol the p|pe |s t leet, what
|s the va|ue ol r '
|ìì 1he rat|o ol t - r to r |s C.ìo and t - r |s equa| to
C.3 loot.
|Zì 1he area ol the concrete |n the cross sect|on |s
43. what |s the tenths d|¿|t |n the dec|ma| representat|on
ol a certa|n number'
|ìì 1he number |s |ess than
ì
3
.
|Zì 1he number |s ¿reater than
ì
4
.
44. bobots /, Y, and Z each assemb|e components at the|r
respect|ve constant rates. ll r
x
|s the rat|o ol bobot /'s
constant rate to bobot Z's constant rate and r
y
|s the
rat|o ol bobot Y's constant rate to bobot Z's constant
rate, |s bobot Z's constant rate the ¿reatest ol the
three'
|ìì r
x
< r
y
|Zì r
y
< ì
4o. ll r |s a constant and a
n
= rn lor a|| pos|t|ve |nte¿ers n,
lor how many va|ues ol n |s a
n
< ìCC '
|ìì a
oC
= oCC
|Zì a
ìCC
+ a
ìCo
= Z,CoC
277
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
4b. ll r |s represented by the dec|ma| C.to, what |s the
d|¿|t t '
|ìì r <
|Zì r <
4/. ll the two Noors |n a certa|n bu||d|n¿ are 9 leet apart,
how many steps are there |n a set ol sta|rs that
extends lrom the hrst Noor to the second Noor ol
the bu||d|n¿'
|ìì Lach step |s
3
4
loot h|¿h.
|Zì Lach step |s ì loot w|de.
4ß. ln June ì9ß9, what was the rat|o ol the number ol
sa|es transact|ons made by 3a|esperson / to the
number ol sa|es transact|ons made by 3a|esperson Y '
|ìì ln June ì9ß9, 3a|esperson / made oC percent
more sa|es transact|ons than 3a|esperson Y d|d
|n lay ì9ß9.
|Zì ln June ì9ß9, 3a|esperson Y made Zo percent
more sa|es transact|ons than |n lay ì9ß9.
49. ll a < x < b and c < y < d, |s x < y '
|ìì a < c
|Zì b < c
oC. How many peop|e are d|rectors ol both Company b
and Company b '
|ìì 1here were ì/ d|rectors present at a jo|nt
meet|n¿ ol the d|rectors ol Company b and
Company b, and no d|rectors were absent.
|Zì Company b has ìZ d|rectors and Company b
has ß d|rectors.
oì. ll x and y are pos|t|ve, |s
x
y
¿reater than ì '
|ìì xy > ì
|Zì x - y > C
oZ. / c|oth|n¿ store acqu|red an |tem at a cost ol x do||ars
and so|d the |tem lor y do||ars. 1he store's ¿ross proht
lrom the |tem was what percent ol |ts cost lor the
|tem'
|ìì y - x = ZC
|Zì
|n - xì + |n - yì + |n - zì + |n - kì
o3. what |s the va|ue ol the express|on above'
|ìì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol x, y, z, and k
|s n.
|Zì x, y, z, and k are consecut|ve |nte¿ers.
o4. / tax| company char¿es í cents lor the hrst m||e ol the
tax| r|de and m cents lor each add|t|ona| m||e. How
much does the company char¿e lor a ìC·m||e tax| r|de'
|ìì 1he company char¿es SC.9C lor a Z·m||e r|de.
|Zì 1he company char¿es Sì.ZC lor a 4·m||e r|de.
oo. 0uy's net |ncome equa|s h|s ¿ross |ncome m|nus h|s
deduct|ons. By what percent d|d 0uy's net |ncome
chan¿e on January ì, ì9ß9, when both h|s ¿ross
|ncome and h|s deduct|ons |ncreased'
|ìì 0uy's ¿ross |ncome |ncreased by 4 percent on
January ì, ì9ß9.
|Zì 0uy's deduct|ons |ncreased by ìo percent on
January ì, ì9ß9.
x
y
z
ob. what |s the va|ue ol z |n the tr|an¿|e above'
|ìì x + y = ì39
|Zì y + z = ìCß
o/. lax has SìZo cons|st|n¿ ol b|||s each worth e|ther So
or SZC. How many b|||s worth So does lax have'
|ìì lax has lewer than o b|||s worth So each.
|Zì lax has more than o b|||s worth SZC each.
oß. ll the rat|o ol the number ol teachers to the number ol
students |s the same |n 3choo| 0|str|ct l and 3choo|
0|str|ct l, what |s the rat|o ol the number ol students
|n 3choo| 0|str|ct l to the number ol students |n
3choo| 0|str|ct l '
|ìì 1here are ìC,CCC more students |n 3choo|
0|str|ct l than there are |n 3choo| 0|str|ct l.
|Zì 1he rat|o ol the number ol teachers to the
number ol students |n 3choo| 0|str|ct l |s
ì to ZC.
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The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
o9. ll a tota| ol ß4 students are enro||ed |n two sect|ons ol
a ca|cu|us course, how many ol the ß4 students are
lema|e'
|ìì
Z
3
ol the students |n 3ect|on ì are lema|e.
|Zì
ì
Z
ol the students |n 3ect|on Z are ma|e.
bC. what |s the va|ue ol n |n the equat|on -Zo + ì9 + n = s '
|ìì s = Z
|Zì
n
s
= 4
bì. /t a certa|n p|cn|c, each ol the ¿uests was served
e|ther a s|n¿|e scoop or a doub|e scoop ol |ce cream.
How many ol the ¿uests were served a doub|e scoop
ol |ce cream'
|ìì /t the p|cn|c, bC percent ol the ¿uests were
served a doub|e scoop ol |ce cream.
|Zì / tota| ol ìZC scoops ol |ce cream were served
to a|| the ¿uests at the p|cn|c.
bZ. lor a convent|on, a hote| char¿es a da||y room rate ol
SìZC lor ì person and x do||ars lor each add|t|ona|
person. what |s the char¿e lor each add|t|ona| person'
|ìì 1he da||y cost per person lor 4 peop|e shar|n¿
the cost ol a room equa||y |s S4o.
|Zì 1he da||y cost per person lor Z peop|e shar|n¿
the cost ol a room equa||y |s SZo more than the
correspond|n¿ cost lor 4 peop|e.
b3. 3tores l and l each se|| a certa|n product at a
d|llerent re¿u|ar pr|ce. ll both stores d|scount the|r
re¿u|ar pr|ce ol the product, |s the d|scount pr|ce at
3tore l |ess than the d|scount pr|ce at 3tore l '
|ìì /t 3tore l the d|scount pr|ce |s ìC percent |ess
than the re¿u|ar pr|ce; at 3tore l the d|scount
pr|ce |s ìo percent |ess than the re¿u|ar pr|ce.
|Zì /t 3tore l the d|scount pr|ce |s So |ess than the
re¿u|ar store pr|ce; at 3tore l the d|scount
pr|ce |s Sb |ess than the re¿u|ar pr|ce.
b4. ll d denotes a dec|ma|, |s d C.o '
|ìì when d |s rounded to the nearest tenth, the
resu|t |s C.o.
|Zì when d |s rounded to the nearest |nte¿er,
the resu|t |s ì.
bo. How many |nte¿ers are there between, but not
|nc|ud|n¿, |nte¿ers r and s '
|ìì s - r = ìC
|Zì 1here are 9 |nte¿ers between, but not |nc|ud|n¿,
r + ì and s + ì.
bb. ll n and t are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, |s n a lactor ol t '
|ìì n = 3
n - Z
|Zì t = 3
n
b/. ln a survey ol ZCC co||e¿e ¿raduates, 3C percent sa|d
they had rece|ved student |oans dur|n¿ the|r co||e¿e
careers, and 4C percent sa|d they had rece|ved
scho|arsh|ps. what percent ol those surveyed sa|d
that they had rece|ved ne|ther student |oans nor
scho|arsh|ps dur|n¿ the|r co||e¿e careers'
|ìì Zo percent ol those surveyed sa|d that they had
rece|ved scho|arsh|ps but no |oans.
|Zì oC percent ol those surveyed who sa|d that they
had rece|ved |oans a|so sa|d that they had
rece|ved scho|arsh|ps.
bß. 1hree mach|nes, b, l, and l, work|n¿ s|mu|taneous|y
and |ndependent|y at the|r respect|ve constant rates,
can comp|ete a certa|n task |n Z4 m|nutes. How |on¿
does |t take lach|ne b, work|n¿ a|one at |ts constant
rate, to comp|ete the task'
|ìì lach|nes l and l, work|n¿ s|mu|taneous|y and
|ndependent|y at the|r respect|ve constant rates,
can comp|ete the task |n 3b m|nutes.
|Zì lach|nes b and l, work|n¿ s|mu|taneous|y and
|ndependent|y at the|r respect|ve constant rates,
can comp|ete the task |n 4ß m|nutes.
q r s t
b9. 0l the lour numbers represented on the number ||ne
above, |s r c|osest to zero'
|ìì q = -s
|Zì -t < q
279
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
/C. lary persuaded n lr|ends to donate SoCC each to her
e|ect|on campa|¿n, and then each ol these n lr|ends
persuaded n more peop|e to donate SoCC each to
lary's campa|¿n. ll no one donated more than once
and |l there were no other donat|ons, what was the
va|ue ol n '
|ìì 1he hrst n peop|e donated
ì
ìb
ol the tota|
amount donated.
|Zì 1he tota| amount donated was SìZC,CCC.
/ì. Car|otta can dr|ve lrom her home to her olhce by
one ol two poss|b|e routes. ll she must a|so return
by one ol these routes, what |s the d|stance ol the
shorter route'
|ìì when she dr|ves lrom her home to her olhce
by the shorter route and returns by the |on¿er
route, she dr|ves a tota| ol 4Z k||ometers.
|Zì when she dr|ves both ways, lrom her home to
her olhce and back, by the |on¿er route, she
dr|ves a tota| ol 4b k||ometers.
/Z. ls x > y '
|ìì x = y + Z
|Zì
x
Z
= y - ì
/3. ll m |s an |nte¿er, |s m odd'
|ìì
m
Z
|s not an even |nte¿er.
|Zì m - 3 |s an even |nte¿er.
Æ
D
C
B
x
/4. what |s the area ol tr|an¿u|ar re¿|on A ßL above'
|ìì 1he product ol ß0 and AL |s ZC.
|Zì x = 4o
/o. ln the xy·p|ane, the ||ne w|th equat|on ax + by + c = C,
where abc
Z
3
. what |s the va|ue ol b '
|ìì a = 4
|Zì c = -b
/b. ll m, p, and t are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers and m < p < t, |s
the product mpt an even |nte¿er'
|ìì t - p = p - m
|Zì t - m = ìb
//. Lach week a certa|n sa|esman |s pa|d a hxed amount
equa| to S3CC, p|us a comm|ss|on equa| to o percent
ol the amount ol h|s sa|es that week over Sì,CCC.
what |s the tota| amount the sa|esman was pa|d |ast
week'
|ìì 1he tota| amount the sa|esman was pa|d |ast
week |s equa| to ìC percent ol the amount ol h|s
sa|es |ast week.
|Zì 1he sa|esman's sa|es |ast week tota|ed So,CCC.
/ß. / tota| ol SbC,CCC was |nvested lor one year. lart ol
th|s amount earned s|mp|e annua| |nterest at the rate
ol x percent per year, and the rest earned s|mp|e
annua| |nterest at the rate ol y percent per year. ll the
tota| |nterest earned by the SbC,CCC lor that year was
S4,CßC, what |s the va|ue ol x '
|ìì x =
3y
4
|Zì 1he rat|o ol the amount that earned |nterest at
the rate ol x percent per year to the amount that
earned |nterest at the rate ol y percent per year
was 3 to Z.
/9. leo can buy a certa|n computer lor p
ì
do||ars |n 3tate
/, where the sa|es tax |s t
ì
percent, or he can buy the
same computer lor p
Z
do||ars |n 3tate B, where the
sa|es tax |s t
Z
percent. ls the tota| cost ol the
computer ¿reater |n 3tate / than |n 3tate B '
|ìì t
ì
> t
Z
|Zì p
ì
t
ì
> p
Z
t
Z
ßC. ll r > C and s > C, |s
r
s
<
s
r
'
|ìì
r
s 3

=

ì
4
|Zì s = r + 4
k, n, ìZ, b, ì/
ßì. what |s the va|ue ol n |n the ||st above'
|ìì k < n
|Zì 1he med|an ol the numbers |n the ||st |s ìC.
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ßZ. ll pos|t|ve |nte¿er x |s a mu|t|p|e ol b and pos|t|ve
|nte¿er y |s a mu|t|p|e ol ì4, |s xy a mu|t|p|e ol ìCo '
|ìì x |s a mu|t|p|e ol 9.
|Zì y |s a mu|t|p|e ol Zo.
ß3. what |s the va|ue ol b + c '
|ìì ab + cd + ac + bd = b
|Zì a + d = 4
ß4. what |s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol j and k '
|ìì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol j + Z and k + 4
|s ìì.
|Zì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol j, k, and ì4
|s ìC.
ßo. lau|a and 3andy were amon¿ those peop|e who so|d
ralNe t|ckets to ra|se money lor C|ub /. ll lau|a and
3andy so|d a tota| ol ìCC ol the t|ckets, how many ol
the t|ckets d|d lau|a se||'
|ìì 3andy so|d
Z
3
as many ol the ralNe t|ckets
as lau|a d|d.
|Zì 3andy so|d ß percent ol a|| the ralNe t|ckets so|d
lor C|ub /.
ßb. / number ol peop|e each wrote down one ol the hrst
3C pos|t|ve |nte¿ers. were any ol the |nte¿ers wr|tten
down by more than one ol the peop|e'
|ìì 1he number ol peop|e who wrote down an
|nte¿er was ¿reater than 4C.
|Zì 1he number ol peop|e who wrote down an
|nte¿er was |ess than /C.
ß/. ls the number ol seconds requ|red to trave| d
ì
leet at
r
ì
leet per second ¿reater than the number ol seconds
requ|red to trave| d
Z
leet at r
Z
leet per second'
|ìì d
ì
|s 3C ¿reater than d
Z
.
|Zì r
ì
|s 3C ¿reater than r
Z
.
ßß. last year, |l /rturo spent a tota| ol SìZ,CCC on h|s
mort¿a¿e payments, rea| estate taxes, and home
|nsurance, how much d|d he spend on h|s rea| estate
taxes'
|ìì last year, the tota| amount that /rturo spent on
h|s rea| estate taxes and home |nsurance was
33 percent ol the amount that he spent on h|s
mort¿a¿e payments.
|Zì last year, the amount that /rturo spent on h|s
rea| estate taxes was ZC percent ol the tota|
amount he spent on h|s mort¿a¿e payments and
home |nsurance.
ß9. ls the number ol members ol C|ub / ¿reater than the
number ol members ol C|ub Y '
|ìì 0l the members ol C|ub /, ZC percent are a|so
members ol C|ub Y.
|Zì 0l the members ol C|ub Y, 3C percent are a|so
members ol C|ub /.
9C. ll k, m, and t are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers and
k
b
 
m t
4 ìZ
,
do t and ìZ have a common lactor ¿reater than ì '
|ìì k |s a mu|t|p|e ol 3.
|Zì m |s a mu|t|p|e ol 3.
Æ
B C
D
9ì. ln the h¿ure above, |s L0 > ßL '
|ìì A0 = ZC
|Zì Aß = L0
9Z. ln a certa|n olhce, oC percent ol the emp|oyees are
co||e¿e ¿raduates and bC percent ol the emp|oyees
are over 4C years o|d. ll 3C percent ol those over 4C
have master's de¿rees, how many ol the emp|oyees
over 4C have master's de¿rees'
|ìì Lxact|y ìCC ol the emp|oyees are co||e¿e
¿raduates.
|Zì 0l the emp|oyees 4C years o|d or |ess,
Zo percent have master's de¿rees.
q p r s t
93. 0n the number ||ne above, p, q, r, s, and t are hve
consecut|ve even |nte¿ers |n |ncreas|n¿ order. what |s
the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol these hve |nte¿ers'
|ìì q + s = Z4
|Zì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol q and r |s ìì.
281
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
94. ll ||ne k |n the xy·p|ane has equat|on y = mx + b, where
m and b are constants, what |s the s|ope ol k '
|ìì k |s para||e| to the ||ne w|th equat|on
y = |ì - mìx + b + ì.
|Zì k |ntersects the ||ne w|th equat|on y = Zx + 3 at
the po|nt |Z,/ì.
9o. ls rst = ì '
|ìì rs = ì
|Zì st = ì
TÒTAL ¡XP¡NS¡S FÒR TH¡
F!\¡ Ð!\!S!ÒNS ÒF CÒMPANY H
Q
F
P
T
S
O
x
9b. 1he h¿ure above represents a c|rc|e ¿raph ol
Company H's tota| expenses broken down by the
expenses lor each ol |ts hve d|v|s|ons. ll U |s the
center ol the c|rc|e and |l Company H's tota| expenses
are So,4CC,CCC, what are the expenses lor 0|v|s|on b '
|ìì x = 94
|Zì 1he tota| expenses lor 0|v|s|ons 3 and 1 are
tw|ce as much as the expenses lor 0|v|s|on b.
9/. ll x |s ne¿at|ve, |s x < -3 '
|ìì x
Z
> 9
|Zì x
3
< -9
9ß. 3even d|llerent numbers are se|ected lrom the
|nte¿ers ì to ìCC, and each number |s d|v|ded by /.
what |s the sum ol the rema|nders'
|ìì 1he ran¿e ol the seven rema|nders |s b.
|Zì 1he seven numbers se|ected are consecut|ve
|nte¿ers.
r s t
u v w
x y z
99. Lach ol the |etters |n the tab|e above represents one
ol the numbers ì, Z, or 3, and each ol these numbers
occurs exact|y once |n each row and exact|y once |n
each co|umn. what |s the va|ue ol r '
|ìì v + z = b
|Zì s + t + u + x = b
ìCC. ll |x} denotes the ¿reatest |nte¿er |ess than or equa| to
x, |s |x} = C '
|ìì ox + ì = 3 + Zx
|Zì C < x < ì
ìCì. later|a| / costs S3 per k||o¿ram, and later|a| B
costs So per k||o¿ram. ll ìC k||o¿rams ol later|a| b
cons|sts ol x k||o¿rams ol later|a| / and y k||o¿rams
ol later|a| B, |s x > y '
|ìì y > 4
|Zì 1he cost ol the ìC k||o¿rams ol later|a| b |s
|ess than S4C.
ìCZ. wh||e on a stra|¿ht road, Car / and Car Y are trave||n¿
at d|llerent constant rates. ll Car / |s now ì m||e
ahead ol Car Y, how many m|nutes lrom now w|||
Car / be Z m||es ahead ol Car Y '
|ìì Car / |s trave||n¿ at oC m||es per hour and Car Y
|s trave||n¿ at 4C m||es per hour.
|Zì 1hree m|nutes a¿o Car / was
ì
Z
m||e ahead ol
Car Y.
ìC3. ll a certa|n an|mated cartoon cons|sts ol a tota| ol
ì/,ZßC lrames on h|m, how many m|nutes w||| |t take
to run the cartoon'
|ìì 1he cartoon runs w|thout |nterrupt|on at the rate
ol Z4 lrames per second.
|Zì lt takes b t|mes as |on¿ to run the cartoon as |t
takes to rew|nd the h|m, and |t takes a tota| ol
ì4 m|nutes to do both.
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The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
ìC4. /t what speed was a tra|n trave||n¿ on a tr|p when |t
had comp|eted ha|l ol the tota| d|stance ol the tr|p'
|ìì 1he tr|p was 4bC m||es |on¿ and took 4 hours to
comp|ete.
|Zì 1he tra|n trave|ed at an avera¿e rate ol
ììo m||es per hour on the tr|p.
ìCo. 1om, Jane, and 3ue each purchased a new house. 1he
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì pr|ce ol the three houses
was SìZC,CCC. what was the med|an pr|ce ol the
three houses'
|ìì 1he pr|ce ol 1om's house was SììC,CCC.
|Zì 1he pr|ce ol Jane's house was SìZC,CCC.
ìCb. ll x and y are |nte¿ers, |s xy even'
|ìì x = y + ì
|Zì
x
y
|s an even |nte¿er.
ìC/. / box conta|ns on|y red ch|ps, wh|te ch|ps, and b|ue
ch|ps. ll a ch|p |s random|y se|ected lrom the box,
what |s the probab|||ty that the ch|p w||| be e|ther
wh|te or b|ue'
|ìì 1he probab|||ty that the ch|p w||| be b|ue |s
ì
o
.
|Zì 1he probab|||ty that the ch|p w||| be red |s
ì
3
.
x y
0
ìCß. ll the success|ve t|ck marks shown on the number
||ne above are equa||y spaced and |l x and y are the
numbers des|¿nat|n¿ the end po|nts ol |nterva|s as
shown, what |s the va|ue ol y '
|ìì x =
ì
Z
|Zì y - x =
Z
3
ìC9. ln tr|an¿|e AßL, po|nt X |s the m|dpo|nt ol s|de AL and
po|nt Y |s the m|dpo|nt ol s|de ßL. ll po|nt R |s the
m|dpo|nt ol ||ne se¿ment XL and |l po|nt S |s the
m|dpo|nt ol ||ne se¿ment YL, what |s the area ol
tr|an¿u|ar re¿|on RLS '
|ìì 1he area ol tr|an¿u|ar re¿|on AßX |s 3Z.
|Zì 1he |en¿th ol one ol the a|t|tudes ol tr|an¿|e AßL
|s ß.
ììC. 1he product ol the un|ts d|¿|t, the tens d|¿|t, and the
hundreds d|¿|t ol the pos|t|ve |nte¿er m |s 9b. what |s
the un|ts d|¿|t ol m '
|ìì m |s odd.
|Zì 1he hundreds d|¿|t ol m |s ß.
ììì. / department mana¿er d|str|buted a number ol pens,
penc||s, and pads amon¿ the stall |n the department,
w|th each stall member rece|v|n¿ x pens, y penc||s,
and z pads. How many stall members were |n the
department'
|ìì 1he numbers ol pens, penc||s, and pads that
each stall member rece|ved were |n the rat|o
Z:3:4, respect|ve|y.
|Zì 1he mana¿er d|str|buted a tota| ol ìß pens,
Z/ penc||s, and 3b pads.
ììZ. lach|nes / and Y produced |dent|ca| bott|es at
d|llerent constant rates. lach|ne /, operat|n¿ a|one lor
4 hours, h||ed part ol a product|on |ot; then lach|ne Y,
operat|n¿ a|one lor 3 hours, h||ed the rest ol th|s |ot.
How many hours wou|d |t have taken lach|ne /
operat|n¿ a|one to h|| the ent|re product|on |ot'
|ìì lach|ne / produced 3C bott|es per m|nute.
|Zì lach|ne / produced tw|ce as many bott|es |n
4 hours as lach|ne Y produced |n 3 hours.
ìì3. 0n a company·sponsored cru|se,
Z
3
ol the
passen¿ers were company emp|oyees and the
rema|n|n¿ passen¿ers were the|r ¿uests. ll
3
4
ol the
company·emp|oyee passen¿ers were mana¿ers, what
was the number ol company·emp|oyee passen¿ers
who were N01 mana¿ers'
|ìì 1here were b9C passen¿ers on the cru|se.
|Zì 1here were Z3C passen¿ers who were ¿uests ol
the company emp|oyees.
283
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
ìì4. 1he |en¿th ol the ed¿|n¿ that surrounds c|rcu|ar
¿arden r |s
ì
Z
the |en¿th ol the ed¿|n¿ that surrounds
c|rcu|ar ¿arden U. what |s the area ol ¿arden r '
|/ssume that the ed¿|n¿ has ne¿||¿|b|e w|dth.ì
|ìì 1he area ol U |s Zo square meters.
|Zì 1he ed¿|n¿ around U |s ìC meters |on¿.
ììo. lor any |nte¿ers x and y, m|n|x, yì and max|x, yì denote
the m|n|mum and the max|mum ol x and y, respect|ve|y.
lor examp|e, m|n|o, Zì = Z and max|o, Zì = o. lor the
|nte¿er w, what |s the va|ue ol m|n|ìC, wì '
|ìì w = max|ZC, zì lor some |nte¿er z.
|Zì w = max|ìC, wì
ììb. 0ur|n¿ a b·day |oca| trade show, the |east number ol
peop|e re¿|stered |n a s|n¿|e day was ßC. was the
avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì number ol peop|e
re¿|stered per day lor the b days ¿reater than 9C '
|ìì lor the 4 days w|th the ¿reatest number ol
peop|e re¿|stered, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
number re¿|stered per day was ìCC.
|Zì lor the 3 days w|th the sma||est number ol
peop|e re¿|stered, the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì
number re¿|stered per day was ßo.
A
ß L 0
L
ìì/. ln the h¿ure above, po|nts A, ß, L, 0, and L ||e on a
||ne. A |s on both c|rc|es, ß |s the center ol the sma||er
c|rc|e, L |s the center ol the |ar¿er c|rc|e, 0 |s on the
sma||er c|rc|e, and L |s on the |ar¿er c|rc|e. what |s the
area ol the re¿|on |ns|de the |ar¿er c|rc|e and outs|de
the sma||er c|rc|e'
|ìì Aß = 3 and ßL = Z
|Zì L0 = ì and 0L = 4
ììß. /n emp|oyee |s pa|d ì.o t|mes the re¿u|ar hour|y rate
lor each hour worked |n excess ol 4C hours per week,
exc|ud|n¿ 3unday, and Z t|mes the re¿u|ar hour|y rate
lor each hour worked on 3unday. How much was the
emp|oyee pa|d |ast week'
|ìì 1he emp|oyee's re¿u|ar hour|y rate |s SìC.
|Zì last week the emp|oyee worked a tota| ol
o4 hours but d|d not work more than ß hours
on any day.
ìì9. what was the revenue that a theater rece|ved lrom the
sa|e ol 4CC t|ckets, some ol wh|ch were so|d at the
lu|| pr|ce and the rema|nder ol wh|ch were so|d at a
reduced pr|ce'
|ìì 1he number ol t|ckets so|d at the lu|| pr|ce
was
ì
4
ol the tota| number ol t|ckets so|d.
|Zì 1he lu|| pr|ce ol a t|cket was SZo.
ìZC. 1he annua| rent co||ected by a corporat|on lrom a
certa|n bu||d|n¿ was x percent more |n ì99ß than |n
ì99/ and y percent |ess |n ì999 than |n ì99ß. was
the annua| rent co||ected by the corporat|on lrom the
bu||d|n¿ more |n ì999 than |n ì99/ '
|ìì x > y
|Zì
xy
ìCC
< x - y
ìZì. ln the xy·p|ane, re¿|on R cons|sts ol a|| the po|nts |x,yì
such that Zx + 3y r,sì |n re¿|on R '
|ìì 3r + Zs = b
|Zì r s
ìZZ. what |s the vo|ume ol a certa|n rectan¿u|ar so||d'
|ìì 1wo adjacent laces ol the so||d have areas ìo
and Z4, respect|ve|y.
|Zì Lach ol two oppos|te laces ol the so||d has
area 4C.
ìZ3. Joanna bou¿ht on|y SC.ìo stamps and SC.Z9 stamps.
How many SC.ìo stamps d|d she buy'
|ìì 3he bou¿ht S4.4C worth ol stamps.
|Zì 3he bou¿ht an equa| number ol SC.ìo stamps
and SC.Z9 stamps.
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The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
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ßeviev 12th Edition
lavorab|e 0nlavorab|e Not 3ure
Cand|date l 4C ZC 4C
Cand|date N 3C 3o 3o
ìZ4. 1he tab|e above shows the resu|ts ol a survey ol
ìCC voters who each responded "lavorab|e' or
"0nlavorab|e' or "Not 3ure' when asked about the|r
|mpress|ons ol Cand|date l and ol Cand|date N. what
was the number ol voters who responded "lavorab|e'
lor both cand|dates'
|ìì 1he number ol voters who d|d not respond
"lavorab|e' lor e|ther cand|date was 4C.
|Zì 1he number ol voters who responded
"0nlavorab|e' lor both cand|dates was ìC.
ìZo. ll  represents one ol the operat|ons +, -, and ×,
|s k  | + mì = |k  ì + |k  mì lor a|| numbers k, ,
and m '
|ìì k  ì |s not equa| to ì  k lor some numbers k.
|Zì  represents subtract|on.
ìZb. How many ol the bC cars so|d |ast month by a certa|n
dea|er had ne|ther power w|ndows nor a stereo'
|ìì 0l the bC cars so|d, ZC had a stereo but not
power w|ndows.
|Zì 0l the bC cars so|d, 3C had both power w|ndows
and a stereo.
ìZ/. ln Jellerson 3choo|, 3CC students study lrench or
3pan|sh or both. ll ìCC ol these students do not study
lrench, how many ol these students study both lrench
and 3pan|sh'
|ìì 0l the 3CC students, bC do not study 3pan|sh.
|Zì / tota| ol Z4C ol the students study 3pan|sh.
ìZß. / schoo| adm|n|strator w||| ass|¿n each student |n
a ¿roup ol n students to one ol m c|assrooms. ll
3 < m < ì3 < n, |s |t poss|b|e to ass|¿n each ol the
n students to one ol the m c|assrooms so that each
c|assroom has the same number ol students ass|¿ned
to |t'
|ìì lt |s poss|b|e to ass|¿n each ol 3n students to
one ol m c|assrooms so that each c|assroom
has the same number ol students ass|¿ned to |t.
|Zì lt |s poss|b|e to ass|¿n each ol ì3n students to
one ol m c|assrooms so that each c|assroom
has the same number ol students ass|¿ned to |t.
ìZ9. what |s the med|an number ol emp|oyees ass|¿ned
per project lor the projects at Company Z '
|ìì Zo percent ol the projects at Company Z have 4
or more emp|oyees ass|¿ned to each project.
|Zì 3o percent ol the projects at Company Z have Z
or lewer emp|oyees ass|¿ned to each project.
ì3C. ll Juan had a doctor's appo|ntment on a certa|n day,
was the appo|ntment on a wednesday'
|ìì Lxact|y bC hours belore the appo|ntment,
|t was londay.
|Zì 1he appo|ntment was between ì:CC p.m.
and 9:CC p.m.
ì3ì. when a p|ayer |n a certa|n ¿ame tossed a co|n a
number ol t|mes, 4 more heads than ta||s resu|ted.
Heads or ta||s resu|ted each t|me the p|ayer tossed the
co|n. How many t|mes d|d heads resu|t'
|ìì 1he p|ayer tossed the co|n Z4 t|mes.
|Zì 1he p|ayer rece|ved 3 po|nts each t|me heads
resu|ted and ì po|nt each t|me ta||s resu|ted, lor
a tota| ol oZ po|nts.
ì3Z. what |s the va|ue ol x + y |n the h¿ure above'
|ìì w = 9o
|Zì z = ìZo
ì33. /re a|| ol the numbers |n a certa|n ||st ol ìo numbers
equa|'
|ìì 1he sum ol a|| the numbers |n the ||st |s bC.
|Zì 1he sum ol any 3 numbers |n the ||st |s ìZ.
ì34. / sc|ent|st recorded the number ol e¿¿s |n each ol
ìC b|rds' nests. what was the standard dev|at|on ol
the numbers ol e¿¿s |n the ìC nests'
|ìì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì number ol e¿¿s
lor the ìC nests was 4.
|Zì Lach ol the ìC nests conta|ned the same
number ol e¿¿s.
285
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
F
!
U
T S
60 m
15 m
45 m
ì3o. Çuadr||atera| RS!U shown above |s a s|te p|an lor a
park|n¿ |ot |n wh|ch s|de RU |s para||e| to s|de S!
and RU |s |on¿er than S!. what |s the area ol the
park|n¿ |ot'
|ìì RU = ßC meters
|Zì !U = ZC ìC meters
ì3b. ll the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì ol s|x numbers |s /o,
how many ol the numbers are equa| to /o '
|ìì None ol the s|x numbers |s |ess than /o.
|Zì None ol the s|x numbers |s ¿reater than /o.
ì3/. /t a bakery, a|| donuts are pr|ced equa||y and a||
ba¿e|s are pr|ced equa||y. what |s the tota| pr|ce ol
o donuts and 3 ba¿e|s at the bakery'
|ìì /t the bakery, the tota| pr|ce ol ìC donuts and
b ba¿e|s |s SìZ.9C.
|Zì /t the bakery, the pr|ce ol a donut |s SC.ìo |ess
than the pr|ce ol a ba¿e|.
ì3ß. what was the tota| amount ol revenue that a theater
rece|ved lrom the sa|e ol 4CC t|ckets, some ol wh|ch
were so|d at x percent ol lu|| pr|ce and the rest ol
wh|ch were so|d at lu|| pr|ce'
|ìì x = oC
|Zì lu||·pr|ce t|ckets so|d lor SZC each.
ì39. /ny dec|ma| that has on|y a hn|te number ol nonzero
d|¿|ts |s a term|nat|n¿ dec|ma|. lor examp|e, Z4, C.ßZ,
and o.C9b are three term|nat|n¿ dec|ma|s. ll r and s
are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers and the rat|o
r
s
|s expressed
as a dec|ma|, |s
r
s
a term|nat|n¿ dec|ma| '
|ìì 9C < r < ìCC
|Zì s = 4
B
Æ C
D
x
y
ì4C. ln the h¿ure above, what |s the va|ue ol x + y '
|ìì x = /C
|Zì AßL and A0L are both |sosce|es tr|an¿|es.
ì4ì. Comm|ttee / and Comm|ttee Y, wh|ch have no
common members, w||| comb|ne to lorm Comm|ttee Z.
0oes Comm|ttee / have more members than
Comm|ttee Y '
|ìì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì a¿e ol the
members ol Comm|ttee / |s Zo./ years and the
avera¿e a¿e ol the members ol Comm|ttee Y |s
Z9.3 years.
|Zì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì a¿e ol the
members ol Comm|ttee Z w||| be Zb.b years.
ì4Z. what amount d|d Jean earn lrom the comm|ss|on on
her sa|es |n the hrst ha|l ol ì9ßß '
|ìì ln ì9ßß Jean's comm|ss|on was o percent ol the
tota| amount ol her sa|es.
|Zì 1he amount ol Jean's sa|es |n the second ha|l ol
ì9ßß avera¿ed SìC,CCC per month more than |n
the hrst ha|l.
ì43. 1he pr|ce per share ol 3tock / |ncreased by
ìC percent over the same t|me per|od that the
pr|ce per share ol 3tock Y decreased by ìC percent.
1he reduced pr|ce per share ol 3tock Y was what
percent ol the or|¿|na| pr|ce per share ol 3tock / '
|ìì 1he |ncreased pr|ce per share ol 3tock / was
equa| to the or|¿|na| pr|ce per share ol 3tock Y.
|Zì 1he |ncrease |n the pr|ce per share ol 3tock /
was
ìC
ìì
the decrease |n the pr|ce per share ol
3tock Y.
286
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Æ
D
B
C
ì44. ln the h¿ure above, |l the area ol tr|an¿u|ar re¿|on 0 |s
4, what |s the |en¿th ol a s|de ol square re¿|on A '
|ìì 1he area ol square re¿|on ß |s 9.
|Zì 1he area ol square re¿|on L |s
b4
9
.
ì4o. ll 3ara's a¿e |s exact|y tw|ce B|||'s a¿e, what |s
3ara's a¿e'
|ìì lour years a¿o, 3ara's a¿e was exact|y 3 t|mes
B|||'s a¿e.
|Zì L|¿ht years lrom now, 3ara's a¿e w||| be exact|y
ì.o t|mes B|||'s a¿e.
ì4b. / report cons|st|n¿ ol Z,bCC words |s d|v|ded |nto
Z3 para¿raphs. / Z·para¿raph prelace |s then added
to the report. ls the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì number
ol words per para¿raph lor a|| Zo para¿raphs |ess
than ìZC '
|ìì Lach para¿raph ol the prelace has more than
ìCC words.
|Zì Lach para¿raph ol the prelace has lewer than
ìoC words.
ì4/. / certa|n bookcase has Z she|ves ol books. 0n the
upper she|l, the book w|th the ¿reatest number ol
pa¿es has 4CC pa¿es. 0n the |ower she|l, the book
w|th the |east number ol pa¿es has 4/o pa¿es. what
|s the med|an number ol pa¿es lor a|| ol the books on
the Z she|ves'
|ìì 1here are Zo books on the upper she|l.
|Zì 1here are Z4 books on the |ower she|l.
x + bC
3x
x
x
ì4ß. 1he h¿ure above shows the number ol meters |n the
|en¿ths ol the lour s|des ol a jo¿¿|n¿ path. what |s the
tota| d|stance around the path'
|ìì 0ne ol the s|des ol the path |s ìZC meters |on¿.
|Zì 0ne ol the s|des ol the path |s tw|ce as |on¿ as
each ol the two shortest s|des.
y
x
Q
P
O
ì49. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system above, |l
Ul < lÇ, |s the area ol re¿|on UlÇ ¿reater than 4ß '
|ìì 1he coord|nates ol po|nt l are |b,ßì.
|Zì 1he coord|nates ol po|nt Ç are |ì3,Cì.
S
n
x x


Z
ì Z
3
ìoC. ln the express|on above, |l xn
ol S '
|ìì x = Zn
|Zì n =
ì
Z
ìoì. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er and k = o.ì  ìC
n
, what |s the
va|ue ol k '
|ìì b,CCC < k < oCC,CCC
|Zì k
Z
= Z.bCì  ìC
9
287
6.3 Data 5u!ñciency 5ampIe Çuestions
ìoZ. ll Carmen had ìZ more tapes, she wou|d have tw|ce
as many tapes as balae|. 0oes Carmen have lewer
tapes than balae|'
|ìì balae| has more than o tapes.
|Zì Carmen has lewer than ìZ tapes.
ìo3. ll x |s an |nte¿er, |s x [x[ < Z
x
'
|ìì x < C
|Zì x = -ìC
ìo4. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, |s the va|ue ol b - a at |east
tw|ce the va|ue ol 3
n
- Z
n
'
|ìì a = Z
n + ì
and b = 3
n + ì
|Zì n = 3
ìoo. 1he |nNat|on |ndex lor the year ì9ß9 re|at|ve to the year
ì9/C was 3.ob, |nd|cat|n¿ that, on the avera¿e, lor each
do||ar spent |n ì9/C lor ¿oods, S3.ob had to be spent
lor the same ¿oods |n ì9ß9. ll the pr|ce ol a lode| b
m|xer |ncreased prec|se|y accord|n¿ to the |nNat|on
|ndex, what was the pr|ce ol the m|xer |n ì9/C '
|ìì 1he pr|ce ol the lode| b m|xer was SìCZ.4C
more |n ì9ß9 than |n ì9/C.
|Zì 1he pr|ce ol the lode| b m|xer was Sì4Z.4C |n
ì9ß9.
ìob. ls o
k
|ess than ì,CCC '
|ìì o
k + ì
> 3,CCC
|Zì o
k - ì
= o
k
- oCC
ìo/. 1he hypotenuse ol a r|¿ht tr|an¿|e |s ìC cm. what |s
the per|meter, |n cent|meters, ol the tr|an¿|e'
|ìì 1he area ol the tr|an¿|e |s Zo square
cent|meters.
|Zì 1he Z |e¿s ol the tr|an¿|e are ol equa| |en¿th.
ìoß. Lvery member ol a certa|n c|ub vo|unteers to
contr|bute equa||y to the purchase ol a SbC ¿|lt
cert|hcate. How many members does the c|ub have'
|ìì Lach member's contr|but|on |s to be S4.
|Zì ll o c|ub members la|| to contr|bute, the share ol
each contr|but|n¿ member w||| |ncrease by SZ.
ìo9. ll x < C, |s y > C '
|ìì
x
y
< C
|Zì y - x > C
X
Y
Z
O
ìbC. what |s the c|rcumlerence ol the c|rc|e above w|th
center U '
|ìì 1he per|meter ol UXZ |s ZC ìC Z  .
|Zì 1he |en¿th ol arc XYZ |s o .
ìbì. Be¿|nn|n¿ |n January ol |ast year, Car| made depos|ts
ol SìZC |nto h|s account on the ìoth ol each month
lor severa| consecut|ve months and then made
w|thdrawa|s ol SoC lrom the account on the ìoth ol
each ol the rema|n|n¿ months ol |ast year. 1here were
no other transact|ons |n the account |ast year. ll the
c|os|n¿ ba|ance ol Car|'s account lor lay ol |ast year
was SZ,bCC, what was the ran¿e ol the month|y
c|os|n¿ ba|ances ol Car|'s account |ast year'
|ìì last year the c|os|n¿ ba|ance ol Car|'s account
lor /pr|| was |ess than SZ,bZo.
|Zì last year the c|os|n¿ ba|ance ol Car|'s account
lor June was |ess than SZ,b/o.
ìbZ. ll n and k are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, |s n k  > Z n '
|ìì k > 3n
|Zì n + k > 3n
ìb3. ln a certa|n bus|ness, product|on |ndex p |s d|rect|y
proport|ona| to elhc|ency |ndex e, wh|ch |s |n turn
d|rect|y proport|ona| to |nvestment |ndex i. what |s p |l
i = /C '
|ìì e = C.o whenever i = bC.
|Zì p = Z.C whenever i = oC.
288
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ìb4. ln the rectan¿u|ar coord|nate system, are the po|nts
|r,sì and |u,v ì equ|d|stant lrom the or|¿|n'
|ìì r + s = ì
|Zì u = ì - r and v = ì - s
ìbo. ll x |s an |nte¿er, |s 9
x
+ 9
-x
= b '
|ìì 3
x
+ 3
-x
= b  Z
|Zì x > C
ìbb. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, |s


  

|ìì n > Z
|Zì
ìb/. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, what |s the tens d|¿|t ol n '
|ìì 1he hundreds d|¿|t ol ìCn |s b.
|Zì 1he tens d|¿|t ol n + ì |s /.
ìbß. what |s the va|ue ol
Zt t x
t x
 

'
|ìì
Zt
t x 
= 3
|Zì t - x = o
ìb9. ls n an |nte¿er'
|ìì n
Z
|s an |nte¿er.
|Zì n |s an |nte¿er.
ì/C. ll n |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er, |s n
3
- n d|v|s|b|e by 4 '
|ìì n = Zk + ì, where k |s an |nte¿er.
|Zì n
Z
+ n |s d|v|s|b|e by b.
ì/ì. what |s the tens d|¿|t ol pos|t|ve |nte¿er x '
|ìì x d|v|ded by ìCC has a rema|nder ol 3C.
|Zì x d|v|ded by ììC has a rema|nder ol 3C.
ì/Z. ll x, y, and z are pos|t|ve |nte¿ers, |s x - y odd'
|ìì x = z
Z
|Zì y = |z - ìì
Z
a b
P
F
Q
2
ì/3. ll arc lÇR above |s a sem|c|rc|e, what |s the |en¿th ol
d|ameter lR '
|ìì a = 4
|Zì b = ì
ì/4. larc|a's bucket can ho|d a max|mum ol how many
||ters ol water'
|ìì 1he bucket current|y conta|ns 9 ||ters ol water.
|Zì ll 3 ||ters ol water are added to the bucket when
|t |s ha|l lu|| ol water, the amount ol water |n the
bucket w||| |ncrease by
ì
3
.
289
6.4 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver Key
ì. B
Z. L
3. /
4. L
o. L
b. 0
/. /
ß. C
9. /
ìC. B
ìì. /
ìZ. B
ì3. 0
ì4. C
ìo. B
ìb. /
ì/. 0
ìß. B
ì9. C
ZC. /
Zì. L
ZZ. L
Z3. B
Z4. 0
Zo. 0
Zb. 0
Z/. 0
Zß. L
Z9. L
3C. B
3ì. B
3Z. L
33. C
34. 0
3o. 0
3b. B
3/. /
3ß. C
39. 0
4C. B
4ì. L
4Z. /
43. L
44. C
4o. 0
4b. B
4/. /
4ß. C
49. B
oC. C
oì. B
oZ. B
o3. /
o4. C
oo. L
ob. /
o/. 0
oß. L
o9. L
bC. 0
bì. C
bZ. 0
b3. C
b4. B
bo. 0
bb. C
b/. 0
bß. /
b9. /
/C. 0
/ì. C
/Z. /
/3. B
/4. /
/o. /
/b. L
//. 0
/ß. C
/9. L
ßC. 0
ßì. C
ßZ. B
ß3. C
ß4. 0
ßo. /
ßb. /
ß/. L
ßß. B
ß9. C
9C. /
9ì. L
9Z. /
93. 0
94. /
9o. L
9b. /
9/. /
9ß. B
99. 0
ìCC. 0
ìCì. B
ìCZ. 0
ìC3. 0
ìC4. L
ìCo. B
ìCb. 0
ìC/. B
ìCß. 0
ìC9. /
ììC. /
ììì. L
ììZ. B
ìì3. 0
ìì4. 0
ììo. 0
ììb. /
ìì/. 0
ììß. L
ìì9. L
ìZC. B
ìZì. L
ìZZ. C
ìZ3. /
ìZ4. /
ìZo. 0
ìZb. L
ìZ/. 0
ìZß. B
ìZ9. C
ì3C. C
ì3ì. 0
ì3Z. C
ì33. B
ì34. B
ì3o. 0
ì3b. 0
ì3/. /
ì3ß. L
ì39. B
ì4C. L
ì4ì. C
ì4Z. L
ì43. 0
ì44. 0
ì4o. 0
ì4b. B
ì4/. C
ì4ß. B
ì49. /
ìoC. /
ìoì. 0
ìoZ. B
ìo3. 0
ìo4. /
ìoo. 0
ìob. B
ìo/. 0
ìoß. 0
ìo9. /
ìbC. 0
ìbì. C
ìbZ. /
ìb3. B
ìb4. C
ìbo. /
ìbb. 0
ìb/. /
ìbß. /
ìb9. B
ì/C. /
ì/ì. /
ì/Z. C
ì/3. 0
ì/4. B
6.4 Ansver Key
290
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6.5 Ansver ExpIanations
The !oIIoving discussion o! data su!ñciency is intended to !amiIiarize you vith the most e!ñcient and
e!!ective approaches to the kinds o! probIems common to data su!ñciency. The particuIar questions in
this chapter are generaIIy representative o! the kinds o! data su!ñciency questions you viII encounter
on the GMAT. ßemember that it is the probIem soIving strategy that is important, not the speciñc
detaiIs o! a particuIar question.
ì. what |s the va|ue ol [x[ '
|ìì x = -[x[
|Zì x
Z
= 4
Arithmetic AbsoIute vaIue
c absolutc valuc ol x, ]x], is always
positivc or 0, so this only dctcrmincs that x
cicnt.
(2) ¡xactly two valucs ol x (x - ±2) arc possiblc,
cach ol which givcs thc valuc 2 lor ]x],
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
Z. what percent ol a ¿roup ol peop|e are women w|th
red ha|r'
|ìì 0l the women |n the ¿roup, o percent have
red ha|r.
|Zì 0l the men |n the ¿roup, ìC percent have
red ha|r.
Arithmetic Percents
!n ordcr to solvc this problcm, it is ncccssary to
know thc total numbcr ol pcoplc in thc group and
thc numbcr ol womcn with rcd hair.
is indicatcs that 5 pcrccnt ol thc womcn
havc rcd hair, but ncithcr thc total numbcr
ol womcn nor thc total numbcr ol pcoplc in
crclorc, lurthcr
cicnt.
is indicatcs thc pcrccnt ol mcn who havc
rcd hair, a lact that is irrclcvant. !t docs not
givc inlormation as to thc total numbcr in
thc group or thc numbcr ol womcn with rcd
cicnt.
Vith (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr, thc pcrccnt ol
mcn with rcd hair is known and thc pcrccnt ol
thc womcn with rcd hair is known, but not thc
pcrccnt ol thc group who arc womcn with rcd
hair. For cxamplc: il thcrc arc 100 womcn,
including 5 rcdhaircd womcn, and 100 mcn,
including 10 rcdhaircd mcn, thcn
5
200
- 2.5
pcrccnt ol thc group arc womcn with rcd hair. Òn
thc othcr hand, il thcrc arc 300 womcn, including
15 rcdhaircd womcn and 100 mcn, including 10
rcdhaircd mcn, thcn
15
400
- 3.75 pcrccnt ol thc
group arc womcn with rcd hair.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
3. ln a certa|n c|ass, one student |s to be se|ected at
random to read. what |s the probab|||ty that a boy
w||| read'
|ìì 1wo·th|rds ol the students |n the c|ass are boys.
|Zì 1en ol the students |n the c|ass are ¿|r|s.
Arithmetic ProbabiIity
(1) Sincc
2
3
ol thc studcnts in thc class arc
boys, thc probability that onc studcnt
sclcctcd at random will bc a boy is
2
3
,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
crcnt lor a class
with 10 girls and 20 boys than it is lor a
class with 10 girls and 10 boys, NÒT
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
291
6.5 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver ExpIanations
4. ln Co||e¿e / the number ol students enro||ed |n both a
chem|stry course and a b|o|o¿y course |s how much
|ess than the number ol students enro||ed |n ne|ther'
|ìì ln Co||e¿e / there are bC students enro||ed |n a
chem|stry course.
|Zì ln Co||e¿e / there are ßo students enro||ed |n a
b|o|o¿y course.
Arithmetic 5ets (Venn diagrams)
x y z
w
Chem|stry B|o|o¿y
Considcr thc \cnn diagram abovc, in which x
rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol studcnts in chcmistry
only, y rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol studcnts in both
chcmistry and biology, z rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol
studcnts in biology only, and . rcprcscnts thc
numbcr ol studcnts in ncithcr chcmistry nor
biology. Find thc valuc lor . y.
(1) Sincc thcrc arc 60 studcnts cnrollcd in
chcmistry, x ÷ y - 60, but thcrc is no way
to dctcrminc thc valuc ol y. Also, no
inlormation is givcn lor dctcrmining ..
For cxamplc, il x - y - 30 and . - 30,
thcn . y - 0. Howcvcr, il x - y - 30 and
. - 40, thcn . y cicnt.
(2) Sincc thcrc arc 85 studcnts cnrollcd in
biology, y ÷ z - 85, but thcrc is no way
to dctcrminc thc valuc ol y. Also, no
inlormation is givcn lor dctcrmining .. For
cxamplc, il x - y - 30, z - 55, and . - 30,
thcn . y - 0. Howcvcr, il x - y - 30,
z - 55, and . - 40, thcn . y - 10,
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr and subtracting thc
cquation in (1) lrom thc cquation in (2) givcs
z x cn, adding thc cquations givcs
x ÷ 2y ÷ z - 145, but ncithcr givcs inlormation lor
nnding thc valuc ol .. For cxamplc, il x - y - 30,
z - 55, and . - 30, thcn . y - 0. Howcvcr, il
x - y - 30, z - 55, and . - 40, thcn . y - 10.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
o. / certa|n expressway has Lx|ts J, b, l, and l, |n that
order. what |s the road d|stance lrom Lx|t b to Lx|t l '
|ìì 1he road d|stance lrom Lx|t J to Lx|t l |s
Zì k||ometers.
|Zì 1he road d|stance lrom Lx|t b to Lx|t l |s
Zb k||ometers.
Geometry Lines
Lct JK, KL, and LM bc thc distanccs bctwccn
adjaccnt cxits.
(1) !t can only bc dctcrmincd that
KL - 21 JK cicnt.
(2) !t can only bc dctcrmincd that
KL - 26 LM cicnt.
Statcmcnts (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr do not
providc any ol thc distanccs JK, LM, or JM,
which would givc thc nccdcd inlormation to nnd
KL. For cxamplc, KL - 1 il JK - 20 and LM - 25,
whilc KL - 2 il JK - 19 and LM - 24.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
b. ll n |s an |nte¿er, |s n + ì odd'
|ìì n + Z |s an even |nte¿er.
|Zì n - ì |s an odd |nte¿er.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Sincc n ÷ 2 is cvcn, n is an cvcn intcgcr, and
thcrclorc n ÷ 1 would bc an odd intcgcr,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Sincc n 1 is an odd intcgcr, n is an cvcn
crclorc n ÷ 1 would bc an odd
intcgcr, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
292
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/. lor wh|ch type ol |nvestment, J or b, |s the annua| rate
ol return ¿reater'
|ìì 1ype J returns Sììo per Sì,CCC |nvested lor any
one·year per|od and type b returns S3CC per
SZ,oCC |nvested lor any one·year per|od.
|Zì 1he annua| rate ol return lor an |nvestment ol
type b |s ìZ percent.
Arithmetic Percents
Comparc thc annual ratcs ol rcturn lor
!nvcstmcnts J and K.
(1) For !nvcstmcnt J, thc annual ratc ol rcturn
is 8115 pcr 81,000 lor any oncycar pcriod,
which can bc convcrtcd to a pcrccnt. For
!nvcstmcnt K, thc annual ratc ol rcturn is
8300 pcr 82,500 lor any oncycar pcriod,
which can also bc convcrtcd to a pcrccnt.
csc two pcrccnts can bc comparcd to
dctcrminc which is largcr, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) !nvcstmcnt K has an annual ratc ol rcturn
ol 12 pcrccnt, but no inlormation is givcn
about thc annual ratc ol rcturn lor
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
ß. / c|trus lru|t ¿rower rece|ves Sìo lor each crate ol
oran¿es sh|pped and Sìß lor each crate ol ¿rapelru|t
sh|pped. How many crates ol oran¿es d|d the ¿rower
sh|p |ast week'
|ìì last week the number ol crates ol oran¿es that
the ¿rower sh|pped was ZC more than tw|ce the
number ol crates ol ¿rapelru|t sh|pped.
|Zì last week the ¿rower rece|ved a tota| ol
S3ß,/CC lrom the crates ol oran¿es and
¿rapelru|t sh|pped.
AIgebra 5imuItaneous equations
!l x rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cratcs ol orangcs
and y rcprcscnts thc numbcr ol cratcs ol
grapclruit, nnd a uniquc valuc lor x.
(1) Translating lrom words into symbols givcs
x - 2y ÷ 20, but thcrc is no inlormation
about y and no way to nnd a uniquc valuc
lor x lrom this cquation. For cxamplc, il
y - 10, thcn x - 40, but il y - 100, thcn
x cicnt.
(2) Translating lrom words to symbols givcs
15x ÷ 18y - 38,700, but thcrc is no way to
nnd a uniquc valuc lor x lrom this cquation.
For cxamplc, il y - 2,150, thcn x - 0 and il
y - 0, thcn x cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr givcs a systcm ol two
cquations in two unknowns. Substituting thc
cquation lrom (1) into thc cquation lrom (2) givcs
a singlc cquation in thc variablc y is cquation
can bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol y lrom which a
uniquc valuc ol x can bc dctcrmincd.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
9. ll lat saved SbCC ol h|s earn|n¿s |ast month, how
much d|d lat earn |ast month'
|ìì lat spent
ì
Z
ol h|s earn|n¿s |ast month lor ||v|n¿
expenses and saved ol the rema|nder.
|Zì 0l h|s earn|n¿s |ast month, lat pa|d tw|ce as
much |n taxes as he saved.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct E bc Pat's carnings last month. Find a uniquc
valuc lor E.
(1) Pat spcnt
1
2
E lor living cxpcnscs and so
E
1
2
E -
1
2
E rcmaincd. Pat savcd ol what
rcmaincd, so Pat savcd
1
3
1
2
E
-
1
6
E
.
8ut Pat savcd 8600, so 600 -
1
6
E

and this givcs a uniquc valuc lor E,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Pat savcd 8600 last month and paid 2(8600)
in taxcs, but thcrc is no way to dctcrminc
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
ìC. water |s pumped |nto a part|a||y h||ed tank at a
constant rate throu¿h an |n|et p|pe. /t the same t|me,
water |s pumped out ol the tank at a constant rate
throu¿h an out|et p|pe. /t what rate, |n ¿a||ons per
m|nute, |s the amount ol water |n the tank |ncreas|n¿'
293
6.5 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver ExpIanations
|ìì 1he amount ol water |n|t|a||y |n the tank |s
ZCC ¿a||ons.
|Zì water |s pumped |nto the tank at a rate ol
ìC ¿a||ons per m|nute and out ol the tank at a
rate ol ìC ¿a||ons every Z
ì
Z
m|nutes.
Arithmetic Work ProbIem
!l both thc ratc ol thc watcr bcing pumpcd into
thc tank and thc ratc ol thc watcr bcing pumpcd
out ol thc tank arc known, thcn thc ratc at which
thc total amount ol watcr in thc tank is changing
can bc dctcrmincd, but not il only onc ol thcsc
quantitics is known.
is only givcs thc amount ol watcr in thc
cicnt.
is inlormation providcs both thc nccdcd
ratcs. Sincc thc watcr is bcing pumpcd out
ol thc tank at thc ratc ol 10 gallons cvcry 2
1
2

minutcs, that is, 4 gallons cvcry minutc, and
sincc 10 gallons arc pumpcd into thc tank
cvcry minutc, thc ratc at which thc watcr is
incrcasing in thc tank is 10 4 - 6 gallons
pcr minutc, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
ìì. ls x a ne¿at|ve number'
|ìì 9x > ìCx
|Zì x + 3 |s pos|t|ve.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Subtracting 9x lrom both sidcs ol 9x ~ 10x
givcs 0 ~ x, which cxprcsscs thc condition
that x is ncgativc, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Subtracting 3 lrom both sidcs ol x ÷ 3 ~ 0
givcs x ~ 3, and x ~ 3 is truc lor somc
ncgativc numbcrs (such as 2 and 1) and
lor somc numbcrs that arcn't ncgativc (such
cicnt.
e correct answer is A,
cient.
ìZ. ll i and j are |nte¿ers, |s i + j an even |nte¿er'
|ìì i < ìC
|Zì i = j
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) Although i · 10, i could bc an cvcn numbcr
crc is no
inlormation about j, so j could bc an cvcn
numbcr or an odd numbcr. !l i and j arc
both cvcn intcgcrs, thcn i ÷ j is an cvcn
intcgcr, and il i and j arc both odd intcgcrs,
thcn i ÷ j is an cvcn intcgcr. !l, howcvcr,
cithcr i or j is an cvcn intcgcr and thc othcr
is an odd intcgcr, thcn i ÷ j is an odd intcgcr,
NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !l i - j, thcn i ÷ j can also bc rcprcscntcd
as i ÷ i whcn i is substitutcd lor j in thc
is can bc simplincd as 2i,
and sincc 2 timcs any intcgcr produccs an
cvcn intcgcr, thcn i ÷ j must bc an cvcn
intcgcr, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
ì3. 1he char¿e lor a te|ephone ca|| between C|ty b and
C|ty 3 |s SC.4Z lor each ol the hrst 3 m|nutes and
SC.ìß lor each add|t|ona| m|nute. / certa|n ca||
between these two c|t|es |asted lor x m|nutes, where x
|s an |nte¿er. How many m|nutes |on¿ was the ca||'
|ìì 1he char¿e lor the hrst 3 m|nutes ol the ca|| was
SC.3b |ess than the char¿e lor the rema|nder ol
the ca||.
|Zì 1he tota| char¿e lor the ca|| was SZ.ßß.
AIgebra first-degree equations
Lct C bc thc chargc lor a phonc call that lasts
x cn C - 0.42(3) ÷ 0.18(x 3), whcrc
x x.
c chargc, in dollars, lor thc nrst 3 minutcs
ol thc call is 3(0.42) - 1.26 and thc chargc
lor thc rcmaindcr ol thc call is 0.18(x 3).
cn, 1.26 - 0.18(x 3) 0.36, which can
bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol x,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
c chargc, in dollars, lor thc call was 2.88,
so 2.88 - 0.42(3) ÷ 0.18(x 3), which can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol x,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
294
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ì4. ll Car / lo||owed Car Y across a certa|n br|d¿e that |s

ì
Z
m||e |on¿, how many seconds d|d |t take Car / to
trave| across the br|d¿e'
|ìì Car / drove onto the br|d¿e exact|y 3 seconds
alter Car Y drove onto the br|d¿e and drove oll
the br|d¿e exact|y Z seconds alter Car Y drove
oll the br|d¿e.
|Zì Car Y trave|ed across the br|d¿e at a constant
speed ol 3C m||es per hour.
Arithmetic ßate probIem
Find thc numbcr ol scconds that it took Car X to
cross thc
1
2
milc bridgc.
(1) !l Car X drovc onto thc bridgc 3 scconds
thc bridgc
2 scconds altcr Car Y, thcn Car X took
1 sccond lcss to cross thc bridgc than Car Y.
Sincc thcrc is no inlormation on how long
Car Y took to cross thc bridgc, thcrc is no
way to dctcrminc how long Car X took to
cicnt.
(2) !l thc spccd ol Car Y was 30 milcs pcr hour,
it took Car Y
1
60
hour - 1 minutc -
60 scconds to cross thc bridgc. Howcvcr,
thcrc is no inlormation on how long Car X
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, Car X took 1 sccond
lcss than Car Y to cross thc bridgc and Car Y
took 60 scconds to cross thc bridgc, so Car X took
60 1 - 59 scconds to cross thc bridgc.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
ìo. ll n + k = m, what |s the va|ue ol k '
|ìì n = ìC
|Zì m + ìC = n
AIgebra first- and second-degree equations
!t is givcn that n + k - m, so k - m ÷ n. us, thc
qucstion can bc rcphrascd as: Vhat is thc valuc
ol m n :
(1) !l n - 10, thcn m n - m 10, and thc valuc
ol m 10 can vary. For cxamplc, m 10 - 0
il m - 10 and m 10 - 1 il m - 11, NÒT
cicnt.
(2) Subtracting both n and 10 lrom cach sidc ol
m ÷ 10 - n givcs m n - 10, and hcncc thc
valuc ol m n can bc dctcrmincd,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
ìb. ls x an |nte¿er'
|ìì
x
Z
|s an |nte¿er.
|Zì Zx |s an |nte¿er.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
(1) !l
x
2
is an intcgcr, it mcans that x can
bc dividcd by 2 without a rcmaindcr.
is implics that x is an cvcn intcgcr,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) !l 2x is an intcgcr, thcn x could also bc
an intcgcr. Howcvcr, x could also bc an
odd numbcr dividcd by 2, such as
1
2
or

1
2
3
2
or  , nonc ol which is an intcgcr,
NÒT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
ì/. ls the |nte¿er l odd'
|ìì 1he sum ol l, l + 4, and l + ìì |s even.
|Zì 1he sum ol l - 3, l, and l + ìì |s odd.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Ðctcrminc il thc intcgcr P is odd.
(1) !l thc sum ol P, P ÷ 4, and P ÷ 11 is cvcn,
thcn P ÷ P ÷ 4 ÷ P ÷ 11 - 3P ÷ 15 is cvcn.
Sincc 15 is odd, 3P must bc odd in ordcr lor
3P cn, il 3P is odd, P is
odd bccausc, il P wcrc cvcn, thcn 3P would
bc cvcn, SUFF!C!¡NT.
295
6.5 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver ExpIanations
(2) !l thc sum ol P 3, P, and P ÷ 11 is odd,
thcn P 3 ÷ P ÷ P ÷ 11 - 3P ÷ 8 is odd.
Sincc 8 is cvcn, 3P must bc odd in ordcr lor
3P cn, as in (1), P is odd,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
ìß. what |s the max|mum number ol rectan¿u|ar b|ocks,
each w|th d|mens|ons ìZ cent|meters by b cent|meters
by 4 cent|meters, that w||| ht |ns|de rectan¿u|ar Box / '
|ìì when Box / |s h||ed w|th the b|ocks and rests
on a certa|n s|de, there are Zo b|ocks |n the
bottom |ayer.
|Zì 1he |ns|de d|mens|ons ol Box / are
bC cent|meters by 3C cent|meters by
ZC cent|meters.
Geometry VoIume
Ðctcrminc how many rcctangular blocks will nt
in a rcctangular box.
c sidc on which thc box is rcsting could
bc 30 cm by 20 cm. !l thc blocks arc rcsting
on thc sidc that is 6 cm by 4 cm, thcrc
would bc
30
6
20
4
 - 5  5 - 25 blocks on
thc bottom laycr. !l thc box is 12 cm tall, a
maximum ol 25 blocks would nt insidc thc
box. Howcvcr, il thc box is 48 cm tall, a
maximum ol 100 blocks would nt insidc thc
cicnt.
(2) !l thc box is rcsting on a sidc that is 30 cm
by 20 cm, thcn
30
6
20
4
 - 5  5 - 25 blocks
will nt on thc bottom laycr. !n this casc, thc
hcight ol thc box is 60 cm and
60
12
- 5 laycrs
will nt insidc thc box. !l thc box is rcsting
on a sidc that is 60 cm by 30 cm, thcn

60
12
30
6
 - 5  5 - 25 blocks will nt on thc
bottom laycr. !n this casc, thc hcight ol thc
box is 20 cm and
20
4
- 5 laycrs will nt
insidc thc box. !l thc box is rcsting on a sidc
that is 60 cm by 20 cm, thcn
60
12
20
4
 -
5  5 - 25 blocks will nt on thc bottom
laycr. !n this casc, thc hcight ol thc box is
30 cm and
30
6
- 5 laycrs will nt insidc thc
box. !n all cascs, thc maximum numbcr ol
blocks that will nt insidc thc box is 5  25 -
125, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
ì9. ll sequence S has ZCC terms, what |s the ì9Znd term
ol S '
|ìì 1he hrst term ol S |s -4C.
|Zì Lach term ol S alter the hrst term |s 3 |ess than
the preced|n¿ term.
Arithmetic 5eries and sequences
Ðctcrminc thc 192nd tcrm ol thc 200tcrm
scqucncc S.
c nrst tcrm ol S is 40, but thcrc is no
way to dctcrminc any ol thc subscqucnt
tcrms ol S cicnt.
(2) ¡ach tcrm altcr thc nrst tcrm is 3 lcss than
thc prcccding tcrm, but thcrc is no
inlormation on what thc nrst tcrm is and,
thcrclorc, no way to dctcrminc thc 192nd
tcrm. For cxamplc, il thc nrst tcrm is 60,
thc 192nd tcrm is 60 191(3) - 513, but
il thc nrst tcrm is 600, thc 192nd tcrm is
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, thc nrst tcrm is
40 and cach tcrm altcr thc nrst is 3 lcss than
cn, thc sccond tcrm is
40 3 - 43, thc third tcrm is 43 3 -
40 2(3) - 46, and thc 192nd tcrm is
40 191(3) - 613.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
ZC. ln lÇR, |l lÇ = x, ÇR = x + Z, and lR = y, wh|ch ol
the three an¿|es ol lÇR has the ¿reatest de¿ree
measure'
|ìì y = x + 3
|Zì x = Z
296
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Geometry TriangIes
!n any trianglc, thc largcst anglc is oppositc thc
longcst sidc.
(1) Sincc x ÷ 2 ~ x, thc longcst sidc is cithcr
x ÷ 2 or y, thcrclorc, it is sulncicnt to
dctcrminc whcthcr y ~ x ÷ 2. !l y - x ÷ 3
and sincc x ÷ 3 ~ x ÷ 2, it lollows by
substitution that y ~ x ÷ 2, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Substituting 2 lor x yiclds that PQ - 2 and
QF - 4, but no inlormation is givcn as to
thc rclationship ol thcsc sidcs with thc valuc
ol y givcn lor sidc PF, NÒT sulncicnt.
e correct answer is A,
statement 1 alone is sufhcient.
Zì. what percent ol the drama c|ub members enro||ed at a
certa|n schoo| are lema|e students'
|ìì 0l the lema|e students enro||ed at the schoo|,
4C percent are members ol the drama c|ub.
|Zì 0l the ma|e students enro||ed at the schoo|,
Zo percent are members ol the drama c|ub.
Arithmetic Percents
Ðctcrminc what pcrccnt ol drama club mcmbcrs
arc lcmalc.
(1) Knowing that 40 pcrccnt ol thc lcmalcs
cnrollcd at thc school arc in thc drama club
providcs no inlormation about thc malc/
lcmalc brcakdown ol thc drama club, NÒT
cicnt.
(2) Knowing that 25 pcrccnt ol thc malcs
cnrollcd at thc school arc in thc drama club
providcs no inlormation about thc malc/
lcmalc brcakdown ol thc drama club, NÒT
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not givc cnough
inlormation to dctcrminc what pcrccnt ol drama
club mcmbcrs arc lcmalc. For cxamplc, il thc
school has 100 lcmalc studcnts and 100 malc
studcnts, thcn thc drama club would havc
0.40(100) ÷ 0.25(100) - 40 ÷ 25 - 65 mcmbcrs,
40
65
othcr hand, il thc school had 40 lcmalc studcnts
and 160 malc studcnts, thc drama club would
havc 0.40(40) ÷ 0.25(160) - 16 ÷ 40 -
56 mcmbcrs,
16
56
e correct answer is E,
cient.
ZZ. / lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| conta|ns more cerea| and
costs more than the re¿u|ar·s|ze box ol cerea|. what |s
the cost per ounce ol the lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea|'
|ìì 1he lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| conta|ns ìC ounces
more than the re¿u|ar·s|ze box ol cerea|.
|Zì 1he lam||y·s|ze box ol cerea| costs So.4C.
Arithmetic ßate probIem
Ðctcrminc thc cost pcr ouncc ol ccrcal in thc
lamilysizc box.
(1) A lamilysizc box contains 10 ounccs morc
ccrcal than a rcgularsizc box, but thcrc is
no inlormation about how many ounccs arc
containcd in a rcgularsizc box and no
inlormation about thc cost ol cithcr sizc box,
so thcrc is no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr
ouncc ol ccrcal in thc lamilysizc box, NÒT
cicnt.
(2) A lamilysizc box costs 85.40, but thcrc is
no inlormation about how many ounccs ol
ccrcal a lamilysizc box contains, so thcrc is
no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr ouncc ol
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, a lamilysizc box costs
85.40 and contains 10 ounccs morc ccrcal than a
rcgularsizc box. Howcvcr, thcrc is no inlormation
about how much ccrcal a rcgularsizc box contains
and, thcrclorc, no way to dctcrminc thc cost pcr
ouncc ol thc ccrcal in a lamilysizc box.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
Z3. 1he proht lrom the sa|e ol a certa|n app||ance
|ncreases, thou¿h not proport|ona||y, w|th the number
ol un|ts so|d. 0|d the proht exceed S4 m||||on on sa|es
ol 3ßC,CCC un|ts'
|ìì 1he proht exceeded SZ m||||on on sa|es ol
ZCC,CCC un|ts.
|Zì 1he proht exceeded So m||||on on sa|es ol
3oC,CCC un|ts.
297
6.5 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver ExpIanations
Arithmetic Arithmetic operations, Proportions
(1) !l thc pronts did incrcasc proportionally,
it might bc rcasonablc to cxpcct a pront
ol 84 million on salcs ol 400,000 units.
Howcvcr, it is givcn that thc pronts do not
incrcasc proportionally. Vithout knowing
how thc pronts incrcasc, it is impossiblc to
tcll thc pronts on salcs ol 380,000 units,
NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) !t is givcn that thc pronts do incrcasc with
crclorc, sincc
thc pront on salcs ol just 350,000 units
wcll cxcccdcd 84 million, thcn salcs ol
350,000 ÷ 30,000 - 380,000 units would
also havc a pront cxcccding 84 million,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
Z4. ll n |s an |nte¿er, |s n even'
|ìì n
Z
- ì |s an odd |nte¿er.
|Zì 3n + 4 |s an even |nte¿er.
Arithmetic Properties o! numbers
Ðctcrminc il thc intcgcr n is cvcn.
(1) Sincc n
2
1 is odd, n
2
is cvcn and so n is
cvcn, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Sincc 3n ÷ 4 is cvcn, 3n is cvcn and so n is
cvcn, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Zo. Carmen current|y works 3C hours per week at her
part·t|me job. ll her ¿ross hour|y wa¿e were to
|ncrease by Sì.oC, how many lewer hours cou|d she
work per week and st||| earn the same ¿ross week|y
pay as belore the |ncrease'
|ìì Her ¿ross week|y pay |s current|y SZZo.CC.
|Zì /n |ncrease ol Sì.oC wou|d represent an |ncrease
ol ZC percent ol her current ¿ross hour|y wa¿e.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct . bc Carmcn's gross hourly wagc and lct n bc
thc numbcr ol hours lcwcr Carmcn will nccd to
work. Find a uniquc valuc lor n such that
30. - (30 n)(. ÷ 1.50).
(1) Sincc Carmcn's gross wcckly pay is currcntly
8225.00, thcn 30. - 225 and . - 7.50.
Substituting 7.50 lor . givcs 30(7.50) -
(30 n)(7.50 ÷ 1.50), which can bc solvcd
lor a uniquc valuc ol n, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Sincc 1.50 is 20 pcrccnt ol Carmcn's currcnt
gross hourly pay, 1.50 - 0.20. and . - 7.50.
is is thc samc inlormation that was
gaincd lrom statcmcnt (1) and will lcad to
thc samc rcsult, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Zb. 1he number n ol un|ts ol |ts product that Company / |s
schedu|ed to produce |n month t ol |ts next hsca| year
|s ¿|ven by the lormu|a n = , where c |s a
constant and t |s a pos|t|ve |nte¿er between ì and b,
|nc|us|ve. what |s the number ol un|ts ol |ts product
that Company / |s schedu|ed to produce |n month b ol
|ts next hsca| year'
|ìì Company / |s schedu|ed to produce ìßC un|ts ol
|ts product |n month ì ol |ts next hsca| year.
|Zì Company / |s schedu|ed to produce 3CC un|ts ol
|ts product |n month Z ol |ts next hsca| year.
AIgebra formuIas
Givcn thc lormula n - , dctcrminc thc
valuc ol n whcn t - 6.
(1) Givcn that n - 180 whcn t - 1, thcn

180 - is cquation can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol c cn, by
substituting this valuc lor c and 6 lor t into
n - , thc valuc ol n can bc
dctcrmincd, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Givcn that n - 300 whcn t - 2, thcn
300 - is cquation can bc solvcd
lor a uniquc valuc ol c cn, by substituting
this valuc lor c and 6 lor t into n - ,
thc valuc ol n can bc dctcrmincd,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
298
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Z/. when ZCC ¿a||ons ol o|| were removed lrom a tank,
the vo|ume ol o|| |elt |n the tank was


ol the tank's
capac|ty. what was the tank's capac|ty'
|ìì Belore the ZCC ¿a||ons were removed, the
vo|ume ol o|| |n the tank was
ì
Z
ol the tank's
capac|ty.
|Zì /lter the ZCC ¿a||ons were removed, the vo|ume
ol the o|| |elt |n the tank was ì,bCC ¿a||ons |ess
than the tank's capac|ty.
Arithmetic Operations vith rationaI numbers
Lct C bc thc capacity, in gallons, ol thc tank and
lct ! bc thc volumc ol oil in thc tank initially.
cn ! 200 -
3
7
C. Find a uniquc valuc lor C.
(1) Sincc thc volumc ol oil in thc tank initially
was
1
2
thc tank's capacity, ! -
1
2
C cn,
substituting
1
2
C lor ! givcs
1
2
C 200 -
3
7
C,
which can bc solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol C,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) Altcr thc 200 gallons wcrc rcmovcd, thc
volumc ol oil lclt in thc tank was 1,600
gallons lcss than thc tank's capacity.
crclorc, sincc ! 200 -
3
7
C,
3
7
C -
C is cquation can bc solvcd lor a
uniquc valuc ol C, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
cient.
Zß. 0|v|s|on b ol Company Ç has ì,CCC emp|oyees. what
|s the avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì annua| sa|ary ol the
emp|oyees at Company Ç '
|ìì 1he avera¿e annua| sa|ary ol the emp|oyees |n
0|v|s|on b |s S3C,CCC.
|Zì 1he avera¿e annua| sa|ary ol the emp|oyees at
Company Ç who are not |n 0|v|s|on b |s S3o,CCC.
Arithmetic 5tatistics
Ðctcrminc thc avcragc (arithmctic mcan) annual
salary ol thc cmployccs at Company Q , givcn
that Ðivision R within Company Q has
1,000 cmployccs.
(1) Although thc avcragc annual salary ol thc
1,000 cmployccs in Ðivision R is givcn,
thcrc is no inlormation about thc numbcr
ol Company Q cmployccs who arc not in
Ðivision R or about thcir annual salarics.
crclorc, it is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc
avcragc annual salary ol thc cmployccs at
cicnt.
(2) Although thc avcragc annual salary ol thc
cmployccs NÒT in Ðivision R is givcn,
thcrc is no inlormation about thc numbcr
ol cmployccs who arc not in Ðivision R.
crclorc, it is impossiblc to dctcrminc thc
avcragc annual salary ol thc cmployccs at
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr docs not givc thc
numbcr ol cmployccs who arc NÒT in Ðivision
R, which is ncccssary to dctcrminc thc avcragc
annual salary ol thc cmployccs ol Company Q .
e correct answer is E,
cient.
x mctcrs 
Z9. / c|rcu|ar tub has a band pa|nted around |ts
c|rcumlerence, as shown above. what |s the surlace
area ol th|s pa|nted band'
|ìì x = C.o
|Zì 1he he|¿ht ol the tub |s ì meter.
Geometry 5ur!ace area
c surlacc arca ol thc band is thc product ol thc
circumlcrcncc ol thc band and thc width ol thc
band. !l both lactors arc known, thcn thc arca can
bc dctcrmincd, but not il only onc ol thcsc lactors
is known.
(1) Ònly onc lactor, thc width ol thc band, is
cicnt.
c circumlcrcncc or thc mcans to nnd thc
cicnt.
Vith (1) and (2) takcn togcthcr, thcrc still is no
inlormation about thc circumlcrcncc ol thc tub.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
299
6.5 Data 5u!ñciency Ansver ExpIanations
3C. what |s the va|ue ol |nte¿er n '
|ìì n | n + ìì = b
|Zì Z
Zn
= ìb
Arithmetic, AIgebra Arithmetic operations,
first- and second-degree equations
(1) !l (n ÷ 1) is multiplicd by n, thc rcsult is
n
2
÷ n - 6. !l 6 is subtractcd lrom both sidcs,
thc cquation bccomcs n
2
÷ n is in
turn can bc lactorcd as (n ÷ 3)(n 2) - 0.
crclorc, n could bc cithcr 3 or 2, but
thcrc is no lurthcr inlormation lor dcciding
bctwccn thcsc two valucs, NÒT sulncicnt.
(2) From 2
2n
- 16, 2
2n
must cqual 2
4
(sincc
crclorc, 2n - 4 and
n - 2, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
statement 2 alone is sufhcient.
d = C.43t

/
3ì. ll t denotes the thousandths d|¿|t |n the dec|ma|
representat|on ol d above, what d|¿|t |s t '
|ìì ll d were rounded to the nearest hundredth, the
resu|t wou|d be C.44.
|Zì ll d were rounded to the nearest thousandth, the
resu|t wou|d be C.43b.
Arithmetic PIace vaIue, ßounding
0eterm|ne t, the thousandths d|¿|t ol d = C.43t

/.
(1) Sincc d roundcd to thc ncarcst hundrcdth is
0.44, t can bc 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 bccausc cach ol
0.4357, 0.4367, 0.4377, 0.4387, and 0.4397
roundcd to thc ncarcst hundrcdth is 0.44,
cicnt.
(2) Sincc d roundcd to thc ncarcst thousandth is
0.436 and thc digit in tcnthousandths placc
ol d is 7, thc digit in thousandths placc gcts
incrcascd by 1 in thc rounding proccss.
us, t ÷ 1 - 6 and t - 5, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is B,
cient.
3Z. Jerry bou¿ht / c|oth|n¿ |tems, |nc|ud|n¿ a coat, and
the sum ol the pr|ces ol these |tems was S3bo. ll
there was no sa|es tax on any c|oth|n¿ |tem w|th a
pr|ce ol |ess than SìCC and a / percent sa|es tax on
a|| other c|oth|n¿ |tems, what was the tota| sa|es tax
on the / |tems that Jerry bou¿ht'
|ìì 1he pr|ce ol the coat was SìZo.
|Zì 1he avera¿e |ar|thmet|c meanì pr|ce lor the
b |tems other than the coat was S4C.
Arithmetic AppIied probIems
Ðctcrminc thc amount ol salcs tax Jcrry paid on
thc purchasc ol 7 itcms ol clothing that includcd a
coat and totalcd 8365, whcrc thcrc was no tax on
any itcm with a pricc lcss than 8100 and 7 pcrccnt
tax on all othcr itcms.
(1) Although Jcrry paid salcs tax on thc pricc
ol thc coat, which was 8125, and thc total
pricc ol thc othcr 6 itcms was 8365 8125 -
8240, no inlormation is givcn on thc
individual priccs ol thc othcr 6 itcms, which
may or may not havc bccn lcss than 8100
cicnt.
(2) Although thc avcragc pricc ol thc othcr
6 itcms was 840, no inlormation is givcn on
thc individual priccs ol thc othcr 6 itcms,
which may or may not havc bccn ovcr 8100,
and thcrclorc may or may not havc bccn
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr, Jcrry paid at lcast
0.07(125) - 88.75 in salcs tax, but no inlormation
is givcn about whcthcr any ol thc othcr 6 priccs
wcrc subjcct to salcs tax. !l thc pricc ol cach ol
thc othcr 6 itcms was 840, thcn Jcrry would havc
paid only 88.75 in salcs tax. Howcvcr, il thc pricc
ol cach ol 2 itcms was 8100 and thc othcr 4 itcms
wcrc 810 cach, Jcrry would havc paid a total ol
0.07(125 ÷ 100 ÷ 100) - 822.75 in salcs tax.
e correct answer is E,
cient.
300
The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition The O!ñciaI Guide !or GMAT
®
ßeviev 12th Edition
33. what was the pr|ce at wh|ch a merchant so|d a certa|n
app||ance'
|ìì 1he merchant's ¿ross proht on the app||ance
was ZC percent ol the pr|ce at wh|ch the
merchant so|d the app||ance.
|Zì 1he pr|ce at wh|ch the merchant so|d the
app||ance was SoC more than the merchant's
cost ol the app||ance.
AIgebra AppIied probIems
Lct F, C, and P bc thc appliancc's sclling pricc,
thc mcrchant's cost, and thc gross pront,
rcspcctivcly. Ðctcrminc thc valuc ol F.
(1) Sincc F C - P and P - 0.20F, thcn F C -
0.2F and 0.8F - C. No inlormation is givcn
about thc valuc ol C, so thc valuc ol F
cicnt.
(2) Although F - C ÷ 50, no inlormation is
givcn about thc valuc ol C, so thc valuc ol F
cicnt.
Taking (1) and (2) togcthcr and combining thc
two cquations givcs F - 0.8F ÷ 50, which can bc
solvcd lor a uniquc valuc ol F.
e correct answer is C,
cient.
34. 1he |ns|de ol a rectan¿u|ar carton |s 4ß cent|meters
|on¿, 3Z cent|meters w|de, and ìo cent|meters h|¿h.
1he carton |s h||ed to capac|ty w|th k |dent|ca|
cy||ndr|ca| cans ol lru|t that stand upr|¿ht |n rows and
co|umns, as |nd|cated |n the h¿ure above. ll the cans
are ìo cent|meters h|¿h, what |s the va|ue ol k '
|ìì Lach ol the cans has a rad|us ol 4 cent|meters.
|Zì 3|x ol the cans ht exact|y a|on¿ the |en¿th ol
the carton.
Geometry CircIes
(1) !l thc radius ol cach can is 4 ccntimctcrs,
thc diamctcr ol cach can is 8 ccntimctcrs.
Along thc 48ccntimctcr lcngth ol thc
carton, 6 cans (48 ÷ 8) can bc placcd, along
thc 32ccntimctcr width ol thc carton,
4 cans (32 ÷ 8) can bc placcd. Hcncc,
k - 6  4 - 24, SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) !l 6 cans nt along thc 48ccntimctcr lcngth
ol thc carton, this implics that thc diamctcr
ol cach can is 8 ccntimctcrs (48 ÷ 6). Along
thc 32 ccntimctcr width, 4 cans can bc placcd,
and again k - 6  4 - 24, SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
x z
y x
z t
 
 
 
4
ß
ß
3o. lor the system ol equat|ons ¿|ven, what |s the va|ue
ol z '
|ìì x = /
|Zì t = o
AIgebra first- and second-degree equations
(1) Sincc x - 7, thcn 7 can bc substitutcd lor x
in thc cquation x 4 - z, yiclding z - 3,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
(2) !l t - 5, thcn thc cquation 8 z - t can bc
uscd to solvc this qucstion:
8 z - 5 substitutc lor t
3 z - 0 subtract 5 lrom both sidcs
3 - z add z to both sidcs,
SUFF!C!¡NT.
e correct answer is D,
each statement alone is sufhcient.
3b. lor a|| |nte¿ers n, the lunct|on í |s dehned by í|nì = a
n
,
where a |s a constant. what |s the va|ue ol í|ìì '
|ìì í|Zì = ìCC
|Zì í|3ì = -ì,CCC

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THE OFFICIAL GUIDE FOR GMAT® REVIEW, 12TH EDITION
                                                          



                                               

                                               

                                               

                                 

                                 

                                 

                           .

   .

                                                                   .

                                                                            .

                                                                   .

                                                .

                                     .

                              .

            .

   .

                                                           .

                                                 .

                                                                                                       .

   .

                                            .

                                                                                                                  .

                                                                                                        .

                                                                                                                                                               .

                                                                                                      .

                                                                                .

                                                                                                                      .

                                                                                                             .

                                                                                             .

                                                                                          .





















                                             



          



                 







                  











 



                 

                 

                 



















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

                               

                 

                   



                   



 

                    



                

                    

 









 
 

                             

                           

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

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           



 

     

          

                                 

                          