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Quality in Foreign Language Teaching: Assessment Criteria for Secondary Schools

Tsvetelina Harakchiyska, Elena Stefanova, Mariana Iordanova, Valentina Angelova, Irina Ivanova, Sylvia Velikova, Georgi Geshev, Svetlana Dimitrova, Svetlana Tashevska

The Quality in Foreign Language Teaching (QIFLT) project, supported by British Council Bulgaria (from October 2003 to January 2006), emerged as a follow-up from a survey into pre-service English language teacher education in Bulgaria1. Among the findings of the survey was the need for joint work by universities and inspectorates of education in the area of maintaining quality in teaching foreign languages. One of the ways forward was through creating a set of unified criteria for observation and evaluation of classroom practice of foreign language teachers at secondary schools in Bulgaria. This is in tune with general European tendencies for developing common standards for assessment of professional performance. The designed training pack, along with the video material, aims at assisting foreign language experts for the Ministry of Education and Science in objectively assessing the performance of secondary school foreign language teachers in the light of professional standards and requirements. Furthermore, the assessment materials could be used by practising secondary school teachers of languages as means of self-evaluation and in pre-service teacher training by providing a tangible goal for the future foreign language teachers, as well as by their mentors, teaching practice supervisors and teacher educators

1 Thomas, Dimitrova, Geshev & Tashevska, Baseline Survey of Pre-service English Language Teacher Education 2001-2002, British Council Bulgaria, 2002

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank all the people and organizations who contributed to developing the materials in this pack: The British Council, Sofia provided expertise, support and guidance throughout the different stages of the partnership project. We are especially grateful to the people who initiated the project, provided project management training and encouraged us in our work Mr. Ed Richards, Dr. Chris Tribble, Mr. Brian Gay. The project would have been impossible without the assistance of people like Tanya Kirilova, Yana Docheva and Rayna Ilieva. The Ministry of Education and Science enthusiastically supported the project goals and gave help and useful advice whenever needed. Teachers of English from schools in the country provided access to their classrooms for video recording of lessons. In particular we owe to Maria Koeva, Patriarh Evtimiy Secondary School, Plovdiv, Teodora Ivanova, University of Veliko Turnovo teacher trainee and Emil Zhivkov Stoyanov, P. R. Slavejkov Secondary School, Vidin, whose lesson has been used in the training pack. We also extend our thanks to all those teachers, whom we cannot enumerate by name here, whose video-recorded lessons we used in the piloting of the materials for the pack. We also thank our colleagues, experts in other languages Assoc. prof. Pavlina Stefanova, PhD (a specialist in German language teaching methodology, NBU, Sofia) and Georgi Jechev, PhD (a specialist in French language teaching, Sofia University) who provided invaluable help in revising and editing the assessment instruments. Colleagues at local and international conferences where the project was presented also gave constructive feedback and suggestions for improving our materials. We are indebted to the authors of several other observation and assessment instruments, which we have reviewed in the initial stages of developing our assessment criteria. Teachers, ministry / inspectorate experts, teacher trainers and trainee teachers of different foreign languages (English, German, French, Russian, Spanish) participated in the piloting of the materials and provided useful feedback for revision. A special thanks is also given to the school students who took part in the observed (and video-recorded) lessons. Finally, our special thanks go to our consultant and good friend Dr. Desmond Thomas for editing the final version of the glossary and for his expertise, guidance and full-hearted support. A big thank you to the families of all project team members for their patience and support throughout the work process.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Project team and editors .2 Introduction .3 Assessment criteria for observation of classroom practice of teachers of foreign languages (Form No 1) .5 Classroom practice observation schedule (Form No 2) 9 Guidelines for the use of the assessment criteria 12 Glossary of terms used .16 Bibliography 21 Appendices ..24 Checklists for video-recorded lessons (description of the video clips with links to descriptors and commentary on the lesson, lesson plan, post lesson teacher selfevaluation comments) completed observation schedules for the video lessons DVD video recordings of lessons (1- 3)

PROJECT TEAM AND EDITORS


Authors of materials and members of the project team: Tsvetelina Harakchiyska, English Language School, Rousse; PhD student at the University of Rousse Elena Stefanova, Regional Inspectorate of MES, Vidin Mariana Iordanova, First English Language School, Sofia Valentina Angelova, University of Shoumen, Department for Information and In-service Teacher Training, Varna Irina Ivanova, University of Shoumen Sylvia Velikova, University of Veliko Turnovo George Geshev, University of Plovdiv Dr. Svetlana Dimitrova, New Bulgarian University, Sofia Svetlana Tashevska, New Bulgarian University, Sofia Consultant: Dr. Desmond Thomas, University of London

quality in foreign language teaching

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INTRODUCTION
The aim of this training pack is to prepare and guide you in your observation and assessment of the quality of foreign language teaching in the secondary classroom. If you are a foreign language expert for the Ministry of Education and Science, and need to observe and assess classroom practice of teachers of foreign languages as part of your job, the pack will provide you with practical tools for the purpose a set of assessment criteria directly applicable to practice and an observation schedule for user-friendly recording of your comments. The videoed lessons, accompanied by commentaries with links to descriptors, serve as useful illustration of the criteria. Practising teachers will also benefit from the materials in the training pack for their own professional development through self-reflection: the set of assessment criteria is practically a concise pocket methodology manual, whereas the videoed lessons can serve as a basis for comparison with other teachers classroom practices. The pack can be useful even in pre-service teacher training by providing a tangible goal for the future foreign language teachers, as well as for their mentors, teaching practice supervisors and teacher educators. Quality in foreign language teaching can be measured by analyzing and evaluating different aspects of the multi-faceted processes of teaching and learning. This pack, however, is meant to assist you in only taking a snapshot of classroom practices in one specific lesson in a certain teaching context and in objectively assessing the teachers performance in the light of professional standards and requirements. The Quality in Foreign Language Teaching (QIFLT) project emerged as a follow-up from a survey into pre-service English language teacher education in Bulgaria1. Among the findings of the survey was the need for joint work by universities and inspectorates of education in the area of maintaining quality in teaching foreign languages. One of the ways forward was through creating a set of unified criteria for observation and evaluation of classroom practice of foreign language teachers at secondary schools. This is in tune with general European tendencies for developing common standards for assessment of professional performance. The partnership project was initiated by a team of Bulgarian professionals and supported by British Council, Sofia. It ran from October 2003 to January 2006 and it involved: collection, review and analysis of a range of existing documents for evaluating foreign language teaching, drafting of a preliminary set of assessment criteria, continuous piloting of the set in different parts of the country and various teaching contexts, revising the criteria in the light of feedback, video-recording of lessons in English, German and Russian and using them in further piloting and standardizing, selecting video material for the training pack and developing accompanying lesson commentaries, publishing and dissemination of the product. The members of the project team are also authors of the assessment instruments and materials in the pack. The team includes representatives from British Council, foreign language experts from regional inspectorates of the Ministry of Education and Science, school teachers and (university) teacher trainers from different regions in Bulgaria and was helped by the advice and expertise of a British Council consultant. The full list of names features at the beginning of the pack (p. 2).

[1] The Assessment criteria for observation of classroom practice of teachers of foreign

The training pack consists of several components:

languages (Form No.1) comprises a number of indicators and descriptors for quality, which will help you to:

Thomas, Dimitrova, Geshev & Tashevska, Baseline Survey of Pre-service English Language Teacher Education 2001-2002, British Council Bulgaria, 2002 3

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1. identify the essential features of the observed lesson (i.e. see things when observing) and compare them to the benchmark classroom practice required from teachers of foreign languages in Bulgarian secondary schools; 2. report on the quality of the foreign language teachers performance. They are organized in three main areas: Professional Characteristics of the teacher, The Lesson and Classroom Management. The descriptors are further subdivided into two types: essential features and extra features. The former are deemed as most important and expected to be present in good language teaching practice. The latter reflect the belief that quality teaching should include more than the minimum.

[2] The Classroom practice observation schedule (Form No.2) is a tool for recording your
impressions during and/or after the lesson. It contains a background information box, a section for comments on each of the three areas mentioned above and an overall comments box. The schedule focuses the observers attention on the essential features (of which a checklist is provided on the form itself), but it also allows for free comments on the extra features (not listed on the form) if considered necessary.

[3] The Guidelines for the use of the assessment criteria are meant to help you in making

sense of the tools in the pack and give you practical advice to make the most effective use of them.

[4] The Glossary of terms used is a useful reference to some of the specialized terminology
used in the materials in the pack.

[5] The Bibliography comprises documents which have been reviewed and analysed by the
team in the process of developing the set of assessment criteria, relevant key titles from the background methodology literature and project-related publications by team members.

The tools are supplemented by Appendices which contain the following: checklists for the three video-recorded lesson, each including a commentary on the lesson with links to descriptors, lesson plan with copies of teaching materials, post lesson teacher self-evaluation comments; completed observation schedules for each of the three videoed lessons to serve as an illustration of its application; video material (on DVD) presenting a selection of English language classroom practices (from 3 lessons) that illustrate some of the descriptors of quality foreign language teaching.

quality in foreign language teaching

QIFLT Form No. 1

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR OBSERVATION OF CLASSROOM PRACTICE OF TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES


1. PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher:
1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills a) shows sensitivity to students individual differences (e.g. cultural, ethnic, religious, social; encourages shy students; integrates students with different educational needs) establishes good rapport with students motivates all learners a) supports the development of positive self-image in all students (e.g. shows belief in their capacity to learn and uses all opportunities to boost students confidence) avoids monotony (e.g. uses humour, game-like activities) demonstrates qualities like: friendliness, calmness, patience, confidence, supportiveness, enthusiasm about teaching builds on students previous knowledge of the language, general knowledge of the world and personal interests and experience demonstrates cultural awareness of the target language (e.g. varieties of language) and the socio-cultural differences between speakers of both languages uses every opportunity for reallife meaningful communication in the classroom

EXTRA FEATURES

b) c)

b) c)

d)

1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material

a)

b) 1.3. Communication skills a) b) c)

is familiar with the material (e.g. the specific language areas which are the focus of the lesson) and demonstrates professional confidence demonstrates accurate and fluent use of language adapts the language of teaching to the level of the learners and uses appropriate language uses mother tongue judiciously uses non-verbal communication (e.g. eye contact, mime, gesture, movement around the classroom) to communicate with the students and to support his/her message projects his/her voice according to the specific classroom setting increases students talking time (e.g. encourages students to ask questions)

a)

a)

d) e)

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2. THE LESSON
ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher:
2.1. Aims Has planned aims of the lesson which: a) correspond to the curriculum b) are realistic and achievable c) are clear to the students a) sets aims of the lesson which correspond to the students needs and interests b) creates and develops students awareness of intercultural differences between Bulgarian speakers and target language speakers and works towards developing students tolerance towards intercultural differences c) develops students skills for autonomous learning (e.g. through working on projects, opportunities for choosing a topic) d) integrates language knowledge practice with communicative skills practice (e.g. working with a text/ topic for achieving various aims) e) contributes to the development of students skills to use various cognitive techniques and strategies for learning a) provides opportunities for personalization (transfer of acquired skill to personal experience)

EXTRA FEATURES

2.2. Lesson content and organization

a)

b)

stages all activities carefully and provides relevant pre-, while- and post-tasks (e.g. guessing what a reading passage is about judging by its title or accompanying picture; discussing an issue raised in a text from a Bulgarian perspective or providing a personal opinion; reading aloud or translation into the mother tongue is not a relevant task for developing reading skills) presents new language material (phonetic, vocabulary or grammar items, structures or patterns) in context

Provides enough opportunities for: c) controlled practice (e.g. following a model in speaking or writing) d) communicative practice (e.g. simulating real-life situations; expressing a personal opinion on a topic in speaking or writing) e) creates conditions for students to integrate knowledge of language with communicative skills

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ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher:


f) logically sequences clearly identifiable stages (warm-up, presentation of a new language item, practice of the language material, closing phase) maintains balance between controlled and communicative activities uses a variety of activity types (e.g. activities for relaxation or demanding concentration; skills and language oriented; activities for oral or written communication) ensures continuity with previous and/ or next lessons selects materials and aids that correspond to lesson aims and students needs adapts materials according to students needs uses the board in an organised way to visualise learning points (incl. writes legibly on the board) shows competence in the use of classroom technical equipment and aids

EXTRA FEATURES

g) h)

i) 2. 3. Teaching materials and aids a) b) c) d)

a)

b) c) d)

e)

competently uses additional materials (incl. teacher-made) (e.g. handouts with additional tasks, audio-visual materials, multimedia products) to facilitate students learning without distracting them uses authentic materials in accordance with lesson aims and students level and interests encourages use of students own materials (e.g. photos, project products) develops students skills to work with reference materials (e.g. teacher refers students to tasks from a practical grammar or reference book) competently uses non-verbal materials (e.g. photos, pictures, graphics)

3. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher:
3.1. Working environment a) uses the working environment effectively to achieve the aims of the lesson (e.g. seating arrangements; wall space) a) adapts and/or modifies the working environment

EXTRA FEATURES

3.2. Interaction patterns

3.3. Pacing and timing

a) applies a variety of interaction patterns (e.g. T-S, T-Ss, S-S, S-Ss) that involve active participation of all students b) uses interaction patterns which are appropriate to the nature of the task (e.g. pair work for making a dialogue) a) adapts the pace and timing of the lesson to ensure maximum efficiency

a) uses interaction patterns which meet the range of abilities and diversity in the class

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3.4. Giving instructions

a)

3.5. Eliciting

attracts learner attention and makes sure everyone is listening to the instructions b) uses simple language and stages the instructions (introduces them in steps) c) checks understanding and gives examples if necessary a) elicits information from the learners (e.g. about language knowledge, experience, feelings) to facilitate learning a) b) deals with errors systematically and relevantly to lesson aims (e.g. controlled practice vs. free practice) uses different techniques to indicate and/or correct errors (self-, peer-, teacher correction; on-thespot or delayed correction)

a)

uses body language, visuals and other means to help students understand instructions

3.6. Error correction

3.7. Monitoring classroom work

a)

3.8. Maintaining discipline

monitors students individual performance b) monitors students work according to the interaction pattern (e.g. during pair/group work gives learners useful language or other relevant support without dominating the work) a) maintains discipline in class to ensure working atmosphere, which allows teaching and learning to take place a) b) organises group and individual feedback on tasks uses praise or constructive criticism to emphasise learning points

a) uses a variety of eliciting techniques b) asks a range of questions (e.g. open-ended and creative questions predominate over display and reproductive ones) a) uses indication/correction techniques in correspondence with individual learners level of proficiency and needs (e.g. correction code on learners written work) b) provides opportunities for remedial work a) monitors students performance in such a way that s/he caters for individual needs and levels of proficiency within the class (e.g. provides help to individual students; gives additional tasks) a) reacts appropriately to unexpected situations

3.9. Organising feedback

a)

b) 3.10. Grading and assessment a) uses grading and assessment fairly and consistently to indicate progress, to motivate learners and guide them towards overcoming any problems a) b)

uses a variety of strategies for providing feedback to and from students (e.g. written, oral; detailed, overall; on-the-spot, delayed) gears feedback to the individual learners according to their specific needs uses a variety of grading and assessment techniques encourages self-evaluation

Lesson Plan Self-evaluation during the discussion of the observed lesson

quality in foreign language teaching

QIFLT Form No. 2

CLASSROOM PRACTICE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE


GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TEACHER AND THE CONTEXT
Teachers name: .. Language taught: .... First foreign language Compulsory subject Second foreign language Optional subject School: . Type of school: Primary Language Grade: .......... No of students in class: .......... Years of experience: ..... Qualification: ....... Town/village : ... Region: . Coursebook: ....... Setting: ... Date: .............................. Time: .. Maths Other (please specify): Secondary Vocational ...

Mandatory optional subject

1. TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher:
1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills a) b) c) 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material a) b) a) Shows sensitivity to students different needs Establishes good rapport Motivates students Shows familiarity with the teaching material Speaks English accurately and fluently Adapts the language of teaching to the level of the students Uses mother tongue judiciously Uses non-verbal communication Projects voice Encourages increased student talking time

Comments

1.3. Communication skills

b) c) d) e)

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2. THE LESSON
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
2.1. Aims a) b) c) 2.2. Lesson content and organization a) b) c) d) Correspond to the curriculum Are realistic and for the amount of time available Are clear to students All activities are carefully staged Language activities present new language in context Language activities allow opportunities for controlled practice Language activities allow opportunities for communicative practice Language and skills development is carefully integrated Lesson stages are clear Lesson contains a balance of activities Lesson contains a variety of activities Evidence of continuity between lessons Materials and aids are carefully selected Coursebook materials are adapted to suit students needs Board work is organized Other aids and equipment are used competently and appropriately

Comments

e) f) g) h) i) 2.3. Teaching materials and aids

a) b) c) d)

3. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
3.1. Working environment a) The working environment is organized appropriately for each activity a) Are varied b) Are appropriate for different activities

Comments

3.2. Interaction patterns

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ESSENTIAL FEATURES
3.3. Pacing and timing

Comments

a)

3. 4. Instructions

a) b) c)

3. 5. Eliciting 3.6. Error correction

a) a)

b)

3.7. Monitoring classroom work

a) b)

3.8. Maintaining discipline 3.9. Organising feedback

a)

The pace and timing of the lesson are adapted to ensure maximum efficiency Students attention is attracted Are clear and staged Understanding is checked Ideas are elicited from the students Errors are dealt with systematically Different techniques of error identification and correction are used Individual performance is carefully monitored Group activities are carefully monitored A calm working atmosphere is maintained

a)

3.10. Grading and assessment

Feedback is provided on students performance b) Students efforts are praised a) Grading and assessment are fair and consistent

Overall comments:

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GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF THE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR OBSERVATION OF CLASSROOM PRACTICE OF TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND THE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE
The aim of this document is to guide you in the use of the QIFLT assessment tools offered in this pack, namely: the Assessment criteria for observation of classroom practice of teachers of foreign languages (Form No.1) the Classroom practice observation schedule (Form No.2) Phase [I] Review of the QIFLT assessment tools prior to their application Aim: To enable you to become familiar with the contents and the structure of the tools so that you can use them more effectively when assessing the performance of practising secondary school teachers of foreign languages 1. Start by carefully reading Form No.1 Assessment criteria for observation of classroom practice of teachers of foreign languages, paying special attention to its organizational structure. Quality of foreign language teaching is measured in three major observable areas and assessment criteria are grouped accordingly in three key categories: Professional characteristics of the teacher The lesson Classroom management Each one of these broad categories is further subdivided into quality indicators. [example] category 1. Professional characteristics is subdivided into three indicators: 1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills; 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material and 1.3. Communication skills. The descriptors listed under each indicator are the assessment criteria for professional quality that we expect to observe in the classroom performance of foreign language teachers. They are the benchmark of good practice against which the teachers classroom performance is compared. The criteria are specified at two different levels Essential features and Extra features. The former are regarded as key to any FLT classroom regardless of the type of lesson, number, level of proficiency or age of students, or the teachers professional experience; i.e. they are deemed as most important and expected to be present in good language teaching practice. The latter reflect the belief that quality teaching should include more than the minimum and therefore they are features that are desirable and could perhaps be achieved as a result of the teachers professional development. [example] indicator 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material, under the category Professional characteristics, contains as essential features two descriptors indexed with letters a) [The teacher] is familiar with the material (e.g. the specific language areas which are the focus of the lesson) and demonstrates professional confidence, and b) [The teacher] demonstrates accurate and fluent use of language; and as an extra feature a) [The teacher] demonstrates cultural awareness of the target language (e.g. varieties of language) and the socio-cultural differences between speakers of both languages 2. It is recommended that you read Form No.1 again, this time paying more attention to its content and the wording of the descriptors. Especially noteworthy are the differences in those parallel criteria that specify the same indicator of quality but are listed as an essential or an extra feature: [example] indicator 3.1. Working environment, category Classroom management, contains as an essential feature ) [The teacher] uses the working environment

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effectively to achieve the aims of the lesson (e.g. seating arrangements; wall space), and as an extra feature ) [The teacher] adapts and / or modifies the working environment Also take note of the language used in the descriptors a special effort has been invested by the team of authors to make the wording sound positive and to avoid negative language (e.g. negative structures like: The teacher does not do / should not do ). [example] indicator 3.8. Maintaining discipline, category Classroom management, contains as an essential feature ) [The teacher] maintains discipline in class to ensure working atmosphere, which allows teaching and learning to take place (this could be paraphrased as follows: The teacher does not allow students disruptive behaviour) In case of doubt or hesitation about the implied meaning in the terms used, refer to the Glossary (p.16). Often examples are provided to further clarify the message of the descriptor these are bracketed and italicized. [example] indicator 2.2. Lesson content and organization, descriptor for essential feature h) [The teacher] uses a variety of activity types (e.g. activities for relaxation or demanding concentration; skills or language oriented; activities for oral or written communication) In the interpretation of any criteria that sound unfamiliar to you act as a true reflective practitioner and rely on your professional experience or share your opinion with a colleague. To further facilitate you in your task of matching verbal descriptors to real classroom practices three English lessons have been video-recorded (on DVD) and provided with ethnographic record commentary with links to evidence of criteria descriptors. You can find these in the Appendices. [example] Maria Koevas lesson Developing Reading Skills, 10th grade Course set: New Headway Upper-intermediate Time on film
000 120 000 033 034 120 I.

Commentary

Illustrated descriptors
Personalisation (2.2.a extra) Real-life communication (1.3.a extra) Eliciting (3.5.a; 3.5.a extra) Question range (3.5.b extra)

Stage Lead-in: exploiting meaningful communication opportunities

T exploits the fact that a student has a birthday and they speak about birthday wishes a nice, natural lead-in to the topic of the lesson Money T elicits, asking a variety of question types (You said happy. When are you happy?...); T acknowledges Ss contributions and builds on Ss answers, leading them (We live in a material world, so ?)

In the three lessons there is video evidence for all of the descriptors in Form No.1 except for the descriptors under indicators 3.10. Grading and assessment (all) and 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material (extra feature a) cultural awareness). So it is recommended that you watch the videoed lessons, pausing where and when necessary to follow the provided information in the detailed commentary before continuing to the study of the other form the Classroom practice observation schedule (Form No.2) Finally, some common abbreviations have been used in the descriptors under indicator 3.2. Interaction patterns and the commentary of the lessons: S student T teacher Ss students 3. Now take a look at Form No. 2 Classroom practice observation schedule. This is the assessment tool that you will actually be using while observing the lesson.

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The classroom practice observation schedule has three main parts. The first part, which is entitled General information about the teacher and the context, requires you to collect and record some background information about the observed teacher and the teaching context of observation (e.g. the teachers length of professional experience, the number of the students in the class, the coursebook used etc.). These are all variable factors which could potentially influence the quality of teaching and should be taken into account when assessing the teachers performance. The second part focuses on the details of the observed lesson itself and follows the format of the categories and indicators outlined in Form No.1 Assessment criteria for observation of classroom practice of teachers of foreign languages. The criteria of quality actually contain key words from the descriptors in Form No.1. [example] indicator 1.3. Communication skills, descriptor for essential feature c) [The teacher] uses non-verbal communication (e.g. eye contact, mime, gesture, movement around the classroom) to communicate with the students and to support his / her message is reduced only to c) uses non-verbal communication The schedule focuses the observers attention on the essential features (of which a checklist is provided on the form itself), but it also allows for free comments on the extra features (not listed on the form) if considered necessary. Use the space in the last column to take notes or write short comments on the assessed indicator. The final part of the observation schedule is designed for overall comments on the observed lesson in the light of the submitted lesson plan by the observed teacher and impressions and implications from the post-lesson discussion. To illustrate its application, the authors of the training pack have completed Classroom practice observation schedules for the three videoed lessons. (Some helpful background information concerning the teaching context is also provided to put you in the picture.) It is strongly suggested that you carefully review these after watching each of the lessons in order to get a better idea of what is required in each section of the form. For the purpose of standardizing the assessment procedure, later you may take a blank schedule and try to fill it in while watching one of the videoed lesson without consulting the sample provided. Only after you have completed it you may compare your assessment with that of the experts commissioned to do that in the project. Phase [II] Application of the QIFLT assessment tools Aim: To guide you in the use of the two forms for observation of FLT classroom practices

1. Obviously you will need to prepare in advance as many copies of the observation schedule (Form No.2) as observations you will make on the respective day. 2. The first part of the observation schedule General information about the teacher and the context is best completed before the start of the lesson which you are going to observe. However, do not worry if you cannot manage to do that prior to the observation: you can always fill in the necessary information after the lesson. Record only what is directly observable e.g. the number of students in class, coursebook used and setting. Most of the other information can be elicited from the observed teacher during the post-lesson discussion. 3. Ask the observed teacher for a copy of the lesson plan (where applicable) this will give you a valuable insight into the teachers aims and lesson rationale. 4. It is of key importance that you try to complete the main part of the schedule which refers to the observed lesson. You do that by ticking ( ) or crossing () the boxes in the second column corresponding to the essential features in the assessment criteria. A tick ( ) would mean that the 14

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observed teacher gives you enough evidence of successfully meeting the criterion. A cross () would indicate that the evidence you have suggeststhe observed teacher will need to work on this aspect of classroom practice and that there is room for professional reflection and improvement. Although the assessment criteria are designed in such a way as to fit any FLT lesson, trying to encompass all its observable aspects into presenting a complete picture of the teachers classroom practice, you may find yourself leaving a few empty boxes if you have not been able to gather enough evidence to lend support to any decisively positive or negative assessment comment about a certain behaviour. 5. The last column provides you with space quality indicator by indicator to write up any comments that will support, illustrate or explain your decision about its component assessment criteria. It is not necessary to write long and detailed sentences as comments these can take a lot of time and you might fail to notice some of the following stages of the lesson. It is much better to jot down notes or key words. They will help you later in the discussion of the observed lesson to mirror the teachers classroom practice and grant him / her chance to see it for what it is, reflect on it critically and offer alternatives. 6. After the observation, ask the teacher for his / her lesson plan (in case they had not prepared a copy of it for you to follow during the observation see point 3 above). It will help you find out whether the teacher has managed to achieve the aims set and whether the development of the lesson corresponds to the initial plan. The discussion of the lesson plan will help you find out whether the teacher is aware of what has actually happened during the lesson, what his / her rationale was for keeping to or straying away from the aims and the initial plan and whether he / she is able to assess his / her classroom practice realistically and self-critically with a view to professional development. 7. Write down your overall comment on the observed teachers classroom practice in the light of the post-lesson discussion. Indicate whether the teacher is able to critically reflect upon his / her performance and whether he / she is committed to professional development. Aim at being supportive of any professional enthusiasm and instances of good practice. Avoid being judgmental or over-patronizing. Help the teacher grow and offer advice and assistance as appropriate. Finally, do not forget that there are other ways of assessing quality in foreign language teaching and what you have is only a snapshot of classroom practice on a single day confined to a certain teaching context. It may be worthwhile examining learners work for evidence of progress made as a result of the teachers instruction, or taking into account the teachers commitment to professional growth and development.

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GLOSSARY

A
Accuracy work: work in class where the intention is to produce correct or appropriate language, rather than to perform a genuine communicative act Additional materials (Supplementary materials): materials used in class to support teaching language that are taken from other books, the Internet, posters, etc. Aims: broad statements of very general outcomes that: a) do not include specific levels of performance; b) do not identify specific areas of the curriculum Appropriateness: a) when producing an utterance, a speaker needs to know that it is grammatical, and also that it is suitable (appropriate) for the particular context.; b) when related to classroom management appropriateness has to do with choosing the appropriate interaction pattern for working on a given task Audio-lingual: an approach to language teaching where imitation and drilling precede spontaneous production, relying heavily on habit-forming drills Audio-visual: a development of the above using visual materials in addition Authentic materials: materials used in the classroom, but not specifically designed for teaching, e.g. newspaper articles Autonomous learning: when students can learn independently, without the teachers or anybody elses help or support; when learners have developed their own learning strategies and do not need help from other people while learning

B
Balance: in terms of teaching a foreign language: a) whether there is balance between controlled practice and communicative practice; b) whether there is balance between receptive and productive skills Body language: the use of facial expressions, gestures, body movements, mime to communicate meaning from one person to another

C
Classroom management: the ways in which student behaviour, movement, interaction, etc. during a class is organized and controlled by the teacher (or sometimes by the learners themselves) to enable teaching to take place most effectively Classroom management includes procedures for grouping students for different types of classroom activities, use of lesson plans, handling of equipment, aids, etc. and the direction and management of student behaviour and activity Cognitive: related to the various mental processes used in thinking, remembering, perceiving, recognizing, classifying, etc. Communicative language competence: the ability to use the target language system (its linguistic, socio-linguistic and pragmatic components) appropriately in the process of communication with other speakers of the language (either native or non-native speakers of the

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language) as to exchange ideas, thoughts and feelings and to get to know the culture of the speakers of the language Communication or communicative skills: skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing developed in the foreign language classroom) that help the exchange of ideas, information, etc. between two or more persons. In an act of communication there is usually at least one speaker or writer (sender), a message which is transmitted and a person or persons for whom the message is intended (receiver) listener or reader. In the foreign language classroom each task focused on developing skills should have a pre- (before) stage to prepare students, then while- (during) stage that involves students in different activities, e.g. while listening, while reading and finally there is a post- (after) stage when students proceed with another logical activity after the reading, writing, etc. Communicative grammar: a grammar which relates the structures specifically to the meaning and uses for which they might be used Communicative practice: part of a standard lesson which emphasizes the process of communication and allows students to use language appropriately in different contexts, to perform different kinds of tasks, e.g. using language for social interaction with other people, decision making tasks, etc. Constructive criticism: criticism that is intended to help the learner and enhance his/her motivation for learning, that allows the learner to develop learning strategies and has generally a developmental effect on the learner and facilitates the process of learning Continuity: making sure that there is a link between students previous knowledge and skills and the new material and skills they are about to develop Controlled practice: a way of practising the language in a controlled way, within a given framework, e.g. substitution drill The aim of controlled practice is to achieve accuracy and prepare students for communicative practice with a focus on fluency Correction code on learners written work: a system of symbols used by the teacher to correct written work so that students understand the type of their mistakes, e.g. W.O. word order, Sp. spelling, Gr. grammar mistake etc. Cultural awareness: knowledge or understanding of particular cultural differences Curriculum: the knowledge, skills, materials, learning activities, and typical behaviours required in the teaching of any subject

D
Derivative pattern: a regularly repeated model of word formation or word building, e.g. inform information, reform reformation, confirm confirmation, etc. Display and reproductive questions: a question which is not a real question, i.e. it has no real life communicative value and does not seek information unknown to the teacher but which serves to elicit language practice. To make classes more communicative teachers are encouraged to use fewer display questions. Reproductive questions elicit from students to simply reproduce facts from a text they have heard or read without checking real comprehension.

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E
Educational needs (students with different educational needs): students with different needs in the process of foreign language teaching and learning, e.g. some students would need more support in grammar, others in pronunciation, a third group may need more practice in listening, etc. Different students would also need to develop different strategies for learning, how to study new words, how to organize them to help memorization, to learn self-evaluation, etc. Eliciting: a technique or procedure which a teacher uses to get learners to actively produce speech or writing Error correction: deals with strategies that teachers adopt to correct student errors in order to support the process of learning without being detrimental to individual students self-esteem

F
Facilitating learning: providing support on part of the teacher in order to make the process of learning a foreign language easier Fluency: language work in which the learner is expected to use the language for real-life communicative purposes, in the same way as when using the mother tongue (compare accuracy) Free practice: another term for the production stage of a given lesson when students have internalized a chunk of foreign language and may use it more creatively Some teachers believe that free practice or production should be closely related to personalization to enhance language learning

G
Grading and assessment: assessment is the measurement of the ability of a person or the quality or success of a teaching course, etc. Assessment may be by test, observation, interview, etc. Grading refers to giving a mark for a particular piece of work at school Group work: work in which the class is broken into small groups (from 3 to 8 people) They may work simultaneously on the same task, or be given different tasks of varied types or levels

I
Interaction patterns and modes: different ways of organizing students while working on a task, e.g. group work, pair work, whole class in a lockstep fashion, individual work Intercultural differences: differences in attitudes and behaviours that relate to specific cultures in order to understand and tolerate one another which both teachers and students need

L
Language discovery: a way of teaching grammar and structures when the teacher provides a context for students to observe how the foreign language behaves and allows students to work out the language rules themselves and discover patterns and models

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Language system: the language considered as a set of working units that make a code to be mastered

M
Microskills: a term sometimes used to refer to the individual processes and abilities which are used in carrying out a complex activity, e.g. listening to a lecture includes some of the following microskills: identifying the purpose and scope of the lecture, identifying the role of conjunctions, recognizing the function of pitch and intonation, etc. Mixed-proficiency; mixed level; mixed ability classes: classes with students who have had a different experience in learning a foreign language, e.g. some have studied 2, some - 4 years of English, hence we have a different level, different abilities while coping with the language taught Mother Tongue: usually a first language which is acquired at home Monitoring classroom work: to carefully watch and check the process of teaching and learning in a language classroom in order to see how it changes or progresses Multi-media products: products that are based on using a mixture of sound, pictures, film and writing to give information and provide an interactive medium for students to practice the foreign language they are learning and develop their skills, e.g. CD-ROMs with interactive dictionaries; grammar tasks; language games and fun activities, stories; encyclopedias, etc.

N
Non-verbal communication: communication without the use of words, e.g. by intonation and stress, gestures, diagrams, pie-charts, etc.

O
Objectives: specific statements of learner behaviour or outcomes that state the conditions under which the behaviour is to be exhibited (e.g. given a list of 25 vocabulary words at the 8th-grade level) and the proficiency to be attained (e.g. the student will correctly provide synonyms for 20 out of the 25) By Friday, the students will be able to recite the names of the months in order. Open ended and creative questions: questions that allow the person answering to do them in his/her own way based on his/her life experience and creative use of language (in contrast to questions with limited multiple choice possibilities)

P
Pair work: work in which students operate simultaneously in pairs on a task, or on different tasks Pattern: a regular organization, e.g., the grammar in a language, in which the same basic arrangements recur Personalization: a strategy of teaching a foreign language when the teacher relates the new language students have learned to their own personal life experience and encourages students to use the new structure and/or lexis talking or writing about themselves Praise: to say that you approve of a given students achievement and encourage him, to evaluate positively

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Rapport: (the ability of a teacher to establish) a classroom environment of friendly agreement and understanding between the teacher and the students Real-life communication: exchange of ideas, opinions, etc. in the classroom that is based on genuine information, reasoning or opinion gap and which is not focused on language form and accuracy but on fluency and meaning Realia: in language teaching these are actual items and objects which are brought into a classroom and are used by teachers to help visualize and facilitate the teaching and learning process. Realia may include fruit, kitchenware, photographs, etc. Recycling: a process of consolidating vocabulary or a new structure by allowing students to use the same language in a different context Reference materials: encyclopedias, atlases, dictionaries, the Internet and other resources that the teacher and students can use in the foreign language classroom to make it more informative, interesting and entertaining Remedial work: special work that helps students who have more difficulty in learning than others

S
Self-evaluation: checking ones own performance on a language learning task after it has been completed or checking ones own success in using a language Sequencing: determining the order in which syllabus content will be taught Content can be sequenced according to difficulty, frequency, or the communicative needs of the learners. Logical sequencing has to do with the flow of activities planned and taught in a given lesson Skills: the four language skills taught in a foreign language classroom: listening, speaking, reading and writing Socio-cultural differences (between speakers of both languages): awareness raising of both social and cultural differences between Bulgarian and British people related to the differences of life style and hence values Structure: a sequence of grammatical items which form a pattern The terms structural and grammatical are often used interchangeably to refer to syllabuses in which items are selected and graded largely on grammatical grounds Syllabus: a specification of what is to be taught in a language programme and the order in which it is to be taught. A syllabus may contain all or any of the following: phonology, grammar, functions, notions, topics, themes, tasks

T
Target language: the language being learned Task: a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form/ D. Nunan/ Technique: different methods and approaches of teaching a foreign language implement different techniques, that is ways of presenting new language, practicing it and ways of eliciting feedback from students 20

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Time line: a line used in teaching the tenses in English to illustrate their time reference in relation to past, present and future The time line is a visual prop (support) that helps students understand the tense system in English

V
Visuals: additional materials such as pictures, photographs, posters, etc. that are used by foreign language teachers to help introduce new vocabulary and structures Voice projection: whether the voice of the teacher is appropriate for the students and the classroom setting, if it is loud enough for all students to hear but at the same time not too loud

W
Warm-up: an exercise or set of exercises teachers do with students at the beginning of the lesson to prepare them for what they are going to learn Usually the warm up activity or task is intended to tune students in to the new lesson, to activate and energize their previous knowledge. Some course book writers use the terms lead-in or tune-in

Bibliography
[1] Inspection Documents and Schemes
In Bulgarian (2004) Form for Teacher Assessment by Experts, : (unpublished) (2004) , : , www.baqls-optima.bg , . (2003) (), , : , www.minedu.government.bg ( 2) - ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) In other languages Atkins, J. (ed) (1998) Teaching Practice Handbook, Sofia: New Bulgarian University and Institute for Foreign Students (unpublished) HM Inspectorate of Education (2002) How good is our school? Self-evaluation using performance indicators, A Route to Effective Learning and Teaching, Norwich: The Quality Initiative in Scottish Schools Kazaritskaya: , T. A. () (2002) , (British Council), , OPTIMA (2004) Inspection and Accreditation Scheme and Scoring System, Sofia: OPTIMA the Bulgarian association for quality language services, www.baqls-optima.bg UCLES (2001) DELTA (Diploma in English language teaching to adults) Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines (second edition), Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate UK Teacher Training Agency (2004) Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status, www.tta.gov.uk/itt

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University of Plovdiv (2003) Teaching Practice Evaluation Form, Plovdiv: Department of British and American Studies (unpublished) University of Veliko Turnovo (2003) Evaluation Form for Teaching Practice, Veliko Turnovo: Department of English (unpublished) West-Burnham, J. (ed.) (2001) Performance Management in Schools, Pearson Ziebell, B. (1998) Materialien zur Unterrichtsbeobahtung, Mnchen: Goethe-Institut Ziebell, B. (2003) Unterrichtsbeobahtung und Lehrerverhalten, Berlin-Mnchen-Leipzig-WeinZrich-New York: Langenscheidt

[2] Project-related Presentations and Publications


In Bulgarian - . , . (2004) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching, , , 23-25 2004 . -, . , . (2004) , . , 5, 21-41 , . (2004) , - , .45 , E. (2004) , - , .25 In other languages Harakchijska, T. (2004) Un enseignement de langues etrangeres de qualite un pas vers lavenir, Frequences Francophones, Revue de lassociation des professeurs de et en Francais de Bulgarie, 3, 5-7 Harakchiyska, T. (2004) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching a New Step into the Future, Newsletter of ELTAM (English Language Teachers Association in Macedonia), issue 24 Harakchiyska, T. (2004) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching, Newsletter of the British Council Macedonia, July 2004 Harakchiyska, T. (2005) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching (QIFLT), English Connections: Showcasing British Council ELT Networks, 31 March 3 April 2005, Berlin Harakchiyska, T., Georgieva, I. and Angelova. V. (2004) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching, BETA Conference Proceedings 1999-2004, Bulgarian English Teachers Association Tashevska S. (2004) Quality in Foreign Language Teaching (QIFLT) project, ELTeCS info 200405, English Language Teaching Contact Scheme, British Council Tashevska S. (2005) The Holy Grail or Quality in Foreign Language Teaching, Quantum Leaps in Teacher Education IATEFL TTEd SIG (Teacher Trainers and Educators Special Interest Group) Conference, Vienna, 4-6 March 2005 Velikova, S., Stefanova, E. and Geshev, G. (2005) Be the Expert, BETA (Bulgarian English Teachers Association) Conference, Sofia

[3] Other Background Literature


In Bulgarian , ., , . , . (1999) , : , - , . (1999) , : . (2000) . , .1 , . , . (1989) (), : . . (1993) - " " , . , . 4 . . (1995) - " " : , . , . 3-4 . . (1995) - " " : , :

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, . (1999) , : , . (1998) ( ), : . In other languages Atkins, J. (ed) (1998) Mentoring Manual, Sofia: New Bulgarian University and Institute for Foreign Students (unpublished) Bress, P. (2000) What makes a teacher special?, English Teaching Professional, 14, 43-44 Council of Europe (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, Strasbourg: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, Cambridge University Press Davcheva, L. and Docheva, Y. (1998) Branching out: a cultural studies syllabus, Sofia: The British Council, Tilia Ltd Dimitrova, S. and Tashevska S. (2004) Pedagogical Portfolio for Foreign Language Teacher Trainees, Sofia: New Bulgarian University Harmer, J. (2001) The Practice of English Language Teaching, London: Longman Pearson Education Ltd. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1995) London: Longman Pearson Education Ltd. Morrow, K. (2004) Insights from the Common European Framework, Oxford: Oxford University Press Nunan, D. (1989) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press OECD (2004) Reviews of National Policies for Education Bulgaria, Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Richards, J.C., Platt, J. and Platt, H. (1993) Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Longman: Longman Pearson Education Ltd. Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T. (1986) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Smith, K. (2005) Assessment of teaching in the era of standards What is left of teacher autonomy?, Quantum Leaps in Teacher Education IATEFL TTEd SIG (Teacher Trainers and Educators Special Interest Group) Conference, Vienna, 4-6 March 2005 Thomas D., Dimitrova S., Geshev G. and Tashevska S. (eds.) (2002) A Baseline Survey of English Language Teacher Education in Bulgaria, 2001-2002, Sofia: British Council Bulgaria Van Ek, J.A. (1976) The Threshold Level, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Wallace, M. J. (1993) Training Foreign Language Teachers A Reflective Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Internet sites: http://dictionary.cambridge.org http://www.baqls-optima.bg http://www.beta-iatefl.hit.bg http://www.CambridgeESOL.org/teaching http://www.etprofessional.com http://www.minedu.government.bg

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APPENDICES
[1]

Checklists for the three video-recorded lessons (description of the video clips with links to descriptors and commentary on the lesson, lesson plan, post lesson teacher self-evaluation comments)

DVD TITLE: Developing Reading Skills Video lesson 1


Teacher: Maria Koeva Grade: 10, Patriarch Evtimiy Secondary School, Plovdiv Materials used: # Unit 10, pp. 102 104 Reading and Speaking from the coursebook: Soars, L. and J. Soars (2001) New Headway Upper-Intermediate, Oxford University Press # handout Lets talk about money Whole lesson length: 40 min. Lesson length after the cuts: 1845 Short description of clip content: I. Stage Lead-in: exploiting meaningful communication opportunities II. Stage Vocabulary work III. Stage Developing reading skills Time on film
000 120 000 033 I.

Commentary
Stage Lead-in: exploiting meaningful communication opportunities

Illustrated descriptors

T exploits the fact that a student has a birthday and they speak about birthday wishes a nice, natural lead-in to the topic of the lesson Money

034 120 121 633 121 150

T elicits, asking a variety of question types (You said happy. When are you happy?...); T acknowledges Ss contributions and builds on Ss answers, leading them (We live in a material world, so ?) II. Stage Vocabulary work

Personalisation (2.2.a extra) Real-life communication (1.3.a extra) Eliciting (3.5.a; 3.5.a extra) Question range (3.5.b extra)

T ensures continuity with previous lesson and builds on previous knowledge and experience (In the previous lesson you were taught some interesting expressions to do with money and you also discussed which expressions we use when we are happy and which when we are not happy. I asked you on Monday to study those expressions very well ) Vocabulary task: T gives out handouts and gives clear instructions, explaining well what Ss are expected to do. However, T moves around the class while speaking, standing with her back to some Ss while handing out materials she compensates that through a loud and clearly audible voice (1.3.d). She appropriately checks understanding of the instructions (3.4.c) at the end, although she does that through asking the tricky question Is it clear what you have to do?, which can easily hide lack of understanding by some Ss (which did not seem to be the case here). T sets time limit (of 4 min.) for the individual vocabulary fill-in task and then adapts it (to 3 min.) after she has finished giving instructions and checked the time

Link to previous knowledge and experience (1.1.d extra) Continuity (2.2.i) Instructions (3.4.a, b) Voice (1.3.d) Instructions (3.4.c) Pacing and timing (3.3.a)

151 255

233 255

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Time on film
256 337 338 400

Commentary
Ss work, while T walks round the class and monitors completion of task and helps when necessary, also catering for individual needs (left out of the film) T stops activity, keeping to the time limit and checking how much of the work has been done by most of the Ss so that she can start feedback with a reasonable number of sentences completed (OK, stop! How many did you manage to fill in? Who managed to fill the 12 sentences? 11? 10? Good! 9? Lets check.) T organises feedback individual Ss offer answers, which are then discussed by the T and the class T works with different Ss, not only with the volunteers (strong ones), ensuring fair spread of attention T concludes activity with some advice about how to learn the expressions in context thus helping Ss develop cognitive strategies III. Developing reading skills Transition to next task (Now) and lead-in to the reading task T sets context for reading comprehension tasks T deals with the meaning of new vocabulary essential for understanding the text before the reading tasks, checking understanding (By the way, do you know the word miser?), in this way pre-emptying any problems during the completion of the task; T explains the word in accessible English; T elicits Bulgarian equivalent from the students T sets pre-reading task 1 and gives instructions (I want you to think about these people and answer some questions about them before you read the text.) Ss do the pre-reading task they judge about the 4 people (about which they are going to read) from the pictures and their general knowledge of the world; T organises one person to speak at a time when more peoples speaking starts to overlap; T insists on Ss using the expressions from the vocabulary recycling task at the beginning; T elicits helpfully (What can we say about ?) and leads the Ss to the correct way of expressing the meaning they want - Do you mean living in the streets? (Ss wrongly use *lives rough for has a hard life)

Illustrated descriptors
Monitoring (3.7.a, b) Pacing and timing (3.3.a)

401 620

Feedback (3.9.a, b) Involving all students (3.2.a) Cognitive strategies (2.1.e extra)

621 633 634 1845 634 650 651 747

750 828 829 958

Clear staging (2.2.f) Pre-reading (2.2.a) Vocabulary (2.2.b) Adapted language (1.3.a) Mother tongue (1.3.b) Pre-reading (2.2.b) Instructions (3.4.a, b) Controlled practice (2.2.c) Integrating knowledge with skills (2.2.e) Patterns of interaction (3.2.b) Varied feedback techniques (3.9.a extra) Error correction (3.6.b) Staged instructions (3.4.b) Question range (3.5.b extra) Praise (3.9.b) Instructions (3.4.a, b) Staged activities (2.2.a) Pair work (3.2.a)

958 1000 1001 1107 1008 1116 1117 1153

T manages the class appropriately (Look at the photo, but dont read!.) T accepts suggestions, appropriately eliciting reasons for them and acknowledging Ss contributions, builds on them, also using a range of questions; praises good ideas and summarises T attracts Ss attention to give instructions for pre-reading task 2, pauses between instructions to allow time for Ss to find the respective material in the book T sets the pre-reading task predicting who of the 4 characters could have made some statements (taken out of the texts); T emphasizes a helpful clue (2 sentences per character); T organises pair work

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Time on film
1205 1325 1326 1705

Commentary
T writes some word definitions on the board while Ss work in pairs, thus helping the class with the task and also saving time T organises feedback on the pair work task (Read the sentence, ); T asks Ss to give answers, justifying their choice; T keeps track of suggested answers on the board in an orderly way; Good spread of attention; T accepts all Ss suggestions (encouraging positive self-image in Ss) without giving away the answers according to the texts (Well see) T gives instructions for the while-reading task of scanning and sets time limit (of 2 min.) quite appropriately for the type of reading (Ss reading shortened in the film) T organises whole-class feedback initial responses/ predictions (from prereading task 2) are compared to the text information, also referring Ss to the answers on the board End of lesson (Thank you very much.)

Illustrated descriptors
Pacing and timing (3.3.a) Feedback (3.9.a) Board use (2.3.c) Involving all Ss (3.2.a) Eliciting (3.5.a) While-reading (2.2.a) Instructions (3.4.b) Feedback (3.9.a; 3.9.a extra)

1706 1719

1743 1840 1841 1845

Overall:
Throughout the lesson the teacher establishes good rapport with students and motivates them for learning. She has good presence, with a loud, clear and energetic voice; she is enthusiastic and avoids monotony; also a good classroom manager. She is very well prepared knowledge of the materials transpires; there is planned recycling, building on previous knowledge, as well as lesson continuity. The teacher is a good communicator skillfully exploits meaningful communication and personalisation opportunities; no mother tongue is used in the lesson. Her professional experience allows her to integrate work on language knowledge and skills there are clear aims and a balance of variety of activities logically sequenced. It is a very well-structured and clearly-staged developing reading skills lesson (with preand while- reading, as well as feedback stages) with a sub-focus on vocabulary stress on context, explanations in English, checking understanding, controlled practice, recycling. Additional materials were used adapted to class needs. Positive aspects of her classroom management include: pacing and timing reasonable time limits given and firmly kept also allowing for dealing with mixed ability; patterns of interaction appropriate to the tasks; fair spread of attention during feedback; instructions clear, simple, staged; eliciting range of techniques; acknowledging contributions, building on those, summarising, praising good answers; monitoring knows what is going on at all times; moving around the class and helping to a positive self-image in Ss; T collects feedback from Ss in an organised (planned) and flexible way (e.g. narrows down questions, directs with prompts, praises contributions).

Illustrated descriptors
1.1.b, c 1.1.b extra 1.2.a, b 1.3.a, b, d 2.1.b 2.2.a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i 2.3.a, b, c 3.2.a, b 3.3.a 3.4.a, b, c 3.5.a 3.6.b 3.7.a, b 3.9.a, b

Comments on the lesson plan


The teacher has rich and varied experience in different kinds of teaching situations. Her lesson plan is concise and highly practical. Aims to be achieved are clearly formulated for each stage and activity; the timing is realistic and flexible enough. Continuity with the previous and next lesson is paid special attention; solutions to possible problems are, as far as possible, prepared in advance e.g. facilitating students understanding of the difficult reading tasks as much the teacher can. The well-thought out plan made a successful lesson.

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Comments on the self-evaluation section


What is to be emphasised about the teachers self-evaluation is that she is justly pleased with the way the actual lesson went. She clearly explains the reasons for all her choices during the lesson, and what her students have achieved especially the high level of participation. The only point where the plan and the lesson differed: I did not have time for the final stage of the lesson, where students had to tell each other about the people they had read about was covered in the next lesson rather than being sacrificed this shows flexible execution of the lesson plan.

Topic: Money Makes the World Go Round Lesson type: Reading skills Level: Upper-Intermediate

LESSON PLAN Video lesson 1

Duration: 40 min. Date: 30th March 2005

Aims: 1. to revise and check how well Ss have learned idioms connected with money, taught the previous lesson 2. to encourage Ss to use the idioms in a whole-class discussion, based on their predictions about four people they will read about at the end of the lesson 3. to practise scan-reading 4. to practise reading for details 5. to provide Ss with opportunities to speak by exchanging information they have read about Personal aims: 1. to encourage Ss to participate actively in the lesson Assumptions: 1. Ss might find the text difficult Anticipated problems and solutions: 1. Ss might find the text for reading difficult T. sets the context and checks understanding by asking questions; T. focuses Ss attention on new vocabulary and checks understanding / explains it Materials and aids: Soars, L. and J. Soars, New Headway, Upper-Intermediate, OUP, 2001 Unit 10, pp. 102 104 Reading and Speaking Preparation: handouts of the task sheet a copy for each student of Lets talk about money Stage / Time
Stage 1 Warm-up ~ 2 -3 min. Stage 2 Eliciting ~ 5 min. T. checks how well Ss have learned some idioms connected with money, which were taught in the previous lesson by giving each S a handout of Lets talk about money. Ss work individually to fill in the sentences. T. gathers feedback from Ss on the completion of the task.

Procedure
Elicit from Ss the importance of money in our life

Aims

Interaction patterns
T Ss TS S Ss

to introduce the topic to make Ss interested in the lesson to raise Ss curiosity in the lesson to check whether Ss have learned the vocabulary from previous lesson

T Ss individual work

Stage 3 Feedback ~ 4 min.

to check whether Ss have learned the vocabulary from previous lesson

T Ss TS SS

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Stage / Time
Stage 4 Discussion ~ 3 4 min.

Procedure
T. asks Ss to look at the photos on p. 102, 103, 104 and do ex. 1 Pre-reading task as a whole class discussion. Ideally Ss will use some of the revised idioms in their answers.

Aims

Interaction patterns
T Ss TS SS S Ss

Stage 5 Pre-reading task ~ 3 min. Stage 6 Eliciting and vocabulary exploration ~ 4 min. Stage 7 Scanning the texts ~ 2 min. Stage 8 Feedback ~ 2 3 min. Stage 9 Class organization ~ 1 min. Divide Ss into A, B, C, and D and ask them to read the 4 texts where all: As read about the Aristocrat Bs read about the Divorced mum Cs read about the Taxman Ds read about the Miser Ss read the texts and answer questions a-h, ex. 2 / Reading, taking notes To focus Sss attention on the four texts they are about to read, divide Ss into pairs and ask them to do ex. 2 / Prereading task, setting a time limit of 2 min. Get Ss predictions and write them on the blackboard without commenting if their answers are correct or not. If necessary, sort out new vocabulary from the sentences only. Allow Ss 2 min to scan the four texts and check their answers

to set the context of the texts for reading to provide opportunities for Ss to use the new vocabulary to encourage Ss to speak in English to further increase Ss interest in the text to organize the Ss in pairs to gather feedback from Ss to check if Ss have understood the texts to explain new vocabulary to provide opportunities for Ss to read for general information to check if Ss have understood the texts to allow Ss to express their opinion on the texts to organize Ss work

pair work

T Ss TS SS S Ss

individual work

T. asks questions to receive feedback from Ss.

T Ss TS SS S Ss T Ss

Stage 10 Reading comprehension ~ 5 min. Stage 11 Class organization ~ 1 min. Stage 12 Discussion and round-up ~ 5 min.

to allow Ss to develop their skills for reading

individual work

Put Ss into groups, so that in each group there is an A, B, C, and D student Ask Ss to cover the texts and tell each other about the person they have read, using the Comprehension check questions on p. 102 - ex.2 / Reading and their notes

to organize Ss work

T Ss

to allow Ss to change partners and share ideas to provide opportunities for Ss to discuss on the topic to encourage Ss to share ideas on texts they have read

T Ss S Ss SS

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HANDOUT (designed by teacher) Video lesson 1

Let's talk about money


I. Fill in the sentences with an expression to do with money: fall on hard times lose a quid and find a fiver make (both) ends meet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. roll in money be made of money do a roaring trade live on a shoe string live in the lap of luxury tighten ones belt live rough down and out penny-pinch

You look very happy! You look like you _______________________________. We never have enough to pay the bills at the end of the month. We simply cant _________. The won the lottery three months ago and now they ____________________________. He has no money and no home. Hes been ____________________ on the streets of the city for over two years. He __________________________ when his business went bankrupt and his wife left him. We cant spend as much as we could when we were both working. Weve had to _____ a lot. Bill Gates ______________________. He is considered to be the richest man in the world. We had to _______________________________, we had only $10 a week for food. My uncle is a very successful businessman. At the moment his business _______________. His father threw him out of the house and since then he _______ on the streets of London. They buy everything they want. They must _______________________________! When I was a student I had to be very careful with my money. I had to _________________ to save enough money to buy books. What is the missing colour? Who does the colour idiom describe? Be in the ____________ (inf.) to owe money to your bank, because you have spent more than you have in your account. THE___________ Be in the ____________ to have money, for example in your bank account . THE______ Be ____________ - blooded be from a royal or noble family THE___________ Be in the ____________ (old-fashioned, informal) in good health THE___________

II. 1. 2. 3. 4. KEY: I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. II. 1. 2. 3. 4.

(have) lost a quid and found a fiver make (both) ends meet live in the lap of luxury down and out fell on hard times tighten our belts rolls / is rolling in money live on a shoestring is doing a roaring trade has been living rough penny-pinch Be in the red (inf.) to owe money to your bank, because you have spent more than you have in your account THE DIVORCED MUM Be in the black to have money, for example in your bank account THE MISER Be blue-blooded be from a royal or noble family THE ARISTOCRAT Be in the pink (old-fashioned, informal) in good health THE TAXMAN 29

QIFLT SELF EVALUATION Video lesson 1


This lesson was carried out on 30 March 2005 and was one of a series of lessons on the topic of Money. We used New Headway Upper-Intermediate, Unit 10, OUP, 2001. In the previous lesson students attention was focused on a vocabulary exercise (p. 101 Vocabulary ex. 1, 2) where they had to match words as antonyms, such as generous stingy, spendthrift penny-pincher, in the black overdrawn, hard up well of, etc. Next they were asked to decide whether they would feel happy or miserable in different situations for which expressions to do with money, such as to fall on hard times, live on a shoestring, live in the lap of luxury, roll in money, etc were used. During that lesson all the words, idioms and expressions were explained and students were asked to find their Bulgarian equivalents and practise them in sentences. For this reason I decided to start the lesson with a vocabulary-check task, the idea for which I got from the Teachers book of the above-mentioned coursebook (TB p.102), where there were example sentences with the expressions about money. Using these sentences I prepared a handout with sentences, where the idiom and expressions had been taken out and put in a box above. Students had to choose from the box and use the appropriate phrase in its correct form to fill in the sentences. Apart from checking students knowledge, this exercise focused students attention on the reading topic that followed the social position of four people and their financial status and attitude to money. On account of the high level, a variety of techniques, tasks and class organization were used throughout the lesson: students worked individually, in pairs, in groups, practising different language skills speaking, scan-reading, reading for details. In general I was pleased with the lesson and I think I managed to achieve the aims I had set, although I did not have time for the final stage of the lesson, where students had to tell each other about the people they had read about. This was due to the more time spent on the feedback sections in stages 3 and 8 and in stage 6, when new vocabulary was sorted out. What I was most delighted by was the fact that students were very active and interested in the lesson. The level of attention was high through the lesson and the majority of them took part in the discussions and expressed their opinion, using the vocabulary taught in the previous lesson. In the lesson that followed, students worked in their groups of four to tell each other about the people they had read about and then reported their answers to the class. New lexis was sorted out with a vocabulary-matching exercise, where students had to match words with definitions judging from the context.

DVD TITLE: Integrated Skills: Focus on Listening Video lesson 2


Teacher: Theodora Yordanova Grade: 10, Secondary Language School Prof. Dr. Assen Zlatarov, Veliko Turnovo Course book: Soars, J. and L. Soars, New Headway Advanced, Students Book, OUP, 1989, pp. 90-91; Tapescript pp. 152-153 Whole lesson length: 40 min. Lesson length after the cuts: 3154 Short description of clip content: I. II. III. Stage Lead-in: Vocabulary Work and Topic Introduction Stage Communication: Fluency in Speaking and Preparation for Listening Stage Developing Listening Skills

30

quality in foreign language teaching Time on film


000 824 000 041 042 824 I.

QIFLT

Commentary
Stage Lead-in: Vocabulary Work and Topic Introduction

Illustrated descriptors
Discipline (3.8.a) Question range (3.5.b - extra) Eliciting (3.5.a; 3.5.a - extra) Previous knowledge and experience (1.1.d - extra) Board use (2.3.c) Integrating knowledge with skills (2.2.e) Materials and aids (2.3.a; 2.3.b extra)

Checking attendance: T organises the class for the start of the lesson. Vocabulary work: T asks a range of questions to elicit information from Ss about language (e.g. homophones) to facilitate learning. T builds on Ss previous knowledge of the language by activating topicrelated lexis setting, scene, plot, character, visualised on the board. She taps Ss general knowledge of the world in eliciting the above mentioned notions related to literary discourse. T successfully contextualizes vocabulary and links it with the subsequent tasks focusing on skills development

825 2144 825 908

Topic introduction: T competently uses non-verbal stimuli from the course book (Barbara Cartlands photo, pictures of book covers), realia (one of the authors books). Thus, she narrows the focus of the previous discussion (words related to literature) and creates a more authentic and meaningful environment for learning. II. Stage Communication: Fluency in Speaking and Preparation for Listening Speaking activity: Ss choose between different book covers and apply their own imagination and creativity in providing a possible plot of a book. This task also incorporates the notion of autonomous learning and learner development. T varies the interaction patterns appropriately to the nature of the tasks and thus encourages the active participation of all students. T adapts the classroom environment to organise the groups.

909 1019 1020 1027 1028 1202

T facilitates learner performance while monitoring the groups. T sets time limit. The use of pair- and group-work activities in the lesson ensures enough opportunities for communicative practice and increased student talking time

1203 1712

Feedback: Spokespersons from each group report. T demonstrates sensitivity in correcting learners on the spot. She unobtrusively shows students mistakes; provides prompts to help them when they do not feel confident and hesitate. She praises Ss to emphasise learning points (That sounds poetic! , Oh! Thats a romantic book with a happy ending! ) (Reports by other groups are left out of the film.) Pre-listening: T sets a relevant, motivating pre-listening task encouraging Sss expectations about the interview content (same groups formulate questions for an imaginary interview with Barbara Cartland). These questions give sense of personalisation and real-life communication.

Autonomous learning (2.1.c - extra) Patterns of interaction (3.2.b) Involving all Ss (3.2.a) Working environment (3.1.a) Monitoring (3.7.b) Pacing and timing (3.3.a) Communicative practice (2.2.d) Integrating knowledge with skills (2.2.e) Students talking time (1.3.e) Feedback (3.9.a) Error correction (3.6.b) Praise (3.9.b)

1713 1823

T uses simple language and stages the instructions. (Group work is shortened in the film.)

Pre-listening (2.2.a) Personalisation (2.2.a - extra) Real-life communication (1.3.a extra) Communicative practice (2.2.d) Instructions (3.4.b, c)

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Time on film
1824 2144

Commentary
Feedback: Group reporters write their questions on the blackboard This gives opportunities for self- and peer correction and contributes to the lively atmosphere in class and maintains the positive classroom dynamics. III. Stage Developing Listening Skills While-listening 1: Ss listen to find the answers to their questions. This task is motivating and relevant to the Ss proficiency level. T and Ss cope with the task without consulting the transcript and by listening to the recording once only. T collects feedback acknowledging Ss contribution. (Ss listening is shortened in the film.) Setting home assignment: Ss have to do research on Barbara Cartlands literary work using the Internet, library resources, etc. This task promotes autonomous learning and develops Ss skills to work with reference materials. While-listening 2: Ss listen to the same text again with a different task: to locate specific information. Thus T gradually develops and integrates micro-skills by utilizing task potential. Lesson round-up: T provides overall feedback on Ss involvement and achievement at the end of the lesson.

Illustrated descriptors
Feedback (3.9.a) Board use (2.3.c) Error correction (3.6.b)

2145 3154 2145 2511 2512 2813 2814 2850

2851 3144 3145 3154

While-listening (2.2.a) Aims (2.1.a - extra, 2.1.b) Personalisation (2.2.a - extra) Autonomous learning (2.1.c - extra) Reference materials (2.3.d - extra) While-listening (2.2.a) Activity types (2.2.h) Feedback (3.9.a) Praise (3.9.b)

Overall:
Throughout the lesson the T demonstrates ability to establish and maintain good rapport with Ss and motivate them. Calmness, patience, supportiveness are key features of her teaching manner. The Ss obviously respond quite naturally and readily to all the tasks she gives. Ss success in doing the activities indicates that the aims of the lesson are realistic, achievable and that the tasks are manageable. In addition, there is a variety of activity types as well as a logical sequence of clearly identifiable stages. It is worth pointing out that the successful completion of the whilelistening task is ensured by the preceding tasks that are well thought out and diverse. The absence of awkward silence or confusion on the part of the students is also a result of her skill in adapting the pace and timing of the lesson.

Illustrated descriptors
1.1.b, c 1.1.c - extra 2.1.b 2.2.f, h 3.3.a

Comments on the lesson plan


The teacher has presented a detailed and well-organised plan of the lesson. She clearly states her aims; indicates assumptions about students knowledge and abilities and some possible solutions to anticipated problems that may arise in class. The activities she has planned relate to the specified aims and objectives. It is obvious that she has managed to include all tasks in the lesson and adapt the planned timing to students needs and interests. The description of the procedure indicates that each activity has been carefully thought out and backed by a rationale that shows its relevance to the lesson as a whole.

Comments on the self-evaluation section


The teachers self-evaluation comments demonstrate critical awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of her teaching performance. She is aware of the difficulties in estimating the timing of activities in the planning stage as well as in thinking up a more suitable beginning of the lesson. On the other hand, by analysing the most successful part, the teacher is able to draw conclusions on the tasks that learners find motivating so that in the future her teaching could more fully meet 32

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students expectations and interests and respectively encourage appropriate learner behaviour. The teacher also demonstrates ability to justify her decisions on some aspects of the lesson (e.g. use of authentic materials; choice of language of instruction; students blackboard use; tolerance to longer-than-expected discussions), etc. In general, the self-assessment comments reveal teachers critical thinking skills and capacity to reflect on her experience in class. Thus, she demonstrates a potential for acquiring a more conscious understanding of teaching effectiveness and the way for further improvement in her professional development.

LESSON PLAN Video lesson 2


Topic: Barbara Cartland the Queen of Love Stories Lesson type: Listening skills Level: Advanced Stage / Time
Stage 1 Warm-up ~ 3 min.

Duration: 40 min. Date: 13th April 2005 Aims


To set a positive working atmosphere; to activate vocabulary on the topic; to revise knowledge on the notion homonymy (homophones)

Procedure
1. T. asks Ss a question to draw their attention to the homophones heroine and heroin. 2. T. writes the two words on the blackboard with the transcription and the difference in their meaning is elicited by the students: heroine = a drug used in medicine to cause sleep or relieve pain or by drugaddicts; heroine=the chief female character in a story, play, poem, etc. 3. T. asks questions as to what the main male character; the plan (outline, sequence) of events (plot); the place at which the events happen (setting) are called. T. writes them on the blackboard. 1. T. tells Ss that they are going to listen to an interview with a popular, very successful and highly prolific writer called Barbara Cartland. She will be talking about her work. 2. T. asks them to open the textbook (pp. 90-91) where they can see a picture of her. 3. T. asks SS to talk about the impression the writer gives them (e.g. if she is an ordinary woman), considering her appearance.

Interaction patterns
T whole class

Stage 2 Preparation for speaking and listening ~ 3 min.

To encourage Ss to make guesses using non-verbal signs; to develop their speaking skills

T whole class

33

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Stage / Time
Stage 3 Speaking ~ 4 min.

Procedure
1. T. asks Ss to choose a book cover and having talked about the author, to imagine what a typical novel of hers might be. 2. T. obtains feedback through listening to Ss versions. 3. T. introduces the title of the lesson: Barbara Cartland the Queen of Love Stories 1. T. asks Ss to imagine they were interviewing Barbara Carthand and note down two questions they would like to ask her. 2. T. gets a representative of each group to step to the blackboard and write the groups questions there. 1. T. instructs Ss to listen and see if they will have their questions answered. 2. After listening to the text, T. gets the class to discuss their questions. Answers are provided if any information found. 3. T. sets a homework project task to do research either using the Internet, or libraries, etc. and come up with possible answers the author would have given to the questions not answered in the interview. 1. T. gives Ss time to read the questions to be answered after the second hearing of the interview (p. 91 students book) 2. T. asks Ss to listen and answer the questions. 1. T. asks the class what their attitude to romantic fiction is. 2. T. organises a role play in which Ss work in groups of three. Each group consists of three friends in a bookstore. One of them hesitates about buying a Barbara Cartlands book. One of her/his friends is trying to convince her/him to buy the novel while the other tries to prevent her/him from doing so. 3. The buyers present their decision to the class.

Aims
To develop creative skills and build predictions on what is to come in the lesson

Interaction patterns
Pair work

Stage 4 Pre-listening ~ 4 min.

To personalise the topic and activate Sss expectations before the listening task; to promote team work

Group work ( 3 4 Ss in a group)

Stage 5 While-listening 1 ~ 8 min.

To develop listening and locating specific information in a text

Individual work T-whole class discussion

Stage 6 While-listening 2 ~ 6 min.

To develop listening for details

Individual work T Ss

Stage 7 Follow-up (time permitting or in the next lesson) ~ 15 min.

To provide a natural continuation of the work done in class; to integrate listening and speaking skills

T whole class discussions Groups of three

34

quality in foreign language teaching Subsidiary aims: 1. develop listening for: general information, specific information and details; 2. improve students prediction skills before the actual listening; 3. develop speaking skills participating in discussions; 4. develop students skills to work cooperatively and as a team. Personal aims: 1. to plan and present to Ss a lesson for listening comprehension

QIFLT

Assumptions: 1. Students advanced level of language learning will help them to cope with the listening text that runs relatively fast. Anticipated problems and solutions: 1. Students might be confused by unfamiliar words they come across by listening to the tapescript. T. points out that it is not necessary to know every single word, but they could either stick to the general impression of the text, or guess the meaning considering the context Materials and aids: Soars, J. and L. Soars, New Headway Advanced, Students book, OUP, 1989, pp.90-91; Tapescript pp.152-153

SELF EVALUATION Video lesson 2


Although I basically followed my plan, I had to make some changes in the timing of activities. The speaking tasks took more time in the lesson, especially the making-up of students own stories which kept the class involved very much, because students enjoyed creating plots. Now that I have taught the lesson, I would probably leave more time for this activity. The group-work for inventing stories was, in my opinion, the most successful part of the lesson. It kept all the students actively engaged, it was a student-centred activity, and the students themselves liked it very much. As the least successful part of the lesson I can point out the while-listening task since there was some noise from outside the classroom that could not be prevented and it made it somewhat difficult for the class to hear some parts of the text. However, within the classroom I did not face any unexpected educational situations. In fact most difficult for me was to think of a good beginning of the lesson and if I have to teach it again I will give much more thought to this In order to provide a learning focus I directed students attention to key words connected to literature. Moreover, there was a book by the author discussed. The novel was brought to raise interest as an authentic piece of the kind of fiction introduced and I think it was effective. Though on the whole, in my opinion, it was a successful lesson. It was not very different from what I have taught before in relation to listening and discussion. I also regard the longer-than-planned discussion as a strong point, because it helps students to develop speaking skills. For this reason I didnt use any Bulgarian as well. The blackboard was used by me and the students. Their writing on the board was effective because it gives them some diversion to stand up and be the teacher. It centred the activity towards them and developed their writing skills. What is more, by having students write the questions on the board, I was sure that the whole class understood the task.

35

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DVD TITLE: Integrated Skills: Focus on Speaking Video lesson 3


Teacher: Emil Zhivkov Stoyanov Grade: 6, Secondary School P. R. Slaveykov, Vidin Materials used: Unit 32 -Jacks Headache, p. 72, from the coursebook Rose, J., Maiani, L. and S. Elsworth, Go!, Students Book, Level 2, Longman Group UK Ltd, 1999 Whole lesson length: 40 min. Lesson length after the cuts: 2602 Short description of clip content: I. Stage Lead-in: Recycling Vocabulary II. Stage Listening Comprehension III. Stage Role-play (At the Doctors) and Discussion IV. Stage Organising Feedback Time on film
0000 0154 0000 0154

Commentary
I. Stage - Lead in: recycling vocabulary (Beginning of lesson left out of the film.) T starts with recycling vocabulary from the previous lesson. T introduces the topic through a mime game. Ss have to mime actions done at the doctors. In this way T also ensures continuity. II. Stage Listening comprehension Pre-listening: T sets the listening task, providing context and structuring the completion of the task by writing headings on the board (patients, doctors, symptoms, treatment). This demonstrated Ts familiarity with the material for listening and his professional confidence. While explaining what the listening text is about the T gives clear instructions and attracts Ss attention by using gestures (e.g. touching his ear to illustrate that they are going to listen). He uses simple language and checks Ss understanding of the task. He uses the board in an organized way so that he makes clear to the students what information they will need to hear so that they are able to fill the necessary information in the table he draws on the board. While-listening task: Ss listen to the dialogue and do the while-listening task. T organises feedback: Ss report answers and T fills in the table on the board. T praises correct contributions. III. Stage Role-play (At the Doctors) and discussion Preparation for the role play: T reminds Ss of modal verbs (should, must, ), studied in the previous lessons, necessary for the role-play and drills them in the context of the doctors. T appropriately elicits and/or suggests extra ideas.

Illustrated descriptors
Building on previous knowledge (1.1.d extra); Continuity (2.2.i)

0154 0544 0155 0258

Familiarity with material (1.2.a) Instructions (3.4.a, b, c; 3.4.a extra) Materials and aids (2.3.a, c)

0259 0447 0448 0544 0545 1840 0545 0720

Subskills (2.2.a) Integrating skills with knowledge (2.2.e) Feedback (3.9.a) Praise (3.9.b)

Continuity (2.2.i) Controlled practice (2.2.c) Eliciting (3.5.a)

36

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Time on film
0721 0843

Commentary
Organising pair work:The T divides Ss in pairs one doctor and one patient. All doctors (who choose their own doctors name) have to examine all patients. For the purpose, the seating arrangements have been modified to suit the task. The so called dyadic circle gives an opportunity only for the patients to move around (in the inner circle), while the doctors stay seated waiting for the patients (in the outer circle). In this way, an orderly completion of the task is ensured. This organisation also helps T to increase Ss talking time. T gives Ss a time limit for the role-play, 5 min. (0836).

Illustrated descriptors
Interaction patterns (3.2. b) Working environment (3.1.a; 3.1.a extra) Ss talking time (1.3.e) Pacing and timing (3.3.a) Interaction patterns (3.2.b) Communicative practice (2.2.d) Integrating knowledge and skills (2.2.e) Personalisation (2.2.a-extra) Meaningful communication (1.3.a-extra) Motivating (1.1.c) Monitoring (3.7.b) Variety of interaction patterns (3.2.a,b) Instructions (1.4.a) Meaningful communication (1.3.a extra) Motivating (1.1.c)

0844 1604

Role-playing dialogues At the Doctors: Ss work in pairs and make dialogues. (The role play shortened in the film) The interaction patterns are appropriate to the nature of the task. The pair work allows them to take roles and practise the language successfully. T provides opportunities for Ss to practise the learned words, phrases and grammar structures, thus integrating language practice with communicative skills practice and providing opportunities for personalisation. The activity is an opportunity for meaningful, life-like communication in the classroom. T has organized the Ss to bring some realia for the class, which further contributes to motivating the Ss. During the activity the T ensures fair spread of attention by monitoring Ss work moves around the classroom, encourages Ss to work actively, helps with language, writes some words on the whiteboard and provides relevant support. Discussion: T quickly reorganises the Ss into 2 groups, patients and doctors, and assigns 2 separate places in the room for the respective groups to work in. T gives clear instructions for the task Ss should discuss who the best doctor was and which the worst medical case was. Giving their genuine opinions on the previous activity allows for meaningful communication in the target language. While Ss work, T insists on them using English in their discussion and motivates all learners to communicate in English. IV. Stage Feedback on the role-play and discussion After the discussion T gets feedback from the Ss and fills in a table on the whiteboard, giving the names of the best doctor and worst case. T includes information about why the patients got ill. (2.2.e) T skillfully uses this stage for a brief vocabulary recapitulation, too.

1605 1843

1844 2602 1844 2533

T asks different Ss for feedback and provides relevant error correction there is a clear example when he does not point out the mistake, but just repeats the wrongly pronounced word correctly. The working atmosphere is friendly and the T uses humour. Ss are so interested and disciplined that they are still working even after the bell has gone. 2534 2602 End of lesson/ Round-up: T thanks Ss and the lesson finishes on a positive note he is clearly satisfied with the Ss work.

Balance b/n controlled and communicative activities, integrating knowledge and skills (2.2.g, e) Error correction (3.6.a) Use of humour (1.1. b extra); Rapport and motivation (1.1.b, c) Discipline (3.8.a) Rapport (1.1.b)

37

QIFLT
Overall:
The aims of the lesson are realistic and achievable because Ss show active participation, they practise the language structures and easily take part in communicative activities. The motivated work of the Ss supports the fact that the aims of the lesson are clear to them The stages and activities of the lesson are logically sequenced and clearly identifiable which becomes clear from the arrangement of the activities and tasks in the lesson leading the students to practising the target language. The pacing and timing of the lesson ensure maximum efficiency, which is illustrated by the variety of activities in the lesson. T demonstrates accurate and fluent use of the language correct grammar structures and pronunciation. T is able to communicate successfully with Ss in class because he uses appropriately non-verbal communication, projects his voice so that every student in class can hear him, and adapts the language of teaching to the level of the learners, so that his instructions and explanations are understood by students. T establishes good rapport with Ss which is obvious from the atmosphere of friendliness and trust during the lesson. The working environment is used effectively to achieve the aims for active communication in pairs and groups Ss move freely in class and can easily form groups and pairs.

Illustrated descriptors
2.1.b 2.1.c 2.2.f 3.3.a

1.2.b 1.3.c 1.3.d 1.3.a 1.1.b 3.1.a

Comments on the lesson plan

The teacher has made a detailed lesson plan, with clearly formulated and achievable aims that are also clear to the students. The planned activities comply with the set aims and create a good balance of learners speaking and listening skills. The teacher has chosen a large variety of activities that stimulate the working process and that allow students to actively participate in the lesson. All of the initially planned tasks were successfully completed.

Comments on the self-evaluation section

The self-evaluation of the teacher shows his critical thinking skills and ability to self-evaluate. The teacher expresses satisfaction as a result of the achievement of the aims of the lesson and thinks that learners have managed to successfully complete the tasks. He is aware of his role during this specific lesson and demonstrates ability to motivate his decisions in relation to the way of teaching and the choice of interaction patterns (e.g. gives clear and simple instructions, allows learners to practice the new language material in real-life situations, gives students the freedom to work on their own). Even though the teacher realises that the students have to perform the same task six times, he stresses the positive effect of this task learners not only repeat the new language models but they have the chance to work with a different partner each time. As a whole, the self-evaluation of the teacher shows his positive attitude to the efficiency of the teaching process and demonstrates potential to identify the positive aspects of his pedagogical work.

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quality in foreign language teaching

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Topic: At the Doctors Lesson type: Integrated Skills: Focus on Speaking Level: Intermediate Stage / Time
Warm-up ~ 3 min.

LESSON PLAN Video lesson 3

Duration: 40 min. Date: 2nd June 2005 Aims Interaction patterns


T Ss TS S Ss

Procedure
To introduce the topic and explain what students are going to do this lesson. Miming game: Some students act various health problems in front of the class. The others should guess the name of the illness or ache T. introduces the topic of the text for listening. Sets the task. Students listen to a dialogue and take notes while listening. After the listening the T. asks Ss questions to check understanding (results are written on white board by T). T. asks Ss to work in pairs. Sets the context dialogues between patients and doctors (6 pairs of patients and doctors). Each pair talks about 3. Then the patient goes over to the next doctor. When they visit all doctors two groups are formed. Two groups of Ss are formed that of the patients and that of the doctors. The doctors group discusses about the worst medical case and the patients group discusses and find out which doctor they were mostly pleased with. Ss report and T. summarizes on whiteboard - and the names of the best doctor and the sickest patient. The T. gives general assessment on behalf of the language work of the pupils

to introduce the topic to make Ss interested in the lesson to raise Ss curiosity in the lesson

Stage 2 Listening comprehension ~ 10 min.

to further increase interest in the lesson to provide opportunities for listening comprehension to check understanding of the text for listening to provide opportunities for meaningful real-life communication to practise new vocabulary

T Ss Ss Ss T

Stage 3 Role-play ~ 18 min.

pair work

Stage 4 Discussion ~ 5 min.

to allow Ss to express openly their opinion and share ideas to challenge Ss to speak

Group work

Stage 5 Organizing feedback ~ 4 min.

to round up the discussion to provide feedback on Ss performance

T Ss Ss T S Ss

Subsidiary ims: 1. to provide opportunities for Ss to develop their skills for listening 2. to provide opportunities for Ss to practise speaking 3. to provide opportunities for Ss to express openly their ideas and share opinions with their peers 4. to provide opportunities for discussion of the topic 5. to check Ss ability to understand a text while listening Personal aims: 1. to introduce to Ss to a real life situation 2. to encourage Ss to participate actively in the lesson 39

QIFLT

Assumptions: 1. Ss might find the text difficult 2. Ss might get too involved in the warm-up activity Anticipated problems and solutions: 1. Ss might find the text for listening difficult T sets the context and checks understanding by asking questions 2. Ss might get too involved in the warm-up activity T should be careful and try to prevent it 3. The cassette recorder might not work T should remain patient and read the text to Ss / or asks Ss to read it as it is a dialogue Materials and aids: Unit 32 -Jacks Headache, p. 72, from Rose, J., Maiani, L. and Steve Elsworth, Go!, Students Book, Level 2, Longman Group UK Ltd, 1999

SELF EVALUATION Video lesson 3


The aim of the lesson was to develop the ability of the children to ask and answer questions in past simple tense and to note down information, which they would need later for the final phase of the lesson. It was a lesson of the X-Y-Z type, i.e. in the role of X you perform an activity Y in order to reach a preliminary set goal Z. 1. Their X roles were to play a doctor / a patient. 2. Their Y activity included examining the patient / seeing the doctor and take notes about the patients symptoms / the doctors competence. 3. Their Z final aim was vote for the best doctor / for the worst medical case which had to give sense to all those talks between doctors and patients. I am quite satisfied with what my students showed as English language skills. The initial listening exercise was a sort of warm-up activity and had to prepare them for the atmosphere of a doctors office. They took their roles very seriously and brought a lot of medical equipment and selfmade fill-in forms from home. The language, which they used, was enough complicated as vocabulary for 11-year-olds and they managed to put it in action performing their roles. The lesson reached its real aim (to teach them how to ask and answer questions fluently in past simple tense) because almost the whole time the children talked a good English. Although they performed the same type of activity 6 times it was not boring for them for they changed their partner 6 times, too. In this way we achieved learning through repetitio mater studiorum2 and avoided boredom through the change of partners. My role in the lesson was to organize the whole process, to instruct them what and how to prepare in advance, how to perform the language activity and what to note down for the final nomination of best doctor and worst case. Then I tried to stay in shade and appear only as a consultant in case of questions.

from Latin: Repetition is the mother of learning 40

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[2]

Completed observation schedules for each of the three videoed lessons

CLASSROOM PRACTICE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE

Video lesson 1

GENERAL INFORMATION OF THE TEACHER AND THE CONTEXT


Teachers Name: Maria Koleva Koeva Language taught: English First foreign language compulsory subject Second foreign language Optional subject School: Patriarh Evtimiy Type of school: Primary Language Grade: 10th
th

Secondary vocational ...

Maths

Other (please specify):

Mandatory optional subject Years of experience: 7 Qualification: MA English Philology Plovdiv University 1998 Town / village : Plovdiv Region: Plovdiv

No of students in class: 26 Coursebook: New Headway Upper-intermediate Setting: large classroom, blackboard, desks,cassette player Date: 30 th March 2005
th

Time: 40 minutes

1.TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher: 1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material a) b) c) a) b) a) Shows sensitivity to students different needs Establishes good rapport Motivates students Shows familiarity with the teaching material Accurate and fluent speaker of English Adapts the language of teaching to the level of the students Uses mother tongue judiciously Uses non-verbal communication Projects voice Encourages increased student talking time Calm atmosphere

Comments

Very well prepared Clear and fluent language; good pronunciation

1.3. Communication skills

Explains miser, eliciting Bulgarian equivalent from Ss Loud and clearly audible voice

b) c) d) e)

2.THE LESSON
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
2.1. Aims a) Correspond to the curriculum b) Are realistic and for the amount of time available Are clear to students Realistic /achieved Clear to T.

Comments

41

QIFLT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
2.2. Lesson content and organization a) b) All activities are carefully staged Language activities present new language in context Language activities allow opportunities for controlled practice Language activities allow opportunities for communicative practice Language and skills development is carefully integrated Lesson stages are clear Lesson contains a balance of activities Lesson contains a variety of activities Evidence of continuity between lessons Materials and aids are carefully selected Coursebook materials are adapted to suit students needs Board work is organized Other aids and equipment are used competently and appropriately

Comments
Communicative practice birthday wishes Pre-teaches vocabulary reading activity Controlled practice vocabulary from the new lesson Links to previous knowledge

c)

d)

e) f) g) h) i) 2.3. Teaching materials and aids a) b)

Writes neatly; well-organized board use Materials correspond to the nature of activities

c) d)

3. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
3.1. Working environment a) The working environment is organized appropriately for each activity Are varied Are appropriate for different activities The pacing and timing of the lesson are adapted to ensure maximum efficiency students attention is attracted Are clear and staged Understanding is checked

Comments
No room constraints

3.2. Interaction patterns 3.3. Pacing and timing 3. 4. Instructions

a) b) a)

Pair work; spokesperson Interaction patterns correspond to activities Time limit for activities Adapts after instructions

a) b) c)

Checks understanding with Is it clear what you have to do? could be problematic

42

quality in foreign language teaching ESSENTIAL FEATURES


3. 5. Eliciting 3.6. Error correction a) a) b) Ideas are elicited from the students Errors are dealt with systematically Different techniques of error identification and correction are used Individual performance is carefully monitored Group activities are carefully monitored A calm working atmosphere is maintained Feedback is provided on students performance Students efforts are praised Grading and assessment are fair and consistent

QIFLT

Comments
Accepts all Ss answers; doesnt give away the answers Prompts to Ss -> self and peer-correct (Do you mean he lives in the streets? (*lives rough for has a hard life)

3.7. Monitoring classroom work 3.8. Maintaining discipline 3.9. Organising feedback

a) b) a)

Walks round the class; helps where necessary

Friendly atmosphere; calm

a) b)

Comments on Ss performance

3.10. Grading and assessment

a)

No evidence; not observed

Overall comments:

Encouraging and friendly working atmosphere. A well-organized lesson with clear stages that are logically sequenced. A well-prepared teacher who demonstrates confidence and who integrates work on language knowledge with communicative skills. A flexible teacher who is able to adapt time and pace according to learners abilities and needs. She organizes students work in an appropriate to the aims and task way, praises students efforts and gives relevant feedback on their work. Monitors learners works and helps where necessary.

CLASSROOM PRACTICE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE

Video lesson 2

GENERAL INFORMATION OF THE TEACHER AND THE CONTEXT


Teachers Name: Theodora Yordanova Language taught: English First foreign language Compulsory subject Mandatory optional subject Years of experience: none Qualification: teacher trainee Town / village : Veliko Turnovo Region: Veliko Turnovo Second foreign language Optional subject School: Prof. Dr. Assen Zlatarov Type of school: Primary Language Grade: 10 th
th

Secondary vocational ...

Maths

Other (please specify):

No of students in class: 29 Coursebook: Headway Advanced Setting: a large classroom, blackboard, desks in 3 rows Date: 13 th April 2005
th

Time: 40 min.

43

QIFLT

1. TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


ESSENTIAL FEATURE The Teacher:
1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material 1.3. Communication skills a) b) c) a) b) a) b) c) d) e) Shows sensitivity to students different needs Establishes good rapport Motivates students Shows familiarity with the teaching material Accurate and fluent speaker of English Adapts the language of teaching to the level of the students Uses mother tongue judiciously Uses non-verbal communication Projects voice Encourages increased student talking time

Comments
Good rapport, calm atmosphere

Familiar with the material; confident Fluent language; correct pronunciation

Communicative practice provided

2. THE LESSON
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
2.1. Aims a) b) c) 2.2. Lesson content and organization a) b) c) d) Correspond to the curriculum Are realistic and for the amount of time available Are clear to students All activities are carefully staged Language activities present new language in context Language activities allow opportunities for controlled practice Language activities allow opportunities for communicative practice Language and skills development is carefully integrated Lesson stages are clear Lesson contains a balance of activities Lesson contains a variety of activities Evidence of continuity between lessons

Comments
Realistic, clear, achievable

Clear stages of activities; Variety ->logically sequenced Real-life communication Continuity gives homework

e) f) g) h) i)

44

quality in foreign language teaching


2.3. Teaching materials and aids a) Materials and aids are carefully selected b) Coursebook materials are adapted to suit students needs c) Board work is organized d) Other aids and equipment are used competently and appropriately

QIFLT

Well-selected materials Topic-related lexis (setting, scene, plot, character) visualised on the board

3. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
3.1. Working environment a) The working environment is organized appropriately for each activity Are varied Are appropriate for different activities The pace and timing of the lesson are adapted to ensure maximum efficiency students attention is attracted Are clear Are staged Understanding is checked Ideas are elicited from the students Errors are dealt with systematically Different techniques of error identification and correction are used Individual performance is carefully monitored Group activities are carefully monitored A calm working atmosphere is maintained Feedback is provided on students performance students efforts are praised Grading and assessment are fair and consistent

Comments
Adapts to organise the groups

3.2. Interaction patterns 3.3. Pacing

a) b) a)

Various interaction patterns; encourages participation of Ss Adapts the pace and timing of the lesson

and ztiming

3. 4. Instructions

a) b) c) d) e) a) a) b)

Simple language Staged instructions

3. 5. Eliciting 3.6. Error correction

Asks about homophones Correction on the spot Peer and self correction provided

3.7. Monitoring classroom work

a) b)

Monitors individual and group work

3.8. Maintaining discipline 3.9. Organising feedback

a) a) b)

Friendly and calm atmosphere; mutual trust Group / individual feedback Ss write the interview questions on board Overall feedback at the end of lesson

3.10. Grading and assessment

a)

No evidence; not observed

45

QIFLT
Overall comments: A well-organized lesson with logically sequenced activities. Gradual development of the lesson and integration of micro-skills by utilizing the potential of different tasks are among the strong points of the lesson. Uses the potential of the classroom organization of working environment to organize group work. Lesson aims are realistic and achievable and activities comply with the aims. Variety of activities listening and speaking. The planned timing is adapted to suit students needs and interests

CLASSROOM PRACTICE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE

Video lesson 3

GENERAL INFORMATION OF THE TEACHER AND THE CONTEXT


Teachers Name: Emil Zhivkov Stoyanov Language taught: English First foreign language Compulsory subject Mandatory optional subject Years of experience: 24 Qualification: German philology; English philology Town / village : Vidin Region: Vidin Second foreign language Optional subject School: P. R. Slaveykov Secondary School Type of school: Primary Language Grade: 6th No of students in class: 14 Coursebook: Go! Level 2 Setting: computer, video, cassette-recorder, TV Date: 2nd June 2005 Time: 40 min. Maths Other (please specify): Secondary vocational ...

1. TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


ESSENTIAL FEATURES The Teacher: 1.1. Personal professional qualities and pedagogical skills a) b) c) 1.2. Knowledge of the language and teaching material a) b) a) Shows sensitivity to students different needs Establishes good rapport Motivates students Shows familiarity with the teaching material Accurate and fluent speaker of English Adapts the language of teaching to the level of the students Uses mother tongue judiciously Uses non-verbal communication Projects voice Encourages increased student talking time Comments Good rapport with Ss, Able to motivate Ss

Shows confidence knows the textbook & teaching material Correct pronunciation; fluent

1.3. Communication skills

Successful communication with Ss; Projects voice; uses gestures, smiles Uses simple language clear to Ss

b) c) d) e)

46

quality in foreign language teaching

QIFLT

2. THE LESSON
ESSENTIAL FEATURES 2.1. Aims Correspond to the curriculum b) Are realistic and for the amount of time available c) Are clear to students a) All activities are carefully staged b) Language activities present new language in context c) Language activities allow opportunities for controlled practice d) Language activities allow opportunities for communicative practice e) Language and skills development is carefully integrated f) Lesson stages are clear g) Lesson contains a balance of activities h) Lesson contains a variety of activities i) Evidence of continuity between lessons a) Materials and aids are carefully selected b) Coursebook materials are adapted to suit students needs c) Board work is organized d) Other aids and equipment are used competently and appropriately a) Comments Realistic and achievable

2.2. Lesson content and organization

Activities logically organized and sequenced; New language in context; Activities - correspond to aims and level of Ss Increased student talking time Balance of activities listening speaking discussion Continuity warm-up stage (miming)

2.3. Teaching materials and aids

Well-arranged writing on board; clear Well-selected material for listening and speaking Uses competently -> cassette-recorder

47

QIFLT

3. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
ESSENTIAL FEATURES 3.1. Working environment a) The working environment is organized appropriately for each activity Are varied Are appropriate for different activities The pace and timing of the lesson are adapted to ensure maximum efficiency students attention is attracted Are clear and staged Understanding is checked Ideas are elicited from the students Comments Group & pair work desks are well-organized; movement of Ss possible (changing partners in the dialogues) Pair work and group work in accordance with tasks Appropriate for each stage

3.2. Interaction patterns 3.3. Pacing and timing 3. 4. Instructions

a) b) a)

d) e) f)

Clear instructions Checks if Ss understand what they have to do

3. 5. Eliciting 3.6. Error correction

a)

Gathers feedback asks Ss to check understanding of the text for listening Corrects errors repeats the wrong word correctly

3.7. Monitoring classroom work

3.8. Maintaining discipline 3.9. Organising feedback

Errors are dealt with systematically b) Different techniques of error identification and correction are used a) Individual performance is carefully monitored b) Group activities are carefully monitored a) A calm working atmosphere is maintained Feedback is provided on students performance b) Students efforts are praised a) Grading and assessment are fair and consistent a)

a)

Monitors individual and pair work

Friendly and calm atmosphere; mutual trust

In the end of the lesson

3.10. Grading and assessment

No evidence; not observed

Overall comments: A well-staged and well-organized lesson with clear and achievable aims. Traces of continuity with the previous lesson were observed at the warm-up stage when the teacher asked students to mime an illness (health problem). The combination of activities allowed for a good balance of listening and speaking tasks. Excellent working atmosphere mutual trust between the teacher and his students. Lively mood of the students provided by the opportunities for real-life communication. Good monitoring of students work and relevant instructions in a simple and clear to students language. Classroom management is also well done. Clear distribution of tasks, good organization of group and pair work and relevant ways of gathering feedback.

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Quality in Foreign Language Teaching: Assessment Criteria for Secondary Schools : : : : : : 2006 , 100 ISBN-10: 954-91830-2-5 ISBN-13: 978-954-91830-2-3

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